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1

A congestion avoidance communication protocol for network on chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good communication protocol can ensure the quality of services and balance the flexibility and performance in the on-chip network. This paper presents an on-chip congestion avoidance communication protocol, and introduces a deadlock-free, adaptive routing algorithm. In order to meet the needs of a wide range of applications, the protocol provides differentiated services, which offer different levels of service quality

Li Zi-di; Jiang Lin

2010-01-01

2

Giant Unilamelar Vesicles preparation protocol -Nanion Chips Lipid stock solution  

E-print Network

Giant Unilamelar Vesicles ­ preparation protocol - Nanion Chips Lipid stock solution: · 2.5mg)(Ammonium Salt) (Avanti)) ­ only if fluorescence microscope is used. Sucrose stock solution: · 300mM Sucrose: On the electrodes system 1.5µl drops form lipid stock solution were added at 5 different places on each electrode

Movileanu, Liviu

3

An optimized protocol for isolating primary epithelial cell chromatin for ChIP.  

PubMed

A critical part of generating robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data is the optimization of chromatin purification and size selection. This is particularly important when ChIP is combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify targets of DNA-binding proteins, genome-wide. Current protocols refined by the ENCODE consortium generally use a two-step cell lysis procedure that is applicable to a wide variety of cell types. However, the isolation and size selection of chromatin from primary human epithelial cells may often be particularly challenging. These cells tend to form sheets of formaldehyde cross-linked material in which cells are resistant to membrane lysis, nuclei are not released and subsequent sonication produces extensive high molecular weight contamination. Here we describe an optimized protocol to prepare high quality ChIP-grade chromatin from primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The ENCODE protocol was used as a starting point to which we added the following key steps to separate the sheets of formaldehyde-fixed cells prior to lysis. (1) Incubation of the formaldehyde-fixed adherent cells in Trypsin-EDTA (0.25% room temperature) for no longer than 5 min. (2) Equilibration of the fixed cells in detergent-free lysis buffers prior to each lysis step. (3) The addition of 0.5% Triton X-100 to the complete cell membrane lysis buffer. (4) Passing the cell suspension (in complete cell membrane lysis buffer) through a 25-gauge needle followed by continuous agitation on ice for 35 min. Each step of the modified protocol was documented by light microscopy using the Methyl Green-Pyronin dual dye, which stains cytoplasm red (Pyronin) and the nuclei grey-blue (Methyl green). This modified method is reproducibly effective at producing high quality sheared chromatin for ChIP and is equally applicable to other epithelial cell types. PMID:24971909

Browne, James A; Harris, Ann; Leir, Shih-Hsing

2014-01-01

4

Designing a WISHBONE Protocol Network Adapter for an Asynchronous Network-on-Chip  

E-print Network

The Scaling of microchip technologies, from micron to submicron and now to deep sub-micron (DSM) range, has enabled large scale systems-on-chip (SoC). In future deep submicron (DSM) designs, the interconnect effect will definitely dominate performance. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has become a promising solution to bus-based communication infrastructure limitations. NoC designs usually targets Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), however, the fabrication process costs a lot. Implementing a NoC on an FPGA does not only reduce the cost but also decreases programming and verification cycles. In this paper, an Asynchronous NoC has been implemented on a SPARTAN-3E\\textregistered device. The NoC supports basic transactions of both widely used on-chip interconnection standards, the Open Core Protocol (OCP) and the WISHBONE Protocol. Although, FPGA devices are synchronous in nature, it has been shown that they can be used to prototype a Global Asynchronous Local Synchronous (GALS) systems, comprising an Asynchr...

Soliman, Ahmed H M; El-Bably, M; Keshk, Hesham M A M

2012-01-01

5

IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Grtner, Claudia

2013-03-01

6

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access  

E-print Network

controlled trial of improvisational music therapys effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): study protocol Monika Geretsegger 1,2, Ulla Holck 1 and Christian Gold 3* Background: Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design: Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months). In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity) or three sessions (high-intensity) per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS) and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Discussion: Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this studys results will also provide information on the relevance of session frequency for therapy outcome.

unknown authors

7

A robust chromatin immunoprecipitation protocol for studying transcription factor-DNA interactions and histone modifications in wood-forming tissue.  

PubMed

Woody cells and tissues are recalcitrant to standard chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) procedures. However, we recently successfully implemented ChIP in wood-forming tissue of the model woody plant Populus trichocarpa. Here we provide the detailed ChIP protocol optimized for wood-forming tissue that we used in those studies. By using stem-differentiating xylem (SDX; a wood-forming tissue), we identified all steps that were ineffective in standard ChIP protocols and systematically modified them to develop and optimize a robust ChIP protocol. The protocol includes tissue collection, cross-linking, nuclear isolation, chromatin extraction, DNA fragmentation, immunoprecipitation, DNA purification and sequence analysis. The protocol takes 2.5 d to complete and allows a robust 8-10-fold enrichment of transcription factor (TF)-bound genomic fragments (~150 ng/g of SDX) over nonspecific DNAs. The enriched DNAs are of high quality and can be used for subsequent PCR and DNA-seq analyses. We used this protocol to identify genome-wide specific TF-DNA interactions during wood formation and histone modifications associated with regulation of wood formation. Our protocol, which may be suitable for many tissue types, is so far the only working ChIP system for wood-forming tissue. PMID:25144269

Li, Wei; Lin, Ying-Chung; Li, Quanzi; Shi, Rui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Chen, Hao; Chuang, Ling; Qu, Guan-Zheng; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

2014-09-01

8

Increasing the effectiveness of the Diabetes Prevention Program through if-then plans: study protocol for the randomized controlled trial of the McGill CHIP Healthy Weight Program  

PubMed Central

Background The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is highly effective in promoting weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. However, one-on-one DPP sessions are costly. As a cost-saving alternative, a group version of the DPP, called Group Lifestyle Balance program (GLB), has been developed but has been shown to be less effective. The aim of this two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial is to increase the effectiveness of the GLB by integrating habit formation techniques, namely if-then plans and their mental practice, into the program. Methods/Design A total of 154 participants will be randomized to a standard or enriched GLB program. For the enriched GLB program, if-then plans and their mental practice will be integrated into the standard GLB program. Participants will be overweight or obese men and women (BMI of 28 to 45kg/m2, waist circumference???88 for women, ? 102 for men, 18 to 75years of age) who do less than 200minutes of self-reported moderate or vigorous exercise per week. Measures will be completed at baseline, 3months, post-intervention (12months), and 12months post-intervention (24months). The primary outcome measure is weight loss at 3, 12, and 24months. Secondary outcomes include percent reaching weight loss goal, physical activity at 3, 12, and 24months, and weight-related risk factors (waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol/HDL ratio). Standardized training of the life-style coaches, use of standardized manuals, and audio taping and reviewing of the sessions will ensure intervention fidelity. Discussion The study will provide evidence-based data on the effectiveness of an enhanced GLB intervention in promoting weight loss and in reducing weight-related risk factors for chronic health problems. Ethical clearance has been received from the Research Ethics and Compliance Board of the Faculty of Medicine Research and Graduate Studies Office at McGill University (Montreal, Canada). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02008435. Registered 6 December 2013. PMID:24885388

2014-01-01

9

Improvement of Electrical Stimulation Protocol for Simultaneous Measurement of Extracellular Potential with On-Chip Multi-Electrode Array System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiotoxicity testing with a multi-electrode array (MEA) system requires the stable beating of cardiomyocytes for the measurement of the field potential duration (FPD), because different spontaneous beating rates cause different responses of FPD prolongation induced by drugs, and the beating rate change effected by drugs complicates the FPD prolongation assessment. We have developed an on-chip MEA system with electrical stimulation for the measurement of the FPD during the stable beating of human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. Using a conventional bipolar stimulation protocol, we observed such large artifacts in electrical stimulation that we could not estimate the FPD quantitatively. Therefore, we improved the stimulation protocol by using sequential rectangular pulses in which the positive and negative stimulation voltages and number of pulses could be changed flexibly. The balanced voltages and number of pulses for sequential rectangular pulses enabled the recording of small negative artifacts only, which hardly affected the FPD measurement of human-ES-cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. These conditions of electrical stimulation are expected to find applications for the control of constant beating for cardiotoxicity testing.

Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Fumimasa; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

2012-06-01

10

Quality assessment of SPR sensor chips; case study on L1 chips.  

PubMed

Surface quality of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) chips is a major limiting issue in most SPR analyses, even more for supported lipid membranes experiments, where both the organization of the lipid matrix and the subsequent incorporation of the target molecule depend on the surface quality. A novel quantitative method to characterize the quality of SPR sensors chips is described for L1 chips subject to formation of lipid films, injection of membrane disrupting compounds, followed by appropriate regeneration procedures. The method consists in analysis of the SPR reflectivity curves for several standard solutions (e.g. PBS, HEPES or deionized water). This analysis reveals the decline of sensor surface as a function of the number of experimental cycles (consisting in biosensing assay and regeneration step) and enables active control of surface regeneration for enhanced reproducibility. We demonstrate that quantitative evaluation of the changes in reflectivity curves (shape of the SPR dip) and of the slope of the calibration curve provides a rapid and effective procedure for surface quality assessment. Whereas the method was tested on L1 SPR sensors chips, we stress on its amenability to assess the quality of other types of SPR chips, as well. PMID:23455045

Olaru, Andreea; Gheorghiu, Mihaela; David, Sorin; Polonschii, Cristina; Gheorghiu, Eugen

2013-07-15

11

Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and  

E-print Network

Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) plus a Comparison Population in Sierra Vista, Arizona The protocol Assessment of Case Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) and a Reference

12

Chip morphology study in high speed drilling of AlSi alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chip formation during drilling operation is greatly influenced by the cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate,\\u000a and drill geometry. However, not many studies have focused on the direct observation of the chip formation during high speed\\u000a drilling. This paper investigates the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on the chip morphology during high speed drilling\\u000a of aluminumsilicon

Ali Akhavan Farid; Safian Sharif; Mohd Hasbullah Idris

13

Reliability study of flip chip on FR4 interconnections with ACA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of the evaluation of anisotropic conductive adhesives for flip chip applications. Samples consist of bumped test chips mounted on rigid substrates with pitches down to 150 ?m. The dies were prepared with different bumps-electroless Ni, mechanical and electroplated Au. Several commercially available adhesives were selected to be investigated in this study. A detailed thermo-mechanical analysis

R. Miessner; R. Aschenbrenner; H. Reichl

1999-01-01

14

A Study of Thinking Process on Troubleshooting of Single-Chip Microcomputer System  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were three purpose of this study;(1) exploring successful factors of trouble shooting diagnoses in single-chip microprocessor; (2) analyzing the thinking processes of sampling group possessing successful achievement;(3) designing the diagnoses processes of trouble shooting in single- chip microprocessor circuits. 16 students of Electrical Engineering were sampled to participate the experiments in three types of diagnoses processes of trouble shooting

Guo-Feng HUANG; Chang YU-MIN

15

A chip-based method for studying the effects of exogenous proteins on neuronal axons.  

PubMed

Axons are long, slender processes of neurons that have various functions at different stages of development. Here, we report the use of a chip device to study the effects of various exogenous proteins on the growth and presynaptic differentiation of axons in a high-throughput manner. The device consists of a glass chip whose surface contains a protein-coated micropattern. When neurons are maintained on the chip, a specific region of the chip surface will be occupied exclusively by axons. The axons and clusters of release-competent synaptic vesicles, a presynapse-like specialization in the axon, can be quantified as the proportions of this specific region's area occupied respectively by these subcellular structures. By using chips with this specific region coated with different proteins, these proteins' effects on the growth and presynaptic differentiation of the axon were investigated by comparing the amounts of axons and clusters of release-competent synaptic vesicles in this region of the chip. We also demonstrate another application of this chip device by investigating the effective range of the signal produced by the interaction between neurons and neuroligin 1 in neurons. These results indicate the diverse applications of the chip device in exploring various issues pertaining to axonal functions. PMID:22522187

Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Wu, Hui-Ing; Cheng, Wen-Shuo; Chung, Hui-Wen; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chang, Yen-Chung

2012-08-01

16

Evaluating cost efficiency of SNP chips in genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have recently emerged as a major approach to gene discovery for many complex diseases. Since GWA scans are expensive, cost efficiency is an important factor to consider in study design. However, it often requires extensive and time consuming computer simulations to compare cost efficiency across different SNP chips. Here we propose two simulation-free approaches to cost efficiency comparisons across SNP chips. In the first method, the overall power under a given disease model is calculated for each SNP chip and various sample sizes. Then SNP chips can be compared with respect to the sample sizes required to achieve the same level of power. In the second method, for a desired level of genomic coverage, the effective r2 threshold values are calculated for each SNP chip. Since r2 is inversely proportional to the sample size to achieve the same power, the required sample sizes can then be compared among SNP chips. These two methods are complementary to each other. The first approach provides direct power comparisons, but it requires information on disease model and may not be reliable for SNP chips that contain many non-HapMap SNPs. The second approach allows sample size comparisons based on the coverage of SNP chips, and it can be modified for SNP chips that contain non-HapMap SNPs. These methods are particularly relevant for large epidemiological studies in which enough subjects are available for GWA screening and follow-up stages. We illustrate these approaches using five currently available whole genome SNP chips. PMID:18271056

Li, Chun; Li, Mingyao; Long, Ji-Rong; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei

2008-01-01

17

Evaluating cost efficiency of SNP chips in genome-wide association studies.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have recently emerged as a major approach to gene discovery for many complex diseases. Since GWA scans are expensive, cost efficiency is an important factor to consider in study design. However, it often requires extensive and time-consuming computer simulations to compare cost efficiency across different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. Here, we propose two simulation-free approaches to cost efficiency comparisons across SNP chips. In the first method, the overall power under a given disease model is calculated for each SNP chip and various sample sizes. Then SNP chips can be compared with respect to the sample sizes required to achieve the same level of power. In the second method, for a desired level of genomic coverage, the effective r(2) threshold values are calculated for each SNP chip. Since r(2) is inversely proportional to the sample size to achieve the same power, the required sample sizes can then be compared among SNP chips. These two methods are complementary to each other. The first approach provides direct power comparisons, but it requires information on disease model and may not be reliable for SNP chips that contain many non-HapMap SNPs. The second approach allows sample size comparisons based on the coverage of SNP chips, and it can be modified for SNP chips that contain non-HapMap SNPs. These methods are particularly relevant for large epidemiological studies in which enough subjects are available for GWA screening and follow-up stages. We illustrate these approaches using five currently available whole genome SNP chips. PMID:18271056

Li, Chun; Li, Mingyao; Long, Ji-Rong; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei

2008-07-01

18

Anisotropic conductive film flip chip joining using thin chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, flip chip interconnections were made on very flexible polyethylene naphthalate substrates using anisotropic conductive film. Two kinds of chips were used: chips of normal thickness and thin chips. The thin chips were very thin, only 50 ?m thick. Due to the thinness of the chips they were flexible and the entire joint was bendable. The reliability properties

Erja Jokinen; Eero Ristolainen

2002-01-01

19

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP)  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population Abstract Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Analytical and Numerical Study of Joule Heating Effects on Electrokinetically Pumped Continuous Flow PCR Chips  

E-print Network

Analytical and Numerical Study of Joule Heating Effects on Electrokinetically Pumped Continuous Form: December 8, 2007 Joule heating is an inevitable phenomenon for microfluidic chips involving been established and solved using the Green's function for evaluating Joule heating effects

Le Roy, Robert J.

21

Characteristic study of anisotropic-conductive film for chip-on-film packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chip-on-film (COF) is a new technology after tape-automated bonding (TAB) and chip-on-glass (COG) in the interconnection of liquid crystal module (LCM). The thickness of the film, which is more flexible than TAB, can be as thin as 44 ?m. It has pre-test capability, while COG does not have. It possesses great potential in many product fabrication applications.In this study, we

Shyh-ming Chang; Jwo-huei Jou; Adam Hsieh; Tai-hong Chen; Ching-yun Chang; Yung-hao Wang; Chun-ming Huang

2001-01-01

22

Study of adhesive flip chip bonding process and failure mechanisms of ACA joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flip chip bonding process using anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACA) and the consequent joint reliability were studied. The substrates used were rigid FR-4 boards, which are interesting due to their low cost and wide range of applications. The problems associated with the technique are discussed in this paper from the reliability point of view. Also, some aspects concerning production are

A. Seppl; Eero Ristolainen

2004-01-01

23

A Study of Single-Chip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors  

E-print Network

A Study of Single-Chip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors Matthew an examination of different cache and processor configurations assum- ing transistor densities will continue to increase as they have in the past. While in the short term any additional transistors should clearly be put

California at Davis, University of

24

A Study of SingleChip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors  

E-print Network

# # A Study of Single­Chip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors Matthew an examination of different cache and processor configurations assum­ ing transistor densities will continue to increase as they have in the past. While in the short term any additional transistors should clearly be put

Farrens, Matthew K.

25

A Study of SingleChip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors  

E-print Network

# # A Study of Single­Chip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors Matthew of transistors, a question that is rapidly increas­ ing in importance as transistor densities continue to climb to compare different configurations, the concept of an Equivalent Cache Transistor is presented. Results

Tyson, Gary

26

Fundamental study of microelectronic chip response under laser ultrasonic-interferometric inspection using C-scan method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern surface mount packaging technologies, such as flip chips, chip scale packages, and ball grid arrays(BGA), chips are attached to the substrates/printed wiring board (PWB) using solder bump interconnections. The quality of solder bumps between the chips and the substrate/board is difficult to inspect. Laser ultrasonic-interferometric technique was proved to be a promising approach for solder bump inspection because of its noncontact and nondestructive characteristics. Different indicators extracted from received signals have been used to predict the potential defects, such as correlation coefficient, error ratio, frequency shifting, etc. However, the fundamental understanding of the chip behavior under laser ultrasonic inspection is still missing. Specifically, it is not sure whether the laser interferometer detected out-of-plane displacements were due to wave propagation or structural vibration when the chip was excited by pulsed laser. Plus, it is found that the received signals are chip dependent. Both challenges impede the interpretation of acquired signals. In this paper, a C-scan method was proposed to study the underlying phenomenon during laser ultrasonic inspection. The full chip was inspected. The response of the chip under laser excitation was visualized in a movie resulted from acquired signals. Specifically, a BGA chip was investigated to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. By characterizing signals using discrete wavelet transform(DWT), both ultrasonic wave propagation and vibration were observed. Separation of them was successfully achieved using ideal band-pass filter and visualized in resultant movies, too. The observed ultrasonic waves were characterized and their respective speeds were measured by applying 2-D FFT. The C-scan method, combined with different digital signal processing techniques, was proved to be an very effective methodology to learn the behavior of chips under laser excitation. This general procedure can be applied to any unknown chip before inspection. A wealth of information can be provided by this learning procedure, which greatly benefits the interpretation of inspection signals afterwards.

Yang, Lei; Gong, Jie; Ume, I. Charles

2014-02-01

27

Study of non-solder, low cost and high performance flip chip QFN package using ultra thin Pd PPF  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the development of semiconductor package, size reduction and high performance are driving forces. As increasing hand held products and green round issue, all package companies are interesting in study of package using lead free solder. As the today's package trend, many kinds of flip chip packages are developed using lead free solder. In most of flip chip packages, lead

Se Chuel Park; Chullae Cho; Sung-Kwan Paek

2003-01-01

28

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Methadone induction in primary care  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Methadone induction in primary care (ANRS-Methaville): a phase III. To date, patients willing to start methadone can only do so in a methadone clinic (a medical centre after dose stabilization. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of methadone in patients who

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

29

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Occupational cataracts and lens opacities in  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Occupational cataracts and lens opacities in interventional cardiology-induced cataracts. The O'CLOC study (Occupational Cataracts and Lens Opacities in interventional Cardiology will be performed to detect cataracts, even in the early stages (lens opacities, according to LOCS III

Boyer, Edmond

30

The Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS) Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The molecular basis for the genetic risk of ischemic stroke is likely to be multigenic and influenced by environmental factors. Several small case-control studies have suggested associations between ischemic stroke and polymorphisms of genes that code for coagulation cascade proteins and platelet receptors. Our aim is to investigate potential associations between hemostatic gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, with particular

James F Meschia; Thomas G Brott; Robert D Brown Jr; Richard JP Crook; Michael Frankel; John Hardy; Jos G Merino; Stephen S Rich; Scott Silliman; Bradford Burke Worrall

2003-01-01

31

The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) occurs in about 20,000 people per year in the U.S. annually and nearly half of the affected persons are dead within the first 30 days. Survivors of ruptured IAs are often left with substantial disability. Thus, primary prevention of aneurysm formation and rupture is of paramount importance. Prior studies indicate that genetic factors are important in the formation and rupture of IAs. The long-term goal of the Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) Study is to identify genes that underlie the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IA). Methods/Design The FIA Study includes 26 clinical centers which have extensive experience in the clinical management and imaging of intracerebral aneurysms. 475 families with affected sib pairs or with multiple affected relatives will be enrolled through retrospective and prospective screening of potential subjects with an IA. After giving informed consent, the proband or their spokesperson invites other family members to participate. Each participant is interviewed using a standardized questionnaire which covers medical history, social history and demographic information. In addition blood is drawn from each participant for DNA isolation and immortalization of lymphocytes. High- risk family members without a previously diagnosed IA undergo magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to identify asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms. A 10 cM genome screen will be performed to identify FIA susceptibility loci. Due to the significant mortality of affected individuals, novel approaches are employed to reconstruct the genotype of critical deceased individuals. These include the intensive recruitment of the spouse and children of deceased, affected individuals. Discussion A successful, adequately-powered genetic linkage study of IA is challenging given the very high, early mortality of ruptured IA. Design features in the FIA Study that address this challenge include recruitment at a large number of highly active clinical centers, comprehensive screening and recruitment techniques, non-invasive vascular imaging of high-risk subjects, genome reconstruction of dead affected individuals using marker data from closely related family members, and inclusion of environmental covariates in the statistical analysis. PMID:15854227

Broderick, Joseph P; Sauerbeck, Laura R; Foroud, Tatiana; Huston, John; Pankratz, Nathan; Meissner, Irene; Brown, Robert D

2005-01-01

32

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Electrons for intraoperative radiotherapy in  

E-print Network

cancer. This treatment leads to an excellent local tumor control with local recurrence rates around 6STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Electrons for intraoperative radiotherapy in selected breast-cancer radiation treatment for patients with an excellent prognostic and very low recurrence risk. Methods: Forty

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

A parametric study of the effects of process parameters on the assembly of chip scale packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chip scale packaging (CSP) technology is developing in response to some of the limitations of flip chip technology. It addresses the concerns and perceived risk associated with handling and assembling bare die while maintaining most of the volumetric packaging and performance merits that flip chip technology offers. The assembly of chip scale packages is not a one step process, but

T. A. Nguty; B. Salam; N. N. Ekere

2000-01-01

34

Organ-on-a-chip platforms for studying drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

Novel microfluidic tools allow new ways to manufacture and test drug delivery systems. Organ-on-a-chip systems - microscale recapitulations of complex organ functions - promise to improve the drug development pipeline. This review highlights the importance of integrating microfluidic networks with 3D tissue engineered models to create organ-on-a-chip platforms, able to meet the demand of creating robust preclinical screening models. Specific examples are cited to demonstrate the use of these systems for studying the performance of drug delivery vectors and thereby reduce the discrepancies between their performance at preclinical and clinical trials. We also highlight the future directions that need to be pursued by the research community for these proof-of-concept studies to achieve the goal of accelerating clinical translation of drug delivery nanoparticles. PMID:24818770

Bhise, Nupura S; Ribas, Joo; Manoharan, Vijayan; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Polini, Alessandro; Massa, Solange; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

2014-09-28

35

Atomic structure of machined semiconducting chips: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the atomic structure of chips of germanium that were produced by single point diamond machining. It is demonstrated that although the local (nearest neighbor) atomic structure is experimentally quite similar to that of single crystal specimens information from more distant atoms indicates the presence of considerable stress. An outline of the technique is given and the strength of XAS in studying the machining process is demonstrated.

Paesler, M.; Sayers, D.

1988-12-01

36

EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study 1 EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol Summary Few studies have examined in detail the nature of tomato handling policies and practices in food service establishments. The purpose of this study

37

Cytotoxicity of cadmium-containing quantum dots based on a study using a microfluidic chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a lack of reliable nanotoxicity assays available for monitoring and quantifying multiple cellular events in cultured cells. In this study, we used a microfluidic chip to systematically investigate the cytotoxicity of three kinds of well-characterized cadmium-containing quantum dots (QDs) with the same core but different shell structures, including CdTe core QDs, CdTe/CdS core-shell QDs, and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs, in HEK293 cells. Using the microfluidic chip combined with fluorescence microscopy, multiple QD-induced cellular events including cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and QD uptake were simultaneously analysed. The three kinds of QDs showed significantly different cytotoxicities. The CdTe QDs, which are highly toxic to HEK293 cells, resulted in remarkable cellular and nuclear morphological changes, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, and strong inhibition of cell proliferation; the CdTe/CdS QDs were moderately toxic but did not significantly affect the proliferation of HEK293 cells; while the CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs had no detectable influence on cytotoxicity with respect to cell morphology, viability, and proliferation. Our data indicated that QD cytotoxicity was closely related to their surface structures and specific physicochemical properties. This study also demonstrated that the microfluidic chip could serve as a powerful tool to systematically evaluate the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in multiple cellular events.

Zheng, Xiannuo; Tian, Jing; Weng, Lixing; Wu, Lei; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Wang, Lianhui

2012-02-01

38

Analysis of DNA-chip and antigen-chip data: studies of cancer, stem cells and autoimmune diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biology has undergone a revolution during the past decade. Deciphering the human genome has opened new horizons, among which the advent of DNA microarrays has been perhaps the most significant. These miniature measuring devices report the levels at which tens of thousands of genes are expressed in a collection of cells of interest (such as tissue from a tumor). I describe here briefly this technology and present an example of how analysis of data obtained from such high throughput experiments provides insights of possible clinical and therapeutic relevance for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Next, I describe how gene expression data is used to deduce a new design principle, " Just In Case", used by stem cells. Finally I briefly review a different novel technology, of antigen chips, which provide a fingerprint of a subject's immune system and may become a predictive clinical tool. The work reviewed here was done in collaboration with numerous colleagues and students.

Domany, Eytan

2005-07-01

39

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Exploring Ways to Lighten the Ecological Footprint of Blue Chip Cookies  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Exploring Ways to Lighten of a project/report". #12;- 1 - Exploring Ways to Lighten the Ecological Footprint of Blue Chip Cookies AGSC

40

Formally modeling, analyzing, and designing network protocols : a case study on retransmission-based reliable multicast protocols  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we conduct an extensive case study on formally modeling, analyzing, and designing retransmission-based reliable multicast protocols. We first present an abstract model of the communication service that ...

Livadas, Carolos

2003-01-01

41

EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study 1 EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol Summary Good hand hygiene is of critical importance in preventing-ill controls (Hennessy et al, 1998; Kassenborg et al, 1998). Research has also indicated that good hand hygiene

42

An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method, and was capable of removing virtually all S0 from the pyrite grains. As pyrite oxidation and dissolution processes are surface-dependent, and even the slightest coating by Fe2+ or sulfide oxidation products can sharply decrease pyrite reactivity, the improved removal of S0 prevents such decreases and allows clearer insights into pyrite reaction mechanisms to be gained from experimental studies. In addition to S0 removal, the suggested method was shown not to introduce any biases in the particle size distribution. The main difference observed between the two protocols is the removal of larger amounts of surface-attached fine particles in the proposed method along with S0. This also removes a potential bias, associated with the surface area of pyrite available for chemical reaction. The suggested pyrite pretreatment protocol is more efficient in removal of S0 contamination from pyrite grains and provides multiple advantages for both kinetic and isotopic investigations of pyrite transformations under various environmental conditions.

Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay

2014-05-01

43

Q 2 ChIP, a Quick and Quantitative Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Assay, Unravels Epigenetic Dynamics of Developmentally Regulated Genes in Human Carcinoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a key technique for studying protein-DNA interactions and mapping epige- netic histone modifications on DNA. Current ChIP protocols require extensive sample handling and large cell numbers. We developed a quick and quantitative (Q 2 )ChIP assay suitable for histone and transcription factor immunoprecipi- tation from chromatin amounts equivalent to as few as 100 cells. DNA-protein cross-linking

John Arne Dahl; Philippe Collas

2007-01-01

44

Pre-read and post-read annealing techniques for the Harshaw/Filtrol Inc. CaSO?:Dy beta TDL chip  

E-print Network

of low energy traps) and over reporting of the measured dose due to energy previously stored within the chip. Following well defined annealing protocols will minimize these causes of error in TL output. The objective of this research was to study...- ray or neutron TLD chips. The TLD chip should demonstrate high sensitivity and accuracy, a linear relationship between absorbed dose and TL output over a large range, dose rate independence, a low LLD, a flat energy response curve, minimal angular...

McCarthy, Daniel Patrick

2012-06-07

45

Experimental Study on Minimizing Edge Chipping in Glass Milling Operation using an Internal CBN Grinding Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass is one of the most difficult materials to be machined due to its brittle nature and unique structure while frequent occurrence of fracture and edge chipping during machining has to be avoided. To minimize edge chipping of the machined glass, which is common when cutting materials harder than 50 HRC, adopting right parameters is required followed by additional effort

M. Sayuti; Ahmed A. D. Sarhan; M. Hamdi

2011-01-01

46

Supramolecular Interactions at the Picomole Level Studied by 19F NMR Spectroscopy in a Microfluidic Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale chips: 19F NMR spectroscopy is performed on nanoliter volumes in a microfluidic chip equipped with a planar microcoil. The high resolution and sensitivity allow the detection of small chemical shift variations, which enables investigation of the supramolecular interaction between NaPF6 and ?-cyclodextrin.

M. Victoria Gomez; David N. Reinhoudt; Aldrik H. Velders

2008-01-01

47

A performance study of the cancelback protocol for Time Warp  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents results from an experimental evaluation of the space-time tradeoffs in Time Warp augmented with the cancelback protocol for memory management. An implementation of the cancelback protocol on Time Warp is described that executes on a shared memory multiprocessor, a 32 processor Kendall Square Research Machine (KSR1). The implementation supports canceling back more than one object when memory

Samir R. Das; Richard M. Fujimoto

1993-01-01

48

GCOD - GeneChip Oncology Database  

PubMed Central

Background DNA microarrays have become a nearly ubiquitous tool for the study of human disease, and nowhere is this more true than in cancer. With hundreds of studies and thousands of expression profiles representing the majority of human cancers completed and in public databases, the challenge has been effectively accessing and using this wealth of data. Description To address this issue we have collected published human cancer gene expression datasets generated on the Affymetrix GeneChip platform, and carefully annotated those studies with a focus on providing accurate sample annotation. To facilitate comparison between datasets, we implemented a consistent data normalization and transformation protocol and then applied stringent quality control procedures to flag low-quality assays. Conclusion The resulting resource, the GeneChip Oncology Database, is available through a publicly accessible website that provides several query options and analytical tools through an intuitive interface. PMID:21291543

2011-01-01

49

Critical Illness Outcome Study: An Observational Study on Protocols and Mortality in Intensive Care Units  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many individual Intensive Care Unit (ICU) characteristics have been associated with patient outcomes, including staffing, expertise, continuity and team structure. Separately, many aspects of clinical care in ICUs have been operationalized through the development of complex treatment protocols. The United State Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS) was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol availability and use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large cohort of United States ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS Steering Committee. Methods USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological multi-centered cohort study of mixed ICUs in the U.S. The data collected include organizational information for the ICU (e.g., protocol availability and utilization, multi-disciplinary staffing assessment) and patient level information (e.g. demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions). The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high and low protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize regression modeling to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. There are presently 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6,000 study subjects. Conclusions USCIITG-CIOS is a large multicentric study examining the effect of ICU protocol use on patient outcomes. The primary results of this study will inform our understanding of the relationship between protocol availability, use, and patient outcomes in the ICU. Moreover, given the shortage of intensivists worldwide, the results of USCIITG-CIOS can be used to promote more effective ICU and care team design and will impact the delivery of intensive care services beyond individual practitioners. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01109719

Ali, Naeem A.; Gutteridge, David; Shahul, Sajid; Checkley, William; Sevransky, Jonathan; Martin, Greg S.

2014-01-01

50

CHIP Utilization in South Texas: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of the Children's Health Insurance Program. JSRI Research Report No. 33  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) began as a federal stopgap measure to assist families whose incomes were too high to qualify for Medicaid, but too low to make health insurance for their children affordable. In 2002, efforts were launched around the United States to recruit eligible children into the program. This pilot study

Millard, Ann V.; Mier, Nelda; Gabriel, Olga; Flores, Soledad

2004-01-01

51

Methods for on-chip protein analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unambiguous identification of peptides\\/proteins is crucial for the definition of the proteome. Using ProteinChip Array technology also known as surface-enhanced laser desorption\\/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS), we developed experimental protocols and probed test conditions required for the protein identification on ProteinChip surfaces. We were able to directly digest peptides\\/proteins on-chip surfaces by specific proteases, such as trypsin,

Emilia Caputo; Ramy Moharram; Brian M. Martin

2003-01-01

52

DNA Chips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students will conduct activities from a module called "DNA Chips: A Genetics Lab in the Palm of Your Hand." This module is part of the National Institutes of Health Snapshots series, which focuses on a single area of biomedical research to help students understand how science, people, ethics, and history all fit together. The module for this lesson is about the DNA microarray, also known as a DNA chip.

Science Netlinks;

2003-02-23

53

A propagation and apical dominance study of bench chip budding in roses  

E-print Network

is needed to promote successful bud union formation and establish unrooted grafts in the field. A positive correlation existed between the growth and development of shoot and root systems of 'Mirandy' roses, A positive correlation also existed between... 'Mirandy' scion shoot growth and flowering. Scions chip budded below rootstock lateral shoots were inhibited by apical dominance, which was broken by selected forcing, girdling and pruning treatments to promote vigorous scion growth. Best chip budding...

Fann, Yui-Sing

2012-06-07

54

Study protocol: the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS)  

PubMed Central

Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion. Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence. The initial focus of CATS is on adrenarche, the first hormonal process in the pubertal cascade, which begins for most children at around 8years of age. Methods/Design CATS is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. All Grade 3 students (89years of age) from a stratified cluster sample of schools in Melbourne, Australia were invited to take part. In total, 1239 students and a parent/guardian were recruited to participate in the study. Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche. Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development. The cohort will provide rich detail of the development, lifestyle, external circumstances and health of children during the transition from childhood through to adolescence. Baseline associations between the hormonal measures and measures of mental health and behaviour will initially be examined cross-sectionally, and then in later waves longitudinally. CATS will make a unique contribution to the understanding of adrenarche and puberty in childrens health and development. PMID:24103080

2013-01-01

55

Challenges in System on Chip Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges of system on a chip (SoC) verification is becoming increasingly complex as submicron process technology shrinks die size, enabling system architects to include more functionality in a single chip solution. A functional defect refers to the feature sets, protocols or performance parameters not conforming to the specifications of the SoC. Some of the functional defects can be solved

Noah Bamford; Rekha Bangalore; Eric Chapman; Hector Chavez; Rajeev Dasari; Yinfang Lin; Edgar Jimenez

2006-01-01

56

Prediction of chip flow angle to study the relation between chip flow and ratio of the cutting edge lengths using sharp corner tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chip flow control is an important issue for automated machining. Using the cutting power equilibrium equation of Usui et al.\\u000a (ASME J Eng Ind 100:222228, 1978) and Usui and Hirota (ASME J Eng Ind 100:229235, 1978), a new chip flow angle prediction model is derived for helical vee grooves turning with sharp corner tools and is expressed\\u000a as the transformed

Qingming Wang; Hailong Lin; Zhenfeng Zhang

57

A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.  

PubMed

Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24hrafter fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

2014-01-01

58

Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

2014-05-01

59

Reporting of eligibility criteria of randomised trials: cohort study comparing trial protocols with subsequent articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether and how eligibility criteria of participants prespecified in protocols of randomised trials are reported in subsequent articles.Design Cohort study.Setting Protocols submitted to the ethics committee of a German medical faculty.Data sources 52 trial protocols and 78 subsequent publications published between 2000 and 2006.Main outcome measure Proportion of matching, missing, modified, or newly added eligibility criteria between

Anette Blmle; Joerg J Meerpohl; Gerta Rcker; Gerd Antes; Martin Schumacher; Erik von Elm

2011-01-01

60

Implant Chips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A group of eight people, including all members of one Florida family, had an implant chip, roughly the size of a grain of rice, injected under their skin on Friday, May 10. Manufactured by Applied Digital Solutions (ADS), the chips store a special identification number that enables the retrieval of personal and medical information. In the event of a medical emergency, a special handheld scanner activates the dormant digital implant, which provides identification data with which medical personnel can query ADS's database, the location of the patient's medical records. Alzheimer's patients seem to be the most promising market for this technology, even though other people, like the Florida family, hope to benefit from it as well. Another product that ADS offers is called Digital Angel, a wearable global positioning system (GPS) device that, among other things, can track in real time the wearer's physical movements. In the future, ADS is planning to release a product that will utilize both of these technologies: an implanted GPS-enabled chip. Unlike VeriChip, though, the GPS-enabled implant would require Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, meaning the US market won't see its introduction until after FDA testing. Many organizations, ranging from privacy advocates to religious groups, have already denounced VeriChip and its eventually successors, associated them with "Big Brother" and the biblical "Mark of the Beast."To read about the eight people that received their implants, look at the first and second sites, articles from the Los Angeles Times and Miami Herald respectively. For a non-US perspective, view the news story posted by the British Broadcasting Company (BBC). The fourth site, an extensive analysis of the subject from ABC News, should give readers a broader understanding of implanted chips and their potential uses. Two sites from ADS are next -- VeriChip's product pages and the press release that details a FDA's decision regarding VeriChip in April, 2002. Finally, the last two sites give more information on Digital Angel and a sample of GPS technology already in use.

Schroeder, Ted.

2002-01-01

61

Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP): study protocol and implementation challenges  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension affects 29% of the adult U.S. population and is a leading cause of heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Despite numerous effective treatments, only 53% of people with hypertension are at goal blood pressure. The chronic care model suggests that blood pressure control can be achieved by improving how patients and physicians address patient self-care. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol of a nested 2 2 randomized controlled trial to test the separate and combined effects on systolic blood pressure of a behavioral intervention for patients and a quality improvement-type intervention for physicians. Primary care practices were randomly assigned to the physician intervention or to the physician control condition. Physician randomization occurred at the clinic level. The physician intervention included training and performance monitoring. The training comprised 2 internet-based modules detailing both the JNC-7 hypertension guidelines and lifestyle modifications for hypertension. Performance data were collected for 18 months, and feedback was provided to physicians every 3 months. Patient participants in both intervention and control clinics were individually randomized to the patient intervention or to usual care. The patient intervention consisted of a 6-month behavioral intervention conducted by trained interventionists in 20 group sessions, followed by 12 monthly phone contacts by community health advisors. Follow-up measurements were performed at 6 and 18 months. The primary outcome was the mean change in systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were diastolic blood pressure and the proportion of patients with adequate blood pressure control at 6 and 18 months. Discussion Overall, 8 practices (4 per treatment group), 32 physicians (4 per practice; 16 per treatment group), and 574 patients (289 control and 285 intervention) were enrolled. Baseline characteristics of patients and providers and the challenges faced during study implementation are presented. The HIP interventions may improve blood pressure control and lower cardiovascular disease risk in a primary care practice setting by addressing key components of the chronic care model. The study design allows an assessment of the effectiveness and cost of physician and patient interventions separately, so that health care organizations can make informed decisions about implementation of 1 or both interventions in the context of local resources. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00201136 PMID:19245692

Dolor, Rowena J; Yancy, William S; Owen, William F; Matchar, David B; Samsa, Gregory P; Pollak, Kathryn I; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Ard, Jamy D; Prempeh, Maxwell; McGuire, Heather L; Batch, Bryan C; Fan, William; Svetkey, Laura P

2009-01-01

62

Study on Board Level Drop Reliability of Wafer Level Chip Scale Package with Leadfree Solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) is a promising packaging technology to accommodate the demand for small, portable handheld electronic. This bare-die bumped package is able to offer significant area savings, improve package electrical parasitics and power dissipation performance over substrate-based BGA packages. However, its board level reliability especially mechanical performance under shock impact is a great concern for handheld

Zhang Xueren; Zhu Wenhui; P. Edith; Tan Hien Boon

2008-01-01

63

Study of educational reform on the course of single-chip microcomputer based on PBL model  

Microsoft Academic Search

is a kind of teaching method with the feature of self-regulated learning based on problems. This paper provides not only the organizational form of PBL model, but also the concrete measures and teaching effects by using PBL method on the course of Single Chip Microcomputer. Finally, the paper analyses the deficiencies and the improved ways by using PBL model.

Ke-ning Wang; Wei Dong; Xiong-xing Zhang; Wei Wang

2011-01-01

64

Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care.\\u000a However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the\\u000a halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored\\u000a in health services research. We describe a protocol to

Christian D Helfrich; Dean Blevins; Jeffrey L Smith; P Adam Kelly; Timothy P Hogan; Hildi Hagedorn; Patricia M Dubbert; Anne E Sales

2011-01-01

65

Three steps to writing adaptive study protocols in the early phase clinical development of new medicines  

PubMed Central

This article attempts to define terminology and to describe a process for writing adaptive, early phase study protocols which are transparent, self-intuitive and uniform. It provides a step by step guide, giving templates from projects which received regulatory authorisation and were successfully performed in the UK. During adaptive studies evolving data is used to modify the trial design and conduct within the protocol-defined remit. Adaptations within that remit are documented using non-substantial protocol amendments which do not require regulatory or ethical review. This concept is efficient in gathering relevant data in exploratory early phase studies, ethical and time- and cost-effective. PMID:24980283

2014-01-01

66

Experimental and modeling studies of ultrasound-assisted release of phenolics from oak chips into model wine.  

PubMed

The enhancement of release of oak-related compounds from oak chips during wine aging with oak chips may interest the winemaking industry. In this study, the 25-kHz ultrasound waves were used to intensify the mass transfer of phenolics from oak chips into a model wine. The influences of acoustic energy density (6.3-25.8 W/L) and temperature (15-25 C) on the release kinetics of total phenolics were investigated systematically. The results exhibited that the total phenolic yield released was not affected by acoustic energy density significantly whereas it increased with the increase of temperature during sonication. Furthermore, to describe the mechanism of mass transfer of phenolics in model wine under ultrasonic field, the release kinetics of total phenolics was simulated by both a second-order kinetic model and a diffusion model. The modeling results revealed that the equilibrium concentration of total phenolics in model wine, the initial release rate and effective diffusivity of total phenolics generally increased with acoustic energy density and temperature. In addition, temperature had a negative effect on the second-order release rate constant whereas acoustic energy density had an opposite effect. PMID:24726419

Tao, Yang; Zhang, Zhihang; Sun, Da-Wen

2014-09-01

67

A comparative study of wireless sensor networks and their routing protocols.  

PubMed

Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

2010-01-01

68

A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

2010-01-01

69

Ensembles of engineered cardiac tissues for physiological and pharmacological study: heart on a chip.  

PubMed

Traditionally, muscle physiology experiments require multiple tissue samples to obtain morphometric, electrophysiological, and contractility data. Furthermore, these experiments are commonly completed one at a time on cover slips of single cells, isotropic monolayers, or in isolated muscle strips. In all of these cases, variability of the samples hinders quantitative comparisons among experimental groups. Here, we report the design of a "heart on a chip" that exploits muscular thin film technology--biohybrid constructs of an engineered, anisotropic ventricular myocardium on an elastomeric thin film--to measure contractility, combined with a quantification of action potential propagation, and cytoskeletal architecture in multiple tissues in the same experiment. We report techniques for real-time data collection and analysis during pharmacological intervention. The chip is an efficient means of measuring structure-function relationships in constructs that replicate the hierarchical tissue architectures of laminar cardiac muscle. PMID:22072288

Grosberg, Anna; Alford, Patrick W; McCain, Megan L; Parker, Kevin Kit

2011-12-21

70

DNA probes on chip surfaces studied by scanning force microscopy using specific binding of colloidal gold  

PubMed Central

Single-stranded DNA was covalently bound on chip surfaces using two different silanization procedures. The resulting surfaces were characterized by fluorescence and scanning force microscopy using sequence-complementary DNA molecules with labels. Colloidal gold (30 nm) was used as the topographic label. Scanning force microscopy revealed the individual labels on the surface and their distribution. Steps of silane layers or DNA-modified surfaces prepared using an elastomeric mask provided internal controls for comparison of modified with unmodified surfaces. PMID:11024193

Moller, Robert; Csaki, Andrea; Kohler, J. Michael; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

2000-01-01

71

The NICHD investigative interview protocol: an analogue study.  

PubMed

One hundred twenty-eight 5- to 7-year-old children were interviewed using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Investigative Interview Protocol about an event staged 4 to 6 weeks earlier. Children were prepared for talking about the investigated event using either an invitational or directive style of prompting, with or without additional practice describing experienced events. The open invitation prompts (including those using children's words to encourage further reporting) elicited more detailed responses than the more focused directive prompts without reducing accuracy. Children were most responsive when they had received preparation that included practice describing experienced events in response to invitation prompts. Overall, children were highly accurate regardless of prompt type. Errors mostly related to peripheral rather than central information and were more likely to be elicited by directive or yes/no questions than by invitations. Children who provided accounts when asked about a false event were less accurate when describing the true event. Children who received preparation that included practice recalling a recent event in response to directive and yes/no questions were least accurate when questioned about the false event first. The data provide the first direct evaluation of the accuracy of information elicited using different prompt types in the course of NICHD Protocol interviews, and underscore the importance of how children are prepared for subsequent reporting. PMID:24341318

Brown, Deirdre A; Lamb, Michael E; Lewis, Charlie; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Orbach, Yael; Wolfman, Missy

2013-12-01

72

Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result,

Martin Rsli; Patrizia Frei; John Bolte; Georg Neubauer; Elisabeth Cardis; Maria Feychting; Peter Gajsek; Sabine Heinrich; Wout Joseph; Simon Mann; Luc Martens; Evelyn Mohler; Roger C Parslow; Aslak Harbo Poulsen; Katja Radon; Joachim Schz; Gyrgy Thuroczy; Jean-Franois Viel; Martine Vrijheid

2010-01-01

73

To assess the effectiveness of a chlorhexidine chip in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A clinical and radiographic study  

PubMed Central

Context: Controlled local delivery of disinfecting agents has been demonstrated to be efficient in improving the outcome of periodontal therapy. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a controlled-release biodegradable chlorhexidine chip (Periocol CG) when used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of periodontitis. Settings and Design: The study was carried out as randomized controlled two-group parallel clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Forty patients in the age group of 30-65 years suffering from mild to moderate chronic periodontitis, having pocket depth ranging between 5 and 8 mm, were selected for the study. At the screening visit, complete history taking, periodontal examination and full-mouth supragingival scaling was carried out for each patient. At the baseline visit (on the 7th day), all clinical parameters and radiographic parameters were recorded at selected sites and patients were randomly assigned to either the control group (group A) or the treatment group (group B). All patients in both the groups received complete subgingival scaling and root planing. Then, in group B, chlorhexidine chip (Periocol CG) was inserted at the selected site. Patients were recalled at 1 month, 2 months and 3 months from the baseline for recording clinical observations, and radiographic parameters were recorded at the end of the study. Statistical Analysis: Mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test, t test for equality of means and paired samples correlations were used. Results: There was a statistically significant clinical attachment gain, reduction in bleeding index scores, probing pocket depth reduction and bone gain in both the groups, but group B showed better results than group A, and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study show that chlorhexidine chip (PerioCol-CG) is an effective adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. PMID:21976838

Grover, Vishakha; Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Battu, Virinder Singh; Bhatia, Archana; Sachdeva, Sonia

2011-01-01

74

Validation of the Yale Swallow Protocol: a prospective double-blinded videofluoroscopic study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this prospective, double-blinded, multirater, systematic replication study was to investigate agreement for aspiration risk, in the same individual, between videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) and the Yale Swallow Protocol. Participants were 25 consecutive adults referred for dysphagia testing who met the inclusion criteria of completion of a brief cognitive assessment, oral mechanism examination, and no tracheotomy tube. First, all participants were administered the Yale Swallow Protocol by two experienced speech-language pathologists trained in protocol administration. Failure criteria were inability to drink the entire amount, interrupted drinking, or coughing during or immediately after drinking. Second, all participants completed a VFSS within 5-10min of protocol administration. A speech-language pathologist, blinded to protocol results, reviewed the VFSS to determine aspiration status in a binary (yes/no) manner. Inter-rater agreement between two speech-language pathologists was 100% for identification of aspiration risk with the Yale Swallow Protocol. Inter-rater agreement between the speech-language pathologist and the radiologist for identification of aspiration status with VFSS was 100%. Twenty percent of VFSS recordings were viewed again 3-6months after initial data collection, and intrarater agreement for identification of thin liquid aspiration was 100%. Sensitivity for the Yale Swallow Protocol=100%, specificity=64%, positive predictive value=78%, and negative predictive value=100%. Importantly, all participants who passed the protocol did not aspirate during VFSS. Multiple, double-blinded raters and VFSS as the reference standard agreed with previous research with a single, nonblinded rater and FEES as the reference standard for identification of aspiration risk. The clinical usefulness and validity of the Yale Swallow Protocol for determining aspiration risk in a small sample size of male participants has been confirmed. Future research is needed with a larger and more heterogeneous population sample. PMID:24026519

Suiter, Debra M; Sloggy, Joanna; Leder, Steven B

2014-04-01

75

Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas. PMID:20487532

2010-01-01

76

High throughput fabrication of disposable nanofluidic lab-on-chip devices for single molecule studies  

PubMed Central

An easy method is introduced allowing fast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replication of nanofluidic lab-on-chip devices using accurately fabricated molds featuring cross-sections down to 60?nm. A high quality master is obtained through proton beam writing and UV lithography. This master can be used more than 200 times to replicate nanofluidic devices capable of handling single DNA molecules. This method allows to fabricate nanofluidic devices through simple PDMS casting. The extensions of YOYO-1 stained bacteriophage T4 and ??DNA inside these nanochannels have been investigated using fluorescence microscopy and follow the scaling prediction of a large, locally coiled polymer chain confined in nanochannels. PMID:23898358

van Kan, Jeroen A.; Zhang, Ce; Perumal Malar, Piravi; van der Maarel, Johan R. C.

2012-01-01

77

Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.

Smith, D. B.; Woodruff, L. G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W. F.; Garrett, R. G.; Kilburn, J. E.; Goldhaber, M. B.

2009-01-01

78

A Preliminary Study of Metalloproteins in CSF by CapLC-ICPMS and NanoLC-CHIP/ITMS  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has frequently been studied to explore the total metal concentrations in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Some examples of neurologic diseases include but are not limited to intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. In this study, however, a comprehensive approach was begun using metallomics methods. First, two molecular weight cutoff filters were used to separate CSF constituents by molecular weight. The remaining CSF was then separated with capillary liquid chromatography/normal bore liquid chromatography and analyzed with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICPMS). With this ICPMS screening, a possible iron associated protein was suggested by nanoliquid chromatography-CHIP/ion trap mass spectrometry (nanoLC-CHIP/ITMS) identification in conjunction with a Spectrum Mill database search. In this preliminary study, three different types of pooled CSF were partially characterized by their metal (Pb, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cu) containing species with suggestions for fuller studies. Chemical `differences' in the CSF and metal constituents suggests some utility in this analysis for understanding some of the complications observed following subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:18662025

Ellis, Jenny; Castillo, Estela Del; Bayon, Maria Montes; Grimm, Rudolf; Clark, Joseph F.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail; Wilbur, Steve; Caruso, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

79

Long-term effectiveness of the community-based Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) lifestyle intervention: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the long-term (three or more years) effectiveness of the volunteer-delivered Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) intervention. Design Cohort study. Setting Hawera, New Zealand. Participants Of the total cohort of 284 individuals who self-selected to complete the CHIP lifestyle intervention between 2007 and 2009, 106 (37% of the original cohort, mean age=64.97.4?years, range 4287?years; 35% males, 65% female) returned in 2012 for a complimentary follow-up health assessment (mean follow-up duration=49.2+10.4?months). Intervention 30-day lifestyle modification programme (diet, physical activity, substance use and stress management) delivered by volunteers in a community setting. Main outcome measures Changes in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG). Results After approximately 4?years, participants with elevated biometrics at programme entry maintained significantly lowered BMI (?3.2%; 34.85.4 vs 33.75.3?kg/m2, p=0.02), DBP (?9.4%; 89.14.1 vs 80.812.6?mm?Hg, p=0.005), TC (?5.5%; 6.10.7 vs 5.81.0?mmol/L, p=0.04) and TG (?27.5%; 2.40.8 vs 1.70.7?mmol/L, p=0.002). SBP, HDL, LDL and FPG were not significantly different from baseline. Participants with elevated baseline biometrics who reported being compliant to the lifestyle principles promoted in the intervention (N=71, 67% of follow-up participants) recorded further reductions in BMI (?4.2%; 34.84.5 vs 33.44.8?kg/m2, p=0.02), DBP (?13.3%; 88.33.2 vs 77.112.1?mm?Hg, p=0.005) and FPG (?10.4%; 7.01.5 vs 6.31.3?mmol/L, p=0.02). Conclusions Individuals who returned for follow-up assessment and entered the CHIP lifestyle intervention with elevated risk factors were able to maintain improvements in most biometrics for more than 3?years. The results suggest that the community-based CHIP lifestyle intervention can be effective in the longer term, even when delivered by volunteers. PMID:24259389

Kent, Lillian; Morton, Darren; Hurlow, Trevor; Rankin, Paul; Hanna, Althea; Diehl, Hans

2013-01-01

80

A new technique for multiple re-use of planar patch clamp chips.  

PubMed

The patch clamp technique is widely used for recording the activity of ion channels in single cells and lipid bilayers. Most platforms utilize borosilicate glass configured as a pipette, however more recently planar patch clamp chips have been developed that require less technical expertise. Planar patch clamp chips in systems like the Nanion Port-a-Patch are useful in that they allow more rapid throughput in drug screening studies. This technique also has the ability to perform rapid solution changes from the intracellular side. A current drawback with the planar patch clamp chips is the need to utilize a separate chip for each experiment. This increases the cost of each experiment and is due to the fact that the ?1?m aperture used for cell attachment is thought to retain cellular debris thereby preventing subsequent cell attachment and formation of G? seals. In the present study we have for the first time solved the technical problem of developing a simple protocol for re-use of Nanion planar patch clamp chips. The re-use methodology is demonstrated in whole cell patch clamp studies of HEK-293 cells expressing the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A in protocols involving external and internal solution changes, and CHO-K1 cells with incorporated gramicidin channels. PMID:22609774

Kao, Liyo; Abuladze, Natalia; Shao, Xuesi M; McKeegan, Kevin; Kurtz, Ira

2012-07-15

81

Tachyon: A Gigabit Fibre Channel Protocol Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relentlessly increasing demands of computer systems continue to stress existing communication architectures to their limits. Even as processor speeds continue to improve dramatically, they are barely keeping up with increasing numbers of concurrently running applications and CPU-intensive applications, such as multimedia, with higher data throughput requirements. Additionally, as the number of interconnects between systems and I\\/O devices continues to increase,

Judith A. Smith; Meryem Primmer

1996-01-01

82

INTERLABORATORY STUDY OF AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY)/AMES/SALMONELLA TEST PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Seven laboratories participated in a collaborative study to evaluate a proposed EPA standard protocol for the Ames test. The study utilized Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with three metabolic activation levels (0, 2, and coded unknowns. The three primary study goal...

83

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Health and aging in elderly farmers: the  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Health and aging in elderly farmers: the AMI cohort Karine Pérès1 studies specifically focused on health and aging among elders retired from agriculture. Yet living environment. The general aim of the AMI cohort was to study health and aging in elderly farmers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Family history and twins studies suggest an inherited component to ischemic stroke risk. Candidate gene association studies have been performed but have limited capacity to identify novel risk factor genes. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) aims to conduct a genome-wide scan in sibling pairs concordant or discordant for ischemic stroke to identify novel genetic risk factors through

James F Meschia; Robert D Brown Jr; Thomas G Brott; Felix E Chukwudelunzu; John Hardy; Stephen S Rich

2002-01-01

85

NMR protocol for determination of oxidation susceptibility of serum lipids and application of the protocol to a chocolate study.  

PubMed

A protocol for determination of oxidation susceptibility of serum lipids based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy is presented and compared to the commonly used spectrophotometric method. Even though there are methodological differences between these two methods, the NMR-based oxidation susceptibility correlates well (r(2)=0.73) with the lag time determined spectrophotometrically. In addition to the oxidizability of serum lipids, the NMR method provides also information about the lipid profile. The NMR oxidation assay was applied to the chocolate study including fasting serum samples (n=45) from subjects who had consumed white (WC), dark (DC) or high-polyphenol chocolate (HPC) daily for 3weeks. The oxidation susceptibility of serum lipids decreased in the HPC group, and there was a significant difference between the WC and HPC groups (P=0.031). According to the random forest analysis, the consumption of the HPC chocolate induced changes to the amounts of HDL, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and nervonic, docosahexaenoic and myristic acids. Furthermore, arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, docosapentaenoic and palmitic acids, gamma-glutamyl transferase, hemoglobin, HDL, phosphatidylcholine and choline containing phospholipids explained about 60% of the oxidation susceptibility values. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-011-0323-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22661918

Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Mursu, Jaakko; Nurmi, Tarja; Tuppurainen, Kari; Laatikainen, Reino; Soininen, Pasi

2012-06-01

86

Design of a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies in individual sports: the Swedish Athletics injury study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiological studies have mainly been performed on team sports. The authors set out to develop a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies of injuries among elite athletics athletes.MethodsAn argument-based method for investigation of complex design problems was used to structure the collection and analysis of data. Specification of the protocol was preceded by an examination of requirements on injury surveillance in

Jenny Jacobsson; Toomas Timpka; Joakim Ekberg; Jan Kowalski; Sverker Nilsson; Per Renstrm

2010-01-01

87

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Investigation of occupational and environmental  

E-print Network

Stücker3,4 and ICARE study group Abstract Background: Occupational causes of respiratory cancers need. The main objective of the study is to examine occupational risk factors for lung and head and neck cancers of 2926 lung cancer cases, a group of 2415 head and neck cancer cases, and a common control group of 3555

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum  

PubMed Central

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants, which are difficult to transform. The pea early-browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. However, the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis. PMID:21156044

2010-01-01

89

LATEX sensitization in elderly: allergological study and diagnostic protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of latex allergy varies according to the population studied from 3% to 64%. No data exist in the present literature about elderly people because they were not considered among populations at risk. We report a retrospective observational study of 88 elderly patients of our centre of Dermatology and Allergology at Policlinico Umberto I, University of Rome, Sapienza. Results First and second level diagnostic tests showed latex positivity in 11,4% of patients studied for latex allergy in the elderly population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a prevalence of elderly-latex sensitization of 11,4%, showing that allergy to latex is a growing disease that can occur at any age. So, we propose these patients as an additional risk category for latex allergy. PMID:24822075

2014-01-01

90

An Empirical Study on variants of TCP over AODV routing protocol in MANET  

E-print Network

The cardinal concept of TCP development was to carry data within the network where network congestion plays a vital role to cause packet loss. On the other hand, there are several other reasons to lose packets in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks due to fading, interfaces, multi-path routing, malicious node, and black hole. Along with throughput, fairness of TCP protocols is important to establish a good communication. In this paper, an empirical study has been done by simulation and analysis of TCP variations under AODV routing protocol. In our simulation, we studied multiple variations of TCP, such as Reno, New-Reno, Vegas, and Tahoe. The simulation work has been done in NS2 environment. Based on the analysis simulation result of we carried out our observations with respect to the behavior of AODV routing protocol for different TCP packets under several QoS metrics such as drop, throughput, delay, and jitter.

Morshed, Md Monzur; Islam, Md Rafiqul

2011-01-01

91

Sarcopenia and its determinants among Iranian elderly (SARIR): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly populations increase in world because of improved health status in communities, so health and independency of seniors has become and will be one of the main priorities of public health systems. Ageing have been associated with changes in body composition, including loss of muscle mass, loss of bone mass and increase fat mass. Involuntary age related loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia,has been linked to functional impairment and physical disability. Several definitions for sarcopenia have been presented based on the method of measuring body composition, but an internationally accepted definition doesnt presently exist yet. In 2010, the European working group on sarcopenia developed a new definition for sarcopenia according to measure muscle mass and muscle function. Several studies have been done about sarcopenia in world, but to our knowledge this study is the first in Iran which is one of the largest countries of the Middle East that faces a fast growing elderly population. The aim of this study is to evaluate sarcopenia and related risk factors in Iran according new definition of sarcopenia. Methods This study will be conducted in two phase among elderly men and women over 55 years in the 6th district of TehranThe first phase will be a population-based cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of sarcopenia in the study population, and to conduct case finding for the second phase. The second phase will be a casecontrol study to comparison the metabolic and inflammatory factors in sarcopenic and non sarcopenic groups. The association between sarcopenia and major dietary pattern will be evaluated using factor analysis. Conclusion This study is the first study that evaluates sarcopenia and its risk factor in Iranian elderlies. We discuss details of how we collect the data and appropriate instruments to measure muscle mass, muscle power and muscle strength, and suitable cut- off to define sarcopenia in Iranian elderlies. We believe the result of our study can be useful to health policy makers prepare the necessary infrastructure for elderly health improvements and increase the quality of life in geriatric. PMID:23497567

2012-01-01

92

Discrete component bonding and thick film materials study. [of capacitor chips bonded with solders and conductive epoxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bonding reliability of discrete capacitor chips bonded with solders and conductive epoxies was examined along with the thick film resistor materials consisting of iron oxide phosphate and vanadium oxide phosphates. It was concluded from the bonding reliability studies that none of the wide range of types of solders examined is capable of resisting failure during thermal cycling while the conductive epoxy gives substantially lower failure rates. The thick film resistor studies proved the feasibility of iron oxide phosphate resistor systems although some environmental sensitivity problems remain. One of these resistor compositions has inadvertently proven to be a candidate for thermistor applications because of the excellent control achieved upon the temperature coefficient of resistance. One new and potentially damaging phenomenon observed was the degradation of thick film conductors during the course of thermal cycling.

Kinser, D. L.

1976-01-01

93

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Incidence and economical effects of pneumonia  

E-print Network

living in French nursing homes: design and methods of the INCUR study Laurent Demougeot1 , Yves Rolland1, in particular those living in nursing home. Nevertheless, specific research on incidence and economical effects of pneumonia in nursing homes residents is still scarce. In the present article, we present the rationale

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

WLDF 311 Treefrog Study; Fall 2007 PVC Pipe Deployment Protocol  

E-print Network

. GPS h. Water jug i. Hammer to pound the stake j. Machete & gloves (for those on the remnant side) k/travel to study area with your co-worker 2. Pick up gear from stockroom & BRING YOUR OWN WATER JUG or carton (of # followed by unit #. For Example, "Rem 3-3" d. Fill the trap with water until it flows from overflow hole

Johnson, Matthew

95

Design and modeling of a novel lab-on-chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing efforts are being directed towards lab on chips these days. A novel lab on chip has been designed and modeled in this study. The lab on chip includes 3 parts which are, a pool in which the fluid is placed, a micropump and finally a single microneedle. The whole chip was designed on a 1.5 cm*1 cm silicon wafer

Azadeh Dinparast Djadid; Parisa Forutana; Reza Nadafib; Farshad Barazandeha; Arya Moobed Mahdiabadia

2011-01-01

96

Comparative studies on species identification of Noctuoidea moths in two nature reserve conservation zones (Beijing, China) using DNA barcodes and thin-film biosensor chips.  

PubMed

Rapid and accurate identification of species is required for the biological control of pest Noctuoidea moths. DNA barcodes and thin-film biosensor chips are two molecular approaches that have gained wide attention. Here, we compare these two methods for the identification of a limited number of Noctuoidea moth species. Based on the commonly used mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (the standard DNA barcode for animal species), 14 probes were designed and synthesized for 14 species shared by two national nature reserves in Beijing and Hebei, China. Probes ranged in length from 18 to 27bp and were designed as mismatch probes to guarantee that there were at least three base differences between the probe and nontarget sequences. The results on the chip could be detected by the naked eye without needing special equipment. No cross-hybridizations were detected although we tested all probes on the 14 target and 24 nontarget Noctuoidea species. The neighbour-joining tree of the 38 species based on COI sequences gave 38 highly supported independent groups. Both DNA barcoding and thin-film biosensor chips, based on the COI gene, are able to accurately identify and discriminate the 14 targeted moth species in this study. Because of its speed, high accuracy and low cost, the thin-film biosensor chip is a very practical means of species identification. Now, a more comprehensive chip will be developed for the identification of additional Noctuoidea moths for pest control and ecological protection. PMID:24103324

Yang, F; Shi, Z Y; Bai, S L; Ward, R D; Zhang, A B

2014-01-01

97

Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

2014-01-01

98

Study protocol: a systematic review of pediatric shared decision making  

PubMed Central

Background Shared decision making in pediatrics is unique because it often involves active participation of both the child or adolescent patient and his or her caregiver(s) in the decision making process with the clinician or care team, and the extent to which the patient is involved is commensurate with their developmental level. However, little is known about the nature of pediatric-specific shared decision making interventions and their impact. Methods/Design We will perform a systematic review with the objective of summarizing the nature of shared decision making practices, tools, techniques and technologies in the pediatric setting as well as their effects. A literature search will include Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus and Ovid PsycInfo databases in addition to consultation of a group of shared decision making experts to identify unpublished or in-progress works. We will include original research studies involving patients <18 years, their caregivers, or both, and summarize methods and approaches designed to engage participants in the health care decision making process with clinicians. Perinatal and research participation decisions will be excluded. Descriptions of participants involved, interventions used and the measured outcomes will be reported. Quality assessment will be performed according to the design of each study, where possible. Discussion We anticipate that the paucity of published quantitative data and the heterogeneous nature of the reported results will preclude quantitative analysis. In this event, a meta-narrative approach will be undertaken. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004761 PMID:23816266

2013-01-01

99

Study Protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. Conclusions The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long-term large-scale epidemiologic study is expected to provide valuable data in the investigation of the health effects of low-dose radiation and disaster-related stress. PMID:22955043

Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

2012-01-01

100

FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence): a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated) affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites) for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation), with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the start of the facilitation interventions. Detailed contextual and process data are collected throughout, using interviews with staff, residents and next of kin, observations, assessment of context using the Alberta Context Tool, and documentary evidence. A realistic evaluation framework is used to develop explanatory theory about what works for whom in what circumstances. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN11598502. PMID:22453077

2012-01-01

101

Study protocol: can a school gardening intervention improve children's diets?  

PubMed Central

Background The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve childrens fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on childrens fruit and vegetable intake. Method/Design Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as Partner Schools and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as Associate Schools. Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention Associate Schools or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring childrens knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each schools gardening activities. Discussion The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on childrens fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school childrens diets and school based interventions. Trial registration ISRCTN11396528 PMID:22537179

2012-01-01

102

Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness

Masud Yunesian; Fariba Asghari; Javad Homayoun Vash; Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar; Dariush Farhud

2006-01-01

103

Field measurement protocol for team communication: a study of medical rehabilitation team interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is introducing an online communication behavior measurement protocol, developed for medical team work, especially for studying the medical rehabilitation teams on interdisciplinary meetings. The purpose of the research is to analyze the development and usage of shared mental models (SMM) through the communication in medical practice of interdisciplinary rehabilitation teams in order to identify the factors determining the

Balzs Pter Hmornik; Mrta Juhsz; Ildik Vn

2010-01-01

104

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access CANABIC: CANnabis and Adolescents: effect of a  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access CANABIC: CANnabis and Adolescents: effect of a Brief Intervention , Pierre-Michel Llorca4 and Philippe Vorilhon1,11 Abstract Background: Cannabis is the most consumed illegal substance in France. General practitioners (GPs) are the health professionals who are most

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access "Card sorting": a tool for research in ethics on  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access "Card sorting": a tool for research in ethics on treatment decision be decided: to treat or not to treat? Which arguments are used for decision-making? These are mainly ethical with the dilemma of which is the least bad decision in relation to the person's interests. Should an assessment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access A home-visiting intervention targeting determinants  

E-print Network

generous but little assessed health and social care systems in the Western World. Trial registration of this multicentre randomized controlled parallel trial (PROBE methodology) is to assess the impact in a multi health: the study protocol for the CAPEDP randomized controlled trial in France Florence Tubach1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 23 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. Methods and analysis We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical recommendations at policy and industry meetings and healthcare professionals forums. This research was approved by relevant local ethics committees. PMID:24486678

Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

2014-01-01

108

A single-chip IPSEC cryptographic processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for securing the Internet has become a fundamental issue over the last decade and the Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) standard, which incorporates cryptographic algorithms, has been developed as one solution to this problem. Typically, hardware implementations of cryptographic algorithms provide physical security and high speeds. In this paper a novel single-chip hardware IPSec cryptographic design is described, which

Maire McLoone; J. V. McCanny

2002-01-01

109

Single dental implant retained mandibular complete dentures - influence of the loading protocol: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Over the years, there has been a strong consensus in dentistry that at least two implants are required to retain a complete mandibular denture. It has been shown in several clinical trials that one single median implant can retain a mandibular overdenture sufficiently well for up to 5years without implant failures, when delayed loading was used. However, other trials have reported conflicting results with in part considerable failure rates when immediate loading was applied. Therefore it is the purpose of the current randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that immediate loading of a single mandibular midline implant with an overdenture will result in a comparable clinical outcome as using the standard protocol of delayed loading. Methods/design This prospective nine-center randomized controlled clinical trial is still ongoing. The final patient will complete the trial in 2016. In total, 180 edentulous patients between 60 and 89years with sufficient complete dentures will receive one median implant in the edentulous mandible, which will retain the existing complete denture using a ball attachment. Loading of the median implant is either immediately after implant placement (experimental group) or delayed by 3months of submerged healing at second-stage surgery (control group). Follow-up of patients will be performed for 24months after implant loading. The primary outcome measure is non-inferiority of implant success rate of the experimental group compared to the control group. The secondary outcome measures encompass clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German research foundation, KE 477/8-1). Discussion This multi-center clinical trial will give information on the ability of a single median implant to retain a complete mandibular denture when immediately loaded. If viable, this treatment option will strongly improve everyday dental practice. Trial registration The trial has been registered at Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German register of clinical trials) under DRKS-ID: DRKS00003730 since 23 August 2012. (http://www.germanctr.de). PMID:24884848

2014-01-01

110

A molecular dynamic study of cholesterol rich lipid membranes: comparison of electroporation protocols.  

PubMed

We report on a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of the electroporation of lipid bilayers at different cholesterol contents using protocols mimicking "traditional" electroporation, i.e. low intensity millisecond pulses (msEP), and high intensity nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP). The results show that addition of cholesterol in concentrations of lipid:sterol ranging from 20 to 50 mol% enhances substantially the membrane cohesion, which is manifested by an increase of the electroporation threshold (U(thr)). This increase is steady in the case of the nsEP protocol, reaching roughly a factor 2 in the 50 mol% samples. In contrast, for the msEP protocol, U(thr) increases by 50% upon addition of 30 mol% cholesterol then levels off. Furthermore, pores formed under msEP are found to possess morphologies much different from the usually reported hydrophilic "electropores" encountered under the nsEP protocol, which may have profound consequences on the transport properties of "electroporated" membranes. Hence, this study reveals that cell membrane models containing the ubiquitous cholesterol component respond quite differently to the two electroporation techniques, in contrast to what has been found for simple zwitterionic bilayers. PMID:24731593

Casciola, M; Bonhenry, D; Liberti, M; Apollonio, F; Tarek, M

2014-12-01

111

On-Chip Networks for Multicore Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With Moores law supplying billions of transistors, and uniprocessor architectures delivering diminishing performance, multicore chips are emerging as the prevailing architecture in both general-purpose and application-specific markets. As the core count increases, the need for a scalable on-chip communication fabric that can deliver high bandwidth is gaining in importance, leading to recent multicore chips interconnected with sophisticated on-chip networks. In this chapter, we first present a tutorial on on-chip network architecture fundamentals including on-chip network interfaces, topologies, routing, flow control, and router microarchitectures. Next, we detail case studies on two recent prototypes of on-chip networks: the UT-Austin TRIPS operand network and the Intel TeraFLOPS on-chip network. This chapter organization seeks to provide the foundations of on-chip networks so that readers can appreciate the different design choices faced in the two case studies. Finally, this chapter concludes with an outline of the challenges facing research into on-chip network architectures.

Peh, Li-Shiuan; Keckler, Stephen W.; Vangal, Sriram

112

Comparative efficiency study of fresh and vitrified oocytes in egg donation programs for different controlled ovarian stimulation protocols.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy when using vitrified and fresh eggs depending on the applied controlled ovarian stimulation protocols in egg donation programs. Study results showed that the controlled ovarian stimulation protocol does not affect the outcome of IVF/ICSI. Vitrification provided survival and pregnancy rates similar to the fresh donor oocyte ones. PMID:25200827

Kalugina, Alla Stanislavovna; Gabaraeva, Victoria Vladimirovna; Shlykova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna; Tatishcheva, Yulia Alexandrovna; Bystrova, Olga Vladimirovna

2014-10-01

113

Neurofeedback for insomnia: a pilot study of Z-score SMR and individualized protocols.  

PubMed

Insomnia is an epidemic in the US. Neurofeedback (NFB) is a little used, psychophysiological treatment with demonstrated usefulness for treating insomnia. Our objective was to assess whether two distinct Z-Score NFB protocols, a modified sensorimotor (SMR) protocol and a sequential, quantitative EEG (sQEEG)-guided, individually designed (IND) protocol, would alleviate sleep and associated daytime dysfunctions of participants with insomnia. Both protocols used instantaneous Z scores to determine reward condition administered when awake. Twelve adults with insomnia, free of other mental and uncontrolled physical illnesses, were randomly assigned to the SMR or IND group. Eight completed this randomized, parallel group, single-blind study. Both groups received fifteen 20-min sessions of Z-Score NFB. Pre-post assessments included sQEEG, mental health, quality of life, and insomnia status. ANOVA yielded significant post-treatment improvement for the combined group on all primary insomnia scores: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI p<.005), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI p<.0001), PSQI Sleep Efficiency (p<.007), and Quality of Life Inventory (p<.02). Binomial tests of baseline EEGs indicated a significant proportion of excessively high levels of Delta and Beta power (p<.001) which were lowered post-treatment (paired z-tests p<.001). Baseline EEGs showed excessive sleepiness and hyperarousal, which improved post-treatment. Both Z-Score NFB groups improved in sleep and daytime functioning. Post-treatment, all participants were normal sleepers. Because there were no significant differences in the findings between the two groups, our future large scale studies will utilize the less burdensome to administer Z-Score SMR protocol. PMID:21789650

Hammer, Barbara U; Colbert, Agatha P; Brown, Kimberly A; Ilioi, Elena C

2011-12-01

114

A formal approach to design space exploration of protocol converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of chip design, hardware module reuse is a standard solution to the increasing complexity of chip ar- chitecture and the pressures to reduce time to market. In the absence of a single module interface standard, integration of pre-designed modules often requires the use of protocol converters. For an arbitrary pair of incompatible protocols it is likely that

Karin Avnit; Arcot Sowmya

2009-01-01

115

Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

Huang Hu; Zhao Hongwei; Shi Chengli; Wu Boda; Fan Zunqiang; Wan Shunguang; Geng Chunyang [College of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Renmin Street 5988, Changchun, Jilin 130025 (China)

2012-12-15

116

The SCHEME-79 Chip  

E-print Network

We have designed and implemented a single-chip microcomputer (which we call SCHEME-79) which directly interprets a typed pointer variant of SCHEME, a dialect of the language LISP. To support this interpreter the chip ...

Holloway, Jack

1980-01-01

117

Design of a Virtual Component Neutral Network-on-Chip Transaction Layer  

E-print Network

Research studies have demonstrated the feasibility and advantages of Network-on-Chip (NoC) over traditional bus-based architectures but have not focused on compatibility communication standards. This paper describes a number of issues faced when designing a VC-neutral NoC, i.e. compatible with standards such as AHB 2.0, AXI, VCI, OCP, and various other proprietary protocols, and how a layered approach to communication helps solve these issues.

Martin, Philippe

2011-01-01

118

Creating a Community of Inquiry in Online Environments: An Exploratory Study on the Effect of a Protocol on Interactions within Asynchronous Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of our research was to examine the influence of an online protocol on asynchronous discussions. A mixed-methods study compared two online graduate classes: one that used a protocol and one that did not use a protocol for the same discussion about a complex reading. Analysis of the data revealed that the online protocol more evenly

Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

2012-01-01

119

Terminal Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal protocols provide basic services for the users of computer networks. This paper presents a survey of the architecture and mechanisms used in current terminal protocols. The paper disusses both parametric terminal protocols such as the CCITT X.3, X.28, and X.29 and virtual terminal protocols, such as the ARPANET TELNET protocol. Many of the problems encountered in terminal protocols recur

JOHN D. DAY

1980-01-01

120

NIMH collaborative multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD (MTA): Design, methodology, and protocol evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steering committee of the collaborative six-site Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (the MTA) had to develop a common protocol consistent with public health goals and with scientific and clinical state of the art. With the aid of statistical, educational, and public health consultation, the steering committee balanced the stated objectives of the RFA against budgetary, clinical,

L. E. Arnold; H. B. Abikoff; D. P. Cantwell; C. K. Conners; G. R. Elliott; L. L. Greenhill; L. Hechtman; S. P. Hinshaw; B. Hoza; P. S. Jensen; H. C. Kraemer; J. S. March; J. H. Newcorn; W. E. Pelham; J. E. Richters; E. Schiller; J. B. Severe; J. M. Swanson; D. Vereen; K. C. Wells

1997-01-01

121

Chip-off-the-old-rock: the study of reservoir-relevant geological processes with real-rock micromodels.  

PubMed

We present a real-rock micromodel approach whereby microfluidic channels are fabricated in a naturally occurring mineral substrate. The method is applied to quantify calcite dissolution which is relevant to oil/gas recovery, CO2 sequestration, and wastewater disposal in carbonate formations - ubiquitous worldwide. The key advantage of this method is the inclusion of both the relevant substrate chemistry (not possible with conventional microfluidics) and real-time pore-scale resolution (not possible with core samples). Here, microchannels are etched into a natural calcite crystal and sealed with a glass slide. The approach is applied to study acidified brine flow through a single channel and a two-dimensional micromodel. The single-channel case conforms roughly to a 1-D analytical description, with crystal orientation influencing the local dissolution rate an additional 25%. The two-dimensional experiments show highly flow-directed dissolution and associated positive feedback wherein acid preferentially invades high conductivity flow paths, resulting in higher dissolution rates ('wormholing'). These experiments demonstrate and validate the approach of microfabricating fluid structures within natural minerals for transport and geochemical studies. More broadly, real-rock microfluidics open the door to a vast array of lab-on-a-chip opportunities in geology, reservoir engineering, and earth sciences. PMID:25236399

Song, Wen; de Haas, Thomas W; Fadaei, Hossein; Sinton, David

2014-10-14

122

Neurological complications of breast cancer: study protocol of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The improvement in breast cancer survival rates, along with the expected overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with breast cancer screening, requires a comprehensive assessment of its burden. Neurological complications can have a devastating impact on these patients; neuropathic pain and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy are among the most frequently reported. This project aims to understand the burden of neurological complications of breast cancer treatment in Northern Portugal, and their role as mediator of the impact of the treatment in different dimensions of the patients quality of life. Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study was designed to include 500 patients with breast cancer, to be followed for 3?years. The patients were recruited at the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and evaluations were planned at different stages: pretreatment, after surgery, after chemotherapy (whenever applicable) and at 1 and 3?years after enrolment. Patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain or chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (subcohorts), were also evaluated at the moment of confirmation of clinical diagnosis of the neurological complication and 6?months later. In each of the follow-up periods, a neurological examination has been performed by a neurologist. Data were collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life, sleep quality, and anxiety and depression. Between January and December 2012, we recruited and conducted the baseline evaluation of 506 participants. The end of the follow-up period is scheduled for December 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and all patients provided written informed consent. All study procedures were developed in order to assure data protection and confidentiality. Results from this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented in relevant conferences. PMID:25351600

Pereira, Susana; Fontes, Filipa; Sonin, Teresa; Dias, Teresa; Fragoso, Maria; Castro-Lopes, Jose; Lunet, Nuno

2014-01-01

123

Development of implant loading device for animal study about various loading protocol: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aims of this pilot study were to introduce implant loading devices designed for animal study and to evaluate the validity of the load transmission ability of the loading devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implant loading devices were specially designed and fabricated with two implant abutments and cast metal bars, and orthodontic expansion screw. In six Beagles, all premolars were extracted and two implants were placed in each side of the mandibles. The loading device was inserted two weeks after the implant placement. According to the loading protocol, the load was applied to the implants with different time and method,simulating early, progressive, and delayed loading. The implants were clinically evaluated and the loading devices were removed and replaced to the master cast, followed by stress-strain analysis. Descriptive statistics of remained strain (?) was evaluated after repeating three cycles of the loading device activation. Statistic analysis was performed using nonparametric, independent t-test with 5% significance level and Friedman's test was also used for verification. RESULTS The loading devices were in good action. However, four implants in three Beagles showed loss of osseointegration. In stress-strain analysis, loading devices showed similar amount of increase in the remained strain after applying 1-unit load for three times. CONCLUSION Specialized design of the implant loading device was introduced. The loading device applied similar amount of loads near the implant after each 1-unit loading. However, the direction of the loads was not parallel to the long axis of the implants as predicted before the study. PMID:23236575

Yoon, Joon-Ho; Park, Young-Bum; Cho, Yuna; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Moon, Hong-Seok; Lee, Keun-Woo

2012-01-01

124

Study of creep/relaxation mechanisms in thin freestanding nanocrystalline palladium films through the lab-on-chip technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nanomechanical lab-on-chip set-up has been used to study the creep/relaxation response of thin palladium films with temperature. The basic idea is to use residual stresses present in a silicon nitride thin beam to load the test film after etching the underneath sacrificial layer. The main advantage of this experimental method is that we can simultaneously perform thousands of creep/relaxation tests without monopolizing any external actuating/loading equipment and without using any time consuming calibration procedures. A signature of the dominant relaxation mechanism is given by the activation volume which has been determined for different levels of plastic deformation and different temperatures. The activation volume is equal to 15-40 b3 at room temperature and tends to decrease with increasing plastic deformation. The activation volume decreases when relaxation takes place at 50 C down to 7-20 b3. These variations of the activation volume indicate the competition between two different thermally activated deformation mechanisms in the temperature range between 20 C and 50 C.

Guisbiers, G.; Colla, M.-S.; Coulombier, M.; Raskin, J.-P.; Pardoen, T.

2013-01-01

125

Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. Methods/Design In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. Discussion This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013). PMID:24965551

2014-01-01

126

An array of insights: application of DNA chip technology in the study of cell biology ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of DNA microarray technology has ushered in an era of systems biology whereby researchers can study the transcriptional behavior of thousands of genes in parallel. Advances in manufacturing techniques and informatics, and the availability of several genome sequences have furthered these capabilities to the point where whole-transcriptome studies can be accomplished in yeast, flies and plants, and soon

Satchidananda Panda; Trey K. Sato; Garret M. Hampton; John B. Hogenesch

2003-01-01

127

On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols  

SciTech Connect

The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large number of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)

Byres, E. J. [Wurldtech Research Inc., 7178 Lancrest Tr., Lantzville, BC V0R 2H0 (Canada); Huffman, D. [Wurldtech Analytics Inc., 208-1040 Hamilton St., Vancouver, BC V6B 2R9 (Canada); Kube, N. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Computer Science, PO Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

2006-07-01

128

Thermal and Thermomechanical Study of Micro-refrigerators on a Chip based on Semiconductor Heterostructures  

E-print Network

of Peltierithermoionic effect at interfaces and Joule heating inside the structure were separated by studying their different current dependence. Cooling is proportional to the current while Joule heating is proportional and the contribution of interface Peltierithermionic cooling is separated from the Joule heating in the device. 1

129

DNA-Chip Analyzer (dChip)  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA-Chip Analyzer (dChip) is a software package implementing model-based expression analysis of oligonucleotide arrays and several high-level analysis procedures. The model-based approach allows probe-level analysis on multiple arrays. By pooling information across multiple arrays, it is possible to assess standard errors for the expression indexes. This approach also allows automatic probe selection in the analysis stage to reduce errors due

Cheng Li; Wing Hung Wong

130

Bioprinting cell-laden matrigel for radioprotection study of liver by pro-drug conversion in a dual-tissue microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel cell printing and microfluidic system to serve as a portable ground model for the study of drug conversion and radiation protection of living liver tissue analogs. The system is applied to study behavior in ground models of space stress, particularly radiation. A microfluidic environment is engineered by two cell types to prepare an improved higher fidelity in vitro micro-liver tissue analog. Cell-laden Matrigel printing and microfluidic chips were used to test radiation shielding to liver cells by the pro-drug amifostine. In this work, the sealed microfluidic chip regulates three variables of interest: radiation exposure, anti-radiation drug treatment and single- or dual-tissue culture environments. This application is intended to obtain a scientific understanding of the response of the multi-cellular biological system for long-term manned space exploration, disease models and biosensors. PMID:21881168

Snyder, J E; Hamid, Q; Wang, C; Chang, R; Emami, K; Wu, H; Sun, W

2011-09-01

131

High-throughput on-chip in vivo neural regeneration studies using femtosecond laser nano-surgery and microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the advantages of using small invertebrate animals as model systems for human disease have become increasingly apparent and have resulted in three Nobel Prizes in medicine or chemistry during the last six years for studies conducted on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The availability of a wide array of species-specific genetic techniques, along with the transparency of the worm and its ability to grow in minute volumes make C. elegans an extremely powerful model organism. We present a suite of technologies for complex high-throughput whole-animal genetic and drug screens. We demonstrate a high-speed microfluidic sorter that can isolate and immobilize C. elegans in a well-defined geometry, an integrated chip containing individually addressable screening chambers for incubation and exposure of individual animals to biochemical compounds, and a device for delivery of compound libraries in standard multiwell plates to microfluidic devices. The immobilization stability obtained by these devices is comparable to that of chemical anesthesia and the immobilization process does not affect lifespan, progeny production, or other aspects of animal health. The high-stability enables the use of a variety of key optical techniques. We use this to demonstrate femtosecond-laser nanosurgery and three-dimensional multiphoton microscopy. Used alone or in various combinations these devices facilitate a variety of high-throughput assays using whole animals, including mutagenesis and RNAi and drug screens at subcellular resolution, as well as high-throughput high-precision manipulations such as femtosecond-laser nanosurgery for large-scale in vivo neural degeneration and regeneration studies.

Rohde, Christopher B.; Zeng, Fei; Gilleland, Cody; Samara, Chrysanthi; Yanik, Mehmet F.

2009-02-01

132

The Newcastle 85+ study: biological, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with healthy ageing: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The UK, like other developed countries, is experiencing a marked change in the age structure of its population characterised by increasing life expectancy and continuing growth in the older fraction of the population. There is remarkably little up-to-date information about the health of the oldest old (over 85 years), demographically the fastest growing section of the population. There is a need, from both a policy and scientific perspective, to describe in detail the health status of this population and the factors that influence individual health trajectories. For a very large proportion of medical conditions, age is the single largest risk factor. Gaining new knowledge about why aged cells and tissues are more vulnerable to pathology is likely to catalyse radical new insights and opportunities to intervene. The aims of the Newcastle 85+ Study are to expose the spectrum of health within an inception cohort of 800 85 year-olds; to examine health trajectories and outcomes as the cohort ages and their associations with underlying biological, medical and social factors; and to advance understanding of the biological nature of ageing. Methods A cohort of 800 85 year olds from Newcastle and North Tyneside will be recruited at baseline and followed until the last participant has died. Eligible individuals will be all those who turn 85 during the year 2006 (i.e. born in 1921) and who are registered with a Newcastle or North Tyneside general practice. Participants will be visited in their current residence (own home or institution) by a research nurse at baseline, 18 months and 36 months. The assessment protocol entails a detailed multi-dimensional health assessment together with review of general practice medical records. Participants will be flagged with the NHS Central Register to provide details of the date and cause of death. Discussion The Newcastle 85+ Study will address key questions about health and health-maintenance in the 85+ population, with a particular focus on quantitative assessment of factors underlying variability in health, and on the relationships between health, nutrition and biological markers of the fundamental processes of ageing. PMID:17594470

Collerton, Joanna; Barrass, Karen; Bond, John; Eccles, Martin; Jagger, Carol; James, Oliver; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Robinson, Louise; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Kirkwood, Tom

2007-01-01

133

Study of JEDEC B-condition JESD22B111 standard for drop test reliability of Chip Scale Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general tendency of the portable handheld electronic is to integrate more and more functionalities (phone, audio, video, Internet, wireless connections, etc.) in a size that is smaller and smaller (thinner devices per example). Thus, electronic components with a great level of miniaturization are needed, like wafer level chip scale packages (WL-CSP), to answer the market demand. In order to

Y. Bentata; S. Forster; Kim Yong Goh; H. Fremont

2008-01-01

134

Detection and Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Specimens with the HPV Direct Flow CHIP System  

PubMed Central

The novel HPV Direct Flow CHIP commercial system for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping is based on rapid PCR and automatic reverse dot blot hybridization to genotype-specific probes, allowing the detection of 36 HPV genotypes. This study examined the performance of HPV Direct Flow CHIP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples (n= 99). Each sample was analyzed both by Direct PCR, using crude cell extracts without DNA purification, and by conventional PCR, using purified DNA. Pair-wise analysis of the results demonstrated strong concordance between the results obtained with the two protocols, although a slightly higher rate of multiple infections was detected by conventional PCR. In summary, HPV Direct Flow CHIP achieves effective HPV detection from FFPE samples with both Direct PCR and Conventional PCR protocols. PMID:24222806

Herraez-Hernandez, Elsa; Preda, Ovidiu; Alonso, Sonia; Pardo, Rosario Serrano; Olmo, Asuncion

2013-01-01

135

The Studies of Chlorogenic Acid Antitumor Mechanism by Gene Chip Detection: The Immune Pathway Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Persistently increasing incident of cancer in human beings has served to emphasize the importance of studies on mechanism of antitumor substances. Chlorogenic acid (CA), extracted from folium cortex eucommiae, has been confirmed to have lots of biological activities encompassing inhibition of tumor. However, the anticancer mechanism of CA remains unclear. Here, we have utilized a whole mouse genome oligo microarray (4?44K) to analyze gene expression level of female BALB/c mice (implanted with EMT-6 sarcoma cells) after treatment with low, medium, and high-dose CA (5?mg/kg, 10?mg/kg, and 20?mg/kg), docetaxel, interferon, and normal saline separately at 6 time points (3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, and 18th days after administration). Differentially expressed genes screened out by time-series analysis, GO analysis, and pathway analysis, and four immune-related genes were selected for further confirmation using RT-qPCR. The results demonstrated that CA is able to change gene expression and that the responsive genes (CaN, NFATC2, NFATC2ip, and NFATC3) involved in immune pathways had been significantly upregulated by CA. Expression of immune factors such as IL-2R and IFN-? can be improved by CA to promote activation and proliferation of T cells, macrophages, and NK cells, thus enhancing their surveillance and killing abilities, further suppressing the growth rate of tumor cells. PMID:23762780

Yang, Hua Rong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Dan; Lin, Jie; Wang, Li; Xu, XiaoPing

2013-01-01

136

IC chip stress during plastic package molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 95% of the world's integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metallization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study we developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over

D. W. Palmer; D. A. Benson; D. W. Peterson; J. N. Sweet

1998-01-01

137

Impact of Pathology Practice on Outcome in Published Studies of DCIS. Recommendations for a Uniform Pathology Protocol  

Cancer.gov

Impact of Pathology Practice on Outcome in Published Studies of DCIS. Recommendations for a Uniform Pathology Protocol Michael D. Lagios The Breast Cancer Consultation Service Tiburon, CA Prognostic Factors for Local Recurrence Grade Size (extent

138

A comparative study of routing protocols of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks.  

PubMed

Recently, heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) routing protocols have drawn more and more attention. Various HWSN routing protocols have been proposed to improve the performance of HWSNs. Among these protocols, hierarchical HWSN routing protocols can improve the performance of the network significantly. In this paper, we will evaluate three hierarchical HWSN protocols proposed recently--EDFCM, MCR, and EEPCA--together with two previous classical routing protocols--LEACH and SEP. We mainly focus on the round of the first node dies (also called the stable period) and the number of packets sent to sink, which is an important aspect to evaluate the monitoring ability of a protocol. We conduct a lot of experiments and simulations on Matlab to analyze the performance of the five routing protocols. PMID:25050393

Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Xu; Qian, Aihua; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Cheng, Long

2014-01-01

139

Protocol Development  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Protocol Development Protocol

140

Flip Chip Tutorial Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page covers flip chip assembly processes and applications. The first tutorial describes what a flip chip is and does, with some bumping and assembly methods. Subsequent tutorials cover each major element of flip chip processing, explaining the basics in more detail, updating and supplementing earlier tutorials, and presenting a growing range of micropackaging topics. Tutorials are added monthly. Keywords: Semiconductor, processing, packaging, handling

2012-12-27

141

Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping using BeadChip microarrays.  

PubMed

The genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has successfully contributed to the study of complex diseases more than any other technology to date. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using 10,000s to >1,000,000 SNPs have identified 1000s of statistically significant SNPs pertaining to 17 different human disease and trait categories. Post-GWAS fine-mapping studies using 10,000s to 100,000s SNPs on a microarray have narrowed the region of interest for many of these GWAS findings; in addition, independent signals within the original GWAS region have been identified. Focused content, SNP-based microarrays such as the human exome, for example, have too been used successfully to identify novel disease associations. Success has come to studies where 100s to 10,000s (mostly) to >100,000 samples were genotyped. For the time being, SNP-based microarrays remain cost-effective especially when studying large numbers of samples compared to other "genotyping" technologies including next generation sequencing. In this unit, protocols for manual (LIMS-free), semi-manual, and automated processing of BeadChip microarrays are presented. Lower throughput studies will find value in the manual and semi-manual protocols, while all types of studies--low-, medium-, and high-throughput--will find value in the semi-manual and automated protocols. PMID:23853082

Lambert, Gilliam; Tsinajinnie, Darwin; Duggan, David

2013-07-01

142

Exploring the state space of an application protocol: A case study of SMTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we explore the state space of a network application protocol by employing genetic programming techniques. To this end, we target Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which is a well-known and open protocol on the Internet. In order to achieve our goal, we aim to evolve the payload such that solution individuals result in an email being sent

Patrick LaRoche; A. Nur Zincir-Heywood; Malcolm I. Heywood

2011-01-01

143

VLSI-Chip Tester  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact test set integrated in computer-aided design system. Test set performs functional tests on very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Makes tests from points within VLSI chip as well as at input and output pins. Used for quality control and design; in latter capacity, checks internal logic functions on chip and feed results directly to computer-aided design system for correction. Also simulates operation of chip design before chip is made. VLSI Tester contains three power supplies, control logic, and standard multibus circuit board in aluminum chassis. Chassis fits under platform of microprobe station. Multibus board links tester to interactive terminals and to host computer.

Deutsch, Leslie J.; Olson, Erlend M.

1987-01-01

144

CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

145

Study protocol. A prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women: the pregnancy outcome prediction study.  

E-print Network

expression array analysis of placental RNA, and will involve sampling of cases as well as controls. These meth- ods are generally utilized in studies trying to understand the biology of adverse pregnancy outcome or to identify ate analysis is impractical... (24 hours at 4C) and embedded in paraffin wax. 2. Placental membranes A 2 2 cm portion of the membranes is obtained and fixed in formalin as above. 3. Cord blood A 10 ml anti-coagulated (EDTA/citrate) sample is obtained. Peripheral blood mononuclear...

Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Dacey, Alison; Cook, Emma; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; White, Ian R; Smith, Gordon C S

2008-11-19

146

Mean-time-to-failure study of flip chip solder joints on Cu/Ni(V)/Al thin-film under-bump-metallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromigration of eutectic SnPb flip chip solder joints and their mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) have been studied in the temperature range of 100 to 140 C with current densities of 1.9 to 2.75104 A/cm2. In these joints, the under-bump-metallization (UBM) on the chip side is a multilayer thin film of Al/Ni(V)/Cu, and the metallic bond-pad on the substrate side is a very thick, electroless Ni layer covered with 30 nm of Au. When stressed at the higher current densities, the MTTF was found to decrease much faster than what is expected from the published Black's equation. The failure occurred by interfacial void propagation at the cathode side, and it is due to current crowding near the contact interface between the solder bump and the thin-film UBM. The current crowding is confirmed by a simulation of current distribution in the solder joint. Besides the interfacial void formation, the intermetallic compounds formed on the UBM as well as the Ni(V) film in the UBM have been found to dissolve completely into the solder bump during electromigration. Therefore, the electromigation failure is a combination of the interfacial void formation and the loss of UBM. Similar findings in eutectic SnAgCu flip chip solder joints have also been obtained and compared.

Choi, W. J.; Yeh, E. C. C.; Tu, K. N.

2003-11-01

147

Inciting protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies patenting decisions by firms in relation to the negotiation and signing of the Helsinki and Oslo protocol as part of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. We use a uniquely constructed patent data set on SO2 abatement technologies filed in 15 signatory and non-signatory countries in the period 1970–1997. The data distinguish between so-called ‘mother’ patents,

Thijs Dekker; Herman R. J. Vollebergh; Frans P. de Vries; Cees A. Withagen

2012-01-01

148

Lignin biodegradation and ligninolytic enzyme studies during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips by tropical white rot fungi.  

PubMed

White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more compared to lignin peroxidase, suggesting that MnP might be the predominating enzymes causing lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. Cellulase enzyme assays showed that no significant cellulase activity was detected in the enzyme preparation of T. versicolor and Phellinus sp. This low cellulolytic activity further suggests that these two white rot strains are of more interest in lignin degradation. The results on lignin losses showed 20-30% of lignin breakdown at 60days of biodegradation. The highest lignin loss was found in Acacia mangium biotreated with T. versicolor after 60days and recorded 26.9%, corresponding to the percentage of their wood weight loss recorded followed by P. coccineus. In general, lignin degradation was only significant from 20days onwards. The overall percentage of lignin weight loss was within the range of 1.02-26.90% over the biodegradation periods. Microscopic observations conducted using scanning electron microscope showed that T. versicolor, P. coccineus, Daedalea sp. and Phellinus sp. had caused lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. PMID:25187145

Liew, C Y; Husaini, A; Hussain, H; Muid, S; Liew, K C; Roslan, H A

2011-06-01

149

Gas Sensor Test Chip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test chip is being developed to characterize conducting polymers used in gas sensors. The chip, a seven-layer cofired alumina substrate with gold electrodes, contains 11 comb and U- bend test structures. These structures are designed to measure the sheet resistance, conduction anisotropy, and peripheral conduction of spin-coated films that are not subsequently patterned.

Buehler, M.; Ryan, M.

1995-01-01

150

DCP CONSORTIA CHEMOPREVENTION PROTOCOL TEMPLATE  

Cancer.gov

The protocol template is a tool to facilitate rapid protocol development. It is not intended to supersede the role of the Protocol Principal Investigator in the authoring and scientific development of the protocol. It contains the language required in protocols submitted to the NCI, Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). Please modify all sections as necessary to meet the scientific aims of the study and development of the protocol.

151

A rapid and hazardous reagent free protocol for genomic DNA extraction suitable for genetic studies in plants.  

PubMed

Protocols for genomic DNA extraction from plants are generally lengthy, since they require that tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by a precipitation step, washing and drying of the DNA pellet, etc. This represents a major challenge especially when several hundred samples must be screened/analyzed within a working day. There is therefore a need for a rapid and simple procedure, which will produce DNA quality suitable for various analyses. Here, we describe a time and cost efficient protocol for genomic DNA isolation from plants suitable for all routine genetic screening/analyses. The protocol is free from hazardous reagents and therefore safe to be executed by non-specialists. With this protocol more than 100 genomic DNA samples could manually be extracted within a working day, making it a promising alternative in genetic studies of large-scale genomic screening projects. PMID:18781397

Kotchoni, Simeon O; Gachomo, Emma W

2009-07-01

152

Optimization of the scan protocols for CT-based material extraction in small animal PET/CT studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of scan protocols on CT-based material extraction to minimize radiation dose while maintaining sufficient image information in small animal studies. The phantom simulation experiments were performed with the high dose (HD), medium dose (MD) and low dose (LD) protocols at 50, 70 and 80 kVp with varying mA s. The reconstructed CT images were segmented based on Hounsfield unit (HU)-physical density (?) calibration curves and the dual-energy CT-based (DECT) method. Compared to the (HU;?) method performed on CT images acquired with the 80 kVp HD protocol, a 2-fold improvement in segmentation accuracy and a 7.5-fold reduction in radiation dose were observed when the DECT method was performed on CT images acquired with the 50/80 kVp LD protocol, showing the possibility to reduce radiation dose while achieving high segmentation accuracy.

Yang, Ching-Ching; Yu, Jhih-An; Yang, Bang-Hung; Wu, Tung-Hsin

2013-12-01

153

Rationale, Timeline, Study Design, and Protocol Overview of the Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the rationale, timeline, study design, and protocol overview of the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Design Multicenter randomized controlled trials. Setting Pediatric intensive care and cardiac ICUs in the United States and Canada. Patients Children from 48 hours to 18 years old, who have return of circulation after cardiac arrest, who meet trial eligibility criteria, and whose guardians provide written consent. Interventions Therapeutic hypothermia or therapeutic normothermia. Measurements and Main Results From concept inception in 2002 until trial initiation in 2009, 7 years were required to plan and operationalize the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Two National Institute of Child Health and Human Development clinical trial planning grants (R21 and R34) supported feasibility assessment and protocol development. Two clinical research networks, Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network and Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network, provided infrastructure resources. Two National Heart Lung Blood Institute U01 awards provided funding to conduct separate trials of in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A pilot vanguard phase that included half the clinical sites began on March 9, 2009, and this was followed by full trial funding through 2015. Conclusions Over a decade will have been required to plan, design, operationalize, and conduct the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Details described in this report, such as participation of clinical research networks and clinical trial planning grants utilization, may be of utility for individuals who are planning investigator-initiated, federally supported clinical trials. PMID:23842585

Moler, Frank W.; Silverstein, Faye S.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Clark, Amy E.; Holubkov, Richard; Browning, Brittan; Slomine, Beth S.; Christensen, James R.; Dean, Michael

2014-01-01

154

Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol utilising longitudinal outcome measurement, surveys, patient and family qualitative interviews and focus groups, staff qualitative interviews, health economics and document analysis. Aim 1) To describe the nature and scope of HIV care and support in two African countries, including the types of facilities available, clients seen, and availability of specific components of care [Study Phase 1]. Aim 2) To determine patient health outcomes over time and principle cost drivers [Study Phase 2]. The study objectives are as follows. 1) To undertake a cross-sectional survey of service configuration and activity by sampling 10% of the facilities being funded by PEPFAR to provide HIV care and support in Kenya and Uganda (Phase 1) in order to describe care currently provided, including pharmacy drug reviews to determine availability and supply of essential drugs in HIV management. 2) To conduct patient focus group discussions at each of these (Phase 1) to determine care received. 3) To undertake a longitudinal prospective study of 1200 patients who are newly diagnosed with HIV or patients with HIV who present with a new problem attending PEPFAR care and support services. Data collection includes self-reported quality of life, core palliative outcomes and components of care received (Phase 2). 4) To conduct qualitative interviews with staff, patients and carers in order to explore and understand service issues and care provision in more depth (Phase 2). 5) To undertake document analysis to appraise the clinical care procedures at each facility (Phase 2). 6) To determine principle cost drivers including staff, overhead and laboratory costs (Phase 2). Discussion This novel mixed methods protocol will permit transparent presentation of subsequent dataset results publication, and offers a substantive model of protocol design to measure and integrate key activities and outcomes that underpin a public health approach to disease management in a low-income setting. PMID:20920241

2010-01-01

155

Test chips and ASIC qualification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test chip set being developed to aid in the qualification of spaceborne Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) is described. The chip set consists of a process monitor for process parameter verification, a fault chip for yield analysis, a reliability chip for ASIC failure rate analysis, and total ionizing dose and single event upset chips for radiation effect analysis. The test structures contained in these chips are discussed along with representative test results.

Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Zamani, N.; Lieneweg, U.

1991-01-01

156

Protocol Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Protocol Online is a database of research protocols in a variety of life science fields. It contains protocols contributed by worldwide researchers as well as links to web protocols hosted by worldwide research labs, biotech companies, personal web sites. The data is stored in a MySql relational database. Protocol Online also hosts discipline specific discussion forums (BioForum), and provides a free PubMed search and alerting service (PubAlert).

Long-Cheng Li (Protocol Online)

2012-01-06

157

Integrating multiple oestrogen receptor alpha ChIP studies: overlap with disease susceptibility regions, DNase I hypersensitivity peaks and gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background A wealth of nuclear receptor binding data has been generated by the application of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) techniques. However, there have been relatively few attempts to apply these datasets to human complex disease or traits. Methods We integrated multiple oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) ChIP datasets in the Genomic Hyperbrowser. We analysed these datasets for overlap with DNase I hypersensitivity peaks, differentially expressed genes with estradiol treatment and regions near single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with sex-related diseases and traits. We used FIMO to scan ESR1 binding sites for classical ESR1 binding motifs drawn from the JASPAR database. Results We found that binding sites present in multiple datasets were enriched for classical ESR1 binding motifs, DNase I hypersensitivity peaks and differentially expressed genes after estradiol treatment compared with those present in only few datasets. There was significant enrichment of ESR1 binding present in multiple datasets near genomic regions associated with breast cancer (7.45-fold, p?=?0.001), height (2.45-fold, p?=?0.002), multiple sclerosis (5.97-fold, p?ChIP datasets also increases overlap with ESR1 ChIP-seq peaks from primary cancer samples, further supporting this approach as helpful in identifying true positive ESR1 binding sites in cell line systems. Conclusions Our study suggests that integration of multiple ChIP datasets can highlight binding sites likely to be of particular biological importance and can provide important insights into understanding human health and disease. However, it also highlights the high number of likely false positive binding sites in ChIP datasets drawn from cell lines and illustrates the importance of considering multiple independent experiments together. PMID:24171864

2013-01-01

158

BLOOD-ON-A-CHIP  

PubMed Central

Accurate, fast, and affordable analysis of the cellular component of blood is of prime interest for medicine and research. Yet, most often sample preparation procedures for blood analysis involve handling steps prone to introducing artifacts, whereas analysis methods commonly require skilled technicians and well-equipped, expensive laboratories. Developing more gentle protocols and affordable instruments for specific blood analysis tasks is becoming possible through the recent progress in the area of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip-type devices. Precise control over the cell microenvironment during separation procedures and the ability to scale down the analysis to very small volumes of blood are among the most attractive capabilities of the new approaches. Here we review some of the emerging principles for manipulating blood cells at microscale and promising high-throughput approaches to blood cell separation using microdevices. Examples of specific single-purpose devices are described together with integration strategies for blood cell separation and analysis modules. PMID:16004567

Toner, Mehmet; Irimia, Daniel

2013-01-01

159

A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

2000-01-01

160

A Study on Using Natural Language as a Computer Communication Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new computer communication protocol based on natural language called language protocol, a new communication\\u000a method based on the protocol, and an interface, called LAPI (Language Application Programming Interface), which can connect\\u000a any communicaiton standard via natural language as a medium of the standards. With the proposed methods, we show the possibility\\u000a of providing flexible communication environment

Ichiro Kobayashi; Michiaki Iwazume; Shino Iwashita; Toru Sugimoto; Michio Sugeno

2002-01-01

161

The Fangshan/Family-based Ischemic Stroke Study In China (FISSIC) protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The exact etiology of ischemic stroke remains unclear, because multiple genetic predispositions and environmental risk factors may be involved, and their interactions dictate the complexity. Family-based studies provide unique features in design, while they are currently underrepresented for studies of ischemic stroke in developing countries. The Fangshan/Family-based Ischemic Stroke Study In China (FISSIC) program aims to conduct a genetic pedigree study of ischemic stroke in rural communities of China. Methods/Design The pedigrees of ischemic stroke with clear documentation are recruited by using the proband-initiated contact method, based on the stroke registry in hospital and communities. Blood samples and detailed information of pedigrees are collected through the health care network in the rural area, and prospective follow-up of the pedigrees cohort is scheduled. Complementary strategies of both family-based design and matched case-spousal control design are used, and comprehensive statistical methods will be implemented to ascertain potential complex genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well. Discussion This study is complementary to other genetic pedigree studies of ischemic stroke, such as the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS), which are established in developed countries. We describe the protocol of this family-based genetic epidemiological study that may be used as a new practical guideline and research paradigm in developing countries and facilitate initiatives of stroke study for international collaborations. PMID:17825112

Tang, Xun; Hu, Yonghua; Chen, Dafang; Zhan, Siyan; Zhang, Zongxin; Dou, Huidong

2007-01-01

162

"Hook"-calibration of GeneChip-microarrays: Chip characteristics and expression measures  

PubMed Central

Background Microarray experiments rely on several critical steps that may introduce biases and uncertainty in downstream analyses. These steps include mRNA sample extraction, amplification and labelling, hybridization, and scanning causing chip-specific systematic variations on the raw intensity level. Also the chosen array-type and the up-to-dateness of the genomic information probed on the chip affect the quality of the expression measures. In the accompanying publication we presented theory and algorithm of the so-called hook method which aims at correcting expression data for systematic biases using a series of new chip characteristics. Results In this publication we summarize the essential chip characteristics provided by this method, analyze special benchmark experiments to estimate transcript related expression measures and illustrate the potency of the method to detect and to quantify the quality of a particular hybridization. It is shown that our single-chip approach provides expression measures responding linearly on changes of the transcript concentration over three orders of magnitude. In addition, the method calculates a detection call judging the relation between the signal and the detection limit of the particular measurement. The performance of the method in the context of different chip generations and probe set assignments is illustrated. The hook method characterizes the RNA-quality in terms of the 3'/5'-amplification bias and the sample-specific calling rate. We show that the proper judgement of these effects requires the disentanglement of non-specific and specific hybridization which, otherwise, can lead to misinterpretations of expression changes. The consequences of modifying probe/target interactions by either changing the labelling protocol or by substituting RNA by DNA targets are demonstrated. Conclusion The single-chip based hook-method provides accurate expression estimates and chip-summary characteristics using the natural metrics given by the hybridization reaction with the potency to develop new standards for microarray quality control and calibration. PMID:18759984

Binder, Hans; Krohn, Knut; Preibisch, Stephan

2008-01-01

163

A New Integrated Lab-on-a-Chip System for Fast Dynamic Study of Mammalian Cells under Physiological Conditions in Bioreactor.  

PubMed

For the quantitative analysis of cellular metabolism and its dynamics it is essential to achieve rapid sampling, fast quenching of metabolism and the removal of extracellular metabolites. Common manual sample preparation methods and protocols for cells are time-consuming and often lead to the loss of physiological conditions. In this work, we present a microchip-bioreactor setup which provides an integrated and rapid sample preparation of mammalian cells. The lab-on-a-chip system consists of five connected units that allow sample treatment, mixing and incubation of the cells, followed by cell separation and simultaneous exchange of media within seconds. This microsystem is directly integrated into a bioreactor for mammalian cell cultivation. By applying overpressure (2 bar) onto the bioreactor, this setup allows pulsation free, defined, fast, and continuous sampling. Experiments evince that Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO-K1) can be separated from the culture broth and transferred into a new medium efficiently. Furthermore, this setup permits the treatment of cells for a defined time (9 s or 18 s) which can be utilized for pulse experiments, quenching of cell metabolism, and/or another defined chemical treatment. Proof of concept experiments were performed using glutamine containing medium for pulse experiments. Continuous sampling of cells showed a high reproducibility over a period of 18 h. PMID:24709705

Bahnemann, Janina; Rajabi, Negar; Fuge, Grischa; Barradas, Oscar Platas; Mller, Jrg; Prtner, Ralf; Zeng, An-Ping

2013-01-01

164

A New Integrated Lab-on-a-Chip System for Fast Dynamic Study of Mammalian Cells under Physiological Conditions in Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

For the quantitative analysis of cellular metabolism and its dynamics it is essential to achieve rapid sampling, fast quenching of metabolism and the removal of extracellular metabolites. Common manual sample preparation methods and protocols for cells are time-consuming and often lead to the loss of physiological conditions. In this work, we present a microchip-bioreactor setup which provides an integrated and rapid sample preparation of mammalian cells. The lab-on-a-chip system consists of five connected units that allow sample treatment, mixing and incubation of the cells, followed by cell separation and simultaneous exchange of media within seconds. This microsystem is directly integrated into a bioreactor for mammalian cell cultivation. By applying overpressure (2 bar) onto the bioreactor, this setup allows pulsation free, defined, fast, and continuous sampling. Experiments evince that Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO-K1) can be separated from the culture broth and transferred into a new medium efficiently. Furthermore, this setup permits the treatment of cells for a defined time (9 s or 18 s) which can be utilized for pulse experiments, quenching of cell metabolism, and/or another defined chemical treatment. Proof of concept experiments were performed using glutamine containing medium for pulse experiments. Continuous sampling of cells showed a high reproducibility over a period of 18 h. PMID:24709705

Bahnemann, Janina; Rajabi, Negar; Fuge, Grischa; Platas Barradas, Oscar; Muller, Jorg; Portner, Ralf; Zeng, An-Ping

2013-01-01

165

Study of the Au\\/In Reaction for Transient Liquid-Phase Bonding and 3D Chip Stacking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest three-dimensional (3D) chip-stacking technology requires the repeated stacking of additional layers without remelting\\u000a the joints that have been formed at lower levels of the stack. This can be achieved by transient liquid-phase (TLP) bonding\\u000a whereby intermetallic joints can be formed at a lower temperature and withstand subsequent higher-temperature processes. In\\u000a order to develop a robust low-temperature Au\\/In TLP

W. Zhang; W. Ruythooren

2008-01-01

166

Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real experiences using advanced technologies (virtual reality, advanced sensors and smartphones) is a feasible way to address actual limitations of existing protocols for psychological stress. Trial registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01683617 PMID:23806013

2013-01-01

167

Efficacy of smoking prevention program 'Smoke-free Kids': study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A strong increase in smoking is noted especially among adolescents. In the Netherlands, about 5% of all 10-year olds, 25% of all 13-year olds and 62% of all 17-year olds report ever smoking. In the U.S., an intervention program called 'Smoke-free Kids' was developed to prevent children from smoking. The present study aims to assess the effects of this home-based smoking prevention program in the Netherlands. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial is conducted among 9 to 11-year old children of primary schools. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention program consists of five printed activity modules designed to improve parenting skills specific to smoking prevention and parent-child communication regarding smoking. These modules will include additional sheets with communication tips. The modules for the control condition will include solely information on smoking and tobacco use. Initiation of cigarette smoking (first instance of puffing on a lighted cigarette), susceptibility to cigarette smoking, smoking-related cognitions, and anti-smoking socialization will be the outcome measures. To collect the data, telephone interviews with mothers as well as with their child will be conducted at baseline. Only the children will be examined at post-intervention follow-ups (6, 12, 24, and 36 months after the baseline). Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based smoking prevention program. We expect that a significantly lower number of children will start smoking in the intervention condition compared to control condition as a direct result of this intervention. If the program is effective, it is applicable in daily live, which will facilitate implementation of the prevention protocol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR1465 PMID:20025727

2009-01-01

168

A study on the cricket location-support system communication protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization performance of a wireless sensor network localization system is highly related to the rate at which it can transmit ranging signals and measurements. The underlying media access control (MAC) protocol and application level ranging and communication protocol of the cricket location-support system (CLS) is analyzed to identify bottlenecks. Unnecessary delays in the existing MAC layer, which is based

Yunbo Wang; Steve Goddard; Lance C. Perez

2007-01-01

169

A simulation study of delay in multichannel CSMA\\/CD protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation is used to estimate the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols derived from carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA\\/CD), and operating in local area networks comprising several parallel broadcast channels. The influence of possible protocol and system alternatives on the network performance is discussed, based on results of the packet delay average, variance, mean square, coefficient of

Marco Ajmone Marsan; Fabio Neri

1991-01-01

170

An Empirical Study of Reliable Multicast Protocols over EthernetConnected Networks  

E-print Network

the standard IP multicast to facilitate the use of multicast for high performance communication on clusters multicast using the standard UDP interface. We evaluate the performance of the protocols over Ethernet, these implementations are built over point-to-point communication primitives supported by the TCP/IP protocol suite

Yuan, Xin

171

ENERGY CONSUMPTION STUDY OF OLSR AND DYMO MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN URBAN AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main task of Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) routing protocols is to transfer data between communicating parties successfully and without error. MANET Routing devices are battery operated. Besides good performance, low power consumption is an important issue for Routing Protocol evaluation because battery is the only available source of energy. This paper presents the results of an investigation into

Abu Hena Al Muktadir

172

A Study of Efficiency and Accuracy of Secure Multiparty Protocol in Privacy-Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the accuracy and efficiency of multiparty secured protocols is carried out so that both measures can be optimally exploited in the design of malicious party and semi-honest party. Finding efficient protocols of the Secure Multiparty Computation(SMC) is one active research area in the field of privacy preserving data mining (PPDM). The efficiency of privacy preserving data mining

Sin G. Teo; Vincent Lee; Shuguo Han

2012-01-01

173

Causes and consequences of cerebral small vessel disease. The RUN DMC study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a frequent finding on CT and MRI scans of elderly people and is related to vascular risk factors and cognitive and motor impairment, ultimately leading to dementia or parkinsonism in some. In general, the relations are weak, and not all subjects with SVD become demented or get parkinsonism. This might be explained by the diversity of underlying pathology of both white matter lesions (WML) and the normal appearing white matter (NAWM). Both cannot be properly appreciated with conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides alternative information on microstructural white matter integrity. The association between SVD, its microstructural integrity, and incident dementia and parkinsonism has never been investigated. Methods/Design The RUN DMC study is a prospective cohort study on the risk factors and cognitive and motor consequences of brain changes among 503 non-demented elderly, aged between 50-85 years, with cerebral SVD. First follow up is being prepared for July 2011. Participants alive will be included and invited to the research centre to undergo a structured questionnaire on demographics and vascular risk factors, and a cognitive, and motor, assessment, followed by a MRI protocol including conventional MRI, DTI and resting state fMRI. Discussion The follow up of the RUN DMC study has the potential to further unravel the causes and possibly better predict the consequences of changes in white matter integrity in elderly with SVD by using relatively new imaging techniques. When proven, these changes might function as a surrogate endpoint for cognitive and motor function in future therapeutic trials. Our data could furthermore provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive and motor disturbances in elderly with SVD. The execution and completion of the follow up of our study might ultimately unravel the role of SVD on the microstructural integrity of the white matter in the transition from "normal" aging to cognitive and motor decline and impairment and eventually to incident dementia and parkinsonism. PMID:21356112

2011-01-01

174

How to design in situ studies: an evaluation of experimental protocols  

PubMed Central

Objectives Designing in situ models for caries research is a demanding procedure, as both clinical and laboratory parameters need to be incorporated in a single study. This study aimed to construct an informative guideline for planning in situ models relevant to preexisting caries studies. Materials and Methods An electronic literature search of the PubMed database was performed. A total 191 of full articles written in English were included and data were extracted from materials and methods. Multiple variables were analyzed in relation to the publication types, participant characteristics, specimen and appliance factors, and other conditions. Frequencies and percentages were displayed to summarize the data and the Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess a statistical significance (p < 0.05). Results There were many parameters commonly included in the majority of in situ models such as inclusion criteria, sample sizes, sample allocation methods, tooth types, intraoral appliance types, sterilization methods, study periods, outcome measures, experimental interventions, etc. Interrelationships existed between the main research topics and some parameters (outcome measures and sample allocation methods) among the evaluated articles. Conclusions It will be possible to establish standardized in situ protocols according to the research topics. Furthermore, data collaboration from comparable studies would be enhanced by homogeneous study designs. PMID:25110639

Sung, Young-Hye; Kim, Hae-Young; Son, Ho-Hyun

2014-01-01

175

Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: protocol for a proof-of-principle study  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: protocol for a proof-of-principle study Laurence RJ Wood1, George M Peat1*, Ricky Mullis2, Elaine Thomas1, Nadine E Foster1 Abstract Background: Exercise... . Spine 2000, 25:3140-3151. 33. Dunn KM, Croft PR: Classification of low back pain in primary care: using bothersomeness to identify the most severe cases. Spine 2005, 30:1887-1892. 34. van der Windt DA, Koes BW, Deville W, Boeke AJ, de Jong BA, Bouter...

Wood, Laurence R J; Peat, George M; Mullis, Ricky; Thomas, Elaine; Foster, Nadine E

2011-01-07

176

Short and long-term effectiveness of couple counselling: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Healthy couple relationships are fundamental to a healthy society, whereas relationship breakdown and discord are linked to a wide range of negative health and wellbeing outcomes. Two types of relationship services (couple counselling and relationship education) have demonstrated efficacy in many controlled studies but evidence of the effectiveness of community-based relationship services has lagged behind. This study protocol describes an effectiveness evaluation of the two types of community-based relationship services. The aims of the Evaluation of Couple Counselling study are to: map the profiles of clients seeking agency-based couple counselling and relationship enhancement programs in terms of socio-demographic, relationship, health, and health service use indicators; to determine 3 and 12-month outcomes for relationship satisfaction, commitment, and depression; and determine relative contributions of client and therapy factors to outcomes. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental pre-post-post evaluation design is used to assess outcomes for couples presenting for the two types of community-based relationship services. The longitudinal design involves a pre-treatment survey and two follow-up surveys at 3- and 12-months post-intervention. The study is set in eight Relationships Australia Victoria centres, across metropolitan, outer suburbs, and regional/rural sites. Relationships Australia, a non-government organisation, is the largest provider of couple counselling and relationship services in Australia. The key outcomes are couple satisfaction, relationship commitment, and depression measured by the CESD-10. Multi-level modelling will be used to account for the dyadic nature of couple data. Discussion The study protocol describes the first large scale investigation of the effectiveness of two types of relationship services to be conducted in Australia. Its significance lies in providing more detailed profiles of couples who seek relationship services, in evaluating both 3 and 12-month relationship and health outcomes, and in determining factors that best predict improvements. It builds on prior research by using a naturalistic sample, an effectiveness research design, a more robust measure of relationship satisfaction, robust health indicators, a 12-month follow-up period, and a more rigorous statistical procedure suitable for dyadic data. Findings will provide a more precise description of those seeking relationship services and factors associated with improved relationship and health outcomes. PMID:22943742

2012-01-01

177

Understanding the power of conspiratorial rhetoric: A case study of the protocols of the elders of Zion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay provides an example of how communication scholars interested in rhetorical criticism can apply the notion of fragments in studies of influential discursive fabrications. The essay illuminates the ways in which conspiracy rhetorics like The Protocols of the Elders of Zion have been strategically deployed by many communities in Europe and the United States. By studying the structural relationships

Marouf Hasian Jr

1997-01-01

178

Remote ischemic preconditioning to reduce contrast-induced nephropathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increasing use of pre- and posthydration protocols and low-osmolar instead of high-osmolar iodine-containing contrast media, the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is still significant. There is evidence that contrast media cause ischemia-reperfusion injury of the medulla. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive, safe, and low-cost method to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The RIPCIN study is a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial in which 76 patients at risk of CIN will receive standard hydration combined with RIPC or hydration with sham preconditioning. RIPC will be applied by four cycles of 5min ischemia and 5min reperfusion of the forearm by inflating a blood pressure cuff at 50mmHg above the actual systolic pressure. The primary outcome measure will be the change in serum creatinine from baseline to 48 to 72h after contrast administration. Discussion A recent pilot study reported that RIPC reduced the incidence of CIN after coronary angioplasty. The unusual high incidence of CIN in this study is of concern and limits its generalizability. Therefore, we propose a randomized controlled trial to study whether RIPC reduces contrast-induced kidney injury in patients at risk for CIN according to the Dutch guidelines. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76496973 PMID:24721127

2014-01-01

179

Implementation of chip embedding processes for the creation of miniaturized system-in-packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the newest developments in chip embedding technologies for chips with a pitch of 100?m. The technology developed in this study does not necessitate expensive redistribution layers for enlarging the pad pitch. Embedding of small pitch chips has been realised with concurrent developments in accurate chip positioning, plating methods and chemistries and ultra fine line patterning. The results

L. Boettcher; D. Manessis; A. Ostmann; S. Karaszkiewicz; R. Aschenbrenner; K.-D. Lang

2010-01-01

180

ChIP on Chip: surprising results are often artifacts  

PubMed Central

Background The method of chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays (ChIP-Chip) is a powerful tool for genome-wide analysis of protein binding. However, a high background signal is a common phenomenon. Results Reinvestigation of the chromatin immunoprecipitation procedure led us to discover four causes of high background: i) non-unique sequences, ii) incomplete reversion of crosslinks, iii) retention of protein in spin-columns and iv) insufficient RNase treatment. The chromatin immunoprecipitation method was modified and applied to analyze genome-wide binding of SeqA and ?32 in Escherichia coli. Conclusions False positive findings originating from these shortcomings of the method could explain surprising and contradictory findings in published ChIP-Chip studies. We present a modified chromatin immunoprecipitation method greatly reducing the background signal. PMID:20602746

2010-01-01

181

A pilot study of an acupuncture protocol to improve visual function in retinitis pigmentosa patients  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with retinitis pigmentosa are motivated to try complementary or integrative therapies to slow disease progression. Basic science, clinical research and retinitis pigmentosa patients' self-reports support the hypothesis that acupuncture may improve visual function. Methods A prospective, case series, pilot study enrolled 12 adult patients with RP treated at an academic medical centre with a standardised protocol that combined electroacupuncture to the forehead and below the eyes and acupuncture to the body, at 10 half-hour sessions over two weeks. Pre- and post-treatment tests included Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (VA), Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (CS), Goldmann visual fields, and dark-adapted full-field stimulus threshold (FST)(n = 9). Scotopic Sensitivity Tester-1 (SST-1) dark-adaptometry was performed on the last two subjects. Results Six of 12 subjects had measurable, significant visual function improvements after treatment. Three of nine subjects tested with the FST had a significant 10.3 to 17.5 dB (that is, 13- to 53-fold) improvement in both eyes at one week after acupuncture, maintained for at least 10 to 12 months, which was well outside typical test-retest variability (95% CI: 33.5 dB) previously found in retinitis pigmentosa. SST-1 dark-adaptation was shortened in both subjects tested on average by 48.5 per cent at one week (range 36 to 62 per cent across 10 to 30 dB), which was outside typical coefficients of variation of less than 30 per cent previously determined in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and normals. Four of the five subjects with psychophysically measured scotopic sensitivity improvements reported subjective improvements in vision at night or in dark environments. One subject had 0.2 logMAR improvement in VA; another had 0.55 logCS improvement. Another subject developed more than 20 per cent improvement in the area of the Goldmann visual fields. The acupuncture protocol was completed and well tolerated by all, without adverse events or visual loss. Conclusions Acupuncture entails minimal risk, if administered by a well-trained acupuncturist and may have significant, measurable benefits on residual visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, in particular scotopic sensitivity, which had not previously been studied. These preliminary findings support the need for future controlled studies of potential mechanisms. PMID:24773463

Bittner, Ava K; Gould, Jeffrey M; Rosenfarb, Andy; Rozanski, Collin; Dagnelie, Gislin

2014-01-01

182

Developing psychotherapists' competence through clinical supervision: protocol for a qualitative study of supervisory dyads  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health professionals face unique demands and stressors in their work, resulting in high rates of burnout and distress. Clinical supervision is a widely adopted and valued mechanism of professional support, development, and accountability, despite the very limited evidence of specific impacts on therapist or client outcomes. The current study aims to address this by exploring how psychotherapists develop competence through clinical supervision and what impact this has on the supervisees practice and their clients outcomes. This paper provides a rationale for the study and describes the protocol for an in-depth qualitative study of supervisory dyads, highlighting how it addresses gaps in the literature. Methods/Design The study of 1620 supervisor-supervisee dyads uses a qualitative mixed method design, with two phases. In phase one, supervisors who are nominated as expert by their peers are interviewed about their supervision practice. In phase two, supervisors record a supervision session with a consenting supervisee; interpersonal process recall interviews are conducted separately with supervisor and supervisee to reflect in depth on the teaching and learning processes occurring. All interviews will be transcribed, coded and analysed to identify the processes that build competence, using a modified form of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) strategies. Using a theory-building case study method, data from both phases of the study will be integrated to develop a model describing the processes that build competence and support wellbeing in practising psychotherapists, reflecting the accumulated wisdom of the expert supervisors. Discussion The study addresses past study limitations by examining expert supervisors and their supervisory interactions, by reflecting on actual supervision sessions, and by using dyadic analysis of the supervisory pairs. The study findings will inform the development of future supervision training and practice and identify fruitful avenues for future research. PMID:23298408

2013-01-01

183

The heart healthy lenoir project-an intervention to reduce disparities in hypertension control: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Racial disparities in blood pressure control are well established; however the impact of low health literacy (LHL) on blood pressure has garnered less attention. Office based interventions that are created with iterative patient, practice and community stakeholder input and are rolled out incrementally, may help address these disparities in hypertension control. This paper describes our study protocol. Methods/design Using a community based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we designed and implemented a cohort study that includes both a practice level and patient level intervention to enhance the care and support of patients with hypertension in primary care practices in a rural region of eastern North Carolina. The study is divided into a formative phase and an ongoing 2.5 year implementation phase. Our main care enhancement activities include the integration of a community health coach, using home blood pressure monitoring in clinical decision making, standardizing care delivery processes, and working to improve medication adherence. Main outcomes include overall blood pressure change, the differential change in blood pressure by race (African American vs. White) and health literacy level (low vs. higher health literacy). Discussion Using a community based participatory approach in primary care practice settings has helped to engage patients and practice staff and providers in the research effort and in making practice changes to support hypertension care. Practices have engaged at varying levels, but progress has been made in implementing and iteratively improving upon the interventions to date. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01425515. PMID:24156629

2013-01-01

184

Packaging a free-space intra-chip optical interconnect module: Monte Carlo tolerance study and assembly results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we give an overview of the fabrication and assembly induced performance degradation of an intra-multi-chip-module free-space optical interconnect, integrating micro-lenses and a deflection prism above a dense opto-electronic chip. The proposed component is used to demonstrate the capabilities of an accurate micro-optical rapid prototype technique, namely the Deep Proton Writing (DPW). To evaluate the accuracy of DPW and to assess whether our assembly scheme will provide us with a reasonable process yield, we have built a simulation framework combining mechanical Monte Carlo analysis with optical simulations. Both the technological requirements to ensure a high process yield, and the specifications of our in-house DPW technology are discussed. Therefore, we first conduct a sensitivity analysis and we subsequently simulate the effect of combined errors using a Monte Carlo simulation. We are able to investigate the effect of a technology accuracy enhancement on the fabrication and assembly yield by scaling the standard deviation of the errors proportionally to each sensitivity interval. We estimate that 40% of the systems fabricated with DPW will show an optical transmission efficiency above -4.32 dB, which is -3 dB below the theoretical obtainable value. We also discuss our efforts to implement an opto-mechanical Monte Carlo simulator. It enables us to address specific issues not directly related with the micro-optical or DPW components, such as the influence of glueing layers and structures that allow for self-alignment, by combining mechanical tolerancing algorithms with optical simulation software. More in particular we determined that DPW provides ample accuracy to meet the requirements to obtain a high manufacturing yield. Finally, we shortly highlight the basic layout of a completed demonstrator. The adhesive bonding of opto-electronic devices in their package is subject to further improvement to enhance the tilt accuracy of the devices with respect to the optical interconnect modules.

Vervaeke, Michael; Lahti, Markku; Karpinnen, Mikko; Debaes, Christof; Volckaerts, Bart; Karioja, Pentti; Thienpont, Hugo

2006-04-01

185

The RootChip: An Integrated Microfluidic Chip for Plant Science[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Studying development and physiology of growing roots is challenging due to limitations regarding cellular and subcellular analysis under controlled environmental conditions. We describe a microfluidic chip platform, called RootChip, that integrates live-cell imaging of growth and metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana roots with rapid modulation of environmental conditions. The RootChip has separate chambers for individual regulation of the microenvironment of multiple roots from multiple seedlings in parallel. We demonstrate the utility of The RootChip by monitoring time-resolved growth and cytosolic sugar levels at subcellular resolution in plants by a genetically encoded fluorescence sensor for glucose and galactose. The RootChip can be modified for use with roots from other plant species by adapting the chamber geometry and facilitates the systematic analysis of root growth and metabolism from multiple seedlings, paving the way for large-scale phenotyping of root metabolism and signaling. PMID:22186371

Grossmann, Guido; Guo, Woei-Jiun; Ehrhardt, David W.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Sit, Rene V.; Quake, Stephen R.; Meier, Matthias

2011-01-01

186

Experimental performance study of wireless ad hoc system utilizing 802.11a standard base on different routing protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wireless ad hoc network technology provides a flexible infrastructure for next generation mobile telecommunication. In this paper, the performances of the networks based on IEEE802.11a standard, including packets successful delivery rate, average end-to-end delay and system throughput, have been studied with different routing protocols (AODV, WRP, and FISHEYE) using GloMoSim to evaluate the effects of various factors, such as node mobility, node density, and node radio transmission range. The simulation results show that adaptive routing protocol will be more suitable for the variation ad hoc network and the results are helpful for the optimum design and deployment of an actual network.

Zhong, Xiao F.; Wang, You-Zheng; Mei, Shunliang; Wang, Jing

2002-08-01

187

Chip packaging technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

188

Nicotine patch preloading for smoking cessation (the preloading trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The use of nicotine replacement therapy before quitting smoking is called nicotine preloading. Standard smoking cessation protocols suggest commencing nicotine replacement therapy only on the first day of quitting smoking (quit day) aiming to reduce withdrawal symptoms and craving. However, other, more successful smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are used prior to the quit day as well as after. Nicotine preloading could improve quit rates by reducing satisfaction from smoking prior to quitting and breaking the association between smoking and reward. A systematic literature review suggests that evidence for the effectiveness of preloading is inconclusive and further trials are needed. Methods/Design This is a study protocol for a multicenter, non-blinded, randomized controlled trial based in the United Kingdom, enrolling 1786 smokers who want to quit, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment program, and sponsored by the University of Oxford. Participants will primarily be recruited through general practices and smoking cessation clinics, and randomized (1:1) either to use 21mg nicotine patches, or not, for four weeks before quitting, whilst smoking as normal. All participants will be referred to receive standard smoking cessation service support. Follow-ups will take place at one week, four weeks, six months and 12months after quit day. The primary outcome will be prolonged, biochemically verified six-month abstinence. Additional outcomes will include point prevalence abstinence and abstinence of four-week and 12-month duration, side effects, costs of treatment, and markers of potential mediators and moderators of the preloading effect. Discussion This large trial will add substantially to evidence on the effectiveness of nicotine preloading, but also on its cost effectiveness and potential mediators, which have not been investigated in detail previously. A range of recruitment strategies have been considered to try and compensate for any challenges encountered in recruiting the large sample, and the multicentre design means that knowledge can be shared between recruitment teams. The pragmatic study design means that results will give a realistic estimate of the success of the intervention if it were to be rolled out as part of standard smoking cessation service practice. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN33031001. Registered 27 April 2012. PMID:25052334

2014-01-01

189

Bio-repository of DNA in stroke: a study protocol of three ancestral populations  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the world. Identifying the genes underlying stroke risk may help us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that cause stroke and also identify novel therapeutic targets. To have sufficient power to disentangle the genetic component of stroke, large-scale highly phenotyped DNA repositories are necessary. The BRAINS (Bio-repository of DNA in stroke) study aims to recruit subjects with all subtypes of stroke as well as controls from UK, India, Sri Lanka and Qatar. BRAINS-UK will include 1500 stroke patients of European ancestry as well as British South Asians. BRAINS-South Asia aims to recruit 3000 stroke subjects and 3000 controls from across India and Sri Lanka. BRAINS-Middle East aims to enrol 1500 stroke patients from Qatar. The controls for BRAINS-Middle East will be recruited from a population-based Qatari Biobank. With the addition of new recruitment centres in India and Qatar, we present an updated version of the BRAINS study protocol. This is the first international DNA biobank for stroke patients and controls from the Middle East. By investigating the influence of genetic factors on stroke risk in European, South Asian and Middle Eastern populations, BRAINS has the potential to improve our understanding of genetic differences between these groups and may lead to new population-specific therapeutic targets. PMID:24175068

Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Maheshwari, Ankita; Yadav, Sunaina; Khan, Fahmi Yousif; Al-Hail, H; de Silva, Ranil; Gorthi, S P; Gupta, Salil; Sharma, Shri Ram; Sylaja, P N; Prasad, Kameshwar; Sharma, Pankaj

2012-01-01

190

Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by improving signaling, referral, and treatment of these youngsters. In this study protocol we describe the designs of two complementary studies: a signaling study and an intervention study. Methods and design The signaling study evaluates the Pain Barometer, a self-assessed signaling instrument for chronic pain in adolescents. To evaluate the feasibility of the Pain Barometer, the experiences of youth-health care nurses will be evaluated in semi-structured interviews. Also, we will explore the frequencies of referral per health-care provider. The intervention study evaluates Move It Now, a guided self-help intervention via the Internet for teenagers with chronic pain. This intervention uses cognitive behavioural techniques, including relaxation exercises and positive thinking. The objective of the intervention is to improve the ability of adolescents to cope with pain. The efficacy of Move It Now will be examined in a randomized controlled trial, in which 60 adolescents will be randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a waiting list control condition. Discussion If the Pain Barometer is proven to be feasible and Move It Now appears to be efficacious, a health care pathway can be created to provide the best tailored treatment promptly to adolescents with chronic pain. Move It Now can be easily implemented throughout the Netherlands, as the intervention is Internet based. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1926 PMID:22686133

2012-01-01

191

Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy augmentation in major depression treatment (ECAM study): study protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Major depression is a serious mental disorder that causes substantial distress and impairment in individuals and places an enormous burden on society. Although antidepressant treatment is the most common therapy provided in routine practice, there is little evidence to guide second-line therapy for patients who have failed to respond to antidepressants. The aim of this paper is to describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial that measures the clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as an augmentation strategy to treat patients with non-psychotic major depression identified as suboptimal responders to usual depression care. Methods and analysis The current study is a 16-week assessor-blinded randomised, parallel-groups superiority trial with 12-month follow-up at an outpatient clinic as part of usual depression care. Patients aged 2065?years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Major Depressive Disorder who have experienced at least one failed trial of antidepressants as part of usual depression care, will be randomly assigned to receive CBT plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone. The primary outcome is the change in clinician-rated 17-item GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (GRID-HAMD) score at 16?weeks, and secondary outcomes include severity and change in scores of subjective depression symptoms, proportion of responders and remitters, safety and quality of life. The primary population will be the intention-to-treat patients. Ethics and dissemination All protocols and the informed consent form comply with the Ethics Guideline for Clinical Research (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). Ethics review committees at the Keio University School of Medicine and the Sakuragaoka Memorial Hospital approved the study protocol. The results of the study will be disseminated at several research conferences and as published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The study will be implemented and reported in line with the CONSORT statement. Trial registration number UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000001218. PMID:25335963

Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Mitsuda, Dai; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Abe, Takayuki; Sato, Yuji; Iwashita, Satoru; Mimura, Masaru; Ono, Yutaka

2014-01-01

192

Evolution of Dobutamine Echocardiography Protocols and Indications: Safety and Side Effects in 3,011 Studies Over 5 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to document the safety of dobutamine stress echocardiography as it has evolved at a single center and to define predictors of adverse events.Background. The indications and protocol for dobutamine stress testing have evolved over 5 years of clinical use, but the influence of these changes on the safety and side effects of the test is undefined.Methods.

Maria-Anna Secknus; Thomas H Marwick

1997-01-01

193

Impact of introducing multiple evidence-based clinical practice protocols in a medical intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recently completed clinical trials have shown that certain interventions improve the outcome of the critically ill. To facilitate the implementation of these interventions, professional organizations have developed guidelines. Although the impacts of the individual evidence-based interventions have been well described, the overall impact on outcome of introducing multiple evidence-based protocols has not been well studied. The objective of this

Bekele Afessa; Ognjen Gajic; Mark T Keegan; Edward G Seferian; Rolf D Hubmayr; Steve G Peters

2007-01-01

194

Efficacy of family mediation and the role of family violence: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Family law reforms in Australia require separated parents in dispute to attempt mandatory family dispute resolution (FDR) in community-based family services before court attendance. However, there are concerns about such services when clients present with a history of high conflict and family violence. This study protocol describes a longitudinal study of couples presenting for family mediation services. The study aims to describe the profile of family mediation clients, including type of family violence, and determine the impact of violence profiles on FDR processes and outcomes, such as the type and durability of shared parenting arrangements and clients satisfaction with mediated agreements. Methods A mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal design is used. The sampling frame is clients presenting at nine family mediation centres across metropolitan, outer suburban, and regional/rural sites in Victoria, Australia. Data are collected at pre-test, completion of mediation, and six months later. Self-administered surveys are administered at the three time points, and a telephone interview at the final post-test. The key study variable is family violence. Key outcome measures are changes in the type and level of acrimony and violent behaviours, the relationship between violence and mediated agreements, the durability of agreements over six months, and client satisfaction with mediation. Discussion Family violence is a major risk to the physical and mental health of women and children. This study will inform debates about the role of family violence and how to manage it in the family mediation context. It will also inform decision-making about mediation practices by better understanding how mediation impacts on parenting agreements, and the implications for children, especially in the context of family violence. PMID:24443936

2014-01-01

195

Integrating addiction treatment into primary care using mobile health technology: protocol for an implementation research study  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare reform in the United States is encouraging Federally Qualified Health Centers and other primary-care practices to integrate treatment for addiction and other behavioral health conditions into their practices. The potential of mobile health technologies to manage addiction and comorbidities such as HIV in these settings is substantial but largely untested. This paper describes a protocol to evaluate the implementation of an E-Health integrated communication technology delivered via mobile phones, called Seva, into primary-care settings. Seva is an evidence-based system of addiction treatment and recovery support for patients and real-time caseload monitoring for clinicians. Methods/Design Our implementation strategy uses three models of organizational change: the Program Planning Model to promote acceptance and sustainability, the NIATx quality improvement model to create a welcoming environment for change, and Rogerss diffusion of innovations research, which facilitates adaptations of innovations to maximize their adoption potential. We will implement Seva and conduct an intensive, mixed-methods assessment at three diverse Federally Qualified Healthcare Centers in the United States. Our non-concurrent multiple-baseline design includes three periods pretest (ending in four months of implementation preparation), active Seva implementation, and maintenance with implementation staggered at six-month intervals across sites. The first site will serve as a pilot clinic. We will track the timing of intervention elements and assess study outcomes within each dimension of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework, including effects on clinicians, patients, and practices. Our mixed-methods approach will include quantitative (e.g., interrupted time-series analysis of treatment attendance, with clinics as the unit of analysis) and qualitative (e.g., staff interviews regarding adaptations to implementation protocol) methods, and assessment of implementation costs. Discussion If implementation is successful, the field will have a proven technology that helps Federally Qualified Health Centers and affiliated organizations provide addiction treatment and recovery support, as well as a proven strategy for implementing the technology. Seva also has the potential to improve core elements of addiction treatment, such as referral and treatment processes. A mobile technology for addiction treatment and accompanying implementation model could provide a cost-effective means to improve the lives of patients with drug and alcohol problems. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01963234). PMID:24884976

2014-01-01

196

EHS-Net Cooling Study EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

temperature abuse opportunities. The purpose of this study is to collect descriptive data on cooling policies is defined as any food of animal origin and heat processed vegetables. 5. Design This study will use a cross

197

Bio-Repository of DNA in stroke (BRAINS): A study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is one of the commonest causes of mortality in the world and anticipated to be an increasing burden to the developing world. Stroke has a genetic basis and identifying those genes may not only help us define the mechanisms that cause stroke but also identify novel therapeutic targets. However, large scale highly phenotyped DNA repositories are required in order for this to be achieved. Methods The proposed Bio-Repository of DNA in Stroke (BRAINS) will recruit all subtypes of stroke as well as controls from two different continents, Europe and Asia. Subjects recruited from the UK will include stroke patients of European ancestry as well as British South Asians. Stroke subjects from South Asia will be recruited from India and Sri Lanka. South Asian cases will also have control subjects recruited. Discussion We describe a study protocol to establish a large and highly characterized stroke biobank in those of European and South Asian descent. With different ethnic populations being recruited, BRAINS has the ability to compare and contrast genetic risk factors between those of differing ancestral descent as well as those who migrate into different environments. PMID:21366918

2011-01-01

198

Acupuncture for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background We report on the design and implementation of a study protocol entitled Acupuncture randomised trial for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain - a pilot study (ACUARP) designed to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy performed in the perioperative period on post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomised controlled pilot trial with three arms and partial double blinding. We will compare (a) press needle acupuncture, (b) no treatment and (c) press plaster acupressure in a standardised anaesthetic setting. Seventy-five patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery to the uterus or ovaries will be allocated randomly to one of the three trial arms. The total observation period will begin one day before surgery and end on the second postoperative day. Twelve press needles and press plasters are to be administered preoperatively at seven acupuncture points. The primary outcome measure will be time from extubation to ready for discharge from the post anaesthesia care unit (in minutes). The ready for discharge end point will be assessed using three different scores: the Aldrete score, the Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System and an In-House score. Secondary outcome measures will comprise pre-, intra- and postoperative variables (which are anxiety, pain, nausea and vomiting, concomitant medication). Discussion The results of this study will provide information on whether acupuncture may improve patient post anaesthetic recovery. Comparing acupuncture with acupressure will provide insight into potential therapeutic differences between invasive and non-invasive acupuncture techniques. Trial registration NCT01816386 (First received: 28 October 2012) PMID:25047046

2014-01-01

199

Cross-cultural adaptation, evaluation and validation of the Spouse Response Inventory: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Since the response of spouses has been proven to be an important reinforcement of pain behaviour and disability it has been addressed in research and therapy. Fordyce suggested pain behaviour and well behaviour be considered in explaining suffering in chronic pain patients. Among existing instruments concerning spouse's responses the aspect of well behaviour has not been examined so far. The SRI (Spouse Response Inventory) tries to consider pain behaviour and well behaviour and appears to be acceptable because of its brevity and close proximity to daily language. The aim of the study is the translation into German, followed by evaluation and validation, of the SRI on a German sample of patients with chronic pain. Methods and analyses The study is comprehensively designed: initially, the focus will lie on the translation of the instrument following the guidelines for cross-cultural translation and adaptation and evaluation of the German version according to the source study. Subsequently, a validation referring to predictive, incremental and construct validation will be conducted using instruments based on similar or close but different constructs. Evaluation of the resulting SRI-G (SRI-German) will be conducted on a sample of at least 30 patients with chronic pain attending a comprehensive pain centre. For validation at least 120 patients with chronic headache, back pain, cancer related pain and somatoform pain disorder shall be included, for a total of 480 patients. Separate analyses according to specific pain diagnoses will be performed to ensure psychometric property, interpretability and control of diagnosis of specific limitations. Analyses will include comprehensive investigation of psychometric property of the scale by hierarchical regression analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate analysis of variance and exploratory factor analyses (SPSS). Ethics The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Dresden (EK 335 122008) based on the Helsinki declaration.

Kaiser, Ulrike; Steinmetz, Dorit; Scharnagel, Rudiger; Jensen, Mark P; Balck, Friedrich; Sabatowski, Rainer

2014-01-01

200

Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural) and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in the longer term, more effective and culturally-appropriate interventions to improve health. PMID:22236166

2012-01-01

201

Functional MRI-guided microsurgery of intracranial arteriovenous malformations: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Modern microsurgery has improved the results of surgical treatment of AVMs; however, the treatment of AVMs, particularly eloquently located AVMs, still carries a high risk. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been reported to be used for the preoperative evaluation of AVMs in small case series. The purpose is to identify the utility and efficacy of fMRI-guided microsurgery of AVMs in a large randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis The study is a prospective, randomised controlled clinical trial. This study will enrol a total of 600 eligible patients. These eligible patients will be randomised to the standard microsurgery group and the fMRI-guided microsurgery group in a 1:1 ratio. Patient baseline characteristics and AVM architecture and characteristics will be described. In the fMRI-guided group, fMRI mapping of an eloquent cortex in all AVMs will be identified. Surgical complications and outcomes at pretreatment, post-treatment, at discharge and at 1-month, 3-month and 6-month follow-up intervals will be analysed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). This trial will determine whether fMRI-guided microsurgery could improve outcomes in patients with AVMs and also identify the safety and efficacy of fMRI-guided microsurgery. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol and written informed consent were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (ky2012-016-02). Study findings will be disseminated in the printed media. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01758211. PMID:25341453

Zhao, Bing; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Yuanli; Wu, Jun; Wang, Shuo

2014-01-01

202

Panax ginseng therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical trial protocol and pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Panax ginseng (Ren shen) has been used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article aims to present a study protocol and pilot trial comparing P. ginseng with placebo for treating moderate to very severe COPD. Methods COPD was diagnosed spirometrically, with participants having a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of between 20% and 79% and FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of less than 70%. Outcome measures included exacerbation rate, St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test and Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Other outcome measures included the six-minute walk test, FEV1, FVC, relief medication use, use of COPD-specific medical resources, and adverse events. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. The method of this pilot trial was based on a planned full-scale trial except that participants were enrolled for ten weeks compared to 52weeks. In the pilot trial, 14 participants (5773 years old) with moderate to very severe COPD were recruited from a community health program at a public Chinese medicine hospital in Guangdong Province, China. After a 2-week run-in period, 10 participants were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either P. ginseng group (n?=?5) (200mg twice daily for four weeks) or placebo group (n?=?5), and then followed-up for an additional 4weeks for a total of 10weeks. Results Nine participants completed the trial and one dropped out. The exacerbation rate could not be evaluated because there were no exacerbations. One participant in P. ginseng group reported events of sore throat, cough and fever. Trial investigators did not consider these events as COPD exacerbations or adverse events. Conclusions Participant recruitment, study design, data collection and outcome measurement have been tested in a pilot trial. A full-scale trial is warranted. PMID:25161696

2014-01-01

203

Training and Management of a Multisite Neuropsychological Testing Protocol for the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Evaluating on- and Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research study coordinators from 17 sites participating in a cardiac surgery study were trained to administer and score a brief neuropsychological test battery. Results were sent to the study's centralized laboratory for review and feedback. The average examiner errors on the first six protocols were compared with the average errors on the last six protocols over 12 months for each

E. Kozora; S. Kongs; T. Box; L. Schooley; M. Hampton; S. Berkowitz; F. Grover; A. L. Shroyer

2007-01-01

204

Enabling Reuse via an IP Core-centric Communications Protocol: Open Core ProtocolTM  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate true IP (intellectual property) core plug-and-play and simplify reuse, the cores need to be decoupled from the on-chip interconnect system and from one another using a clearly-specified core interface protocol. This core interface must allow an IP core developer to focus on IP core generation without having to know any details about the system-on-a-chip that the core might

Wolf-Dietrich Weber

205

Integrating evidence on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions: protocol of the patient-VIP study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a strong movement towards active patient involvement in healthcare policy decisions, systematic and explicit consideration of evidence of this research on patient preferences seems limited. Furthermore, little is known about the opinions of several stakeholders towards consideration of research evidence on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions. This paper describes the protocol for an explorative study on the integration of research on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions. The study questions: to what extent research evidence on patient preferences is considered in current procedures for healthcare policy decisions; opinions of stakeholders regarding the integration of this type of evidence in healthcare policy decisions; and what could be a decision framework for the integration of such research evidence in healthcare policy decisions. Methods/design The study is divided in three sub-studies, predominantly using qualitative methods. The first sub-study is a scoping review in five European countries to investigate whether and how results of research on patient preferences are considered in current procedures for coverage decisions and clinical practice guideline development. The second sub-study is a qualitative study to explore the opinions of stakeholders with regard to the possibilities for integrating evidence on patient preferences in the process of healthcare decision-making in the Netherlands. The third sub-study is the development of a decision framework for research on patient preferences. The framework will consist of: a process description regarding the place of evidence on patient preferences in the decision-making process; and a taxonomy describing different terminologies and conceptualisations of preferences and an overview of existing methodologies for investigating preferences. The concept framework will be presented to and discussed with experts. Discussion This study will create awareness regarding the existence and potential value of research evidence on patient preferences for healthcare policy decision-making and provides insight in the methods for investigating patient preferences and the barriers and facilitators for integration of such research in healthcare policy decisions. Results of the study will be useful for researchers, clinical practice guideline developers, healthcare policy makers, and patient representatives. PMID:23758977

2013-01-01

206

World with Chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although we are well advised to look at the future 1 day at a time, we have seen in the chapters of this book, and they necessarily could cover only a selection on the features and applications of those tiny chips, that their potential continues to grow at the exceptional rates of the past. However, the new commitment has to be towards Sustainable Nanoelectronics, guided by creating sensing, computing, memory, and communication functions, which move just a few electrons per operation, each operation consuming energy less than one or a few femtojoule, less than any of the 1014 synapses in our brains. At these energy levels, chips can serve everywhere, making them ubiquitous, pervasive, certainly wireless, and often energy-autonomous. The expected six Billion users of these chips in 2020, through their mobile, intelligent companions, will benefit from global and largely equal access to information, education, knowledge, skills, and care.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

207

Protocol for the Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH) Study: A Cohort of Pregnancy and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Background The developmental origins of health and disease is a conceptual framework that helps explain the links between our early life exposures and later health outcomes, and is a burgeoning field of research. In this report, we describe the study protocol used in a prospective cohort of women recruited during pregnancy, with postnatal follow-up of the mothers and offspring. Methods The Women And Their Childrens Health (WATCH) cohort (n = 180 women) is being conducted at the John Hunter Hospital, Australia (from June 2006). Women attended study visits during pregnancy at 19, 24, 30, and 36 weeks gestation. Postnatal follow-up of the women and their offspring occurred at 3-month intervals during the first year after birth and annually thereafter, until age 4 years. Fetal ultrasound scans were performed at each pregnancy visit. Pregnancy and birth data were obtained from hospital records. Data collection has included maternal and child anthropometric, biochemical, dietary, physical activity, socioeconomic, medical, and other variables. Conclusions The 2 most novel components of our prospective cohort study are (1) the regular and systematic tracking of fetal and child growth and body composition, starting in the second trimester of pregnancy and continuing to age 4 years, and (2) the detailed maternal and child dietary data collection, including biochemical parameters. Detailed cohorts that collect data on the early nutritional, physiological, and social determinants of health are valuable. Despite its relatively small sample size, many hypotheses on developmental origins can be tested or piloted using data collected from the WATCH cohort. PMID:22374367

Hure, Alexis J; Collins, Clare E; Giles, Warwick B; Wright, Ian MR; Smith, Roger

2012-01-01

208

Cancer survivor rehabilitation and recovery: Protocol for the Veterans Cancer Rehabilitation Study (Vet-CaRes)  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer survivors are a rapidly growing and aging population in the U.S., but there are many challenges associated with the survivorship experience such as functional disabilities and psychosocial distress. When viewed next to the general population, Veterans are especially at risk for these challenges as they are older and have a high incidence of co-morbid conditions. While the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has called for further cancer survivorship research to address these challenges, we still know little about this experience from the perspective of aging Veterans. Methods/design We conducted a longitudinal, mixed-methods study over the course of three and a half years at the Boston and Houston VA Medical Centers. We recruited 170 Veterans diagnosed with head and neck, colorectal and esophageal/gastric cancers that were identified from the VA tumor registry. Veterans completed three in-depth interviews, conducted at 6, 12 and 18?months after pathology confirmation, measuring the physical, social and psychological factors related to cancer survivorship. The longitudinal design allowed us to assess any changes in cancer related disability and distress over time. Discussion Weekly teleconference study team meetings were a key aspect to the research process. Issues related to recruitment, data management and analysis, and the dissemination of research results was discussed. Interviewers presented detailed case reports of completed interviews that allowed us to refine our interview protocols. We also discussed issues relevant to the Veteran population of which we were previously unaware and some of the challenges of the research process itself. This novel study produced a robust data set that documents the functional and psychosocial cancer survivorship experiences of aging Veterans. The longitudinal design will help us more fully understand the recovery patterns for this specific population, and identify the unique needs and gaps in health services. PMID:23497430

2013-01-01

209

Isonatric dialysis biofeedback in hemodiafiltration with online regeneration of ultrafiltrate (HFR): rationale and study protocol for a randomized controlled study.  

PubMed

Dialysate sodium prescription has major implications for hemodialysis tolerance but also for dialyzed patients' cardiovascular morbidity as a determinant factor of blood pressure. Biofeedback systems have been developed to drive dialysate conductivity in order to reach a prescribed serum sodium concentration, indirectly evaluated by a dialysate or an ultrafiltrate conductivity measurement. A biofeedback system using hemodiafiltration with online regeneration of ultrafiltrate (HFR) has been specially developed with an isonatric mode maintaining an equal serum sodium concentration between start and end of the dialysis session, combined with ultrafiltration and conductivity profiles. We hypothesized that using this biofeedback in an isonatric mode would have a beneficial effect on blood pressure and dialysis tolerance. The study protocol has been approved by our ethics committee and is presented herein. PMID:22322821

Mercadal, Lucile; Pikarski, Cline; Renaux, Jean-Louis; Petitclerc, Thierry; Deray, Gilbert

2012-01-01

210

Microfluidic chips for immunoassays.  

PubMed

The use of microfluidic chips for immunoassays has been extensively explored in recent years. The combination of immunoassays and microfluidics affords a promising platform for multiple, sensitive, and automatic point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. In this review, we focus on the description of recent achievements in microfluidic chips for immunoassays categorized by their detection method. Following a brief introduction to the basic principles of each detection method, we examine current microfluidic immunosensor detection systems in detail. We also highlight interesting strategies for sensitive immunosensing configurations, multiplexed analysis, and POC diagnostics in microfluidic immunosensors. PMID:23495732

Han, Kwi Nam; Li, Cheng Ai; Seong, Gi Hun

2013-01-01

211

Chip connectivity verification program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for testing electrical connectivity between conductive structures on a chip that is preferably layered with conductive and nonconductive layers. The method includes determining the layer on which each structure is located and defining the perimeter of each structure. Conductive layer connections between each of the layers are determined, and, for each structure, the points of intersection between the perimeter of that structure and the perimeter of each other structure on the chip are also determined. Finally, electrical connections between the structures are determined using the points of intersection and the conductive layer connections.

Riley, Josh (Inventor); Patterson, George (Inventor)

1999-01-01

212

Chocolate Chip Cookie Constellations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chocolate chip cookie recipe includes templates for baking night sky constellations of the season right on top! Two templates are included, one for 9pm mid-April, and one for 10pm mid-July. Learners can help place the chips in order to learn about the relative positions of the constellations. Although no background information is given, there is an opportunity to discuss how the star positions change with seasons. A printed version in Spanish is available, but it's not free online.

Chippindale, Suzanne

2001-01-01

213

Cryogenic on-chip multiplexer for the study of quantum transport in 256 split-gate devices  

SciTech Connect

We present a multiplexing scheme for the measurement of large numbers of mesoscopic devices in cryogenic systems. The multiplexer is used to contact an array of 256 split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, in which each split gate can be measured individually. The low-temperature conductance of split-gate devices is governed by quantum mechanics, leading to the appearance of conductance plateaux at intervals of 2e{sup 2}/h. A fabrication-limited yield of 94% is achieved for the array, and a quantum yield is also defined, to account for disorder affecting the quantum behaviour of the devices. The quantum yield rose from 55% to 86% after illuminating the sample, explained by the corresponding increase in carrier density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. The multiplexer is a scalable architecture, and can be extended to other forms of mesoscopic devices. It overcomes previous limits on the number of devices that can be fabricated on a single chip due to the number of electrical contacts available, without the need to alter existing experimental set ups.

Al-Taie, H., E-mail: ha322@cam.ac.uk; Kelly, M. J. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom) [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Smith, L. W.; Xu, B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); See, P. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)] [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

2013-06-17

214

Long Working Hours and Subsequent Use of Psychotropic Medicine: A Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only very much overtime, but also moderate overtime (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. Objective The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. Methods People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. Results The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015. Conclusions The proposed project will be free from hindsight bias, since all hypotheses and statistical models are completely defined, peer-reviewed, and published before we link the exposure data to the outcome data. The results of the project will indicate to what extent and in what direction the national burden of mental ill health in Denmark has been influenced by long working hours. PMID:25239125

Albertsen, Karen

2014-01-01

215

Study and Analysis of the Internet Protocol Security and Its Impact on Interactive Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is the defacto standard, which offers secured Internet communications, providing traffic integrity, confidentiality and authentication. Besides this, it is assumed that IPSec is not suitable for the protection of realtime audio transmissions as the IPSec related enlargement of packets and the usage of the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode contradict stringent requirements. IPSec overhead of at least 44 bytes for each Internet Protocol (IP)-packet cannot guarantee Quality of Service (QOS) due to a bad wireless link by which the Ethernet flow control intercepts and makes a real time transmission impossible.

Khan, Arshi; Ansari, Seema

216

System module: a new chip-on-chip module technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new module technology,which we named System module, has been developed. This System module consists of two or more LSI chips which are divided into optimized functions, and these chips are stacked together opposite each other using small bumps by MBB technology, and it is possible to treat with this module like a single chip. This module enables one to

T. Mimura; T. Yoshida; K. Nagao; S. Takehashi; T. Ohtsuka; K. Matsumura; T. Kawakita; S. Yamaguchi; A. Matsuzawa; H. Fujimoto; K. Hatada; I. Yamane; T. Matsuki; T. Yamashita; Y. Kasuga; T. Suzuki

1997-01-01

217

Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC)  

E-print Network

Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC) experiment on ExoMars 7th Appleton Space, Cranfield University #12;How to detect evidence of Life in on Mars? Photo: Karl Johaentges #12;ESA's ExoMars rover (CGI version 2010) Life Marker Chip Flight Model design (early 2010) Lateral flow immunoassay (e

218

Application of the Putting Women First protocol in a study on violence against immigrant women in Spain.  

PubMed

In this paper, we describe our experience of using the Putting Women First protocol in the design and implementation of a cross-sectional study on violence against women (VAW) among 1607 immigrant women from Morocco, Ecuador and Romania living in Spain in 2011. The Putting Women First protocol is an ethical guideline for VAW research, which includes recommendations to ensure the safety of the women involved in studies on this subject. The response rate in this study was 59.3%. The prevalence of VAW cases last year was 11.7%, of which 15.6% corresponded to Ecuadorian women, 10.9% to Moroccan women and 8.6% to Romanian women. We consider that the most important goal for future research is the use of VAW scales validated in different languages, which would help to overcome the language barriers encountered in this study. PMID:23537853

Torrubiano-Domnguez, Jordi; Vives-Cases, Carmen

2013-01-01

219

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an  

E-print Network

): An international consortium to identify risk and protective factors and biomarkers of cognitive ageing and dementia are in progress internationally, but the insights from these studies into the risk and protective factors projects investigating rates of cognitive decline, risk and protective factors for mild cognitive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

EHS-Net Leafy Greens Study EHS-Net Leafy Greens Handling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

of leafy green handling policies and practices in food service establishments. The purpose of this study is to collect descriptive data on leafy green handling policies and preparation practices in food service and preparation (e.g., through preventing ill food workers from handling food); and survival and amplification

221

Review of recent studies and issues regarding the P300-based complex trial protocol for detection of concealed information.  

PubMed

In this review, the evolution of new P300-based protocols for detection of concealed information is summarized. The P300-based complex trial protocol (CTP) is described as one such countermeasure (CM)-resistant protocol. Recent lapses in diagnostic accuracy (from 90% to 75%) with CTPs applied to mock crime protocols are summarized, as well as recent enhancements to the CTP which have restored accuracy. These enhancements include 1) use of performance feedback during testing, 2) use of other ERP components such as N200 in diagnosis, 3) use of auxiliary tests, including the autobiographical implicit association test, as leading to restored diagnostic accuracy, and 4) a study of the mechanisms underlying CMs. A novel, doubly efficient version of the CTP involving presentation of two probes in one trial is described as a new way to improve accuracy to levels above 90% in mock crime situations. Finally, a thorough analysis of the legal issues surrounding use of the CTP in U.S. is given. PMID:24012907

Rosenfeld, J Peter; Hu, Xiaoqing; Labkovsky, Elena; Meixner, John; Winograd, Michael R

2013-11-01

222

Simple and inexpensive DNA extraction protocol for studying the bacterial composition of sludges used in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Bacteria oxidize organic matter and nutrients to produce electric energy in microbial fuel cells (MFC) - a technology of increasing importance because of its sustainability. To improve the performance of MFCs, it is necessary not only to gain a better understanding of MFC engineering designs, but also to improve the understanding of the composition of the microbial communities in MFCs. Fast and efficient DNA extraction protocols that are suitable for extracting diverse bacterial genomes are necessary to identify the bacterial diversity present in MFCs and to further monitor the dynamic changes of microbial communities. This study focused on testing different direct cell lysis protocols to extract DNA from a microbial sludge harvested from an MFC. The protocol that achieved the best results was based on a previous study, but was modified by eliminating a chaotropic salt and the special columns used for nucleic acid purification. The efficiency of this less expensive and more straightforward protocol was confirmed by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, which confirmed the extraction of multiple genomes. The sequences of 10 clones revealed the presence of phyla, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, comprising both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Some of these bacteria were identified at the genus level, e.g., Clostridium, Pseudoxanthomonas, Tistrella, and Enterobacter; these genera have been described in active sludges from wastewater treatment, supporting the congruency of our results. Therefore, this protocol is a useful tool for analysis of the bacteria responsible for energy production in MFCs. PMID:23408415

Canto-Canch, B; Tzec-Sim, M; Vzquez-Lora, J I; Espadas-lvarez, H; Ch-Manzanero, B H; Rojas-Herrera, R; Valdez-Ojeda, R; Alzate-Gaviria, L

2013-01-01

223

Function, Adjustment, Quality of Life and Symptoms (FAQS) in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) Survivors: A Study Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe population of survivors following allogeneic HSCT continues to increase, and yet their experiences of recovery and long-term\\u000a survivorship have not been fully characterized. This paper presents a study protocol examining over time the functional status,\\u000a psychosocial adjustment, health-related quality of life, and symptom experience of survivors who have undergone allogeneic\\u000a transplantation. The aims of the study are to: 1)

Margaret F Bevans; Sandra A Mitchell; A John Barrett; Michael Bishop; Richard Childs; Daniel Fowler; Michael Krumlauf; Patricia Prince; Nonniekaye Shelburne; Leslie Wehrlen

2011-01-01

224

The Study to Understand Mortality and Morbidity in COPD (SUMMIT) study protocol.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often coexists with other chronic diseases and comorbidities that can markedly influence patients' health status and prognosis. This is particularly true for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there have been no trials assessing the effect of COPD medications on CVD in patients with both diseases. The "Study to Understand Mortality and Morbidity in COPD" (SUMMIT) aims at determining the impact of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination and the individual components on the survival of patients with moderate COPD and either a history of CVD or at increased risk for CVD. SUMMIT is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of 16 000 patients with moderate COPD randomly assigned to once daily treatment with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (100/25 ?g), fluticasone furoate (100 ?g), vilanterol (25 ?g) or matched placebo; mortality is the primary end-point. The study is an event-driven trial powered by the comparison of furoate/vilanterol versus placebo. Secondary end-points are decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and effect on a composite cardiovascular end-point. This article describes the design of the SUMMIT study. PMID:23018908

Vestbo, Jrgen; Anderson, Julie; Brook, Robert D; Calverley, Peter M A; Celli, Bartolome R; Crim, Courtney; Haumann, Brett; Martinez, Fernando J; Yates, Julie; Newby, David E

2013-05-01

225

SALGOT - Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg, prospective cohort study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Recovery patterns of upper extremity motor function have been described in several longitudinal studies, but most of these studies have had selected samples, short follow up times or insufficient outcomes on motor function. The general understanding is that improvements in upper extremity occur mainly during the first month after the stroke incident and little if any, significant recovery can be gained after 3-6 months. The purpose of this study is to describe the recovery of upper extremity function longitudinally in a non-selected sample initially admitted to a stroke unit with first ever stroke, living in Gothenburg urban area. Methods/Design A sample of 120 participants with a first-ever stroke and impaired upper extremity function will be consecutively included from an acute stroke unit and followed longitudinally for one year. Assessments are performed at eight occasions: at day 3 and 10, week 3, 4 and 6, month 3, 6 and 12 after onset of stroke. The primary clinical outcome measures are Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity. As additional measures, two new computer based objective methods with kinematic analysis of arm movements are used. The ABILHAND questionnaire of manual ability, Stroke Impact Scale, grip strength, spasticity, pain, passive range of motion and cognitive function will be assessed as well. At one year follow up, two patient reported outcomes, Impact on Participation and Autonomy and EuroQol Quality of Life Scale, will be added to cover the status of participation and aspects of health related quality of life. Discussion This study comprises a non-selected population with first ever stroke and impaired arm function. Measurements are performed both using traditional clinical assessments as well as computer based measurement systems providing objective kinematic data. The ICF classification of functioning, disability and health is used as framework for the selection of assessment measures. The study design with several repeated measurements on motor function will give us more confident information about the recovery patterns after stroke. This knowledge is essential both for optimizing rehabilitation planning as well as providing important information to the patient about the recovery perspectives. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01115348 PMID:21612620

2011-01-01

226

Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods/Design The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ? 5 servings/day to ? 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ? 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B) selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet). Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. Discussion This study will provide information on midlife womens bone health and how a dietary intervention increasing fruit and vegetable/herb intake affects bone, inflammatory and metabolic markers and urinary electrolyte excretion. It assesses changes in nutrient intake, estimated dietary acid load and sodium: potassium ratios. The study also explores whether specific fruit/vegetables and herbs with bone resorbing properties has an effect on bone markers. Trial registration ACTRN 12611000763943 PMID:23305630

2013-01-01

227

On Kill Curves and Sampling Protocols: Studying the Relationships between Impact and Extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pioneering efforts of Raup (1990) have suggested that a relationship exists between crater diameter and percentage of organisms killed as a result of meteor or comet impact with the Earth. The new data (coming from study of the Manson and Chicxulub craters) suggest that the nature of target rock may be a factor nearly as important as impacter size, and that other aspects of the target, including its latitude, the atmospheric and climate conditions characterizing the Earth, as well as the stage of biological evolution and community development at the time of impact are factors which all must be factored into any new kill curve. It may be that no single 'curve' is appropriate, but that a family of curves may be necessary to model the biological effects of large impacts. We propose that a new protocol be developed to better constrain and understand the relationship between impact and extinction. Rather than searching known mass extinction boundaries for evidence of impact (an exercise which up to now has demonstrated that only the Chicxulub crater can be unambiguously related to a mass extinction of planetary scale), we propose that four known craters be investigated to see if they are temporally correlated with extinction at any detectable level. We suggest that Kara, Popigai, Manson, and Manicouagan Craters be investigated in the following way. First, what is their age? The Manson lesson is that the first step in understanding the relationship between impact and extinction is through reliable age dating. Second, can distal components of the impact ejecta (spherules, shocked quartz, and mineral signatures) be located from sedimentary record? Third, once identified, do these signatures coincide with paleontological or geochemical markers of extinction in either the synoptic literature, or from actual outcrops (or deep sea cores).

Ward, Peter D.

1997-05-01

228

Staged transthoracic approach to persistent atrial fibrillation (TOP-AF): study protocol for a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent atrial fibrillation frequently shows multiple different electrophysiological mechanisms of induction. This heterogeneity causes a low success rate of single procedures of ablation and a high incidence of recurrence. Surgical ablation through bilateral thoracotomy demonstrates better results after a single procedure. Prospective observational studies in inhomogeneous populations without control groups report a remarkable 90% of success with hybrid or staged procedures of surgical ablation coupled with catheter ablation. In this trial, we will examine the hypothesis that a staged approach involving initial minimally invasive surgical ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation, followed by a second percutaneous procedure in case of recurrence, has a higher success rate than repeated percutaneous procedures. Methods/Design This is a controlled (2:1) randomized trial comparing use of a percutaneous catheter with minimally invasive transthoracic surgical ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation. The inclusion and exclusion criteria, definitions, and treatment protocols are those reported by the 2012 Expert Consensus Statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. Patients will be randomized to either percutaneous catheter (n?=?100) or surgical (n?=?50) ablation as the first procedure. After 3 months, they are re-evaluated, according to the same guidelines, and receive a second procedure if necessary. Crossover will be allowed and data analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Primary outcomes are the incidence of sinus rhythm at 6 and 12 months and the proportions of patients requiring a second procedure. Discussion The use of a staged strategy combining surgical and percutaneous approaches might be more favorable in treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation than the controversial single percutaneous ablation. Trial registration ISRCTN08035058 Reg 06.20.2013 PMID:24885377

2014-01-01

229

Ship the Chip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore engineering package designs that meet the needs of safely shipping a product. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design a package using standard materials that will safely ship a single chip through the mail to their address.

Ieee

2014-05-23

230

Communications protocol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

231

The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH) is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11-17. 55% were male and 45% female. Discussion SEARCH is built on strong community partnerships, under Aboriginal leadership, and addresses community priorities relating to a number of under-researched areas. SEARCH will provide a unique long-term resource to investigate the causes and trajectories of health and illness in urban Aboriginal children and to identify potential targets for interventions to improve health. PMID:20507632

2010-01-01

232

Empirical and analytical study of a multicast synchronous transport protocol for intracampus replication services  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze a multicast protocol called MUST (multicast synchronous transfer), which offers multicast file transfer service to the application layer, in an intracampus environment (several interconnected LAN networks). Synchronicity is one of its more remarkable attributes since MUST guarantees that all clients are receiving the information at the same time. For an efficient bandwidth utilization, MUST transmits

P. Manzanares-Lopez; J. C. Sanchez-Aarnoutse; J. Malgosa-Sanahuja; J. Garcia-Haro

2004-01-01

233

Security-typed languages for implementation of cryptographic protocols: A case study  

E-print Network

/TLS protocols [1] uncover insecure implementations that can be exploited to allow a remote attacker to execute to preventing insecure information flows (see [39] for a survey). These lan- guages allow labeling sensitive. Nevertheless, "despite this large body of literature and considerable, ongoing attention from the research

Sabelfeld, Andrei

234

Cryotherapy for acute ankle sprains: a randomised controlled study of two different icing protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The use of cryotherapy in the management of acute soft tissue injury is largely based on anecdotal evidence. Preliminary evidence suggests that intermittent cryotherapy applications are most effective at reducing tissue temperature to optimal therapeutic levels. However, its efficacy in treating injured human subjects is not yet known.Objective: : To compare the efficacy of an intermittent cryotherapy treatment protocol

C M Bleakley; S M McDonough; D C MacAuley

2006-01-01

235

Methods for inclusion: Employing think aloud protocols in software usability studies with individuals who are deaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usability is an important step in the software and product design cycle. There are a number of methodologies such as talk aloud protocol, and cognitive walkthrough that can be employed in usability evaluations. However, many of these methods are not designed to include users with disabilities. Legislation and good design practice should provide incentives for researchers in this field to

Vera Louise Roberts; Deborah I. Fels

2006-01-01

236

Study protocol: safety correction of high dose antipsychotic polypharmacy in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background In Japan, combination therapy with high doses of antipsychotic drugs is common, but as a consequence, many patients with schizophrenia report extrapyramidal and autonomic nervous system side effects. To resolve this, we proposed a method of safety correction of high dose antipsychotic polypharmacy (the SCAP method), in which the initial total dose of all antipsychotic drugs is calculated and converted to a chlorpromazine equivalent (expressed as milligrams of chlorpromazine, mg CP). The doses of low-potency antipsychotic drugs are then reduced by???25mg CP/week, and the doses of high-potency antipsychotics are decreased at a rate of ?50mg CP/week. Although a randomized, case-controlled comparative study has demonstrated the safety of this method, the number of participants was relatively small and its results required further validation. In this study of the SCAP method, we aimed to substantially increase the number of participants. Methods/design The participants were in- or outpatients treated with two or more antipsychotics at doses of 5001,500mg CP/day. Consenting participants were randomized into control and dose reduction groups. In the control group, patients continued with their normal regimen for 3months without a dose change before undergoing the SCAP protocol. The dose reduction group followed the SCAP strategy over 36 months with a subsequent 3-month follow-up period. Outcome measures were measured at baseline and then at 3-month intervals, and included clinical symptoms measured on the Manchester scale, the extent of extrapyramidal and autonomic side effects, and quality of life using the Euro QOL scale. We also measured blood drug concentrations and drug efficacy-associated biochemical parameters. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese version, was also undertaken in centers where it was available. Discussion The safety and efficacy of the SCAP method required further validation in a large randomized trial. The design of this study aimed to address some of the limitations of the previous case-controlled study, to build a more robust evidence base to assist clinicians in their efforts to reduce potentially harmful polypharmacy in this vulnerable group of patients. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000004511. PMID:24708857

2014-01-01

237

Moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis: study protocol of a multicentre randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of knee osteoarthritis, which is a major cause of disability among the elderly, is typically selected from multidisciplinary options, including complementary and alternative medicine. Moxibustion has been used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in Korea to reduce pain and improve physical activity. However, there is no sufficient evidence of its effectiveness, and it cannot therefore be widely recommended for treating knee osteoarthritis. We designed a randomised controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, and qualitative characteristics of moxibustion treatment of knee osteoarthritis compared to usual care. Methods/designs This is a protocol for a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, assessor-blinded, controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 212 participants will be assigned to the moxibustion group (n?=?106) and the usual care group (n?=?106) at 4 clinical research centres. The participants assigned to the moxibustion group will receive moxibustion treatment of the affected knee(s) at 6 standard acupuncture points (ST36, ST35, ST34, SP9, Ex-LE04, and SP10) 3 times per week for 4 weeks (a total of 12 sessions). Participants in the usual care group will not receive moxibustion treatment during the study period. Follow-up will be performed on the 5th and 13th weeks after random allocation. Both groups will be allowed to use any type of treatment, including surgery, conventional medication, physical treatment, acupuncture, herbal medicine, over-the-counter drugs, and other active treatments. Educational material that explains knee osteoarthritis, the current management options, and self-exercise will be provided to each group. The global scale of the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (K-WOMAC) will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. Other subscales (pain, stiffness, and function) of the K-WOMAC, the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Physical Function test, Patient Global Assessment, and the Pain Numerical Rating Scale will be used as outcome variables to evaluate the effectiveness of moxibustion. Safety will be assessed at every visit. In addition, an economic evaluation and a qualitative study will be conducted as a mixed-methods approach. Discussion This trial may contribute to developing evidence for the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis. Trial registration Trial registration number: KCT0000130 PMID:23497032

2013-01-01

238

Advanced Flip Chips in Extreme Temperature Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of underfill materials is necessary with flip-chip interconnect technology to redistribute stresses due to mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between dissimilar materials in the overall assembly. Underfills are formulated using organic polymers and possibly inorganic filler materials. There are a few ways to apply the underfills with flip-chip technology. Traditional capillary-flow underfill materials now possess high flow speed and reduced time to cure, but they still require additional processing steps beyond the typical surface-mount technology (SMT) assembly process. Studies were conducted using underfills in a temperature range of -190 to 85 C, which resulted in an increase of reliability by one to two orders of magnitude. Thermal shock of the flip-chip test articles was designed to induce failures at the interconnect sites (-40 to 100 C). The study on the reliability of flip chips using underfills in the extreme temperature region is of significant value for space applications. This technology is considered as an enabling technology for future space missions. Flip-chip interconnect technology is an advanced electrical interconnection approach where the silicon die or chip is electrically connected, face down, to the substrate by reflowing solder bumps on area-array metallized terminals on the die to matching footprints of solder-wettable pads on the chosen substrate. This advanced flip-chip interconnect technology will significantly improve the performance of high-speed systems, productivity enhancement over manual wire bonding, self-alignment during die joining, low lead inductances, and reduced need for attachment of precious metals. The use of commercially developed no-flow fluxing underfills provides a means of reducing the processing steps employed in the traditional capillary flow methods to enhance SMT compatibility. Reliability of flip chips may be significantly increased by matching/tailoring the CTEs of the substrate material and the silicon die or chip, and also the underfill materials. Advanced packaging interconnects technology such as flip-chip interconnect test boards have been subjected to various extreme temperature ranges that cover military specifications and extreme Mars and asteroid environments. The eventual goal of each process step and the entire process is to produce components with 100 percent interconnect and satisfy the reliability requirements. Underfill materials, in general, may possibly meet demanding end use requirements such as low warpage, low stress, fine pitch, high reliability, and high adhesion.

Ramesham, Rajeshuni

2010-01-01

239

The Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite recent advances in acute stroke treatment, basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is associated with a death or disability rate of close to 70%. Randomised trials have shown the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) given within 4.5 h and have shown promising results of intra-arterial thrombolysis given within 6 h of symptom onset of acute ischaemic stroke, but these results do not directly apply to patients with an acute BAO because only few, if any, of these patients were included in randomised acute stroke trials. Recently the results of the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS), a prospective registry of patients with acute symptomatic BAO challenged the often-held assumption that intra-arterial treatment (IAT) is superior to IVT. Our observations in the BASICS registry underscore that we continue to lack a proven treatment modality for patients with an acute BAO and that current clinical practice varies widely. Design BASICS is a randomised controlled, multicentre, open label, phase III intervention trial with blinded outcome assessment, investigating the efficacy and safety of additional IAT after IVT in patients with BAO. The trial targets to include 750 patients, aged 18 to 85 years, with CT angiography or MR angiography confirmed BAO treated with IVT. Patients will be randomised between additional IAT followed by optimal medical care versus optimal medical care alone. IVT has to be initiated within 4.5 h from estimated time of BAO and IAT within 6 h. The primary outcome parameter will be favourable outcome at day 90 defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 03. Discussion The BASICS registry was observational and has all the limitations of a non-randomised study. As the IAT approach becomes increasingly available and frequently utilised an adequately powered randomised controlled phase III trial investigating the added value of this therapy in patients with an acute symptomatic BAO is needed (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01717755). PMID:23835026

2013-01-01

240

Intel 8080 CPU Chip Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a year of the introduction of Intel's first 8-bit CPU chip, the 8008, in April 1972, the author was working on the design specification for a faster and more capable CPU chip, the 8080. Here, the author describes the development of the 8080 chip that helped launch the personal computer industry. The author also addresses two common complaints about

Stanley Mazor; Laurie Robertson

2007-01-01

241

Machining -Chip Formation, Cutting Fluids,  

E-print Network

) continuous chip with large primary shear zone; (d) continuous chip with built-up edge; (e) segmented Discontinuous Continuous Catastrophic 50 100 Built-up edge Chip Shear localized hi Catastrophic shear Complete Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 10 ­ cracks extend into workpiece #12;Formation of Built up Edge (BUE

Colton, Jonathan S.

242

Chip Multithreading: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chip Multi-Threaded (CMT) processors provide support for many simultaneous hardware threads of execution in various ways, including Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) and Chip Multiprocessing (CMP). CMT processors are especially suited to server workloads, which generally have high levels of Thread- Level Parallelism (TLP). In this paper, we describe the evolution of CMT chips in industry and highlight the pervasiveness of CMT

Lawrence Spracklen; Santosh G. Abraham

2005-01-01

243

Optimization for Chip Stack in 3-D Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing three-dimensional (3-D) packaging technology for forming through-type electrodes in chips that are then directly connected in stacks. The model examined in this study is defined by its simple structure. The structure was optimized for successful connection in a chip stack without degrading the features of the chips. The use of this structure enabled a stable and

Kazumi Hara; Yohei Kurashima; Nobuaki Hashimoto; Kuniyasu Matsui; Yoshihide Matsuo; Ikuya Miyazawa; Tomonaga Kobayashi; Yoshihiko Yokoyama; Motohiko Fukazawa

2005-01-01

244

Interaction between reinforcing geosynthetics and soil-tire chip mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of tire chips and soil-tire chip mixtures relevant to geosynthetic-reinforced earthworks. Tests were conducted to evaluate shear strength and pull-out capacity with a woven geotextile and two geogrids. Soil-tire chip mixtures made with clean sand and sandy silt were tested. These properties were then used to assess the

Nilay Tatlisoz; Tuncer B. Edil; Craig H. Benson

1998-01-01

245

Improving adherence to web-based cessation programs: a randomized controlled trial study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing smoking prevalence is a public health priority that can save more lives and money than almost any other known preventive intervention. Internet interventions have the potential for enormous public health impact given their broad reach and effectiveness. However, most users engage only minimally with even the best designed websites, diminishing their impact due to an insufficient dose. Two approaches to improve adherence to Internet cessation programs are integrating smokers into an online social network and providing free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Active participation in online communities is associated with higher rates of cessation. Integrating smokers into an online social network can increase support and may also increase utilization of cessation tools and NRT. Removing barriers to NRT may increase uptake and adherence, and may also increase use of online cessation tools as smokers look for information and support while quitting. The combination of both strategies may exert the most powerful effects on adherence compared to either strategy alone. Methods/Design This study compares the efficacy of a smoking cessation website (WEB) alone and in conjunction with free NRT and a social network (SN) protocol designed to integrate participants into the online community. Using a 2 (SN, no SN) x 2 (NRT, no NRT) randomized, controlled factorial design with repeated measures at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months, this study will recruit N = 4,000 new members of an internet cessation program and randomize them to: 1) WEB, 2) WEB + SN, 3) WEB + NRT, or 4) WEB + SN + NRT. Hypotheses are that all interventions will outperform WEB and that WEB + SN + NRT will outperform WEB + NRT and WEB + SN on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 9 months. Exploratory analyses will examine theory-driven hypotheses about the mediators and moderators of outcome. Discussion Addressing adherence in internet cessation programs is critical and timely to leverage their potential public health impact. This study is innovative in its use of a social network approach to improve behavioral and pharmacological treatment utilization to improve cessation. This approach is significant for reducing tobaccos devastating disease burden and for optimizing behavior change in other arenas where adherence is just as critical. Trial registration ISRCTN:ISRCTN45127327 PMID:23414086

2013-01-01

246

Implementing preclinical study findings to protocol design: translational studies with alloreactive CTL for gliomas  

PubMed Central

We are accruing patients to a Phase I dose escalation cellular therapy trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01144247) involving intratumoral placement of alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (alloCTL) for recurrent gliomas. The trial is being conducted to confirm the findings of a prior pilot study that indicated this adjuvant therapy may be beneficial in extending survival of recurrent WHO grade III gliomas. To reduce costs of the cellular therapy, we tested a number of synthetic tissue culture media and found the AIM-V growth medium superior for their growth. We also moved the production of the alloCTL from artificial capillary systems to less expensive tissue culture bags. To standardize alloCTL infusates used for therapy, release criteria of ?60% CD3+ and ?60% viability were established that consistently translated to a 4 hr cytotoxicity of ?30% at a 30:1 effector to target ratio. To allow time for completion of quality control testing and transport to the infusion site, we determined that 30,000 IU of human recombinant Interleukin-2 in the cellular infusates sufficiently retained cell viability and cytotoxicity to allow a 10 hr expiration time to be placed on the infusates. We identified a cytotoxic T cell subset, CD3+/CD8+/CD69+, that demonstrated upregulated IFN-? production upon exposure to relevant target cells. The phenotypic identification of this T cell subset was indicative of robust in vitro cytotoxic function and thus will be followed to determine if it correlates with patient immune response to treatment. Finally, other therapeutic agents routinely used for glioma treatment were integrated into an analysis of alloCTL cytotoxic functionality. Temozolomide and bevacizumab do not adversely affect cytotoxic function of the alloCTL in the short-term, thus providing rationale for further investigating combinatorial chemo-immunotherapy for gliomas. PMID:22347526

Hickey, Michelle J; Malone, Colin C; Erickson, Kate E; Gomez, German G; Young, Emma L; Liau, Linda M; Prins, Robert M; Kruse, Carol A

2012-01-01

247

A multidisciplinary study using in vivo tumor models and microfluidic cell-on-chip approach to explore the cross-talk between cancer and immune cells.  

PubMed

Abstract A full elucidation of events occurring inside the cancer microenvironment is fundamental for the optimization of more effective therapies. In the present study, the cross-talk between cancer and immune cells was examined by employing mice deficient (KO) in interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-8, a transcription factor essential for induction of competent immune responses. The in vivo results showed that IRF-8 KO mice were highly permissive to B16.F10 melanoma growth and metastasis due to failure of their immune cells to exert proper immunosurveillance. These events were found to be dependent on soluble factors released by cells of the immune system capable of shaping the malignant phenotype of melanoma cells. An on-chip model was then generated to further explore the reciprocal interactions between the B16.F10 and immune cells. B16.F10 and immune cells were co-cultured in a microfluidic device composed of three culturing chambers suitably inter-connected by an array of microchannels; mutual interactions were then followed using time-lapse microscopy. It was observed that WT immune cells migrated through the microchannels towards the B16.F10 cells, establishing tight interactions that in turn limited tumor spread. In contrast, IRF-8 KO immune cells poorly interacted with the melanoma cells, resulting in a more invasive behavior of the B16.F10 cells. These results suggest that IRF-8 expression plays a key role in the cross-talk between melanoma and immune cells, and under-score the value of cell-on-chip approaches as useful in vitro tools to reconstruct complex in vivo microenvironments on a microscale level to explore cell interactions such as those occurring within a cancer immunoenvironment. PMID:24597645

Mattei, Fabrizio; Schiavoni, Giovanna; De Ninno, Adele; Lucarini, Valeria; Sestili, Paola; Sistigu, Antonella; Fragale, Alessandra; Sanchez, Massimo; Spada, Massimo; Gerardino, Annamaria; Belardelli, Filippo; Businaro, Luca; Gabriele, Lucia

2014-10-01

248

Longitudinal Evaluation of Transition Services ("LETS Study"): Protocol for outcome evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Because of advances in medical treatment, most children with physical disabilities can expect to achieve near normal life spans. Typically, coordinated teams of health care providers in specialized pediatric settings care for these children. As these children reach adulthood, however, the availability of services and expertise changes because the adult health care system has different processes designed to meet their specialized needs. Gaps in continuity of care during the transition from pediatric to adult services, and associated poor health outcomes are well documented. In response, new models of care are being introduced to address the complex process of health care transition. This paper describes a study protocol of a client-centred, prospective, longitudinal, mixed-method evaluation of linked model of health care across the lifespan (the LIFEspan Model), offered by a pediatric rehabilitation centre and an adult rehabilitation centre. Method This project will include a process and an outcome evaluation of the LIFEspan Model. The process evaluation will detail the specific service delivery that occurs with respect to preparation for transition and transfer of care through chart audits of pediatric medical records and qualitative interviews with LIFEspan staff. The outcome evaluation will measure the effect of the model on: 1) maintaining continuity within the health care system from pediatric to adult care; and 2) secondary outcomes related to health, well-being, social participation, transition readiness, and health care utilization of youth with cerebral palsy and acquired brain injury. Standardized instruments will include Health Utilities Inventory, Assessment of Life Habits, Arcs Self-Determination, Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life, Partners in Health Questionnaire, Social Support Questionnaire, and Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease. Discussion The LETS study will be original in its undertaking of a prospective examination of outcomes 1-year post-transition, use of multiple comparison groups, and absence of disability-related exclusion criteria ensuring that the transition experiences of varied populations of young people and their families will be represented. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT00975338 PMID:22587415

2012-01-01

249

Protocol Building Blocks Protocol Design  

E-print Network

Advanced Language: SML ffl Implementation: SML/NJ ffl Systems Program: TCP/IP protocol stack + 3 #12; + + Standard TCP/IP Protocol Stack device/OS device driver Ethernet IP TCP Application structure Dev = Ethernet??Device (...) structure Eth = Eth (structure Dev = Dev) structure Ip = Ip (structure Lower = Eth) structure Tcp = Tcp

Biagioni, Edoardo S.

250

Stanford University Special Considerations for the Oversight of Research GUI-26m Research Compliance Office Protocols in FDA-regulated Drug or Device Studies  

E-print Network

Compliance Office Protocols in FDA-regulated Drug or Device Studies File:GUI01026 rev2 03/06 1 of 2 Considerations for the Oversight of Research GUI-26m Research Compliance Office Protocols in FDA-regulated Drug according to the signed statement, the investigational plan, and applicable regulations. protecting

Puglisi, Joseph

251

Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols  

SciTech Connect

This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

2002-05-07

252

Hardwood chips as an alternative medium for container plant production  

SciTech Connect

Chips of Quercus stellata and Ulmus pumila were used as components of container growth media for Pyracantha X Mojave and Liquidambar formosana. Both species grew at least as well in the wood chip media as in conventional pine bark medium. Micronutrients were of little benefit to plants in the oak chip medium but did increase plant growth in the elm chip medium. Drainable pore space decreased markedly during the growing season, indicating decomposition; however, roots appeared normal when the study ended. Adding N above the level generally used with a pine bark medium did not improve growth. 17 references.

Kenna, S.W.; Whitcomb, C.E.

1985-01-01

253

A Comparative Study of Wireless Protocols: Bluetooth, UWB, ZigBee, and Wi-Fi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bluetooth (over IEEE 802.15.1), ultra-wideband (UWB, over IEEE 802.15.3), ZigBee (over IEEE 802.15.4), and Wi-Fi (over IEEE 802.11) are four protocol standards for short- range wireless communications with low power consumption. From an application point of view, bluetooth is intended for a cordless mouse, keyboard, and hands-free headset, UWB is oriented to high-bandwidth multimedia links, ZigBee is designed for reliable

Jin-Shyan Lee; Yu-Wei Su; Chung-Chou Shen

2007-01-01

254

A randomised controlled trial linking mental health inpatients to community smoking cessation supports: A study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than the general population and are disproportionately affected by tobacco\\u000a dependence. Despite the advent of smoke free policies within mental health hospitals, limited systems are in place to support\\u000a a cessation attempt post hospitalisation, and international evidence suggests that most smokers return to pre-admission smoking\\u000a levels following discharge. This protocol describes a randomised

Emily AL Stockings; Jennifer A Bowman; John Wiggers; Amanda L Baker; Margarett Terry; Richard Clancy; Paula M Wye; Jenny Knight; Lyndell H Moore

2011-01-01

255

The stages of implementation completion for evidence-based practice: protocol for a mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background This protocol describes the development of outcome measures and suitable methodologies for dissemination and implementation approaches, a priority for implementation research. Although many evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been developed, large knowledge gaps remain regarding how to routinely move EBPs into usual care. The lack of understanding of what it takes to install EBPs has costly public health consequences, including a lack of availability of the most beneficial services, wasted efforts and resources on failed implementation attempts, and the potential for engendering reluctance to try implementing new EBPs after failed attempts. The Stages of Implementation Completion (SIC) is an eight-stage tool of implementation process and milestones, with stages spanning three implementation phases (pre-implementation, implementation, sustainability). Items delineate the date that a site completes implementation activities, yielding an assessment of duration (time to complete a stage), proportion (of stage activities completed), and a general measure of how far a site moved in the implementation process. Methods/Design We propose to extend the SIC to EBPs operating in child service sectors (juvenile justice, schools, substance use, child welfare). Both successful and failed implementation attempts will be scrutinized using a mixed methods design. Stage costs will be measured and examined. Both retrospective data (from previous site implementation efforts) and prospective data (from newly adopting sites) will be analyzed. The influence of pre-implementation on implementation and sustainability outcomes will be examined (Aim 1). Mixed methods procedures will focus on increasing understanding of the process of implementation failure in an effort to determine if the SIC can provide early detection of sites that are unlikely to succeed (Aim 2). Study activities will include cost mapping of SIC stages and an examination of the relationship between implementation costs and implementation performance (Aim 3). Discussion This project fills a gap in the field of implementation science by addressing the measurement gap between the implementation process and the associated costs. The goal of this project is to provide tools that will help increase the uptake of EBPs, thereby increasing the availability of services to youth and decreasing wasted resources from failed implementation efforts. PMID:24708893

2014-01-01

256

A recall-by-genotype study of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype, cotinine and smoking topography: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between several loci in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster CHRNA5-A3-B4 and daily cigarette consumption. Recent studies have sought to refine this phenotype, and have shown that a locus within this cluster, marked primarily by rs1051730 and rs16969968, is also associated with levels of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine. This association remains after adjustment for self-reported smoking, which suggests that even amongst people who smoke the same number of cigarettes there is still genetically-influenced variation in nicotine consumption. This is likely to be due to differences in smoking topography, that is, how a cigarette is smoked (e.g., volume of smoke inhaled per puff, number of puffs taken per cigarette). The aim of this study is to determine potential mediation of the relationship between the rs1051730 locus and cotinine levels by smoking topography. Methods/Design Adopting a recall-by-genotype design, we will recruit 200 adults from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children on the basis of minor or major homozygote status at rs1051730 (100 in each genotype group). All participants will be current, daily smokers. Our primary study outcome measures will be measures of smoking topography: total volume of smoke (ml) inhaled per cigarette, total volume of smoke (ml) inhaled over of the course of one day, and salivary cotinine level (ng/ml). Discussion This study will extend our understanding of the biological basis of inter-individual variability in heaviness of smoking, and therefore in exposure to smoking-related toxins. The novel recall-by-genotype approach we will use is efficient, maximising statistical power, and enables the collection of extremely precise phenotypic data that are impractical to collect in a larger sample. The methods described within this protocol also hold the potential for wider application in the field of molecular genetics. PMID:24451018

2014-01-01

257

The COMPlaints After Stroke (COMPAS) study: protocol for a Dutch cohort study on poststroke subjective cognitive complaints  

PubMed Central

Background Although many studies have assessed poststroke objective cognitive impairment, only a few have evaluated patients subjective cognitive complaints (SCC). Although these SCC are found to be common in the early and chronic phases after stroke, knowledge about their risk factors, course over time, differences with healthy controls and their diagnostic relevance is limited. The aim of the COMPlaints After Stroke (COMPAS) study is therefore to determine the possible risk factors, prognosis, time course and predictive value of SCC in the first 2?years after stroke. Methods and design A prospective cohort study is conducted in which patients are compared to non-stroke controls at 3, 6, 12 and 24?months after stroke. Approximately 300 patients are recruited from the stroke units of three hospitals in the Netherlands, while 300 controls are sought among the relatives (spouses excluded) and social networks of participants. A wide range of subjective and objective variables is assessed in both groups using interviews, questionnaires and neuropsychological assessment. The primary outcomes include SCC and objective cognitive impairment, whereas secondary outcomes are quality of life, subjective recovery and daily life functioning. Ethics and dissemination The study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act. The protocol has been approved by the medical ethics committees of the participating centres and all participants give written informed consent. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the medical society and general public. Discussion The COMPAS study is the first to systematically evaluate poststroke SCC in a prospective longitudinal design, taking a wide range of subjective and objective variables into account. The results obtained can be used to accurately inform patients and their families, as well as to develop patient-tailored intervention programmes to ultimately improve stroke patient care. PMID:24056490

van Rijsbergen, Marielle W A; Mark, Ruth E; de Kort, Paul L M; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

2013-01-01

258

Chip Scale Atomic Magnetometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optically pumped magnetometer was drastically miniaturized, by taking advantage of MEMS techniques, producing the chip-scale atomic magnetometers (CSAM) physics package. The key component of the package is an alkali vapor cell. To probe the magnetic field experienced by the atoms, the injection current to the VCSEL was modulated at 3.4 GHz near half the hyperfine frequency of 87Rb. Lock-in

Peter D. D. Schwindt; B. J. Lindseth; S. Knappe; John Kitching; J. Moreland; L. Hollberg

2006-01-01

259

DNA Gene Chip Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Melton describes the process used to extract DNA from a cell and to analyze it on a gene chip. This video presentation is also featured on the DVD Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration, available free from HHMI. This video is 57 seconds in length, and available in Quicktime (13 MB) and Windows Media (20 MB) formats. All Stem Cell videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/video.html.

Dr. Melton (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2007-03-31

260

Potato Chip Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

1998-01-01

261

One-chip wonders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer demand for portable computing and mobile wireless communications will continue to drive development of functionally integrated, ultra-low-power systems on a chip. CMOS bulk processing is likely to emerge as the foundation of mixed-signal, ultra-low-power ICs because of its inherent advantages for low-power logic and flexibility in RF applications. To successfully meet time-to-market goals and shrink product-development cycles, computer-aided design

E. McShane; M. Trivedi; Ying Xu; P. Khandelwal; A. Mulay; K. Shenai

1998-01-01

262

The Combating Obesity in M?ori and Pasifika Adolescent School-Children Study: COMPASS Methodology and Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: Lifestyle modifications including, physical activity can reduce obesity-related morbidity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in youth. This study will investigate the efficacy of a culturally-sensitive, non-contact, boxing-orientated training program on obesity and related cardio-metabolic conditions in M?ori and Pasifika adolescents. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, cultural sensitivity, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation, and statistical analyses are described. Methods: This study will be a community based, New Zealand, randomized control trial (RCT). Male and female obese (body mass index >95th percentile) M?ori and Pasifika adolescents aged 14-16 years will be recruited and the sample size will be confirmed through a feasibility study. Combating Obesity in M?ori and Pasifika Adolescent School-children Study (COMPASS) is a 6-month, theory-based program, conducted 3-times/week in a culturally appropriate setting. Each session includes 40 min boxing-orientated training and 30 min resistance training. Assessments will be made at baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and 24-months. Main outcomes include abdominal obesity, endothelial function, and insulin resistance. Other outcomes include arterial stiffness, lipid profile, inflammatory biomarkers, well-being, and aerobic fitness. Control measures include physical activity, sleep behavior, and dietary intake. Results: As a protocol paper there are no specific results to present, our purpose is to share our RCT design with the scientific community. Conclusions: COMPASS will be used to provide direction for exercise prescription policy in at-risk M?ori and Pasifika adolescents. PMID:23930168

Stoner, Lee; Shultz, Sarah P.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Krebs, Jeremy; Weatherall, Mark; Palmer, Barry R.; Lane, Andrew M.; Kira, Geoff; Witter, Trevor; Williams, Michelle A.

2013-01-01

263

Survey of Robustness Enhancement Techniques for Wireless Systems-on-a-Chip and Study of Temperature as Observable for Process Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Built-in test and on-chip calibration features are becoming essential for reliable wireless connectivity of next generation\\u000a devices suffering from increasing process variations in CMOS technologies. This paper contains an overview of contemporary\\u000a self-test and performance enhancement strategies for single-chip transceivers. In general, a trend has emerged to combine\\u000a several techniques involving process variability monitoring, digital calibration, and tuning of analog

Marvin Onabajo; Didac Gmez; Eduardo Aldrete-Vidrio; Josep Altet; Diego Mateo; Jose Silva-Martinez

2011-01-01

264

Examining the impact of genetic testing for type 2 diabetes on health behaviors: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background We describe the study design, procedures, and development of the risk counseling protocol used in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of genetic testing for diabetes mellitus (DM) on psychological, health behavior, and clinical outcomes. Methods/Design Eligible patients are aged 21 to 65 years with body mass index (BMI) ?27 kg/m2 and no prior diagnosis of DM. At baseline, conventional DM risk factors are assessed, and blood is drawn for possible genetic testing. Participants are randomized to receive conventional risk counseling for DM with eye disease counseling or with genetic test results. The counseling protocol was pilot tested to identify an acceptable graphical format for conveying risk estimates and match the length of the eye disease to genetic counseling. Risk estimates are presented with a vertical bar graph denoting risk level with colors and descriptors. After receiving either genetic counseling regarding risk for DM or control counseling on eye disease, brief lifestyle counseling for prevention of DM is provided to all participants. Discussion A standardized risk counseling protocol is being used in a randomized trial of 600 participants. Results of this trial will inform policy about whether risk counseling should include genetic counseling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01060540 PMID:22852560

2012-01-01

265

The Development of the Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

A detailed description of treatment utilizing the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment, is presented using a clinical case example treated during the most current phase of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of the UP. The implementation of the UP in its current, modular version is illustrated. A working case conceptualization is presented from the perspective of the UP drawing from theory and research that underlies current transdiagnostic approaches to treatment and consistent with recent dimensional classification proposals (Brown & Barlow, in press). Treatment is illustrated module-by-module describing how the principles of the UP were applied in the presented case. PMID:23997572

Boisseau, Christina L.; Farchione, Todd J.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Ellard, Kristen K.; Barlow, David H.

2013-01-01

266

Highly expressed loci are vulnerable to misleading ChIP localization of multiple unrelated proteins  

E-print Network

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is the gold-standard technique for localizing nuclear proteins in the genome. We used ChIP, in combination with deep sequencing (Seq), to study the genome-wide distribution of the Silent ...

Teytelman, Leonid

267

Cold molecular ions on a chip  

E-print Network

We report the sympathetic cooling and Coulomb crystallization of molecular ions above the surface of an ion-trap chip. N$_2^+$ and CaH$^+$ ions were confined in a surface-electrode radiofrequency ion trap and cooled by the interaction with laser-cooled Ca$^{+}$ ions to secular translational temperatures in the millikelvin range. The configuration of trapping potentials generated by the surface electrodes enabled the formation of planar bicomponent Coulomb crystals and the spatial separation of the molecular from the atomic ions on the chip. The structural and thermal properties of the Coulomb crystals were characterized using molecular dynamics simulations. The present study extends chip-based trapping techniques to Coulomb-crystallized molecular ions with potential applications in mass spectrometry, cold chemistry, quantum information science and spectroscopy.

Mokhberi, A

2014-01-01

268

Design of highway embankments using tire chips  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes research undertaken to develop design procedures for using shredded scrap tires as a lightweight fill material in highway construction. The benefits of using scrap tires are particularly enhanced if they can be used to replace virgin construction materials made from nonrenewable resources. This paper addresses the use of tire chips as a highway embankment material. Design parameters for embankments constructed using discarded shredded tires are presented based on laboratory model studies, numerical analyses, and field performance of test fills. The conclusions of this report support the use of tire chips as an environmentally acceptable lightweight fill in highway applications if properly confined. Recommendations for design procedures and construction specifications for the use of tire chips in highway fills are provided.

Bosscher, P.J.; Edil, T.B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Kuraoka, S. [National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Research in Construction

1997-04-01

269

The Voluntary Response Index in Electromyographic Study During Landing Test of the Patients With ACL Deficiency: A New Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: Daily Increased rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in athletes calls for more investigation in these patients to differentiate copers from noncoper ACL-deficient (ACLD) knees as soon as possible. Objectives: The current study aims to introduce a new electromyographic protocol, named voluntary response index (VRI), that might help to categorize and differentiate patients with ACLD knee from others in the early stage. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with ACLD knee were allocated into two equal groups, namely, coper and noncoper groups, based upon their ability to return to sport during the preceding six months. The patients with ACLD knee were asked to perform a jump on a force platform from a 75-cm distance. Results: The results were compared with 17 matched healthy participants. The electromyographic disposable electrodes were attached to the seven muscles of the lower extremity of the participants before performing the test. The outcome measures were the magnitude and similarity index of the VRI, time to stop, vertical ground reaction force, the displacement of the center of pressures (COP) path line length, and the participants Tegner, IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) as well as KOOS (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) questionnaires scores. Using the appropriate statistical analysis, the electromyographic and force plate data were compared among the three groups. All efforts went into determining whether an association exists between the findings of each group and the participants functional questionnaires scores. Conclusions: The results of this study would be helpful in objectively differentiating the patients with ACLD knee into coper and noncoper groups to receive appropriate treatments before their return to the competitions. PMID:25031855

Norouzi Fashkhami, Amin; Rahimi, Abbas; Khademi Kalantari, Khosro

2014-01-01

270

Compact spectrometer based on a disordered photonic chip  

E-print Network

Sarma and Hui Cao* Light scattering in disordered media has been studied extensively due to its a random structure. The probe signal diffuses through the chip generating wavelength-dependent speckle research- ers to develop a number of alternative spectrometer designs. On-chip digital planar holography7

Cao, Hui

271

HOBBING WEAR PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON 3D CHIPS DETERMINATION  

E-print Network

an effective wear prediction model in gear hobbing arises. In this paper 3D chip determination is studied and essential parameters of gear hobbing 2. State of the Art As mentioned before, wear prediction in gear into account occurring stresses in the tool-chip contact areas. Nevertheless a FEM-based simulation needs

Aristomenis, Antoniadis

272

A study of three protocols of blood transfusion before renal transplantaion in the dog.  

PubMed

Three protocols of blood transfusion were evaluated in a canine model for (1) the strength and breadth of leukocytotoxin induction, (2) the induction of cell-mediated immunity against the blood donors, (3) haemagglutinin production, and (4) any effect on kidney graft survival. At the end of the transfusion schedule, each dog received a kindey graft and was given azathioprine and prednisolone postoperatively. All dogs were unrelated and blood donors were not used as kidney donors. All three transfusion protocols, comprising i.v. injections of blood twice weekly or every 2 weeks from one or three donors, induced unacceptably strong and broad leukocytotoxins. All transplants performed across a positive crossmatch failed to function. However, where a negative crossmatch was available, the trend of results was that the transfused dogs had better graft survival than nontransfused animals similarly treated with azathioprine and prednisolone. Only one dog produced haemagglutinins. Several animals had positive cell-mediated immunity against the blood donors, but the response was not strong and was frequently not sustained. PMID:356359

Fabre, J W; Bishop, M; Sen, T; McKenzie, J; Williams, K A; Denton, T G; Millard, P R; Morris, P J

1978-08-01

273

A Field-Based Cleaning Protocol for Sampling Devices Used in Life-Detection Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical approaches to extant and extinct life detection involve molecular detection often at trace levels. Thus, removal of biological materials and other organic molecules from the surfaces of devices used for sampling is essential for ascertaining meaningful results. Organic decontamination to levels consistent with null values on life-detection instruments is particularly challenging at remote field locations where Mars analog field investigations are carried out. Here, we present a seven-step, multi-reagent decontamination method that can be applied to sampling devices while in the field. In situ lipopolysaccharide detection via low-level endotoxin assays and molecular detection via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to test the effectiveness of the decontamination protocol for sampling of glacial ice with a coring device and for sampling of sediments with a rover scoop during deployment at Arctic Mars-analog sites in Svalbard, Norway. Our results indicate that the protocols and detection technique sufficiently remove and detect low levels of molecular constituents necessary for life-detection tests.

Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Benning, Liane G.; Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Amundsen, Hans E. F.

2009-06-01

274

University of Heidelberg: Atom Chip Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Atom Chip Group at the University of Heidelberg details research in "the study of the interaction between light and atoms, both for understanding the system itself and for investigating its possible uses for Quantum Information Processing and Control." The project and examples of the group's experiments are described on this website, along with a section overviewing the theory grounding its work. Their research has potential applications for highly sensitive sensors and quantum-information processing. The News section includes a link to a journal article, "Microscopic Atom Optics: From Wires to an Atom Chip," which details the group's work.

275

Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip  

PubMed Central

Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral filtering or post-selection. After splitting the twin-photons immediately after they emerge from the chip, we perform a variety of correlation tests on the photon pairs and show non-classical behaviour in their polarization. Combined with the BRW's versatile architecture our results signify the BRW design as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices. PMID:23896982

Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng; Abolghasem, Payam; Scarcella, Carmelo; Frera, Adriano Della; Tosi, Alberto; Helt, Lukas G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Sipe, J. E.; Weihs, Gregor; Helmy, Amr S.; Jennewein, Thomas

2013-01-01

276

On-Chip Biomedical Imaging  

PubMed Central

Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and micro electromechanical systems achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lensfree holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lensfree optical tomography. PMID:23558399

Gorocs, Zoltan; Ozcan, Aydogan

2012-01-01

277

Single-chip CMOS anemometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time a packaged single-chip anemometry microsystem is reported. The system includes a thermal CMOS flow sensor with on-chip power management, signal conditioning, and A\\/D conversion. It is fabricated using an industrial IC process followed by post-CMOS micromachining. The system is packaged on a flexible substrate using flip-chip interconnection technology. The measurement of wind speeds is demonstrated in

F. Mayer; A. Haberli; H. Jacobs; G. Ofner; O. Paul; H. Baltes

1997-01-01

278

Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

279

Small noncleaved cell lymphoma and leukemia in adults. A retrospective study of 65 adults treated with the LMB pediatric protocols.  

PubMed

In France, more than 80% of children with Burkitt's lymphoma or Burkitt's leukemia (ALL3) are now cured with the LMB (B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and B-ALL) protocols of the Socit Franaise d'Oncologie Pdiatrique, but so far, poor results have been obtained in the few adult studies available. We have analyzed the experience with LMB protocols in adult patients. This retrospective study involved 65 adult patients with small noncleaved cell lymphoma or ALL3 treated with the LMB protocols. They were 17 to 65 years old and not previously treated. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were excluded. The diagnoses were made between September 1984 and August 1991. According to the Murphy classification, 12 patients (18%) had stage I or II disease, 25 (38%), stage III disease; 4 (6%), stage IV disease; and 24 (37%), ALL3 (> or = 25% blasts). According to the Ann Arbor classification, 9 patients had stage I disease; 8 patients, stage II; 5 patients, stage III; 21 patients, stage IV disease; and 22 patients, ALL (> or = 30% blasts). Twelve patients had central nervous system (CNS) involvement before treatment. Thirty-nine patients were treated according to the LMB 84 protocol scheme; 14 according to the LMB 86 protocol, and 12 patients received the LMB 84 induction courses followed by the LMB 86 consolidation courses. Three patients underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) while in second complete remission (CR) and 3 others had refractory disease. There were some protocol violations caused by empirical medical decisions: local irradiation was performed in 4 patients, 2 patients received prophylactic radiation to the brain that was not specified in the protocol, 13 patients underwent BMT in first CR, and methotrexate doses were modified in 10 patients. Fifty-eight patients (89%) achieved a CR. There were four (6%) primary induction treatment failures, and three (4%) early treatment-related deaths. Eight patients relapsed between 2 and 30 months after CR (median, 4.7 months). Forty-seven patients are alive in CR (45 first CR, 2 second CR) with a median follow-up of 57 months (24 to 93 months). There were five toxicity-related deaths among patients in CR including four BMT-related deaths and five deaths caused by refractory relapses. One patient died in CR at 62 months of rectal cancer. The 3-year overall survival rate is 74% (SE = 5). According to the stages in the Murphy classification, the 3-year survival rates are stages I and II, 100%; stage III, 80% (SE = 7); and stage IV and ALL, 57% (SE = 8). Seven of 12 patients with initial CNS disease are alive with a median survival of 56 months.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7833470

Soussain, C; Patte, C; Ostronoff, M; Delmer, A; Rigal-Huguet, F; Cambier, N; Lepris, P Y; Franois, S; Cony-Makhoul, P; Harousseau, J L

1995-02-01

280

Design and Verification of On-Chip Communication Protocols  

E-print Network

combines the design and verification processes together, interleaving them in a hand-in-hand fashion in a hand-in-hand fashion. The task of obtaining the next, more advanced design then splits into three main algebraic model for the three parts men- tioned above, this leads to a new methodology combining design

Melham, Tom

281

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIPs) Protocol (Farnham Lab)  

E-print Network

and transfer to a new tube. Preclear chromatin by adding blocked Staph A cells. Use 10-15 uls of preblocked tube and divide equally among your samples. Be sure to include a "no antibody" sample. We also include a "mock" samples which contains 1X dialysis buffer instead of chromatin (no antibody and mock are critical

Gozani, Or

282

NEST CARD PROTOCOL Nest-searching is a quintessential part of this study. Data from nests are used to estimate  

E-print Network

Gillivray's Warbler Oporornis tolmiei MGWA Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata OCWA Western Tanager Piranga ludoviciana WETA Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina CHSP Green-tailed Towhee Pipilo chlorurus GTTO Gray

Martin, Thomas E.

283

Smoothing a rock by chipping.  

PubMed

We investigate an idealized model for the size reduction and smoothing of a polygonal rock due to repeated chipping at corners. Each chip is sufficiently small so that only a single corner and a fraction of its two adjacent sides are cut from the object in a single chipping event. After many chips have been cut away, the resulting shape of the rock is generally anisotropic, with facet lengths and corner angles distributed over a broad range. Although a well-defined shape is quickly reached for each realization, there are large fluctuations between realizations. PMID:17500680

Krapivsky, P L; Redner, S

2007-03-01

284

Boron neutron capture therapy applied to advanced breast cancers: Engineering simulation and feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes a novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) application for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers. The original contribution of the dissertation is the development of the engineering simulation and the feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol for this novel combination of BNCT and HER2+ breast cancer treatment. This new concept of BNCT, representing a radiation binary targeted treatment, consists of the combination of two approaches never used in a synergism before. This combination may offer realistic hope for relapsed and/or metastasized breast cancers. This treatment assumes that the boronated anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are administrated to the patient and accumulate preferentially in the tumor. Then the tumor is destroyed when is exposed to neutron irradiation. Since the use of anti-HER2 MABs yields good and promising results, the proposed concept is expected to amplify the known effect and be considered as a possible additional treatment approach to the most severe breast cancers for patients with metastasized cancer for which the current protocol is not successful and for patients refusing to have the standard treatment protocol. This dissertation makes an original contribution with an integral numerical approach and proves feasible the combination of the aforementioned therapy and disease. With these goals, the dissertation describes the theoretical analysis of the proposed concept providing an integral engineering simulation study of the treatment protocol. An extensive analysis of the potential limitations, capabilities and optimization factors are well studied using simplified models, models based on real CT patients' images, cellular models, and Monte Carlo (MCNP5/X) transport codes. One of the outcomes of the integral dosimetry assessment originally developed for the proposed treatment of advanced breast cancers is the implementation of BNCT for HER2+ breast cancers for deep seated tumors using MITRII-FCB facility with an 8 cm diameter beam (port closest-to-tumor position), with boron concentrations in the tumor higher than 32 mug/g, and for a tumor-to-healthy tissue boron concentration ratio of 8:1. The therapeutic ratios for the proposed treatment would be higher than five for skin and adipose tissue and higher than three for tumor surrounding fibroglandular tissue. The microdosimetry study shows potential improvements in the therapeutic ratios based on the expected sub-cellular boron biodistributions. The engineering simulation study of clinical cases shows the advantages of using BNCT for HER+ breast cancers. Assuming an assured high efficiency of the boron agent delivery, the proposed concept can be considered for stage IV HER2+ breast cancers in treating the metastasized tumors in brain, head and neck, and lungs.

Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, Manuel Leonardo

285

Freshwater Macroinvertebrates Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guides students through sampling, identification and counting of macroinvertebrates sampled in a GLOBE hydrology study site, and understand how the taxa composition found in the sample can be an indicator of water quality and ecosystem health. The resource includes 8 field and laboratory protocols. This resource is a protocol within the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

286

A Genome Wide Association Study on Age at First Calving Using High Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae).  

PubMed

Age at first calving is an important trait for achieving earlier reproductive performance. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive traits, a genome wide association study was conducted on the 96 Hanwoo cows that were born between 2008 and 2010 from 13 sires in a local farm (Juk-Am Hanwoo farm, Suncheon, Korea) and genotyped with the Illumina 50K bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model after the effects of birth-year-month and polygenes were considered. A forward regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs for age at first calving. A total of 15 QTL were detected at the comparison-wise 0.001 level. Two QTL with strong statistical evidence were found at 128.9 Mb and 111.1 Mb on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 2 and 7, respectively, each of which accounted for 22% of the phenotypic variance. Also, five significant SNPs were detected on BTAs 10, 16, 20, 26, and 29. Multiple QTL were found on BTAs 1, 2, 7, and 14. The significant QTLs may be applied via marker assisted selection to increase rate of genetic gain for the trait, after validation tests in other Hanwoo cow populations. PMID:25178291

Hyeong, K-E; Iqbal, A; Kim, J-J

2014-10-01

287

Genes related to the very early stage of ConA-induced fulminant hepatitis: a gene-chip-based study in a mouse model  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the high morbidity and mortality of fulminant hepatitis, early diagnosis followed by early effective treatment is the key for prognosis improvement. So far, little is known about the gene expression changes in the early stage of this serious illness. Identification of the genes related to the very early stage of fulminant hepatitis development may provide precise clues for early diagnosis. Results Balb/C mice were used for ConA injection to induce fulminant hepatitis that was confirmed by pathological and biochemical examination. After a gene chip-based screening, the data of gene expression in the liver, was further dissected by ANOVA analysis, gene expression profiles, gene network construction and real-time RT-PCR. At the very early stage of ConA-triggered fulminant hepatitis, totally 1,473 genes with different expression variations were identified. Among these, 26 genes were finally selected for further investigation. The data from gene network analysis demonstrate that two genes, MPDZ and Acsl1, localized in the core of the network. Conclusions At the early stages of fulminant hepatitis, expression of twenty-six genes involved in protein transport, transcription regulation and cell metabolism altered significantly. These genes form a network and have shown strong correlation with fulminant hepatitis development. Our study provides several potential targets for the early diagnosis of fulminant hepatitis. PMID:20398290

2010-01-01

288

A Genome Wide Association Study on Age at First Calving Using High Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae)  

PubMed Central

Age at first calving is an important trait for achieving earlier reproductive performance. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive traits, a genome wide association study was conducted on the 96 Hanwoo cows that were born between 2008 and 2010 from 13 sires in a local farm (Juk-Am Hanwoo farm, Suncheon, Korea) and genotyped with the Illumina 50K bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model after the effects of birth-year-month and polygenes were considered. A forward regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs for age at first calving. A total of 15 QTL were detected at the comparison-wise 0.001 level. Two QTL with strong statistical evidence were found at 128.9 Mb and 111.1 Mb on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 2 and 7, respectively, each of which accounted for 22% of the phenotypic variance. Also, five significant SNPs were detected on BTAs 10, 16, 20, 26, and 29. Multiple QTL were found on BTAs 1, 2, 7, and 14. The significant QTLs may be applied via marker assisted selection to increase rate of genetic gain for the trait, after validation tests in other Hanwoo cow populations. PMID:25178291

Hyeong, K.-E.; Iqbal, A.; Kim, J.-J.

2014-01-01

289

Bee venom acupuncture, NSAIDs or combined treatment for chronic neck pain: study protocol for a randomized, assessor-blind trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a common painful medical condition with a significant socioeconomic impact. In spite of widespread usage, the effectiveness and safety of combined treatments between conventional and complementary alternative medical treatment modalities has not been fully established in a rigorous randomized clinical trial (RCT). This pilot study will provide the clinical evidence to evaluate the feasibility and refine the protocol for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with CNP. Methods/Design This is a randomized, single-blind clinical trial with three parallel arms. Sixty patients between 18 and 65years of age with non-specific, uncomplicated neck pain lasting for at least three months will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly allocated into the BVA, NSAIDs or combined treatment group. Assessors and statisticians will be blinded to the random allocation. All researchers will receive training to ensure their strict adherence to the study protocol. Patients from the BVA and combined treatment group will be treated with a bee venom increment protocol into predefined acupoints for six sessions over a three week period. BVA intervention is developed through a comprehensive discussion among interdisciplinary spine disorder experts, according to the guidelines of Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA). Patients from the NSAIDs and combined treatment groups will be prescribed loxoprofen (one tablet to be taken orally, three times a day for three weeks). Bothersomeness from CNP measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) will be the primary outcome assessed at screening, visit two (baseline), four, six, eight (4th week assessment) and nine (8th week assessment) follow-up session. VAS for pain intensity, neck disability index (NDI), quality of life, depressive status and adverse experiences will also be analyzed. Discussion Our study results will contribute to feasibility evaluation and to relevant RCT protocol development for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of BVA and NSAIDs for CNP patients. Trial registration This study is registered with the United States (US) National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry: NCT01922466. PMID:24746224

2014-01-01

290

Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

1998-08-01

291

Distribution of mRNA encoding the FA-CHIP water channel in amphibian tissues: Effects of salt adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water channel, the frog aquaporin-CHIP (FA-CHIP) was recently cloned from Rana esculenta urinary bladder. The 28.9 kDa encoded protein shows 78.8%, 77.4%, 42.4% and 35.6% identity with rat CHIP28, human CHIP28, rat WCH-CD and ?-TIP, other members of the new transmembrane water channel family (Aquaporin-CHIP). We have now studied membranes from different frog (R. esculenta) organs employing semiquantitative PCR

L. Abrami; C. Capurro; C. Ibarra; M. Parisi; J.-M. Buhler; P. Ripoche

1995-01-01

292

CHIPS Science Investigation: Exploring the Interstellar Medium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This booklet describes the interstellar medium and the local bubble that is being studied by NASAs Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) satellite. It contains review questions and problems for students, plus two activities to help to understand some of the concepts discussed.

2003-01-01

293

Stress measurements in large area array flip chip microprocessor chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microprocessor packaging in modern workstations and servers often consists of one or more large flip chip die that are mounted to a high performance ceramic chip carrier. The final assembly configuration features a complex stack up of area array solder interconnects, underfill, ceramic substrate, lid, heat sink, thermal interface materials, second level solder joints, organic PCB, etc., so that a

Jordan C. Roberts; M. Kaysar Rahim; Jeffrey C. Suhling; Richard C. Jaeger; Pradeep Lall; Ron Zhang; James Jones

2008-01-01

294

Wavefront image sensor chip  

PubMed Central

We report the implementation of an image sensor chip, termed wavefront image sensor chip (WIS), that can measure both intensity/amplitude and phase front variations of a light wave separately and quantitatively. By monitoring the tightly confined transmitted light spots through a circular aperture grid in a high Fresnel number regime, we can measure both intensity and phase front variations with a high sampling density (11 m) and high sensitivity (the sensitivity of normalized phase gradient measurement is 0.1 mrad under the typical working condition). By using WIS in a standard microscope, we can collect both bright-field (transmitted light intensity) and normalized phase gradient images. Our experiments further demonstrate that the normalized phase gradient images of polystyrene microspheres, unstained and stained starfish embryos, and strongly birefringent potato starch granules are improved versions of their corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope images in that they are artifact-free and quantitative. Besides phase microscopy, WIS can benefit machine recognition, object ranging, and texture assessment for a variety of applications. PMID:20721059

Cui, Xiquan; Ren, Jian; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Changhuei

2010-01-01

295

Factors associated with failure of enhanced recovery protocol in patients undergoing major hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the risk factors associated with failure of enhanced recovery protocol after major hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HBP) surgery. Setting and participants A retrospective cohort of 194 adult patients undergoing major HBP surgery at a university hospital in Hong Kong was followed up for 30?days. The patients were from a larger cohort study of 736 consecutive adults with preoperative urinary cotinine concentration to examine the association between passive smoking and risk of perioperative respiratory complications and postoperative morbidities. Outcome measures The primary outcome was failure of enhanced recovery protocol. This was defined as a composite measure of the following events: intensive care unit (ICU) stay more than 24?h after surgery, unplanned admission to ICU within 30?days after surgery, hospital readmission, reoperation and mortality. Results There were 25 failures of enhanced recovery after HBP surgery (12.9%, 95% CI 8.5% to 18.4%). After adjusting for elective ICU admission, smokers (relative risk (RR) 2.21, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.46), high preoperative alanine transaminase/glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (RR 3.55,95% CI 1.68 to 7.49) and postoperative morbidities (RR 2.69, 95% CI 1.30 to 5.56) were associated with failures of enhanced recovery in the generalised estimating equation risk model. Compared with those managed successfully, failures stayed longer in ICU (median 19 vs 25?h, p<0.001) and in hospital for postoperative care (median 7 vs 13?days, p=0.003). Conclusions Smokers and patients having high preoperative alanine transaminase/glutamic-pyruvic transaminase concentration or have a high risk of postoperative morbidities are likely to fail enhanced recovery protocol in HBP surgery programmes. PMID:25011990

Lee, Anna; Chiu, Chun Hung; Cho, Mui Wai Amy; Gomersall, Charles David; Lee, Kit Fai; Cheung, Yue Sun; Lai, Paul Bo San

2014-01-01

296

Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study  

PubMed Central

Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with the inclusion of parental involvement. The application of the Intervention Mapping Protocol may lead to the development of more effective interventions. The detailed intervention matrices that were developed as part of the ToyBox-study can be used by other researchers as an aid in order to avoid repetitive work for the design of similar interventions. PMID:24552138

2014-01-01

297

Home and health in people ageing with Parkinson's disease: study protocol for a prospective longitudinal cohort survey study  

PubMed Central

Background With an increased life expectancy for the general population as well as for those ageing with chronic diseases, there are major challenges to the affected individuals and their families, but also to health care and societal planning. Most important, an increasing proportion of older people remain living in their ordinary homes despite health decline and disability. However, little is known about the home and health situation of people ageing with Parkinsons disease (PD), and older people are often excluded from PD-research. Methods/design The overall aim of the present project is to generate knowledge on home and health dynamics in people with PD, with an explicit attention to PD-specific symptomatology. We will concentrate on aspects of home and health captured by state-of-the-art methodology from gerontology as well as PD-research, health science and rehabilitation. This study protocol describes a longitudinal cohort survey study that includes a baseline data collection and a 3-year follow-up. Both data collection waves include self-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, clinical assessments and observations during home visits effectuated by research staff with project-specific training. In order to arrive at a follow-up sample of N=160, 250 participants identified by PD specialist nurses are being recruited from three hospitals in southern Sweden. With no lower or upper age limit, only those diagnosed with PD since at least one year were included. The exclusion criteria were: difficulties in understanding or speaking Swedish and/or cognitive difficulties/other reasons making the individual unable to give informed consent or to take part in the majority of the data collection. The data collection targets environmental factors such as assistive devices, social support, physical environmental barriers, accessibility problems and perceived aspects of home. A broad variety of instruments tap PD-specific problems (e.g. freezing of gait, fear of falling) and health-related issues such as general self-efficacy, body functions, activities and participation. Discussion This project will produce knowledge to the benefit of the development of health care and societal planning that targets people ageing with PD, ultimately promoting activity and participation and an increase of the number of healthy life years for this sub-group of the population. PMID:24107116

2013-01-01

298

NTPT: on the end-to-end traffic prediction in the on-chip networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power and thermal distribution are critical issues in chip multiprocessors (CMPs). Most previous studies focus on cores and on-chip memory subsystems and discuss how to reduce their power and control thermal distribution by using dynamic voltage\\/frequency scaling. However, the on-chip interconnection network, or network-on-chip (NoC), is also an important source of power consumption and heat generation. Particularly, the traffic flowing

Yoshi Shih-Chieh Huang; Kaven Chun-Kai Chou; Chung-Ta King; Shau-Yin Tseng

2010-01-01

299

Atlas-based analysis of cardiac shape and function: correction of regional shape bias due to imaging protocol for population studies  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular imaging studies generate a wealth of data which is typically used only for individual study endpoints. By pooling data from multiple sources, quantitative comparisons can be made of regional wall motion abnormalities between different cohorts, enabling reuse of valuable data. Atlas-based analysis provides precise quantification of shape and motion differences between disease groups and normal subjects. However, subtle shape differences may arise due to differences in imaging protocol between studies. Methods A mathematical model describing regional wall motion and shape was used to establish a coordinate system registered to the cardiac anatomy. The atlas was applied to data contributed to the Cardiac Atlas Project from two independent studies which used different imaging protocols: steady state free precession (SSFP) and gradient recalled echo (GRE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Shape bias due to imaging protocol was corrected using an atlas-based transformation which was generated from a set of 46 volunteers who were imaged with both protocols. Results Shape bias between GRE and SSFP was regionally variable, and was effectively removed using the atlas-based transformation. Global mass and volume bias was also corrected by this method. Regional shape differences between cohorts were more statistically significant after removing regional artifacts due to imaging protocol bias. Conclusions Bias arising from imaging protocol can be both global and regional in nature, and is effectively corrected using an atlas-based transformation, enabling direct comparison of regional wall motion abnormalities between cohorts acquired in separate studies. PMID:24033990

2013-01-01

300

Using tire chips as a leachate drainage layer  

SciTech Connect

Old tires represent a potentially cost-effective construction material that can be used in the installation of leachate drainage and collection systems. In fact, recent studies show that using shredded tires in conjunction with granular soil materials can even enhance the long-term performance of these systems. A typical design using shredded tire chips involves the placement of a minimum 1-foot-thick layer of chips on a granular soil layer overlaying the composite liner system. However, implementation of this design is not as simple as it looks. Protecting the liner from wire protruding from the tire chips derived from belted tires is essential. Because tire chips tend to clump together, placement and spreading also must be in relatively thick lifts and performed by low-ground-pressure equipment. In addition, a significant volume reduction in the tire chip layer can be anticipated as a result of normal loadings from the overlying waste. Equivalent internal friction angles and cohesiveness for the tire chips should be estimated for factors of safety against side-slope failure. Despite theses concerns, however,the advantages of constructing a tire-chip drainage layer often can outweigh the disadvantages, as long as the chips` long-term permeability characteristics and resistance to clogging -- a result of biological activity -- are at least equal to that of typical granular soil materials commonly used in leachate drainage and collection systems.

Duffy, D.P. [RMT, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-09-01

301

Identifying Professional Competencies of the Flip-Chip Packaging Engineer in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed a literature review, expert interviews, and a questionnaire survey to construct a set of two-tier competencies for a flip-chip packaging engineer. The fuzzy Delphi questionnaire was sent to 12 flip-chip engineering experts to identify professional competencies that a flip-chip packaging engineer must have. Four competencies,

Guu, Y. H.; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Lee, Lung-Sheng

2014-01-01

302

Gene-chip studies of adipogenesis-regulated microRNAs in mouse primary adipocytes and human obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAdipose tissue abundance relies partly on the factors that regulate adipogenesis, i.e. proliferation and differentiation of\\u000a adipocytes. While components of the transcriptional program that initiates adipogenesis is well-known, the importance of microRNAs\\u000a in adipogenesis is less well studied. We thus set out to investigate whether miRNAs would be actively modulated during adipogenesis\\u000a and obesity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsSeveral models exist to study adipogenesis

Pernille Keller; Valentina Gburcik; Natasa Petrovic; Iain J Gallagher; Jan Nedergaard; Barbara Cannon; James A Timmons

2011-01-01

303

PAPER www.rsc.org/loc | Lab on a Chip A study of EWOD-driven droplets by PIV investigation  

E-print Network

,17 For droplets confined between two parallel plates, mixing by different movement patterns has been studied with b/R 1, where b is the separation height between the parallel plates of the EWOD device and R droplets actuated by EWOD in air using micro particle image velocimetry (l-PIV). Using the continuity

Meinhart, Carl

304

Gene expression in the rat brain during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep: an Affymetrix GeneChip study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that macromolecular synthesis in the brain is modulated in association with the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness. Similarly, the spectral composition of electroencephalographic activity that occurs during sleep is dependent on the duration of prior wakefulness. Since this homeostatic relationship between wake and sleep is highly conserved across mammalian species, genes that are truly involved in

A. Terao; J. P. Wisor; C. Peyron; A. Apte-Deshpande; S. W. Wurts; D. M. Edgar; T. S. Kilduff

2006-01-01

305

A Next-generation Tissue Microarray (ngTMA) Protocol for Biomarker Studies.  

PubMed

Biomarker research relies on tissue microarrays (TMA). TMAs are produced by repeated transfer of small tissue cores from a 'donor' block into a 'recipient' block and then used for a variety of biomarker applications. The construction of conventional TMAs is labor intensive, imprecise, and time-consuming. Here, a protocol using next-generation Tissue Microarrays (ngTMA) is outlined. ngTMA is based on TMA planning and design, digital pathology, and automated tissue microarraying. The protocol is illustrated using an example of 134 metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Histological, statistical and logistical aspects are considered, such as the tissue type, specific histological regions, and cell types for inclusion in the TMA, the number of tissue spots, sample size, statistical analysis, and number of TMA copies. Histological slides for each patient are scanned and uploaded onto a web-based digital platform. There, they are viewed and annotated (marked) using a 0.6-2.0 mm diameter tool, multiple times using various colors to distinguish tissue areas. Donor blocks and 12 'recipient' blocks are loaded into the instrument. Digital slides are retrieved and matched to donor block images. Repeated arraying of annotated regions is automatically performed resulting in an ngTMA. In this example, six ngTMAs are planned containing six different tissue types/histological zones. Two copies of the ngTMAs are desired. Three to four slides for each patient are scanned; 3 scan runs are necessary and performed overnight. All slides are annotated; different colors are used to represent the different tissues/zones, namely tumor center, invasion front, tumor/stroma, lymph node metastases, liver metastases, and normal tissue. 17 annotations/case are made; time for annotation is 2-3 min/case. 12 ngTMAs are produced containing 4,556 spots. Arraying time is 15-20 hr. Due to its precision, flexibility and speed, ngTMA is a powerful tool to further improve the quality of TMAs used in clinical and translational research. PMID:25285857

Zlobec, Inti; Suter, Guido; Perren, Aurel; Lugli, Alessandro

2014-01-01

306

Development of a Plastic-Based Microfluidic Immunosensor Chip for Detection of H1N1 Influenza  

PubMed Central

Lab-on-a-chip can provide convenient and accurate diagnosis tools. In this paper, a plastic-based microfluidic immunosensor chip for the diagnosis of swine flu (H1N1) was developed by immobilizing hemagglutinin antigen on a gold surface using a genetically engineered polypeptide. A fluorescent dye-labeled antibody (Ab) was used for quantifying the concentration of Ab in the immunosensor chip using a fluorescent technique. For increasing the detection efficiency and reducing the errors, three chambers and three microchannels were designed in one microfluidic chip. This protocol could be applied to the diagnosis of other infectious diseases in a microfluidic device. PMID:23112630

Lee, Kyoung G.; Lee, Tae Jae; Jeong, Soon Woo; Choi, Ho Woon; Heo, Nam Su; Park, Jung Youn; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Seok Jae

2012-01-01

307

Vacuum Frying of Carrot Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum frying is an alternative method to produce high quality vegetable or fruit chips. The effect of frying temperature and vacuum degree on moisture content, oil content, color, and texture of fried carrot chips were investigated. During the early stage of vacuum frying, the rate of moisture removal and oil absorption increased with increasing frying oil temperature and degree of

Liu-ping Fan; Min Zhang; Arun S. Mujumdar

2005-01-01

308

Safety of 8-aminoquinolines given to people with G6PD deficiency: protocol for systematic review of prospective studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction A single dose or short course of primaquine given to people infected with malaria may reduce transmission of Plasmodium falciparum through its effects on gametocytes. Primaquine is also known to cause haemolysis in people with variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the risk of adverse effects in people with G6PD deficiency given primaquine or other 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) as a single dose or short course (less than 7?days). Methods and analysis We will search the following databases: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS. Prospective cohort studies, randomised and quasi-randomised trials that evaluated 8AQs for whatever reason in adults or children with a known G6PD deficiency will be included. Two authors will independently assess each study for eligibility, risk of bias and extract data. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Brief reports of the review findings will be disseminated directly to the appropriate audiences and the WHO Technical Expert Group in Malaria Chemotherapy. As no primary data collection will be undertaken, no additional formal ethical assessment and informed consent are required. Protocol registration in PROSPERO The protocol is registered with PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013006518. PMID:24833685

Uthman, Olalekan A; Saunders, Rachel; Sinclair, David; Graves, Patricia; Gelband, Hellen; Clarke, Aileen; Garner, Paul

2014-01-01

309

A study of topologies and protocols for fiber optic local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of new applications requiring high data traffic necessitates the development of high speed local area networks. Optical fiber is selected as the transmission medium due to its inherent advantages over other possible media and the dual optical bus architecture is shown to be the most suitable topology. Asynchronous access protocols, including token, random, hybrid random/token, and virtual token schemes, are developed and analyzed. Exact expressions for insertion delay and utilization at light and heavy load are derived, and intermediate load behavior is investigated by simulation. A new tokenless adaptive scheme whose control depends only on the detection of activity on the channel is shown to outperform round-robin schemes under uneven loads and multipacket traffic and to perform optimally at light load. An approximate solution to the queueing delay for an oscillating polling scheme under chaining is obtained and results are compared with simulation. Solutions to the problem of building systems with a large number of stations are presented, including maximization of the number of optical couplers, and the use of passive star/bus topologies, bridges and gateways.

Yeh, C.; Gerla, M.; Rodrigues, P.

1985-01-01

310

Impregnation of bone chips with alendronate and cefazolin, combined with demineralized bone matrix: a bone chamber study in goats  

PubMed Central

Background Bone grafts from bone banks might be mixed with bisphosphonates to inhibit the osteoclastic response. This inhibition prevents the osteoclasts to resorb the allograft bone before new bone has been formed by the osteoblasts, which might prevent instability. Since bisphosphonates may not only inhibit osteoclasts, but also osteoblasts and thus bone formation, we studied different bisphosphonate concentrations combined with allograft bone. We investigated whether locally applied alendronate has an optimum dose with respect to bone resorption and formation. Further, we questioned whether the addition of demineralized bone matrix (DBM), would stimulate bone formation. Finally, we studied the effect of high levels of antibiotics on bone allograft healing, since mixing allograft bone with antibiotics might reduce the infection risk. Methods 25 goats received eight bone conduction chambers in the cortical bone of the proximal medial tibia. Five concentrations of alendronate (0, 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL, and 10 mg/mL) were tested in combination with allograft bone and supplemented with cefazolin (200 ?g/mL). Allograft not supplemented with alendronate and cefazolin served as control. In addition, allograft mixed with demineralized bone matrix, with and without alendronate, was tested. After 12 weeks, graft bone area and new bone area were determined with manual point counting. Results Graft resorption decreased significantly (p < 0.001) with increasing alendronate concentration. The area of new bone in the 1 mg/mL alendronate group was significantly (p = 0.002) higher when compared to the 10 mg/mL group. No differences could be observed between the group without alendronate, but with demineralized bone, and the control groups. Conclusions A dose-response relationship for local application of alendronate has been shown in this study. Most new bone was present at 1 mg/mL alendronate. Local application of cefazolin had no effect on bone remodelling. PMID:22443362

2012-01-01

311

Continuous cell electroporation for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery based on laminar microfluidic chips.  

PubMed

Electroporation is a high-efficiency and low-toxicity physical gene transfer method. Traditional electroporation is limited to only low volume cell samples. Here we present a continuous cell electroporation method based on commonly used microfluidic chip fabrication technology. Using easily fabricated PDMS microfluidic chip, syringe pumps, and pulse generator, we show efficient delivery of both DNA and siRNA into different cell lines. We describe the protocol of chip fabrication, apparatus setup, and cell electroporation assay. Typically, the fabrication of the devices takes 1 or 2 days and the continuous electroporation assay takes 1 h. PMID:24510815

Wei, Zewen; Li, Zhihong

2014-01-01

312

Comparative Evaluation of Stroke Triage Algorithms for Emergency Medical Dispatchers (MeDS): Prospective Cohort Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is a major cause of death and leading cause of disability in the United States. To maximize a stroke patient's chances of receiving thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke, it is important to improve prehospital recognition of stroke. However, it is known from published reports that emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) using Card 28 of the Medical Priority Dispatch System protocols recognize stroke poorly. Therefore, to improve EMD's recognition of stroke, the National Association of Emergency Medical Dispatchers recently designed a new diagnostic stroke tool (Cincinnati Stroke Scale -CSS) to be used with Card 28. The objective of this study is to determine whether the addition of CSS improves diagnostic accuracy of stroke triage. Methods/Design This prospective experimental study will be conducted during a one-year period in the 911 call center of Santa Clara County, CA. We will include callers aged ? 18 years with a chief complaint suggestive of stroke and second party callers (by-stander or family who are in close proximity to the patient and can administer the tool) ? 18 years of age. Life threatening calls will be excluded from the study. Card 28 questions will be administered to subjects who meet study criteria. After completion of Card 28, CSS tool will be administered to all calls. EMDs will record their initial assessment of a cerebro-vascular accident (stroke) after completion of Card 28 and their final assessment after completion of CSS. These assessments will be compared with the hospital discharge diagnosis (ICD-9 codes) recorded in the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) database after linking the EMD database and OSHPD database using probabilistic linkage. The primary analysis will compare the sensitivity of the two stroke protocols using logistic regression and generalizing estimating equations to account for clustering by EMDs. To detect a 15% difference in sensitivity between the two groups with 80% power, we will enroll a total of 370 subjects in this trial. Discussion A three week pilot study was performed which demonstrated the feasibility of implementation of the study protocol. PMID:21272365

2011-01-01

313

Laboratoriestudie av Nagra Kemiska Preparats Inverkan pa Braensleflisens Lagrinsbarhet (Laboratory Studies on the Influence of Chemical Preparation on Stored Fuel Chip Properties).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When fuel chips are stored it is common to have dry matter losses between 2.5% and 3.0% per month. In addition, large quantities of health-dangerous microfungi can be built up in many cases. One way to reduce losses and the occurrence of microfungi in fue...

T. Thoernqvist

1983-01-01

314

A combined semiempirical and DFT computational protocol for studying bioorganometallic complexes: application to molybdocene-cysteine complexes.  

PubMed

Computational methods can help in the design of new bioorganometallic compounds. However, the presence of multihapto or ?/? metal-ligand bonding still precludes the direct application of either pure molecular mechanics (MM) or hybrid quantum mechanics-MM methods to study the flexibility of biomolecules in complex with organometallics. Herein, we present a computational protocol aimed to the evaluation of the relative free energies of bioorganometallic compounds, which explores the conformational space by means of Molecular Dynamics simulations using the semiempirical PM6 method coupled with the COnductor-like Screening MOdel solvation model followed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations including the DFT-D3 dispersion energy correction on the most stable conformers. This protocol is applied to investigate the complexes formed between cysteine and the molybdocene entity Cp2Mo(2+) (Cp=?(5)-C5H5), which has received considerable attention due to its potential antitumor activity and chemical reactivity. The calculated structures and free energies are in agreement with those of the experimentally detected molybdocene-cysteine adducts and allow us to investigate the reaction mechanism for the formation of the most stable 1:1 and 1:2 adducts. PMID:24293240

Surez, Dimas; Daz, Natalia; Lpez, Ramn

2014-02-01

315

Risk factors and prognosis of young stroke. The FUTURE study: A prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term prognosis is extremely important, especially in young stroke patients with a life expectancy of decades. To date, detailed information on risk factors and the long-term prognosis in young stroke patients, and more specific risk of mortality or recurrent vascular events, remains scarce. Methods/Design The FUTURE study is a prospective cohort study on risk factors and prognosis of young ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among 1006 patients, aged 18-50 years, included in our study database between 1-1-1980 and 1-11-2010. Follow-up visits at our research centre take place from the end of 2009 until the end of 2011. Control subjects will be recruited among the patients' spouses, relatives or social environment. Information on mortality and incident vascular events will be retrieved via structured questionnaires. In addition, participants are invited to the research centre to undergo an extensive sub study including MRI. Discussion The FUTURE study has the potential to make an important contribution to increase the knowledge on risk factors and long-term prognosis in young stroke patients. Our study differs from previous studies by having a maximal follow-up of more than 30 years, including not only TIA and ischemic stroke but also hemorrhagic stroke, the addition of healthy controls and prospectively collect data during an extensive follow-up visit. Completion of the FUTURE study may provide better information for treating physicians and patients with respect to the prognosis of young stroke. PMID:21933424

2011-01-01

316

Use acupuncture to treat functional constipation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation. Design A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9?weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1) Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group); (2) He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group); (3) Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group). The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The first two of second outcomes are measured 1?week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8?weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1?week before randomization and 2 and 4?weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4?weeks after randomization. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012) will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it. Trials registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501 PMID:22759406

2012-01-01

317

Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in adolescents: study protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction The 1?year prevalence of depression in adolescents is about 2%. Treatment with antidepressant medication is not recommended for initial treatment in young people due to concerns over high side effects, poor efficacy and addictive potential. Evidence suggests that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression and is currently one of the main treatment options recommended in adolescents. Given the affinity young people have with information technology they may be treated effectively, more widely and earlier in their illness evolution using computer-administered CBT (CCBT). Currently little is known about the clinical and resource implications of implementing CCBT within the National Health Service for adolescents with low mood/depression. We aim to establish the feasibility of running a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods and analysis Adolescents aged 1218 with low mood/depression, (scoring ?20 on the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ)), will be approached to participate. Consenting participants will be randomised to either a CCBT programme (Stressbusters) or accessing selected websites providing information about low mood/depression. The primary outcome measure will be the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Participants will also complete generic health measures (EQ5D-Y, HUI2) and resource use questionnaires to examine the feasibility of cost-effectiveness analysis. Questionnaires will be completed at baseline, 4 and 12-month follow-ups. Progress and risk will be monitored via the MFQ administered at each treatment session. The acceptability of a CCBT programme to adolescents; and the willingness of clinicians to recruit participants and of participants to be randomised, recruitment rates, attrition rates and questionnaire completion rates will be collected for feasibility analysis. We will estimate numbers needed to plan a fully powered RCT of clinical and cost-effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The current trial protocol received a favourable ethical opinion from Leeds (West) Research and Ethics Committee. (Reference: 10/H1307/137). Trial registration number ISRCTN31219579. PMID:25361841

Wright, Barry; Tindall, Lucy; Littlewood, Elizabeth; Adamson, Joy; Allgar, Victoria; Bennett, Sophie; Gilbody, Simon; Verduyn, Chrissie; Alderson-Day, Ben; Dyson, Lisa; Trpel, Dominic; Ali, Shehzad

2014-01-01

318

Chronic hand eczema - self-management and prognosis: a study protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hand eczema has a one-year prevalence of approximately 10 % in the general Danish population. Often the disease becomes chronic with numerous implications for the individuals daily life, occupation and quality of life. However, no guidelines of self-management recommendations beyond the acute stage are given. Self-management of the disease is pivotal and involves self-monitoring of the condition, medication adherence, and preventive behaviour. Interventions best to support the individual in this ongoing process need to be developed. Methods/design This paper describes the design of a randomised clinical trial to test a newly developed intervention of individual counselling versus conventional information. 300 patients consecutively referred to dermatologic treatment at two different settings are individually randomised to either the intervention programme, named The Healthy Skin Clinic or to the control group. Block-wise randomisation according to setting and gender is carried out. The intervention offers a tool for self-monitoring; basic and specific individual counselling; the possibility of asynchronous communication with the intervention team; and an electronic patient dialogue forum. Primary outcome variable is objective assessment of the hand eczema severity performed at baseline prior to randomisation, and repeated at six months follow-up. Secondary outcome variables are dermatology related life quality and perceived global burden of disease. Discussion The trial aims at evaluating a newly developed guidance programme which is expected to support self-management of patients referred to dermatology treatment due to chronic hand eczema. The design of the protocol is pragmatic with blinding of neither participants nor the investigator. Thus, in the interpretation of the results, the investigator takes into account effects that may be attributed to actors of the interventions rather than the intervention per se as well of potential observer bias. Inclusion criterions are wide in order to increase transferability of the results. Trial registration The trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.Gov with registration number NCT01482663. PMID:22691871

2012-01-01

319

Informing relatives about their hereditary or familial cancer risk: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic counseling for hereditary breast or colon cancer has implications for both counselees and their relatives. Although counselees are encouraged by genetic counselors to disclose genetic cancer risk information, they do not always share this information with their at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be generally categorized as a lack of knowledge, motivation and/or self-efficacy. Presented here is the protocol of a randomized controlled trial that aims to establish the effectiveness of an intervention focused on supporting counselees in their disclosure of genetic cancer information to their relatives. Methods/Design A multicenter randomized controlled trial with parallel group design will be used to compare the effects of an additional telephone counseling session performed by psychosocial workers to enhance the disclosure of genetic cancer information to at-risk relatives (intervention group) with a control group of standard care. Consecutive index patients with relatives at risk for hereditary or familial breast and/or ovarian cancer or colon cancer, are randomly assigned (block size: 8; 1:1 allocation ratio) to the intervention (n?=?132) or control group (n?=?132, standard care). Primary outcomes are counselees knowledge, motivation and self-efficacy regarding informing their relatives. Discussion This intervention may prove important in supporting counselees to disclose hereditary and/or familial cancer risk information to at-risk relatives and may enable more at-risk relatives to make a well-informed decision regarding genetic services and/or screening. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR) with trial ID number NTR3745. PMID:24649895

2014-01-01

320

Use acupuncture to relieve perimenopausal syndrome: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Whether acupuncture is effective for relieving perimenopausal syndrome has been controversial recently. In this article, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial using acupuncture to treat perimenopausal syndrome, aiming to answer this controversy. Design A multicenter randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms is underway in China. Two hundred and six women with perimenopausal syndrome will be randomly assigned to a treatment group using acupuncture plus auricular acupressure (AA group) and a control group using Climen (Bayer Healthcare Company Limited, Guangzhou, China), a 28-day sequential hormone replacement therapy, in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the AA group will receive three acupuncture sessions per week in the first 4weeks and two sessions per week in the following 8weeks, for a total of 28 sessions over 12weeks. Auricular points will be plastered by Semen Vaccariae twice per week for a consecutive 12weeks, with both ears used alternately. The Climen control group is prescribed a tablet containing estradiol valerate 2mg/day for the first 11days, and a tablet containing estradiol valerate 2mg/day plus cyroterone acetate 1mg/day for the following 10days. The total treatment period of the control group is three cycles. The post-treatment follow-up period will last 24weeks. The primary outcome is the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) assessed at baseline and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 36weeks after randomization. The secondary outcomes are Menopause-Specific Quality of Life, average hot flash score during 24hours, serum estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone level. The first two secondary outcomes are measured at the same point as the MRS. Other secondary outcomes are measured at baseline and 12, 24weeks after randomization. Discussion The results of this trial, which will be available in 2015, will clarify whether acupuncture is effective to relieve perimenopausal syndrome. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01933204 (registered 9 August 2013) PMID:24886348

2014-01-01

321

International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D), a randomized clinical trial: rationale and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Clinically useful treatment moderators of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have not yet been identified, though some baseline predictors of treatment outcome have been proposed. The aim of iSPOT-D is to identify pretreatment measures that predict or moderate MDD treatment response or remission to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine; and develop a model that incorporates multiple predictors and moderators. Methods/Design The International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) is a multi-centre, international, randomized, prospective, open-label trial. It is enrolling 2016 MDD outpatients (ages 18-65) from primary or specialty care practices (672 per treatment arm; 672 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls). Study-eligible patients are antidepressant medication (ADM) nave or willing to undergo a one-week wash-out of any non-protocol ADM, and cannot have had an inadequate response to protocol ADM. Baseline assessments include symptoms; distress; daily function; cognitive performance; electroencephalogram and event-related potentials; heart rate and genetic measures. A subset of these baseline assessments are repeated after eight weeks of treatment. Outcomes include the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (primary) and self-reported depressive symptoms, social functioning, quality of life, emotional regulation, and side-effect burden (secondary). Participants may then enter a naturalistic telephone follow-up at weeks 12, 16, 24 and 52. The first half of the sample will be used to identify potential predictors and moderators, and the second half to replicate and confirm. Discussion First enrolment was in December 2008, and is ongoing. iSPOT-D evaluates clinical and biological predictors of treatment response in the largest known sample of MDD collected worldwide. Trial registration International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00693849 URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00693849?term=International+Study+to+Predict+Optimized+Treatment+for+Depression&rank=1 PMID:21208417

2011-01-01

322

Effectiveness of phototherapy incorporated into an exercise program for osteoarthritis of the knee: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease with a multifactor etiology involving changes in bone alignment, cartilage, and other structures necessary to joint stability. There is a need to investigate therapeutic resources that combine different wavelengths as well as different light sources (low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) in the same apparatus for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of the proposed study is to analyze the effect of the incorporation of phototherapy into a therapeutic exercise program for individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods/Design A double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trial will be conducted involving patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Evaluations will be performed using functional questionnaires before and after the treatment protocols, in a reserved room with only the evaluator and participant present, and no time constraints placed on the answers or evaluations. The following functional tests will also be performed: stabilometry (balance assessment), dynamometry (muscle strength of gluteus medius and quadriceps), algometry (pain threshold), fleximeter (range of motion), timed up-and-go test (functional mobility), and the functional reach test. The participants will then be allocated to three groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: exercise program, exercise program?+?phototherapy, or exercise program?+?placebo phototherapy, all of which will last for eight weeks. Discussion The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to analyze the effect of the incorporation of phototherapy into a therapeutic exercise program for osteoarthritis of the knee. The study will support the practice based on evidence to the use of phototherapy in individuals with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee. Data will be published after the study is completed. Trial registration The protocol for this study has been submitted to Clinical Trials, registration number NCT02102347, on 29 March 2014. PMID:24919587

2014-01-01

323

A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled Fun without Smokes. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the Fun without Smokes website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the Fun without Smokes website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Discussion The present study protocol describes the purpose, intervention design and study protocol of Fun without Smokes. Expectations are that pupils receiving tailored advice will be less likely to smoke after 24 months in contrast to pupils in the control condition. Furthermore, tailored feedback letters and prompting is expected to be more effective than providing tailored feedback letters only. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3116 PMID:22490110

2012-01-01

324

Mindfulness-based intervention for teenagers with cancer: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals living with cancer must learn to face not only the physical symptoms of their condition, but also the anxiety and uncertainty related to the progression of the disease, the anticipation of physical and emotional pain related to illness and treatment, the significant changes implied in living with cancer, as well as the fear of recurrence after remission. Mindfulness-based meditation constitutes a promising option to alleviate these manifestations. Methods/Design This article presents the rationale and protocol development for a research project aimed at evaluating the effects of a mindfulness-based meditation intervention on quality of life, sleep, and mood in adolescents with cancer compared to a control group. A prospective, longitudinal, experimental design involving three time points (baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up) and two groups (experimental and control) was developed for this project. Participants will be assigned randomly to either group. Eligible participants are adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with a diagnosis of cancer, with no specific selection/exclusion based on type, stage, or trajectory of cancer. A final sample size of 28 participants is targeted. Adolescents in the experimental group will be completing the mindfulness meditation intervention, taught by two trained therapists. The intervention will comprise of eight weekly sessions, lasting 90 min each. Once the follow-up assessment is completed by the experimental group, wait-list controls will be offered to complete the mindfulness-based program. Intra-group analyses will serve to evaluate the impact of the mindfulness-based meditation intervention on quality of life, sleep, and mood pre-post intervention, as well as follow-up. Analyses will also be used to carry out inter-group comparisons between the experimental group and the wait-list controls. Voluntary participation, risk of attrition, and the small sample size are potential limitations of this project. In spite of possible limitations, this project will be one among very few aimed at improving quality of life, sleep, and mood in adolescents living with cancer, will evaluate the potential benefits of such a practice on both psychological and physical health of youth with cancer, and help in creating mindfulness-based intervention programs, in order to provide the necessary psychological help to adolescents living with cancer. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01783418 PMID:23663534

2013-01-01

325

Efficacy of composite versus ceramic inlays and onlays: study protocol for the CECOIA randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries is a common disease and affects many adults worldwide. Inlay or onlay restoration is widely used to treat the resulting tooth substance loss. Two esthetic materials can be used to manufacture an inlay/onlay restoration of the tooth: ceramic or composite. Here, we present the protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the clinical efficacy of both materials for tooth restoration. Other objectives are analysis of overall quality, wear, restoration survival and prognosis. Methods The CEramic and COmposite Inlays Assessment (CECOIA) trial is an open-label, parallel-group, multicenter RCT involving two hospitals and five private practices. In all, 400 patients will be included. Inclusion criteria are adults who need an inlay/onlay restoration for one tooth (that can be isolated with use of a dental dam and has at least one intact cusp), can tolerate restorative procedures and do not have severe bruxism, periodontal or carious disease or poor oral hygiene. The decayed tissue will be evicted, the cavity will be prepared for receiving an inlay/onlay and the patient will be randomized by use of a centralized web-based interface to receive: 1) a ceramic or 2) composite inlay or onlay. Treatment allocation will be balanced (1:1). The inlay/onlay will be adhesively luted. Follow-up will be for 2 years and may be extended; two independent examiners will perform the evaluations. The primary outcome measure will be the score obtained with use of the consensus instrument of the Fdration Dentaire Internationale (FDI) World Dental Federation. Secondary outcomes include this instruments items, inlay/onlay wear, overall quality and survival of the inlay/onlay. Data will be analyzed by a statistician blinded to treatments and an adjusted ordinal logistic regression model will be used to compare the efficacy of both materials. Discussion For clinicians, the CECOIA trial results may help with evidence-based recommendations concerning the choice of materials for inlay/onlay restoration. For patients, the results may lead to improvement in long-term restoration. For researchers, the results may provide ideas for further research concerning inlay/onlay materials and prognosis. This trial is funded by a grant from the French Ministry of Health. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01724827 PMID:24004961

2013-01-01

326

Study protocol. The Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (The CHAMPS-study DK)  

PubMed Central

Background An increasingly passive life-style in the Western World has led to a rise in life-style related disorders. This is a major concern for all segments of society. The county council of the municipality of Svendborg in Denmark, created six Sport Schools with increased levels of suitable physical activities, which made it possible to study the health outcomes in these children whilst comparing them to children who attended the normal schools of the region using the design of a natural experiment. Methods Children from the age of 6 till the age of 10, who accepted to be included in the monitoring process, were surveyed at baseline with questionnaires, physical examinations and physical and biological testing, including DXA scans. The physical examination and testing was repeated during the early stage of the study. Every week over the whole study period, the children will be followed with an automated mobile phone text message (SMS-Track) asking questions on their leisure time sports activities and the presence of any musculoskeletal problems. Children who report any such problems are monitored individually by health care personnel. Data are collected on demography, health habits and attitudes, physical characteristics, physical activity using accelerometers, motor performance, fitness, bone health, life-style disorders, injuries and musculoskeletal problems. Data collection will continue at least once a year until the children reach grade 9. Discussion This project is embedded in a local community, which set up the intervention (The Sport Schools) and thereafter invited researchers to provide documentation and evaluation. Sport schools are well matched with the normal schools, making comparisons between these suitable. However, subgroups that would be specifically targeted in lifestyle intervention studies (such as the definitely obese) could be relatively small. Therefore, results specific to minority groups may be diluted. Nonetheless, the many rigorously collected data will make it possible to study, for example, the general effect that different levels of physical activity may have on various health conditions and on proxy measures of life-style conditions. Specifically, it will help answer the question on whether increased physical activity in school has a positive effect on health in children. PMID:22906115

2012-01-01

327

Identification of Optimal Protocols for Sequencing Difficult Templates: Results of the 2008 ABRF DNA Sequencing Research Group Difficult Template Study 2008  

PubMed Central

The 2008 ABRF DNA Sequencing Research Group (DSRG) difficult template sequencing study was designed to identify a general set of guidelines that would constitute the best approaches for sequencing difficult templates. This was a continuation of previous DSRG difficult template studies performed in 1996, 1997, and 2003. The distinguishing factors in the present study were the number of DNA templates used, the number of different types of difficult regions tested, and the inclusion of a follow-up phase of the study to identify optimal protocols for each type of difficult template. DNA templates with associated sequencing primers were distributed to participating laboratories and each laboratory returned their sequencing results along with descriptions of the experimental conditions used. The data were analyzed and the best protocols were identified for each difficult template. This information was subsequently distributed to the participating laboratories for a second round of sequencing to evaluate the general applicability of the optimized protocols. The average improvements in sequencing results were 11% overall, with a range of ?25% to +43% using the optimized protocols. The full results from this study are presented here and they demonstrate that general experimental protocols and common additives can be used to improve the sequencing success for many difficult templates. PMID:19503623

Kieleczawa, Jan; Adam, Debbie; Bintzler, Doug; Detwiler, Michelle; Needleman, David; Schweitzer, Peter; Singh, Sushmita; Steen, Robert; Zianni, Michael

2009-01-01

328

Study protocol for the evaluation of an Infant Simulator based program delivered in schools: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school based program developed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program includes students taking care of an Infant Simulator; despite growing popularity and an increasing global presence of such programs, there is no published evidence of their long-term impact. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) program by investigating pre-conceptual health and risk behaviours, teen pregnancy and the resultant birth outcomes, early child health and maternal health. Methods and Design Fifty-seven schools (86% of 66 eligible secondary schools) in Perth, Australia were recruited to the clustered (by school) randomised trial, with even randomisation to the intervention and control arms. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP program was administered to 1,267 participants in the intervention schools, while 1,567 participants in the non-intervention schools received standard curriculum. Participants were all female and aged between 13-15 years upon recruitment. Pre and post-intervention questionnaires measured short-term impact and participants are now being followed through their teenage years via data linkage to hospital medical records, abortion clinics and education records. Participants who have a live birth are interviewed by face-to-face interview. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and proportional hazards regression will test for differences in pregnancy, birth and abortion rates during the teenage years between the study arms. Discussion This protocol paper provides a detailed overview of the trial design as well as initial results in the form of participant flow. The authors describe the intervention and its delivery within the natural school setting and discuss the practical issues in the conduct of the trial, including recruitment. The trial is pragmatic and will directly inform those who provide Infant Simulator based programs in school settings. Trial registration ISRCTN24952438 PMID:20964860

2010-01-01

329

The Chip History Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in September of 2004, the Chip History Center web site was originally developed by VLSI Research Inc. to be the semiconductor industry's History Channel on the internet to help strengthen the industry's infrastructure by providing an archive of videos and reports that document the industry's history and its development. Today its purpose is to serve as a virtual museum on the history of the semiconductor industry, preserve and archive the history of the industry that opened the doors to the information age, provide easy to access and free information to researchers, historians, and educators, provide educational resources for K-12 that show how things work, and provide role models for children of people for whom science and math have enriched their live. This a great website to explore the early days of the Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment and some of its most interesting pioneers from the 60's through the 90's. The site has historical pictures and interactive blogs for you to leave your comments and thoughts.

2012-12-24

330

Combining motivational and volitional strategies to promote unsupervised walking in patients with fibromyalgia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia patients are often advised to engage in regular low- to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The need of fibromyalgia patients to walk has been stressed in previous research. Behavioral self-regulation theories suggest that a combination of motivational aspects (to develop or strengthen a behavioral intention: Theory of Planned Behavior) and volitional aspects (engagement of intention in behavior: implementation intentions) is more effective than a single intervention. In this paper, we describe a protocol for identifying the motivational processes (using the Theory of Planned Behavior) involved in the practice of walking (phase I) and for studying the efficacy of an intervention that combines motivational and volitional contents to enhance the acquisition and continuation of this exercise behavior (phase II). The paper also shows the characteristics of eligible individuals (women who do not walk) and ineligible populations (women who walk or do not walk because of comorbidity without medical recommendation to walk). Both groups consist of members of any of four patients associations in Spain who are between 18 and 70years of age and meet the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire criteria for fibromyalgia. Furthermore, using this study protocol, we will explore the characteristics of participants (eligible women who agreed to participate in the study) and nonparticipants (eligible women who refused to participate). Methods/design Two studies will be conducted: Phase I will be a cross-sectional study, and phase II will be a triple-blind, randomized longitudinal study with two treatment groups and one active control group. The questionnaires were sent to a total of 2,227 members of four patients associations in Spain. A total of 920 participants with fibromyalgia returned the questionnaires, and 582 were ultimately selected to participate. Discussion The first data gathered have allowed us to identify the characteristics of the study population and they support the appropriateness of the inclusion criteria.. When the study is complete, the results will enable us to establish whether this kind of intervention can be used as a self-regulation tool for increasing and maintaining walking as unsupervised physical exercise of low to moderate intensity in fibromyalgia patients. Trial registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN68584893 PMID:24721143

2014-01-01

331

Hybrid IC / Microfluidic Chips for the Manipulation of Biological Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid IC / Microfluidic chip that can manipulate individual biological cells in a fluid with microscopic resolution has been demonstrated. The chip starts with a custom-designed silicon integrated circuit (IC) produced in a foundry using standard processing techniques. A microfluidic chamber is then fabricated on top of the IC to provide a biocompatible environment. The motion of biological cells in the chamber is controlled using a two-dimensional array of micro-scale electromagnets in the IC that generate spatially patterned magnetic fields. A local peak in the magnetic field amplitude will trap a magnetic bead and an attached cell; by moving the peak's location, the bead-bound cell can be moved to any position on the chip surface above the array. By generating multiple peaks, many cells can be moved independently along separate paths, allowing many different manipulations of individual cells. The hybrid IC / Microfluidic chip can be used, for example, to sort cells or to assemble tissue on micrometer length scales. To prove the concept, an IC / Microfluidic chip was fabricated, based on a custom-designed IC that contained a two-dimensional microcoil array with integrated current sources and control circuits. The chip was tested by trapping and moving biological cells tagged with magnetic beads inside the microfluidic chamber over the array. By combining the power of silicon technology with the biocompatibility of microfluidics, IC / Microfluidic chips will make new types of investigations possible in biological and biomedical studies.

Lee, Hakho

2005-03-01

332

On-chip analysis of respiratory viruses from nasopharyngeal samples.  

PubMed

Point-of-care (PoC) testing followed by personalized efficient therapy of infectious diseases may result in a considerable reduction of associated health care costs. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) systems represent a potentially high efficient class of PoC tools. Here, we present a LoC system for automated pathogen analysis of respiratory viruses from nasopharyngeal specimens. The device prepares total nucleic acids from extracted swab samples using magnetic silica beads. After reverse transcription the co-purified viral RNA is amplified in accordance with the QIAplex multiplex PCR technology. Hybridized to corresponding QIAGEN LiquiChip beads and labelled with streptavidin R-phycoerythrin, the amplified target sequences are finally detected using a QIAGEN LiquiChip200 workstation. All chemicals needed are either stored freeze-dried on the disposable chip or are provided in liquid form in a reagent cartridge for up to 24 runs. Magnetic stir bars for mixing as well as turning valves with metering structures are integrated into the injection-moulded disposable chip. The core of the controlling instrument is a rotating heating bar construction providing fixed temperatures for fast cycling. PCR times of about half an hour (for 30 cycles) could be achieved for 120?l reactions, making this system the fastest currently available high-volume PCR chip. The functionality of the system was shown by comparing automatically processed nasopharyngeal samples to ones processed manually according to the QIAGEN "ResPlex II Panel v2.0" respiratory virus detection kit. A prototype of the present instrument revealed slightly weaker signal intensities with a similar sensitivity in comparison to the commercially available kit and automated nucleic acid preparation devices, even without protocol optimization. PMID:21603962

Ritzi-Lehnert, Marion; Himmelreich, Ralf; Attig, Hans; Claussen, Jan; Dahlke, Rainer; Grosshauser, Gerd; Holzer, Eva; Jeziorski, Markus; Schaeffer, Eva; Wende, Andy; Werner, Sabine; Wiborg, Jens Ole; Wick, Isabell; Drese, Klaus Stefan; Rothmann, Thomas

2011-10-01

333

EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: CASE STUDY AT THE TWIN CITIES ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

At the request of staff in the EPA Regions, EPA's Office of Research and Development carried out an independent evaluation of the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA/600/R-98/128). The Protocol was developed around...

334

EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR THE NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: CASE STUDY AT THE TWIN CITIES ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

At the request of staff in the EPA Regions, EPA?s Office of Research and Development carried out an independent evaluation of the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA/600/R-98/128). The Protocol was developed around c...

335

API Tests for RAM Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 16K RAM chips already in commercial use and 64K RAM chips being planned, the increasing length of time needed to run test patterns could lead to cost increases that would offset the advantages of the larger devices. For example, many existing tests of the important pattern-sensitive-fault class, such as galloping 0's and 1's,* require a test length proportional to

V. P. Srini

1977-01-01

336

Multimorbidity in primary care in Portugal (MM-PT): a cross-sectional three-phase observational study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multimorbidity is defined as the co-occurrence of more than one chronic disease in one person without assigning an index disease. This rapidly increasing phenomenon markedly influences patients overall health, has major implications for effective provision of healthcare services and has a significant economic toll on individuals and society. Since Portugal is a country with a growing ageing population, a better understanding of the role of multimorbidity should be assessed. The aim of this study is to further the knowledge of the epidemiological factors associated with multimorbidity in Portugal, chiefly its prevalence and the health and social implications. Methods and analysis This study protocol describes a primary care nationwide three-phase study. The first phase is drawn to access the prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity. In the second phase, individual parameters are assessed, such as patients health-related quality of life, perceived family support and unmet health needs of patients with multimorbidity. The third and last phase of this study aims to characterise general practitioners knowledge, awareness and practices related to multimorbidity management. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki. It has full approval from the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, and the Ethics Committee of the Central Health Region of Portugal. Study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. PMID:24531449

Prazeres, Filipe; Santiago, Luiz

2014-01-01

337

Heavy Lifting at Work and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: Protocol for a Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background There are theoretical grounds to suspect that heavy lifting at work is an important risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However the relationship has not been sufficiently acknowledged by empirical studies. Positive and statistically significant associations have been found in studies that utilize self-reported exposure data. Such studies are, however, prone to reporting bias. All else equal, people with a poor cardiovascular fitness/health may have a higher propensity to perceive their work environment as heavy. Objective The study described in the present protocol aims to investigate the relationship between heavy lifting at work and IHD by use of material and methods that are free from reporting bias. Methods This is a register-based prospective cohort study. Male blue-collar workers in Denmark will be identified and followed through national registers, from 2001-2010, for hospital treatment or death due to IHD. Relative rates of IHD between workers in occupations likely to involve heavy lifting and other blue-collar workers will be estimated through Poisson regression. Results Results are expected to be ready in mid-2015. Conclusions Since this is not a randomized study, it cannot confirm etiological hypotheses. It may, however, confirm that employment in occupations that involve heavy lifting is a predictor for IHD and thereby lend support to the hypothesis of a causal relationship. PMID:25164612

2014-01-01

338

Vinclozolin: a feasibility and sensitivity study of the ILSI-HESI F1-extended one-generation rat reproduction protocol.  

PubMed

Feasibility of the ILSI-HESI (ACSA) extended one-generation protocol was tested with vinclozolin (dietary 0, 4, 20, 100mg/kg/day). Parental Wistar rats (n=25/sex/dose) were dosed pre-mating (males 4, females 2 weeks) through F1 offspring weaning (postnatal day PND21); F1 dosing continued through PND70. At PND21, 3 subsets (each 1 pup/sex/litter) were selected for neurotoxicology (functional observational battery, motor activity, neuropathology), clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, thyroid hormone assay) (subsets 1a, 1b; each n=10/sex/dose), immunotoxicology (IgM) SRBC antibody response and natural killer cell assays (subset 2; n=25/sex/dose), and estrus cycle (subset 3; n=25/dose). Vinclozolin reduced parental and offspring bodyweight and prostate, seminal vesicles and epididymides weight, and increased adrenal weight/induced adrenal cortical hypertrophy at 100mg/kg. Mating, fertility, gestation and lactation were unaffected. At 20 and 100mg/kg, F1 males had reduced anogenital distance and retained areolae; at 100mg/kg only, there was hypospadias, purulent prostatitis and seminal vesicle inflammation with atrophy, and Leydig cell hyperplasia, and in F1 females accelerated vaginal opening. These effects are consistent with vinclozolin's known anti-androgenic developmental effects. Neuro- and immunotoxicology tests were unaffected. F1 Only T4 was reduced at 20 and 100mg/kg. The overall sensitivity of the extended one-generation protocol is comparable to or even greater than the current two-generation study. Thus it reduces animal use while maintaining or enhancing information for risk assessment. PMID:20875480

Schneider, Steffen; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

2011-02-01

339

A multimethod research investigation of consumer involvement in Australian health service accreditation programmes: the ACCREDIT-SCI study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health service accreditation programmes are a regulatory mechanism adopted to drive improvements inpatient safety and quality. Research investigating the benefits or limitations, of consumer involvement in accreditation programmes is negligible. To develop our knowledge in this area the ACCREDIT collaboration (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) has developed a research plan, known as the ACCREDIT-SCI (Standards of Consumer Involvement) study protocol. Two complementary studies have been designed: one, to examine the effectiveness of a standard for consumer participation and two, to explore how patient experiences vary across a range of settings with differing accreditation results. Methods and design The research setting is the Australian healthcare system, and the two studies focus on three accreditation programmes in the primary, acute and aged care domains. The studies will use multimethods: document analysis; interviews and surveys. Participants will be stakeholders across the three domains including: policy officers; frontline healthcare professionals; accreditation agency personnel, including surveyors and healthcare consumers. Drawing on previous experience, the research team has developed purpose-designed tools. Data will be analysed using thematic, narrative and statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the two studies (HREC 10274). Findings will be disseminated through seminars, conference presentations, academic publications and research partner websites. The findings will be formulated to facilitate uptake by policy and accreditation agency professionals, researchers and academics, and consumers, nationally and internationally. PMID:23059848

Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Mumford, Virginia; Pawsey, Marjorie; Irene Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

340

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EPIPAGE 2: a preterm birth cohort in France in  

E-print Network

and their determinants. Methods/Design: Eligible participants for this prospective population-based study include all babies (stillbirths and live births) and terminations of pregnancy out of 8400 eligible births in France and prevention in high-risk babies. Keywords: Preterm births, Cohort, Population-based study Background About 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

341

A method to study the effect of bronchodilators on smoke retention in COPD patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease, associated with cardiovascular disease. Many patients use (long-acting) bronchodilators, whilst they continue smoking alongside. We hypothesised an interaction between bronchodilators and smoking that enhances smoke exposure, and hence cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we report our study protocol that explores the fundamental interaction, i.e. smoke retention. Method The design consists of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover trial, in which 40 COPD patients smoke cigarettes during both undilated and maximal bronchodilated conditions. Our primary outcome is the retention of cigarette smoke, expressed as tar and nicotine weight. The inhaled tar weights are calculated from the correlated extracted nicotine weights in cigarette filters, whereas the exhaled weights are collected on Cambridge filters. We established the inhaled weight calculations by a pilot study, that included paired measurements from several smoking regimes. Our study protocol is approved by the local accredited medical review ethics committee. Discussion Our study is currently in progress. The pilot study revealed valid equations for inhaled tar and nicotine, with an R2 of 0.82 and 0.74 (p < 0.01), respectively. We developed a method to study pulmonary smoke retentions in COPD patients under the influence of bronchodilation which may affect smoking-related disease. This trial will provide fundamental knowledge about the (cardiovascular) safety of bronchodilators in patients with COPD who persist in their habit of cigarette smoking. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981851 PMID:21310040

2011-01-01

342

Neuroscience goes on a chip.  

PubMed

Advances in microelectronics, microfluidics, polymers and microfabrication have enabled the creation of disposable lab-on-a-chips (LOCs) as the new tools for neuroscience research. The LOCs have been applied for a wide range of neurobiology studies, including cellular and molecular biochemical experimentations, morphological observations and electrophysiological investigations. The integration of miniaturised components leads to analytical instrumentations with unprecedented automation, speed of analysis, and flexibility. These features make LOCs capable enough to replace their bulky and expensive bench-top counterparts. LOCs can be useful for genomic, proteomic, epigenomic, peptidomic, connectomic and electrophysiological studies and also as effective tools for reductionist neuroscientists. Moreover, they can be applied at higher level studies such as developmental neurobiology and behavioural investigations. This work provides an in-depth review of LOC platforms for neuroscience research. First, we review the essential bench-top neuroscience instrumentation as per their functions and features. Next, we present LOC counterparts for those bench-top instrumentations. Finally, we offer perspectives on persistent challenges and our perception of opportunities based on LOC instrumentations in neuroscience research. PMID:22387040

Soe, Aung K; Nahavandi, Saeid; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

2012-05-15

343

Integrative Data Analysis through Coordination of Measurement and Analysis Protocol across Independent Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models, and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, we articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies. PMID:19485626

Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

2009-01-01

344

Determining the role of sarcomeric proteins in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Although muscle weakness is a hallmark of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), the molecular mechanisms that lead to weakness in FSHD remain largely unknown. Recent studies suggest aberrant expression of genes involved in skeletal muscle development and sarcomere contractility, and activation of pathways involved in sarcomeric protein degradation. This study will investigate the contribution of sarcomeric protein dysfunction to the pathogenesis of muscle weakness in FSHD. Methods/Design Evaluation of sarcomeric function using skinned single muscle fiber contractile studies and protein analysis in muscle biopsies (quadriceps femoris and tibialis anterior) from patients with FSHD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients with other forms of muscular dystrophy and inflammatory myopathy will be included as disease controls to assess whether results are due to changes specific for FSHD, or a consequence of muscle disease in general. A total of 56 participants will be included. Extensive clinical parameters will be measured using MRI, quantitative muscle studies and physical activity assessments. Discussion This study is the first to extensively investigate muscle fiber physiology in FSHD following an earlier pilot study suggesting sarcomeric dysfunction in FSHD. The results obtained in this study will increase the understanding of the pathophysiology of muscle weakness in FSHD, and possibly identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24119284

2013-01-01

345

Assessment of the ability of wheelchair subjects with spinal cord injury to perform a specific protocol of shoulder training: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: a regular program of exercises in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) can contribute to reduce the risk of upper extremities injuries. Methods: in this prospective laboratory study we tested the hypothesis that a training machine developed for able-body users is suitable for a shoulder training protocol in 11 paraplegic subjects with SCI. Overall subjects were assessed with the SCIM III, CS, DASH and standard shoulder examination. We set a protocol of shoulder exercises performed with a training machine. Overall subjects were able to perform the protocol but 2 did not complete the exercises n 6 and 7. The position of the wheelchair during each exercise was recorded. Wheelchair position/loading level were significantly correlated with the protocol n 2, 3 and 5 as well as BMI/loading level for the exercises n 5 and 9 and age/loading level for the exercise n 7. Clinical scores were neither correlated with loading nor with anthropometric data. Results/Conclusions: from the analysis of data collected in this study arised that: 1) the training machine needs some adjustments for paraplegic subjects, 2) the training protocol was appropriate except for the exercises needing a torso-rotation and 3) the template for wheelchair position may be a valid guide for an optimal paraplegic shoulder training. PMID:25332931

Merolla, Giovanni; Dellabiancia, Fabio; Filippi, Maria Vittoria; De Santis, Elisa; Alpi, Daniele; Magrini, Paola; Porcellini, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

346

Implementing a Collaborative Sepsis Protocol on the Time to Antibiotics in an Emergency Department of a Saudi Hospital: Quasi Randomized Study  

PubMed Central

Background. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of an ED sepsis protocol on the time to antibiotics for emergency department (ED) patients with severe sepsis. Methods. Quasiexperimental prospective study was conducted at the emergency department. Consecutive patients with severe sepsis were included before and after the implementation of a sepsis protocol. The outcome measures were time from recognition of severe sepsis/septic shock to first antibiotic dose delivery and the appropriateness of initial choice of antibiotics based on the presumed source of infection. Results. There were 47 patients in preintervention group and 112 patients in postintervention group. Before implementation, mean time from severe sepsis recognition to delivery of antibiotics was 140 97 minutes. During the intervention period, the mean time was 68 67 minutes, with an overall reduction of 72 minutes. The protocol resulted in an overall improvement of 37% in the compliance, as 62% received appropriate initial antibiotics for the presumed source of infection as compared to 25% before the start of protocol. Conclusion. Implementation of ED sepsis protocol improved the time from recognition of severe sepsis/septic shock to first antibiotic dose delivery as well as the appropriateness of initial antibiotic therapy. PMID:24818017

Rehmani, Rifat S.; Memon, Javed I.; Al-Gammal, Ayman

2014-01-01

347

Lab on a Chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliable and fast detection of chemical or biological molecules, or the measurement of their concentrations in a sample, are key problems in many fields such as environmental analysis, medical diagnosis, or the food industry. There are traditionally two approaches to this problem. The first aims to carry out a measurement in situ in the sample using chemical and biological sensors. The constraints imposed by detection limits, specificity, and in some cases stability are entirely imputed to the sensor. The second approach uses so-called total analysis systems to process the sample according to a protocol made up of different steps, such as extractions, purifications, concentrations, and a final detection stage. The latter is made in better conditions than with the first approach, which may justify the greater complexity of the process. It is this approach that is implemented in most methods for identifying pathogens, whether they be in biological samples (especially for in vitro diagnosis) or samples taken from the environment. The instrumentation traditionally used to carry out these protocols comprises a set of bulky benchtop apparatus, which needs to be plugged into the mains in order to function. However, there are many specific applications (to be discussed in this chapter) for which analysis instruments with the following characteristics are needed: Possibility of use outside the laboratory, i.e., instruments as small as possible, consuming little energy, and largely insensitive to external conditions of temperature, humidity, vibrations, and so on. Possibility of use by non-specialised agents, or even unmanned operation. Possibility of handling a large number of samples in a limited time, typically for high-throughput screening applications. Possibility of handling small samples. At the same time, a high level of performance is required, in particular in terms of (1) the detection limit, which must be as low as possible, (2) specificity, i.e., the ability to detect a particular molecule in a complex mixture, and (3) speed.

Puget, P.

348

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Impact of a multifaceted program to prevent  

E-print Network

complications and length of hospital stay) among elderly patients. This study should allow better diagnosis, hospital costs and rates of nursing home placement on discharge [5-11]. The impact of prevention program

Boyer, Edmond

349

Disseminating quality improvement: study protocol for a large cluster-randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDissemination is a critical facet of implementing quality improvement in organizations. As a field, addiction treatment has\\u000a produced effective interventions but disseminated them slowly and reached only a fraction of people needing treatment. This\\u000a study investigates four methods of disseminating quality improvement (QI) to addiction treatment programs in the U.S. It is,\\u000a to our knowledge, the largest study of organizational

Andrew R Quanbeck; David H Gustafson; James H Ford II; Alice Pulvermacher; Michael T French; K John McConnell; Dennis McCarty

2011-01-01

350

Clinical study protocol for the ARCH project - computational modeling for improvement of outcome after vascular access creation.  

PubMed

Despite clinical guidelines and the possibility of diagnostic vascular imaging, creation and maintenance of a vascular access (VA) remains problematic: avoiding short- and long-term VA dysfunction is challenging. Although prognostic factors for VA dysfunction have been identified in previous studies, their potential interplay at a systemic level is disregarded. Consideration of multiple prognostic patient specific factors and their complex interaction using dedicated computational modeling tools might improve outcome after VA creation by enabling a better selection of VA configuration. These computational modeling tools are developed and validated in the ARCH project: a joint initiative of four medical centers and three industrial partners (FP7-ICT-224390). This paper reports the rationale behind computational modeling and presents the clinical study protocol designed for calibrating and validating these modeling tools. The clinical study is based on the pre-operative collection of structural and functional data at a vascular level, as well as a VA functional evaluation during the follow-up period. The strategy adopted to perform the study and for data collection is also described here. PMID:21667457

Bode, Aron; Caroli, Anna; Huberts, Wouter; Planken, Nils; Antiga, Luca; Bosboom, Marielle; Remuzzi, Andrea; Tordoir, Jan

2011-01-01

351

Protocol Programmability Joshua Sunshine  

E-print Network

: Jonathan Aldrich (Chair) James D. Herbsleb Brad A. Myers ?ric Tanter (University of Chile) Submitted be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the sponsoring with protocols. Then, I performed a think-aloud observational study, in which I systematically observed profes

Myers, Brad A.

352

The Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Epidemiologic studies of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have consistently demonstrated variation in incidence, location, age at presentation, and outcomes among non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic populations. We report here the design and methods for this large, prospective, multi-center case-control study of ICH. Methods The ERICH study is a multi-center, prospective case-control study of ICH. Cases are identified by hot-pursuit and enrolled using standard phenotype and risk factor information and include neuroimaging and blood sample collection. Controls are centrally identified by random digit dialing to match cases by age (+/?5 years), race, ethnicity, gender and metropolitan region. Results As of March 22, 2013, 1,655 cases of ICH had been recruited into the study which is 101.5% of the target for that date and 851 controls had been recruited which is 67.2% of the target for that date (1,267 controls) for a total of 2,506 subjects which is 86.5% of the target for that date (2,897 subjects). Of the 1,655 cases enrolled, 1,640 cases had the case interview entered into the database of which 628 (38%) were non-Hispanic black, 458 (28%) were non-Hispanic white and 554 (34%) were Hispanic. Of the 1,197 cases with imaging submitted, 876 (73.2%) had a 24 hour follow-up CT available In addition to CT imaging, 607 cases have had MRI evaluation. Conclusion The ERICH study is a large, case-control study of ICH with particular emphasis on recruitment of minority populations for the identification of genetic and epidemiologic risk factors for ICH and outcomes after ICH. PMID:24021679

Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan; Kidwell, Chelsea; McCauley, Jacob L.; Osborne, Jennifer; Brown, Mark W.; West, Sandra E.; Rademacher, Eric W.; Waddy, Salina; Roberts, Jamie N.; Koch, Sebastian; Gonzales, Nicole R.; Sung, Gene; Kittner, Steven J.; Birnbaum, Lee; Frankel, Michael; Daniel Testai, Fernando; Hall, Christiana E.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Flaherty, Matthew; Coull, Bruce; Chong, Ji Y.; Warwick, Tanya; Malkoff, Marc; James, Michael L.; Ali, Latisha K.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Jones, Floyd; Watson, Tiffany; Leonard, Anne; Martinez, Rebecca; Sacco, Ralph I; Langefeld, Carl D.

2013-01-01

353

ARPANET protocol handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ARPANET Protocol Handbook is a collection of documents that describe the protocols of the ARPANET computer network as of April 1976. Protocols are the rules of communication between processes on the network. The protocols in use on the ARPANET form a tree structure. The basic protocol is the IMP-to-Host Protocol. Directly under that is the Host-to-Host Protocol. Spreading out

E. J. Feinler; J. Postel

1976-01-01

354

Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality  

SciTech Connect

We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

2009-06-01

355

Micro-costing studies in the health and medical literature: protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Micro-costing is a cost estimation method that allows for precise assessment of the economic costs of health interventions. It has been demonstrated to be particularly useful for estimating the costs of new interventions, for interventions with large variability across providers, and for estimating the true costs to the health system and to society. However, existing guidelines for economic evaluations do not provide sufficient detail of the methods and techniques to use when conducting micro-costing analyses. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to review the current literature on micro-costing studies of health and medical interventions, strategies, and programs to assess the variation in micro-costing methodology and the quality of existing studies. This will inform current practice in conducting and reporting micro-costing studies and lead to greater standardization in methodology in the future. Methods/Design We will perform a systematic review of the current literature on micro-costing studies of health and medical interventions, strategies, and programs. Using rigorously designed search strategies, we will search Ovid MEDLINE, EconLit, BIOSIS Previews, Embase, Scopus, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) to identify relevant English-language articles. These searches will be supplemented by a review of the references of relevant articles identified. Two members of the review team will independently extract detailed information on the design and characteristics of each included article using a standardized data collection form. A third reviewer will be consulted to resolve discrepancies. We will use checklists that have been developed for critical appraisal of health economics studies to evaluate the quality and potential risk of bias of included studies. Discussion This systematic review will provide useful information to help standardize the methods and techniques for conducting and reporting micro-costing studies in research, which can improve the quality and transparency of future studies and enhance comparability and interpretation of findings. In the long run, these efforts will facilitate clinical and health policy decision-making about resource allocation. Trial registration Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42014007453. PMID:24887208

2014-01-01

356

Longitudinal evaluation of dementia care in German nursing homes: the "DemenzMonitor" study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background In Germany, the number of people with dementia living in nursing homes is rapidly increasing. Providing adequate care for their special needs is a challenge for institutions and their staff members. Because of the growing number of people with dementia, changes to the conceptual orientation of nursing homes have occurred. These changes include specialized living arrangements and psychosocial interventions recommended for people with dementia. Until now, the provision of dementia care and its association to the residents behavior and quality of life is not well investigated in Germany. The purpose of this study is to describe the provision of dementia care and to identify resident- as well as facility-related factors associated with residents behavior and quality of life. Methods/Design The DemenzMonitor study is designed as a longitudinal study that is repeated annually. Data will be derived from a convenience sample consisting of nursing homes across Germany. For the data collection, three questionnaires have been developed that measure information on the level of the nursing home, the living units, and the residents. Data collection will be performed by staff members from the nursing homes. The data collection procedure will be supervised by a study coordinator who is trained by the research team. Data analysis will be performed on each data level using appropriate techniques for descriptions and comparisons as well as longitudinal regression analysis. Discussion The DemenzMonitor is the first study in Germany that assesses how dementia care is provided in nursing homes with respect to living arrangements and recommended interventions. This study links the acquired data with residents outcome measurements, making it possible to evaluate different aspects and concepts of care. PMID:24237990

2013-01-01

357

?SCOPE: Safer care for older persons (in residential) environments: A study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The current profile of residents living in Canadian nursing homes includes elder persons with complex physical and social needs. High resident acuity can result in increased staff workload and decreased quality of work life. Aims Safer Care for Older Persons [in residential] Environments is a two year (2010 to 2012) proof-of-principle pilot study conducted in seven nursing homes in western Canada. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of engaging front line staff to use quality improvement methods to integrate best practices into resident care. The goals of the study are to improve the quality of work life for staff, in particular healthcare aides, and to improve residents' quality of life. Methods/design The study has parallel research and quality improvement intervention arms. It includes an education and support intervention for direct caregivers to improve the safety and quality of their care delivery. We hypothesize that this intervention will improve not only the care provided to residents but also the quality of work life for healthcare aides. The study employs tools adapted from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Breakthrough Series: Collaborative Model and Canada's Safer Healthcare Now! improvement campaign. Local improvement teams in each nursing home (1 to 2 per facility) are led by healthcare aides (non-regulated caregivers) and focus on the management of specific areas of resident care. Critical elements of the program include local measurement, virtual and face-to-face learning sessions involving change management, quality improvement methods and clinical expertise, ongoing virtual and in person support, and networking. Discussion There are two sustainability challenges in this study: ongoing staff and leadership engagement, and organizational infrastructure. Addressing these challenges will require strategic planning with input from key stakeholders for sustaining quality improvement initiatives in the long-term care sector. PMID:21745382

2011-01-01

358

On chip clock synchronization for large digital systems  

E-print Network

ON CHIP CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION FOR I ARGE DIGITAL SYSTEMS A Thesis by DANIEL BRUESKE Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1994... Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ON CHIP CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION FOR LARGE DIGITAL SYSTEMS A Thesis by DANIEL BRUESKE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

Brueske, Daniel

2012-06-07

359

Preliminary reliability evaluation of flip chip on flex interconnect technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study was carried out to evaluate the flip-chip-on-flex (FCOF) interconnection process in order to determine its feasibility for space flight applications. The key objectives were to: develop and apply simple and cost effective process steps needed to manufacture FCOFs and build test samples; perform a preliminary technology validation, and determine any initial environmental or application risks. The FCOF was shown to be simpler and more economical than other chip interconnection schemes.

Shaw, Jack J.; Virmani, Naresh

1997-01-01

360

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Early detection of memory impairment in people  

E-print Network

intervention but it is still an active domain of research [2,3]. Although the benefit of early diagnosis is supported during the early stages of dementia. This study aims to evaluate three cognitive tests population therefore includes 620 subjects. Discussion: Tests for the early diagnosis of a mild cognitive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

361

Title of Protocol: __________________________________________ Site of Study: _______________________________ Date of the consent form version  

E-print Network

in body · Transdermal Patches(Must be removed prior to scanning. Subject is advised to bring an additional be indicated. In the case of experimental drug studies, any formerly unknown side effects should be added of identifiable data must be given. It is necessary, in drug trials, to specify individuals or agencies that may

Shoubridge, Eric

362

Title of Protocol: __________________________________________ Site of Study: _______________________________ Date of the consent form version  

E-print Network

in body · Transdermal Patches(Must be removed prior to scanning. Subject is advised to bring an additional be indicated. In the case of experimental drug studies, any formerly unknown side effects should be added. It is necessary, in drug trials, to specify individuals or agencies that may have access to the data. You should

Shoubridge, Eric

363

Hydrocarbon Measurements During the 1992 Southern Oxidants Study Atlanta Intensive: Protocol and Quality Assurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major component of the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) 1992 Atlanta Intensive was the measurement of atmospheric nonmethane hydrocarbons. Ambient air samples were collected and analyzed by a network of strategically located automated gas chromatography (GC) systems (field systems). In addition, an extensive canister sampling network was deployed. Combined, more than 3000 chromatograms were recorded. The SOS science team targeted

Eric C. Apel; Jack G. Calvert; Rod Zika; Michael O. Rodgers; Viney P. Aneja; James F. Meagher; William A. Lonneman

1995-01-01

364

A CASE STUDY OF LEAD IN DRINKING WATER: PROTOCOL, METHODS, AND INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study was performed to determine whether lead (Pb) in drinking water exceeded acceptable levels at a manufacturing and research site. Recent research indicates the possibility of abnormal adolescent development if the mother's blood lead levels exceed 15?g lead per dL of whole blood. Using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates of average consumption and ratios combating the amount of

William F. Davis

1990-01-01

365

The Reinforcing Therapist Performance (RTP) experiment: Study protocol for a cluster randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rewarding provider performance has been recommended by the Institute of Medicine as an approach to improve the quality of treatment, yet little empirical research currently exists that has examined the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such approaches. The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of providing monetary incentives directly to therapists as a method to

Bryan R Garner; Susan H Godley; Michael L Dennis; Mark D Godley; Donald S Shepard

2010-01-01

366

PILOT STUDY PROTOCOL: APPLICATION OF MEASURES OF SPONTANEOUS MOTOR ACTIVITY FOR BEHAVORIAL ASSESSMENT IN HUMAN INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

As a participant in planning the National Childrens Study (NCS), EPA is interested in the investigation of key developmental disorders that may be associated with environmental exposures. This is particularly important in light of research that has established that prenatal and e...

367

Investigating silent strokes in hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study (ISSYS): rationale and protocol design  

PubMed Central

Background Silent brain infarcts are detected by neuroimaging in up to 20% of asymptomatic patients based on population studies. They are five times more frequent than stroke in general population, and increase significantly both with advancing age and hypertension. Moreover, they are independently associated with the risk of future stroke and cognitive decline. Despite these numbers and the clinical consequences of silent brain infarcts, their prevalence in Mediterranean populations is not well known and their role as predictors of future cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events in hypertensive remains to be determined. ISSYS (Investigating Silent Strokes in Hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study) is an observational cross-sectional and longitudinal study aimed to: 1- determine the prevalence of silent cerebrovascular infarcts in a large cohort of 1000 hypertensives and to study their associated factors and 2-to study their relationship with the risk of future stroke and cognitive decline. Methods/Design Cohort study in a randomly selected sample of 1000 participants, hypertensive aged 50 to 70years old, with no history of previous stroke or dementia. On baseline all participants will undergo a brain MRI to determine the presence of brain infarcts and other cerebrovascular lesions (brain microbleeds, white matter changes and enlarged perivascular spaces) and will be also tested to determine other than brain organ damage (heart-left ventricular hypertrophy, kidney-urine albumin to creatinine ratio, vessels-pulse wave velocity, ankle brachial index), in order to establish the contribution of other subclinical conditions to the risk of further vascular events. Several sub-studies assessing the role of 24hour ambulatory BP monitoring and plasma or genetic biomarkers will be performed. Follow-up will last for at least 3years, to assess the rate of further stroke/transient ischemic attack, other cardiovascular events and cognitive decline, and their predictors. Discussion Improving the knowledge on the frequency and determinants of these lesions in our setting might help in the future to optimize treatments or establish new preventive strategies to minimize clinical and socioeconomic consequences of stroke and cognitive decline. PMID:24083440

2013-01-01

368

Study protocol of a Dutch smoking cessation e-health program  

PubMed Central

Background The study aims to test the differential effects of a web-based text and a web-based video-driven computer-tailored approach for lower socio-economic status (LSES) and higher socio-economic status (HSES) smokers which incorporate multiple computer-tailored feedback moments. The two programs differ only in the mode of delivery (video- versus text-based messages). The paper aims to describe the development and design of the two computer-tailored programs. Methods/design Respondents who smoked at the time of the study inclusion, who were motivated to quit within the following six months and who were aged 18 or older were included in the program. The study is a randomized control trial with a 2 (video/text) * 2(LSES/HSES) design. Respondents were assigned either to one of the intervention groups (text versus video tailored feedback) or to the control group (non-tailored generic advice). In all three conditions participants were asked to fill in the baseline questionnaire based on the I-Change model. The questionnaire assessed socio-demographics, attitude towards smoking, knowledge, self-efficacy, social influence, depression, level of addiction, action planning, goal actions, intention to quit smoking, seven-day point prevalence and continued abstinence. Follow-up measurements were conducted at six and twelve months after baseline. Discussion The present paper describes the development of the two computer-tailored smoking cessation programs, their components and the design of the study. The study results reveal different working mechanisms of multiple tailored smoking cessation interventions and will help us to gain more insight into effective strategies to target different subgroups, especially smokers with a lower socio-economic status. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3102 PMID:22059446

2011-01-01

369

Assessing bias in osteoarthritis trials included in Cochrane reviews: protocol for a meta-epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The validity of systematic reviews and meta-analysis depends on methodological quality and unbiased dissemination of trials. Our objective is to evaluate the association of estimates of treatment effects with different bias-related study characteristics in meta-analyses of interventions used for treating pain in osteoarthritis (OA). From the findings, we hope to consolidate guidance on interpreting OA trials in systematic reviews based on empirical evidence from Cochrane reviews. Methods and analysis Only systematic reviews that compare experimental interventions with sham, placebo or no intervention control will be considered eligible. Bias will be assessed with the risk of bias tool, used according to the Cochrane Collaborations recommendations. Furthermore, center status, trial size and funding will be assessed. The primary outcome (pain) will be abstracted from the first appearing forest plot for overall pain in the Cochrane review. Treatment effect sizes will be expressed as standardised mean differences (SMDs), where the difference in mean values available from the forest plots is divided by the pooled SD. To empirically assess the risk of bias in treatment benefits, we will perform stratified analyses of the trials from the included meta-analyses and assess the interaction between trial characteristics and treatment effect. A relevant study-level covariate is defined as one that decreases the between-study variance (?2, estimated as Tau-squared) as a consequence of inclusion in the mixed effects statistical model. Ethics and dissemination Meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials provide the most reliable basis for treatment of patients with OA, but the actual impact of bias is unclear. This study will systematically examine the methodological quality in OA Cochrane reviews and explore the effect estimates behind possible bias. Since our study does not collect primary data, no formal ethical assessment and informed consent are required. Trial registration number PROSPERO (CRD42013006924). PMID:25280805

Hansen, Julie B; Juhl, Carsten B; Boutron, Isabelle; Tugwell, Peter; Ghogomu, Elizabeth A T; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Rader, Tamara; Wells, George A; Mayhew, Alain; Maxwell, Lara; Lund, Hans; Christensen, Robin

2014-01-01

370

Influence of societal and practice contexts on health professionals' clinical reasoning: a scoping study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction In a context of constrained resources, the efficacy of interventions is a pivotal aim of healthcare systems worldwide. Efficacy of healthcare interventions is highly compromised if clinical reasoning (CR), the process that practitioners use to plan, direct, perform and reflect on client care, is not optimal. The CR process of health professionals is influenced by the institutional dimension (ie, legal, regulatory, administrative and organisational aspects) of their societal and practice contexts. Although several studies have been conducted with respect to the institutional dimension influencing health professionals CR, no clear integration of their results is yet available. The aim of this study is to synthesise and disseminate current knowledge on the influence of the institutional dimension of contexts on health professionals CR. Methods and analysis A scoping study of the scientific literature from January 1980 to March 2013 will be undertaken to summarise and disseminate research findings about the influence of the institutional dimension on CR. Numerous databases (n=18) from three relevant fields (healthcare, health law and politics and management) will be searched. Extended search strategies will include the manual search of bibliographies, health-related websites, public registries and journals of interest. Data will be collected and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. A systematic multidisciplinary team approach will allow optimal identification of relevant studies, as well as effective and valid content analysis and dissemination of the results. Discussion This scoping study will provide a rigorous, accurate and up-to-date synthesis of existing knowledge regarding: (1) those aspects of the institutional dimension of health professionals societal and practice contexts that impact their CR and (2) how these aspects influence health professionals CR. Through the synergy of a multidisciplinary research team from a wide range of expertise, clinical pertinence and an exhaustive dissemination of results to knowledge-users will be ensured. PMID:23633422

Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Melanie; Freeman, Andrew; Mullins, Gary; Quenec'hdu, Suzanne; Lalonde, Louise; Gagnon, Michael; Lacasse, Francis

2013-01-01

371

Processes and Outcomes of the Veterans Health Administration Safe Patient Handling Program: Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Health care workers, such as nurses, nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants, who manually move patients, are consistently listed in the top professions for musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. These MSIs are typically caused by high-risk patient caregiving activities. In 2008, a safe patient handling (SPH) program was implemented in all 153 Veterans Administration Medical Centers (VAMCs) throughout the United States to reduce patient handling injuries. Objective The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effects associated with the national implementation of a comprehensive SPH program. The primary objectives of the research were to determine the effectiveness of the SPH program in improving direct care nursing outcomes and to provide a context for understanding variations in program results across sites over time. Secondary objectives of the present research were to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in reducing direct and indirect costs associated with patient handling, to explore the potential mediating and moderating mechanisms, and to identify unintended consequences of implementing the program. Methods This 3-year longitudinal study used mixed methods of data collection at 6- to 9-month intervals. The analyses will include data from surveys, administrative databases, individual and focus group interviews, and nonparticipant observations. For this study, a 3-tiered measurement plan was used. For Tier 1, the unit of analysis was the facility, the data source was the facility coordinator or administrative data, and all 153 VAMCs participated. For Tier 2, frontline caregivers and program peer leaders at 17 facilities each completed different surveys. For Tier 3, six facilities completed qualitative site visits, which included individual interviews, focus groups, and nonparticipant observations. Multiple regression models were proposed to test the effects of SPH components on nursing outcomes related to patient handling. Content analysis and constant comparative analysis were proposed for qualitative data analysis to understand the context of implementation and to triangulate quantitative data. Results All three tiers of data for this study have been collected. We are now in the analyses and writing phase of the project, with the possibility for extraction of additional administrative data. The focus of this paper is to describe the SPH program, its evaluation study design, and its data collection procedures. This study evaluates the effects associated with the national implementation of a comprehensive SPH program that was implemented in all 153 VAMCs throughout the United States to reduce patient handling injuries. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest evaluation of an SPH program in the United States. A major strength of this observational study design is that all VAMCs implemented the program and were included in Tier 1 of the study; therefore, population sampling bias is not a concern. Although the design lacks a comparison group for testing program effects, this longitudinal field study design allows for capturing program dose-response effects within a naturalistic context. Implementation of the VA-wide SPH program afforded the opportunity for rigorous evaluation in a naturalistic context. Findings will guide VA operations for policy and decision making about resources, and will be useful for health care, in general, outside of the VA, in implementation and impact of an SPH program. PMID:24246469

Toyinbo, Peter; Patel, Nitin; Powell-Cope, Gail; Hahm, Bridget; Elnitsky, Christine; Besterman-Dahan, Karen; Campbell, Robert; Sutton, Bryce

2013-01-01

372

Social and economic impact of diabetics in Bangladesh: protocol for a casecontrol study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes affects both individuals and their families and has an impact on economic and social development of a country. Information on the availability, cost, and quality of medical care for diabetes is mostly not available for many low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Complications from diabetes, which can be devastating, could largely be prevented by wider use of several inexpensive generic medicines, simple tests and monitoring and can be a cost saving intervention. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetes in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetes. The objectives of the study are: 1) To study the association between diabetes and other health problems and its social impacts 2) To estimate the economic impact of diabetes including total direct and indirect costs 3) To measure the impact of diabetes on quality of life among diabetes patients in Bangladesh 4) To study the impact of diabetes on the health care system Methods This is a casecontrol study comparing cases with type 2 diabetes to controls without diabetes matched on age, sex and place of residence. 564 cases and 564 controls will be selected from the outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data on socioeconomic status, health utility index, direct and indirect costs for diabetes, medication adherence, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, diet, physical activity, mental state examination, weight, height, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, pulse, medication history, laboratory data and physical examination will be conducted. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures will be association between diabetes and other health problems, cost of diabetes, impact of diabetes on quality of life and secondary outcome measures are impact of diabetes on healthcare systems in Bangladesh. Discussion This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetics in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetics. It will help to develop programs and policies for better management of Diabetics and cost effective strategies in Bangladesh context. PMID:24359558

2013-01-01

373

The world health organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health. Methods/Design This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries. Discussion Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal near-miss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with governments, professionals and civil societies, health systems or facilities for promoting best practices, improving quality of care and achieving better health for mothers and children. PMID:22029735

2011-01-01

374

Development of quality indicators for monitoring outcomes of frail elderly hospitalised in acute care health settings: Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Frail older people admitted to acute care hospitals are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes, including geriatric syndromes, although targeted care strategies can improve health outcomes for these patients. It is therefore important to assess inter-hospital variation in performance in order to plan and resource improvement programs. Clinical quality outcome indicators provide a mechanism for identifying variation in performance over time and between hospitals, however to date there has been no routine use of such indicators in acute care settings. A barrier to using quality indicators is lack of access to routinely collected clinical data. The interRAI Acute Care (AC) assessment system supports comprehensive geriatric assessment of older people within routine daily practice in hospital and includes process and outcome data pertaining to geriatric syndromes. This paper reports the study protocol for the development of aged care quality indicators for acute care hospitals. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in three phases: 1. Development of a preliminary inclusive set of quality indicators set based on a literature review and expert panel consultation, 2. A prospective field study including recruitment of 480 patients aged 70 years or older across 9 Australian hospitals. Each patient will be assessed on admission and discharge using the interRAI AC, and will undergo daily monitoring to observe outcomes. Medical records will be independently audited, and 3. Analysis and compilation of a definitive quality indicator set, including two anonymous voting rounds for quality indicator inclusion by the expert panel. Discussion The approach to quality indicators proposed in this protocol has four distinct advantages over previous efforts: the quality indicators focus on outcomes; they can be collected as part of a routinely applied clinical information and decision support system; the clinical data will be robust and will contribute to better understanding variations in hospital care of older patients; The quality indicators will have international relevance as they will be built on the interRAI assessment instrument, an internationally recognised clinical system. PMID:22014061

2011-01-01

375

Verifying Communication Protocols Using Live Sequence Chart Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a formal verification process in System on Chip (SoC) design and Intellectual Property (IP) integration has been recognized and investigated significantly in the past. A major drawback is the lack of a suitable specification language against which definitive and efficient verification of inter-core communication can be performed to prove compliance of an IP block against the protocol

Rahul Kumar; Eric G. Mercer

2009-01-01

376

Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) in practice: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) is a psychosocial evidence-based group intervention for people with dementia recommended by the UK NICE guidelines. In clinical trials, CST has been shown to improve cognition and quality of life, but little is known about the best way of ensuring implementation of CST in practice settings. A recent pilot study found that a third of people who attend CST training go on to run CST in practice, but staff identified a lack of support as a key reason for the lack of implementation. Methods/design There are three projects in this study: The first is a pragmatic multi-centre, randomised controlled trial (RCT) of staff training, comparing CST training and outreach support with CST training only; the second, the monitoring and outreach trial, is a phase IV trial that evaluates implementation of CST in practice by staff members who have previously had the CST manual or attended training. Centres will be randomised to receive outreach support. The primary outcome measure for both of these trials is the number of CST sessions run for people with dementia. Secondary outcomes include the number of attenders at sessions, job satisfaction, dementia knowledge and attitudes, competency, barriers to change, approach to learning and a controllability of beliefs and the level of adherence. Focus groups will assess staff members perceptions of running CST groups and receiving outreach support. The third study involves monitoring centres running groups in their usual practice and looking at basic outcomes of cognition and quality of life for the person with dementia. Discussion These studies assess the effects of outreach support on putting CST into practice and running groups effectively in a variety of care settings with people with dementia; evaluate the effectiveness of CST in standard clinical practice; and identify key factors promoting or impeding the successful running of groups. Trial registration Clinical trial ISRCTN28793457. PMID:22735077

2012-01-01

377

Extended-duration rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients: MAGELLAN study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with acute medical illnesses are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), a significant cause of morbidity\\u000a and mortality. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended in these patients but questions remain regarding the optimal duration of\\u000a therapy. The aim of this study is to determine whether oral rivaroxaban is non-inferior to standard-duration (approximately\\u000a 10days) subcutaneous (s.c.) enoxaparin for the prevention of VTE

Alexander Thomas Cohen; Theodore Erich Spiro; Harry Roger Bller; Lloyd Haskell; Dayi Hu; Russell Hull; Alexandre Mebazaa; Geno Merli; Sebastian Schellong; Alex Spyropoulos; Victor Tapson

2011-01-01

378

Efficacy of smoking prevention program 'Smoke-free Kids': study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A strong increase in smoking is noted especially among adolescents. In the Netherlands, about 5% of all 10-year olds, 25% of all 13-year olds and 62% of all 17-year olds report ever smoking. In the U.S., an intervention program called 'Smoke-free Kids' was developed to prevent children from smoking. The present study aims to assess the effects of this

Marieke Hiemstra; Linda Ringlever; Roy Otten; Christine Jackson; Rutger CME Engels

2009-01-01

379

Pre-Adolescent Cardio-Metabolic Associations and Correlates: PACMAC methodology and study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although cardiovascular disease is typically associated with middle or old age, the atherosclerotic process often initiates early in childhood. The process of atherosclerosis appears to be occurring at an increasing rate, even in pre-adolescents, and has been linked to the childhood obesity epidemic. This study will investigate the relationships between obesity, lifestyle behaviours and cardiometabolic health in pre-pubescent children aged 810?years, and investigates whether there are differences in the correlates of cardiometabolic health between M?ori and Caucasian children. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion/exclusion criteria, assessments, statistical analyses, dissemination of findings and anticipated impact are described. Methods and analysis Phase 1: a cross-sectional study design will be used to investigate relationships between obesity, lifestyle behaviours (nutrition, physical activity/fitness, sleep behaviour, psychosocial influences) and cardiometabolic health in a sample of 400 pre-pubescent (810?years old) children. Phase 2: in a subgroup (50 Caucasian, 50 M?ori children), additional measurements of cardiometabolic health and lifestyle behaviours will be obtained to provide objective and detailed data. General linear models and logistic regression will be used to investigate the strongest correlate of (1) fatness; (2) physical activity; (3) nutritional behaviours and (4) cardiometabolic health. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval will be obtained from the New Zealand Health and Disabilities Ethics Committee. The findings from this study will elucidate targets for decreasing obesity and improving cardiometabolic health among preadolescent children in New Zealand. The aim is to ensure an immediate impact by disseminating these findings in an applicable manner via popular media and traditional academic forums. Most importantly, results from the study will be disseminated to participating schools and relevant M?ori health entities. PMID:25234509

Castro, Nicholas; Faulkner, James; Skidmore, Paula; Williams, Michelle; Lambrick, Danielle M; Signal, Leigh; Thunders, Michelle; Muller, Diane; Lark, Sally; Hamlin, Mike; Lane, Andrew M; Kingi, Te Kani; Stoner, Lee

2014-01-01

380

Serosurvey of veterinary conference participants for evidence of zoonotic exposure to canine norovirus - study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Noroviruses have emerged as the leading cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Person-to-person contact and consumption of contaminated food are considered the most important ways of transmission of noroviruses however zoonotic transmission has been suggested. Recently, noroviruses have been found in dogs which, unlike bovine and swine noroviruses, may present a higher risk of zoonotic transfer, given to the often close contacts between humans and pet dogs in many societies across the world. The present paper describes a seroepidemiologic study aiming to provide information on the exposure level of humans to canine norovirus. Methods/Design A casecontrol study was designed to address the potential exposure to canine norovirus based on the presence of antibodies against canine norovirus. Sera from veterinarians (a population repeatedly in close contact with dogs) will be collected in an annual Veterinary Sciences Congress in Portugal. In addition, sera from general population will be obtained and used as controls for comparative purposes. All sera will be tested for the presence of canine norovirus antibodies using a virus-like particle-based enzyme immune assay. Risk factors for canine norovirus antibodies presence in veterinarians will be investigated through the delivery of an anonymized questionnaire to the participants. Discussion The present study aims to identify seropositive individuals to canine norovirus and to assess risk profiles among veterinary professionals with occupational exposure to dogs. To our knowledge this is the first study providing information on the potential zoonotic risk of canine norovirus, thus allowing the development of preventive measures and ascertaining potential risks for Public Health resulting from contact to dogs. PMID:23110789

2012-01-01

381

The effect of acupuncture on stroke recovery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in China. Current treatments for stroke are limited and achieve no optimal effect. Acupuncture is widely used in the treatment of stroke and in improving the quality of life for patients in China. In most previous clinical studies, the effects of acupuncture have been diverse, and few well-designed randomized controlled trials have been conducted to investigate the long-term effect of acupuncture on acute stroke recovery. Method Three hundred and twenty eight subjects with acute cerebral apoplexy will be recruited. The patients will be randomized into two different groups: the intervention group will receive acupuncture treatment together with Western standard treatment for 2 weeks plus the secondary prevention treatment for 22 weeks; the control group will receive only the Western standard treatment for 2 weeks and the secondary prevention treatment for 22 weeks. The primary outcome measures are Barthel Index and the Stroke-Specific Quality Of Life. The secondary outcome measures are the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Modified Rankin Scale. All assessments will be conducted at the baseline and at weeks 4, 12 and 24 of follow-up. Discussion This study will evaluate the effects of acupuncture on the long-term recovery of acute stroke and on improving the quality of life of the patients. The results of this study will help establish optimal integrated therapeutic strategies for patients with stroke. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29932220 PMID:23145765

2012-01-01

382

A smartphone intervention for adolescent obesity: study protocol for a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial  

PubMed Central

Background There are few evidence-based mobile health solutions for treating adolescent obesity. The primary aim of this parallel non-inferiority trial is to assess the effectiveness of an experimental smartphone application in reducing obesity at 12months, compared to the Temple Street W82GO Healthy Lifestyles intervention. Methods/design The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index standardised deviation score at 12months. The secondary aim is to compare the effect of treatment on secondary outcomes, including waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, quality of life, physical activity and psychosocial health. Adolescents with a body mass index at or above the 98th percentile (12 to 17years) will be recruited from the Obesity clinic at Temple Street Childrens University Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. W82GO is a family-based lifestyle change intervention delivered in two phases over 12months. In the current study, participants will be randomised for phase two of treatment to either usual care or care delivered via smartphone application. One hundred and thirty-four participants will be randomised between the two study arms. An intention-to-treat analysis will be used to compare treatment differences between the groups at 12months. Discussion The results of this study will be disseminated via open access publication and will provide important information for clinicians, patients and policy makers regarding the use of mobile health interventions in the management of adolescent obesity. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01804855. PMID:24485327

2014-01-01

383

Electroacupuncture for pressure ulcer: a study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pressure ulcers are one of the most common health complaints, which often take months or years to heal, and affect patients morbidity and quality of life. Medical options for pressure ulcers are limited. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been employed to relieve the symptoms for patients with pressure ulcers, but there is limited clinical evidence for its effectiveness. Methods/Design This study consists of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms: a control group and an EA group. Both groups will receive standard wound care (including changing position, using mattresses and cushions, and a good diet) of five sessions per week for a total of 40 sessions during the 8-week treatment period. In addition, the EA group will receive the EA intervention. The following outcome measurements will be used in examination of participants: wound surface area (WSA), visual analogue scale (VAS), and the proportion of ulcers healed within trial period (PUHTP). All the outcomes will be evaluated at the start of the study, at the end of the fourth week, at 8 weeks after randomization, and 1 month after treatment cessation. Discussion The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of EA for the treatment of patients with pressure ulcers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR-TRC-11001693 PMID:24393344

2014-01-01

384

Efficacy of electroacupuncture for symptoms of menopausal transition: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that acupuncture can alleviate postmenopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, but few studies have assessed symptoms during the menopausal transition (MT) period. Thus, the effect of acupuncture upon MT symptoms is unclear. We designed a large-scale trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of electroacupuncture for MT symptoms compared with sham electroacupuncture and at observing the safety of electroacupuncture. Methods/design In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 360 women will be randomized to either an electroacupuncture group or a sham electroacupuncture group. During the 8-week-long treatment, a menopause rating scale, average 24-hour hot flash score, Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire score, and level of female hormones will be observed. Follow-ups at the 20th and 32nd week will be made. Discussion Though there is no completely inert placebo acupuncture and blinding is difficult in acupuncture trials, the placebo effect of EA can still be partially excluded in this study. For the placebo control, we use non-points and a tailor-made sham needle. This needle is different from a retractable needle, which is usually used for sham acupuncture. The needle in this trial is more simply constructed and more acceptable to Chinese people. We expect to evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture for MT symptoms and clarify its effect on these symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01849172 (Date of registration: 05/05/2013). PMID:24950841

2014-01-01

385

Telephone-based health coaching for chronically ill patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The rising prevalence of chronic conditions constitutes a major burden for patients and healthcare systems and is predicted to increase in the upcoming decades. Improving the self-management skills of patients is a strategy to steer against this burden. This could lead to better outcomes and lower healthcare costs. Health coaching is one method for enhancing the self-management of patients and can be delivered by phone. The effects of telephone-based health coaching are promising, but still inconclusive. Economic evaluations and studies examining the transferability of effects to different healthcare systems are still rare. Aim of this study is to evaluate telephone-based health coaching for chronically ill patients in Germany. Methods/Design The study is a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of telephone-based health coaching with usual care during a 4-year time period. Data are collected at baseline and after 12, 24 and 36 months. Patients are selected based on one of the following chronic conditions: diabetes, coronary artery disease, asthma, hypertension, heart failure, COPD, chronic depression or schizophrenia. The health coaching intervention is carried out by trained nurses employed by a German statutory health insurance. The frequency and the topics of the health coaching are manual-based but tailored to the patients needs and medical condition, following the concepts of motivational interviewing, shared decision-making and evidence-based-medicine. Approximately 12,000 insurants will be enrolled and randomized into intervention and control groups. Primary outcome is the time until hospital readmission within two years after enrolling in the health coaching, assessed by routine data. Secondary outcomes are patient-reported outcomes like changes in quality of life, depression and anxiety and clinical values assessed with questionnaires. Additional secondary outcomes are further economic evaluations like health service use as well as costs and hospital readmission rates. The statistical analyses includes intention-to-treat and as-treated principles. The recruitment will be completed in September 2014. Discussion This study will provide evidence regarding economic and clinical effects of telephone-delivered health coaching. Additionally, this study will show whether health coaching is an adequate option for the German healthcare system to address the growing burden of chronic diseases. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien; DRKS) DRKS00000584. PMID:24135027

2013-01-01

386

Psychological advocacy toward healing (PATH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA), defined as threatening behavior or abuse by adults who are intimate partners or family members, is a key public health and clinical priority. The prevalence of DVA in the United Kingdom and worldwide is high, and its impact on physical and mental health is detrimental and persistent. There is currently little support within healthcare settings for women experiencing DVA. Psychological problems in particular may be difficult to manage outside specialist services, as conventional forms of therapy such as counseling that do not address the violence may be ineffective or even harmful. The aim of this study is to assess the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a novel psychological intervention tailored specifically for survivors of DVA and delivered by domestic violence advocates based in third-sector organizations. Methods and study design This study is an open, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomized controlled trial. Women ages 16 years and older experiencing domestic violence are being enrolled and randomly allocated to receive usual DVA agency advocacy support (control) or usual DVA agency support plus psychological intervention (intervention). Those in the intervention group will receive eight specialist psychological advocacy (SPA) sessions weekly or fortnightly, with two follow-up sessions, 1 month and then 3 months later. This will be in addition to any advocacy support sessions each woman receives. Women in the control group will receive usual DVA agency support but no additional SPA sessions. The aim is to recruit 250 women to reach the target sample size. The primary outcomes are psychological well-being and depression severity at 1 yr from baseline, as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine EvaluationOutcome Measure (CORE-OM) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively. Secondary outcome measures include anxiety, posttraumatic stress, severity and frequency of abuse, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data from a subsample of women in both groups will contribute to a nested qualitative study with repeat interviews during the year of follow-up. Discussion This study will contribute to the evidence base for management of the psychological needs of women experiencing DVA. The findings will have important implications for healthcare commissioners and providers, as well as third sector specialist DVA agencies providing services to this client group. Trial registration ISRCTN58561170 PMID:23866771

2013-01-01

387

Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: protocol for a single arm intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking during pregnancy and in the postnatal period is a major cause of low birth weight and a range of adverse infant health outcomes. Stop smoking services can double quit rates, but only 17% of pregnant women smoking at the time they book for antenatal care use these services. In a recent Cochrane review on the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy, financial incentives were found to be the single most effective intervention. We describe a single arm intervention study offering participation in a financial incentive scheme for smoking cessation to all pregnant smokers receiving antenatal care in one area in England. The aim of the study is to assess the potential effectiveness of using financial incentives to achieve smoking cessation in pregnant women who smoke, to inform the use of financial incentive schemes in routine clinical practice as well as the interpretation of existing trials and the design of future studies. Method/design 500 consecutive pregnant smokers are offered participation in the scheme, which involves attending for up to 32 assessments until six months post-partum, to verify smoking cessation by self report and a negative exhaled carbon monoxide measurement. At each visit when cessation is verified, participants receive a shopping voucher starting at a value of 8 and increasing by 1 at each consecutive successful visit. Assessments decline in frequency, occurring most frequently during the first two weeks after quitting and the first two weeks after delivery. The maximum cumulative total that can be earned through the scheme is 752. Discussion The results of this study will inform the use of financial incentive schemes in routine clinical practice as well as the interpretation of existing trials and the design of future studies. The main results are (a) an estimate of the proportion of pregnant smokers who enrol in the scheme; (b) estimates of the proportion of pregnant smokers who participate in the scheme and who achieve prolonged abstinence at: i. delivery and ii. six months postpartum; (c) predictors of i. participation in the scheme, and ii. smoking cessation; and (d) estimates of the adverse effects of using incentives to achieve quitting as indexed by: i. the delay in quitting smoking to enrol in an incentive scheme and, ii. false reporting of smoking status, either to gain entry into the scheme or to gain an incentive. PMID:23497294

2013-01-01

388

Neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia in primary care: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) frequently occur in patients with dementia. To date, prospective studies on the course of NPS have been conducted in patients with dementia in clinical centers or psychiatric services. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the course of NPS in patients with dementia and caregiver distress in primary care. We also aim to detect determinants of both the course of NPS in patients with dementia and informal caregiver distress in primary care. Methods/design This is a prospective observational study on the course of NPS in patients with dementia in primary care. Thirty-seven general practitioners (GPs) in 18 general practices were selected based on their interest in participating in this study. We will retrieve electronic medical files of patients with dementia from these general practices. Patients and caregivers will be followed for 18months during the period January 2012 to December 2013. Patient characteristics will be collected at baseline. Time to death or institutionalization will be measured. Co-morbidity will be assessed using the Charlson index. Psychotropic drug use and primary and secondary outcome measures will be measured at 3 assessments, baseline, 9 and 18months. The primary outcome measures are the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score for patients with dementia and the Sense of Competence score for informal caregivers. In addition to descriptive analyses frequency parameters will be computed. Univariate analysis will be performed to identify determinants of the course of NPS and informal caregiver distress. All determinants will then be tested in a multivariate regression analysis to determine their unique contribution to the course of NPS and caregiver distress. Discussion The results of this study will provide data on the course of NPS, which is clinically important for prognosis. The data will help GPs and other professionals in planning follow-up visits and in the timing for offering psycho-education, psychosocial interventions and the provision of care. In addition, these data will enlarge health professionals awareness of NPS in their patients with dementia. PMID:24628730

2014-01-01

389

Study protocol: prediction of stroke associated infections by markers of autonomic control  

PubMed Central

Background Infection is the most important complication after acute stroke. This is substantially based on a stroke-induced immunosuppression. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents the autonomic nervous system activity in connection with stroke-induced immunomodulation and infections. We demonstrated in a feasibility study that HRV indices obtained in patients without acute post-stroke infections can predict infections in the subsequent sub-acute phase. Methods/Design The study PRED-SEP is a prospective observational study. Adult patients with acute ischemic infarction in the territory of the middle cerebral artery and severe neurological deficit (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: NIHSS ? 8) are recruited. Primary endpoint is the development of infections, secondary endpoints are SIRS and severe sepsis in the sub-acute phase (day 35) after stroke and the functional outcome after 3 months. Infection is defined according to the PANTHERIS study and comprises pneumonia, urinary tract infection and infections without determined focus. SIRS and severe sepsis are defined according to German Sepsis Society guidelines. Functional outcome is measured by lethality and neurological scores (modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index). Prognostic factors are HRV risk indices calculated from selected intervals of 24 h ECG measurements within 48 hours after symptom onset. It is planned to recruit 240 patients. HRV risk indices (predictors) will be calculated according to standards and procedures previously developed and published by the authors. The predictive effects of HRV indices on infections will be estimated by fitting logistic regression models and estimating odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A prespecified modelling procedure will be applied to estimate unadjusted and confounder adjusted odds ratios. Secondary endpoints will be analysed in the same way. The functional outcome scales will be dichotomized. The association between HRV indices and pro- and anti-inflammatory markers will be quantified by calculating the appropriate correlation coefficients according to scale (Person or Spearman). Discussion Since a general prophylactic antibiotic treatment after stroke is not recommended, results of this study could have essential implications for an early identification and hence, timely appropriate treating of stroke-induced infections. Trial registration Prdiktoren fr die Sepsis - Pred Sep, German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00003392. PMID:24410797

2014-01-01

390

Improving practice in community-based settings: a randomized trial of supervision - study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems are not consistently available in public mental health settings. Expanding availability requires workforce training. However, research has demonstrated that training alone is not sufficient for changing provider behavior, suggesting that ongoing intervention-specific supervision or consultation is required. Supervision is notably under-investigated, particularly as provided in public mental health. The degree to which supervision in this setting includes gold standard supervision elements from efficacy trials (e.g., session review, model fidelity, outcome monitoring, skill-building) is unknown. The current federally-funded investigation leverages the Washington State Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Initiative to describe usual supervision practices and test the impact of systematic implementation of gold standard supervision strategies on treatment fidelity and clinical outcomes. Methods/Design The study has two phases. We will conduct an initial descriptive study (Phase I) of supervision practices within public mental health in Washington State followed by a randomized controlled trial of gold standard supervision strategies (Phase II), with randomization at the clinician level (i.e., supervisors provide both conditions). Study participants will be 35 supervisors and 130 clinicians in community mental health centers. We will enroll one child per clinician in Phase I (N?=?130) and three children per clinician in Phase II (N?=?390). We use a multi-level mixed within- and between-subjects longitudinal design. Audio recordings of supervision and therapy sessions will be collected and coded throughout both phases. Child outcome data will be collected at the beginning of treatment and at three and six months into treatment. Discussion This study will provide insight into how supervisors can optimally support clinicians delivering evidence-based treatments. Phase I will provide descriptive information, currently unavailable in the literature, about commonly used supervision strategies in community mental health. The Phase II randomized controlled trial of gold standard supervision strategies is, to our knowledge, the first experimental study of gold standard supervision strategies in community mental health and will yield needed information about how to leverage supervision to improve clinician fidelity and client outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01800266 PMID:23937766

2013-01-01

391

Recognising the differences in the nurse consultant role across context: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The advanced practice role of the Nurse Consultant is unique in its capacity to provide clinical leadership across a range of contexts. However, the Nurse Consultant role has been plagued with confusion due to lack of clarity over function and appropriateness for purpose within health organisations across contexts. Changing health service delivery models are driving the emergence of new nursing roles, further clouding the waters related to role positioning and purpose. There is an urgent need for evidence of impact and demonstration of how Nurse Consultants contribute to health care outcomes. This study aims to gain a clearer understanding of the Nurse Consultant role and its impact in metropolitan and rural New South Wales (NSW) Australia. Design The proposed study employs a sequential mixed method design, underpinned by Realistic Evaluation, to explore how Nurse Consultants contribute to organisational outcomes. The context mechanism outcome approach of realistic evaluation provides a sound framework to examine the complex, diverse and multifaceted nature of the Nurse Consultants role. Method Participants will be stakeholders, recruited across a large Local Health District in NSW, comprising rural and metropolitan services. A modified and previously validated survey will be used providing information related to role characteristics, patterns and differences across health context. Focus groups with Nurse Consultants explore issues highlighted in the survey data. Focus groups with other clinicians, policy makers and managers will help to achieve understanding of how the role is viewed and enacted across a range of groups and contexts. Discussion Lack of role clarity is highlighted extensively in international and Australian studies examining the role of the Nurse Consultant. Previous studies failed to adequately examine the role in the context of integrated and complex health services or to examine the role in detail. Such examination is critical in order to understand the significance of the role and to ascertain how Nurse Consultants can be most effective as members of the health care team. This is the first Australian study to include extensive stakeholder perspectives in order to understand the relational and integrated nature and impact of the role across metropolitan and rural context. PMID:25320563

2014-01-01

392

Cache-aware network-on-chip for chip multiprocessors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the hardware prototype of a Network-on-Chip (NoC) for a chip multiprocessor that provides support for cache coherence, cache prefetching and cache-aware thread scheduling. A NoC with support to these cache related mechanisms can assist in improving systems performance by reducing the cache miss ratio. The presented multi-core system employs the Data-Driven Multithreading (DDM) model of execution. In DDM thread scheduling is done according to data availability, thus the system is aware of the threads to be executed in the near future. This characteristic of the DDM model allows for cache aware thread scheduling and cache prefetching. The NoC prototype is a crossbar switch with output buffering that can support a cache-aware 4-node chip multiproces