Sample records for chip study protocol

  1. Control of hyperglycaemia in paediatric intensive care (CHiP): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that tight blood glucose (BG) control improves outcomes in critically ill adults. Children show similar hyperglycaemic responses to surgery or critical illness. However it is not known whether tight control will benefit children given maturational differences and different disease spectrum. Methods/Design The study is an randomised open trial with two parallel groups to assess whether, for children undergoing intensive care in the UK aged ? 16 years who are ventilated, have an arterial line in-situ and are receiving vasoactive support following injury, major surgery or in association with critical illness in whom it is anticipated such treatment will be required to continue for at least 12 hours, tight control will increase the numbers of days alive and free of mechanical ventilation at 30 days, and lead to improvement in a range of complications associated with intensive care treatment and be cost effective. Children in the tight control group will receive insulin by intravenous infusion titrated to maintain BG between 4 and 7.0 mmol/l. Children in the control group will be treated according to a standard current approach to BG management. Children will be followed up to determine vital status and healthcare resources usage between discharge and 12 months post-randomisation. Information regarding overall health status, global neurological outcome, attention and behavioural status will be sought from a subgroup with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A difference of 2 days in the number of ventilator-free days within the first 30 days post-randomisation is considered clinically important. Conservatively assuming a standard deviation of a week across both trial arms, a type I error of 1% (2-sided test), and allowing for non-compliance, a total sample size of 1000 patients would have 90% power to detect this difference. To detect effect differences between cardiac and non-cardiac patients, a target sample size of 1500 is required. An economic evaluation will assess whether the costs of achieving tight BG control are justified by subsequent reductions in hospitalisation costs. Discussion The relevance of tight glycaemic control in this population needs to be assessed formally before being accepted into standard practice. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN61735247 PMID:20137090

  2. The verification of the on-chip COMA cache coherence protocol

    E-print Network

    Jesshope, Chris

    The verification of the on-chip COMA cache coherence protocol Thuy Duong Vu1 , Li Zhang2 for the on-chip COMA cache coherence protocol that supports the Microgrid of microtheaded architecture of the on-chip COMA cache coherence protocol. We show that the protocol obeys the Location Consistency model

  3. On-chip COMA Cache-coherence protocol for Microgrids of Microthreaded Cores

    E-print Network

    Jesshope, Chris

    On-chip COMA Cache-coherence protocol for Microgrids of Microthreaded Cores Li Zhang Chris Jesshope, jesshope}@science.uva.nl Keywords: Microthreaded Architecture, On-chip COMA, Cache Coherence Abstract This paper describes an on-chip COMA cache coherency protocol to support the microthread model of concurrent

  4. Protocol: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) methodology to investigate histone modifications in two model diatom species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this report we describe a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol for two fully sequenced model diatom species Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. This protocol allows the extraction of satisfactory amounts of chromatin and gives reproducible results. We coupled the ChIP assay with real time quantitative PCR. Our results reveal that the two major histone marks H3K4me2 and H3K9me2 exist in P. tricornutum and T. pseudonana. As in other eukaryotes, H3K4me2 marks active genes whereas H3K9me2 marks transcriptionally inactive transposable elements. Unexpectedly however, T. pseudonana housekeeping genes also show a relative enrichment of H3K9me2. We also discuss optimization of the procedure, including growth conditions, cross linking and sonication. Validation of the protocol provides a set of genes and transposable elements that can be used as controls for studies using ChIP in each diatom species. This protocol can be easily adapted to other diatoms and eukaryotic phytoplankton species for genetic and biochemical studies. PMID:23217141

  5. Space-Based Autonomous Reconfigurable Protocol Chip Clayton Okino, Clement Lee, Andrew Gray, Payman Arabshahi

    E-print Network

    Arabshahi, Payman

    1 Space-Based Autonomous Reconfigurable Protocol Chip Clayton Okino, Clement Lee, Andrew Gray.Arabshahi}@jpl.nasa.gov Abstract--In this paper, we present an architecture for a reconfigurable protocol chip for space-based applications. We present a model for examining various stimuli for reconfiguration in space, and identify some

  6. An on-chip interconnect and protocol stack for multiple communication paradigms and programming models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Hansson; Kees Goossens

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of applications, with diverse require- ments, are integrated on the same System on Chip (SoC) in the form of hardware and software Intellectual Property (IP). The diverse requirements, coupled with the IPs being developed by unrelated design teams, lead to multiple com- munication paradigms, programming models, and interface protocols that the on-chip interconnect must accommodate. Traditionally, on-chip

  7. An easy protocol for on-chip transfection of COS-7 cells with a cationic lipid-based reagent.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Nie, Yong; Ye, Datian; Cai, Guoping

    2009-08-01

    The microchip has become a miniaturized and integrated platform for cell research and gene analysis. Traditional biological experiments are being performed on chips with greater frequency. Transfection, which is the process of introducing foreign DNA (or RNA) into cultured mammalian cells, is an important tool for basic and applied life science research. Therefore, on-chip transfection is a critical requirement for a fully comprehensive lab-on-chip system. In this study, a microchip made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass was fabricated for continuous cell culture and transfection. Enhanced green fluorescent protein genes (pEGFP) were introduced into COS-7 cells using a cationic lipid-based reagent, Lipofectamine 2000. The optimal concentration of Lipofectamine 2000 was also studied. This on-chip transfection protocol with cationic lipid-based reagent is expected to add to the emerging use of microchip-based life science and drug discovery research. PMID:19606301

  8. An Optimized Protocol for Isolating Primary Epithelial Cell Chromatin for ChIP

    PubMed Central

    Browne, James A.; Harris, Ann; Leir, Shih-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    A critical part of generating robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data is the optimization of chromatin purification and size selection. This is particularly important when ChIP is combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify targets of DNA-binding proteins, genome-wide. Current protocols refined by the ENCODE consortium generally use a two-step cell lysis procedure that is applicable to a wide variety of cell types. However, the isolation and size selection of chromatin from primary human epithelial cells may often be particularly challenging. These cells tend to form sheets of formaldehyde cross-linked material in which cells are resistant to membrane lysis, nuclei are not released and subsequent sonication produces extensive high molecular weight contamination. Here we describe an optimized protocol to prepare high quality ChIP-grade chromatin from primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The ENCODE protocol was used as a starting point to which we added the following key steps to separate the sheets of formaldehyde-fixed cells prior to lysis. (1) Incubation of the formaldehyde-fixed adherent cells in Trypsin-EDTA (0.25% room temperature) for no longer than 5 min. (2) Equilibration of the fixed cells in detergent-free lysis buffers prior to each lysis step. (3) The addition of 0.5% Triton X-100 to the complete cell membrane lysis buffer. (4) Passing the cell suspension (in complete cell membrane lysis buffer) through a 25-gauge needle followed by continuous agitation on ice for 35 min. Each step of the modified protocol was documented by light microscopy using the Methyl Green-Pyronin dual dye, which stains cytoplasm red (Pyronin) and the nuclei grey-blue (Methyl green). This modified method is reproducibly effective at producing high quality sheared chromatin for ChIP and is equally applicable to other epithelial cell types. PMID:24971909

  9. (Candidate Gene Selection Protocol for Pig cDNA Chip Manufacture Using TIGR Gene Indices)

    E-print Network

    Lee, Keun Woo

    ) (Mount, 2001). post genome . . DNA chip . DNA chip DNA (Southern, 2001). DNA chip Southern Northern blot, DNA sequencing (Southern, 1975, 1979; Franca , 2002). . Southern Northern blot nitrocellulose DNA chip

  10. Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bibhudatta; Ghannad-Rezaie, Mostafa; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Xin; Hao, Yan; Ye, Bing; Chronis, Nikos; Collins, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Live imaging is an important technique for studying cell biological processes, however this can be challenging in live animals. The translucent cuticle of the Drosophila larva makes it an attractive model organism for live imaging studies. However, an important challenge for live imaging techniques is to noninvasively immobilize and position an animal on the microscope. This protocol presents a simple and easy to use method for immobilizing and imaging Drosophila larvae on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device, which we call the 'larva chip'. The larva chip is comprised of a snug-fitting PDMS microchamber that is attached to a thin glass coverslip, which, upon application of a vacuum via a syringe, immobilizes the animal and brings ventral structures such as the nerve cord, segmental nerves, and body wall muscles, within close proximity to the coverslip. This allows for high-resolution imaging, and importantly, avoids the use of anesthetics and chemicals, which facilitates the study of a broad range of physiological processes. Since larvae recover easily from the immobilization, they can be readily subjected to multiple imaging sessions. This allows for longitudinal studies over time courses ranging from hours to days. This protocol describes step-by-step how to prepare the chip and how to utilize the chip for live imaging of neuronal events in 3rd instar larvae. These events include the rapid transport of organelles in axons, calcium responses to injury, and time-lapse studies of the trafficking of photo-convertible proteins over long distances and time scales. Another application of the chip is to study regenerative and degenerative responses to axonal injury, so the second part of this protocol describes a new and simple procedure for injuring axons within peripheral nerves by a segmental nerve crush. PMID:24562098

  11. Kitkahahki Chipped Stone Technologies: A Comparative Study

    E-print Network

    Asher, Brendon Patrick

    2009-06-11

    The decades around 1800 A.D. witnessed dramatic changes in material culture and technology among Central Plains tribes. About this time, the rapidity of change in and transition from traditional chipped stone technologies was unprecedented...

  12. Polyester ?-assay chip for stem cell studies

    PubMed Central

    Piraino, Francesco; Selimovi?, Šeila; Adamo, Marco; Pero, Alessandro; Manoucheri, Sam; Bok Kim, Sang; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The application of microfluidic technologies to stem cell research is of great interest to biologists and bioengineers. This is chiefly due to the intricate ability to control the cellular environment, the reduction of reagent volume, experimentation time and cost, and the high-throughput screening capabilities of microscale devices. Despite this importance, a simple-to-use microfluidic platform for studying the effects of growth factors on stem cell differentiation has not yet emerged. With this consideration, we have designed and characterized a microfluidic device that is easy to fabricate and operate, yet contains several functional elements. Our device is a simple polyester-based microfluidic chip capable of simultaneously screening multiple independent stem cell culture conditions. Generated by laser ablation and stacking of multiple layers of polyester film, this device integrates a 10?×?10 microwell array for cell culture with a continuous perfusion system and a non-linear concentration gradient generator. We performed numerical calculations to predict the gradient formation and calculate the shear stress acting on the cells inside the device. The device operation was validated by culturing murine embryonic stem cells inside the microwells for 5 days. Furthermore, we showed the ability to maintain the pluripotency of stem cell aggregates in response to concentrations of leukemia inhibitory factor ranging from 0 to ?1000 U/ml. Given its simplicity, fast manufacturing method, scalability, and the cell-compatible nature of the device, it may be a useful platform for long-term stem cell culture and studies. PMID:24278097

  13. Design of a fast, low-level fault-tolerant protocol for Network on Chips

    E-print Network

    Welzl, Michael

    of errors is also in- creasing, thus, making fault tolerance a key concern in scaling chips. Transient accommodate billions of transistors [1]. This means that in near future Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) will be made up of hundreds of communicating partners. However, it has been observed

  14. Microelectrodes integrated cell-chip for drug effects study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Cui, Hui-Fang; Ye, Jian-Shan; Chong, Ser-Choong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Sheu, Fwu-Shan; Cheong, Hui-Wing

    2006-01-01

    Silicon-based microelectrode chips are useful tools for temporal recording of neurotransmitter releasing from neural cells. Both invasive and non-invasive methods are targeted by different group researchers to perform electrical stimulating on neural cells. A microfabricated microelectrodes integrated biochip will be presented in this paper, which describes the dopaminergic cells growing on the chip directly. The dopamine exocytosis can be detected non-invasively from drug incubated dopaminergic cells growing on the chip. The abovementioned silicon-based electrochemical sensor chip has been designed with an electrode array located on the bottom of reaction chamber and each electrode is individually electrical controlled. MN9D, a mouse mesencephalic dopaminergic cell line, has been grown on the surface of the biochip chamber directly. Dopamine exocytosis from the chip-grown MN9D cells was detected using amperometry technology. The amperometric detection limit of dopamine of the biochip microelectrodes was found from 0.06?M to 0.21?M (S/N=3) statistically for the electrode diameters from 10 ?m to 90 ?m, the level of dopamine exocytosis from MN9D cells was undetectable whithout drug incubation. In contrast, after MN9D cells were incubated with L-dopa, a dopamine precursor, K+ induced dopamine extocytosis was temporally detected. The microelectrodes integrated biochip provides a non-invasive, temporal detection of dopamine exocytosis from dopaminergic cells, and holds the potential for applications in studying the mechanisms of dopamine exocytosis, and drug screening. It also provides a tool for pharmaceutical research and drug screening on dopaminergic cells, extendably to be used for other cell culture and drug effects study.

  15. A study of degradation of ACF joints in chip-on-glass assenblies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Lin; Xu Chen; Z. P. Wang

    2006-01-01

    The epoxy-based anisotropic conductive adhesive films (ACF) joints have been widely used in a number of interconnect applications, including direct chip attachment, i.e. chip on glass, chip on ceramics, etc. However, the ACF joints have the potential of being exposed to relative high humidity environment and susceptible to moisture sorption, especially in the elevated temperature. In this study, the hygrothermal

  16. High precision thermal stress study on flip chips by synchrotron polychromatic x-ray microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tang, Wei; Kunz, Martin; Chou, Yi-Chia; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2010-01-01

    The bending and residual stress of flip chips caused by the mismatch of thermal expansion between the chip and the substrate have been measured by polychromatic microfocused synchrotron x-ray beam. Precise orientation information as a function of position on the chip was obtained from Laue diffraction patterns, so that the bending angle with respect to a reference position at the center of the chip can be calculated at each position. This in turn allows deducing the local curvature of the entire flip chip. Local stress distribution was then mapped by applying a modified Stoney's stress-strain equation to the measured curvature. Our study shows that thermal stress on the circuits and the solder joints in a flip chip strongly depend on temperature and the distance from the center of the chip, indicating that interconnects at the corner and edge of a flip chip are of reliability concerns.

  17. The study of chip orientation technology based on vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuchan; He, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    A chip visual localization method based on vision for IC packaging equipment was developed to satisfy the high precision requirement in the chip inspection in this paper. The method is based on the combination of Hough transform and prior geometric knowledge of chip. First, a straight line was extracted to match chip image.Then the conversion function of the chip image was deduced based on the straight line endpoint coordinates. Because the relative position coordinates of chip corner are known, the other two endpoints of chip in image can be deduced with substituting the known model coners coordinates into the matching conversion function. Finally, the chip orientation is achieved by linking the corners coordinates. Experimental results have shown that the the chip can be orientated accurately using this method.

  18. Lab-on-a-chip technologies for single-molecule studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanhui; Chen, Danqi; Yue, Hongjun; French, Jarrod B.; Rufo, Joey; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments on various lab-on-a-chip techniques allow miniaturized and integrated devices to perform on-chip single-molecule studies. Fluidic-based platforms that utilize the unique microscale fluidic behavior are capable of conducting single-molecule experiments with high sensitivities and throughputs, while biomolecular systems can be studied on-chip using techniques such as DNA curtains, magnetic tweezers, and solid-state nanopores. The advances of these on-chip single-molecule techniques lead to next-generation lab-on-a-chip devices such as DNA transistors, and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology for rapid and low-cost whole genome DNA sequencing. In this Focus article, we will discuss some recent successes on developing lab-on-a-chip techniques for single-molecule studies and expound our thoughts on the near future of on-chip single-molecule studies. PMID:23670195

  19. Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and

    E-print Network

    Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) plus a Comparison Population in Sierra Vista, Arizona The protocol Assessment of Case Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) and a Reference

  20. Study on the pressurized underfill encapsulation of flip chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sejin Han; K. K. Wang

    1997-01-01

    Flip-chip technology generally requires encapsulation of the solder joints to reduce the loads on such joints during thermal excursions. At present, the encapsulation process by dispensing constitutes the primary obstacle to widespread acceptance and implementation of flip-chip technology because of the long process times involved and the subsequent reliability and reparability problem. A new process to encapsulate flip-chips has been

  1. Radiation Tolerance Studies of BTeV Pixel Readout Chip Prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2001-09-11

    We report on several irradiation studies performed on BTeV preFPIX2 pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The preFPIX2 pixel readout chip has been implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose of 26 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been measured.

  2. STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population Abstract Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer

  3. Reliability study of flip chip on FR4 interconnections with ACA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Miessner; R. Aschenbrenner; H. Reichl

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the evaluation of anisotropic conductive adhesives for flip chip applications. Samples consist of bumped test chips mounted on rigid substrates with pitches down to 150 ?m. The dies were prepared with different bumps-electroless Ni, mechanical and electroplated Au. Several commercially available adhesives were selected to be investigated in this study. A detailed thermo-mechanical analysis

  4. A Study on Communication Issues for Systems-on-Chip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesar A. Zeferino; Márcio E. Kreutz; Luigi Carro; Altamiro A. Susin

    2002-01-01

    Present days cores composing a System-on-Chip might be interconnected by means of both dedicated channels or shared buses. Nevertheless, future systems will have strong requirements on reusability and communication performance, which will constrain the use of such interconnect systems. An emerging approach, the Networks-on-Chip (NOCs), will potentially fulfill those requirements, because NOCs are reusable and their communication performance gracefully scales

  5. Chlorhexidine Chip in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis – A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Medaiah, Sangeetha; Srinivas, M; Melath, Anil; Girish, Suragimath; Dasari, Ankineedu Babu

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the use of biodegradable chlorhexidine chip when used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of moderate to severe periodontitis patients. The study also intended to compare the combined therapy (SRP and Chlorhexidine chip) with chlorhexidine chip alone in individuals with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with three sites having a probing depth of 5-8mm were considered for the study. Sites were numbered 1, 2, 3 randomly. The clinical parameters assessed were the Plaque Index (PI), gingival index (GI), Bleeding on probing (BOP), Clinical attachment level (CAL) and Probing pocket depth (PPD). Following baseline evaluation, on two sites scaling and root planing (SRP) was performed, no treatment was carried out in the third site. Chlorhexidine chips were placed on one site with SRP and another without SRP. A periodontal pack was placed on the site to prevent dislodgement of the CHX chip. Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, one month and three months. Duration of the study was for three months. Statistical Analysis: T-test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been carried out in the present study. Results: All three groups presented with an improvement in the clinical parameters compared to baseline. There was no statistically significant difference between the SRP and SRP + CHIP group in all parameters. There was a significant difference when these two groups were compared to the chip alone group. The mean reductions in PPD were 2.8mm (SRP group), 2.6 (SRP+CHIP group), 0.8 (chip alone group) The mean gain in CAL were 2.8mm (SRP group), 2.5 (SRP+CHIP group), 0.7 (chip alone group). Reduction in bleeding on probing were significant for the SRP and SRP +CHIP group but not for the chip alone group. Conclusion: The CHX chip did not provide any clinical benefit beyond that achieved with conventional scaling and rootplaning after a three month period. PMID:25121059

  6. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  7. Active memory chips: A brief survey and case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Elliot Shaw; Theodore M. Sabety

    1987-01-01

    Conventional random access memories are capable only of writing data into and reading data from the storage location corresponding to a given address. The availability of VLSI circuits containing hundreds of thousands of switching devices, however, has recently made practical the implementation of “active” memory chips capable of performing a range of complex operations on their stored data. Such designs

  8. Microfluidic heart on a chip for higher throughput pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Goss, Josue Adrian; Cho, Alexander; McCain, Megan Laura; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a higher throughput “heart on a chip” which utilizes a semi-automated fabrication technique to process sub millimeter sized thin film cantilevers of soft elastomers. Anisotropic cardiac microtissues which recapitulate the laminar architecture of the heart ventricle are engineered on these cantilevers. Deflection of these cantilevers, termed Muscular Thin Films (MTFs), during muscle contraction allows calculation of diastolic and systolic stresses generated by the engineered tissues. We also present the design of a reusable one channel fluidic microdevice completely built out of autoclavable materials which incorporates various features required for an optical cardiac contractility assay: metallic base which fits on a heating element for temperature control, transparent top for recording cantilever deformation and embedded electrodes for electrical field stimulation of the tissue. We employ the microdevice to test the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol on cardiac contractility at dosages ranging from 1 nM to 100 ?M. The higher throughput fluidic heart on a chip has applications in testing of cardiac tissues built from rare or expensive cell sources and for integration with other organ mimics. These advances will help alleviate translational barriers for commercial adoption of these technologies by improving the throughput and reproducibility of readout, standardization of the platform and scalability of manufacture. PMID:23807141

  9. Study protocol: the Whitehall II imaging sub-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Whitehall II (WHII) study of British civil servants provides a unique source of longitudinal data to investigate key factors hypothesized to affect brain health and cognitive ageing. This paper introduces the multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and cognitive assessment designed to investigate brain health in a random sample of 800 members of the WHII study. Methods/design A total of 6035 civil servants participated in the WHII Phase 11 clinical examination in 2012–2013. A random sample of these participants was included in a sub-study comprising an MRI brain scan, a detailed clinical and cognitive assessment, and collection of blood and buccal mucosal samples for the characterisation of immune function and associated measures. Data collection for this sub-study started in 2012 and will be completed by 2016. The participants, for whom social and health records have been collected since 1985, were between 60–85 years of age at the time the MRI study started. Here, we describe the pre-specified clinical and cognitive assessment protocols, the state-of-the-art MRI sequences and latest pipelines for analyses of this sub-study. Discussion The integration of cutting-edge MRI techniques, clinical and cognitive tests in combination with retrospective data on social, behavioural and biological variables during the preceding 25 years from a well-established longitudinal epidemiological study (WHII cohort) will provide a unique opportunity to examine brain structure and function in relation to age-related diseases and the modifiable and non-modifiable factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse brain changes. PMID:24885374

  10. A propagation and apical dominance study of bench chip budding in roses 

    E-print Network

    Fann, Yui-Sing

    1981-01-01

    A PROPAGATION AND APICAL DOMINANCE STUDy OF BENCH CHIP BUDDING IN ROSES A Thesis oy YUI-SING FANN Submitted to th= Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 19SI Maj or Subject: Horticulture A PROPAGATION AND APICAL DOMINANCE STUDY OF BENCH CHIP BUDDING IN ROSES A Thesis by YUI-SING FANN Approved as to style and content by: ~tJ ( ai an of Committee) (Member) . y~ "ri (Head 6 Department...

  11. Study of colour and acrylamide formation in coffee, wheat flour and potato chips during heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vural Gökmen; Hamide Z. ?enyuva

    2006-01-01

    The effects of heating on colour generation measured as CIE colour space parameters of L*a*b* and acrylamide formation were studied in various food matrices including green coffee, wheat flour and potato chips at different temperatures. Changes in both the acrylamide concentration and the redness parameter a* during heating at relatively higher temperatures followed a typical kinetic pattern in which an

  12. A Study of SingleChip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors

    E-print Network

    Tyson, Gary

    # # A Study of Single­Chip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors Matthew of transistors, a question that is rapidly increas­ ing in importance as transistor densities continue to climb to compare different configurations, the concept of an Equivalent Cache Transistor is presented. Results

  13. A Study of Single-Chip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    A Study of Single-Chip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors Matthew an examination of different cache and processor configurations assum- ing transistor densities will continue to increase as they have in the past. While in the short term any additional transistors should clearly be put

  14. A Study of SingleChip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors

    E-print Network

    Farrens, Matthew K.

    # # A Study of Single­Chip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors Matthew an examination of different cache and processor configurations assum­ ing transistor densities will continue to increase as they have in the past. While in the short term any additional transistors should clearly be put

  15. Study of adhesive flip chip bonding process and failure mechanisms of ACA joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Seppälä; Eero Ristolainen

    2004-01-01

    The flip chip bonding process using anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACA) and the consequent joint reliability were studied. The substrates used were rigid FR-4 boards, which are interesting due to their low cost and wide range of applications. The problems associated with the technique are discussed in this paper from the reliability point of view. Also, some aspects concerning production are

  16. Analytical and Numerical Study of Joule Heating Effects on Electrokinetically Pumped Continuous Flow PCR Chips

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Analytical and Numerical Study of Joule Heating Effects on Electrokinetically Pumped Continuous, and the potential for integration.1-3 Joule heating is inevitable when electrokinetic pumping is used Form: December 8, 2007 Joule heating is an inevitable phenomenon for microfluidic chips involving

  17. Study on Cloud Security Based on Trust Spanning Tree Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yingxu; Liu, Zenghui; Pan, Qiuyue; Liu, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Attacks executed on Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) expose the weakness of link layer protocols and put the higher layers in jeopardy. Although the problems have been studied for many years and various solutions have been proposed, many security issues remain. To enhance the security and credibility of layer-2 network, we propose a trust-based spanning tree protocol aiming at achieving a higher credibility of LAN switch with a simple and lightweight authentication mechanism. If correctly implemented in each trusted switch, the authentication of trust-based STP can guarantee the credibility of topology information that is announced to other switch in the LAN. To verify the enforcement of the trusted protocol, we present a new trust evaluation method of the STP using a specification-based state model. We implement a prototype of trust-based STP to investigate its practicality. Experiment shows that the trusted protocol can achieve security goals and effectively avoid STP attacks with a lower computation overhead and good convergence performance.

  18. A Unix network protocol security study: network information service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David K. Hess; David R. Safford; Udo W. Pooch

    1992-01-01

    This note is a study of the security weaknesses present in a widely used Unix network protocol, Network Information Service (NIS). NIS (formerly known as Yellow Pages or YP) was developed by Sun Microsys-tems primarily to reduce the effort required to setup and maintain a network of Unix workstations. This is accomplished through the centralization on a NIS server of

  19. STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EMPIRICUS micafungin versus placebo during

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EMPIRICUS micafungin versus placebo during nosocomial sepsis in Candida micafungin 100 mg intravenously once a day or placebo for 14 days. We plan to enroll 260 patients. The main at day 28 as compared to placebo. Other outcomes include day 28 and 90 survival and organ failure

  20. An Empirical Study on Interoperability between Service Discovery Protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beihong Jin; Zhi Zang; Liang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Service discovery protocol (SDP) is one of the fundamental infrastructures in pervasive computing. However, various SDPs differ on service description model, system architecture, deployment network and service discovery mechanism. It is highly necessary to develop a framework that can provide interoperability for multiple SDPs. In this paper, we carry out an empirical study on building a novel interoperable framework called

  1. STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Electrons for intraoperative radiotherapy in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Electrons for intraoperative radiotherapy in selected breast-cancer for early-breast cancer in selected patients. IORT provides good late cosmetics results and should-Bernard Dubois1 and Marian Gutowski3 Abstract Background: The Montpellier cancer institute phase II trial started

  2. STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Methadone induction in primary care

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Methadone induction in primary care (ANRS-Methaville): a phase III, an opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), in primary care for drug users has led to an impressive reduction for drug and alcohol dependence (CSAPA) or a hospital setting) and are referred to primary care physicians

  3. Protocols for studying antizyme expression and function.

    PubMed

    Murai, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yasuko; Matsufuji, Senya

    2011-01-01

    Antizyme (AZ) is a key molecule in feedback regulation of cellular polyamines. It is induced by polyamines through stimulation of ribosomal frameshifting during its translation. In mammals, AZ is diverged into three paralogs, AZ1-3. Tissue and subcellular distribution are different among the paralogs, as determined by immunochemical methods or expression of fluorescent-tagged proteins. Only AZ2 is known to be phosphorylated. AZ regulates cellular polyamine levels through multiple mechanisms. It binds to ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) to form an inactive complex and to trigger degradation of ODC by 26S proteasomes. The AZ activity to promote ODC degradation can be measured both in vitro and in cells. AZ also inhibits cellular uptake of polyamines. This chapter comprises seven subchapters describing methods for studying expression and function of AZ. PMID:21318878

  4. Developing the Autism Model of Implementation for Autism spectrum disorder community providers: study protocol

    E-print Network

    Drahota, Amy; Aarons, Gregory A; Stahmer, Aubyn C

    2012-01-01

    disorder community providers: study protocol. Implementation ScienceScience STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Developing the Autism Model of Implementation for Autism spectrum disorderdisorders. Moreover, the proposed study will posi- tively impact the field of implementation science

  5. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--LIST OF STUDY DOCUMENTS: PROTOCOLS AND SOPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the NHEXAS Phase I Region 5 study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis, (3) RTI's trace metals facility, (4) General laboratory pr...

  6. Organ-on-a-chip platforms for studying drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Bhise, Nupura S; Ribas, João; Manoharan, Vijayan; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Polini, Alessandro; Massa, Solange; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-09-28

    Novel microfluidic tools allow new ways to manufacture and test drug delivery systems. Organ-on-a-chip systems - microscale recapitulations of complex organ functions - promise to improve the drug development pipeline. This review highlights the importance of integrating microfluidic networks with 3D tissue engineered models to create organ-on-a-chip platforms, able to meet the demand of creating robust preclinical screening models. Specific examples are cited to demonstrate the use of these systems for studying the performance of drug delivery vectors and thereby reduce the discrepancies between their performance at preclinical and clinical trials. We also highlight the future directions that need to be pursued by the research community for these proof-of-concept studies to achieve the goal of accelerating clinical translation of drug delivery nanoparticles. PMID:24818770

  7. Experimental study of transient forced convection heat transfer from simulated electronic chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Bhowmik; K. W. Tou

    2005-01-01

    Experiments are performed to study the single-phase transient forced convection heat transfer on an array of four in-line, flush-mounted simulated electronic chips in a vertical rectangular channel. Water is the coolant media and the flow covers the wide range of laminar flow regime with Reynolds number, based on heat source length, from 800 to 2,625. The heat flux ranges from

  8. Atomic structure of machined semiconducting chips: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Paesler, M.; Sayers, D.

    1988-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the atomic structure of chips of germanium that were produced by single point diamond machining. It is demonstrated that although the local (nearest neighbor) atomic structure is experimentally quite similar to that of single crystal specimens information from more distant atoms indicates the presence of considerable stress. An outline of the technique is given and the strength of XAS in studying the machining process is demonstrated.

  9. Analysis of DNA-chip and antigen-chip data: studies of cancer, stem cells and autoimmune diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domany, Eytan

    2005-07-01

    Biology has undergone a revolution during the past decade. Deciphering the human genome has opened new horizons, among which the advent of DNA microarrays has been perhaps the most significant. These miniature measuring devices report the levels at which tens of thousands of genes are expressed in a collection of cells of interest (such as tissue from a tumor). I describe here briefly this technology and present an example of how analysis of data obtained from such high throughput experiments provides insights of possible clinical and therapeutic relevance for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Next, I describe how gene expression data is used to deduce a new design principle, " Just In Case", used by stem cells. Finally I briefly review a different novel technology, of antigen chips, which provide a fingerprint of a subject's immune system and may become a predictive clinical tool. The work reviewed here was done in collaboration with numerous colleagues and students.

  10. High precision thermal stress study on flip chips by synchrotron polychromatic x-ray microdiffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Chen; Nobumichi Tamura; Wei Tang; Martin Kunz; Yi-Chia Chou; King-Ning Tu; Yi-Shao Lai

    2010-01-01

    The bending and residual stress of flip chips caused by the mismatch of thermal expansion between the chip and the substrate have been measured by polychromatic microfocused synchrotron x-ray beam. Precise orientation information as a function of position on the chip was obtained from Laue diffraction patterns, so that the bending angle with respect to a reference position at the

  11. A study of MANET routing protocols: Joint node density, packet length and mobility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurul I. Sarkar; Wilford G. Lol

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) poses a real challenge in the design of a MANET routing protocol. Over the last 10 years, a variety of routing protocols have been developed and their performance simulations are made by network researchers. Most of the previous research on MANET routing protocols have focused on simulation study by varying

  12. Wood chipping almond brush to reduce air pollution and to study the effect of wood chips on harvest, soil nutrients, soil aggregation, and the microbial community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wood chipping of almond prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips interfere with harvest or delete the soil of critical nutrients necessary ...

  13. Study on surface properties of PDMS microfluidic chips treated with albumin

    PubMed Central

    Schrott, Walter; Slouka, Zden?k; ?ervenka, Petr; Ston, Ji?í; Nebyla, Marek; P?ibyl, Michal; Šnita, Dalimil

    2009-01-01

    Electrokinetic properties and morphology of PDMS microfluidic chips intended for bioassays are studied. The chips are fabricated by a casting method followed by polymerization bonding. Microchannels are coated with 1% solution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Tris buffer. Albumin passively adsorbs on the PDMS surface. Electrokinetic characteristics (electro-osmotic velocity, electro-osmotic mobility, and zeta potential) of the coated PDMS channels are experimentally determined as functions of the electric field strength and the characteristic electrolyte concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the surface reveals a “peak and ridge” structure of the protein layer and an imperfect substrate coating. On the basis of the AFM observation, several topologies of the BSA-PDMS surface are proposed. A nonslip mathematical model of the electro-osmotic flow is then numerically analyzed. It is found that the electrokinetic characteristics computed for a channel with the homogeneous distribution of a fixed electric charge do not fit the experimental data. Heterogeneous distribution of the fixed electric charge and the surface roughness is thus taken into account. When a flat PDMS surface with electric charge heterogeneities is considered, the numerical results are in very good agreement with our experimental data. An optimization analysis finally allowed the determination of the surface concentration of the electric charge and the degree of the PDMS surface coating. The obtained findings can be important for correct prediction and possibly for robust control of behavior of electrically driven PDMS microfluidic chips. The proposed method of the electro-osmotic flow analysis at surfaces with a heterogeneous distribution of the surface electric charge can also be exploited in the interpretation of experimental studies dealing with protein-solid phase interactions or substrate coatings. PMID:20216963

  14. A polymer lab-on-a-chip for genetic analysis using the arrayed primer extension on microarray chips.

    PubMed

    Marasso, Simone L; Mombello, Domenico; Cocuzza, Matteo; Casalena, Davide; Ferrante, Ivan; Nesca, Alessandro; Poiklik, Piret; Rekker, Kadri; Aaspollu, Anu; Ferrero, Sergio; Pirri, Candido F

    2014-10-01

    In this work a polymer lab-on-a-chip (LOC), fabricated through MEMS technology, was employed to execute a genetic protocol for the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) detection. The LOC was made in Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and has two levels: the lower one for the insertion and mixing of the reagents, the upper one for the interfacing with the DNA microarray chip. The hereditary hearing loss was chosen as case of study, since the demand for testing such a particular disorder is high and genetics behind the condition is quite clear. The Arrayed Primer EXtension (APEX) genetic protocol was implemented on the LOC to analyze the SNPs. A low density (for detection of up to 10 mutations) and a high density microarray chips (for detection of 245 mutations in 12 genes), containing the primers for the extension, were employed to carry out the APEX reaction on the LOC. Both the microarray chips provide a signal to noise ratio and efficiency comparable with a detection obtained in a conventional protocol in standard conditions. Moreover, significant reduction of the employed PCR volume (from 30 ?L to 10 ?L) was obtained using the low density chip. PMID:24831451

  15. The F0 Protocol for Diuretic Renography Results in Fewer Interrupted Studies Due to Voiding Than the F-15 Protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiyan Liu; Nasrin V. Ghesani; Joan H. Skurnick; Lionel S. Zuckier

    Timing of diuretic administration is not universally standard- ized in renography. Over the past year, our practice has changed from F-15 administration of furosemide to an F0 protocol. Therefore, we have retrospectively compared these 2 cohorts to assess if the shorter interval between diuretic administration and study completion in the F0 study results in a greater frequency of patients able

  16. On-chip dynamic stress control for cancer cell evolution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert

    2010-03-01

    The growth and spreading of cancer in host organisms is an evolutionary process. Cells accumulate mutations that help them adapt to changing environments and to obtain survival fitness. However, all cancer--promoting mutations do not occur at once. Cancer cells face selective environmental pressures that drive their evolution in stages. In traditional cancer studies, environmental stress is usually homogenous in space and difficult to change in time. Here, we propose a microfluidic chip employing embedded dynamic traps to generate dynamic heterogeneous microenvironments for cancer cells in evolution studies. Based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible diaphragms, these traps are able to enclose and shield cancer cells or expose them to external environmental stress. Digital controls for each trap determine the nutrition, antibiotics, CO2/O2 conditions, and temperatures to which trapped cells are subjected. Thus, the stress applied to cells can be varied in intensity and duration in each trap independently. The chip can also output cells from specific traps for sequencing and other biological analysis. Hence our design simultaneously monitors and analyzes cell evolution behaviors under dynamic stresses.

  17. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper concludes by a tabular comparison of the various routing protocols for VANET.

  18. Spectroscopy study of imaging devices based on silicon Pixel Array Detector coupled to VATAGP7 read-out chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhart, V.; Burdette, D.; Chessi, E.; Cindro, V.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Cochran, E.; Grošicar, B.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Lacasta, C.; Llosá, G.; Mikuž, M.; Stankova, V.; Studen, A.; Weilhammer, P.; Žontar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Spectroscopic and timing response studies have been conducted on a detector module consisting of a silicon Pixel Array Detector bonded on two VATAGP7 read-out chips manufactured by Gamma-Medica Ideas using laboratory gamma sources and the internal calibration facilities (the calibration system of the read-out chips). The performed tests have proven that the chips have (i) non-linear calibration curves which can be approximated by power functions, (ii) capability to measure the energy of photons with energy resolution better than 2 keV (exact range and resolution depend on experimental setup), (iii) the internal calibration facility which provides 6 out of 16 available internal calibration charges within our region of interest (spanning the Compton edge of 511 keV photons). The peaks induced by the internal calibration facility are suitable for a fit of the calibration curves. However, they are not suitable for measurements of equivalent noise charge because their full width at half maximum varies with their amplitude. These facts indicate that the VATAGP7 chips are useful and precise tools for a wide variety of spectroscopic devices. We have also explored time walk of the module and peaking time of the spectroscopy signals provided by the chips. We have observed that (iv) the time walk is caused partly by the peaking time of the signals provided by the fast shaper of the chips and partly by the timing uncertainty related to the varying position of the photon interaction, (v) the peaking time of the spectroscopy signals provided by the chips increases with increasing pulse height.

  19. Planning Attacks to Security Protocols: Case Studies in Logic Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigia Carlucci Aiello; Fabio Massacci

    2002-01-01

    Formal verification of security protocols has become a key issue in computer security. Yet, it has proven to be a hard task often error prone and discouraging for non-experts in formal methods. In this paper we show how security protocols can be specified and verified efficiently and effectively by embedding reasoning about actions into a logic programming language. In a

  20. Connection-oriented protocols over ATM: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaskos, Spiridon; Gavras, Anastassios

    1994-04-01

    Efficient mapping of connection oriented protocols on ATM needs the identification of the protocol elements and their association to the corresponding ATM elements. In this context the functions provided by connection oriented protocols are structured like the B-ISDN reference model. The control of higher power (transport- or network-) layer protocol connections is done using procedures and parameters that are currently defined in the ATM control plane. With regard to that a simultaneous establishment of an ATM connection and the corresponding higher layer protocol connection is presented. The Quality of Service (QoS) parameters of the connection oriented protocol are identified and associated to the corresponding QoS parameters of the ATM layer. The possibilities of dealing with not matching parameters are examined and evaluated. Some observations from a real system (BERKOM Transport System) concerning the simultaneous connection establishment and the efficient mapping of the QoS parameters onto the ATM performance parameters are given. Finally, additional requirements for the connection oriented protocols and the ATM signalling protocol, to fully support the simultaneous connection establishment and the QoS mapping, are discussed.

  1. Study on flip chip assembly of high density micro-LED array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao-Chyun An; Ming-Hsien Wu; Yu-Wei Huang; Tai-Hong Chen; Chia-Hsin Chao; Wen-Yung Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Flip chip assembly technology is an attractive solution for high I\\/O density and fine-pitch microelectronics packaging. Recently, high efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have undergone a rapid development and flip chip bonding has been widely applied to fabricate high-brightness GaN micro-LED arrays [1]. The flip chip GaN LED has some advantages over the traditional top-emission LED, including improved current spreading,

  2. A study of hand vibration on chipping and grinding operators, part III: Power levels into the hands of operators of pneumatic tools used in chipping and grinding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. D.; Basel, R.; Wasserman, D. E.; Taylor, W.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating power transmitted to the hands of operators who use vibrating hand tools. Results that relate to a comprehensive multidisciplined NIOSH field study of several hundred chipper and grinder workers who used pneumatic hand tools are presented. The results of this study indicated that the power in the frequency range of 6·3 Hz to 1000 Hz transmitted to the hand ranged from 1·08 × 10 3 to 7·23 × 10 3 J/s for the chisel and from 8·52 × 10 -1 to 1·57 × 10 2 J/s for the handle of chipping hammers. For pneumatic grinders the power transmitted to the hands of the tool operators was in the range of 6·58 × 10 -3 to 2·35 × 10 -3 J/s over the same frequency range.

  3. Study protocol: the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion. Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence. The initial focus of CATS is on adrenarche, the first hormonal process in the pubertal cascade, which begins for most children at around 8 years of age. Methods/Design CATS is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. All Grade 3 students (8–9 years of age) from a stratified cluster sample of schools in Melbourne, Australia were invited to take part. In total, 1239 students and a parent/guardian were recruited to participate in the study. Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche. Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development. The cohort will provide rich detail of the development, lifestyle, external circumstances and health of children during the transition from childhood through to adolescence. Baseline associations between the hormonal measures and measures of mental health and behaviour will initially be examined cross-sectionally, and then in later waves longitudinally. CATS will make a unique contribution to the understanding of adrenarche and puberty in children’s health and development. PMID:24103080

  4. EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol

    E-print Network

    is to collect descriptive data on restaurant hygiene policies, environments, and food worker hygiene practices practices. Data for this study will be collected through interviews with restaurant managers-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol Summary Good hand hygiene is of critical importance in preventing

  5. Individual empowerment in overweight and obese patients: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Struzzo, Pierluigi; Fumato, Raffaella; Tillati, Silvia; Cacitti, Anita; Gangi, Fabrizio; Stefani, Alessia; Torcutti, Alessia; Crapesi, Lucia; Tubaro, Gianni; Balestrieri, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem in Europe and it causes many diseases. Many weight-reducing methods are reported in medical literature, but none of them proved to be effective in maintaining the results achieved over time. Self-empowerment can be an important innovative method, but an effectiveness study is necessary. In order to standardise the procedures for a randomised controlled study, a pilot study will be run to observe, measure and evaluate the effects of a period of self-empowerment group treatment on overweight/obese patients. Methods and analysis Non-controlled, experimental, pilot study. A selected group of patients with body mass index >25, with no severe psychiatric disorders, with no aesthetic or therapeutic motivation will be included in the study. A set of quantitative and qualitative measures will be utilised to evaluate the effects of a self-empowerment course in a 12?month time. Group therapy and medical examinations will also complete this observational phase. At the end of this pilot study, a set of appropriate measures and procedures to determine the effectiveness of individual empowerment will be identified and agreed among the different professional figures. Results will be recorded and analysed to start a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Udine in March 2012. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events involving the local administrations of the towns where the trial participants are resident. Trial Registration http://www.clinicalstrials.gov identifier NCT01644708. PMID:23676799

  6. Bondability Study of Chip-on-Film (COF) Inner Lead Bonding (ILB) Using Conventional Gang Bonder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-I. Chen; Ching-Yu Ni; Chi-Min Chang; Shao-Chiun Wu; De-Shin Liu

    2008-01-01

    Inner lead bonding (ILB) is used to thermomechanically join the Cu inner leads on a flexible film tape and Au bumps on a driver IC chip to form electrical paths. With the newly developed film carrier assembly technology, called chip on film (COF), the bumps are prepared separately on a film tape substrate and bonded on the finger lead ends

  7. A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2001-05-24

    We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2) Performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack need to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. The results suggest that in order to improve the performance of a communication network, it will be important to study the entire protocol stuck as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the 7 layer OSI stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point.

  8. Protocol matters: which methylome are you actually studying?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark D; Statham, Aaron L; Speed, Terence P; Clark, Susan J

    2011-01-01

    The field of epigenetics is now capitalizing on the vast number of emerging technologies, largely based on second-generation sequencing, which interrogate DNA methylation status and histone modifications genome-wide. However, getting an exhaustive and unbiased view of a methylome at a reasonable cost is proving to be a significant challenge. In this article, we take a closer look at the impact of the DNA sequence and bias effects introduced to datasets by genome-wide DNA methylation technologies and where possible, explore the bioinformatics tools that deconvolve them. There remains much to be learned about the performance of genome-wide technologies, the data we mine from these assays and how it reflects the actual biology. While there are several methods to interrogate the DNA methylation status genome-wide, our opinion is that no single technique suitably covers the minimum criteria of high coverage and, high resolution at a reasonable cost. In fact, the fraction of the methylome that is studied currently depends entirely on the inherent biases of the protocol employed. There is promise for this to change, as the third generation of sequencing technologies is expected to again ‘revolutionize’ the way that we study genomes and epigenomes. PMID:21566704

  9. The effects of a regional telepathology project: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists. PMID:22420301

  10. An on-chip small intestine-liver model for pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Takashi; Nakayama, Hidenari; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Teruo

    2015-06-01

    Testing of drug effects and cytotoxicity by using cultured cells has been widely performed as an alternative to animal testing. However, the estimation of pharmacokinetics by conventional cell-based assay methods is difficult because of the inability to evaluate multiorgan effects. An important challenge in the field is to mimic the organ-to-organ network in the human body by using a microfluidic network connecting small-scale tissues based on recently emerging MicroTAS (Micro Total Analysis Systems) technology for prediction of pharmacokinetics. Here, we describe an on-chip small intestine-liver coupled model for pharmacokinetic studies. To construct an in vitro pharmacokinetic model that appropriately models in vivo conditions, physiological parameters such as the structure of internal circulation, volume ratios of each organ, and blood flow ratio of the portal vein to the hepatic artery were mimicked using microfluidic networks. To demonstrate interactions between organs in vitro in pharmacokinetic studies, Caco-2, HepG2, and A549 cell cultures were used as organ models of the small intestine, liver, and lung, respectively, and connected to each other through a microporous membrane and microchannels to prepare a simple model of a physiological organ-to-organ network. The on-chip organ model assay using three types of substrate-epirubicine (EPI), irinotecan (CPT-11), and cyclophosphamide (CPA)-were conducted to model the effects of orally administered or biologically active anticancer drugs. The result suggested that the device can replicate physiological phenomena such as activity of the anticancer drugs on the target cells. This microfluidic device can thus be used as an in vitro organ model to predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the human body and may thus provide not only an alternative to animal testing but also a method of obtaining parameters for in silico models of physiologically based pharmacokinetics. PMID:25385717

  11. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--LIST OF AVAILABLE DOCUMENTS: PROTOCOLS AND SOPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the NHEXAS Phase I Maryland study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis and general laboratory procedures, (3) Data Analysis Proced...

  12. CHIP Utilization in South Texas: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of the Children's Health Insurance Program. JSRI Research Report No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Ann V.; Mier, Nelda; Gabriel, Olga; Flores, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) began as a federal stopgap measure to assist families whose incomes were too high to qualify for Medicaid, but too low to make health insurance for their children affordable. In 2002, efforts were launched around the United States to recruit eligible children into the program. This pilot study

  13. Gene Assembly from Chip-Synthesized Oligonucleotides

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Keywords: oligonucleotide r gene synthesis r nucleic acids r synthetic biology Biology Table 1 Nomenclature Used to Describe the Synthesis Protocol Term Definition Source Off-chip pool

  14. Single-copy gene based 50?K SNP chip for genetic studies and molecular breeding in rice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Jayaswal, Pawan Kumar; Panda, Kabita; Mandal, Paritra; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Balwant; Mishra, Shefali; Singh, Yashi; Singh, Renu; Rai, Vandna; Gupta, Anita; Raj Sharma, Tilak; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the most abundant DNA sequence variation present in plant genomes. Here, we report the design and validation of a unique genic-SNP genotyping chip for genetic and evolutionary studies as well as molecular breeding applications in rice. The chip incorporates 50,051 SNPs from 18,980 different genes spanning 12 rice chromosomes, including 3,710 single-copy (SC) genes conserved between wheat and rice, 14,959 SC genes unique to rice, 194 agronomically important cloned rice genes and 117 multi-copy rice genes. Assays with this chip showed high success rate and reproducibility because of the SC gene based array with no sequence redundancy and cross-hybridisation problems. The usefulness of the chip in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of cultivated and wild rice germplasm was demonstrated. Furthermore, its efficacy was validated for analysing background recovery in improved mega rice varieties with submergence tolerance developed through marker-assisted backcross breeding. PMID:26111882

  15. Single-copy gene based 50?K SNP chip for genetic studies and molecular breeding in rice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Jayaswal, Pawan Kumar; Panda, Kabita; Mandal, Paritra; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Balwant; Mishra, Shefali; Singh, Yashi; Singh, Renu; Rai, Vandna; Gupta, Anita; Raj Sharma, Tilak; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the most abundant DNA sequence variation present in plant genomes. Here, we report the design and validation of a unique genic-SNP genotyping chip for genetic and evolutionary studies as well as molecular breeding applications in rice. The chip incorporates 50,051 SNPs from 18,980 different genes spanning 12 rice chromosomes, including 3,710 single-copy (SC) genes conserved between wheat and rice, 14,959 SC genes unique to rice, 194 agronomically important cloned rice genes and 117 multi-copy rice genes. Assays with this chip showed high success rate and reproducibility because of the SC gene based array with no sequence redundancy and cross-hybridisation problems. The usefulness of the chip in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of cultivated and wild rice germplasm was demonstrated. Furthermore, its efficacy was validated for analysing background recovery in improved mega rice varieties with submergence tolerance developed through marker-assisted backcross breeding. PMID:26111882

  16. A Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution

    E-print Network

    Xu, Huan

    by physical constraints and per- formance criteria. Because safety of the aircraft is solely or mostlyA Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution Huan Xu1, Ufuk Topcu2, and Richard M. Murray3 Abstract-- We consider the problem of designing a control protocol for the aircraft

  17. Empirical Study for Optimization of Power-Performance with On-Chip Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikafumi Takahashi; Mitsuhisa Sato; Daisuke Takahashi; Taisuke Boku; Hiroshi Nakamura; Masaaki Kondo; Motonobu Fujita

    Power-performance (performance per uniform power consumption) recently has become a more important factor in modern high-performance\\u000a microprocessors. In processor design, it is a well-known that off-chip memory access has a large impact on both performance\\u000a and power consumption. On-chip memory is one solution for this problem, so that many processors such as the Renesas SH-4 and\\u000a some ARM architecture type

  18. Comparison of an Æthereal Network on Chip and Traditional Interconnects - Two Case Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arno Moonen; Chris Bartels; Marco Bekooij; René van den Berg; Harpreet Bhullar; Kees Goossens; Patrick Groeneveld; Jos Huisken; Jef van Meerbergen

    2008-01-01

    The growing complexity of multiprocessor systems on chip make the integration of Intellectual Property (IP) blocks into a\\u000a working system a major challenge. Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) facilitate a modular design approach which addresses the hardware\\u000a challenges in designing such a system. Guaranteed communication services, offered by the ?thereal NoC, address the software\\u000a challenges by making the system more robust and easier

  19. Rapid Microfluidic Perfusion Enabling Kinetic Studies of Lipid Ion Channels in a Bilayer Lipid Membrane Chip

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chenren; Sun, Bing; Colombini, Marco; DeVoe, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that lipids play key roles in ion channel physiology, both through the dynamic formation and dissolution of lipid ion channels and by indirect regulation of protein ion channels. Because existing technologies cannot rapidly modulate the local (bio)chemical conditions at artificial bilayer lipid membranes used in ion channel studies, the ability to elucidate the dynamics of these lipid–lipid and lipid–protein interactions has been limited. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic system supporting exceptionally rapid perfusion of reagents to an on-chip bilayer lipid membrane, enabling the responses of lipid ion channels to dynamic changes in membrane boundary conditions to be probed. The thermoplastic microfluidic system allows initial perfusion of reagents to the membrane in less than 1 s, and enables kinetic behaviors with time constants below 10 s to be directly measured. Application of the platform is demonstrated toward kinetic studies of ceramide, a biologically important lipid known to self-assemble into transmembrane ion channels, in response to dynamic treatments of small ions (La3+) and proteins (Bcl-xL mutant). The results reveal the broader potential of the technology for studies of membrane biophysics, including lipid ion channel dynamics, lipid–protein interactions, and the regulation of protein ion channels by lipid micro domains. PMID:21556947

  20. Development of master CMOS test vehicle chip for space radiation effect studies using CAMD X-ray synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A.; Nema, R.

    1992-08-01

    A master CMOS test vehicle chip using currently available CMOS technologies from MOSIS Foundry has been designed for use in monitoring electrical performance of CMOS based systems on board in space flights against the total dose effect. The master test chip includes designs of selected CMOS devices and logic circuits to monitor in an integrated manner the behavior of several radiation sensitive parameters namely, I- V characteristics, speed-power product, propagation delay time and fan-out capability, CMOS latchup, hot-carrier-induced charge effects in VLSI switching circuits and critical logic path through the functional logic device by a dynamic shift register. A methodology to evaluate test vehicle chip is proposed incorporating experimental studies, analytical modeling and their correlation with the experimental data. CMOS test chip fabricated from MOSIS Foundry wil be probed for static and dynamic data acquisition under preirradiated and postirradiated conditions and simulated operating environment. Space radiation exposure to the test devices will be simulated using Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) X-ray synchrotron as a radiation source #1.

  1. Study of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Pavai; A. Sivagami; D. Sridharan

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) now witness the increased interest in the potential use in applications like disaster management, combat field reconnaissance, border protection and security surveillance. Sensors are expected to be remotely deployed in large numbers and operate autonomously in unattended environments. Many routing protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential

  2. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--LIST OF STUDY DOCUMENTS: PROTOCOLS AND SOPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the NHEXAS Phase I Region 5 study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis, (3) RTI's trace metals facility, (4) General laboratory pr...

  3. STUDY ON THE PROTOCOL OF E-COMMERCE FOR CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GAO Cong; KAN Kaili

    This article explains small-sum payments should have a high priority is second-best solution to China's conditions where business services and management systems are comparatively immature. Moreover, it demonstrates that mobile payment is to be promising in the development of China's small-sum payment services. The conclusion is that the SET protocol does not fit China's situation, though it has been the

  4. A comparative study of wireless sensor networks and their routing protocols.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

  5. A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

  6. A CMOS 510 K-transistor single-chip token-ring LAN controller (TRC) compatible with IEEE802.5 MAC protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AKIRA KANUMA; TOSHIYUKI YAGUCHI; KOICHI TANAKA; EIICHI KATSUMATA; KATSUHITO FUJIMOTO; YUUICHI MIYAZAWA; SHIN-ICHI IIDA; TETSUYA YAMAMOTO

    1990-01-01

    The token-ring controller (TRC) consists of five functional blocks. they are a dedicated 16-b microprocessor which includes 11 K-word×20-b protocol firmware ROM, finite-state machines for real-time handling of frames, an 896-word×16-b dual-port RAM for frame buffer FIFOs and working memory (FIFO\\/RAM), a host processor bus interface, and a three-channel DMA controller which can follow list structure frame buffers. The TRC

  7. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Röösli; Patrizia Frei; John Bolte; Georg Neubauer; Elisabeth Cardis; Maria Feychting; Peter Gajsek; Sabine Heinrich; Wout Joseph; Simon Mann; Luc Martens; Evelyn Mohler; Roger C Parslow; Aslak Harbo Poulsen; Katja Radon; Joachim Schüz; György Thuroczy; Jean-François Viel; Martine Vrijheid

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result,

  8. DNA Chips

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2003-02-23

    In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students will conduct activities from a module called "DNA Chips: A Genetics Lab in the Palm of Your Hand." This module is part of the National Institutes of Health Snapshots series, which focuses on a single area of biomedical research to help students understand how science, people, ethics, and history all fit together. The module for this lesson is about the DNA microarray, also known as a DNA chip.

  9. Fabrication of a microfluidic chip containing dam, weirs and gradient generator for studying cellular response to chemical modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Ruan; Lihui Wang; Mingfei Xu; Daxiang Cui; Xiaomian Zhou; Dayu Liu

    2009-01-01

    A microfluidic chip was designed and fabricated for studying cellular response to chemical modulation. The microfluidic network comprised an up-stream gradient-generating module and a down-stream cell culture module. The microchip was composed of a piece of glass plate and a covered PDMS film. By using a two-step wet etching method, the dam structure was fabricated on the inlet of the

  10. A Study of the OnChip Interconnection Network for the IBM Cyclops64 MultiCore Architecture

    E-print Network

    Gao, Guang R.

    on a single chip. The IBM Cyclops­64 (C64) is a petaflop supercomputer built on multi­core system­on­a­chip-Cache Processor Chip Processor 1Gflops / 64KB SRAM Intra-chip Network System 1.1Pflops 15.3Tflops 192GB Rack 13 (Figure 1) is a petaflop supercom­ puter built on multi­core system­on­a­chip (SoC) technol­ ogy, based

  11. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas. PMID:20487532

  12. A comparative study of access topologies for chip-level address-event communication channels.

    PubMed

    Culurciello, E; Andreou, A G

    2003-01-01

    We examine channel access algorithms and circuits for intra and inter chip communication channels. Classical access techniques such as arbitration, scanning, ALOHA, and priority encoding are compared by assessing throughput, latency, and power consumption. Our results provide guidance in the design of bio-inspired networks of processors, for efficient transmission of information with limited power consumption and reduced latency. PMID:18244576

  13. A parametric study of flip chip reliability based on solder fatigue modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott F. Popelar

    1997-01-01

    A solder fatigue model for 63Sn\\/Pb solder has been developed by combining nonlinear finite element modelling with thermal fatigue data of assorted flip chip assemblies. The model characterizes the creep fatigue phenomena of the solder alloy by correlating the amount of creep strain energy dissipated per thermal cycle with the characteristic Weibull life of the critical solder joint. It has

  14. Chip scale studies of BCB based polymer bonding for MEMS packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Wang; J. Zeng; K. Zhao; H. L. Chan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents chip scale investigation of polymer based bonding processes for producing microcavities for encapsulation of MEMS and other microscale devices. The polymer sealing rings were fabricated on the glass covers using the photosensitive BCB polymer and photolithography. They were bonded onto a variety of substrates including silicon substrates, aluminum coated substrates and glass substrates with feedthrough structures to

  15. An ImmunoChip study of multiple sclerosis risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Noriko; Madireddy, Lohith; Khankhanian, Pouya; Matsushita, Takuya; Caillier, Stacy J; Moré, Jayaji M; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; McCauley, Jacob L; Beecham, Ashley H; Piccio, Laura; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stone, Lael; Santaniello, Adam; Cree, Bruce A C; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S; Hauser, Stephen L; Sawcer, Stephen; Oksenberg, Jorge R

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to determine to what degree multiple sclerosis-associated loci discovered in European populations also influence susceptibility in African Americans; (ii) to assess the extent to which the unique linkage disequilibrium patterns in African Americans can contribute to localizing the functionally relevant regions or genes; and (iii) to search for novel African American multiple sclerosis-associated loci. Using the ImmunoChip custom array we genotyped 803 African American cases with multiple sclerosis and 1516 African American control subjects at 130 135 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms. We conducted association analysis with rigorous adjustments for population stratification and admixture. Of the 110 non-major histocompatibility complex multiple sclerosis-associated variants identified in Europeans, 96 passed stringent quality control in our African American data set and of these, >70% (69) showed over-representation of the same allele amongst cases, including 21 with nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P < 0.05). At a further eight loci we found nominally significant association with an alternate correlated risk-tagging single nucleotide polymorphism from the same region. Outside the regions known to be associated in Europeans, we found seven potentially associated novel candidate multiple sclerosis variants (P < 10(-4)), one of which (rs2702180) also showed nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P = 0.034) in an independent second cohort of 620 African American cases and 1565 control subjects. However, none of these novel associations reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 6.3 × 10(-5)). Our data demonstrate substantial overlap between African American and European multiple sclerosis variants, indicating common genetic contributions to multiple sclerosis risk. PMID:25818868

  16. Implementation of Mass Transfusion Protocol in the Outpatient Operating Room Setting: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Robins, Holly-May; Warner, Brenda

    2015-06-01

    The current definition of massive transfusion is replacement of 5 U of packed red blood cells in 3 hours because of uncontrolled hemorrhage or replacement of the entire blood volume within a 24-hour period. The prompt activation of a transfusion protocol can quickly restore hemodynamic stability. Effective teamwork and communication is critical for a favorable patient outcome. This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of using a massive transfusion protocol in an outpatient setting. PMID:26137761

  17. Performance studies of a selfhealing network protocol in Telecom Canada long haul networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Grover; B. D. Venables; J. H. Sandham; A. F. Mine

    1990-01-01

    Telecom Canada commissioned a study to verify the speed and routing performance of a newly developed self-healing network (SHN) restoration technique. The particular SHN protocol is based on a unique paradigm for rapid, distributed, physical-layer interaction among digital cross-connect system (DCS) machines. An implementation of the protocol, as it would be installed in a DCS machine, was executed concurrently in

  18. Experimental and modeling studies of ultrasound-assisted release of phenolics from oak chips into model wine.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Zhang, Zhihang; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-09-01

    The enhancement of release of oak-related compounds from oak chips during wine aging with oak chips may interest the winemaking industry. In this study, the 25-kHz ultrasound waves were used to intensify the mass transfer of phenolics from oak chips into a model wine. The influences of acoustic energy density (6.3-25.8 W/L) and temperature (15-25 °C) on the release kinetics of total phenolics were investigated systematically. The results exhibited that the total phenolic yield released was not affected by acoustic energy density significantly whereas it increased with the increase of temperature during sonication. Furthermore, to describe the mechanism of mass transfer of phenolics in model wine under ultrasonic field, the release kinetics of total phenolics was simulated by both a second-order kinetic model and a diffusion model. The modeling results revealed that the equilibrium concentration of total phenolics in model wine, the initial release rate and effective diffusivity of total phenolics generally increased with acoustic energy density and temperature. In addition, temperature had a negative effect on the second-order release rate constant whereas acoustic energy density had an opposite effect. PMID:24726419

  19. Interviews for the assessment of long-term incapacity for work: a study on adherence to protocols and principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wout EL de Boer; Haije Wind; Frank JH van Dijk; Han HBM Willems

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessments for long-term incapacity for work are performed by Social Insurance Physicians (SIPs) who rely on interviews with claimants as an important part of the process. These interviews are susceptible to bias. In the Netherlands three protocols have been developed to conduct these interviews. These protocols are expert- and practice-based. We studied to what extent these protocols are adhered

  20. Proving safety properties of an aircraft landing protocol using timed and untimed I/O automata: a case study

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving safety properties of an aircraft landing protocol using timed and untimed I/O automata of an aircraft landing protocol using timed and untimed I/O automata: a case study by Shinya Umeno Submitted This thesis presents an assertional-style verification of the aircraft landing protocol of NASA's SATS (Small

  1. Towards micropropulsion systems on-a-chip: initial results of component feasibility studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Mueller; Indrani Chakraborty; Stephen Vargo; Colleen Marrese; Victor White; David Bame; Robert Reinicke; John Holzinger

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of several micropropulsion components for microspacecraft applications are reported. These include a vaporizing liquid micro-thruster, a micro ion engine, a micro-isolation valve, a micro-piezo valve, and a micro-solenoid valve. These components are envisioned to be integrated with chip-based driver and power conditioning electronics into highly integrated, compactly configured micropropulsion modules, reducing overall system weight and

  2. A versatile microfluidic chip for millisecond time-scale kinetic studies by electrospray mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamanna Rob; Derek J. Wilson

    2009-01-01

    An electrospray coupled microfluidic reactor for the measurement of millisecond time-scale, solution phase kinetics is introduced.\\u000a The device incorporates a simple two-channel design that is etched into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by laser ablation.\\u000a The outlet of the device is laser cut to a sharp tip, facilitating low dead volume ‘on chip’ electrospray. Fabrication is\\u000a fast, straightforward and highly reproducible, supporting

  3. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.

  4. Adjunctive Effects of A Piscean Collagen-Based Controlled-Release Chlorhexidine Chip in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    PubMed Central

    John, Priya; Lazarus, Flemingson; Selvam, Arul; Prabhuji, Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiah Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction PerioChip a bovine origin gelatine based CHX chip has shown beneficial effects in the management of Chronic Periodontitis. A new fish collagen based CHX chip similar to PerioChip is currently available; however this product has not been thoroughly researched. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new Piscean collagen-based controlled-release chlorhexidine chip (CHX chip) as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP). Settings and Design The study was conducted as a randomised, split-mouth, controlled clinical trial at Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods In a split–mouth study involving 20 sites in 10 patients with chronic periodontitis, control sites received scaling and root planing and test sites received scaling and root planing (SRP) and the intrapocket CHX chip placement as an adjunct. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from both control and test sites at baseline, 11 days and 11 weeks and the anaerobic colony count were assessed. Clinical parameters that were recorded at baseline and 11 weeks were gingival index, Plaque index, Probing pocket depth (PPD), and Clinical attachment level (CAL). Plaque index was recorded additionally at 11 days. Results In the test group there was a statistically significant reduction in the total anaerobic colony count, gingival index and plaque scores from baseline as compared to control sites at all time intervals. An additional 0.8mm reduction in mean probing pocket depth was noted in the test group. Gain in Clinical attachment level was comparable in both groups. Conclusion The adjunctive use of the new collagen-based CHX chip yielded significant antimicrobial benefit accompanied by a reduction in probing depth and a clinical attachment level gain as compared to SRP alone. This suggests that it may be a useful treatment option of nonsurgical periodontal treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  5. Atom Chips

    E-print Network

    Ron Folman; Peter Krüger; Donatella Cassettari; Björn Hessmo; Thomas Maier; Jörg Schmiedmayer

    1999-12-23

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  6. Studies on phytosterol oxides. I: Effect of storage on the content in potato chips prepared in different vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paresh Chandra Dutta; Lars-Åke Appelqvist

    1997-01-01

    Potato chips fried in palm oil, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oil were studied for the content of different phytosterol\\u000a oxides during 0 to 25 weeks of storage in the dark. Oxidation products of sitosterol (24?-ethyl-5-cholesten-3?-ol) and campesterol\\u000a (24?-methyl-t-cholesten-3?-ol) were synthesized to help identify the phytosterol oxides. The oxides of phytosterols were analyzed\\u000a by preparative thin-layer chromatography, solid-phase extraction, capillary

  7. Strategies to assess the validity of recommendations: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) become quickly outdated and require a periodic reassessment of evidence research to maintain their validity. However, there is little research about this topic. Our project will provide evidence for some of the most pressing questions in this field: 1) what is the average time for recommendations to become out of date?; 2) what is the comparative performance of two restricted search strategies to evaluate the need to update recommendations?; and 3) what is the feasibility of a more regular monitoring and updating strategy compared to usual practice?. In this protocol we will focus on questions one and two. Methods The CPG Development Programme of the Spanish Ministry of Health developed 14 CPGs between 2008 and 2009. We will stratify guidelines by topic and by publication year, and include one CPG by strata. We will develop a strategy to assess the validity of CPG recommendations, which includes a baseline survey of clinical experts, an update of the original exhaustive literature searches, the identification of key references (reference that trigger a potential recommendation update), and the assessment of the potential changes in each recommendation. We will run two alternative search strategies to efficiently identify important new evidence: 1) PLUS search based in McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service (PLUS) database; and 2) a Restrictive Search (ReSe) based on the least number of MeSH terms and free text words needed to locate all the references of each original recommendation. We will perform a survival analysis of recommendations using the Kaplan-Meier method and we will use the log-rank test to analyse differences between survival curves according to the topic, the purpose, the strength of recommendations and the turnover. We will retrieve key references from the exhaustive search and evaluate their presence in the PLUS and ReSe search results. Discussion Our project, using a highly structured and transparent methodology, will provide guidance of when recommendations are likely to be at risk of being out of date. We will also assess two novel restrictive search strategies which could reduce the workload without compromising rigour when CPGs developers check for the need of updating. PMID:23967896

  8. A Preliminary Study of Metalloproteins in CSF by CapLC-ICPMS and NanoLC-CHIP/ITMS

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jenny; Castillo, Estela Del; Bayon, Maria Montes; Grimm, Rudolf; Clark, Joseph F.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail; Wilbur, Steve; Caruso, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has frequently been studied to explore the total metal concentrations in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Some examples of neurologic diseases include but are not limited to intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. In this study, however, a comprehensive approach was begun using metallomics methods. First, two molecular weight cutoff filters were used to separate CSF constituents by molecular weight. The remaining CSF was then separated with capillary liquid chromatography/normal bore liquid chromatography and analyzed with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICPMS). With this ICPMS screening, a possible iron associated protein was suggested by nanoliquid chromatography-CHIP/ion trap mass spectrometry (nanoLC-CHIP/ITMS) identification in conjunction with a Spectrum Mill database search. In this preliminary study, three different types of pooled CSF were partially characterized by their metal (Pb, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cu) containing species with suggestions for fuller studies. Chemical `differences' in the CSF and metal constituents suggests some utility in this analysis for understanding some of the complications observed following subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:18662025

  9. Comparison of protocols efficacy in poor responders: differences in oocytes/embryos competence with different protocols, a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Manno, Massimo; Tomei, Francesco; Cervi, Marta; Favretti, Cristina; Adamo, Valter

    2009-04-01

    At present, there is no agreement on poor ovarian response definition, and no definitive evidence that this prognosis can be changed by a specific protocol. Our data suggest that a flare-up protocol with a depot gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist formulation gives higher total pregnancy and implantation rates than a GnRH antagonist, possibly by improving oocyte/embryo competence. PMID:18706554

  10. A dual-genome Symbiosis Chip for coordinate study of signal exchange and development in a prokaryote–host interaction

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Melanie J.; Toman, Carol J.; Fisher, Robert F.; Long, Sharon R.

    2004-01-01

    The soil-dwelling ?-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti engages in a symbiosis with legumes: S. meliloti elicits the formation of plant root nodules where it converts dinitrogen to ammonia for use by the plant in exchange for plant photosynthate. To study the coordinate differentiation of S. meliloti and its legume partner during nodule development, we designed a custom Affymetrix GeneChip with the complete S. meliloti genome and ?10,000 probe sets for the plant host, Medicago truncatula. Expression profiling of free-living S. meliloti grown with the plant signal molecule luteolin in defined minimal and rich media or of strains altered in the expression of key regulatory proteins (NodD1, NodD3, and RpoN) confirms previous data and identifies previously undescribed regulatory targets. Analyses of root nodules show that this Symbiosis Chip allows the study of gene expression in both partners simultaneously. Our studies detail nearly 5,000 transcriptome changes in symbiosis and document complex transcriptional profiles of S. meliloti in different environments. PMID:15542588

  11. Nanocrystalline Materials from Aerospace Machining Chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Uluca; B. C. Rao; M. Ravi; T. L. Brown; J. B. Mann; S. Chandrasekar; W. D. Compton

    The creation of nanostructured materials with enhanced mechanical properties by controlled chip formation has been demonstrated. The present study examines the microstructure and mechanical properties of chips from various alloys -Waspaloy AMS 5704, Inconel 718, Al 6061-T6, and titanium - produced in aerospace machining operations. While the deformation conditions with respect to chip formation may be 'less than controlled' in

  12. Preparation and study on performance of submicron nickel powder for multilayer chip positive temperature coefficient resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Gong, Shu-Ping; Fu, Qiu-Yun; Zheng, Zhi-Ping; Huang, Ri-Ming; Su, Peng

    2010-11-01

    Base metal nickel is often used as the inner electrode in multilayer chip positive temperature coefficient resistance (PTCR). The fine grain of ceramic powders and base metal nickel are necessary. This paper uses reducing hydrazine to gain submicron nickel powder whose diameter was 200-300 nm through adjusting the consumption of nucleating agent PVP properly. The submicron nickel powder could disperse well and was fit for co—fired of multilayer chip PTCR. It analyes the submicron nickel powder through x-ray Diffraction (XRD) and calculates the diameter of nickel by PDF cards. Using XRD analyses it obtains several conclusions: If the molar ratio of hydrazine hydrate and nickel sulfate is kept to be a constant, when enlarging the molar ratio of NaOH/Ni2+, the diameter of nickel powder would become smaller. When the temperature in the experiment raises to 70-80 °C, nickel powder becomes smaller too. And if the molar ratio of NaOH/Ni2+ is 4, when molar ratio of (C2H5O)2/Ni2+ increases, the diameter of nickel would reduce. Results from viewing the powders by optical microscope should be the fact that the electrode made by submicron nickel powder has a better formation and compactness. Furthermore, the sheet resistance testing shows that the electrode made by submicron nickel is smaller than that made by micron nickel.

  13. A Study of Long Distance Traffic Using the AODV Protocol in a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Pomplun; Amitava Datta

    2007-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) vehicles communicate with each other without any fixed infrastructure (inter-vehicular communication). VANETs have received wide attention in the research community in recent years. Wireless routing protocols (e.g. DSR or AODV) were studied in freeway scenarios. But whereas recent research dealt with different vehicle density rates (number of vehicles per km) the distance and especially

  14. A team study of the IEEE 802.16 collision resolution protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelillah Karouit; Abdelkrim Haqiq; Luis Orozco-Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the collision resolution protocol of the IEEE 802.16 standard for metropolitan broadband wireless access systems. The standard specifies the use of a random access scheme based on the slotted binary exponential backoff (BEB) algorithm during the bandwidth request phase. We follow a team problem approach towards the analysis of the throughput and the delay during

  15. Metacognitive Protocols: A Qualitative Study of Perceptions of "Smartness" of Adults and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Linda W.; Smith-Mallette, Geraldine; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    Metacognition is a theoretical construct used to describe individuals' perceptions of their thinking processes and their own control over their thinking processes. This study examined the protocols of 78 undergraduates who responded to 3 questions from the Swanson Metacognitive Questionnaire: (1) What makes someone really smart? (2) How do…

  16. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masud Yunesian; Fariba Asghari; Javad Homayoun Vash; Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar; Dariush Farhud

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness

  17. STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Use of biological mesh versus standard wound

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    [1]. Their repair with a synthetic non-absorbable mesh to reinforce the abdominal wall leads. In those patients, synthetic non-absorbable meshes are not recommended because of the high rates of meshSTUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Use of biological mesh versus standard wound care in infected incisional

  18. Combined dielectrophoretic and impedance system for on-chip controlled bacteria concentration: Application to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Del Moral-Zamora, Beatriz; Punter-Villagrassa, Jaime; Oliva-Brañas, Ana M; Álvarez-Azpeitia, Juan Manuel; Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi; Samitier, Josep; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; Miribel-Català, Pere Ll

    2015-05-01

    The present paper reports a bacteria autonomous controlled concentrator prototype with a user-friendly interface for bench-top applications. It is based on a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip and its associated custom instrumentation, which consists of a dielectrophoretic actuator, to preconcentrate the sample, and an impedance analyzer, to measure concentrated bacteria levels. The system is composed of a single microfluidic chamber with interdigitated electrodes and an instrumentation with custom electronics. The prototype is supported by a real-time platform connected to a remote computer, which automatically controls the system and displays impedance data used to monitor the status of bacteria accumulation on-chip. The system automates the whole concentrating operation. Performance has been studied for controlled volumes of Escherichia coli samples injected into the microfluidic chip at constant flow rate of 10 ?L/min. A media conductivity correcting protocol has been developed, as the preliminary results showed distortion of the impedance analyzer measurement produced by bacterial media conductivity variations through time. With the correcting protocol, the measured impedance values were related to the quantity of bacteria concentrated with a correlation of 0.988 and a coefficient of variation of 3.1%. Feasibility of E. coli on-chip automated concentration, using the miniaturized system, has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the impedance monitoring protocol had been adjusted and optimized, to handle changes in the electrical properties of the bacteria media over time. PMID:25752513

  19. Patient safety in Dutch primary care: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insight into the frequency and seriousness of potentially unsafe situations may be the first step towards improving patient safety. Most patient safety attention has been paid to patient safety in hospitals. However, in many countries, patients receive most of their healthcare in primary care settings. There is little concrete information about patient safety in primary care in the Netherlands. The overall aim of this study was to provide insight into the current patient safety issues in Dutch general practices, out-of-hours primary care centres, general dental practices, midwifery practices, and allied healthcare practices. The objectives of this study are: to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients; to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals; and to provide insight into patient safety management in primary care practices. Design and methods The study consists of three parts: a retrospective patient record study of 1,000 records per practice type was conducted to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients (objective one); a prospective component concerns an incident-reporting study in each of the participating practices, during two successive weeks, to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals (objective two); to provide insight into patient safety management in Dutch primary care practices (objective three), we surveyed organizational and cultural items relating to patient safety. We analysed the incidents found in the retrospective patient record study and the prospective incident-reporting study by type of incident, causes (Eindhoven Classification Model), actual harm (severity-of-outcome domain of the International Taxonomy of Medical Errors in Primary Care), and probability of severe harm or death. Discussion To estimate the frequency of incidents was difficult. Much depended on the accuracy of the patient records and the professionals' consensus about which types of adverse events have to be recognized as incidents. PMID:20584268

  20. Study Protocol: Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease in Pakistanis

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Majeed, Farzin; Pasha, Omrana; Islam, Muhammad; Azam, Iqbal; Ilyas, Muhammad Saleem; Hussain, Munawar; Masood, Kamran; Ahmed, Bilal; Nazir, Sumaira; Sajjad, Zafar; Kasner, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is the most frequent subtype of ischemic stroke globally. It is important to describe the determinants of early ICAD as a strategy to prevent strokes from clinically evident and progressive ICAD. Our objective is to report the determinants of asymptomatic ICAD by linking the presence or absence of ICAD on magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) with detailed risk assessment in asymptomatic adults. Methods This is an observational cross-sectional analytical study. We plan to recruit 200 adult participants from the radiology departments of two tertiary care centers of Karachi, Pakistan. The participants will first be screened for the absence of stroke symptoms via the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke Free Status (QVSFS). QVSFS negative will be participants will be eligible. After written informed consent, participants will undergo detailed medical, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric evaluation by a detailed interview. They will, in addition, undergo MRA to study the presence, degree, and distribution of asymptomatic ICAD. All MRA scans will be reviewed centrally by vascular neurologists blinded to clinical information. These images would be reviewed on DICOM Viewer 3.0 used for calculating the degree of stenosis using Warfarin–Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) study defined criteria employing electronic calipers. A sample size of 200 will achieve 80% power for detecting a minimum difference of 20% in the prevalence of exposure factors (medical and lifestyle) between asymptomatic ICAD positive and ICAD negative persons. This study will generate regional data on risks for ICAD development and prevention in a high-risk susceptible population. Study ID: NCT02072876 PMID:25825629

  1. HuMiChip: Development of a Functional Gene Array for the Study of Human Microbiomes

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Q.; Deng, Ye; Lin, Lu; Hemme, Chris L.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Microbiomes play very important roles in terms of nutrition, health and disease by interacting with their hosts. Based on sequence data currently available in public domains, we have developed a functional gene array to monitor both organismal and functional gene profiles of normal microbiota in human and mouse hosts, and such an array is called human and mouse microbiota array, HMM-Chip. First, seed sequences were identified from KEGG databases, and used to construct a seed database (seedDB) containing 136 gene families in 19 metabolic pathways closely related to human and mouse microbiomes. Second, a mother database (motherDB) was constructed with 81 genomes of bacterial strains with 54 from gut and 27 from oral environments, and 16 metagenomes, and used for selection of genes and probe design. Gene prediction was performed by Glimmer3 for bacterial genomes, and by the Metagene program for metagenomes. In total, 228,240 and 801,599 genes were identified for bacterial genomes and metagenomes, respectively. Then the motherDB was searched against the seedDB using the HMMer program, and gene sequences in the motherDB that were highly homologous with seed sequences in the seedDB were used for probe design by the CommOligo software. Different degrees of specific probes, including gene-specific, inclusive and exclusive group-specific probes were selected. All candidate probes were checked against the motherDB and NCBI databases for specificity. Finally, 7,763 probes covering 91.2percent (12,601 out of 13,814) HMMer confirmed sequences from 75 bacterial genomes and 16 metagenomes were selected. This developed HMM-Chip is able to detect the diversity and abundance of functional genes, the gene expression of microbial communities, and potentially, the interactions of microorganisms and their hosts.

  2. Validation of a fully integrated platform and disposable microfluidic chips enabling parallel purification of genome segments for assembly.

    PubMed

    Kersaudy-Kerhoas, M; Amalou, F; Che, A; Kelly, J; Liu, Y; Desmulliez, M P Y; Shu, W

    2014-08-01

    Recent progress in the field of genetic engineering has opened up the door to novel synthetic biology applications. Microfluidic technology has been emphasized as a key technology to support the development of these applications. While several important synthetic biology protocols have been developed in microfluidic format, no study has yet demonstrated on-chip error control. In synthetic biology protocols, the purification phase is a critical error control process which enhances the reliability of the genome segment assembly by removing undesired oligos. In this context, we report the design and characterization of a fully integrated platform, demonstrating the purification of up to 4 genome segments in parallel, prior to their off-chip assembly. The key innovation of this platform is the decoupling control strategy which eliminates the need to integrate expensive components onto the microfluidic device, enabling lower cost, disposability and rapid operation. Unlike most microfluidic chips where fluid connector plugs are needed to connect external pumps, this approach is plug-less and the chips are simply connected to the control breadboard by clamping. Furthermore the passive chip is isolated from the active control layer thereby eliminating the risk of sample-to-sample contamination in the reusable parts. As a validation of this fully-integrated system, the parallel on-chip purification of genome segments was demonstrated with ratio of correct phenotypes after final assembly up to 20% superior to the bench controls, proving thereby the suitability of the platform for synthetic biology applications. PMID:24615218

  3. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

  4. Study Protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    Background The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. Conclusions The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long-term large-scale epidemiologic study is expected to provide valuable data in the investigation of the health effects of low-dose radiation and disaster-related stress. PMID:22955043

  5. Edge chipping and flexural resistance of monolithic ceramics?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Lee, James J.-W.; Srikanth, Ramanathan; Lawn, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that monolithic ceramics can be developed with combined esthetics and superior fracture resistance to circumvent processing and performance drawbacks of traditional all-ceramic crowns and fixed-dental-prostheses consisting of a hard and strong core with an esthetic porcelain veneer. Specifically, to demonstrate that monolithic prostheses can be produced with a much reduced susceptibility to fracture. Methods Protocols were applied for quantifying resistance to chipping as well as resistance to flexural failure in two classes of dental ceramic, microstructurally-modified zirconias and lithium disilicate glass–ceramics. A sharp indenter was used to induce chips near the edges of flat-layer specimens, and the results compared with predictions from a critical load equation. The critical loads required to produce cementation surface failure in monolithic specimens bonded to dentin were computed from established flexural strength relations and the predictions validated with experimental data. Results Monolithic zirconias have superior chipping and flexural fracture resistance relative to their veneered counterparts. While they have superior esthetics, glass–ceramics exhibit lower strength but higher chip fracture resistance relative to porcelain-veneered zirconias. Significance The study suggests a promising future for new and improved monolithic ceramic restorations, with combined durability and acceptable esthetics. PMID:24139756

  6. Copper chip technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, Daniel C.

    1998-08-01

    Recently, IBM announced the first silicon integrated circuit technology that incorporates copper on-chip wiring. This technology, which combines industry-leading CMOS ULSI devices with 6 levels of hierarchically-scaled Cu metallization, has reached the point of manufacturing, after passing the qualification tests required to prove feasibility, yield, reliability, and manufacturability. The discussion of the change from Al to Cu interconnects for ULSI encompasses a wide variety of issues. This paper attempts to address these by way of example, from the broad range of detailed studies that have been performed in the course of developing these so-called 'copper chips'. Motivational issues are covered by comparative modeling of performance aspects and cost. The technology parameters and features are shown, as well as data relating to the process integration, electrical yield and parametric behavior, early manufacturing data, high-frequency modeling and measurements, nose and clock skew. The viability of this technology is indicated by results from reliability stressing, as well as the first successful demonstrations of fully functional SRAM, DRAM, and microprocessor chips with Cu wiring. The advantages of integrated Cu wiring may be applied even more broadly in the future. An example shown here is the achievement of very high-quality integrated inductors; these may help prospects for complete integration of RF and wireless communications chips onto silicon.

  7. Study on the use of dielectrophoresis and electrothermal forces to produce on-chip micromixers and microconcentrators

    PubMed Central

    Siva Kumar Gunda, Naga; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study uses the dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrothermal (ET) forces to develop on-chip micromixers and microconcentrators. A microchannel with rectangular array of microelectrodes, patterned either on its bottom surface only or on both the top and the bottom surfaces, is considered for the analysis. A mathematical model to compute electrical field, temperature field, the fluid velocity, and the concentration distributions is developed. Both analytical and numerical solutions of standing wave DEP (SWDEP), traveling wave DEP (TWDEP), standing wave ET (SWET), and traveling wave ET (TWET) forces along the length and the height of the channel are compared. The effects of electrode size and their placement in the microsystem on micromixing and microconcentrating performance are studied and compared to velocity and concentration profiles. SWDEP forces can be used to collect the particles at different locations in the microchannel. Under positive and negative DEP effect, the particles are collected at electrode edges and away from the electrodes, respectively, irrespective of the position, size, and number of electrodes. The location of the concentration region can be shifted by changing the electrode position. SWET and TWET forces are used for mixing and producing concentration regions by circulating the fluid at a given location. The effect of forces can be changed with the applied voltage. The TWDEP method is the better method for mixing along the length of the channels among the four options explored in the present work. If two layers of particle suspension are placed side by side in the channel, triangular electrode configuration can be used to mix the suspensions. Triangular and rectangular electrode configurations can efficiently mix two layers of particle suspension placed side-by-side and one-atop-the-other, respectively. Hence, SWDEP forces can be successfully used to create microconcentrators, whereas TWDEP, SWET, and TWET can be used to produce efficient micromixers in a microfluidic chip. PMID:24015164

  8. A formal approach to design space exploration of protocol converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Avnit; Arcot Sowmya

    2009-01-01

    In the field of chip design, hardware module reuse is a standard solution to the increasing complexity of chip ar- chitecture and the pressures to reduce time to market. In the absence of a single module interface standard, integration of pre-designed modules often requires the use of protocol converters. For an arbitrary pair of incompatible protocols it is likely that

  9. Research on Voltage Acquisition System Based on Modbus Industrial Bus and Single Chip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Lin

    2009-01-01

    The voltage acquisition system based on modbus industrial bus and single chip is designed and its prototype is also implemented. It consists of MCS51 single chip and multichannel voltage acquisition card. And the single chip communicates with the card through modbus industrial bus protocol, which collects, copes with and real-time display voltage related data. The system can be applied to

  10. Assessment of a screening protocol for type 2 diabetes in community pharmacy. The DiabNow Study.

    PubMed

    Fikri-Benbrahim, Narjis; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando; Saéz-Benito, Loreto; Luque, Blanca Suárez; Corpas, José Pedro García; Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance and feasibility of a protocol for screening type 2 diabetes in community pharmacy. Performance was primarily assessed by measuring stakeholders' adherence (pharmacists, patients and physicians) to the protocol's components. PMID:25819481

  11. A Performance Comparison Study of End-to-End Congestion Control Protocols over MIMO Fading Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Homayoun Yousefi' zadeh; Amir Habibi; Wojtek Furmanski

    2006-01-01

    We study the performance of end-to-end congestion control protocols, namely, VCP and TCP\\/AQM+ECN over wireless topologies created by MIMO fading channel links. We model the loss characteristic of such links with finite-state Markov chains the parameters of which can be derived from the fading channel specifications. We also investigate the effects of utilizing forward error correction (FEC) techniques at the

  12. Securing RSVP and RSVP-TE signaling protocols and their performance study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Zhi; Chung-horng Lung; Xia Xu; Anand Srinivasan; Yi Lei

    2005-01-01

    RSVP and RSVP-TE are signaling protocols used to set up paths and\\/or support Quality of Service (QoS) requirements in IP and MPLS-based networks, respectively. This paper analyzes an authenticatio n m echanism for securing the RSVP and RSVP-TE control messages, and studies their performance. This design and implementation of the authentication mechanism, which is based on RFC2747, using four commonly

  13. Smart-pixel-based network interface chip.

    PubMed

    Pinkston, T M; Kuznia, C

    1997-07-10

    We present the design and experimental setup of an optically interconnected smart-pixel network interface chip designed to implement a collisionless multichannel-access control protocol. The design demonstrates the cointegration of optoelectronic pixel modules of various levels of complexity for dense, high-speed interconnection of highly functional digital logic components typical of multiprocessor network routers. PMID:18259291

  14. Smart-pixel-based network interface chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkston, Timothy Mark; Kuznia, Charles

    1997-07-01

    We present the design and experimental setup of an optically interconnected smart-pixel network interface chip designed to implement a collisionless multichannel-access control protocol. The design demonstrates the cointegration of optoelectronic pixel modules of various levels of complexity for dense, high-speed interconnection of highly functional digital logic components typical of multiprocessor network routers.

  15. Total tree chips story

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    A Minneapolis company, Total Tree Chips, Inc., originally formed to chip city trees killed by Dutch elm disease, has expanded to include operations such as clearing land for parks and shopping centers and selling some of the chipped material back to the owners for trails and landscaping. Excess chips are sold to civic and commercial developments for landscaping, to a

  16. Driving Position Field Study, Differences with the Whiplash Protocol and Biomechanics Experimental Responses

    PubMed Central

    Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Pozo, Eduardo Del; Lessley, David; Barrios, Jose Manuel; Nombela, Mario; Cisneros, Oscar; de Miguel, Juan Luis; Seguí-Gómez, María

    2011-01-01

    Rear-impact collisions at low speed are a leading cause of economic costs among motor vehicle accidents. Recently, EuroNCAP has incorporated in its protocol the whiplash test, to reproduce a low-speed rear impact. This paper presents a field driving study to assess the potential differences between the EuroNCAP dummy tests and actual drivers in the field, focusing on occupant position and biomechanics experimental results. A total of 182 drivers were randomly selected in two geographical areas in Spain. The driving position of each driver was recorded with a focus on the most relevant measurements for rear impact. Statistical analysis was performed to obtain means, standard deviations and density functions to compare observational seating position with that of the EuroNCAP testing protocol. The observational data showed a similar seatback angle to that used in the EuroNCAP protocol (24° in front of 25° for the protocol), a greater distance between the head vertex and the top of the head restraint (53mm compared to 39.5mm), and less distance between the occipital bone of the head and the headrest (67.9 compared to 89.3mm). Based on these data, 4 dummy tests were conducted using the dummy BioRID IIg. The baseline test was designed to reproduce the dummy position according to EuroNCAP 3.0 whiplash protocol. Three different additional tests were defined to reproduce the actual observed driving position as well as to assess a “worst case” scenario in terms of reduced seatback angle. These variations in initial driver position, comparing the EuroNCAP protocol to the observational study results, were not observed to cause significant differences in the biomechanical values measured in the BioRID IIg, The T1 acceleration was reduced less than 8%, the NIC was increased about 8%, and the NKm presented a reduction of 20%. Reducing the seat angle was observed to be more harmful in terms of NIC. PMID:22105385

  17. Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. Methods/Design In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. Discussion This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013). PMID:24965551

  18. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Hu; Zhao Hongwei; Shi Chengli; Wu Boda; Fan Zunqiang; Wan Shunguang; Geng Chunyang [College of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Renmin Street 5988, Changchun, Jilin 130025 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

  19. A Distributed Stream Multiplexing Architecture for MultiChip Configuration beyond HDTV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayuki Onishi; Ken Nakamura; Takeshi Yoshitome; Jiro Naganuma

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed stream multiplexing architecture for video codec LSIs with multi-chip configuration. This distributed architecture utilizes a built-in media multiplexing unit with an external stream input and inter-chip communication interfaces. Parallel protocol processing, with an autonomous inter-chip control mechanism to mix and concatenate packets through daisy-chained transfer paths, provides a complete multi-chip stream output at the end

  20. A distributed TS-MUX architecture for multi-chip extension beyond the HDTV level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayuki Onishi; Mitsuo Ikeda; Jiro Naganuma; Makoto Endo; Yoshiyuki Yashima

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed stream multiplexing architecture for CODEC LSIs with multi-chip configuration, and demonstrates its scalability and usefulness. It consists of each media multiplexing unit with an external stream input and inter-chip communication interfaces. Parallel protocol processing, with an autonomous inter-chip control mechanism to mix and concatenate packets through daisy-chained transfer paths, provides a complete multi-chip output at

  1. Calibration and data collection protocols for reliable lattice parameter values in electron pair distribution function (ePDF) studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Hu, Hefei; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-02-01

    We explore and describe different protocols for calibrating electron pair distribution function (ePDF) measurements for quantitative studies on nano-materials. We find the most accurate approach to determine the camera-length is to use a standard calibration sample of Au nanoparticles from National Institute of Standards and Technology. Different protocols for data collection are also explored, as are possible operational errors, to find the best approaches for accurate data collection for quantitative ePDF studies.

  2. Chip-off-the-old-rock: the study of reservoir-relevant geological processes with real-rock micromodels.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; de Haas, Thomas W; Fadaei, Hossein; Sinton, David

    2014-11-21

    We present a real-rock micromodel approach whereby microfluidic channels are fabricated in a naturally occurring mineral substrate. The method is applied to quantify calcite dissolution which is relevant to oil/gas recovery, CO2 sequestration, and wastewater disposal in carbonate formations - ubiquitous worldwide. The key advantage of this method is the inclusion of both the relevant substrate chemistry (not possible with conventional microfluidics) and real-time pore-scale resolution (not possible with core samples). Here, microchannels are etched into a natural calcite crystal and sealed with a glass slide. The approach is applied to study acidified brine flow through a single channel and a two-dimensional micromodel. The single-channel case conforms roughly to a 1-D analytical description, with crystal orientation influencing the local dissolution rate an additional 25%. The two-dimensional experiments show highly flow-directed dissolution and associated positive feedback wherein acid preferentially invades high conductivity flow paths, resulting in higher dissolution rates ('wormholing'). These experiments demonstrate and validate the approach of microfabricating fluid structures within natural minerals for transport and geochemical studies. More broadly, real-rock microfluidics open the door to a vast array of lab-on-a-chip opportunities in geology, reservoir engineering, and earth sciences. PMID:25236399

  3. Detection and Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Specimens with the HPV Direct Flow CHIP System

    PubMed Central

    Herraez-Hernandez, Elsa; Preda, Ovidiu; Alonso, Sonia; Pardo, Rosario Serrano; Olmo, Asuncion

    2013-01-01

    The novel HPV Direct Flow CHIP commercial system for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping is based on rapid PCR and automatic reverse dot blot hybridization to genotype-specific probes, allowing the detection of 36 HPV genotypes. This study examined the performance of HPV Direct Flow CHIP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples (n= 99). Each sample was analyzed both by Direct PCR, using crude cell extracts without DNA purification, and by conventional PCR, using purified DNA. Pair-wise analysis of the results demonstrated strong concordance between the results obtained with the two protocols, although a slightly higher rate of multiple infections was detected by conventional PCR. In summary, HPV Direct Flow CHIP achieves effective HPV detection from FFPE samples with both Direct PCR and Conventional PCR protocols. PMID:24222806

  4. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF A PROTOCOL (NHX/SOP-100-003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This procedure describes the preparation of protocols as part of the quality assurance program for the Region 5 NHEXAS study. In general, protocols describe the objectives, methods, and procedures used to conduct a study or experiment. A protocol may include some detailed informa...

  5. The CTC-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Sequist, Lecia V.; Nagrath, Sunitha; Toner, Mehmet; Haber, Daniel A.; Lynch, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells that originate from a malignancy and circulate freely in the peripheral blood. The ability to capture and study CTCs is an emerging field with implications for early detection, diagnosis, determining prognosis and monitoring of cancer, as well as for understanding the fundamental biology of the process of metastasis. Here, we review the development and initial clinical studies with a novel microfluidic platform for isolating these cells, the CTC-chip, and discuss its potential uses in the study of lung cancer. PMID:19247082

  6. Study protocol. A prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women: the pregnancy outcome prediction study

    PubMed Central

    Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Dacey, Alison; Cook, Emma; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; White, Ian R; Smith, Gordon CS

    2008-01-01

    Background There have been dramatic changes in the approach to screening for aneuploidy over the last 20 years. However, the approach to screening for other complications of pregnancy such as intra-uterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and stillbirth remains largely unchanged. Randomised controlled trials of routine application of high tech screening methods to the general population have generally failed to show improvement in outcome. We have previously reviewed this and concluded it was due, in large part, to poor performance of screening tests. Here, we report a study design where the primary aim is to generate clinically useful methods to screen women to assess their risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Methods/design We report the design of a prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women recruited at the time of their first ultrasound scan. Participation involves serial phlebotomy and obstetric ultrasound at the dating ultrasound scan (typically 10–14 weeks), 20 weeks, 28 weeks and 36 weeks gestation. In addition, maternal demographic details are obtained; maternal and paternal height are measured and maternal weight is serially measured during the pregnancy; maternal, paternal and offspring DNA are collected; and, samples of placenta and membranes are collected at birth. Data will be analysed as a prospective cohort study, a case-cohort study, and a nested case-control study. Discussion The study is expected to provide a resource for the identification of novel biomarkers for adverse pregnancy outcome and to evaluate the performance of biomarkers and serial ultrasonography in providing clinically useful prediction of risk. PMID:19019223

  7. Ethics application protocols for multicentre clinical studies in Canada: A paediatric rheumatology experience

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Loren A; Huber, Adam M; Warner, Aleasha; Rosenberg, Alan M

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual institutions govern research ethics applications and each must administer and regulate their own protocols. Variations in ethics review procedures and expectations among centres impose impediments to efficiently conducting multicentre studies. METHODS: Observations relating to preparing multisite ethics documents for a study conducted by Canadian paediatric rheumatology investigators are described. Research ethics applications from the 12 participating centres were compared. RESULTS: Although the applications were similar in their content, they differed in their formatting. All applications shared a commitment to ensuring that the study conformed to exemplary ethical standards. CONCLUSIONS: There is wide variation in the multicentre clinical study ethics application process at the institutional level. Considering the common fundamental elements required by all ethics review boards, the present study conceptualized introducing a discipline-specific uniform ethics application process acceptable to all Canadian research ethics boards. This may be a more efficient strategy that could help lessen the burden of collaborative research. PMID:23730169

  8. The Study of Mutual Authentication and Key Exchange Protocols for Low Power Wireless Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Lili; Peng Daiyuan; Gao Yuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Shim describes unknown key-share attack on the server-specific MAKEP, and Siaw-Lynn Ng demonstrates further limitations of protocol. In the paper, we propose an improved version of server-specific MAKEP. The modified protocol not only overcomes the above attacks but also simplifies the protocol which proposed by Shim. Then, we analyze authentication of the improved protocol by extend theory of strand space.

  9. Factors influencing ambulance nurses’ adherence to a national protocol ambulance care: an implementation study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Vloet, Lilian C.M.; van Grunsven, Pierre M.; Breeman, Wim; Goosselink, Ben; Lichtveld, Rob A.; Mintjes-De Groot, Joke A.J.; van Achterberg, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adherence to prehospital guidelines and protocols is suboptimal. Insight into influencing factors is necessary to improve adherence. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence ambulance nurses’ adherence to a National Protocol Ambulance Care (NPAC). Methods A questionnaire was developed using the literature, a questionnaire and expert opinion. Ambulance nurses (n=452) from four geographically spread emergency medical services (EMSs) in the Netherlands were invited to fill out the questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on influencing factors and self-reported adherence. Results Questionnaires were returned by 248 (55%) of the ambulance nurses. These ambulance nurses’ adherence to the NPAC was 83.4% (95% confidence interval 81.9–85.0). Bivariate correlations showed 23 influencing factors that could be related to the individual professional, organization, protocol characteristics and social context. Multilevel regression analysis showed that 21% of the variation in adherence (R2=0.208) was explained by protocol characteristics and social influences. Conclusion Ambulance nurses’ self-reported adherence to the NPAC seems high. To improve adherence, protocol characteristics (complexity, the degree of support for diagnosis and treatment, the relationship of the protocol with patient outcomes) and social influences (expectance of colleagues to work with the national protocol) should be addressed. PMID:24595355

  10. A Comparative Study of Conservative versus Surgical Treatment Protocols for 77 Patients with Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Yabano?lu, Hakan; Çolako?lu, Tamer; Belli, Sedat; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Bolat, Filiz Aka; Pourbagher, Ay?in; Tezcaner, Tugan; Yildirim, Sedat; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical features and demographic data of patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) and to compare the results of conservative versus surgical treatment protocols. The demographic data, clinical findings, microbiological and pathologic features, scanning and treatment methods, recurrence, and recovery rates of 77 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the type of treatment received. Core biopsies were used to diagnose 37 patients: 26 using incisional biopsies and 14 using excisional biopsies. Of the patient population with IGM, 31 were treated with surgical excision, one with a simple mastectomy, and one with a subcutaneous mastectomy combined with a breast implant, whereas 44 were treated with steroids. The recovery rates of the 44 patients who were treated conservatively were 6 (1-15) months while for the 33 patients who were treated surgically, it was 1 (1-5) month (p = 0.001). Nine patients from the conservative treatment group experienced a recurrence while there were no recurrences in the surgically treated group (p = 0.009). Among all patients, the recurrence rate was 11.7% (9/77) while the average follow-up period was 16.57 ± 18.57 months. As a comparative study between conservative treatment protocols and surgical ones for patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM), this study is the largest to date. A wide surgical excision is the preferred approach for treating patients with IGM because of the low recurrence rate. PMID:25858348

  11. Exploring the state space of an application protocol: A case study of SMTP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick LaRoche; A. Nur Zincir-Heywood; Malcolm I. Heywood

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we explore the state space of a network application protocol by employing genetic programming techniques. To this end, we target Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which is a well-known and open protocol on the Internet. In order to achieve our goal, we aim to evolve the payload such that solution individuals result in an email being sent

  12. Optimization of the scan protocols for CT-based material extraction in small animal PET/CT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ching-Ching; Yu, Jhih-An; Yang, Bang-Hung; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effects of scan protocols on CT-based material extraction to minimize radiation dose while maintaining sufficient image information in small animal studies. The phantom simulation experiments were performed with the high dose (HD), medium dose (MD) and low dose (LD) protocols at 50, 70 and 80 kVp with varying mA s. The reconstructed CT images were segmented based on Hounsfield unit (HU)-physical density (?) calibration curves and the dual-energy CT-based (DECT) method. Compared to the (HU;?) method performed on CT images acquired with the 80 kVp HD protocol, a 2-fold improvement in segmentation accuracy and a 7.5-fold reduction in radiation dose were observed when the DECT method was performed on CT images acquired with the 50/80 kVp LD protocol, showing the possibility to reduce radiation dose while achieving high segmentation accuracy.

  13. Protocol for Studying Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Naturally Cycling Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Lisa Y.; Cover, Kara K.; Landau, Aaron J.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer

    2015-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear has been extensively studied in male rodents. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies indicating that neural mechanisms for certain behavioral tasks and response behaviors are different in females and males. Using females in research studies can represent a challenge because of the variation of gonadal hormones during their estrous cycle. This protocol describes well-established procedures that are useful in investigating the role of estrogen in fear extinction memory consolidation in female rats. Phase of the estrous cycle and exogenous estrogen administration prior to extinction training can influence extinction recall 24 hr later. The vaginal swabbing technique for estrous phase identification described here aids the examination and manipulation of naturally cycling gonadal hormones. The use of this basic rodent model may further delineate the mechanisms by which estrogen can modulate fear extinction memory in females. PMID:25741747

  14. Pilot Study on the Impact of Potato Chips Consumption on Biomarkers of Acrylamide Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert W. Vesper; Hermes Licea-Perez; Tunde Meyers; Maria Ospina; Gary L. Myers

    Food is assumed to be one major source of acrylamide exposure in the general population. Acrylamide exposure is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide as biomarkers. Little is known about the impact of acrylamide in food on biomarkers of acrylamide exposure. Therefore, CDC is conducting a feeding study to investigate the effect of

  15. High-throughput on-chip in vivo neural regeneration studies using femtosecond laser nano-surgery and microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Christopher B.; Zeng, Fei; Gilleland, Cody; Samara, Chrysanthi; Yanik, Mehmet F.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, the advantages of using small invertebrate animals as model systems for human disease have become increasingly apparent and have resulted in three Nobel Prizes in medicine or chemistry during the last six years for studies conducted on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The availability of a wide array of species-specific genetic techniques, along with the transparency of the worm and its ability to grow in minute volumes make C. elegans an extremely powerful model organism. We present a suite of technologies for complex high-throughput whole-animal genetic and drug screens. We demonstrate a high-speed microfluidic sorter that can isolate and immobilize C. elegans in a well-defined geometry, an integrated chip containing individually addressable screening chambers for incubation and exposure of individual animals to biochemical compounds, and a device for delivery of compound libraries in standard multiwell plates to microfluidic devices. The immobilization stability obtained by these devices is comparable to that of chemical anesthesia and the immobilization process does not affect lifespan, progeny production, or other aspects of animal health. The high-stability enables the use of a variety of key optical techniques. We use this to demonstrate femtosecond-laser nanosurgery and three-dimensional multiphoton microscopy. Used alone or in various combinations these devices facilitate a variety of high-throughput assays using whole animals, including mutagenesis and RNAi and drug screens at subcellular resolution, as well as high-throughput high-precision manipulations such as femtosecond-laser nanosurgery for large-scale in vivo neural degeneration and regeneration studies.

  16. DCP CONSORTIA CHEMOPREVENTION PROTOCOL TEMPLATE

    Cancer.gov

    The protocol template is a tool to facilitate rapid protocol development. It is not intended to supersede the role of the Protocol Principal Investigator in the authoring and scientific development of the protocol. It contains the language required in protocols submitted to the NCI, Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). Please modify all sections as necessary to meet the scientific aims of the study and development of the protocol.

  17. Time varying size and liquidity effects in South Asian equity markets: A study of blue-chip industry stocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Hearn

    2010-01-01

    This paper contrasts the performance of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) augmented by size and liquidity factors with its time varying coefficient counterpart, using a unique market universe compiled from constituent stocks of blue chip indices BSE-100 (India), KSE-30 (Pakistan), DSE-20 (Bangladesh) and Dow Jones Titans (Sri Lanka). The evidence suggests that substantial size and liquidity effects are present

  18. Protocol Development

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Protocol Development Protocol

  19. A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

  20. Study on IP Supporting over User-Level Protocol BCL3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHEN Zhi-Hui; MA Jie; CHEN Guo-Liang; GAO Fan

    In order to efficiently exploit high performance network, researchers have developed many user-level protocols, which can achieve high bandwidth and low latency the bottom hardware supplies. But user-level protocols supply a completely different API, which makes them only support science computing, and traditional Socket-based network application program with kernel-level protocol cannot run on them. To solve this problem, a IP

  1. Optimal protocol for teleconsultation with a cellular phone for dentoalveolar trauma: an in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wonse; Lee, Hae-Na; Jeong, Jin-Sun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Grace H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. Materials and Methods We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. Results The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 ?B and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Conclusion Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones. PMID:22783474

  2. Assessment of flip chip assembly and reliability via reflowable underfill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tie Wang; T. H. Chew; Colin Lum; Y. X. Chew; P. Miao; L. Foo

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents process concerns of flip-chip assembly via reflowable underfill in terms of substrate prebake, underfill dispensing, chip placement and overmolding that is required in certain applications. Test vehicles with various chip configurations and substrate design have been used in this study. The effects of substrate thickness, bond pad design and solder mask thickness on assembly defects, where void

  3. Lab-on a-Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Helen Cole, the project manager for the Lab-on-a-Chip Applications Development program, and Lisa Monaco, the project scientist for the program, insert a lab on a chip into the Caliper 42 which is specialized equipment that controls processes on commercial chips to support development of lab-on-a-chip applications. The system has special microscopes and imaging systems, so scientists can process and study different types of fluid, chemical, and medical tests conducted on chips. For example, researchers have examined fluorescent bacteria as it flows through the chips' fluid channels or microfluidic capillaries. Researchers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have been studying how the lab-on-a-chip technology can be used for microbial detection, water quality monitoring, and detecting biosignatures of past or present life on Mars. The Marshall Center team is also collaborating with scientists at other NASA centers and at universities to develop custom chip designs for not only space applications, but for many Earth applications, such as for detecting deadly microbes in heating and air systems. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

  4. Wraparound care for youth injured by violence: study protocol for a pilot randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Carolyn; Jiang, Depeng; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Strome, Trevor; Klassen, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Injury by violence is the fourth cause of death and the leading reason for a youth to visit an emergency department (ED) in Canada. In Winnipeg, 20% of youth who visit an ED with an injury due to violence have a second visit for a subsequent violent injury within 1?year. Youth injured by violence are in a reflective and receptive state of mind, rendering the ED setting appropriate for intervention. Methods and analysis This protocol describes a wraparound care model delivered by a support worker with lived experience with violence, supported by social workers and links to multiple community partners. Support workers will be on call 24?h a day, 7?days a week in order to start the intervention in the ED and take advantage of the ‘teachable moment’. The protocol is of a pilot randomised control trial to assess the feasibility of a randomised control trial designed to assess efficacy. For the pilot trial, we will assess recruitment, treatment fidelity, participant adherence and safety. The intervention arm will receive wraparound care initiated at the time of their visit for injury due to violence. The control arm will receive standard care. We will use an adapted preconsent randomisation methodology. This intervention has been developed using an integrated knowledge translation approach. Discussion Interventions delivered in the ED for youth injured by violence require an approach that is appropriate for the unique situation the youth are in. Ethics The University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board (HS 16445 (Cohort study) and HS 16444 (WrapAround Care study) granted ethical approval. Trial registration number NCT01895738. PMID:25991461

  5. How to design in situ studies: an evaluation of experimental protocols

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hye; Kim, Hae-Young; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Designing in situ models for caries research is a demanding procedure, as both clinical and laboratory parameters need to be incorporated in a single study. This study aimed to construct an informative guideline for planning in situ models relevant to preexisting caries studies. Materials and Methods An electronic literature search of the PubMed database was performed. A total 191 of full articles written in English were included and data were extracted from materials and methods. Multiple variables were analyzed in relation to the publication types, participant characteristics, specimen and appliance factors, and other conditions. Frequencies and percentages were displayed to summarize the data and the Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess a statistical significance (p < 0.05). Results There were many parameters commonly included in the majority of in situ models such as inclusion criteria, sample sizes, sample allocation methods, tooth types, intraoral appliance types, sterilization methods, study periods, outcome measures, experimental interventions, etc. Interrelationships existed between the main research topics and some parameters (outcome measures and sample allocation methods) among the evaluated articles. Conclusions It will be possible to establish standardized in situ protocols according to the research topics. Furthermore, data collaboration from comparable studies would be enhanced by homogeneous study designs. PMID:25110639

  6. Minimal models in meal-like protocols: simulation studies to assess precision and physiological plausibility of parameter estimates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Betrini; A. Caumo; C. Cobelli

    1995-01-01

    In the present study the authors evaluated the impact of different experimental protocols on glucose minimal models identification. They used a realistic comprehensive nonlinear model of the glucose-insulin system to generate unlabeled and labeled glucose data during an IVGTT and a meal-like study. Subsequently, Monte Carlo simulations were used to compare the values and precision of the estimates of the

  7. Concrete release protocol case studies for decommissioning work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Arnish, J.; Chen, S-Y; Parker, F. L.; Phillips, A. M.; Tripp, J. L.; Meservey, R. H.

    2000-09-22

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, ``Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' contains provisions pertinent to releasing potentially radioactive materials from DOE facilities for reuse or recycle. A process of authorized release for materials recovered from radiation areas is permitted under Order 5400.5 and the proposed rule in Title 10, Part 834, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 834). A generic disposition protocol to facilitate release of concrete under these provisions has been developed. This report analyzes the application of that generic protocol to site-specific cases at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The potential radiological doses and costs for several concrete disposition alternatives for the sewage treatment plant (STP) at the Central Facilities Area (CFA) of INEEL were evaluated in this analysis. Five disposition alternatives were analyzed for the concrete: (A) decontaminate, crush, and reuse; (B) crush and reuse without decontamination; (C) decontaminate, demolish, and dispose of at a nonradiological landfill; (D) demolish and dispose of at a nonradiological landfill without decontamination; and (E) demolish and dispose of at a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) facility. The analysis was performed for disposition of concrete from four INEEL structures: (1) trickle filter, (2) primary clarifier, (3) secondary clarifier, and (4) CFA-691 pumphouse for a generic case (based on default parameters from the disposition protocol) and an INEEL-specific case (based on INEEL-specific parameters). The results of the analysis indicated that Alternatives B and D would incur the lowest cost and result in a dose less than 1 mrem/yr (except for the trickle filter, the dose for which was estimated at 1.9 mrem/yr) for nonradiological workers. The analysis indicated that the main contributor to the radiological dose would be cobalt-60 contamination in the concrete. A characterization conducted in 1996 was used in the analysis; therefore, because of radioactive decay, the resultant doses to receptors (now or later) would be less than the values reported in this analysis. For the generic case study, costs associated with Alternatives A and C were shown to be much smaller than for Alternative E. For the INEEL-specific case, in general, costs were much higher for Alternatives A and C than for Alternative E because of on-site disposal with zero disposal cost.

  8. Ex post facto assessment of diffusion tensor imaging metrics from different MRI protocols: preparing for multicentre studies in ALS.

    PubMed

    Rosskopf, Johannes; Müller, Hans-Peter; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Gorges, Martin; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessing ALS-associated white matter alterations has still not reached the level of a neuroimaging biomarker. Since large-scale multicentre DTI studies in ALS may be hampered by differences in scanning protocols, an approach for pooling of DTI data acquired with different protocols was investigated. Three hundred and nine datasets from 170 ALS patients and 139 controls were collected ex post facto from a monocentric database reflecting different scanning protocols. A 3D correction algorithm was introduced for a combined analysis of DTI metrics despite different acquisition protocols, with the focus on the CST as the tract correlate of ALS neuropathological stage 1. A homogenous set of data was obtained by application of 3D correction matrices. Results showed that a fractional anisotropy (FA) threshold of 0.41 could be defined to discriminate ALS patients from controls (sensitivity/specificity, 74%/72%). For the remaining test sample, sensitivity/specificity values of 68%/74% were obtained. In conclusion, the objective was to merge data recorded with different DTI protocols with 3D correction matrices for analyses at group level. These post processing tools might facilitate analysis of large study samples in a multicentre setting for DTI analysis at group level to aid in establishing DTI as a non-invasive biomarker for ALS. PMID:25574564

  9. Comparative study of different centrifugation protocols for a density gradient separation media in isolation of osteoprogenitors from bone marrow aspirate

    PubMed Central

    Naung, Noel Ye; Suttapreyasri, Srisurang; Kamolmatyakul, Suttatip; Nuntanaranont, Thongchai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human bone marrow contains osteoprogenitors capable of differentiating into osteoblasts. Density gradient centrifugation (DGC) is a commonly used method to isolate osteoprogenitors from bone marrow. Numerous studies used different dilution and centrifugation protocols, which might affect cell yields and quality. Moreover, the relative isolation efficiencies of the different separation protocols have not been investigated. This study compares the enrichment efficacy of the two different centrifugation protocols for a commonly used DGC media in isolation of osteoprogenitors. Material and method Bone marrow was aspirated from human anterior iliac crests. Osteoprogenitors are isolated with Ficoll DGC media. A centrifugal force of 400 g and 1:1 dilution was compared with the centrifugal force of 1000 g after three dilution times with a buffer. Results The average numbers of isolated cells were significantly higher when using lower centrifugal force with 1:1 dilution, however, there was no detectable difference between Colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU–F) forming capacity, STRO-1 positivity, osteogenic differentiation or mineralization abilities between protocols. Conclusion Both protocols could isolate competent and functional osteoprogenitors, while a lower centrifugal force (400 g) with 1:1 dilution produced recovery of more osteoprogenitors. PMID:25737938

  10. A Multiprocessor-on-a- Programmable-Chip Reconfigurable System for Matrix Operations with Power-Grid Case Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaofang Wang; Sotirios G. Ziavras

    Recent advances in FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) technologies have made feasible the implementation of low-cost parallel computing platforms for high- performance matrix computations. Compared to conventional multiprocessor systems, the resulting MultiProcessors-On-a-Programmable-Chip (MPoPCs) can provide unique advantages and opportunities in both software and hardware. It is shown in this paper that the performance of an MPoPC can be improved dramatically by

  11. A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to ellestad stress test protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. K. Lee; A. Za'aba; N. K. Madzhi; A. Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the

  12. In vitro protocol to study the electromagnetic interaction of RFIDs and infusion pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nickolas J. LaSorte; Ifeatu B. Akunne; Hazem H. Refai

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a generalized protocol to test and verify the reported results of EMI effects between RFID scanners and wearable infusion pumps. In addition, the protocol was created to more precisely evaluate the amount of interaction between RFID and medical devices, and identify those factors which had a significant influence on the level of interaction. Experimental EMI testing was

  13. Formally Reasoning About Security Issues in P2P Protocols: A Case Study

    E-print Network

    Valencia, Frank D.

    Universidad Javeriana Cali, Colombia aaaristizabal@puj.edu.co, {halopez,crueda}@cic.puj.edu.co 2 CNRS techniques for formally proving prop- erties of the communication protocols underlying those systems Introduction Peer-to-Peer (P2P) protocols are widely used for communication in distributed systems, providing

  14. A study on secure protocol using the public key infrastructure approach in an e-passport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Sik Choi; Young-Jun Jeon; Sang-Hyun Park

    2010-01-01

    An e-passport is a passport that includes biometrics information and ID by an RFID chip inserted internally. An e-passport not only prevents forging of ID but also makes rapid progress at immigration. The number of forged passports is increasing worldwide; therefore, to strengthen national security against international terrorism or crime, nations all over the world are now driving to bring

  15. TABADO: "Evaluation of a smoking cessation program among Adolescents in Vocational Training Centers": Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Most of the efforts to reduce teenagers' tobacco addiction have focused on smoking prevention and little on smoking cessation. A smoking cessation program (TABADO study), associating pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioural strategy, on a particularly vulnerable population (vocational trainees), was developed. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the program which was offered to all smokers in a population aged 15 to 20 years in Vocational Training Centers (VTC). This paper presents the TABADO study protocol. Methods The study is quasi-experimental, prospective, evaluative and comparative and takes place during the 2 years of vocational training. The final population will be composed of 2000 trainees entering a VTC in Lorraine, France, during the 2008-2009 period. The intervention group (1000 trainees) benefited from the TABADO program while no specific intervention took place in the "control" group (1000 trainees) other than the treatment and education services usually available. Our primary outcome will be the tobacco abstinence rate at 12 months. Discussion If the program proves effective, it will be a new tool in the action against smoking in populations that have been seldom targeted until now. In addition, the approach could be expanded to other young subjects from socially disadvantaged backgrounds in the context of a public health policy against smoking among adolescents. Trial registration Clinical trial identification number is NTC00973570. PMID:19912627

  16. NanoVelcro Chip for CTC enumeration in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Tsung; Zhao, Libo; Shen, Qinglin; Garcia, Mitch A.; Wu, Dongxia; Hou, Shuang; Song, Min; Xu, Xiaochun; OuYang, Wei-Han; OuYang, William W.-L.; Lichterman, Jake; Luo, Zheng; Xuan, Xuan; Huang, Jiaoti; Chung, Leland W. K.; Rettig, Matthew; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Shao, Chen; Posadas, Edwin M.

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are one of the most crucial topics in rare cell biology and have become the focus of a significant and emerging area of cancer research. While CTC enumeration is a valid biomarker in prostate cancer, the current FDA-approved CTC technology is unable to detect CTCs in a large portion of late stage prostate cancer patients. Here we introduce the NanoVelcro CTC Chip, a device composed of a patterned silicon nanowire substrate (SiNW) and an overlaid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chaotic mixer. Validated by two institutions participating in the study, the NanoVelcro Chip assay exhibits very consistent efficiency in CTC-capture from patient samples. The utilized protocol can be easily replicated at different facilities. We demonstrate the clinical utility of the NanoVelcro Chip by performing serial enumerations of CTCs in prostate cancer patients after undergoing systemic therapy. Changes in CTC numbers after 4–10 weeks of therapy were compared with their clinical responses. We observed a statistically significant reduction in CTCs counts in the clinical responders. We performed long-term follow up with serial CTC collection and enumeration in one patient observing variations in counts correlating with treatment response. This study demonstrates the consistency of the NanoVelcro Chip assay over time for CTC enumeration and also shows that continuous monitoring of CTC numbers can be employed to follow responses to different treatments and monitor disease progression. PMID:23816790

  17. NanoVelcro Chip for CTC enumeration in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Tsung; Zhao, Libo; Shen, Qinglin; Garcia, Mitch A; Wu, Dongxia; Hou, Shuang; Song, Min; Xu, Xiaochun; Ouyang, Wei-Han; Ouyang, William W-L; Lichterman, Jake; Luo, Zheng; Xuan, Xuan; Huang, Jiaoti; Chung, Leland W K; Rettig, Matthew; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Shao, Chen; Posadas, Edwin M

    2013-12-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are one of the most crucial topics in rare cell biology and have become the focus of a significant and emerging area of cancer research. While CTC enumeration is a valid biomarker in prostate cancer, the current FDA-approved CTC technology is unable to detect CTCs in a large portion of late stage prostate cancer patients. Here we introduce the NanoVelcro CTC Chip, a device composed of a patterned silicon nanowire substrate (SiNW) and an overlaid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chaotic mixer. Validated by two institutions participating in the study, the NanoVelcro Chip assay exhibits very consistent efficiency in CTC-capture from patient samples. The utilized protocol can be easily replicated at different facilities. We demonstrate the clinical utility of the NanoVelcro Chip by performing serial enumerations of CTCs in prostate cancer patients after undergoing systemic therapy. Changes in CTC numbers after 4-10 weeks of therapy were compared with their clinical responses. We observed a statistically significant reduction in CTCs counts in the clinical responders. We performed long-term follow up with serial CTC collection and enumeration in one patient observing variations in counts correlating with treatment response. This study demonstrates the consistency of the NanoVelcro Chip assay over time for CTC enumeration and also shows that continuous monitoring of CTC numbers can be employed to follow responses to different treatments and monitor disease progression. PMID:23816790

  18. Protocol Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Long-Cheng Li (Protocol Online)

    2012-01-06

    Protocol Online is a database of research protocols in a variety of life science fields. It contains protocols contributed by worldwide researchers as well as links to web protocols hosted by worldwide research labs, biotech companies, personal web sites. The data is stored in a MySql relational database. Protocol Online also hosts discipline specific discussion forums (BioForum), and provides a free PubMed search and alerting service (PubAlert).

  19. Morphological diagnoses of the Japan adult leukemia study group acute myeloid leukemia protocols: central review.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, K; Tomonaga, M; Kobayashi, T; Takeuchi, J; Ohshima, T; Furusawa, S; Saitoh, K; Ohno, R

    2001-01-01

    A morphological review system of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group has developed from the AML-87 through the AML-92 experience. We reviewed 1427 (90%) of 1592 cases enrolled in the AML-87, -89, or -92 protocols for morphology; 1408 (88%) were eligible. The rate of diagnostic concordance between each institute and the Committee on Morphological Diagnosis ranged from 76% to 80%. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes were as follows: AML M0, 27 (2%); M1, 179 (13%); M2, 472 (34%); M3, 358 (25%); M4, 265 (19%); M5, 57 (4%); M6, 39 (3%); and M7, 11 (1%). The reason for the high number of patients with AML M3 is that many M3 patients were enrolled in the AML-92 protocol, which contained all-trans-retinoic acid. AML M0, M6 and M7 belonged to the poor prognostic groups. Auer bodies were found in 284 (53%) of 538 patients who survived significantly longer than those without Auer bodies in AML-87/-89. In AML-92 except for AML M3, 259 (43%) of 602 cases were Auer+ and also showed better survival rates. The survival of patients with >50% myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive blast cells was better than those with < or =50% MPO+ blast cells in AML-87/-89. This trend was also seen in AML-92 excluding M3. AML with trilineage dysplasia (AML/TLD) is characterized as a subtype of de novo AML that shows morphological dysplasia of mature hematopoietic cells on a background of leukemic blast cells The number of patients with AML/TLD was 89 (16.5%) of 545 patients reviewed in AML-87/-89. AML-92, except for M3, showed a higher rate of patients with TLD (161 cases; 27.6%) because there were no patients with TLD in the AML M3 group. Survival rates for AML/TLD were worse than those for AML/non-TLD in both the AML-87/-89 and -92 protocols. Eighty percent of all cases (793/986) entered in AML-92 were analyzed cytogenetically. Fifty-one cases were not available for karyotyping because of a lack of mitoses or inappropriate preparations. The most frequent karyotype was normal, which accounted for 34.2%. The t(15;17), t(8;21), and inv(16) karyotypes, which are regarded as good risk factors, were 23.8%, 9.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. Abnormal chromosomes 5, 7, t(9;22), and t(6;9) were considered to be poor or intermediate risk factors As a new system of karyotyping begins in the ongoing AML protocol, useful chromosomal data will be obtained in the near future. PMID:11372762

  20. PLUG: flexible lookup modules for rapid deployment of new protocols in high-speed routers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo De Carli; Yi Pan; Amit Kumar; Cristian Estan; Karthikeyan Sankaralingam

    2009-01-01

    New protocols for the data link and network layer are being pro- posed to address limitations of current protocols in terms of scala- bility, security, andmanageability. High-speedroutersandswitches that implement these protocols traditionally perform packet pro- cessing using ASICs which offer high speed, low chip area, and low power. But with inflexible custom hardware, the deployment of new protocols could happen

  1. A feasibility study for the fabrication of planar silicon multichip modules using electron beam lithography for precise location and interconnection of chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Hopper; Alan Jones; Roderick Alan Augur; Martyn J. Fice; Simon Blythe; Haaron Ahmed

    1992-01-01

    A technique for fabricating multichip modules (MCMs) by mounting chips in holes etched into silicon motherboards is described. With this approach the front faces of the chips are coplanar with the front of the motherboard, and, hence, the connections between the chips and the motherboards may be made by standard thin-film processes. A method for fabricating such modules using electron

  2. A pilot study of an acupuncture protocol to improve visual function in retinitis pigmentosa patients

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Ava K; Gould, Jeffrey M; Rosenfarb, Andy; Rozanski, Collin; Dagnelie, Gislin

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with retinitis pigmentosa are motivated to try complementary or integrative therapies to slow disease progression. Basic science, clinical research and retinitis pigmentosa patients' self-reports support the hypothesis that acupuncture may improve visual function. Methods A prospective, case series, pilot study enrolled 12 adult patients with RP treated at an academic medical centre with a standardised protocol that combined electroacupuncture to the forehead and below the eyes and acupuncture to the body, at 10 half-hour sessions over two weeks. Pre- and post-treatment tests included Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (VA), Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (CS), Goldmann visual fields, and dark-adapted full-field stimulus threshold (FST)(n = 9). Scotopic Sensitivity Tester-1 (SST-1) dark-adaptometry was performed on the last two subjects. Results Six of 12 subjects had measurable, significant visual function improvements after treatment. Three of nine subjects tested with the FST had a significant 10.3 to 17.5 dB (that is, 13- to 53-fold) improvement in both eyes at one week after acupuncture, maintained for at least 10 to 12 months, which was well outside typical test-retest variability (95% CI: 3–3.5 dB) previously found in retinitis pigmentosa. SST-1 dark-adaptation was shortened in both subjects tested on average by 48.5 per cent at one week (range 36 to 62 per cent across 10 to 30 dB), which was outside typical coefficients of variation of less than 30 per cent previously determined in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and normals. Four of the five subjects with psychophysically measured scotopic sensitivity improvements reported subjective improvements in vision at night or in dark environments. One subject had 0.2 logMAR improvement in VA; another had 0.55 logCS improvement. Another subject developed more than 20 per cent improvement in the area of the Goldmann visual fields. The acupuncture protocol was completed and well tolerated by all, without adverse events or visual loss. Conclusions Acupuncture entails minimal risk, if administered by a well-trained acupuncturist and may have significant, measurable benefits on residual visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, in particular scotopic sensitivity, which had not previously been studied. These preliminary findings support the need for future controlled studies of potential mechanisms. PMID:24773463

  3. A New Integrated Lab-on-a-Chip System for Fast Dynamic Study of Mammalian Cells under Physiological Conditions in Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Bahnemann, Janina; Rajabi, Negar; Fuge, Grischa; Platas Barradas, Oscar; Müller, Jörg; Pörtner, Ralf; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-01-01

    For the quantitative analysis of cellular metabolism and its dynamics it is essential to achieve rapid sampling, fast quenching of metabolism and the removal of extracellular metabolites. Common manual sample preparation methods and protocols for cells are time-consuming and often lead to the loss of physiological conditions. In this work, we present a microchip-bioreactor setup which provides an integrated and rapid sample preparation of mammalian cells. The lab-on-a-chip system consists of five connected units that allow sample treatment, mixing and incubation of the cells, followed by cell separation and simultaneous exchange of media within seconds. This microsystem is directly integrated into a bioreactor for mammalian cell cultivation. By applying overpressure (2 bar) onto the bioreactor, this setup allows pulsation free, defined, fast, and continuous sampling. Experiments evince that Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO-K1) can be separated from the culture broth and transferred into a new medium efficiently. Furthermore, this setup permits the treatment of cells for a defined time (9 s or 18 s) which can be utilized for pulse experiments, quenching of cell metabolism, and/or another defined chemical treatment. Proof of concept experiments were performed using glutamine containing medium for pulse experiments. Continuous sampling of cells showed a high reproducibility over a period of 18 h. PMID:24709705

  4. CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

  5. Validity and responsiveness of the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). A methodological study

    PubMed Central

    Andriesse, Hanneke; Roos, Ewa M; Hägglund, Gunnar; Jarnlo, Gun-Britt

    2006-01-01

    Background The Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP) is a multi dimensional instrument designed for longitudinal follow up of the clubfoot deformity during growth. Item reliability has shown to be sufficient. In this article the CAP's validity and responsiveness is studied using the Dimeglio classification scoring as a gold standard. Methods Thirty-two children with 45 congenital clubfeet were assessed prospectively and consecutively at ages of new-born, one, two, four months and two years of age. For convergent/divergent construct validity the Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated. Discriminate validity was evaluated by studying the scores in bilateral clubfeet. The floor-ceiling effects at baseline (untreated clubfeet) and at two years of age (treated clubfeet) were evaluated. Responsiveness was evaluated by using effect sizes (ES) and by calculating if significant changes (Wilcoxons signed test) had occurred between the different measurement occasions. Results High to moderate significant correlation were found between CAP mobility I and morphology and the Dimeglio scores (rs = 0.77 and 0.44 respectively). Low correlation was found between CAP muscle function, mobility II and motion quality and the Dimeglio scoring system (rs = 0.20, 0.09 and 0.06 respectively). Of 13 children with bilateral clubfeet, 11 showed different CAP mobility I scores between right and left foot at baseline (untreated) compared with 5 with the Dimeglio score. At the other assessment occasions the CAP mobility I continued to show higher discrimination ability than the Dimeglio. No floor effects and low ceiling effects were found in the untreated clubfeet for both instruments. High ceiling effects were found in the CAP for the treated children and low for the Dimeglio. Responsiveness was good. ES from untreated to treated ranged from 0.80 to 4.35 for the CAP subgroups and was 4.68 for the Dimeglio. The first four treatment months, the CAP mobility I had generally higher ES compared with the Dimeglio. Conclusion The Clubfoot Assessment Protocol shows in this study good validity and responsiveness. The CAP is more responsive when severity ranges between mild – moderate to severe, while the Dimeglio focuses more on the extremes. The ability to discriminate between different mobility status of the right and left foot in bilaterally affected children in this population was higher compared with the Dimeglio score implicating a better sensitivity for the CAP. PMID:16539716

  6. Optimal Scanning Protocols for Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Stents: An in Vitro Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Abdulrahman; Sun, Zhonghua; Al Safran, Zakariya; Poovathumkadavi, Abduljaleel; Albader, Suha; Ifdailat, Husam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the optimal dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scanning protocol for peripheral arterial stents while achieving a low radiation dose, while still maintaining diagnostic image quality, as determined by an in vitro phantom study. Methods: Dual-energy scans in monochromatic spectral imaging mode were performed on a peripheral arterial phantom with use of three gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) protocols, three pitch values, and four kiloelectron volts (keV) ranges. A total of 15 stents of different sizes, materials, and designs were deployed in the phantom. Image noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and the four levels of monochromatic energy for DECT imaging of peripheral arterial stents were measured and compared to determine the optimal protocols. Results: A total of 36 scans with 180 datasets were reconstructed from a combination of different protocols. There was a significant reduction of image noise with a higher SNR from monochromatic energy images between 65 and 70 keV in all investigated preset GSI protocols (p < 0.05). In addition, significant effects were found from the main effect analysis for these factors: GSI, pitch, and keV (p = 0.001). In contrast, there was significant interaction on the unstented area between GSI and ASIR (p = 0.015) and a very high significant difference between keV and ASIR (p < 0.001). A radiation dose reduction of 50% was achieved. Conclusions: The optimal scanning protocol and energy level in the phantom study were GSI-48, pitch value 0.984, and 65 keV, which resulted in lower image noise and a lower radiation dose, but with acceptable diagnostic images. PMID:26006234

  7. An Easy Protocol for Studying Chromatin and Recombination Protein Dynamics during Arabidopsisthaliana Meiosis: Immunodetection of Cohesins, Histones and MLH1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Chelysheva; L. Grandont; N. Vrielynck; S. le Guin; R. Mercier; M. Grelon

    2010-01-01

    Plant meiosis studies have enjoyed a fantastic boom in recent years with the use of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model not only for molecular genetics and genomics but also for cytogenetics. In this article we describe a new protocol for immunolabelling meiotic proteins that allows the detection of a large range of proteins on strongly spread chromosomes throughout the entire

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE CRYOPRESERVATION PROTOCOLS FOR EFFECTIVE STORAGE OF IN VITRO-GROWN MINT (Mentha SPP.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther E. Uchendu; Barbara M. Reed

    This study was designed to determine the response of diverse mint genotypes to three commonly used cryopreservation techniques. Four mints (Mentha x piperita nothosubsp. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq.; M. canadensis L.; M. australis R. Br, and M. cunninghamii Benth) were cryopreserved using three protocols: controlled rate cooling (CC), encapsulation dehydration (ED) and PVS2 vitrification (VIT). Regrowth of mint species following controlled

  9. FIELD AND LABORATORY QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL PROTOCOLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR THE FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST WATERSHED ACIDIFICATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) protocols for a whole-watershed acidification study on the Fernow Experimental Forest are described. rocedures are detailed thoroughly to: (1) allow individuals familiar with QA/QC to judge for themselves the quality ...

  10. Study of extraction procedures for protein analysis in plankton samples by OFFGEL electrophoresis hyphenated with Lab-on-a-chip technology.

    PubMed

    García-Otero, Natalia; Barciela-Alonso, Ma Carmen; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2013-10-15

    Extraction procedures for protein analysis from plankton samples were studied. OFFGEL electrophoresis combined with Lab-on-a-chip technology has been applied for protein analysis in plankton samples. BCR-414 (plankton) certified reference material from the European Commission was used to evaluate the protein extraction procedures. Three protein extraction procedures were studied: (1) by using Tris-HCl buffer containing a protease inhibitor cocktail, (2) urea/triton X-100 buffer extraction, and (3) using the phenol/sodium dodecyl sulphate method after different washing steps with 10% trichloroacetic acid/acetone solution and methanol. The pellet of proteins obtained was dried and then dissolved in the OFFGEL buffer. Proteins were separated according to their isoelectric points by OFFGEL electrophoresis. This separation was performed using 24 cm, pH 3-10 IPG Dry Strips. The proteins present in each liquid fraction (24 fractions) were separated according to their molecular weight using a microfluidic Lab-on-a-chip electrophoresis with the Protein 80 LabChip kit. This kit allows for the separation of proteins with a molecular weight ranging from 5 to 80 kDa. Taking into account the intensity and the number of the protein bands obtained, the protein extraction procedure using the phenol/sodium dodecyl sulphate after different wash steps with 10% trichloroacetic acid/acetone solution was selected. The developed method was applied for protein determination in a fresh marine plankton sample. The proteins found in this sample have a molecular weight ranging from 6.4 to 57.3 kDa, and the proteins with highest molecular weight were in the OFFGEL fractions with an isoelectric point ranging from 4.40 to 8.60. The concentration of proteins were calculated using external calibration with Bovine Serum Albumin, and the protein concentrations varied from 50.0 to 925.9 ng µL(-1). PMID:24054642

  11. Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by improving signaling, referral, and treatment of these youngsters. In this study protocol we describe the designs of two complementary studies: a signaling study and an intervention study. Methods and design The signaling study evaluates the Pain Barometer, a self-assessed signaling instrument for chronic pain in adolescents. To evaluate the feasibility of the Pain Barometer, the experiences of youth-health care nurses will be evaluated in semi-structured interviews. Also, we will explore the frequencies of referral per health-care provider. The intervention study evaluates Move It Now, a guided self-help intervention via the Internet for teenagers with chronic pain. This intervention uses cognitive behavioural techniques, including relaxation exercises and positive thinking. The objective of the intervention is to improve the ability of adolescents to cope with pain. The efficacy of Move It Now will be examined in a randomized controlled trial, in which 60 adolescents will be randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a waiting list control condition. Discussion If the Pain Barometer is proven to be feasible and Move It Now appears to be efficacious, a health care pathway can be created to provide the best tailored treatment promptly to adolescents with chronic pain. Move It Now can be easily implemented throughout the Netherlands, as the intervention is Internet based. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1926 PMID:22686133

  12. BLOOD-ON-A-CHIP

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Mehmet; Irimia, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, fast, and affordable analysis of the cellular component of blood is of prime interest for medicine and research. Yet, most often sample preparation procedures for blood analysis involve handling steps prone to introducing artifacts, whereas analysis methods commonly require skilled technicians and well-equipped, expensive laboratories. Developing more gentle protocols and affordable instruments for specific blood analysis tasks is becoming possible through the recent progress in the area of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip-type devices. Precise control over the cell microenvironment during separation procedures and the ability to scale down the analysis to very small volumes of blood are among the most attractive capabilities of the new approaches. Here we review some of the emerging principles for manipulating blood cells at microscale and promising high-throughput approaches to blood cell separation using microdevices. Examples of specific single-purpose devices are described together with integration strategies for blood cell separation and analysis modules. PMID:16004567

  13. Test chips and ASIC qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Zamani, N.; Lieneweg, U.

    1991-01-01

    A test chip set being developed to aid in the qualification of spaceborne Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) is described. The chip set consists of a process monitor for process parameter verification, a fault chip for yield analysis, a reliability chip for ASIC failure rate analysis, and total ionizing dose and single event upset chips for radiation effect analysis. The test structures contained in these chips are discussed along with representative test results.

  14. Additional Study-Related Documents To Be Submitted With Consortia Chemoprevention Protocols

    Cancer.gov

    The Recruitment and Retention Plan, Pharmacokinetic and Biomarker Methods Development Report, and Case Report Forms and attachments (documents A-C above) must be submitted with the initial protocol submission.

  15. Cite this: Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 3599 Microfluidic heart on a chip for higher throughput

    E-print Network

    Parker, Kevin Kit

    Cite this: Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 3599 Microfluidic heart on a chip for higher throughput In addition, unfore- seen cardiac toxicities are also a growing concern not only for clinical trials but also are not an appropriate model for all types of toxicology studies.9 Hence, techniques have been developed to engineer

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma cleaning of gold flip chip bump for ultrasonic flip chip bonding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J-M Koo; J-B Lee; Yj Moon; W-C Moon; S-B Jung

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the optimization of gas and processing time of atmospheric pressure plasma cleaning was performed for successful ultrasonic direct bonding of electroplated Au flip chip bump. The plasma cleaning conditions strongly affected bondability of the Au flip chip bumps. The plasma cleaning with Ar gas for 1 s effectively removed contaminants from the surface without the surface oxidation,

  17. Architectural Design Exploration of Chip-Scale Photonic Interconnection Networks Using Physical-Layer Analysis

    E-print Network

    Bergman, Keren

    the photonic network layout, is necessary to control each broadband switch through a circuit-switching protocolArchitectural Design Exploration of Chip-Scale Photonic Interconnection Networks Using Physical@ee.columbia.edu Abstract: We conduct an architectural exploration of three chip-scale photonic interconnection networks

  18. On-Chip RF Pulse Power Detector Using FIB as a Post-CMOS Fabrication Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woochul Jeon; Todd M. Firestone; John C. Rodgers; John Melngailis

    2006-01-01

    RF pulse power detectors on a CMOS chip may be useful in studying and mitigating the effects of unwanted RF radiation on chip performance. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling and ion-induced deposition were used as post-fabrication steps to build Schottky diodes on the CMOS chips fabricated using MOSIS. The standard CMOS layout of chips had Schottky diodes and was fabricated

  19. Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points A research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics was designed and its feasibility evaluated. The definition of sexual abuse, ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and means for athlete-level data collection were in requirements analyses identified as particularly complex design issues. The feasibility evaluation showed a high non-participation rate (61%), but also that the large majority of participants found the study important and that questions were answered truthfully. Responding that partaking in the study was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours. When implementing cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics, it is necessary to promote and facilitate athlete participation. PMID:25729306

  20. Hand, hip and knee osteoarthritis in a Norwegian population-based study - The MUST protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the prevalence and consequences of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Norwegian population is limited. This study has been designed to gain a greater understanding of musculoskeletal pain in the general population with a focus on clinically and radiologically confirmed OA, as well as risk factors, consequences, and management of OA. Methods/Design The Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker STudy (MUST) has been designed as an observational study comprising a population-based postal survey and a comprehensive clinical examination of a sub-sample with self-reported OA (MUST OA cohort). All inhabitants in Ullensaker municipality, Norway, aged 40 to 79 years receive the initial population-based postal survey questionnaire with questions about life style, general health, musculoskeletal pain, self-reported OA, comorbidities, health care utilisation, medication use, and functional ability. Participants who self-report OA in their hip, knee and/or hand joints are asked to attend a comprehensive clinical examination at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, including a comprehensive medical examination, performance-based functional tests, different imaging modalities, cardiovascular assessment, blood and urine samples, and a number of patient-reported questionnaires including five OA disease specific instruments. Data will be merged with six national data registries. A subsample of those who receive the questionnaire has previously participated in postal surveys conducted in 1990, 1994, and 2004 with data on musculoskeletal pain and functional ability in addition to demographic characteristics and a number of health related factors. This subsample constitutes a population based cohort with 20 years follow-up. Discussion This protocol describes the design of an observational population-based study that will involve the collection of data from a postal survey on musculoskeletal pain, and a comprehensive clinical examination on those with self-reported hand, hip and/or knee OA. These data, in addition to data from national registries, will provide unique insights into clinically and radiologically confirmed OA with respect to risk factors, consequences, and management. PMID:23826721

  1. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients’ eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients’ perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families’ and doctors’ perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. Methods and analysis This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and divergences of these perspectives and how to address the needs of all three groups. PMID:26163035

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation, evaluation and validation of the Spouse Response Inventory: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Ulrike; Steinmetz, Dorit; Scharnagel, Rüdiger; Jensen, Mark P; Balck, Friedrich; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Since the response of spouses has been proven to be an important reinforcement of pain behaviour and disability it has been addressed in research and therapy. Fordyce suggested pain behaviour and well behaviour be considered in explaining suffering in chronic pain patients. Among existing instruments concerning spouse's responses the aspect of well behaviour has not been examined so far. The SRI (Spouse Response Inventory) tries to consider pain behaviour and well behaviour and appears to be acceptable because of its brevity and close proximity to daily language. The aim of the study is the translation into German, followed by evaluation and validation, of the SRI on a German sample of patients with chronic pain. Methods and analyses The study is comprehensively designed: initially, the focus will lie on the translation of the instrument following the guidelines for cross-cultural translation and adaptation and evaluation of the German version according to the source study. Subsequently, a validation referring to predictive, incremental and construct validation will be conducted using instruments based on similar or close but different constructs. Evaluation of the resulting SRI-G (SRI-German) will be conducted on a sample of at least 30 patients with chronic pain attending a comprehensive pain centre. For validation at least 120 patients with chronic headache, back pain, cancer related pain and somatoform pain disorder shall be included, for a total of 480 patients. Separate analyses according to specific pain diagnoses will be performed to ensure psychometric property, interpretability and control of diagnosis of specific limitations. Analyses will include comprehensive investigation of psychometric property of the scale by hierarchical regression analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate analysis of variance and exploratory factor analyses (SPSS). Ethics The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Dresden (EK 335 122008) based on the Helsinki declaration. PMID:25763793

  3. Acupuncture for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We report on the design and implementation of a study protocol entitled Acupuncture randomised trial for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain - a pilot study (ACUARP) designed to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy performed in the perioperative period on post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomised controlled pilot trial with three arms and partial double blinding. We will compare (a) press needle acupuncture, (b) no treatment and (c) press plaster acupressure in a standardised anaesthetic setting. Seventy-five patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery to the uterus or ovaries will be allocated randomly to one of the three trial arms. The total observation period will begin one day before surgery and end on the second postoperative day. Twelve press needles and press plasters are to be administered preoperatively at seven acupuncture points. The primary outcome measure will be time from extubation to ‘ready for discharge’ from the post anaesthesia care unit (in minutes). The ‘ready for discharge’ end point will be assessed using three different scores: the Aldrete score, the Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System and an In-House score. Secondary outcome measures will comprise pre-, intra- and postoperative variables (which are anxiety, pain, nausea and vomiting, concomitant medication). Discussion The results of this study will provide information on whether acupuncture may improve patient post anaesthetic recovery. Comparing acupuncture with acupressure will provide insight into potential therapeutic differences between invasive and non-invasive acupuncture techniques. Trial registration NCT01816386 (First received: 28 October 2012) PMID:25047046

  4. Integrating evidence on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions: protocol of the patient-VIP study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a strong movement towards active patient involvement in healthcare policy decisions, systematic and explicit consideration of evidence of this research on patient preferences seems limited. Furthermore, little is known about the opinions of several stakeholders towards consideration of research evidence on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions. This paper describes the protocol for an explorative study on the integration of research on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions. The study questions: to what extent research evidence on patient preferences is considered in current procedures for healthcare policy decisions; opinions of stakeholders regarding the integration of this type of evidence in healthcare policy decisions; and what could be a decision framework for the integration of such research evidence in healthcare policy decisions. Methods/design The study is divided in three sub-studies, predominantly using qualitative methods. The first sub-study is a scoping review in five European countries to investigate whether and how results of research on patient preferences are considered in current procedures for coverage decisions and clinical practice guideline development. The second sub-study is a qualitative study to explore the opinions of stakeholders with regard to the possibilities for integrating evidence on patient preferences in the process of healthcare decision-making in the Netherlands. The third sub-study is the development of a decision framework for research on patient preferences. The framework will consist of: a process description regarding the place of evidence on patient preferences in the decision-making process; and a taxonomy describing different terminologies and conceptualisations of ‘preferences’ and an overview of existing methodologies for investigating preferences. The concept framework will be presented to and discussed with experts. Discussion This study will create awareness regarding the existence and potential value of research evidence on patient preferences for healthcare policy decision-making and provides insight in the methods for investigating patient preferences and the barriers and facilitators for integration of such research in healthcare policy decisions. Results of the study will be useful for researchers, clinical practice guideline developers, healthcare policy makers, and patient representatives. PMID:23758977

  5. Acupuncture for patients with functional dyspepsia: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Xu, Jing; Li, Juan; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Ling; Chang, Xiaorong; Liu, Mi; Gong, Biao; Li, Xuezhi; Liang, Fanrong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whether acupuncture is efficacious for patients with functional dyspepsia is still controversial. So we designed a randomised controlled trial to settle the problem. Methods and analysis We designed a multicentre, two-arm, sham-controlled clinical trial. 200 participants with functional dyspepsia will be randomly assigned to the true acupuncture (TA) group and sham acupuncture (SA) group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the TA group will receive acupuncture at points selected according to syndrome differentiation. Participants in the sham acupuncture group will receive penetrations at sham points. Participants in both groups will receive 20 sessions of electroacupuncture in 4?weeks, five times continuously with a 2?day rest in a week. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients reporting the absence of dyspeptic symptoms at 16?weeks after inclusion. The secondary outcome includes a Short-Form Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire, the Chinese version of the 36-Item Short Form Survey, the Chinese version of the Nepean dyspepsia index, etc. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the institutional review boards and ethics committees of the first affiliated hospital of Chengdu University of TCM, the first affiliated hospital of Hunan University of TCM and Chongqing Medical University, respectively (from April to August 2012). The results of this trial will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671670. PMID:23901030

  6. A comparative study of three cryopreservation protocols for effective storage of in vitro-grown mint (Mentha Spp.).

    PubMed

    Uchendu, Esther E; Reed, Barbara M

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the response of diverse mint genotypes to three commonly used cryopreservation techniques. Four mints [Mentha x piperita nothosubsp. citrata (Ehrh.) Briq.; M. canadensis L.; M. australis R. Br, and M. cunninghamii Benth] were cryopreserved using three protocols: controlled rate cooling (CC), encapsulation dehydration (ED) and PVS2 vitrification (VIT). Regrowth of mint species following controlled rate cooling (93 percent) was significantly (P < 0.0001) better than encapsulation dehydration (71 percent) and vitrification (73 percent). All four genotypes responded well to the controlled rate cooling protocol but there was some variability with the other two protocols. Genotype specific response to the individual protocols showed that there were significant differences in the recovery of Mentha x piperita nothosubsp. citrata and M. australis with CC > VIT > ED. There were also significant differences in the recovery of M. cunninghamii and M. canadensis, with CC and ED significantly better than VIT. Regrowth of the shoot tips of these mints ranged from 60 percent to 95 percent for all but one treatment. The overall results of this study compare favorably to other techniques. These improved results may be due to a combination of favorable growth conditions, cold acclimation and recovery medium. Controlled rate cooling was the most successful technique for the storage of these diverse mint genotypes; however recovery of shoot tips from VIT and ED was high and these techniques could also be used for cryogenic storage of mint germplasm. PMID:18754058

  7. Imaging Cold Molecules on a Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, S.; Adu Smith, D.; Abel, M. J.; Zehentbauer, T.; Meijer, G.; Santambrogio, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present the integrated imaging of cold molecules in a microchip environment. The on-chip detection is based on resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, which is quantum state selective and generally applicable. We demonstrate and characterize time-resolved spatial imaging and subsequently use it to analyze the effect of a phase-space manipulation sequence aimed at compressing the velocity distribution of a molecular ensemble with a view to future high-resolution spectroscopic studies. The realization of such on-chip measurements adds the final fundamental component to the molecule chip, offering a new and promising route for investigating cold molecules.

  8. Comparison of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-antagonist protocol with microdose flare -up protocol in poor responders: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Berker, Bülent; Duvan, Candan ?ltemir; Kaya, Cemil; Aytaç, Ru?en; ?at?ro?lu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the potential effect of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist/GnRH antagonist protocol versus the microdose GnRH agonist protocol in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Material and Methods The patients in the Agonist-Antagonist Group (n=41) were administered the ultrashort GnRH-agonist/ antagonist protocol, while the patients in the Microdose Group (n=41) were stimulated according to the microdose flare-up protocol. The mean number of mature oocytes retrieved was the primary outcome measure. Fertilization rate, implantation rate per embryo and clinical pregnancy rates were secondary outcome measures. Results There was no differenc between the mean number of mature oocytes retrieved in the two groups. There were also no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of peak serum E2 level, canceled cycles, endometrial thickness on hCG day, number of 2 pronucleus and number of embryos transferred. However, the total gonadotropin consumption and duration of stimulation were significantly higher with the Agonist-Antagonist Group compared with the Microdose Group. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were similar between the two groups. Conclusion Despite the high dose of gonadotropin consumption and longer duration of stimulation with the ultrashort GnRH agonist/ antagonist protocol, it seems that the Agonist-Antagonist Protocol is not inferior to the microdose protocol in poor responders undergoing ICSI. PMID:24591934

  9. Using Ontario's "Telehealth" health telephone helpline as an early-warning system: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Elizabeth; Moore, Kieran M; Robinson, Victoria A; McGuinness, Don

    2006-01-01

    Background The science of syndromic surveillance is still very much in its infancy. While a number of syndromic surveillance systems are being evaluated in the US, very few have had success thus far in predicting an infectious disease event. Furthermore, to date, the majority of syndromic surveillance systems have been based primarily in emergency department settings, with varying levels of enhancement from other data sources. While research has been done on the value of telephone helplines on health care use and patient satisfaction, very few projects have looked at using a telephone helpline as a source of data for syndromic surveillance, and none have been attempted in Canada. The notable exception to this statement has been in the UK where research using the national NHS Direct system as a syndromic surveillance tool has been conducted. Methods/design The purpose of our proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Ontario's telephone nursing helpline system as a real-time syndromic surveillance system, and how its implementation, if successful, would have an impact on outbreak event detection in Ontario. Using data collected retrospectively, all "reasons for call" and assigned algorithms will be linked to a syndrome category. Using different analytic methods, normal thresholds for the different syndromes will be ascertained. This will allow for the evaluation of the system's sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. The next step will include the prospective monitoring of syndromic activity, both temporally and spatially. Discussion As this is a study protocol, there are currently no results to report. However, this study has been granted ethical approval, and is now being implemented. It is our hope that this syndromic surveillance system will display high sensitivity and specificity in detecting true outbreaks within Ontario, before they are detected by conventional surveillance systems. Future results will be published in peer-reviewed journals so as to contribute to the growing body of evidence on syndromic surveillance, while also providing an non US-centric perspective. PMID:16480500

  10. OrganonChip `Organ on Chip'

    E-print Network

    research, `organ on chip' models will be developed as test systems for cosmetics, food additives+ Institute for Nanotechnology. In 2002 he received the Simon Stevin Master award from the Dutch Technical the national nanotechnology program Nanoned. In 2005, he carried out sabbatical research at the La Jolla

  11. A versatile snap chip for high-density sub-nanoliter chip-to-chip reagent transfer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiyan; Munzar, Jeffrey D.; Ng, Andy; Juncker, David

    2015-01-01

    The coordinated delivery of minute amounts of different reagents is important for microfluidics and microarrays, but is dependent on advanced equipment such as microarrayers. Previously, we developed the snap chip for the direct transfer of reagents, thus realizing fluidic operations by only manipulating microscope slides. However, owing to the misalignment between arrays spotted on different slides, millimeter spacing was needed between spots and the array density was limited. In this work, we have developed a novel double transfer method and have transferred 625 spots cm?2, corresponding to >10000 spots for a standard microscope slide. A user-friendly snapping system was manufactured to make liquid handling straightforward. Misalignment, which for direct transfer ranged from 150–250??m, was reduced to <40??m for double transfer. The snap chip was used to quantify 50 proteins in 16 samples simultaneously, yielding limits of detection in the pg/mL range for 35 proteins. The versatility of the snap chip is illustrated with a 4-plex homogenous enzyme inhibition assay analyzing 128 conditions with precise timing. The versatility and high density of the snap chip with double transfer allows for the development of high throughput reagent transfer protocols compatible with a variety of applications. PMID:26148566

  12. Causes of stem end chip defect in chipping potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem-end chip defect (SECD) is a serious tuber quality concern that affects chipping potatoes. This defect is characterized by dark-colored vascular tissues and adjacent cortical tissues at the tuber stem-end of potato chips after frying. Chips with SECD are unappealing to consumers and raw product ...

  13. Investigation of formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, W.

    2012-08-01

    This work investigates the formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting of mild steel and the transformation conditions between various morphology chips. It is supposed that the modeling material follows the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. In orthogonal cutting process, both the plastic flow and the instability behaviors of chip materials are caused by the plane strain loadings. Therefore, the general instability behaviors of materials in plane strain state are first analyzed with linear perturbation method and a universal instability criterion is established. Based on the analytical results, the formation mechanisms of chips and the transformation conditions between continuous and serrated chips are further studied by instability phase diagram method. The results show that the chip formation strongly depends on the intensity ratios between shear and normal stresses. The ratios of dissipative rates of plastic work done by compression and shear stresses govern the transformation from continuous to serrated chips. These results are verified by the numerical simulations on the orthogonal cutting process.

  14. Medical work Assessment in German hospitals: a Real-time Observation study (MAGRO) – the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mache, Stefanie; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing economic pressure characterizes the current situation in health care and the need to justify medical decisions and organizational processes due to limited financial resources is omnipresent. Physicians tend to interpret this development as a decimation of their own medical influence. This becomes even more obvious after a change in hospital ownership i.e. from a public to a private profit oriented organization. In this case each work procedure is revised. To date, most research studies have focused mainly on differences between hospitals of different ownership regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Little attention has been devoted to the effects of hospital ownership on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. Methods The consequences of different management types on the organizational structures of the physicians' work situation and on job satisfaction in the ward situation are monitored by objective real time studies and multi-level psycho diagnostic measurements. Discussion This study is unique in its focus. To date no results have been found for computer-based real time studies on work activity in the clinical field in order to objectively evaluate a physician's work-related stress. After a complete documentation of the physicians' work processes the daily work flow can be estimated and systematically optimized. This can stimulate an overall improvement of health care services in Germany. PMID:19505318

  15. Long Working Hours and Subsequent Use of Psychotropic Medicine: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only “very much overtime”, but also “moderate overtime” (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. Objective The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. Methods People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. Results The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015. Conclusions The proposed project will be free from hindsight bias, since all hypotheses and statistical models are completely defined, peer-reviewed, and published before we link the exposure data to the outcome data. The results of the project will indicate to what extent and in what direction the national burden of mental ill health in Denmark has been influenced by long working hours. PMID:25239125

  16. A randomised controlled trial linking mental health inpatients to community smoking cessation supports: A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than the general population and are disproportionately affected by tobacco dependence. Despite the advent of smoke free policies within mental health hospitals, limited systems are in place to support a cessation attempt post hospitalisation, and international evidence suggests that most smokers return to pre-admission smoking levels following discharge. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial that will test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of linking inpatient smoking care with ongoing community cessation support for smokers with a mental illness. Methods/Design This study will be conducted as a randomised controlled trial. 200 smokers with an acute mental illness will be recruited from a large inpatient mental health facility. Participants will complete a baseline survey and will be randomised to either a multimodal smoking cessation intervention or provided with hospital smoking care only. Randomisation will be stratified by diagnosis (psychotic, non-psychotic). Intervention participants will be provided with a brief motivational interview in the inpatient setting and options of ongoing smoking cessation support post discharge: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT); referral to Quitline; smoking cessation groups; and fortnightly telephone support. Outcome data, including cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts, and self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (validated by exhaled carbon monoxide), will be collected via blind interview at one week, two months, four months and six months post discharge. Process information will also be collected, including the use of cessation supports and cost of the intervention. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the potential of an integrated, multimodal smoking cessation intervention for persons with an acute mental illness, linking inpatient with community cessation support. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZTCN: ACTRN12609000465257 PMID:21762532

  17. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in chronic epicondylitis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tendinopathy is a difficult problem to manage and can result in significant patient morbidity. Currently, the clinical use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in painful tendons is widespread but its efficacy remains controversial. Methods/Design This study is a single-center, randomized double-blind controlled trial. Eighty patients will be allocated to have ultrasound (US)-guided needling combined with a leukocyte-depleted (that is, pure) PRP or lidocaine each alternate week for a total of two interventions. Outcome data will be collected before intervention, and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months after intervention. Main outcome measure: Changes in pain and activity levels, as assessed by Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH-E, Spanish version) score, at 6 months. We will compare the percentage of patients in each group that achieve a successful treatment defined as a reduction of at least 25% in the DASH-E score. Secondary outcome measures include changes in DASH-E at 3 and 12 months, changes in pain as assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS) at the 6-week, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, changes in sonographic features and neovascularity, and percentage of patients in each group with adverse reactions at 3, 6, and 12 months. Discussion The results of this study will provide insights into the effect of pure PRP in tendon and may contribute to identifying the best protocol for PRP application in tendinopathies. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01945528. PMID:24289799

  18. EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol

    E-print Network

    , environment factors, and preparation practices. Data for this study will be collected through interviews indicated that good tomato handling and preparation practices are of critical importance in preventing is to collect data on tomato handling and preparation practices in food service establishments. Specifically

  19. Renal Athersosclerotic reVascularization Evaluation (RAVE Study): Study protocol of a randomized trial [NCT00127738

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheldon W Tobe; M Atri; N Perkins; R Pugash; Chaim M Bell

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether patients with renal vascular disease will have renal or mortality benefit from re-establishing renal blood flow with renal revascularization procedures. The RAVE study will compare renal revascularization to medical management for people with atherosclerotic renal vascular disease (ARVD) and the indication for revascularization. Patients will be assessed for the standard nephrology research outcomes of progression

  20. A verification system of RMAP protocol controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanov, V. Kh; Shakhmatov, A. V.; Chekmarev, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The functional verification problem of IP blocks of RMAP protocol controller is considered. The application of the verification method using fully- functional models of the processor and the internal bus of a system-on-chip is justified. Principles of construction of a verification system based on the given approach are proposed. The practical results of creating a system of verification of IP block of RMAP protocol controller is presented.

  1. Characteristics of particleboard made from recycled wood-waste chips impregnated with phenol formaldehyde resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Te-Hsin Yang; Cheng-Jung Lin; Song-Yung Wang; Ming-Jer Tsai

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to manufacture water-resistant particleboard for use in kitchens and bathrooms, and as flooring-based material and in outdoor environments. The chips were from recycled wood wastes of different wood species. The chips were divided into coarse chips with dimensions of 5–8 mesh and fine chips of 8–20 mesh, then, these chips were immersed in

  2. A cost-effective RNA sequencing protocol for large-scale gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhonggang; Jiang, Peng; Swanson, Scott A; Elwell, Angela L; Nguyen, Bao Kim S; Bolin, Jennifer M; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James A

    2015-01-01

    RNA sequencing has increasingly become an indispensable tool for biological research. While sequencing costs have fallen dramatically in recent years, the current cost of RNA sequencing, nonetheless, remains a barrier to even more widespread adoption. Here, we present a simple RNA sequencing protocol with substantially reduced costs. This protocol uses as little as 10?ng of total RNA, allows multiplex sequencing of up to 96 samples per lane, and is strand specific. Extensive validation using human embryonic stem cells showed high consistency between technical replicates at various multiplexing levels. PMID:25831155

  3. Protocol Building Blocks Protocol Design

    E-print Network

    Biagioni, Edoardo S.

    ­? 'a) ­? 'a end (* sig *) + 6 #12; + + Non­Standard Protocol Stacks Fast TCP over Ethernet structure; + + Standard TCP/IP Protocol Stack device/OS device driver Ethernet IP TCP Application structure Dev = Ethernet PROTOCOL sharing type Address.T = ipâ??address val setâ??gateway: ... end (* sig *) structure Ip (structure

  4. Packaging a free-space intra-chip optical interconnect module: Monte Carlo tolerance study and assembly results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervaeke, Michael; Lahti, Markku; Karpinnen, Mikko; Debaes, Christof; Volckaerts, Bart; Karioja, Pentti; Thienpont, Hugo

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the fabrication and assembly induced performance degradation of an intra-multi-chip-module free-space optical interconnect, integrating micro-lenses and a deflection prism above a dense opto-electronic chip. The proposed component is used to demonstrate the capabilities of an accurate micro-optical rapid prototype technique, namely the Deep Proton Writing (DPW). To evaluate the accuracy of DPW and to assess whether our assembly scheme will provide us with a reasonable process yield, we have built a simulation framework combining mechanical Monte Carlo analysis with optical simulations. Both the technological requirements to ensure a high process yield, and the specifications of our in-house DPW technology are discussed. Therefore, we first conduct a sensitivity analysis and we subsequently simulate the effect of combined errors using a Monte Carlo simulation. We are able to investigate the effect of a technology accuracy enhancement on the fabrication and assembly yield by scaling the standard deviation of the errors proportionally to each sensitivity interval. We estimate that 40% of the systems fabricated with DPW will show an optical transmission efficiency above -4.32 dB, which is -3 dB below the theoretical obtainable value. We also discuss our efforts to implement an opto-mechanical Monte Carlo simulator. It enables us to address specific issues not directly related with the micro-optical or DPW components, such as the influence of glueing layers and structures that allow for self-alignment, by combining mechanical tolerancing algorithms with optical simulation software. More in particular we determined that DPW provides ample accuracy to meet the requirements to obtain a high manufacturing yield. Finally, we shortly highlight the basic layout of a completed demonstrator. The adhesive bonding of opto-electronic devices in their package is subject to further improvement to enhance the tilt accuracy of the devices with respect to the optical interconnect modules.

  5. The prediction of dimensional error for sculptured surface productions using the ball-end milling process. Part 1: Chip geometry analysis and cutting force prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ee Meng Lim; Hsi-Yung Feng; Chia-Hsiang Menq; Zhi-hang Lin

    1995-01-01

    The study of machining errors caused by tool deflection in the balkend milling process involves four issues, namely the chip geometry, the cutting force, the tool deflection and the deflection sensitivity of the surface geometry. In this paper, chip geometry and cutting force are investigated. The study on chip geometry includes the undeformed radial chip thickness, the chip engagement surface

  6. The developmental origins of ageing: study protocol for the Dutch famine birth cohort study on ageing

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evidence from animal studies suggest that the rate of ageing may be influenced not only by genetic and lifestyle factors, but also by the prenatal environment. We have previously shown that people who were exposed to famine during early gestation performed worse on a selective attention task, which may be a first sign of cognitive decline, and were on average 3?years younger at the time of coronary artery disease diagnosis. Women in this group seem to die at a younger age. We hypothesise that an accelerated ageing process, set in motion by the poor prenatal environment, underlies these findings. Methods and analysis The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort consists of 2414 men and women born in Amsterdam as term singletons around the time of the Dutch famine. In a subsample of 150 cohort members, who now are about 68?years of age, we are currently measuring cognitive decline and the incidence of white matter hyperintensities and cerebral microbleeds (through MRI), incidence of fractures, grip strength and physical performance, visual acuity and incidence of cataract operations. In this same subgroup, we will assess telomere length, oxidative stress and inflammatory status as potential underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, in the entire cohort, we will assess mortality as well as hospital admissions for age-related diseases up to the age of 68 years. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the local medical ethics committee (Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam) and is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants give written informed consent. Study findings will be widely disseminated to the scientific public as well as to the medical society and general public. PMID:23794570

  7. Study Protocol: The Behaviour and Pain in Dementia Study (BePAID)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background People with dementia admitted to the acute hospital often receive poor quality care particularly with regards to management of behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and of pain. There have been no UK studies on the prevalence and type of pain or BPSD in people with dementia in this setting, or on how these may impact on patients, carers, staff and costs of care. Methods/Design We shall recruit older people with dementia who have unplanned acute medical admissions and measure the prevalence of BPSD using the Behave-AD (Behaviour in Alzheimer's Disease) and the CMAI (Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory). Pain prevalence and severity will be assessed by the PAINAD (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia) and the FACES pain scale. We will then analyse how these impact on a variety of outcomes and test the hypothesis that poor management of pain is associated with worsening of BPSD. Discussion By demonstrating the costs of BPSD to individuals with dementia and the health service this study will provide important evidence to drive improvements in care. We can then develop effective training for acute hospital staff and alternative treatment strategies for BPSD in this setting. PMID:22004045

  8. Sentinel node in ovarian cancer: study protocol for a phase 1 study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The concept of sentinel lymph node surgery is to determine whether the cancer has spread to the very first lymph node or sentinel node. If the sentinel node does not contain cancer, then there is a high likelihood that the cancer has not spread to other lymph nodes. The sentinel node technique has been proven to be effective in different types of cancer. In this study we want to determine whether a sentinel node procedure in patients with ovarian cancer is feasible when the tracers are injected into the ovarian ligaments. Methods/Design Patients with a high likelihood of having an ovarian malignancy in whom a median laparotomy and a frozen section analysis is planned and patients with endometrial cancer in whom a staging laparotomy is planned will be included. Before starting the surgical staging procedure, blue dye and radioactive colloid will be injected into the ligamentum ovarii proprium and the ligamentum infundibulo-pelvicum. In the analysis we calculate the percentage of patients in whom it is feasible to identify sentinel nodes. Other study parameters are the anatomical localization of the sentinel node(s) and the incidence of false negative lymph nodes. Trial registration Approval number: NL40323.068.12 Name: Medical Ethical Committee Maastricht University Hospital, University of Maastricht Affiliation: Maastricht University Hospital Board Chair Name: Medisch Ethische Commissie azM/UM PMID:23414057

  9. Acupuncture for functional dyspepsia: study protocol for a two-center, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common health problem currently without any optimal treatments. Acupuncture has been traditionally sought as a treatment for FD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether acupuncture treatment helps improve symptoms of FD. Methods/design A two-center, randomized, waitlist-controlled trial will be carried out to evaluate whether acupuncture treatment improves FD symptoms. Seventy six participants aged 18 to 75 years with FD as diagnosed by Rome III criteria will be recruited from August 2013 to January 2014 at two Korean Medicine hospitals. They will be randomly allocated either into eight sessions of partially individualized acupuncture treatment over 4 weeks or a waitlist group. The acupuncture group will then be followed-up for 3 weeks with six telephone visits and a final visit will be paid at 8 weeks. The waitlist group will receive the identical acupuncture treatment after a 4-week waiting period. The primary outcome is the proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief and the secondary outcomes include Nepean dyspepsia index, EQ-5D, FD-related quality of life, Beck’s depression inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory questionnaire, and level of ghrelin hormone. The protocol was approved by the participating centers’ Institutional Review Boards. Discussion Results of this trial will help clarify not only whether the acupuncture treatment is beneficial for symptom improvement in FD patients but also to elucidate the related mechanisms of how acupuncture might work. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01921504. PMID:24655542

  10. Stanford University Special Considerations for the Oversight of Research GUI-26m Research Compliance Office Protocols in FDA-regulated Drug or Device Studies

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    Compliance Office Protocols in FDA-regulated Drug or Device Studies File:GUI01026 rev2 03/06 1 of 2 Considerations for the Oversight of Research GUI-26m Research Compliance Office Protocols in FDA-regulated Drug the investigation is discontinued and FDA is notified. [21 CFR §312.62] #12;Stanford University Special

  11. Transversus abdominis plane block following abdominally based breast reconstruction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast reconstruction using the free muscle-sparing transversus abdominus myocutaneous or deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps are common methods for restoring mastectomy defects for breast cancer patients. Despite its increasing popularity and safety, the abdominal donor site remains a major source of postoperative pain. Conventional postoperative pain relief protocol consists primarily of a patient-controlled anesthesia device delivering intravenous opioids. Opioids can cause numerous side effects such as sedation, headache, nausea, vomiting, breathing difficulties and bladder and bowel dysfunction. A promising approach to provide postoperative pain control of the abdominal incision is the newly developed transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block. Methods/Design This study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial designed to rigorously test the effectiveness of a transversus abdominis plane catheter delivering intermittent local anesthetic in reducing postoperative abdominal pain following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction. The primary objective of this study is compare the mean total opioid consumption in the first postoperative 48 hours between the control and study groups including the patient-controlled anesthesia amounts and oral narcotic doses converted to intravenous morphine equivalent units. The secondary outcome measures include the following parameters: total in-hospital cumulative opioid consumption; daily patient-reported pain scores; total in-hospital cumulative anti-nausea consumption; nausea and sedation scores; and Quality of Recovery score; time to first bowel movement, ambulation, and duration of hospital stay. Discussion Autologous breast reconstruction using abdominal tissue is rapidly becoming the reconstructive option of choice for postmastectomy patients across North America. A substantial component of the pain experienced by patients after this abdominally based procedure is derived from the abdominal wall incision. By potentially decreasing the need for systemic opioids and their associated side effects, this transversus abdominis plane block study will utilize the most scientifically rigorous double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial methodology to potentially improve both clinical care and health outcomes in breast cancer surgery patients. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01398982 PMID:24325953

  12. Campath, calcineurin inhibitor reduction and chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) study: background, rationale, and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for patients with end-stage renal failure, but uncertainty remains about the best immunosuppression strategy. Long-term graft survival has not improved substantially, and one possible explanation is calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity. CNI exposure could be minimized by using more potent induction therapy or alternative maintenance therapy to remove CNIs completely. However, the safety and efficacy of such strategies are unknown. Methods/Design The Campath, Calcineurin inhibitor reduction and Chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) Study is a multicentre, open-label, randomized controlled trial with 852 participants which is addressing two important questions in kidney transplantation. The first question is whether a Campath (alemtuzumab)-based induction therapy strategy is superior to basiliximab-based therapy, and the second is whether, from 6 months after transplantation, a sirolimus-based maintenance therapy strategy is superior to tacrolimus-based therapy. Recruitment is complete, and follow-up will continue for around 5 years post-transplant. The primary endpoint for the induction therapy comparison is biopsy-proven acute rejection by 6 months, and the primary endpoint for the maintenance therapy comparison is change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 2 years after transplantation. The study is sponsored by the University of Oxford and endorsed by the British Transplantation Society, and 18 centers for adult kidney transplant are participating. Discussion Late graft failure is a major issue for kidney-transplant recipients. If our hypothesis that minimizing CNI exposure with Campath-based induction therapy and/or an elective conversion to sirolimus-based maintenance therapy can improve long-term graft function and survival is correct, then patients should experience better graft function for longer. A positive outcome could change clinical practice in kidney transplantation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01120028 and ISRCTN88894088 PMID:23641902

  13. Study protocol: Imaging brain development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (iCATS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Puberty is a critical developmental phase in physical, reproductive and socio-emotional maturation that is associated with the period of peak onset for psychopathology. Puberty also drives significant changes in brain development and function. Research to date has focused on gonadarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and yet increasing evidence suggests that the earlier pubertal stage of adrenarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, may play a critical role in both brain development and increased risk for disorder. We have established a unique cohort of children who differ in their exposure to adrenarcheal hormones. This presents a unique opportunity to examine the influence of adrenarcheal timing on brain structural and functional development, and subsequent health outcomes. The primary objective of the study is to explore the hypothesis that patterns of structural and functional brain development will mediate the relationship between adrenarcheal timing and indices of affect, self-regulation, and mental health symptoms collected across time (and therefore years of development). Methods/Design Children were recruited based upon earlier or later timing of adrenarche, from a larger cohort, with 128 children (68 female; M age 9.51 years) and one of their parents taking part. Children completed brain MRI structural and functional sequences, provided saliva samples for adrenarcheal hormones and immune biomarkers, hair for long-term cortisol levels, and completed questionnaires, anthropometric measures and an IQ test. Parents completed questionnaires reporting on child behaviour, development, health, traumatic events, and parental report of family environment and parenting style. Discussion This study, by examining the neurobiological and behavioural consequences of relatively early and late exposure to adrenarche, has the potential to significantly impact our understanding of pubertal risk processes. PMID:24779869

  14. Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood: Study Protocol and Profiles of Participants

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. Methods J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25–50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants’ spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Results Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Conclusions Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization’s Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan’s Healthy Japan 21. PMID:24814507

  15. An Implementation and Experimental Study of the Variable-Structure Congestion Control Protocol (VCP)

    E-print Network

    Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun

    approach to the eXplicit Control Protocol (XCP). In our earlier work, we reported the NS2 simulation its encryption boundary. Our earlier works of [22] and [23] reported the NS2 [24] simulation resu [25] only allows for bypassing of six Differentiated Services (DiffServ) bits and two ECN bits across

  16. STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Efficacy and safety of pamidronate in Modic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    protocol for a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial Stella Cecchetti1,2 , Bruno Pereira3-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase two clinical trial. A total of 48 patients will be recruited. These patients will be randomly assigned to one of the two groups, with 24 patients in each group

  17. Object Dependent Properties of Mirrors for PV Applications Studied Under Accelerated Weathering Protocols

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    mirrors the two main concerns for degradation are surface roughness and corrosion. Surface roughening can over the past two years to explore exposure protocols for accelerated weathering of back-surface to corrosive environments, a variety of degradation modes have been observed. In order to characterize changes

  18. A Performance Study of Context Transfer Protocol for QoS Support

    E-print Network

    Bartolini, Novella

    wireless networks, mobile users frequently ac- cess context dependent Internet services. During handover perceived by mobile users making more difficult to realize seamless handover pro- cedures. Context Transfer protocol run on top of IPv6 with fast handover mechanisms. 1 Introduction Nowadays internet services

  19. Validation of cryopreservation protocols for plant germplasm conservation: a pilot study using Ribes L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara M. Reed; Dominique Dumet; Jeanine M. Denoma; Erica E. Benson

    2001-01-01

    Uniformly applicable techniques for germplasm preservation are important to the international genetic resources community and validation of techniques among working genebanks will enable the integration of new technologies into plant genetic resources programs. Apical meristems from micropropagated plants of Ribes nigrum L. cv. Ojebyn and R. aureum cv. Red Lake were used to test three cryopreservation protocols (controlled freezing, plant

  20. Parametrized Verification of Distributed Cyber-Physical Systems: An Aircraft Landing Protocol Case Study

    E-print Network

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Parametrized Verification of Distributed Cyber-Physical Systems: An Aircraft Landing Protocol Case called the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). Each aircraft is modeled as a timed automaton with (possibly unbounded) counters. SATS is then described as the composition of N such aircraft, where N

  1. A simulation study of TaMAC protocol using network simulator 2.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-10-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is expected to play a significant role in future healthcare system. It interconnects low-cost and intelligent sensor nodes in, on, or around a human body to serve a variety of medical applications. It can be used to diagnose and treat patients with chronic diseases such as hypertensions, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The lightweight sensor nodes integrated in WBAN require low-power operation, which can be achieved using different optimization techniques. We introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) for WBAN that supports dual wakeup mechanisms for normal, emergency, and on-demand traffic. In this letter, the TaMAC protocol is simulated using a well-known Network Simulator 2 (NS-2). The problem of multiple emergency nodes is solved using both wakeup radio and CSMA/CA protocol. The power consumption, delay, and throughput performance are closely compared with beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol using extensive simulations. PMID:21863319

  2. A simulation study of optical burst switching and access protocols for WDM ring networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisong Xu; Harry G. Perros; George N. Rouskas

    2003-01-01

    We consider a wavelength division multiplexing metro ring architecture with optical burst switching. The ring consists of N nodes, and each node owns a home wavelength on which it transmits its bursts. The ring operates under the fixed transmitter tunable receiver scheme. Control information is transmitted on a separate control channel. Five dierent burst switching access protocols are proposed, and

  3. Accelerator on a Chip

    SciTech Connect

    England, Joel

    2014-06-30

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  4. Accelerator on a Chip

    ScienceCinema

    England, Joel

    2014-07-16

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  5. Improving adherence to web-based cessation programs: a randomized controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reducing smoking prevalence is a public health priority that can save more lives and money than almost any other known preventive intervention. Internet interventions have the potential for enormous public health impact given their broad reach and effectiveness. However, most users engage only minimally with even the best designed websites, diminishing their impact due to an insufficient ‘dose’. Two approaches to improve adherence to Internet cessation programs are integrating smokers into an online social network and providing free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Active participation in online communities is associated with higher rates of cessation. Integrating smokers into an online social network can increase support and may also increase utilization of cessation tools and NRT. Removing barriers to NRT may increase uptake and adherence, and may also increase use of online cessation tools as smokers look for information and support while quitting. The combination of both strategies may exert the most powerful effects on adherence compared to either strategy alone. Methods/Design This study compares the efficacy of a smoking cessation website (WEB) alone and in conjunction with free NRT and a social network (SN) protocol designed to integrate participants into the online community. Using a 2 (SN, no SN) x 2 (NRT, no NRT) randomized, controlled factorial design with repeated measures at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months, this study will recruit N = 4,000 new members of an internet cessation program and randomize them to: 1) WEB, 2) WEB + SN, 3) WEB + NRT, or 4) WEB + SN + NRT. Hypotheses are that all interventions will outperform WEB and that WEB + SN + NRT will outperform WEB + NRT and WEB + SN on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 9 months. Exploratory analyses will examine theory-driven hypotheses about the mediators and moderators of outcome. Discussion Addressing adherence in internet cessation programs is critical and timely to leverage their potential public health impact. This study is innovative in its use of a social network approach to improve behavioral and pharmacological treatment utilization to improve cessation. This approach is significant for reducing tobacco’s devastating disease burden and for optimizing behavior change in other arenas where adherence is just as critical. Trial registration ISRCTN:ISRCTN45127327 PMID:23414086

  6. Evaluating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients. The administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of surgical site infections . The optimal timing of this procedure is still a matter of debate. While most studies suggest that it should be given as close to the incision time as possible, others conclude that this may be too late for optimal prevention of surgical site infections. A large observational study suggests that surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered 74 to 30 minutes before surgery. The aim of this article is to report the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Methods/Design In this bi-center randomized controlled trial conducted at two tertiary referral centers in Switzerland, we plan to include 5,000 patients undergoing general, oncologic, vascular and orthopedic trauma procedures. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio into two groups: one receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (75 to 30 minutes before incision) and the other receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room (less than 30 minutes before incision). We expect a significantly lower rate of surgical site infections with surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis administered more than 30 minutes before the scheduled incision. The primary outcome is the occurrence of surgical site infections during a 30-day follow-up period (one year with an implant in place). When assuming a 5% surgical site infection risk with administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room, the planned sample size has an 80% power to detect a relative risk reduction for surgical site infections of 33% when administering surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (with a two-sided type I error of 5%). We expect the study to be completed within three years. Discussion The results of this randomized controlled trial will have an important impact on current international guidelines for infection control strategies in the hospital. Moreover, the results of this randomized controlled trial are of significant interest for patient safety and healthcare economics. Trial registration This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT01790529. PMID:24885132

  7. IC chip stress during plastic package molding

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.W.; Benson, D.A.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.

    1998-02-01

    Approximately 95% of the world`s integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metalization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study the authors developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over the surface of an integrated circuit during the molding process. A CMOS test chip with 25 diffused resistor stress sensors was applied to a commercial lead frame. Both compression and shear stresses were measured at all 25 locations on the surface of the chip every 50 milliseconds during molding. These measurements have a fine time and stress resolution which should allow comparison with computer simulation of the molding process, thus allowing optimization of both the manufacturing process and mold geometry.

  8. Birth cohort study on the effects of desert dust exposure on children's health: protocol of an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. Methods and analysis This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. Trial Registration number UMIN000010826. PMID:24958210

  9. Design and study protocol of the maternal smoking cessation during pregnancy study, (M-SCOPE)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking is the most significant cause of preventable complications during pregnancy, with smoking cessation during pregnancy shown to increase birth weight and reduce preterm birth among pregnant women who quit smoking. Taking into account the fact that the number of women who smoke in Greece has increased steadily throughout the previous decade and that the prevalence of smoking among Greek females is one of the highest in the world, smoking cessation should be a top priority among Greek health care professionals. Methods/Design The Maternal Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy Study (M-SCOPE), is a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) that aims to test whether offering Greek pregnant smokers a high intensity intervention increases smoking cessation during the third trimester of pregnancy, when compared to a low intensity intervention. Prospective participants will be pregnant smokers of more than 5 cigarettes per week, recruited up to the second trimester of pregnancy. Urine samples for biomarker analysis of cotinine will be collected at three time points: at baseline, at around the 32nd week of gestation and at six months post partum. The control group/low intensity intervention will include: brief advice for 5 minutes and a short leaflet, while the experimental group/intensive intervention will include: 30 minutes of individualized cognitive-behavioural intervention provided by a trained health professional and a self-help manual especially tailored for smoking cessation during pregnancy, while counselling will be based on the ''5 As.'' After childbirth, the infants' birth weight, gestational age and any other health related complications during pregnancy will be recorded. A six months post-partum a follow up will be performed in order to re-assess the quitters smoking status. Discussion If offering pregnant smokers a high intensity intervention for smoking cessation increases the rate of smoking cessation in comparison to a usual care low intensity intervention in Greek pregnant smokers, such a scheme if beneficial could be implemented successfully within clinical practice in Greece. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01210118 PMID:22145828

  10. Monitoring activities of teenagers to comprehend their habits: study protocol for a mixed-methods cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Efforts to increase physical activity in youth need to consider which activities are most likely to be sustained over time in order to promote lifelong participation in physical activity. The Monitoring Activities of Teenagers to Comprehend their Habits (MATCH) study is a prospective cohort study that uses quantitative and qualitative methods to develop new knowledge on the sustainability of specific physical activities. Methods/design Eight hundred and forty-three grade 5 and 6 students recruited from 17 elementary schools in New Brunswick, Canada, are followed-up three times per year. At each survey cycle, participants complete self-report questionnaires in their classroom under the supervision of trained data collectors. A sub-sample of 24 physically active students is interviewed annually using a semi-structured interview protocol. Parents (or guardians) complete telephone administered questionnaires every two years, and a health and wellness school audit is completed for each school. Discussion MATCH will provide a description of the patterns of participation in specific physical activities in youth, and enable identification of the determinants of maintenance, decline, and uptake of participation in each activity. These data will inform the development of interventions that take into account which activities are the most likely to be maintained and why activities are maintained or dropped. PMID:23849265

  11. Salivary cortisol protocol adherence and reliability by socio-demographic features: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hill Golden, Sherita; Sánchez, Brisa N; Desantis, Amy S; Wu, Meihua; Castro, Cecilia; Seeman, Teresa E; Tadros, Sameh; Shrager, Sandi; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2014-05-01

    Collection of salivary cortisol has become increasingly popular in large population-based studies. However, the impact of protocol compliance on day-to-day reliabilities of measures, and the extent to which reliabilities differ systematically according to socio-demographic characteristics, has not been well characterized in large-scale population-based studies to date. Using data on 935 men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated whether sampling protocol compliance differs systematically according to socio-demographic factors and whether compliance was associated with cortisol estimates, as well as whether associations of cortisol with both compliance and socio-demographic characteristics were robust to adjustments for one another. We further assessed the day-to-day reliability for cortisol features and the extent to which reliabilities vary according to socio-demographic factors and sampling protocol compliance. Overall, we found higher compliance among persons with higher levels of income and education. Lower compliance was significantly associated with a less pronounced cortisol awakening response (CAR) but was not associated with any other cortisol features, and adjustment for compliance did not affect associations of socio-demographic characteristics with cortisol. Reliability was higher for area under the curve (AUC) and wake up values than for other features, but generally did not vary according to socio-demographic characteristics, with few exceptions. Our findings regarding intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) support prior research indicating that multiple day collection is preferable to single day collection, particularly for CAR and slopes, more so than wakeup and AUC. There were few differences in reliability by socio-demographic characteristics. Thus, it is unlikely that group-specific sampling protocols are warranted. PMID:24703168

  12. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]) are electrically powered devices generally similar in appearance to a cigarette that deliver a propylene glycol and/or glycerol mist to the airway of users when drawing on the mouthpiece. Nicotine and other substances such as flavourings may be included in the fluid vaporised by the device. People report using e-cigarettes to help quit smoking and studies of their effects on tobacco withdrawal and craving suggest good potential as smoking cessation aids. However, to date there have been no adequately powered randomised trials investigating their cessation efficacy or safety. This paper outlines the protocol for this study. Methods/design Design: Parallel group, 3-arm, randomised controlled trial. Participants: People aged ?18?years resident in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) who want to quit smoking. Intervention: Stratified blocked randomisation to allocate participants to either Elusion™ e-cigarettes with nicotine cartridges (16?mg) or with placebo cartridges (i.e. no nicotine), or to nicotine patch (21?mg) alone. Participants randomised to the e-cigarette groups will be told to use them ad libitum for one week before and 12?weeks after quit day, while participants randomised to patches will be told to use them daily for the same period. All participants will be offered behavioural support to quit from the NZ Quitline. Primary outcome: Biochemically verified (exhaled carbon monoxide) continuous abstinence at six months after quit day. Sample size: 657 people (292 in both the nicotine e-cigarette and nicotine patch groups and 73 in the placebo e-cigarettes group) will provide 80% power at p?=?0.05 to detect an absolute difference of 10% in abstinence between the nicotine e-cigarette and nicotine patch groups, and 15% between the nicotine and placebo e-cigarette groups. Discussion This trial will inform international debate and policy on the regulation and availability of e-cigarettes. If shown to be efficacious and safe, these devices could help many smokers as an alternative smoking cessation aid to standard nicotine products. Trial registration Australian NZ Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000866000). PMID:23496861

  13. A protocol for the cryoconservation of breeds by low-cost emergency cell banks - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, E; Tinh, Nguyen Huu; Kues, W; Vien, Nguyen Thi

    2008-01-01

    A protocol was developed for collection and storage of somatic cell samples under adverse conditions with little infrastructure, for somatic-cell banks as a backup for endangered livestock breeds. The procedure, which is uniform across species, includes sample collection with ear taggers with an integrated tag/vial system, and recording of global positioning system (GPS) coordinates, digital images and breed information. In a pilot study, the procedures were tested on six local Vietnamese populations of pigs, sheep and goats. Initial investment was around €3000, while the total variable cost for sampling one breed with 25 females and 25 males was less than €1000. With support from local organisations, the sampling of six breeds with 300 animals was carried out in 2 months. The protocol and the complete workflow for setting up a somatic-cell bank, together with data collection, are described. The procedure has proved practicable and exceedingly cheap relative to the cryopreservation of semen or embryos. PMID:22444957

  14. Cryogenic on-chip multiplexer for the study of quantum transport in 256 split-gate devices

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Taie, H., E-mail: ha322@cam.ac.uk; Kelly, M. J. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom) [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Smith, L. W.; Xu, B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); See, P. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)] [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-17

    We present a multiplexing scheme for the measurement of large numbers of mesoscopic devices in cryogenic systems. The multiplexer is used to contact an array of 256 split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, in which each split gate can be measured individually. The low-temperature conductance of split-gate devices is governed by quantum mechanics, leading to the appearance of conductance plateaux at intervals of 2e{sup 2}/h. A fabrication-limited yield of 94% is achieved for the array, and a “quantum yield” is also defined, to account for disorder affecting the quantum behaviour of the devices. The quantum yield rose from 55% to 86% after illuminating the sample, explained by the corresponding increase in carrier density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. The multiplexer is a scalable architecture, and can be extended to other forms of mesoscopic devices. It overcomes previous limits on the number of devices that can be fabricated on a single chip due to the number of electrical contacts available, without the need to alter existing experimental set ups.

  15. MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning Services (MOTIF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Providing women with contraceptive methods following abortion is important to reduce repeat abortion rates, yet evidence for effective post-abortion family planning interventions are limited. This protocol outlines the evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial of 500 participants. Clients aged 18 or over, attending for abortion at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia, owning a mobile phone and not wishing to have a child at the current time are randomised to the mobile phone-based intervention or control (standard care) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention comprises a series of six automated voice messages to remind clients about available family planning methods and provide a conduit for additional support. Clients can respond to message prompts to request a phone call from a counsellor, or alternatively to state they have no problems. Clients requesting to talk to a counsellor, or who do not respond to the message prompts, receive a call from a Marie Stopes International Cambodia counsellor who provides individualised advice and support regarding family planning. The duration of the intervention is 3 months. The control group receive existing standard of care without the additional mobile phone-based support. We hypothesise that the intervention will remind clients about contraceptive methods available, identify problems with side effects early and provide support, and therefore increase use of post-abortion family planning, while reducing discontinuation and unsafe method switching. Participants are assessed at baseline and at 4 months. The primary outcome measure is use of an effective modern contraceptive method at 4 months post abortion. Secondary outcome measures include contraception use, pregnancy and repeat abortion over the 4-month post-abortion period. Risk ratios will be used as the measure of effect of the intervention on the outcomes, and these will be estimated with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses will be based on the ‘intention to treat’ principle. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support contraception use in a population with limited literacy. Findings could be generalisable to similar populations in different settings. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01823861 PMID:24330763

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxious children and adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders affect approximately 10% to 20% of young people, can be enduring if left untreated, and have been associated with psychopathology in later life. Despite this, there is a paucity of empirical research to assist clinicians in determining appropriate treatment options. We describe a protocol for a randomized controlled trial in which we will examine the effectiveness of a group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy program for children and adolescents with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder. For the adolescent participants we will also evaluate the elements of the intervention that act as mechanisms for change. Methods/design We will recruit 150 young people (90 children and 60 adolescents) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and their parent or caregiver. After completion of baseline assessment, participants will be randomized to one of three conditions (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy or waitlist control). Those in the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy groups will receive 10 × 1.5 hour weekly group-therapy sessions using a manualized treatment program, in accordance with the relevant therapy, to be delivered by psychologists. Controls will receive the Cognitive Behavior Therapy program after 10 weeks waitlisted. Repeated measures will be taken immediately post-therapy and at three months after therapy cessation. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this study will be the largest trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the treatment of children and young people to date. It will provide comprehensive data on the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxiety disorders and will offer evidence for mechanisms involved in the process of change. Furthermore, additional data will be obtained for the use of Cognitive Behavior Therapy in this population and this research will illustrate the comparative effectiveness of these two interventions, which are currently implemented widely in contemporary clinical practice. Anticipated difficulties for the trial are the recruitment and retention of participants, particularly adolescents. To avert these concerns and maximize recruitment, several strategies will be adopted to optimize referral rates as well as reduce participant drop-outs. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, registration number: ACTRN12611001280998 PMID:23672442

  17. The stages of implementation completion for evidence-based practice: protocol for a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This protocol describes the ‘development of outcome measures and suitable methodologies for dissemination and implementation approaches,’ a priority for implementation research. Although many evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been developed, large knowledge gaps remain regarding how to routinely move EBPs into usual care. The lack of understanding of ‘what it takes’ to install EBPs has costly public health consequences, including a lack of availability of the most beneficial services, wasted efforts and resources on failed implementation attempts, and the potential for engendering reluctance to try implementing new EBPs after failed attempts. The Stages of Implementation Completion (SIC) is an eight-stage tool of implementation process and milestones, with stages spanning three implementation phases (pre-implementation, implementation, sustainability). Items delineate the date that a site completes implementation activities, yielding an assessment of duration (time to complete a stage), proportion (of stage activities completed), and a general measure of how far a site moved in the implementation process. Methods/Design We propose to extend the SIC to EBPs operating in child service sectors (juvenile justice, schools, substance use, child welfare). Both successful and failed implementation attempts will be scrutinized using a mixed methods design. Stage costs will be measured and examined. Both retrospective data (from previous site implementation efforts) and prospective data (from newly adopting sites) will be analyzed. The influence of pre-implementation on implementation and sustainability outcomes will be examined (Aim 1). Mixed methods procedures will focus on increasing understanding of the process of implementation failure in an effort to determine if the SIC can provide early detection of sites that are unlikely to succeed (Aim 2). Study activities will include cost mapping of SIC stages and an examination of the relationship between implementation costs and implementation performance (Aim 3). Discussion This project fills a gap in the field of implementation science by addressing the measurement gap between the implementation process and the associated costs. The goal of this project is to provide tools that will help increase the uptake of EBPs, thereby increasing the availability of services to youth and decreasing wasted resources from failed implementation efforts. PMID:24708893

  18. A randomised controlled trial linking mental health inpatients to community smoking cessation supports: A study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily AL Stockings; Jennifer A Bowman; John Wiggers; Amanda L Baker; Margarett Terry; Richard Clancy; Paula M Wye; Jenny Knight; Lyndell H Moore

    2011-01-01

    Background  Mental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than the general population and are disproportionately affected by tobacco\\u000a dependence. Despite the advent of smoke free policies within mental health hospitals, limited systems are in place to support\\u000a a cessation attempt post hospitalisation, and international evidence suggests that most smokers return to pre-admission smoking\\u000a levels following discharge. This protocol describes a randomised

  19. Biostability of an implantable glucose sensor chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, M.; Birkholz, M.; Ehwald, K. E.; Kulse, P.; Fursenko, O.; Katzer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Surface materials of an implantable microelectronic chip intended for medical applications were evaluated with respect to their long-term stability in bio-environments. The sensor chip shall apply in a glucose monitor by operating as a microviscosimeter according to the principle of affinity viscosimetry. A monolithic integration of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) into the sensor chip was successfully performed in a combined 0.25 ?m CMOS/BiCMOS technology. In order to study material durability and biostability of the surfaces, sensor chips were exposed to various in vitro and in vivo tests. Corrosional damage of SiON, SiO2 and TiN surfaces was investigated by optical microscopy, ellipsometry and AFM. The results served for optimizing the Back-end-of-Line (BEoL) stack, from which the MEMS was prepared. Corrosion of metal lines could significantly be reduced by improving the topmost passivation layer. The experiments revealed no visible damage of the actuator or other functionally important MEMS elements. Sensor chips were also exposed to human body fluid for three month by implantation into the abdomen of a volunteer. Only small effects were observed for layer thickness and Ra roughness after explantation. In particular, TiN as used for the actuator beam showed no degradation by biocorrosion. The highest degradation rate of about 50 nm per month was revealed for the SiON passivation layer. These results suggest that the sensor chip may safely operate in subcutaneous tissue for a period of several months.

  20. A minimally invasive technique for decompression of Chiari malformation type I (DECMI study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Liu, Jiagang; Chen, Haifeng; Jiang, Shu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Yuan; Gong, Shuhui; Wang, Yuelong; Huang, Siqing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is a congenital hindbrain anomaly that requires surgical decompression in symptomatic patients. Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) has been widely practiced in Chiari decompression, but dural opening carries a high risk of surgical complications. A minimally invasive technique, dural splitting decompression (DSD), preserves the inner layer of the dura without dural opening and duraplasty, potentially reducing surgical complications, length of operative time and hospital stay, and cost. If DSD is non-inferior to PFDD in terms of clinical improvement, DSD could be an alternative treatment modality for CM-I. So far, no randomised study of surgical treatment of CM-I has been reported. This study aims to evaluate if DSD is an effective, safe and cost-saving treatment modality for adult CM-I patients, and may provide evidence for using the minimally invasive procedure extensively. Methods and analysis DECMI is a randomised controlled, single-masked, non-inferiority, single centre clinical trial. Participants meeting the criteria will be randomised to the DSD group and the PFDD group in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome is the rate of clinical improvement, which is defined as the complete resolution or partial improvement of the presenting symptoms/signs. The secondary outcomes consist of the incidence of syrinx reduction, postoperative morbidity rates, reoperation rate, quality of life (QoL) and healthcare resource utilisation. A total of 160 patients will be included and followed up at 3 and 12?months postoperatively. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Biological and Medical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital. The findings of this trial will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and presented at scientific conferences. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-14004099. PMID:25926152

  1. Atom chip based generation of entanglement for quantum metrology

    E-print Network

    Riedel, Max F; Li, Yun; Hänsch, Theodor W; Sinatra, Alice; Treutlein, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Atom chips provide a versatile `quantum laboratory on a microchip' for experiments with ultracold atomic gases. They have been used in experiments on diverse topics such as low-dimensional quantum gases, cavity quantum electrodynamics, atom-surface interactions, and chip-based atomic clocks and interferometers. A severe limitation of atom chips, however, is that techniques to control atomic interactions and to generate entanglement have not been experimentally available so far. Such techniques enable chip-based studies of entangled many-body systems and are a key prerequisite for atom chip applications in quantum simulations, quantum information processing, and quantum metrology. Here we report experiments where we generate multi-particle entanglement on an atom chip by controlling elastic collisional interactions with a state-dependent potential. We employ this technique to generate spin-squeezed states of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate and show that they are useful for quantum metrology. The obser...

  2. Advanced Flip Chips in Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2010-01-01

    The use of underfill materials is necessary with flip-chip interconnect technology to redistribute stresses due to mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between dissimilar materials in the overall assembly. Underfills are formulated using organic polymers and possibly inorganic filler materials. There are a few ways to apply the underfills with flip-chip technology. Traditional capillary-flow underfill materials now possess high flow speed and reduced time to cure, but they still require additional processing steps beyond the typical surface-mount technology (SMT) assembly process. Studies were conducted using underfills in a temperature range of -190 to 85 C, which resulted in an increase of reliability by one to two orders of magnitude. Thermal shock of the flip-chip test articles was designed to induce failures at the interconnect sites (-40 to 100 C). The study on the reliability of flip chips using underfills in the extreme temperature region is of significant value for space applications. This technology is considered as an enabling technology for future space missions. Flip-chip interconnect technology is an advanced electrical interconnection approach where the silicon die or chip is electrically connected, face down, to the substrate by reflowing solder bumps on area-array metallized terminals on the die to matching footprints of solder-wettable pads on the chosen substrate. This advanced flip-chip interconnect technology will significantly improve the performance of high-speed systems, productivity enhancement over manual wire bonding, self-alignment during die joining, low lead inductances, and reduced need for attachment of precious metals. The use of commercially developed no-flow fluxing underfills provides a means of reducing the processing steps employed in the traditional capillary flow methods to enhance SMT compatibility. Reliability of flip chips may be significantly increased by matching/tailoring the CTEs of the substrate material and the silicon die or chip, and also the underfill materials. Advanced packaging interconnects technology such as flip-chip interconnect test boards have been subjected to various extreme temperature ranges that cover military specifications and extreme Mars and asteroid environments. The eventual goal of each process step and the entire process is to produce components with 100 percent interconnect and satisfy the reliability requirements. Underfill materials, in general, may possibly meet demanding end use requirements such as low warpage, low stress, fine pitch, high reliability, and high adhesion.

  3. World with Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Although we are well advised to look at the future 1 day at a time, we have seen in the chapters of this book, and they necessarily could cover only a selection on the features and applications of those tiny chips, that their potential continues to grow at the exceptional rates of the past. However, the new commitment has to be towards Sustainable Nanoelectronics, guided by creating sensing, computing, memory, and communication functions, which move just a few electrons per operation, each operation consuming energy less than one or a few femtojoule, less than any of the 1014 synapses in our brains. At these energy levels, chips can serve everywhere, making them ubiquitous, pervasive, certainly wireless, and often energy-autonomous. The expected six Billion users of these chips in 2020, through their mobile, intelligent companions, will benefit from global and largely equal access to information, education, knowledge, skills, and care.

  4. Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC)

    E-print Network

    Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC) experiment on ExoMars 7th Appleton Space, Cranfield University #12;How to detect evidence of Life in on Mars? Photo: Karl Johaentges #12;ESA's ExoMars rover (CGI version 2010) Life Marker Chip Flight Model design (early 2010) Lateral flow immunoassay (e

  5. Towards better DNA chip hybridization using chaotic advection Florence Raynal, Aurlien Beuf, Frdric Plaza, Julian Scott, and Philippe Carrire

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Towards better DNA chip hybridization using chaotic advection Florence Raynal, Aurélien Beuf, Frédéric Plaza, Julian Scott, and Philippe Carrière LMFA, CNRS­Université de Lyon, France; École Centrale chip hybridization are presented. The first protocol uses syringes; the other one, pumps. For both

  6. EVALUATING NURSES’ IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INFANT-FEEDING COUNSELING PROTOCOL FOR HIV-INFECTED MOTHERS: THE BAN STUDY IN LILONGWE, MALAWI

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Eng, Eugenia; Bentley, Margaret; Sandelowski, Margarete; Steckler, Allan; Randall-David, Elizabeth; Piwoz, Ellen G.; Zulu, Cynthia; Chasela, Charles; Soko, Alice; Tembo, Martin; Martinson, Francis; Tohill, Beth Carlton; Ahmed, Yusuf; Kazembe, Peter; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A process evaluation of nurses’ implementation of an infant-feeding counseling protocol was conducted for the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral and Nutrition (BAN) Study, a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Six trained nurses counseled HIV-infected mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 24 weeks postpartum and to stop breastfeeding within an additional four weeks. Implementation data were collected via direct observations of 123 infant feeding counseling sessions (30 antenatal and 93 postnatal) and interviews with each nurse. Analysis included calculating a percent adherence to checklists and conducting a content analysis for the observation and interview data. Nurses were implementing the protocol at an average adherence level of 90% or above. Although not detailed in the protocol, nurses appropriately counseled mothers on their actual or intended formula milk usage after weaning. Results indicate that nurses implemented the protocol as designed. Results will help to interpret the BAN Study’s outcomes. PMID:19397436

  7. Chocolate Chip Cookie Constellations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-15

    This chocolate chip cookie recipe includes templates for baking night sky constellations of the season right on top! Two templates are included, one for 9pm mid-April, and one for 10pm mid-July. Learners can help place the chips in order to learn about the relative positions of the constellations. Although no background information is given, there is an opportunity to discuss how the star positions change with seasons. A printed version in Spanish is available, but it's not free online.

  8. A study of the effectiveness of particulate cleaning protocols on intentionally contaminated niobium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Ciancio, Elizabeth J. [JLAB; Keyes, Katharine A. [JLAB; Yang, Dian [JLAB

    2009-11-01

    Particulate contamination on the surface of SRF cavities limits their performance via the enhanced generation of field-emitted electrons. Considerable efforts are expended to actively clean and avoid such contamination on niobium surfaces. The protocols in active use have been developed via feedback from cavity testing. This approach has the risk of over-conservatively ratcheting an ever increasing complexity of methods tied to particular circumstances. A complementary and perhaps helpful approach is to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of candidate methods at removing intentional representative particulate contamination. Toward this end, we developed a standardized contamination protocol using water suspensions of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SS 316 powders applied to BCP’d surfaces of standardized niobium samples yielding particle densities of order 200 particles/mm{sup 2}. From these starting conditions, controlled application of high pressure water rinse, ultrasonic cleaning, or CO{sub 2} snow jet cleaning was applied and the resulting surfaces examined via SEM/scanning EDS with particle recognition software. Results of initial parametric variations of each will be reported.

  9. [Clinical trial of protocol-AL851 for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Kyushu Yamaguchi Children's Cancer Study Group (KYCCSG)].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, A; Ishii, E; Ueda, K; Yanai, F; Nibu, K; Take, H; Koga, H; Miyazaki, S; Inoue, T; Miyake, K

    1994-09-01

    Fifty five children diagnosed as having high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) between 1985 and 1988 were treated with protocol AL851. The agents used in the protocol were as follows: induction therapy: vincristine (VCR), prednisolone, daunorubicin (DNR) and l-asparaginase, consolidation therapy: an intermediate-dose methotrexate (MTX), central nervous system (CNS) leukemia prophylaxis: intrathecal MTX and 24Gy cranial irradiation, reinduction therapy: VCR, adriamycin, dexamethasone and high dose cytarabine (AraC), maintenance therapy: 6-mercaptopurine, cyclophosphamide, MTX, DNR, VCR and AraC. Patients received chemotherapy for 3 years after achieving complete remission (CR). CR was obtained in 51 patients (92.7%). Twenty-four of them relapsed after achieving CR (bone marrow 16, CNS 3 and testis 5). At median follow-up of 79 (range 64-102) months, the estimated 8-year disease free survival rate was 49.1 +/- 6.7%. Four patients relapsed at bone marrow during the first 6 months of the treatment, indicating that more intensive combination chemotherapy should be included in earlier stage of the protocol. The high incidence of testicular relapse (14.3% in boys) suggests that high-dose MTX or AraC should be needed for improvement of the prognosis of high-risk ALL patients. PMID:7967055

  10. Cytometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the various species in a sample of cells is spatially encoded in the chip by the pattern of capture spots. The number of cells of a particular species is determined from the magnitude of the GCSPRI signal from that spot. GCSPRI as used here can be summarized as follows: The cytometer chip is fabricated with a diffraction grating on its front surface. The chip is illuminated with a light emitting diode (LED) from the front. By proper choice of grating parameters and of the wavelength and the angle of incidence of a laser beam, laser light can be made to be coupled into an electromagnetic mode that resonates with surface plasmons and thus couples light into surface plasmons. Coupling of light into a surface plasmon at a given location reduces the amount of incident light reflected from that location. A change in the index of refraction at the surface of a capture spot gives rise to a change in the resonance condition. Depending on the specific design, the change in the index of refraction could manifest itself as a brightening or darkening, a change in the wavelength needed to excite the plasmon at a given angle of incidence, or a change in the angle of incidence needed to excite the plasmon at a given wavelength. Whereas a multiwavelength laser system with multichannel detection would be needed to detect multiple species in conventional flow cytometry, it suffices to use an LED and a single detector channel in the GCSPRI approach: this contributes significantly to reductions in cost, complexity, size, mass, and power. GCSPRI cytometer chips could be made of plastic and could be mass-produced cheaply by use of molding and other methods adopted from the manufacture of digital video disks. These methods are amenable to a high degree of miniaturization: such additional features as fluidic channels, reaction chambers, and fluid-coupling ports could readily be incorporated into the chips, without incurring substantial additional costs.

  11. Cytometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (.50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the various species in a sample of cells is spatially encoded in the chip by the pattern of capture spots. The number of cells of a particular species is determined from the magnitude of the GCSPRI signal from that spot. GCSPRI as used here can be summarized as follows: The cytometer chip is fabricated with a diffraction grating on its front surface. The chip is illuminated with a light emitting diode (LED) from the front. By proper choice of grating parameters and of the wavelength and the angle of incidence of a laser beam, laser light can be made to be coupled into an electromagnetic mode that resonates with surface plasmons and thus couples light into surface plasmons. Coupling of light into a surface plasmon at a given location reduces the amount of incident light reflected from that location. A change in the index of refraction at the surface of a capture spot gives rise to a change in the resonance condition. Depending on the specific design, the change in the index of refraction could manifest itself as a brightening or darkening, a change in the wavelength needed to excite the plasmon at a given angle of incidence, or a change in the angle of incidence needed to excite the plasmon at a given wavelength. Whereas a multiwavelength laser system with multichannel detection would be needed to detect multiple species in conventional flow cytometry, it suffices to use an LED and a single detector channel in the GCSPRI approach: this contributes significantly to reductions in cost, complexity, size, mass, and power. GCSPRI cytometer chips could be made of plastic and could be mass-produced cheaply by use of molding and other methods adopted from the manufacture of digital video disks. These methods are amenable to a high degree of miniaturization: such additional features as fluidic channels, reaction chambers, and fluid-coupling ports could readily be incorporated into the chips, without incurring substantial additional costs.

  12. Bee venom acupuncture, NSAIDs or combined treatment for chronic neck pain: study protocol for a randomized, assessor-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a common painful medical condition with a significant socioeconomic impact. In spite of widespread usage, the effectiveness and safety of combined treatments between conventional and complementary alternative medical treatment modalities has not been fully established in a rigorous randomized clinical trial (RCT). This pilot study will provide the clinical evidence to evaluate the feasibility and refine the protocol for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with CNP. Methods/Design This is a randomized, single-blind clinical trial with three parallel arms. Sixty patients between 18 and 65 years of age with non-specific, uncomplicated neck pain lasting for at least three months will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly allocated into the BVA, NSAIDs or combined treatment group. Assessors and statisticians will be blinded to the random allocation. All researchers will receive training to ensure their strict adherence to the study protocol. Patients from the BVA and combined treatment group will be treated with a bee venom increment protocol into predefined acupoints for six sessions over a three week period. BVA intervention is developed through a comprehensive discussion among interdisciplinary spine disorder experts, according to the guidelines of Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA). Patients from the NSAIDs and combined treatment groups will be prescribed loxoprofen (one tablet to be taken orally, three times a day for three weeks). Bothersomeness from CNP measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) will be the primary outcome assessed at screening, visit two (baseline), four, six, eight (4th week assessment) and nine (8th week assessment) follow-up session. VAS for pain intensity, neck disability index (NDI), quality of life, depressive status and adverse experiences will also be analyzed. Discussion Our study results will contribute to feasibility evaluation and to relevant RCT protocol development for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of BVA and NSAIDs for CNP patients. Trial registration This study is registered with the United States (US) National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry: NCT01922466. PMID:24746224

  13. Sample processing for DNA chip array-based analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)

    PubMed Central

    Basselet, Pascal; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Enfors, Sven-Olof; Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Background Exploitation of DNA-based analyses of microbial pathogens, and especially simultaneous typing of several virulence-related genes in bacteria is becoming an important objective of public health these days. Results A procedure for sample processing for a confirmative analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) on a single colony with DNA chip array was developed and is reported here. The protocol includes application of fragmented genomic DNA from ultrasonicated colonies. The sample processing comprises first 2.5 min of ultrasonic treatment, DNA extraction (2×), and afterwards additional 5 min ultrasonication. Thus, the total sample preparation time for a confirmative analysis of EHEC is nearly 10 min. Additionally, bioinformatic revisions were performed in order to design PCR primers and array probes specific to most conservative regions of the EHEC-associated genes. Six strains with distinct pathogenic properties were selected for this study. At last, the EHEC chip array for a parallel and simultaneous detection of genes etpC-stx1-stx2-eae was designed and examined. This should permit to sense all currently accessible variants of the selected sequences in EHEC types and subtypes. Conclusion In order to implement the DNA chip array-based analysis for direct EHEC detection the sample processing was established in course of this work. However, this sample preparation mode may also be applied to other types of EHEC DNA-based sensing systems. PMID:18851736

  14. Study protocol - Indigenous Australian social networks and the impact on smoking policy and programs in Australia: protocol for a mixed-method prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia. Comprehensive tobacco control has reduced smoking rates in Australia from approximately 34 per cent in 1980 to 15 per cent in 2010. However, 46 per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (Indigenous Australians) smoke on a daily basis, more than double the rate of non-Indigenous Australians. The evidence of effective tobacco control strategies for Indigenous Australians is relatively scarce. The aim of this study is to (i) explore the influences of smoking in Indigenous Australian people and to (ii) help inform and evaluate a multi-component tobacco control strategy. The study aims to answer the following questions: - do individuals' social networks influence smoking behaviours; - is there an association between various social and cultural factors and being a smoker or non-smoker; and - does a multi-component tobacco control program impact positively on tobacco behaviours, attitudes and beliefs in Indigenous Australians. Methods and design Our prospective study will use a mixed-method approach (qualitative and quantitative), including a pre- and post-test evaluation of a tobacco control initiative. The study will explore the social and cultural context underlying Indigenous Australian tobacco use and associated factors which influence smoking behaviour. Primary data will be collected via a panel survey, interviews and focus groups. Secondary data will include de-identified PBS items related to smoking and also data collected from the Quitlines call service. Network analysis will be used to assess whether social networks influence smoking behaviours. For the survey, baseline differences will be tested using chi2 statistics for the categorical and dichotomous variables and t-tests for the continuous variables, where appropriate. Grounded theory will be used to analyse the interviews and focus groups. Local Aboriginal community controlled organisations will partner in the study. Discussion Our study will explore the key factors, including the influence of social networks, that impact on tobacco use and the extent to which smoking behaviours transcend networks within the Indigenous Australian community in the ACT. This will add to the evidence-base, identifying influential factors to tobacco use and the effectiveness and influence of a multi-component tobacco control strategy. PMID:24060337

  15. Benefits of Chipping Almond Brush

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wood chipping of almond (Prunus dulcis) prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and would add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips interfere with harvest or deplete the soil of critica...

  16. Highly expressed loci are vulnerable to misleading ChIP localization of multiple unrelated proteins

    E-print Network

    Teytelman, Leonid

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is the gold-standard technique for localizing nuclear proteins in the genome. We used ChIP, in combination with deep sequencing (Seq), to study the genome-wide distribution of the Silent ...

  17. Optically Modulated III–V Nitride-Based Top-Mounted and Flip-Chip IMPATT Oscillators at Terahertz Regime: Studies on the Shift of Avalanche Transit Time Phase Delay Due to Photogenerated Carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moumita Mukherjee; Sitesh Kumar Roy

    2009-01-01

    Extensive simulation experiments are carried out to study the effects of optical illumination on the terahertz (>1.0 THz) characteristics of GaN-based IMPact Avalanche Transit Time (ATT) (IMPATT) oscillator. The shift of ATT phase delay, due to photogenerated carriers, in the top-mounted (TM) and flip-chip (FC) IMPATTs is also studied through a modified simulation scheme, for the first time. The study

  18. A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

  19. Phenome-wide Association Study Relating Pretreatment Laboratory Parameters With Human Genetic Variants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carrie B.; Verma, Anurag; Pendergrass, Sarah; Verma, Shefali S.; Johnson, Daniel H.; Daar, Eric S.; Gulick, Roy M.; Haubrich, Richard; Robbins, Gregory K.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Haas, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background.?Phenome-Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) identify genetic associations across multiple phenotypes. Clinical trials offer opportunities for PheWAS to identify pharmacogenomic associations. We describe the first PheWAS to use genome-wide genotypic data and to utilize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical trials data. As proof-of-concept, we focused on baseline laboratory phenotypes from antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals. Methods.?Data from 4 AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) studies were split into 2 datasets: Dataset I (1181 individuals from protocol A5202) and Dataset II (1366 from protocols A5095, ACTG 384, and A5142). Final analyses involved 2547 individuals and 5 954 294 imputed polymorphisms. We calculated comprehensive associations between these polymorphisms and 27 baseline laboratory phenotypes. Results.?A total of 10 584 (0.17%) polymorphisms had associations with P < .01 in both datasets and with the same direction of association. Twenty polymorphisms replicated associations with identical or related phenotypes reported in the Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies, including several not previously reported in HIV-positive cohorts. We also identified several possibly novel associations. Conclusions.?These analyses define PheWAS properties and principles with baseline laboratory data from HIV clinical trials. This approach may be useful for evaluating on-treatment HIV clinical trials data for associations with various clinical phenotypes. PMID:25884002

  20. Phenome-wide Association Study Relating Pretreatment Laboratory Parameters With Human Genetic Variants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocols.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carrie B; Verma, Anurag; Pendergrass, Sarah; Verma, Shefali S; Johnson, Daniel H; Daar, Eric S; Gulick, Roy M; Haubrich, Richard; Robbins, Gregory K; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Haas, David W

    2015-01-01

    Background. ?Phenome-Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) identify genetic associations across multiple phenotypes. Clinical trials offer opportunities for PheWAS to identify pharmacogenomic associations. We describe the first PheWAS to use genome-wide genotypic data and to utilize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical trials data. As proof-of-concept, we focused on baseline laboratory phenotypes from antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals. Methods. ?Data from 4 AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) studies were split into 2 datasets: Dataset I (1181 individuals from protocol A5202) and Dataset II (1366 from protocols A5095, ACTG 384, and A5142). Final analyses involved 2547 individuals and 5 954 294 imputed polymorphisms. We calculated comprehensive associations between these polymorphisms and 27 baseline laboratory phenotypes. Results. ?A total of 10 584 (0.17%) polymorphisms had associations with P < .01 in both datasets and with the same direction of association. Twenty polymorphisms replicated associations with identical or related phenotypes reported in the Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies, including several not previously reported in HIV-positive cohorts. We also identified several possibly novel associations. Conclusions. ?These analyses define PheWAS properties and principles with baseline laboratory data from HIV clinical trials. This approach may be useful for evaluating on-treatment HIV clinical trials data for associations with various clinical phenotypes. PMID:25884002

  1. Radiometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2009-01-01

    The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.

  2. Aluminum: Reflective Aluminum Chips

    SciTech Connect

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    This fact sheet reveals how the use of reflective aluminum chips on rooftops cuts down significantly on heat absorption, thus decreasing the need for air conditioning. The benefits, including energy savings that could reach the equivalent of 1.3 million barrels of oil annually for approximately 100,000 warehouses, are substantial.

  3. Towards a legged chip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timir Datta; Pamela Abshire; John A. Turner

    2011-01-01

    We describe a substrate for a Legged Chip, a CMOS integrated circuit with built in actuation mechanisms for motion. We have designed and fabricated a custom integrated circuit using a commercial 0.5?m CMOS technology which implements walking gait control. The circuit specifications and physical implementation have been designed to take into consideration the addition of thermal actuators through low- temperature

  4. Effectiveness of a web-based protocol for the screening and phenotyping of individuals with Tourette syndrome for genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Egan, Crystelle A; Marakovitz, Susan E; O'Rourke, Julia A; Osiecki, Lisa; Illmann, Cornelia; Barton, Lauren; McLaughlin, Elizabeth; Proujansky, Rachel; Royal, Justin; Cowley, Heather; Rangel-Lugo, Martha; Pauls, David L; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A

    2012-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and other emerging technologies offer great promise for the identification of genetic risk factors for complex psychiatric disorders, yet such studies are constrained by the need for large sample sizes. Web-based collection offers a relatively untapped resource for increasing participant recruitment. Therefore, we developed and implemented a novel web-based screening and phenotyping protocol for genetic studies of Tourette syndrome (TS), a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Participants were recruited over a 13-month period through the membership of the Tourette Syndrome Association (TSA; n?=?28,878). Of the TSA members contacted, 4.3% (1,242) initiated the questionnaire, and 79.5% (987) of these were enrollment eligible. 63.9% (631) of enrolled participants completed the study by submitting phenotypic data and blood specimens. Age was the only variable that predicted study completion; children and young adults were significantly less likely to be study completers than adults 26 and older. Compared to a clinic-based study conducted over the same time period, the web-based method yielded a 60% larger sample. Web-based participants were older and more often female; otherwise, the sample characteristics did not differ significantly. TS diagnoses based on the web-screen demonstrated 100% accuracy compared to those derived from in-depth clinical interviews. Our results suggest that a web-based approach is effective for increasing the sample size for genetic studies of a relatively rare disorder and that our web-based screen is valid for diagnosing TS. Findings from this study should aid in the development of web-based protocols for other disorders. PMID:23090870

  5. To support legacy software, large CMPs often provide cache coherence via an on-chip directory rather than snooping. In those designs, a key challenge is maximizing the effectiveness

    E-print Network

    Hill, Mark D.

    -chip directory rather than snooping. In those designs, a key challenge is maximizing the effectiveness of precious on-chip directory state. Most current directory protocols miss an opportunity by organizing all state in per-block records. To increase the "reach" of on-chip directory state, we apply ideas from

  6. The relationship between quality of life and compliance to a brace protocol in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Rivett, LouAnn; Rothberg, Alan; Stewart, Aimee; Berkowitz, Rowan

    2009-01-01

    Background Corrective bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has favourable outcomes when patients are compliant. However, bracing may be a stressful and traumatic experience and compliance with a bracing protocol is likely to be dependent upon patients' physical, emotional and social wellbeing. The Brace Questionnaire (BrQ), a recently-developed, condition-specific tool to measure quality of life (QOL) has enabled clinicians to study relationships between QOL and compliance. Methods The BrQ was administered to 31 AIS patients after a minimum of 1 year of wearing a brace. Subjects were 13–16 year old South African girls with Cobb angles of 25–40 degrees. Participants were divided into two groups according to their level of compliance with the bracing protocol. Brace Questionnaire sub- and total scores were compared between the two groups using the t-test for comparison of means. Results Twenty participants were classified as compliant and 11 as non-compliant. Mean total BrQ scores (expressed as a percentage) were 83.7 for the compliant group and 64.4 for the non-compliant group (p < 0.001), and on analysis of the 8 domains that make up the BrQ, the compliant group scored significantly higher in the 6 domains that measured vitality and social, emotional and physical functioning. Conclusion Poor compliance with a brace protocol is associated with poorer QOL, with non-compliant patients lacking vitality and functioning poorly physically, emotionally and socially. Quality of life for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis may relate more to psychosocial coping mechanisms than to physical deformity and its consequences. It is important to establish whether remedial programmes are capable of addressing personal, group and family issues, improving QOL and promoting compliance. PMID:19144157

  7. Freshwater Macroinvertebrates Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity guides students through sampling, identification and counting of macroinvertebrates sampled in a GLOBE hydrology study site, and understand how the taxa composition found in the sample can be an indicator of water quality and ecosystem health. The resource includes 8 field and laboratory protocols. This resource is a protocol within the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

  8. Safety of 8-aminoquinolines given to people with G6PD deficiency: protocol for systematic review of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Uthman, Olalekan A; Saunders, Rachel; Sinclair, David; Graves, Patricia; Gelband, Hellen; Clarke, Aileen; Garner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A single dose or short course of primaquine given to people infected with malaria may reduce transmission of Plasmodium falciparum through its effects on gametocytes. Primaquine is also known to cause haemolysis in people with variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the risk of adverse effects in people with G6PD deficiency given primaquine or other 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) as a single dose or short course (less than 7?days). Methods and analysis We will search the following databases: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS. Prospective cohort studies, randomised and quasi-randomised trials that evaluated 8AQs for whatever reason in adults or children with a known G6PD deficiency will be included. Two authors will independently assess each study for eligibility, risk of bias and extract data. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Brief reports of the review findings will be disseminated directly to the appropriate audiences and the WHO Technical Expert Group in Malaria Chemotherapy. As no primary data collection will be undertaken, no additional formal ethical assessment and informed consent are required. Protocol registration in PROSPERO The protocol is registered with PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013006518. PMID:24833685

  9. Application of RCM for a chipping and sawing mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Fore; Thabani Mudavanhu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This research is focused on the application of reliability-centred maintenance (RCM) in a chipping and sawmill company. The aim of the study was to illustrate the application of RCM in a chipping and sawing mill. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – RCM is a structured process, which develops or optimises maintenance requirements of a physical resource in its operating context in order

  10. Package related reliability investigation with a multi-sensor chip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. van Gestel; L. van Gemert; E. Bagerman

    1993-01-01

    To perform IC package related reliability research a test chip has been developed containing a large number of test structures. The structures are connected to multiplexing logic for performing electrical measurements. The chips have been used in a case study where PLCC 68 devices were stressed with a 500 Temperature Cycle Test and a 300 hours Highly Accelerated Stress Test.

  11. Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Balslev; A. M. Jorgensen; B. Bilenberg; K. B. Mogensen; D. Snakenborg; O. Geschke; J. P. Kutter; A. Kristensen

    2006-01-01

    Taking the next step from individual functional components to higher integrated devices, we present a feasibility study of a lab-on-a-chip system with flve difierent components monolith- ically integrated on one substrate. These flve components represent three main domains of microchip technology: optics, ?uidics and electronics. In particular, this device includes an on- chip optically pumped liquid dye laser, waveguides and

  12. Mapping the FDTD Application to Many-Core Chip Architectures

    E-print Network

    Gao, Guang R.

    Mapping the FDTD Application to Many-Core Chip Architectures Daniel Orozco and Guang Gao School}@capsl.udel.edu Abstract--This paper reports a study of mapping the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) application: 1. A good mapping of FDTD can effectively exploit the on-chip parallelism of C64-like architectures

  13. Modified Widman flap and non-surgical therapy using chlorhexidine chip in the treatment of moderate to deep periodontal pockets: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Grace Tara; Hemalata, M.; Faizuddin, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is a well established fact that periodontitis is caused by a group of highly specific microorganisms, organized as a bio-film on the tooth surface. Hence, therapeutic modalities are directed against elimination or adequate suppression of these organisms. Thorough debridement of these sites is possible mainly by scaling and root planing (SRP) and open- flap debridement in deeper sites. Open- flap debridement includes conventional surgical procedures such as the modified Widman flap procedure. Surgical procedures, however, have a number of disadvantages and hence efforts have been on at improving various non-surgical approaches, which are directed more specifically at the microbial nature of periodontal disease. Use of local drug-delivery devices is one such approach. The combined therapy of SRP and local drug delivery has been showing promising results in improving all the parameters in periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study compares the clinical, as well as, microbiological results of a split-mouth trial using modified Widman flap and non-surgical therapy of SRP and the use of a controlled release drug-delivery device (Chlorhexidine chip), in the management of moderate to deep pockets. Results and Conclusion: The results showed that the non-surgical most sites subjected to the non-surgical treatment were found to be maintainable without further deterioration, during the study period. PMID:21731252

  14. Investigation of transferability of BovineSNP50 BeadChip from cattle to water buffalo for genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun Jing; Song, Li Jun; Wu, Fang Jie; Liang, Xian Wei; Yang, Bing Zhuang; Wathes, D Claire; Pollott, Geoff E; Cheng, Zhangrui; Shi, De Shun; Liu, Qing You; Yang, Li Guo; Zhang, Shu Jun

    2013-02-01

    Cattle and water buffalo belong to the same subfamily Bovinae and share chromosome banding and gene order homology. In this study, we used genome-wide Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to analyze 91 DNA samples from three breeds of water buffalo (Nili-Ravi, Murrah and their crossbred with local GuangXi buffalos in China), to demonstrate the genetic divergence between cattle and water buffalo through a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) transferability study at the whole genome level, and performed association analysis of functional traits in water buffalo as well. A total of 40,766 (75.5 %) bovine SNPs were found in the water buffalo genome, but 49,936 (92.5 %) were with only one allele, and finally 935 were identified to be polymorphic and useful for association analysis in water buffalo. Therefore, the genome sequences of water buffalo and cattle shared a high level of homology but the polymorphic status of the bovine SNPs varied between these two species. The different patterns of mutations between species may associate with their phenotypic divergence due to genome evolution. Among 935 bovine SNPs, we identified a total of 9 and 7 SNPs significantly associated to fertility and milk production traits in water buffalo, respectively. However, more works in larger sample size are needed in future to verify these candidate SNPs for water buffalo. PMID:23232712

  15. Flip Chip: Keep pristine materials clean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beukman, Arjan; Qu, Fanming; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    2014-03-01

    We introduce the Flip Chip setup, a new platform which allows nanoscale electrical gating of a material without exposing it to invasive nanoprocessing. The conventional fabrication of metallic gate structures on pristine materials degrades their interesting properties, e.g., ultra-high mobility in GaAs heterostructures. This research takes a new approach to keep the material unaffected. The gate structure is fabricated on a separate chip which is flipped and brought close (<100 nm) to the sample under research. A vacuum gap between the gates and material, acting as an insulating layer, solves the problem of leakage and trapped charges in traditional gate-dielectrics. In addition, this approach allows more freedom in fabrication methods, as the `dirty' processing is done on a separate chip. With the Flip Chip setup we intend to study the 5/2 FQH state in GaAs heterostructures which is expected to have non-Abelian statistics. I will present measurement results for an interferometer at integer quantum Hall states using the Flip Chip technique.

  16. Detection of Outliers Due to Participants’ Non-Adherence to Protocol in a Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, Martin J.; Welch, Catherine; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Background Participants’ non adherence to protocol affects data quality. In longitudinal studies, this leads to outliers that can be present at the level of the population or the individual. The purpose of the present study is to elaborate a method for detection of outliers in a study of cognitive ageing. Methods In the Whitehall II study, data on a cognitive test battery have been collected in 1997-99, 2002-04, 2007-09 and 2012-13. Outliers at the 2012-13 wave were identified using a 4-step procedure: (1) identify cognitive tests with potential non-adherence to protocol, (2) choose a prediction model between a simple model with socio-demographic covariates and one that also includes health behaviours and health measures, (3) define an outlier using a studentized residual, and (4) study the impact of exclusion of outliers by estimating the effect of age and diabetes on cognitive decline. Results 5516 participants provided cognitive data in 2012-13. Comparisons of rates of annual decline over the first three and all four waves of data suggested outliers in three of the 5 tests. Mean residuals for the 2012-13 wave were larger for the basic compared to the more complex prediction model (all p<0.001), leading us to use the latter for the identification of outliers. Residuals greater than two standard deviation of residuals identified approximately 7% of observations as being outliers. Removal of these observations from the analyses showed that both age and diabetes had associations with cognitive decline similar to that observed with the first three waves of data; these associations were weaker or absent in non-cleaned data. Conclusions Identification of outliers is important as they obscure the effects of known risk factor and introduce bias in the estimates of cognitive decline. We showed that an informed approach, using the range of data collected in a longitudinal study, may be able to identify outliers. PMID:26161552

  17. A next-generation tissue microarray (ngTMA) protocol for biomarker studies.

    PubMed

    Zlobec, Inti; Suter, Guido; Perren, Aurel; Lugli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker research relies on tissue microarrays (TMA). TMAs are produced by repeated transfer of small tissue cores from a 'donor' block into a 'recipient' block and then used for a variety of biomarker applications. The construction of conventional TMAs is labor intensive, imprecise, and time-consuming. Here, a protocol using next-generation Tissue Microarrays (ngTMA) is outlined. ngTMA is based on TMA planning and design, digital pathology, and automated tissue microarraying. The protocol is illustrated using an example of 134 metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Histological, statistical and logistical aspects are considered, such as the tissue type, specific histological regions, and cell types for inclusion in the TMA, the number of tissue spots, sample size, statistical analysis, and number of TMA copies. Histological slides for each patient are scanned and uploaded onto a web-based digital platform. There, they are viewed and annotated (marked) using a 0.6-2.0 mm diameter tool, multiple times using various colors to distinguish tissue areas. Donor blocks and 12 'recipient' blocks are loaded into the instrument. Digital slides are retrieved and matched to donor block images. Repeated arraying of annotated regions is automatically performed resulting in an ngTMA. In this example, six ngTMAs are planned containing six different tissue types/histological zones. Two copies of the ngTMAs are desired. Three to four slides for each patient are scanned; 3 scan runs are necessary and performed overnight. All slides are annotated; different colors are used to represent the different tissues/zones, namely tumor center, invasion front, tumor/stroma, lymph node metastases, liver metastases, and normal tissue. 17 annotations/case are made; time for annotation is 2-3 min/case. 12 ngTMAs are produced containing 4,556 spots. Arraying time is 15-20 hr. Due to its precision, flexibility and speed, ngTMA is a powerful tool to further improve the quality of TMAs used in clinical and translational research. PMID:25285857

  18. A study on the development of the protocol of leisure activity program for the elderly's deviant prevention.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chan-Woo; Yi, Eun-Surk; Park, Dong-Kyun; Lee, Hi-Wan; Lee, Kwang-Uk; Min, Byeong-Seok; Cho, Gun-Sang; Chang, Ik-Young

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide planning methods for leisure activity program to prevent the elderly's deviance, using the program components and protocol factors. This section discusses the results obtained through document analysis and Delphi technique. First, the components of leisure activity program were classified into five stages such as definition, condition analysis, program composition, application and evaluation. Second, the protocol factors in each stage of leisure activity program for the elderly's deviant prevention were 19 main themes and 75 sub-themes respectively. In the stage of condition analysis, five main themes such as deviant prediction, individual, socio-demographic, social and cultural factors and 25 sub-themes were found. Program composition included three main themes, facilities, instructor and program and 16 sub-themes and in the application stage, there were three key themes, facilities, instructor and program and 14 sub-themes. Lastly, the evaluation found four main themes such as deviant prevention, participation in leisure activities, management and wellbeing and 16 sub-themes. PMID:24877046

  19. Studies on energy response of newly developed LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL chips with additional PbO doping.

    PubMed

    Tang, K; Fan, H; Cui, H; Zhu, H; Liu, Z

    2015-02-01

    One of the most important characteristics of thermoluminescent detectors, if they are intended to be used in a wide range of energies, is their energy response. A comparison of the energy characteristics of the newly developed LiF:Mg,Cu,P chips with additional PbO doping (GR-200E) against GR-200A LiF:Mg,Cu,P was attempted to improve further the accuracy of personal dosimetry. Hp(10) energy response of GR-200E is quite different from that of GR-200A. For GR-200E, the anomalous energy response can be eliminated and the over-response to low-energy photons should be filtered properly. The GR-200E under the copper filter provided results within 4 % with respect to the conventional quantity value over the energy range from 65 to 1250 keV. The ratio of the Hp(10) response of the Cu-covered filters for GR-200A to that of those covered with plastic for GR-200E is a very good tool for identifying the radiation quality in the range studied. The accuracy in the dose evaluated from TLD measurements can be greatly increased. PMID:24962516

  20. Genes related to the very early stage of ConA-induced fulminant hepatitis: a gene-chip-based study in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Due to the high morbidity and mortality of fulminant hepatitis, early diagnosis followed by early effective treatment is the key for prognosis improvement. So far, little is known about the gene expression changes in the early stage of this serious illness. Identification of the genes related to the very early stage of fulminant hepatitis development may provide precise clues for early diagnosis. Results Balb/C mice were used for ConA injection to induce fulminant hepatitis that was confirmed by pathological and biochemical examination. After a gene chip-based screening, the data of gene expression in the liver, was further dissected by ANOVA analysis, gene expression profiles, gene network construction and real-time RT-PCR. At the very early stage of ConA-triggered fulminant hepatitis, totally 1,473 genes with different expression variations were identified. Among these, 26 genes were finally selected for further investigation. The data from gene network analysis demonstrate that two genes, MPDZ and Acsl1, localized in the core of the network. Conclusions At the early stages of fulminant hepatitis, expression of twenty-six genes involved in protein transport, transcription regulation and cell metabolism altered significantly. These genes form a network and have shown strong correlation with fulminant hepatitis development. Our study provides several potential targets for the early diagnosis of fulminant hepatitis. PMID:20398290

  1. University of Heidelberg: Atom Chip Group

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from the Atom Chip Group at the University of Heidelberg details research in "the study of the interaction between light and atoms, both for understanding the system itself and for investigating its possible uses for Quantum Information Processing and Control." The project and examples of the group's experiments are described on this website, along with a section overviewing the theory grounding its work. Their research has potential applications for highly sensitive sensors and quantum-information processing. The News section includes a link to a journal article, "Microscopic Atom Optics: From Wires to an Atom Chip," which details the group's work.

  2. Comparative Clinical Study of Two Tooth Bleaching Protocols with 6% Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Oteo Calatayud, Jesús; Mateos de la Varga, Paloma; Oteo Calatayud, Carlos; Calvo Box, María José

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to compare the clinical efficacy of two different tooth bleaching protocols after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment with an over-the-counter paint-on gel containing 6% hydrogen peroxide. Material and methods. Sixteen volunteer patients (minimum shade A2 or darker on maxillary teeth) were selected to participate in this randomized, single-blind (examiner-blinded), single-center, 2-group clinical trial using a divided mouth model. The product was applied in our clinic to one hemi-arch (Group I) in each patient at two sessions one week apart, making five applications at each session (separated by 10 min intervals). The patients themselves applied the product once a day for 10 days in the other hemiarch (Group II). Efficacy was measured according to the Vita Classical shade guide at baseline and at one and two weeks. Differences between groups (office-treated vs. home-treated hemiarches) were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results. Significant (P < .05) differences in shade values were detected between pre- and post-bleaching in both groups. The two groups did not significantly differ in tooth shade at the end of the treatment. Conclusions. Treatment with 6% hydrogen peroxide gel using the paint-on system shows significant clinical efficacy whether applied by clinicians or by the patients themselves. PMID:20339457

  3. An Implantable SOC Chip for Micro-stimulating and Neural Signal Recording

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chua-chin Wang; Chi-chun Huang; Tzung-je Lee; Cheng-mu Wu; Gang-neng Sung; Kuan-wen Fang; Sheng-lun Tseng; Jia-jin Chen

    2006-01-01

    An implantable SOC chip for micro-stimulation and neural signal recording is presented. This work possesses a multi-parameter control protocol to provide different stim- ulation waveforms, for various pain treatments of muscles and stimulating applications. Additionally, the proposed SOC chip supports several transmission rates of RS232, which in turn provides a flexibility to be integrated in a variety of different applications.

  4. A Modular MultiChip Neuromorphic Architecture for Real-Time Visual Motion Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles M. Higgins; Christof Koch

    2000-01-01

    The extent of pixel-parallel focal plane image processing is limited by pixel area and imager fill factor. In this paper, we describe a novel multi-chip neuromorphic VLSI visual motion processing system which combines analog circuitry with an asynchronous digital interchip communications protocol to allow more complex pixel-parallel motion processing than is possible in the focal plane. This multi-chip system retains

  5. Chip-last Embedded Active for System-On-Package (SOP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baik-Woo Lee; V. Sundaram; B. Wiedenman; C. K. Yoon; V. Kripesh; M. Iyer; R. R. Tummala

    2007-01-01

    Embedded active technology, in which thinned active chips are directly buried into a core or high-density-interconnect layers, is gaining more interest for ultra-miniaturization, increased functionality and better performance of SOP (system-on-package). In this study, chip-last embedded active concept is proposed to address some of process and reliability issues that current chip-first and chip-middle embedded active approaches have. The detailed process

  6. Lab-on a-Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Labs on chips are manufactured in many shapes and sizes and can be used for numerous applications, from medical tests to water quality monitoring to detecting the signatures of life on other planets. The eight holes on this chip are actually ports that can be filled with fluids or chemicals. Tiny valves control the chemical processes by mixing fluids that move in the tiny channels that look like lines, connecting the ports. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama designed this chip to grow biological crystals on the International Space Station (ISS). Through this research, they discovered that this technology is ideally suited for solving the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. For example, thousands of chips the size of dimes could be loaded on a Martian rover looking for biosignatures of past or present life. Other types of chips could be placed in handheld devices used to monitor microbes in water or to quickly conduct medical tests on astronauts. The portable, handheld Lab-on-a Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) made its debut flight aboard Discovery during the STS-116 mission launched December 9, 2006. The system allowed crew members to monitor their environment for problematic contaminants such as yeast, mold, and even E.coli, and salmonella. Once LOCAD-PTS reached the ISS, the Marshall team continued to manage the experiment, monitoring the study from a console in the Payload Operations Center at MSFC. The results of these studies will help NASA researchers refine the technology for future Moon and Mars missions. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

  7. The effect of location and facility demand on the marginal cost of delivered wood chips from energy crops: A case study of the state of Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Biofuels Feedstock Development Program; Noon, C.; Daly, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Management Science Program; Moore, A. [Dept. of Trade and Industry, Harwell (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Support Unit

    1995-12-31

    Cost-supply curves for delivered wood chips from short rotation woody crops were calculated for 21 regularly-spaced locations spanning the state of Tennessee. These curves were used to systematically evaluate the combined effects of location and facility demand on wood chip feedstock costs in Tennessee. The cost-supply curves were developed using BRAVO, a GIS-based decision support system which calculates marginal cost of delivering wood chips to a specific location given road network maps and maps of farmgate prices and supplies of woody chips from short rotation energy crops. Marginal costs of delivered chips varied by both facility location in the state and facility demand. Marginal costs were lowest in central Tennessee unless the facility demand was greater than 2.7 million dry Mg per year (3 million dry tons per year) in which case west Tennessee was the lowest cost region. Marginal costs rose rapidly with increasing facility demand in the mountainous eastern portion of the state. Transportation costs accounted for 18 to 29% of the delivered cost and ranged between $8 and $18/dry Mg ($7 and $16/dry ton). Reducing the expected farmer participation rate from 100% to 50% or 25% dramatically raised the marginal costs of feedstock supply in the east and central regions of the state. The analysis demonstrates the need to use geographically-specific information when projecting the potential costs and supplies of biomass feedstock.

  8. Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

    The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

  9. Development of a guideline for protein chip evaluation as medical devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Roh; N. R. Lee; Y. H. Cho; J. B. Jung; H. N. Chung; W. S. Yang; W. K. Lee; H. K. Lee; G. H. Ryu

    2006-01-01

    Protein chip technology can be applied to diagnosis of disease, prognosis, drug discovery, tailored drug therapy, screening of drug candidates and so on. A protein chip should be evaluated and approved as a medical device to be used as a diagnostic device before marketing. In this study, we prepared a cancer protein chip and evaluated it. From the results of

  10. Wood chip mulch thickness effects on soil water, soil temperature, weed growth, and landscape plant growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood chip mulches are used in landscapes to reduce soil water evaporation and competition from weeds. A study was conducted over a three-year period to determine soil water content at various depths under four wood chip mulch treatments and to evaluate the effects of wood chip thickness on growth of...

  11. Factors affecting oil uptake in tortilla chips in deep-fat frying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosana G. Moreira; Xiuzhi Sun; Youhong Chen

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the complex processes that occur during frying is necessary to control the quality of tortilla chips. Quantitative information is needed to describe the rate of oil absorption into the chips during the process. In this study, tortilla chips were processed under different conditions: (1) baking time, (2) frying oil temperature, (3) particle size distribution, and (4) oil

  12. Comparison of lidless & overmold flip chip package with 40nm ultra low-k Silicon Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aparna Prasad; Teck Gyu Kang; Yuan Li; Dale Robinson; Rodel Pasia; Bosun Yoo

    2010-01-01

    Current portable electronic products are driving component packaging towards Flip Chip Packaging Technologies for integrating multiple electrical functionalities. The driver for flip chip continues to be performance and small form factor. This paper evaluates the lidless and molded flip chip packages with 40nm ultra low K (ULK) Silicon Technology. A comparative study on the two package types is carried out

  13. Effectiveness of phototherapy incorporated into an exercise program for osteoarthritis of the knee: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease with a multifactor etiology involving changes in bone alignment, cartilage, and other structures necessary to joint stability. There is a need to investigate therapeutic resources that combine different wavelengths as well as different light sources (low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) in the same apparatus for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of the proposed study is to analyze the effect of the incorporation of phototherapy into a therapeutic exercise program for individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods/Design A double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trial will be conducted involving patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Evaluations will be performed using functional questionnaires before and after the treatment protocols, in a reserved room with only the evaluator and participant present, and no time constraints placed on the answers or evaluations. The following functional tests will also be performed: stabilometry (balance assessment), dynamometry (muscle strength of gluteus medius and quadriceps), algometry (pain threshold), fleximeter (range of motion), timed up-and-go test (functional mobility), and the functional reach test. The participants will then be allocated to three groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: exercise program, exercise program?+?phototherapy, or exercise program?+?placebo phototherapy, all of which will last for eight weeks. Discussion The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to analyze the effect of the incorporation of phototherapy into a therapeutic exercise program for osteoarthritis of the knee. The study will support the practice based on evidence to the use of phototherapy in individuals with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee. Data will be published after the study is completed. Trial registration The protocol for this study has been submitted to Clinical Trials, registration number NCT02102347, on 29 March 2014. PMID:24919587

  14. Potato Chip Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

  15. High-efficiency rare cell identification on a high-density self-assembled cell arrangement chip

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsung-Ju; Wu, Jen-Kuei; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Fu, Chien-Yu; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chang, Hwan-You; Chieng, Ching-Chang; Tzeng, Chung-Yuh; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Detection of individual target cells among a large amount of blood cells is a major challenge in clinical diagnosis and laboratory protocols. Many researches show that two dimensional cells array technology can be incorporated into routine laboratory procedures for continuously and quantitatively measuring the dynamic behaviours of large number of living cells in parallel, while allowing other manipulations such as staining, rinsing, and even retrieval of targeted cells. In this study, we present a high-density cell self-assembly technology capable of quickly spreading over 300?000 cells to form a dense mono- to triple-layer cell arrangement in 5?min with minimal stacking of cells by the gentle incorporation of gravity and peripheral micro flow. With this self-assembled cell arrangement (SACA) chip technology, common fluorescent microscopy and immunofluorescence can be utilized for detecting and analyzing target cells after immuno-staining. Validated by experiments with real human peripheral blood samples, the SACA chip is suitable for detecting rare cells in blood samples with a ratio lower than 1/100?000. The identified cells can be isolated and further cultured in-situ on a chip for follow-on research and analysis. Furthermore, this technology does not require external mechanical devices, such as pump and valves, which simplifies operation and reduces system complexity and cost. The SACA chip offers a high-efficient, economical, yet simple scheme for identification and analysis of rare cells. Therefore, potentially SACA chip may provide a feasible and economical platform for rare cell detection in the clinic. PMID:24926391

  16. Lightweight Streaming Protocol (LSP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emir Mulabegovic; Dan Schonfeld; Rashid Ansari

    2002-01-01

    A new streaming protocol is proposed for multimedia applications. The proposed protocol, referred to as Lightweight Streaming Protocol (LSP), is an application layer protocol that sits atop UDP. The protocol is intended to improve the quality and reliability of media stream by borrowing features from reliable protocols such as retransmission and flow control while not sacrificing performance. The protocol offers

  17. Informing relatives about their hereditary or familial cancer risk: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic counseling for hereditary breast or colon cancer has implications for both counselees and their relatives. Although counselees are encouraged by genetic counselors to disclose genetic cancer risk information, they do not always share this information with their at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be generally categorized as a lack of knowledge, motivation and/or self-efficacy. Presented here is the protocol of a randomized controlled trial that aims to establish the effectiveness of an intervention focused on supporting counselees in their disclosure of genetic cancer information to their relatives. Methods/Design A multicenter randomized controlled trial with parallel group design will be used to compare the effects of an additional telephone counseling session performed by psychosocial workers to enhance the disclosure of genetic cancer information to at-risk relatives (intervention group) with a control group of standard care. Consecutive index patients with relatives at risk for hereditary or familial breast and/or ovarian cancer or colon cancer, are randomly assigned (block size: 8; 1:1 allocation ratio) to the intervention (n?=?132) or control group (n?=?132, standard care). Primary outcomes are counselees’ knowledge, motivation and self-efficacy regarding informing their relatives. Discussion This intervention may prove important in supporting counselees to disclose hereditary and/or familial cancer risk information to at-risk relatives and may enable more at-risk relatives to make a well-informed decision regarding genetic services and/or screening. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR) with trial ID number NTR3745. PMID:24649895

  18. A randomised controlled trial of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for psychosis: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis has been a prominent intervention in the psychological treatment of psychosis. It is, however, a challenging therapy to deliver and, in the context of increasingly rigorous trials, recent reviews have tempered initial enthusiasm about its effectiveness in improving clinical outcomes. Acceptance and commitment therapy shows promise as a briefer, more easily implemented therapy but has not yet been rigorously evaluated in the context of psychosis. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate whether Acceptance and Commitment Therapy could reduce the distress and disability associated with psychotic symptoms in a sample of community-residing patients with chronic medication-resistant symptoms. Methods/Design This is a single (rater)-blind multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with an active comparison condition, Befriending. Eligible participants have current residual hallucinations or delusions with associated distress or disability which have been present continuously over the past six months despite therapeutic doses of antipsychotic medication. Following baseline assessment, participants are randomly allocated to treatment condition with blinded, post-treatment assessments conducted at the end of treatment and at 6 months follow-up. The primary outcome is overall mental state as measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Secondary outcomes include preoccupation, conviction, distress and disruption to life associated with symptoms as measured by the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales, as well as social functioning and service utilisation. The main analyses will be by intention-to-treat using mixed-model repeated measures with non-parametric methods employed if required. The model of change underpinning ACT will be tested using mediation analyses. Discussion This protocol describes the first randomised controlled trial of Acceptance and commitment therapy in chronic medication-resistant psychosis with an active comparison condition. The rigor of the design will provide an important test of its action and efficacy in this population. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12608000210370. Date registered: 18 April 2008 PMID:25015368

  19. Use acupuncture to treat functional constipation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation. Design A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9?weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1) Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group); (2) He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group); (3) Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group). The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The first two of second outcomes are measured 1?week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8?weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1?week before randomization and 2 and 4?weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4?weeks after randomization. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012) will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it. Trials registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501 PMID:22759406

  20. MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS Study Group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11), funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR. Background Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort) and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented. Methods/Design Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford). Women with circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477) or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477). Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH)-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years. Discussion As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform public health policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. It will also provide a valuable resource in which to study the influence of maternal vitamin D status on other childhood outcomes such as glucose tolerance, blood pressure, cardiovascular function, IQ and immunology. PMID:22314083

  1. Decapsulation Method for Flip Chips with Ceramics in Microelectronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, T. I.; Duh, J. G.

    2008-06-01

    The decapsulation of flip chips bonded to ceramic substrates is a challenging task in the packaging industry owing to the vulnerability of the chip surface during the process. In conventional methods, such as manual grinding and polishing, the solder bumps are easily damaged during the removal of underfill, and the thin chip may even be crushed due to mechanical stress. An efficient and reliable decapsulation method consisting of thermal and chemical processes was developed in this study. The surface quality of chips after solder removal is satisfactory for the existing solder rework procedure as well as for die-level failure analysis. The innovative processes included heat-sink and ceramic substrate removal, solder bump separation, and solder residue cleaning from the chip surface. In the last stage, particular temperatures were selected for the removal of eutectic Pb-Sn, high-lead, and lead-free solders considering their respective melting points.

  2. Combining motivational and volitional strategies to promote unsupervised walking in patients with fibromyalgia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia patients are often advised to engage in regular low- to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The need of fibromyalgia patients to walk has been stressed in previous research. Behavioral self-regulation theories suggest that a combination of motivational aspects (to develop or strengthen a behavioral intention: Theory of Planned Behavior) and volitional aspects (engagement of intention in behavior: implementation intentions) is more effective than a single intervention. In this paper, we describe a protocol for identifying the motivational processes (using the Theory of Planned Behavior) involved in the practice of walking (phase I) and for studying the efficacy of an intervention that combines motivational and volitional contents to enhance the acquisition and continuation of this exercise behavior (phase II). The paper also shows the characteristics of eligible individuals (women who do not walk) and ineligible populations (women who walk or do not walk because of comorbidity without medical recommendation to walk). Both groups consist of members of any of four patients’ associations in Spain who are between 18 and 70 years of age and meet the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire criteria for fibromyalgia. Furthermore, using this study protocol, we will explore the characteristics of participants (eligible women who agreed to participate in the study) and nonparticipants (eligible women who refused to participate). Methods/design Two studies will be conducted: Phase I will be a cross-sectional study, and phase II will be a triple-blind, randomized longitudinal study with two treatment groups and one active control group. The questionnaires were sent to a total of 2,227 members of four patients’ associations in Spain. A total of 920 participants with fibromyalgia returned the questionnaires, and 582 were ultimately selected to participate. Discussion The first data gathered have allowed us to identify the characteristics of the study population and they support the appropriateness of the inclusion criteria.. When the study is complete, the results will enable us to establish whether this kind of intervention can be used as a self-regulation tool for increasing and maintaining walking as unsupervised physical exercise of low to moderate intensity in fibromyalgia patients. Trial registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN68584893 PMID:24721143

  3. Thermal Chip Evaluation of IC Packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. McLaughlin; N. Fitzroy

    1972-01-01

    In order to experimentally evaluate the thermal effects of changes in integrated circuit (lC) packaging, a thermal chip was designed and tested. The thermal chip replaces a working chip in an lC package. It provides a method for measurement of temperatures on a chip where the heat input simulates that of a working chip. Temperature distribution can be obtained by

  4. A study protocol to investigate the management of depression and challenging behaviors associated with dementia in aged care settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The high occurrence and under-treatment of clinical depression and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) within aged care settings is concerning, yet training programs aimed at improving the detection and management of these problems have generally been ineffective. This article presents a study protocol to evaluate a training intervention for facility managers/registered nurses working in aged care facilities that focuses on organisational processes and culture as well as knowledge, skills and self-efficacy. Methods A Randomised Control Trial (RCT) will be implemented across 18 aged care facilities (divided into three conditions). Participants will be senior registered nurses and personal care attendants employed in the aged care facility. The first condition will receive the training program (Staff as Change Agents – Enhancing and Sustaining Mental Health in Aged Care), the second condition will receive the training program and clinical support, and the third condition will receive no intervention. Results Pre-, post-, 6-month and 12-month follow-up measures of staff and residents will be used to demonstrate how upskilling clinical leaders using our transformational training approach, as well as the use of a structured screening, referral and monitoring protocol, can address the mental health needs of older people in residential care. Conclusions The expected outcome of this study is the validation of an evidence-based training program to improve the management of depression and BPSD among older people in residential care settings by establishing routine practices related to mental health. This relatively brief but highly focussed training package will be readily rolled out to a larger number of residential care facilities at a relatively low cost. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): The Universal Trial Number (UTN) is U1111-1141-0109. PMID:24047236

  5. Study protocol for the evaluation of an Infant Simulator based program delivered in schools: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school based program developed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program includes students taking care of an Infant Simulator; despite growing popularity and an increasing global presence of such programs, there is no published evidence of their long-term impact. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) program by investigating pre-conceptual health and risk behaviours, teen pregnancy and the resultant birth outcomes, early child health and maternal health. Methods and Design Fifty-seven schools (86% of 66 eligible secondary schools) in Perth, Australia were recruited to the clustered (by school) randomised trial, with even randomisation to the intervention and control arms. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP program was administered to 1,267 participants in the intervention schools, while 1,567 participants in the non-intervention schools received standard curriculum. Participants were all female and aged between 13-15 years upon recruitment. Pre and post-intervention questionnaires measured short-term impact and participants are now being followed through their teenage years via data linkage to hospital medical records, abortion clinics and education records. Participants who have a live birth are interviewed by face-to-face interview. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and proportional hazards regression will test for differences in pregnancy, birth and abortion rates during the teenage years between the study arms. Discussion This protocol paper provides a detailed overview of the trial design as well as initial results in the form of participant flow. The authors describe the intervention and its delivery within the natural school setting and discuss the practical issues in the conduct of the trial, including recruitment. The trial is pragmatic and will directly inform those who provide Infant Simulator based programs in school settings. Trial registration ISRCTN24952438 PMID:20964860

  6. Gene expression in the rat brain during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep: an Affymetrix GeneChip® study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Terao; J. P. Wisor; C. Peyron; A. Apte-Deshpande; S. W. Wurts; D. M. Edgar; T. S. Kilduff

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that macromolecular synthesis in the brain is modulated in association with the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness. Similarly, the spectral composition of electroencephalographic activity that occurs during sleep is dependent on the duration of prior wakefulness. Since this homeostatic relationship between wake and sleep is highly conserved across mammalian species, genes that are truly involved in

  7. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  8. Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Wolf

    2006-01-01

    Moore?s Law has reached the point at which we can build single-chips with multiple processors and significant amounts of memory. Multiprocessor systems-on-chips (MPSoCs) have opened up new application areas, such as low-power and real-time embedded systems. This talk will review the architectures of multiprocessor systems-on-chips and the design methodologies used to create them. MPSoCs make use of advanced processors, memory

  9. Heavy Lifting at Work and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: Protocol for a Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are theoretical grounds to suspect that heavy lifting at work is an important risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However the relationship has not been sufficiently acknowledged by empirical studies. Positive and statistically significant associations have been found in studies that utilize self-reported exposure data. Such studies are, however, prone to reporting bias. All else equal, people with a poor cardiovascular fitness/health may have a higher propensity to perceive their work environment as heavy. Objective The study described in the present protocol aims to investigate the relationship between heavy lifting at work and IHD by use of material and methods that are free from reporting bias. Methods This is a register-based prospective cohort study. Male blue-collar workers in Denmark will be identified and followed through national registers, from 2001-2010, for hospital treatment or death due to IHD. Relative rates of IHD between “workers in occupations likely to involve heavy lifting” and “other blue-collar workers” will be estimated through Poisson regression. Results Results are expected to be ready in mid-2015. Conclusions Since this is not a randomized study, it cannot confirm etiological hypotheses. It may, however, confirm that employment in occupations that involve heavy lifting is a predictor for IHD and thereby lend support to the hypothesis of a causal relationship. PMID:25164612

  10. Insitu scanning electron microscope comparison studies on electromigration of Cu and Cu(Sn) alloys for advanced chip interconnects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Lee; C. K. Hu; K. N. Tu

    1995-01-01

    A high-resolution insitu SEM (scanning electron microscope) has been configured for real time comparison studies of the electromigration characteristics of Cu and Cu(Sn) alloys. Drift velocity test structures were fabricated and used to simulate the Cu line\\/W via structure in the multilevel interconnects. Electromigration comparison testings were carried out over a temperature range of 250 to 450 °C and current

  11. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Poststroke Patients with Upper Limb Hemiparesis: Preliminary Study of a 15-Day Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients. Fifteen poststroke patients (age at study entry 55 [plus…

  12. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  13. Validation protocol of an automated in-line flow-through diffusion equipment for in vitro permeation studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Córdoba-D??az; M Nova; B Elorza; D Córdoba-D??az; J. R Chantres; M Córdoba-Borrego

    2000-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery experiments are often tedious and time consuming in terms of sampling, labor, etc. In this way, the automation of such experiments has increased in the last few years. A protocol suitable to validate an automated diffusion equipment with seven in-line flow-through cells is described. The proposed protocol was divided into two parts. First, validation of each component

  14. A multimethod research investigation of consumer involvement in Australian health service accreditation programmes: the ACCREDIT-SCI study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Mumford, Virginia; Pawsey, Marjorie; Irene Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health service accreditation programmes are a regulatory mechanism adopted to drive improvements inpatient safety and quality. Research investigating the benefits or limitations, of consumer involvement in accreditation programmes is negligible. To develop our knowledge in this area the ACCREDIT collaboration (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) has developed a research plan, known as the ACCREDIT-SCI (Standards of Consumer Involvement) study protocol. Two complementary studies have been designed: one, to examine the effectiveness of a standard for consumer participation and two, to explore how patient experiences vary across a range of settings with differing accreditation results. Methods and design The research setting is the Australian healthcare system, and the two studies focus on three accreditation programmes in the primary, acute and aged care domains. The studies will use multimethods: document analysis; interviews and surveys. Participants will be stakeholders across the three domains including: policy officers; frontline healthcare professionals; accreditation agency personnel, including surveyors and healthcare consumers. Drawing on previous experience, the research team has developed purpose-designed tools. Data will be analysed using thematic, narrative and statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the two studies (HREC 10274). Findings will be disseminated through seminars, conference presentations, academic publications and research partner websites. The findings will be formulated to facilitate uptake by policy and accreditation agency professionals, researchers and academics, and consumers, nationally and internationally. PMID:23059848

  15. Flip chip molding - highly reliable flip chip encapsulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Braun; K.-F. Becker; M. Koch; V. Bader; R. Aschenbrenner; H. Reichl

    2002-01-01

    Flip chip technology has the shortest interconnect length for minimum signal disturbance and simultaneous interconnection leading to reduced process times especially for high I\\/O counts and for RF applications. Flip chip technology allows for reliabilities required for automotive applications, but to achieve this goal, a plastic encapsulant, the so called underfiller, has to be used. New material developments for transfer

  16. Flip Chip molding - Recent progress in flip chip encapsulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Braun; K.-F. Becker; M. Koch; V. Bader; R. Aschenbrenner; H. Reichl

    2002-01-01

    As the development of microelectronics is still driving towards further miniaturization, Flip Chip technology has been widely accepted as a means for. maximum miniaturization with additional advantages. These are shortest interconnect length for minimum signal disturbance and simultaneous interconnection leading to reduced process times especially for high I\\/O counts and for RF applications. Flip Chip technology allows for reliabilities required

  17. Study of failure mechanisms for InGaN light-emitting diode chips with patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chia-Hung; Huang, Man-Fang; Yang, Hsu-Han; Chen, Fang-Ming; Chen, Tzung-Te

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated the failure mechanisms of blue InGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates and demonstrated the influence of patterned sapphire substrates on the reliability of GaN LED by comparing with conventional LEDs grown on planar sapphire substrates. From experimental results, we found that InGaN LEDs grown on patterned substrates had a higher turn-on voltage but a smaller series resistance compared with conventional LEDs owing to rough inner patterns and small threading dislocation density. Both samples were then acceleratedly aged under a high DC current for two hours. Failure modes were studied with various measurements taken before and after aging. From the power evolution performance, we found that output power of LEDs with patterned substrates increased slightly due to fewer defects while output power of conventional LEDs decayed. This can be inferred from small reverse leakage currents and tunneling currents observed from Log I-V characteristics and EMMI measurement of P-LEDs. A slight redshift in emission wavelength was also found during aging because of possible leakage shunt paths caused by defect generation. Moreover, operation voltage increased slightly after aging which was caused by contact degradation induced by thermal annealing.

  18. Continuous variable entanglement on a chip

    E-print Network

    Genta Masada; Kazunori Miyata; Alberto Politi; Toshikazu Hashimoto; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Akira Furusawa

    2015-05-29

    Encoding quantum information in continuous variables (CV)---as the quadrature of electromagnetic fields---is a powerful approach to quantum information science and technology. CV entanglement---light beams in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) states---is a key resource for quantum information protocols; and enables hybridisation between CV and single photon discrete variable (DV) qubit systems. However, CV systems are currently limited by their implementation in free-space optical networks: increased complexity, low loss, high-precision alignment and stability, as well as hybridisation, demand an alternative approach. Here we show an integrated photonic implementation of the key capabilities for CV quantum technologies---generation and characterisation of EPR beams in a photonic chip. Combined with integrated squeezing and non-Gaussian operation, these results open the way to universal quantum information processing with light.

  19. Sampling and analysis protocols and project description for the Integrated Forest Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Lindberg; D. W. Johnson; G. M. Lovett; H. Van Miegroet; G. E. Jr. Taylor; J. G. Owens; Cary Arboretum; NY Millbrook

    1989-01-01

    The principal objective of the Integrated Forest Study is to determine the effects of atmospheric deposition of major ions on forest nutrient cycling. The research has been conducted at forested sites in the northwestern, northeastern, and southeastern United States and in Canada and Norway. The sites selected for this study represent a range of conditions in climate, air quality, soils,

  20. Geriatric rehabilitation of stroke patients in nursing homes: a study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Spruit-van Eijk; Bianca I Buijck; Sytse U Zuidema; Frans LM Voncken; Alexander CH Geurts; Raymond TCM Koopmans

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Geriatric patients are typically underrepresented in studies on the functional outcome of rehabilitation after stroke. Moreover, most geriatric stroke patients do probably not participate in intensive rehabilitation programs as offered by rehabilitation centers. As a result, very few studies have described the successfulness of geriatric stroke rehabilitation in nursing home patients, although it appears that the majority of these

  1. Wavefront image sensor chip

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiquan; Ren, Jian; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Changhuei

    2010-01-01

    We report the implementation of an image sensor chip, termed wavefront image sensor chip (WIS), that can measure both intensity/amplitude and phase front variations of a light wave separately and quantitatively. By monitoring the tightly confined transmitted light spots through a circular aperture grid in a high Fresnel number regime, we can measure both intensity and phase front variations with a high sampling density (11 µm) and high sensitivity (the sensitivity of normalized phase gradient measurement is 0.1 mrad under the typical working condition). By using WIS in a standard microscope, we can collect both bright-field (transmitted light intensity) and normalized phase gradient images. Our experiments further demonstrate that the normalized phase gradient images of polystyrene microspheres, unstained and stained starfish embryos, and strongly birefringent potato starch granules are improved versions of their corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope images in that they are artifact-free and quantitative. Besides phase microscopy, WIS can benefit machine recognition, object ranging, and texture assessment for a variety of applications. PMID:20721059

  2. A single cell electroporation chip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Khine; Adrian Lau; Cristian Ionescu-Zanetti; Jeonggi Seo; Luke P. Lee

    2005-01-01

    Increasing the cell membrane's permeability can be accomplished via single cell electroporation. Polar substances that cannot otherwise permeate the plasma membrane (such as dyes, drugs, DNA, proteins, peptides, and amino acids) can thus be introduced into the cell. We developed a polymeric chip that can selectively immobilize and locally electroporate single cells. This easy-to- use chip focuses the electric field,

  3. Flip chip chip scale packaging: transferring the flip chip density requirements from the motherboard to the chip carrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon G. Aday; Corey Koehler; Ted Tessier; Burt Carpenter; Yushi Matsuda; Claire Estes

    1998-01-01

    Area array packages allow the user to integrate greater functionality into smaller form factor products. These products must use low cost, compact, lightweight and highly reliable packaging solutions or migrate directly to flip chip attach. Many companies are performing flip chip attach directly to motherboards to achieve increased functionality and performance, but this increases the complexity of the substrate technology

  4. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': Study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a quasi-experimental design before, many program changes were made afterwards. The present study, therefore, aims to test the effects of this widely used, renewed universal prevention program. Methods/Design A randomized clustered trial will be conducted among 3,784 adolescents of 23 secondary schools in The Netherlands. The trial has three conditions; two intervention conditions (i.e., e-learning and integral) and a control condition. The e-learning condition consists of three digital learning modules (i.e., about alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) that are sequentially offered over the course of three school years (i.e., grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3). The integral condition consists of parental participation in a parental meeting on substance use, regulation of substance use, and monitoring and counseling of students' substance use at school, over and above the three digital modules. The control condition is characterized as business as usual. Participating schools were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Participants filled out a digital questionnaire at baseline and will fill out the same questionnaire three more times at follow-up measurements (8, 20, and 32 months after baseline). Outcome variables included in the questionnaire are the percentage of binge drinking (more than five drinks per occasion), the average weekly number of drinks, and the percentage of adolescents who ever drunk a glass of alcohol and the percentage of adolescents who ever smoked a cigarette or a joint respectively for tobacco and marijuana. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized clustered trial that evaluates the effectiveness of a school-based prevention program. We expect that significantly fewer adolescents will engage in early or excessive substance use behaviors in the intervention conditions compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. We expect that the integral condition will yield most positive results, compared with the e-learning condition and control condition. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Nederlands Trial Register NTR1516 PMID:20825669

  5. Imputation of class I and II HLA loci using high-density SNPs from ImmunoChip and their associations with Kawasaki disease in family-based study.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, S; Wiener, H W; Aissani, B; Shendre, A; Tang, J; Portman, M A

    2015-06-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in most developed countries including the United States. The etiology of KD is not known; however, epidemiological and immunological data suggest infectious or immune-related factors in the manifestation of the disease. Further, KD has several hereditary features that strongly suggest a genetic component to disease pathogenesis. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) loci have also been reported to be associated with KD, but results have been inconsistent, in part, because of small study samples and varying linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns observed across different ethnic groups. To maximize the informativeness of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes in the major histocompatibility (MHC) region, we imputed classical HLA I (A, B, C) and HLA II (DRB1, DQA1, DQB1) alleles using SNP2HLA method from genotypes of 6700 SNPs within the extended MHC region contained in the ImmunoChip among 112 White patients with KD and their biological parents from North America and tested their association with KD susceptibility using the transmission disequilibrium test. Mendelian consistency in the trios suggested high accuracy and reliability of the imputed alleles (class I = 97.5%, class II = 96.6%). While several SNPs in the MHC region were individually associated with KD susceptibility, we report over-transmission of HLA-C*15 (z = +2.19, P = 0.03) and under-transmission of HLA-B*44 (z = -2.49, P = 0.01) alleles from parents to patients with KD. HLA-B*44 has been associated with KD in other smaller studies, and both HLA-C*15 and HLA-B*44 have biological mechanisms that could potentially be involved in KD pathogenesis. Overall, inferring HLA loci within the same ethnic group, using family-based information is a powerful approach. However, studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to evaluate the correlations of the strength and directions between the SNPs in MHC region and the imputed HLA alleles with KD. PMID:25809546

  6. GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH HOUSE STUDIES OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM, VOLUME 2: MODEL-BACKED EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINING RADON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides guidance and a readily available reference to groups involved with the Florida Radon Research Program's (FRRP's) research house studies. It includes: 1): Lists of Parameters for continuous and periodic high and low resolution measurements; (2) Protocols for c...

  7. GUIDANCE FOR RESEARCH HOUSE STUDIES OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM, VOLUME 2: MODEL-BACKED EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINING RADON RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides guidance and a readily available reference to groups involved with the Florida Radon Research Program's (FRRP's) research house studies. t includes: 1): Lists of Parameters for continuous and periodic high and low resolution measurements; (2) Protocols for cha...

  8. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--NHEXAS TIME/ACTIVITY DIARY PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOL (EOHSI-AP-209-301)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol describes the method for processing and analyzing data from the Time/Activity Questionnaire to be used by target individuals in each household participating in the NHEXAS pilot study. The primary objective of the time line is to help identify the participant's use o...

  9. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--NHEXAS TIME/ACTIVITY DIARY COLLECTION PROTOCOL (EOHSI-AP-209-300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol describes the development and use of the Time/Activity Questionnaire used by target individuals in each household participating in the NHEXAS pilot study. The questionnaire consists of two parts. The first part is a one-sheet record of the time and location of daily...

  10. A Qualitative Study of the Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs): An Assessment of the Use of TIPs by Individuals Affiliated with the Addiction Technology Transfer Centers (ATTCs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Susan W.; Suzuki, Marcia; Hubbard, Susan M.; Huang, Judy Y.; Cobb, Anita M.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the Addiction Technology Transfer Centers (ATTCs) of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) as a means of diffusion of innovations, focusing on use of the Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs). Qualitative studies at 6 ATTCs that included 57 interviews show that the CSAT is at the forefront of providing resources to the…

  11. The QUIT-PRIMO provider-patient Internet-delivered smoking cessation referral intervention: a cluster-randomized comparative effectiveness trial: study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas K Houston; Rajani S Sadasivam; Daniel E Ford; Joshua Richman; Midge N Ray; Jeroan J Allison

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although screening for tobacco use is increasing with electronic health records and standard protocols, other tobacco-control activities, such as referral of patients to cessation resources, is quite low. In the QUIT-PRIMO study, an online referral portal will allow providers to enter smokers' email addresses into the system. Upon returning home, the smokers will receive automated emails providing education about

  12. Longitudinal evaluation of dementia care in German nursing homes: the “DemenzMonitor” study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Germany, the number of people with dementia living in nursing homes is rapidly increasing. Providing adequate care for their special needs is a challenge for institutions and their staff members. Because of the growing number of people with dementia, changes to the conceptual orientation of nursing homes have occurred. These changes include specialized living arrangements and psychosocial interventions recommended for people with dementia. Until now, the provision of dementia care and its association to the residents’ behavior and quality of life is not well investigated in Germany. The purpose of this study is to describe the provision of dementia care and to identify resident- as well as facility-related factors associated with residents behavior and quality of life. Methods/Design The DemenzMonitor study is designed as a longitudinal study that is repeated annually. Data will be derived from a convenience sample consisting of nursing homes across Germany. For the data collection, three questionnaires have been developed that measure information on the level of the nursing home, the living units, and the residents. Data collection will be performed by staff members from the nursing homes. The data collection procedure will be supervised by a study coordinator who is trained by the research team. Data analysis will be performed on each data level using appropriate techniques for descriptions and comparisons as well as longitudinal regression analysis. Discussion The DemenzMonitor is the first study in Germany that assesses how dementia care is provided in nursing homes with respect to living arrangements and recommended interventions. This study links the acquired data with residents’ outcome measurements, making it possible to evaluate different aspects and concepts of care. PMID:24237990

  13. Evaluating newly acquired authority of nurse practitioners and physician assistants for reserved medical procedures in the Netherlands: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    De Bruijn-Geraets, Daisy P; Van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne JL; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2014-01-01

    Aim The study protocol is designed to evaluate the effects of granting independent authorization for medical procedures to nurse practitioners and physician assistants on processes and outcomes of health care. Background Recent (temporarily) enacted legislation in Dutch health care authorizes nurse practitioners and physician assistants to indicate and perform specified medical procedures, i.e. catheterization, cardioversion, defibrillation, endoscopy, injection, puncture, prescribing and simple surgical procedures, independently. Formerly, these procedures were exclusively reserved to physicians, dentists and midwives. Design A triangulation mixed method design is used to collect quantitative (surveys) and qualitative (interviews) data. Methods Outcomes are selected from evidence-based frameworks and models for assessing the impact of advanced nursing on quality of health care. Data are collected in various manners. Surveys are structured around the domains: (i) quality of care; (ii) costs; (iii) healthcare resource use; and (iv) patient centredness. Focus group and expert interviews aim to ascertain facilitators and barriers to the implementation process. Data are collected before the amendment of the law, 1 and 2·5 years thereafter. Groups of patients, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, supervising physicians and policy makers all participate in this national study. The study is supported by a grant from the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport in March 2011. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained in July 2011. Conclusion This study will provide information about the effects of granting independent authorization for medical procedures to nurse practitioners and physician assistants on processes and outcomes of health care. Study findings aim to support policy makers and other stakeholders in making related decisions. The study design enables a cross-national comparative analysis. PMID:24684631

  14. Negotiating a Research Protocol for Studying School-Based Gay and Lesbian Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Randal; Rogers, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    The nature of public schooling, particularly at the early and middle childhood levels, makes designing critical qualitative studies around gay and lesbian issues in the school context problematic at best. This article provides a retrospective dialogue between an associate professor and her then Ph.D. candidate advisee that reflects on the tension…

  15. A CASE STUDY OF LEAD IN DRINKING WATER: PROTOCOL, METHODS, AND INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Davis

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to determine whether lead (Pb) in drinking water exceeded acceptable levels at a manufacturing and research site. Recent research indicates the possibility of abnormal adolescent development if the mother's blood lead levels exceed 15?µg lead per dL of whole blood. Using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates of average consumption and ratios combating the amount of

  16. Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project

    PubMed Central

    Lillehagen, Ida; Vøllestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. Methods and analysis The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. Ethics and dissemination The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations. PMID:23959758

  17. Analysing Texts in Context: Current Practices and New Protocols for Critical Discourse Analysis in Organization Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley Leitch; Ian Palmer

    2010-01-01

    abstract Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in organization studies would be strengthened by an increased focus on a central CDA tenet that texts should be analysed in context. Context has, for the most part, been afforded a taken-for-granted status that is misplaced because of the diverse ways in which it may be defined and applied. These generally unacknowledged differences relate to

  18. Translation Strategies of EFL Student Teachers: A Think Aloud Protocol-Based Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2004-01-01

    The main concern of the present study is to investigate the strategies followed by the EFL students in the translation process. This problem has been dealt with through answering the following two questions: 1- What are the strategies followed by the EFL student teachers in the translation process?; 2 - What are the educational implications for…

  19. WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study: protocol design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Gail G; Hirschman, Jay D; Owens, Tameka A; McNutt, Suzanne W; Sallack, Linnea E

    2014-03-01

    The federal Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), which began in the 1970s, has undergone revisions in the past several years, including revision to contents of the supplemental food "packages" in 2009 based on recommendations provided by an Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee of The National Academies. In 2010, the IOM held a workshop to examine and recommend research priorities for the program. The overall purpose of the current (ie, second) WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study (ITFPS-2) is to conduct a nationally representative, longitudinal study of contemporary WIC infant and toddler feeding practices. This study will update earlier studies and collect information on variations in WIC program components. The study will also assess ways in which WIC may address obesity in early childhood and examine changes in feeding practices that may stem from the 2009 food package revisions. The sample is drawn from the universe of WIC sites nationally, excluding only those with an insufficient volume of eligible participants. Eligibility for the study includes the ability to be interviewed in English or Spanish. Approximately 8000 women and infants are being sampled, and ? 4000 are expected to participate. Eligible women are invited to participate during their WIC enrollment visit, and informed consent is sought. The design includes a core sample to be followed until the infant reaches age 2 y and a supplemental sample to be used in some cross-sectional analyses to ensure adequate representation of groups that might be underrepresented in the core sample. Participants will complete up to 11 interviews (core sample) or 4 interviews (supplemental sample) each except for the prenatal interview, which includes a quantitative 24-h recall of food intake for the infant. Eighty sites have been sampled across 26 states and 1 territory. Instruments have been developed and pretested in both English and Spanish, and interviewers have been rigorously trained. Recruitment and interviewing began in July 2013. This study will provide the only current large-sample longitudinal feeding data available on a nationally representative sample of infants in low-income families, and results will be available to inform the 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for the 0- to 24-mo age group. PMID:24477040

  20. Improving the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Primary Health Care: The Model for Prevention Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Rachel C; Cochrane, Thomas; Williams, Lauren T; Clancy, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally, and accounted for nearly 31% of all deaths in Australia in 2011. The primary health care sector is at the frontline for addressing CVD, however, an evidence-to-practice gap exists in CVD risk assessment and management. General practice plays a key role in CVD risk assessment and management, but this sector cannot provide ongoing lifestyle change support in isolation. Community-based lifestyle modification services and programs provided outside the general practice setting have a key role in supporting and sustaining health behavior change. Fostering linkages between the health sector and community-based lifestyle services, and creating sustainable systems that support these sectors is important. Objective The objective of the study Model for Prevention (MoFoP) is to take a case study approach to examine a CVD risk reduction intervention in primary health care, with the aim of identifying the key elements required for an effective and sustainable approach to coordinate CVD risk reduction across the health and community sectors. These elements will be used to consider a new systems-based model for the prevention of CVD that informs future practice. Methods The MoFoP study will use a mixed methods approach, comprising two complementary research elements: (1) a case study, and (2) a pre/post quasi-experimental design. The case study will consider the organizations and systems involved in a CVD risk reduction intervention as a single case. The pre/post experimental design will be used for HeartLink, the intervention being tested, where a single cohort of patients between 45 and 74 years of age (or between 35 and 74 years of age if Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander) considered to be at high risk for a CVD event will be recruited through general practice, provided with enhanced usual care and additional health behavior change support. A range of quantitative and qualitative data will be collected. This will include individual health and well being data collected at baseline and again at 12 months for HeartLink participants, and systems related data collected over the period of the intervention to inform the case study. Results The intervention is currently underway, with results expected in late 2015. Conclusions Gaining a better understanding of CVD prevention in primary health care requires a research approach that can capture and express its complexity. The MoFoP study aims to identify the key elements for effective CVD prevention across the health and community sectors, and to develop a model to better inform policy and practice in this key health priority area for Australia. PMID:25008232

  1. Touch screen computer health assessment in Australian general practice patients: a cross-sectional study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mariko Leanne; Sanson-Fisher, Robert William; Russell, Grant; Mazza, Danielle; Makeham, Meredith; Paul, Christine Louise; Inder, Kerry Jane; D'Este, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are leading causes of death globally. Early detection of cancer and risk factors for CVD may improve health outcomes and reduce mortality. General practitioners (GPs) are accessed by the majority of the population and play a key role in the prevention and early detection of chronic disease risk factors. This cross-sectional study aims to assess the acceptability of an electronic method of data collection in general practice patients. The study will describe the proportion screened in line with guidelines for CVD risk factors and cancer as well as report the prevalence of depression, lifestyle risk factors, level of provision of preconception care, cervical cancer vaccination and bone density testing. Lastly, the study will assess the level of agreement between GPs and patients perception regarding presence of risk factors and screening. Methods and analysis The study has been designed to maximise recruitment of GPs by including practitioners in the research team, minimising participation burden on GPs and offering remuneration for participation. Patient recruitment will be carried out by a research assistant located in general practice waiting rooms. Participants will be asked regarding the acceptability of the touch screen computer and to report on a range of health risk and preventive behaviours using the touch screen computer. GPs will complete a one-page survey indicating their perception of the presence of risk behaviours in their patients. Descriptive statistics will be generated to describe the acceptability of the touch screen and prevalence of health risk behaviours. Cohen's ? will be used to assess agreement between GP and patient perception of presence of health risk behaviours. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the human research committees in participating universities. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations as well as practice summaries provided to participating practices. PMID:22761290

  2. Cluster randomized, controlled trial on patient safety improvement in general practice: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An open, constructive safety culture is key in healthcare since it is seen as a main condition for patient safety. Studies have examined culture improvement strategies in hospitals. In primary care, however, not much is known about effective strategies to improve the safety culture yet. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two patient safety culture interventions: a patient safety culture questionnaire solely, the SCOPE, or the SCOPE questionnaire combined with a patient safety workshop. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and design of this trial. Methods/design The SCOPE Intervention Study is a cluster randomized, three-armed controlled trial, that will be conducted in 30 general practices in the Netherlands. Ten practices in the first intervention arm will complete the SCOPE questionnaire and are expected to draw and implement their own improvement initiatives based on a computerised feedback report. In the second intervention arm, staff of the ten practices also will be asked to complete the SCOPE questionnaire and in addition will be given a complementary workshop. This workshop is theoretical and interactive, educating staff and facilitating discussion, leading to a practice specific action plan for patient safety improvement. The results of the SCOPE questionnaire are incorporated in the workshop. The ten practices in the control arm continue care as usual. Baseline and follow-up measurements will be conducted with an implementation period of one year. The primary outcome will include the number of incidents reported and secondary several quality and safety indicators and the patient safety culture. Moreover, interviews will be conducted at follow-up to evaluate the implementation process of the intervention. Discussion Results of this study will give insight in the effect of administering a culture questionnaire or the questionnaire with a complementary workshop. This knowledge will aid implementation of patient safety tools and future research. Attention has been given to the strengths and limitations of the study. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3277. PMID:23984840

  3. The Relative Effectiveness of Pumps Over MDI and Structured Education (REPOSE): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Waugh, Norman; Elliott, Jackie; Lawton, Julia; Barnard, Katharine; Campbell, Michael J; Dixon, Simon; Heller, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction People with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) require insulin therapy to sustain life, and need optimal glycaemic control to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis and serious long-term complications. Insulin is generally administered using multiple daily injections but can also be delivered using an infusion pump (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion), a more costly option with benefits for some patients. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommend the use of pumps for patients with the greatest need, citing insufficient evidence to approve extension to a wider population. Far fewer UK adults use pumps than in comparable countries. Previous trials of pump therapy have been small and of short duration and failed to control for training in insulin adjustment. This paper describes the protocol for a large randomised controlled trial comparing pump therapy with multiple daily injections, where both groups are provided with high-quality structured education. Methods and analysis A multicentre, parallel group, cluster randomised controlled trial among 280 adults with T1DM. All participants attended the week-long dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) structured education course, and receive either multiple daily injections or pump therapy for 2?years. The trial incorporates a detailed mixed-methods psychosocial evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis. The primary outcome will be the change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at 24?months in those participants whose baseline HbA1c is at or above 7.5% (58?mmol/mol). The key secondary outcome will be the proportion of participants reaching the NICE target of an HbA1c of 7.5% (58?mmol/mol) or less at 24?months. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Committee North West, Liverpool East and received Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) clinical trials authorisation. Each participating centre gave National Health Service R&D approval. We shall disseminate study findings to study participants and through peer reviewed publications and conference presentations, including lay user groups. Trial registration number ISRCTN 61215213. PMID:25186159

  4. Development of an Accelerated Weathering Protocol using Weatherometers for Reliability Study of Mini-Modules and Encapsulation Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the needs, reasoning, approaches, and technical details to establish a practical accelerated weathering test (AWT) protocol for indoor testing of the photothermal stability of encapsulation materials and encapsulated solar cells and minimodules.

  5. Proving safety properties of an aircraft landing protocol using timed and untimed I/O automata : a case study

    E-print Network

    Umeno, Shinya

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents an assertional-style verification of the aircraft landing protocol of NASA's SATS (Small Aircraft Transportation System) concept of operation using the timed and untimed I/O automata frameworks. We ...

  6. Social and economic impact of diabetics in Bangladesh: protocol for a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes affects both individuals and their families and has an impact on economic and social development of a country. Information on the availability, cost, and quality of medical care for diabetes is mostly not available for many low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Complications from diabetes, which can be devastating, could largely be prevented by wider use of several inexpensive generic medicines, simple tests and monitoring and can be a cost saving intervention. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetes in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetes. The objectives of the study are: 1) To study the association between diabetes and other health problems and its social impacts 2) To estimate the economic impact of diabetes including total direct and indirect costs 3) To measure the impact of diabetes on quality of life among diabetes patients in Bangladesh 4) To study the impact of diabetes on the health care system Methods This is a case–control study comparing cases with type 2 diabetes to controls without diabetes matched on age, sex and place of residence. 564 cases and 564 controls will be selected from the outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data on socioeconomic status, health utility index, direct and indirect costs for diabetes, medication adherence, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, diet, physical activity, mental state examination, weight, height, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, pulse, medication history, laboratory data and physical examination will be conducted. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures will be association between diabetes and other health problems, cost of diabetes, impact of diabetes on quality of life and secondary outcome measures are impact of diabetes on healthcare systems in Bangladesh. Discussion This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetics in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetics. It will help to develop programs and policies for better management of Diabetics and cost effective strategies in Bangladesh context. PMID:24359558

  7. The world health organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health. Methods/Design This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries. Discussion Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal near-miss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with governments, professionals and civil societies, health systems or facilities for promoting best practices, improving quality of care and achieving better health for mothers and children. PMID:22029735

  8. Diagnosis delay and follow-up strategies in colorectal cancer. Prognosis implications: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Controversy exists with regard to the impact that the different components of diagnosis delay may have on the degree of invasion and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. The follow-up strategies after treatment also vary considerably. The aims of this study are: a) to determine if the symptoms-to-diagnosis interval and the treatment delay modify the survival of patients with colorectal cancer, and b) to determine if different follow-up strategies are associated with a higher survival rate. Methods/Design Multi-centre study with prospective follow-up in five regions in Spain (Galicia, Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Aragón and Valencia) during the period 2010-2012. Incident cases are included with anatomopathological confirmation of colorectal cancer (International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes 153-154) that formed a part of a previous study (n = 953). At the time of diagnosis, each patient was given a structured interview. Their clinical records will be reviewed during the follow-up period in order to obtain information on the explorations and tests carried out after treatment, and the progress of these patients. Symptoms-to-diagnosis interval is defined as the time calculated from the diagnosis of cancer and the first symptoms attributed to cancer. Treatment delay is defined as the time elapsed between diagnosis and treatment. In non-metastatic patients treated with curative intention, information will be obtained during the follow-up period on consultations performed in the digestive, surgery and oncology departments, as well as the endoscopies, tumour markers and imaging procedures carried out. Local recurrence, development of metastases in the follow-up, appearance of a new tumour and mortality will be included as outcome variables. Actuarial survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression and competitive risk survival analysis will be performed. Discussion This study will make it possible to verify if the different components of delay have an impact on survival rate in colon cancer and rectal cancer. In consequence, this multi-centre study will be able to detect the variability present in the follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer, and if this variability modifies the prognosis. Ideally, this study could determine which follow-up strategies are associated with a better prognosis in colorectal cancer. PMID:20920369

  9. Extended-duration rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients: MAGELLAN study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Thomas Cohen; Theodore Erich Spiro; Harry Roger Büller; Lloyd Haskell; Dayi Hu; Russell Hull; Alexandre Mebazaa; Geno Merli; Sebastian Schellong; Alex Spyropoulos; Victor Tapson

    2011-01-01

    Patients with acute medical illnesses are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), a significant cause of morbidity\\u000a and mortality. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended in these patients but questions remain regarding the optimal duration of\\u000a therapy. The aim of this study is to determine whether oral rivaroxaban is non-inferior to standard-duration (approximately\\u000a 10 days) subcutaneous (s.c.) enoxaparin for the prevention of VTE

  10. Optimizing diffusion of an online computer tailored lifestyle program: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the Internet is a promising medium to offer lifestyle interventions to large amounts of people at relatively low costs and effort, actual exposure rates of these interventions fail to meet the high expectations. Since public health impact of interventions is determined by intervention efficacy and level of exposure to the intervention, it is imperative to put effort in optimal dissemination. The present project attempts to optimize the dissemination process of a new online computer tailored generic lifestyle program by carefully studying the adoption process and developing a strategy to achieve sustained use of the program. Methods/Design A prospective study will be conducted to yield relevant information concerning the adoption process by studying the level of adoption of the program, determinants involved in adoption and characteristics of adopters and non-adopters as well as satisfied and unsatisfied users. Furthermore, a randomized control trial will be conducted to the test the effectiveness of a proactive strategy using periodic e-mail prompts in optimizing sustained use of the new program. Discussion Closely mapping the adoption process will gain insight in characteristics of adopters and non-adopters and satisfied and unsatisfied users. This insight can be used to further optimize the program by making it more suitable for a wider range of users, or to develop adjusted interventions to attract subgroups of users that are not reached or satisfied with the initial intervention. Furthermore, by studying the effect of a proactive strategy using period prompts compared to a reactive strategy to stimulate sustained use of the intervention and, possibly, behaviour change, specific recommendations on the use and the application of prompts in online lifestyle interventions can be developed. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1786 and Medical Ethics Committee of Maastricht University and the University Hospital Maastricht (NL2723506809/MEC0903016). PMID:21689412

  11. Evaluating holistic needs assessment in outpatient cancer care—a randomised controlled trial: the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Austyn; Young, Jenny; White, Craig; Murray, Esther; Richard, Claude; Lussier, Marie-Therese; MacArthur, Ewan; Storey, Dawn; Schipani, Stefano; Wheatley, Duncan; McMahon, Jeremy; Ross, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction People living with and beyond cancer are vulnerable to a number of physical, functional and psychological issues. Undertaking a holistic needs assessment (HNA) is one way to support a structured discussion of patients’ needs within a clinical consultation. However, there is little evidence on how HNA impacts on the dynamics of the clinical consultation. This study aims to establish (1) how HNA affects the type of conversation that goes on during a clinical consultation and (2) how these putative changes impact on shared decision-making and self-efficacy. Methods and analysis The study is hosted by 10 outpatient oncology clinics in the West of Scotland and South West England. Participants are patients with a diagnosis of head and neck, breast, urological, gynaecological and colorectal cancer who have received treatment for their cancer. Patients are randomised to an intervention or control group. The control group entails standard care—routine consultation between the patient and clinician. In the intervention group, the patient completes a holistic needs assessment prior to consultation. The completed assessment is then given to the clinician where it informs a discussion based on the patient's needs and concerns as identified by them. The primary outcome measure is patient participation, as determined by dialogue ratio (DR) and preponderance of initiative (PI) within the consultation. The secondary outcome measures are shared decision-making and self-efficacy. It is hypothesised that HNA will be associated with greater patient participation within the consultation, and that shared decision-making and feelings of self-efficacy will increase as a function of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study has been given a favourable opinion by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee and NHS Research & Development. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference attendance. Trail registration number Clinical Trials.gov NCT02274701. PMID:25967990

  12. Cleanroom Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. The final module of MATEC's contamination curriculum develops your learners' skills in specific cleanroom protocols: wafer handling and transfer, area wipedowns, and area or equipment isolation. The instruction stresses that contaminants travel via many channels- air, people, process equipment, manufacturing process, wiping materials, wafer handling, electrostatic discharge, and chemicals. MATEC aims to make each learner acutely aware that minimizing contamination in the cleanroom requires his or her personal commitment. The module also discusses the automated systems used in modern and upcoming 300-mm fabs.

  13. Studying G protein-coupled receptors: immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, phosphorylation, surface labeling, and cross-linking protocols.

    PubMed

    Pal, Kasturi; Badgandi, Hemant; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are signaling organelles that have been shown to coordinate cellular responses to extracellular cues during physiological processes ranging from organ patterning to cell cycle regulation. A variety of receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), downstream effectors (adenylyl cyclases), and second messengers, such as calcium, accumulate in the ciliary compartment. Isolation of GPCRs is essential for studying posttranslational modifications, intracellular trafficking, and protein-protein interactions that are important in downstream signaling. However, the presence of multiple hydrophobic transmembrane domains, and the inherent conformational flexibility of GPCRs make their extraction from membranes and solubilization particularly challenging. Here, we describe detailed methods for immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation of GPCRs from whole cell extracts. These methods are applicable for studying other multipass transmembrane proteins (such as adenylyl cyclases). We also describe methods for determining GPCR phosphorylation, surface labeling by biotinylation, and cross-linking to detect transient interactions with other proteins. These methods are amenable for studying both ciliary and nonciliary GPCRs in the context of cellular signaling pathways. PMID:25837398

  14. The ANIBES Study on Energy Balance in Spain: Design, Protocol and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Castillo, Adrián; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Bartrina, Javier Aranceta; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy Balance (EB) is an important topic to understand how an imbalance in its main determinants (energy intake and consumption) may lead to inappropriate weight gain, considered to be “dynamic” and not “static”. There are no studies to evaluate EB in Spain, and new technologies reveal themselves as key tools to solve common problems to precisely quantify energy consumption and expenditure at population level. The overall purpose of the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance”) Study was to carry out an accurate updating of food and beverage intake, dietary habits/behaviour and anthropometric data of the Spanish population (9–75 years, n = 2009), as well as the energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. Anthropometry measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, % body fat, % body water) were obtained; diet was evaluated throughout a three-day dietary record (tablet device) accompanied by a 24 h-dietary recall; physical activity was quantified by questionnaire and accelerometers were also employed. Finally, information about perception and understanding of several issues related to EB was also obtained. The ANIBES study will contribute to provide valuable useful data to inform food policy planning, food based dietary guidelines development and other health oriented actions in Spain. PMID:25658237

  15. Requirements and Design of the PROSPER Protocol for Implementation of Information Infrastructures Supporting Pandemic Response: A Nominal Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Gursky, Elin A.; Strömgren, Magnus; Holm, Einar; Ekberg, Joakim; Eriksson, Olle; Grimvall, Anders; Valter, Lars; Nyce, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Advanced technical systems and analytic methods promise to provide policy makers with information to help them recognize the consequences of alternative courses of action during pandemics. Evaluations still show that response programs are insufficiently supported by information systems. This paper sets out to derive a protocol for implementation of integrated information infrastructures supporting regional and local pandemic response programs at the stage(s) when the outbreak no longer can be contained at its source. Methods Nominal group methods for reaching consensus on complex problems were used to transform requirements data obtained from international experts into an implementation protocol. The analysis was performed in a cyclical process in which the experts first individually provided input to working documents and then discussed them in conferences calls. Argument-based representation in design patterns was used to define the protocol at technical, system, and pandemic evidence levels. Results The Protocol for a Standardized information infrastructure for Pandemic and Emerging infectious disease Response (PROSPER) outlines the implementation of information infrastructure aligned with pandemic response programs. The protocol covers analyses of the community at risk, the response processes, and response impacts. For each of these, the protocol outlines the implementation of a supporting information infrastructure in hierarchical patterns ranging from technical components and system functions to pandemic evidence production. Conclusions The PROSPER protocol provides guidelines for implementation of an information infrastructure for pandemic response programs both in settings where sophisticated health information systems already are used and in developing communities where there is limited access to financial and technical resources. The protocol is based on a generic health service model and its functions are adjusted for community-level analyses of outbreak detection and progress, and response program effectiveness. Scientifically grounded reporting principles need to be established for interpretation of information derived from outbreak detection algorithms and predictive modeling. PMID:21464918

  16. Atom-chip-based generation of entanglement for quantum metrology.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Max F; Böhi, Pascal; Li, Yun; Hänsch, Theodor W; Sinatra, Alice; Treutlein, Philipp

    2010-04-22

    Atom chips provide a versatile quantum laboratory for experiments with ultracold atomic gases. They have been used in diverse experiments involving low-dimensional quantum gases, cavity quantum electrodynamics, atom-surface interactions, and chip-based atomic clocks and interferometers. However, a severe limitation of atom chips is that techniques to control atomic interactions and to generate entanglement have not been experimentally available so far. Such techniques enable chip-based studies of entangled many-body systems and are a key prerequisite for atom chip applications in quantum simulations, quantum information processing and quantum metrology. Here we report the experimental generation of multi-particle entanglement on an atom chip by controlling elastic collisional interactions with a state-dependent potential. We use this technique to generate spin-squeezed states of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate; such states are a useful resource for quantum metrology. The observed reduction in spin noise of -3.7 +/- 0.4 dB, combined with the spin coherence, implies four-partite entanglement between the condensate atoms; this could be used to improve an interferometric measurement by -2.5 +/- 0.6 dB over the standard quantum limit. Our data show good agreement with a dynamical multi-mode simulation and allow us to reconstruct the Wigner function of the spin-squeezed condensate. The techniques reported here could be directly applied to chip-based atomic clocks, currently under development. PMID:20357765

  17. Biological Denitrification Treatment of Wastewater Using Wood Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, Tadaaki; Koremura, Nao; Sato, Aya; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    A novel method for removing nitrate in waste water which uses wood chips as a reduction agent and growth support mechanism for denitrification bacteria is studied in this report. A higher denitrification rate was obtained when a portion of the wood chips packed in a column were exposed to air than when all of the wood chips were entirely immersed in solution. Cherry tree chips were more effective than cedar chips, as almost a 100% denitirification rate was maintained for at least 69 days at an inlet concentration of 20mg-N/L and HRT of 20 hr. The denitrification rate decreased significantly when the initial nitrate concentration was increased from 21mg-N/L to 46 mg-N/L. It was possible to use wood chips exclusively as a supply source of organic compounds. An excess amount of organic compounds which is discharged from the reactor can be reduced by passing the solution through a column packed with activated carbon. Cedar chips prepared from a fresh log shortly after cutting were used as a supporting material for denitirification bacteria. A satisfactorily high degree of denitirifation was obtained at HRT of 0.76 hr by adding ethanol as a reduction agent for nitrate.

  18. Atom chip based generation of entanglement for quantum metrology

    E-print Network

    Max F. Riedel; Pascal Böhi; Yun Li; Theodor W. Hänsch; Alice Sinatra; Philipp Treutlein

    2010-03-08

    Atom chips provide a versatile `quantum laboratory on a microchip' for experiments with ultracold atomic gases. They have been used in experiments on diverse topics such as low-dimensional quantum gases, cavity quantum electrodynamics, atom-surface interactions, and chip-based atomic clocks and interferometers. A severe limitation of atom chips, however, is that techniques to control atomic interactions and to generate entanglement have not been experimentally available so far. Such techniques enable chip-based studies of entangled many-body systems and are a key prerequisite for atom chip applications in quantum simulations, quantum information processing, and quantum metrology. Here we report experiments where we generate multi-particle entanglement on an atom chip by controlling elastic collisional interactions with a state-dependent potential. We employ this technique to generate spin-squeezed states of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate and show that they are useful for quantum metrology. The observed 3.7 dB reduction in spin noise combined with the spin coherence imply four-partite entanglement between the condensate atoms and could be used to improve an interferometric measurement by 2.5 dB over the standard quantum limit. Our data show good agreement with a dynamical multi-mode simulation and allow us to reconstruct the Wigner function of the spin-squeezed condensate. The techniques demonstrated here could be directly applied in chip-based atomic clocks which are currently being set up.

  19. Towards primary care for non-serious 999 callers: results of a controlled study of "Treat and Refer" protocols for ambulance crews

    PubMed Central

    Snooks, H; Kearsley, N; Dale, J; Halter, M; Redhead, J; Cheung, W

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To develop and evaluate "Treat and Refer" protocols for ambulance crews, allowing them to leave patients at the scene with onward referral or self-care advice as appropriate. Methods: Crew members from one ambulance station were trained to use the treatment protocols. Processes and outcomes of care for patients attended by trained crews were compared with similar patients attended by crews from a neighbouring station. Pre-hospital records were collected for all patients. Records of any emergency department and primary care contacts during the 14 days following the call were collected for non-conveyed patients who were also followed up by postal questionnaire. Results: Twenty three protocols were developed which were expected to cover over 75% of patients left at the scene by the attending crew. There were 251 patients in the intervention arm and 537 in the control arm. The two groups were similar in terms of age, sex and condition category but intervention cases were more likely to have been attended during daytime hours than at night. There was no difference in the proportion of patients left at the scene in the intervention and control arms; the median job cycle time was longer for intervention group patients. Protocols were reported as having been used in 101 patients (40.2%) in the intervention group; 17 of the protocols were recorded as having been used at least once during the study. Clinical documentation was generally higher in the intervention group, although a similar proportion of patients in both groups had no clinical assessments recorded. 288 patients were left at the scene (93 in the intervention group, 195 in the control group). After excluding those who refused to travel, there were three non-conveyed patients in each group who were admitted to hospital within 14 days of the call who were judged to have been left at home inappropriately. A higher proportion of patients in the intervention arm reported satisfaction with the service and advice provided. Conclusions: "Treat and Refer" protocols did not increase the number of patients left at home but were used by crews and were acceptable to patients. The protocols increased job cycle time and some safety issues were identified. Their introduction is complex, and the extent to which the content of the protocols, decision support and training can be refined needs further study. PMID:15576705

  20. Disseminating quality improvement: study protocol for a large cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dissemination is a critical facet of implementing quality improvement in organizations. As a field, addiction treatment has produced effective interventions but disseminated them slowly and reached only a fraction of people needing treatment. This study investigates four methods of disseminating quality improvement (QI) to addiction treatment programs in the U.S. It is, to our knowledge, the largest study of organizational change ever conducted in healthcare. The trial seeks to determine the most cost-effective method of disseminating quality improvement in addiction treatment. Methods The study is evaluating the costs and effectiveness of different QI approaches by randomizing 201 addiction-treatment programs to four interventions. Each intervention used a web-based learning kit plus monthly phone calls, coaching, face-to-face meetings, or the combination of all three. Effectiveness is defined as reducing waiting time (days between first contact and treatment), increasing program admissions, and increasing continuation in treatment. Opportunity costs will be estimated for the resources associated with providing the services. Outcomes The study has three primary outcomes: waiting time, annual program admissions, and continuation in treatment. Secondary outcomes include: voluntary employee turnover, treatment completion, and operating margin. We are also seeking to understand the role of mediators, moderators, and other factors related to an organization's success in making changes. Analysis We are fitting a mixed-effect regression model to each program's average monthly waiting time and continuation rates (based on aggregated client records), including terms to isolate state and intervention effects. Admissions to treatment are aggregated to a yearly level to compensate for seasonality. We will order the interventions by cost to compare them pair-wise to the lowest cost intervention (monthly phone calls). All randomized sites with outcome data will be included in the analysis, following the intent-to-treat principle. Organizational covariates in the analysis include program size, management score, and state. Discussion The study offers seven recommendations for conducting a large-scale cluster-randomized trial: provide valuable services, have aims that are clear and important, seek powerful allies, understand the recruiting challenge, cultivate commitment, address turnover, and encourage rigor and flexibility. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials. govNCT00934141 PMID:21524303

  1. Psychological advocacy toward healing (PATH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA), defined as threatening behavior or abuse by adults who are intimate partners or family members, is a key public health and clinical priority. The prevalence of DVA in the United Kingdom and worldwide is high, and its impact on physical and mental health is detrimental and persistent. There is currently little support within healthcare settings for women experiencing DVA. Psychological problems in particular may be difficult to manage outside specialist services, as conventional forms of therapy such as counseling that do not address the violence may be ineffective or even harmful. The aim of this study is to assess the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a novel psychological intervention tailored specifically for survivors of DVA and delivered by domestic violence advocates based in third-sector organizations. Methods and study design This study is an open, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomized controlled trial. Women ages 16 years and older experiencing domestic violence are being enrolled and randomly allocated to receive usual DVA agency advocacy support (control) or usual DVA agency support plus psychological intervention (intervention). Those in the intervention group will receive eight specialist psychological advocacy (SPA) sessions weekly or fortnightly, with two follow-up sessions, 1 month and then 3 months later. This will be in addition to any advocacy support sessions each woman receives. Women in the control group will receive usual DVA agency support but no additional SPA sessions. The aim is to recruit 250 women to reach the target sample size. The primary outcomes are psychological well-being and depression severity at 1 yr from baseline, as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively. Secondary outcome measures include anxiety, posttraumatic stress, severity and frequency of abuse, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data from a subsample of women in both groups will contribute to a nested qualitative study with repeat interviews during the year of follow-up. Discussion This study will contribute to the evidence base for management of the psychological needs of women experiencing DVA. The findings will have important implications for healthcare commissioners and providers, as well as third sector specialist DVA agencies providing services to this client group. Trial registration ISRCTN58561170 PMID:23866771

  2. Effective communication network structures for hospital infection prevention: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Rangachari, Pavani

    2013-01-01

    Many hospitals are unable to successfully implement "evidence-based practices" at the unit level. For example, consistent implementation of the central line bundle (CLB), proven to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) is often difficult. This problem has been broadly characterized as "change implementation failure" in health care organizations. Several studies have used retrospective designs to examine the problem; however, there are few prospective studies examining communication dynamics underlying successful implementation of change (eg, evidence-based practices). This prospective study will be set in 2 intensive care units at an academic medical center. At baseline, both units have low compliance with CLB and higher-than-expected CRBSIs. Periodic quality improvement (QI) interventions will be conducted over a 52-week period to promote implementation of CLB in both units. Simultaneously, the following parameters will be examined: (1) Structure and content of communication related to CLB in both units through "communication logs" completed weekly by nurses, physicians, and managers; and (2) outcomes, that is, CLB adherence in both units through weekly chart review. Catheter utilization and CRBSI (infection) rates will serve as additional unit-level outcome measures. The aim is 2-fold: (1) to examine associations between QI interventions and structure and content of communication at the unit level; and (2) to examine associations between structure and content of communication and outcomes at the unit level. The periodic QI interventions are expected to increase CLB adherence and reduce CRBSIs through their influence on structure and content of communication. The prospective design would help examine dynamics in unit-level communication structure and content related to CLB, as well as unit-level outcomes. The study has potential to make significant contributions to theory and practice, particularly if interventions are found to be effective in enabling successful practice change at the unit level. To this effect, the study has potential to provide insights into communication structure and content associated with collective learning and culture change at the unit level. Results and insights are expected to lay a foundation for generating context-sensitive "evidence-based management" strategies for successful practice change at the unit level. An ultimate expected deliverable is the development of an "action-learning framework" for successful implementation of evidence-based practices in health care organizations. PMID:23271590

  3. Study protocol: prediction of stroke associated infections by markers of autonomic control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection is the most important complication after acute stroke. This is substantially based on a stroke-induced immunosuppression. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents the autonomic nervous system activity in connection with stroke-induced immunomodulation and infections. We demonstrated in a feasibility study that HRV indices obtained in patients without acute post-stroke infections can predict infections in the subsequent sub-acute phase. Methods/Design The study PRED-SEP is a prospective observational study. Adult patients with acute ischemic infarction in the territory of the middle cerebral artery and severe neurological deficit (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: NIHSS ? 8) are recruited. Primary endpoint is the development of infections, secondary endpoints are SIRS and severe sepsis in the sub-acute phase (day 3–5) after stroke and the functional outcome after 3 months. Infection is defined according to the PANTHERIS study and comprises pneumonia, urinary tract infection and infections without determined focus. SIRS and severe sepsis are defined according to German Sepsis Society guidelines. Functional outcome is measured by lethality and neurological scores (modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index). Prognostic factors are HRV risk indices calculated from selected intervals of 24 h ECG measurements within 48 hours after symptom onset. It is planned to recruit 240 patients. HRV risk indices (predictors) will be calculated according to standards and procedures previously developed and published by the authors. The predictive effects of HRV indices on infections will be estimated by fitting logistic regression models and estimating odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A prespecified modelling procedure will be applied to estimate unadjusted and confounder adjusted odds ratios. Secondary endpoints will be analysed in the same way. The functional outcome scales will be dichotomized. The association between HRV indices and pro- and anti-inflammatory markers will be quantified by calculating the appropriate correlation coefficients according to scale (Person or Spearman). Discussion Since a general prophylactic antibiotic treatment after stroke is not recommended, results of this study could have essential implications for an early identification and hence, timely appropriate treating of stroke-induced infections. Trial registration Prädiktoren für die Sepsis - Pred Sep, German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00003392. PMID:24410797

  4. Improving practice in community-based settings: a randomized trial of supervision – study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based treatments for child mental health problems are not consistently available in public mental health settings. Expanding availability requires workforce training. However, research has demonstrated that training alone is not sufficient for changing provider behavior, suggesting that ongoing intervention-specific supervision or consultation is required. Supervision is notably under-investigated, particularly as provided in public mental health. The degree to which supervision in this setting includes ‘gold standard’ supervision elements from efficacy trials (e.g., session review, model fidelity, outcome monitoring, skill-building) is unknown. The current federally-funded investigation leverages the Washington State Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Initiative to describe usual supervision practices and test the impact of systematic implementation of gold standard supervision strategies on treatment fidelity and clinical outcomes. Methods/Design The study has two phases. We will conduct an initial descriptive study (Phase I) of supervision practices within public mental health in Washington State followed by a randomized controlled trial of gold standard supervision strategies (Phase II), with randomization at the clinician level (i.e., supervisors provide both conditions). Study participants will be 35 supervisors and 130 clinicians in community mental health centers. We will enroll one child per clinician in Phase I (N?=?130) and three children per clinician in Phase II (N?=?390). We use a multi-level mixed within- and between-subjects longitudinal design. Audio recordings of supervision and therapy sessions will be collected and coded throughout both phases. Child outcome data will be collected at the beginning of treatment and at three and six months into treatment. Discussion This study will provide insight into how supervisors can optimally support clinicians delivering evidence-based treatments. Phase I will provide descriptive information, currently unavailable in the literature, about commonly used supervision strategies in community mental health. The Phase II randomized controlled trial of gold standard supervision strategies is, to our knowledge, the first experimental study of gold standard supervision strategies in community mental health and will yield needed information about how to leverage supervision to improve clinician fidelity and client outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01800266 PMID:23937766

  5. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  6. The Comparison of a Rapid Screening MR Protocol with a Conventional MR Protocol for Lumbar Spondylosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Robertson; Jeffrey G. Jarviki; Jay S. Tsumuda; Thomas D. Koepsell; Kenneth R. Maravillai

    PURPOSE. To assess the degree of agreement between a rapid T2-weighted fast spin-echo protocol and a detailed protocol for the detection of lumbar spondylosis and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the rapid protocol with respect to the detailed protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Forty-eight patients with low back pain were studied with both a detailed four-sequence protocol and a

  7. A study protocol for the evaluation of occupational mutagenic\\/carcinogenic risks in subjects exposed to antineoplastic drugs: a multicentric project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Moretti; Roberta Bonfiglioli; Donatella Feretti; Sofia Pavanello; Francesca Mussi; Maria G Grollino; Milena Villarini; Anna Barbieri; Elisabetta Ceretti; Mariella Carrieri; Annamaria Buschini; Massimo Appolloni; Luca Dominici; Laura Sabatini; Umberto Gelatti; Giovanni B Bartolucci; Paola Poli; Laura Stronati; Giuseppe Mastrangelo; Silvano Monarca

    2011-01-01

    Background  Some industrial hygiene studies have assessed occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs; other epidemiological investigations\\u000a have detected various toxicological effects in exposure groups labeled with the job title. In no research has the same population\\u000a been studied both environmentally and epidemiologically. The protocol of the epidemiological study presented here uses an\\u000a integrated environmental and biological monitoring approach. The aim is to

  8. Sources of Variation in a Two-Step Monitoring Protocol for Species Clustered in Conspicuous Points: Dolichotis patagonum as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso Roldán, Virginia; Bossio, Luisina; Galván, David E.

    2015-01-01

    In species showing distributions attached to particular features of the landscape or conspicuous signs, counts are commonly made by making focal observations where animals concentrate. However, to obtain density estimates for a given area, independent searching for signs and occupancy rates of suitable sites is needed. In both cases, it is important to estimate detection probability and other possible sources of variation to avoid confounding effects on measurements of abundance variation. Our objective was to assess possible bias and sources of variation in a two-step protocol in which random designs were applied to search for signs while continuously recording video cameras were used to perform abundance counts where animals are concentrated, using mara (Dolichotis patagonum) as a case study. The protocol was successfully applied to maras within the Península Valdés protected area, given that the protocol was logistically suitable, allowed warrens to be found, the associated adults to be counted, and the detection probability to be estimated. Variability was documented in both components of the two-step protocol. These sources of variation should be taken into account when applying this protocol. Warren detectability was approximately 80% with little variation. Factors related to false positive detection were more important than imperfect detection. The detectability for individuals was approximately 90% using the entire day of observations. The shortest sampling period with a similar detection capacity than a day was approximately 10 hours, and during this period, the visiting dynamic did not show trends. For individual mara, the detection capacity of the camera was not significantly different from the observer during fieldwork. The presence of the camera did not affect the visiting behavior of adults to the warren. Application of this protocol will allow monitoring of the near-threatened mara providing a minimum local population size and a baseline for measuring long-term trends. PMID:26011026

  9. Sources of Variation in a Two-Step Monitoring Protocol for Species Clustered in Conspicuous Points: Dolichotis patagonum as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Alonso Roldán, Virginia; Bossio, Luisina; Galván, David E

    2015-01-01

    In species showing distributions attached to particular features of the landscape or conspicuous signs, counts are commonly made by making focal observations where animals concentrate. However, to obtain density estimates for a given area, independent searching for signs and occupancy rates of suitable sites is needed. In both cases, it is important to estimate detection probability and other possible sources of variation to avoid confounding effects on measurements of abundance variation. Our objective was to assess possible bias and sources of variation in a two-step protocol in which random designs were applied to search for signs while continuously recording video cameras were used to perform abundance counts where animals are concentrated, using mara (Dolichotis patagonum) as a case study. The protocol was successfully applied to maras within the Península Valdés protected area, given that the protocol was logistically suitable, allowed warrens to be found, the associated adults to be counted, and the detection probability to be estimated. Variability was documented in both components of the two-step protocol. These sources of variation should be taken into account when applying this protocol. Warren detectability was approximately 80% with little variation. Factors related to false positive detection were more important than imperfect detection. The detectability for individuals was approximately 90% using the entire day of observations. The shortest sampling period with a similar detection capacity than a day was approximately 10 hours, and during this period, the visiting dynamic did not show trends. For individual mara, the detection capacity of the camera was not significantly different from the observer during fieldwork. The presence of the camera did not affect the visiting behavior of adults to the warren. Application of this protocol will allow monitoring of the near-threatened mara providing a minimum local population size and a baseline for measuring long-term trends. PMID:26011026

  10. A study in Europe of patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology: protocol development and findings.

    PubMed

    Gfirtner, H; Kaplanis, P A; Moores, B M; Schneider, P; Vassileva, J

    2010-01-01

    In a multi-centre study more than 600 patient measurements of patients receiving thorax radiography were performed in five European cities. Participating centres were Fulda, Liverpool, Nicosia, Passau and Sofia. The dose quantities measured were the air kerma-area product (AKAP), incident air kerma and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). In addition, for each patient sex, age, weight, height, focus-to-film distance, focus-to-skin distance, patient thickness, kV, mAs, field size and the nominal film speed were registered. Different X-ray machines were used in the participating centres--Thoravision, flat panel detector and film screen combinations in two centres (analogue system). The tube voltages employed varied between 60 and 150 kV and the nominal film speed between 200 and 400/800. All mean dose values (ESAK and AKAP) for the different centres showed a different value for female and male populations. The differences were up to 100 % and always higher for the mean AKAP. For a thorax posteroanterior examination, the mean ESAK varied between 0.06 and 0.46 mGy and the mean AKAP varied between 60 and 690 mGy cm(2). The differences in the results obtained as well as the methodologies for multi-national, multi-centre studies will be discussed. Future perspectives for this type of study within the framework of radiation protection and quality assurance in Europe will also be discussed as well as the role and function of multi-national radiological data sets including patient dose values. PMID:20159923

  11. Stoma-Const - the technical aspects of stoma construction: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The construction of a colostomy is a common procedure, but the evidence for the different parts of the construction of the colostomy is lacking. Parastomal hernia is a common complication of colostomy formation. The aim of this study is to standardise the colostomy formation and to compare three types of colostomy formation (one including a mesh) regarding the development of parastomal hernia. Methods/Design Stoma-Const is a Scandinavian randomised trial comparing three types of colostomy formation. The primary endpoint is parastomal herniation as shown by clinical examination or CT scan within one year. Secondary endpoints are re-admission rate, postoperative complications (classified according to Clavien-Dindo), stoma-related complications (registered in the case record form at stoma care nurse follow-up), total length of hospital stay during 12 months, health-related quality of life and health economic analysis as well as re-operation rate and mortality within 30 days and 12 months of primary surgery. Follow-up is scheduled at 4-6 weeks, and 6 and 12 months. Inclusion is set at 240 patients. Discussion Parastomal hernia is a common complication after colostomy formation. Several studies have been performed with the aim to reduce the rate of this complication. However, none are fully conclusive and data on quality of life and health economy are lacking. The aim of this study is to develop new standardised techniques for colostomy formation and evaluate this with patient reported outcomes as well as clinical and radiological assessment. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01694238.2012-09-24. PMID:24970570

  12. Active buildings: modelling physical activity and movement in office buildings. An observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Marmot, Alexi; Spinney, Richard; Laskowski, Marek; Sawyer, Alexia; Konstantatou, Marina; Hamer, Mark; Ambler, Gareth; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health benefits of regular participation in physical activity are well documented but population levels are low. Office layout, and in particular the number and location of office building destinations (eg, print and meeting rooms), may influence both walking time and characteristics of sitting time. No research to date has focused on the role that the layout of the indoor office environment plays in facilitating or inhibiting step counts and characteristics of sitting time. The primary aim of this study was to investigate associations between office layout and physical activity, as well as sitting time using objective measures. Methods and analysis Active buildings is a unique collaboration between public health, built environment and computer science researchers. The study involves objective monitoring complemented by a larger questionnaire arm. UK office buildings will be selected based on a variety of features, including office floor area and number of occupants. Questionnaires will include items on standard demographics, well-being, physical activity behaviour and putative socioecological correlates of workplace physical activity. Based on survey responses, approximately 30 participants will be recruited from each building into the objective monitoring arm. Participants will wear accelerometers (to monitor physical activity and sitting inside and outside the office) and a novel tracking device will be placed in the office (to record participant location) for five consecutive days. Data will be analysed using regression analyses, as well as novel agent-based modelling techniques. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number 4400/001). PMID:24227873

  13. Multi-level analysis of electronic health record adoption by health care professionals: A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The electronic health record (EHR) is an important application of information and communication technologies to the healthcare sector. EHR implementation is expected to produce benefits for patients, professionals, organisations, and the population as a whole. These benefits cannot be achieved without the adoption of EHR by healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, the influence of individual and organisational factors in determining EHR adoption is still unclear. This study aims to assess the unique contribution of individual and organisational factors on EHR adoption in healthcare settings, as well as possible interrelations between these factors. Methods A prospective study will be conducted. A stratified random sampling method will be used to select 50 healthcare organisations in the Quebec City Health Region (Canada). At the individual level, a sample of 15 to 30 health professionals will be chosen within each organisation depending on its size. A semi-structured questionnaire will be administered to two key informants in each organisation to collect organisational data. A composite adoption score of EHR adoption will be developed based on a Delphi process and will be used as the outcome variable. Twelve to eighteen months after the first contact, depending on the pace of EHR implementation, key informants and clinicians will be contacted once again to monitor the evolution of EHR adoption. A multilevel regression model will be applied to identify the organisational and individual determinants of EHR adoption in clinical settings. Alternative analytical models would be applied if necessary. Results The study will assess the contribution of organisational and individual factors, as well as their interactions, to the implementation of EHR in clinical settings. Conclusions These results will be very relevant for decision makers and managers who are facing the challenge of implementing EHR in the healthcare system. In addition, this research constitutes a major contribution to the field of knowledge transfer and implementation science. PMID:20416054

  14. Total or Partial Knee Arthroplasty Trial - TOPKAT: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the majority of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee the disease originates in the medial compartment. There are two fundamentally different approaches to knee replacement for patients with unicompartmental disease: some surgeons feel that it is always best to replace both the knee compartments with a total knee replacement (TKR); whereas others feel it is best to replace just the damaged component of the knee using a partial or unicompartment replacement (UKR). Both interventions are established and well-documented procedures. Little evidence exists to prove the clinical and cost-effectiveness of either management option. This provides an explanation for the high variation in treatment of choice by individual surgeons for the same knee pathology. The aim of the TOPKAT study will be to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of TKRs compared to UKRs in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Methods/Design The design of the study is a single layer multicentre superiority type randomised controlled trial of unilateral knee replacement patients. Blinding will not be possible as the surgical scars for each procedure differ. We aim to recruit 500 patients from approximately 28 secondary care orthopaedic units from across the UK including district general and teaching hospitals. Participants will be randomised to either UKR or TKR. Randomisation will occur using a web-based randomisation system. The study is pragmatic in terms of implant selection for the knee replacement operation. Participants will be followed up for 5 years. The primary outcome is the Oxford Knee Score, which will be collected via questionnaires at 2 months, 1 year and then annually to 5 years. Secondary outcomes will include cost-effectiveness, patient satisfaction and complications data. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03013488; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01352247 PMID:24028414

  15. Household contact investigation for tuberculosis in Vietnam: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality globally. Only 65% of patients worldwide are currently diagnosed. Contact investigation is a strategy that aims to increase case detection and reduce transmission of tuberculosis, yet there is little evidence to show its effectiveness. Methods/Design We will conduct a cluster randomized controlled trial of contact investigation within the national tuberculosis control program of Vietnam. Household contacts of patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis will be invited to attend district tuberculosis units for symptom screening, examination, and chest radiography on four occasions over a two-year period. The primary endpoint is clinically confirmed tuberculosis among contacts during the 24 months of follow-up, ascertained using capture-recapture analysis. Microbiologically proven tuberculosis and treatment completion rates among contacts diagnosed with tuberculosis will be secondary endpoints. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be estimated. The study will have 80% power to detect a 50% increase in the primary endpoint in the active intervention arm compared with the control arm. The study will include 8,829 contacts in each of the active screening and control groups, within 70 districts in 8 provinces in Vietnam, in both rural and urban settings. Discussion The effectiveness of contact investigation as a tool for improved tuberculosis case finding has not been established. This cluster randomized trial will provide valuable operational information for national tuberculosis programs in high-prevalence countries, in order to select the most cost-effective strategies to improve tuberculosis case detection. Trial registration The ACT2 study has been registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000600044). PMID:24138766

  16. How safe are our paediatric emergency departments? Protocol for a national prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Plint, Amy C; Newton, Amanda; Stang, Antonia; Bhatt, Maala; Barrowman, Nick; Calder, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adverse events (AEs), defined as unintended patient harm related to healthcare provided rather than an underlying medical condition, represent a significant threat to patient safety and public health. The emergency department (ED) is a high-risk patient safety setting for many reasons including presentation ‘outside of regular hours’, high patient volumes, and a chaotic work environment. Children have also been identified as particularly vulnerable to AEs. Despite the identification of the ED as a high-risk setting and the vulnerability of the paediatric population, little research has been conducted regarding paediatric patient safety in the ED. The study objective is to generate an estimate of the risk and type of AEs, as well as their preventability and severity, for children seen in Canadian paediatric EDs. Methods and analysis This multicentre, prospective cohort study will enrol patients under 18 years of age from nine paediatric EDs across Canada. A stratified cluster random sampling scheme will be used to ensure patients recruited are representative of the overall ED population. A rigorous, standardised two-stage process will be used for AE identification. The primary outcome will be the proportion of children with AEs associated with ED care in the 3?weeks following the ED visit. Secondary outcomes will include the proportion of children with preventable AEs and the types and severity of AEs. We will aim to recruit 5632 patients over 1?year and this will allow us to detect a proportion of patients with an AE of 5% (to within an absolute margin of error of 0.6%). Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from participating sites. Results will be disseminated through presentations, peer review publications, linkages with emergency research network and a webinars for key knowledge user groups. Trial registration number This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02162147; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02162147). PMID:25475246

  17. PErineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS): protocol for a matched pair cluster trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Perineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS) is a national clinical quality improvement initiative designed to improve the assessment and management of perineal trauma. Perineal trauma affects around 85% of women who have a vaginal birth in the UK each year and millions more world-wide. Continuous suturing techniques compared with traditional interrupted methods are more effective in reducing pain and postnatal morbidity, however they are not widely used by clinicians despite recommendations of evidence based national clinical guidelines. Perineal suturing skills and postnatal management of trauma remain highly variable within and between maternity units in the UK as well as worldwide. Implementation of a standardised training package to support effective perineal management practices could reduce perineal pain and other related postnatal morbidity for a substantial number of women. Methods/Design PEARLS is a matched pair cluster trial, which is being conducted in maternity units across the UK. Units within a matched pair will be randomised to implement the study intervention either early or late in the study period. The intervention will include the cascading of a multi-professional training package to enhance midwifery and obstetric skills in the assessment, repair and postnatal management of perineal trauma. Women who have had an episiotomy or second degree perineal tear will be eligible for recruitment. Prior to developing the intervention and deciding on study outcomes, a Delphi survey and a consensus conference were held to identify what women, who previously suffered perineal trauma during childbirth, considered to be important outcomes for them. Findings from this preliminary work (which will be reported elsewhere) and other outcomes including women's experiences of perineal pain and pain on activity, breastfeeding uptake and duration and psychological well-being as assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) will be assessed at 10 days and three months post-birth. Discussion Implementation of evidence-based perineal assessment and management practices, could lead to significantly improved physical and psychological health outcomes for women in the UK and world-wide. Trial registration PEARLS is registered with the Current Controlled Trials Registry (no: ISRCTN28960026). NIHR UKCRN portfolio no: 4785. PMID:20184764

  18. Furosemide and albumin for diuresis of edema (FADE): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluid retention is a common complication of critical illness. It typically results from large-volume fluid infusions during acute resuscitation and is worsened by hypoalbuminemia. Recognized as edema, fluid retention is important for its association with delayed weaning and increased mortality. The standard treatment is the administration of diuretics, with or without albumin. We hypothesize that intravenous 25% albumin plus furosemide, by comparison with furosemide alone, improves diuresis, oxygenation, and hemodynamic stability in the deresuscitation of critically ill, hypoalbuminemic patients. We propose a pilot study to determine the feasibility of a trial to investigate this hypothesis. Methods/Design FADE is a single-center, parallel, pilot randomized controlled trial. We aim to allocate 50 hemodynamically stable, hypoalbuminemic adult patients receiving diuresis to treatment with either 100 ml of either 25% albumin or normal saline placebo twice daily, for a total of six doses. Diuretics are to be prescribed by the caregiving team at least twice daily, and administered within 2 hours following study treatment. Patients, intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians, data collectors, and outcome adjudicators will be blinded to treatment allocation. Feasibility outcome measures include the proportion of patients receiving albumin within 2 hours of diuretic, the proportion of patients receiving the full six doses of study treatment, the proportion of patients who receive open label 25% albumin, and the rate of recruitment. Physiologic, laboratory, and clinical data are collected until discharge from the ICU or until 30 days. Discussion This is the first randomized trial to assess the use of hyperoncotic albumin in addition to diuretics in a general ICU population. Should this pilot study demonstrate feasibility, the primary outcome measure of the larger clinical trial will be the number of ventilator-free days, with secondary clinical outcome measures of duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, episodes of hemodynamic instability and mortality. The addition of 25% albumin to standard diuretic therapy is a promising treatment in the post-resuscitation care of the critically ill patient. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02055872; ISRCTN70191881. PMID:24919684

  19. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA) to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients). The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease). Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry)), and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk) functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk Reduction), RRR (Relative Risk Reduction) and NNT (Number Needed to Treat). The ability of different cardiovascular risk scores to predict cardiovascular events will be analyzed by using the c index and the area under ROC curves. Based on the competing risks analysis, a nomogram to predict the probability of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation will be developed. Discussion This study will make it possible to determine the post-transplant incidence of cardiovascular events in a large cohort of renal transplant recipients in Spain, to confirm the relationship between traditional and transplant-specific cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, and to develop a score to predict the risk of CVD in these patients. PMID:21639867

  20. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans: BPMED Intervention Development and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the two pilot RCTs is still ongoing and results are expected in 2015. Conclusions This study was designed to determine preliminary feasibility and acceptability of our approach among African Americans with uncontrolled HTN in primary care and emergency department settings. Results from these studies are of great interest as little work has been done to document the use of text message medication reminders to improve HTN-related outcomes, particularly within underserved urban minorities. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01465217; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01465217 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6V0tto0lZ). PMID:25565680

  1. Parallel Chip-Firing on the Complete Graph: Devil's Staircase and Poincare Rotation Number

    E-print Network

    Levine, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    We study how parallel chip-firing on the complete graph K_n changes behavior as we vary the total number of chips. Surprisingly, the activity of the system, defined as the average number of firings per time step, does not increase smoothly in the number of chips; instead it remains constant over long intervals, punctuated by sudden jumps. In the large n limit we find a "devil's staircase" dependence of activity on the number of chips. The proof proceeds by reducing the chip-firing dynamics to iteration of a self-map of the circle S^1, in such a way that the activity of the chip-firing state equals the Poincare rotation number of the circle map. The stairs of the devil's staircase correspond to periodic chip-firing states of small period.

  2. Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES): Study protocol for a randomized trial evaluating a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a recognized public health concern. Inadequate proportions of children in the U.S, including those of preschool age, are meeting physical activity recommendations. In response to low numbers of preschool children attaining appropriate physical activity levels, combined with the large number of young children who attend preschool, researchers have identified the need to devise interventions to increase physical activity at preschools. However, few multi-component interventions to increase physical activity in preschool children exist. The aims of this study were to observe the effects of a multi-component intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure in 3-5 year-old children; identify factors that associate with change in those variables; and evaluate the process of implementing the multi-component intervention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the study design and intervention protocol. Methods/design The overall design of the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) was a two-year randomized trial (nested cohort design), with two conditions, two measurement occasions, and preschool serving as the unit of analysis. Sixteen schools (eight intervention and eight control) were enrolled. The intervention protocol was based on the social ecological model and included four main components: (a) indoor physical activity (“move inside”), (b) recess (“move outside”), (c) daily lessons (“move to learn”), and (d) social environment. Components were implemented using teacher and administrator trainings and workshops, site support visits, newsletters, and self-monitoring methods. Outcomes included accelerometer assessment of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure; weight status; and demographic factors; family/home social and physical environment; and parental characteristics. An extensive process evaluation battery was also used to monitor dose delivered by interventionists, completeness of intervention component delivery by teachers, and fidelity of teachers’ implementation. Discussion The study will address important gaps relative to increasing physical activity in preschool children. Few studies to date have incorporated a multi-component approach, rigorous measurement protocol, and thorough evaluation of intervention implementation. Trial registration NCT01885325 PMID:23919808

  3. Tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality (ToPIQ) - the protocol of a new study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Since decades it is well documented that ETS can be harmful to human health and causes premature death and disease. In comparison to the huge research on toxicological substances of ETS, less attention was paid on the concentration of indoor ETS-dependent particulate matter (PM). Especially, investigation that focuses on different tobacco products and their concentration of deeply into the airways depositing PM-fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) must be stated. The tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality study (ToPIQS) will approach this issue by device supported generation of indoor ETS and simultaneously measurements of PM concentration by laser aerosol spectrometry. Primarily, the ToPIQ study will conduct a field research with focus on PM concentration of different tobacco products and within various microenvironments. It is planned to extend the analysis to basic research on influencing factors of ETS-dependent PM concentration. PMID:22188808

  4. Root canal obturation: experimental study on the thermafil system related to different irrigation protocols

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Sofan, Afrah Ali Abdullah; Sofan, Eshrak Ali Abdullah; Cosma, Salvatore; Eramo, Stefano; Gallottini, Livio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of this study was to stress the ability of a specific obturation technique (thermafil technique) to seal root canal system in presence or absence of smear layer. Methodology Sixteen monoradicular teeth, extracted for periodontal reasons, were collected for this study. All specimens were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary files, and then divided into two groups: for each group was applied a different kind of irrigation method, verifying the effectiveness in removing the smear layer, thus rendering the dentinal tubules more permeable for penetration of softened gutta-percha. Thermafil system was used to fill the root canals, and then all the specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results The results showed that the Group which followed irrigation only with sodium hypochlorite exhibited significantly less gutta-percha tags when compared to the second Group, which was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA. Conclusion The thermafil systems have a very good quality of compression and fluency that permit to gain a good seal of endodontic space; furthermore it allows the penetration of gutta-percha with the formation of numerous of gutta-percha tags inside the dentinal tubules above all when smear layer is reduced or eliminated. PMID:25506413

  5. A retrospective cohort study to investigate fatigue, psychological or cognitive impairment after TIA: protocol paper

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Grace M; Feltham, Max G; Ryan, Ronan; Marshall, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is defined by short-lasting, stroke-like symptoms, and is recognised as a medical emergency. Symptoms are assumed to completely resolve, and treatment is focused on secondary stroke/TIA prevention. However, evidence suggests that patients with TIA may experience ongoing residual impairments, which they do not receive therapy for as standard practice. TIA-induced sequelae could impact on patients’ quality of life and ability to return to work or social activities. We aim to investigate whether TIA is associated with subsequent consultation for fatigue, psychological or cognitive impairment in primary care. Methods and analysis A retrospective open cohort study of patients with first-ever TIA and matched controls. Relevant data will be extracted from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database, an anonymised primary care database which includes data for over 12 million patients and covers approximately 6% of the UK population. Outcomes will be the first consultation for fatigue, anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder or cognitive impairment. Principal analysis will use Kaplan-Meier survivor functions to estimate time to first consultation, with log-rank tests to compare TIA and control patients. Cox proportional hazard models will predict the effect of demographic and patient characteristics on time to first consultation. Ethics and dissemination Approval was granted by a THIN Scientific Review Committee (ref: 14-008). The study's findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated at national and international conferences and through social media. PMID:25941191

  6. Efficacy and safety of a TIA/stroke electronic support tool (FASTEST) trial: Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Strokes are a common cause of adult disability and mortality worldwide. Transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) are associated with a high risk of subsequent stroke, and rapid intervention has the potential to reduce stroke burden. This study will assess a novel electronic decision support (EDS) tool to allow general practitioners (GPs) to implement evidence-based care rapidly without full reliance on specialists. Methods/design This is a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing TIA/stroke management of GPs with access to the EDS tool versus usual care. The intervention period is 12 months with a 3-month follow-up period for individual patients. Primary outcomes consist of stroke within 90 days of presenting event and adherence to the New Zealand national TIA guideline. Discussion A positive study will provide strong evidence for widespread implementation of this tool in practice and has the potential to improve key outcomes for patients and reduce the burden of stroke. Trial registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000792921 PMID:23114224

  7. Translating research in elder care: an introduction to a study protocol series

    PubMed Central

    Estabrooks, Carole A; Hutchinson, Alison M; Squires, Janet E; Birdsell, Judy; Cummings, Greta G; Degner, Lesley; Morgan, Debra; Norton, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Background The knowledge translation field is undermined by two interrelated gaps – underdevelopment of the science and limited use of research in health services and health systems decision making. The importance of context in theory development and successful translation of knowledge has been identified in past research. Additionally, examination of knowledge translation in the long-term care (LTC) sector has been seriously neglected, despite the fact that aging is increasingly identified as a priority area in health and health services research. Aims The aims of this study are: to build knowledge translation theory about the role of organizational context in influencing knowledge use in LTC settings and among regulated and unregulated caregivers, to pilot knowledge translation interventions, and to contribute to enhanced use of new knowledge in LTC. Design This is a multi-level and longitudinal program of research comprising two main interrelated projects and a series of pilot studies. An integrated mixed method design will be used, including sequential and simultaneous phases to enable the projects to complement and inform one another. Inferences drawn from the quantitative and qualitative analyses will be merged to create meta-inferences. Outcomes Outcomes will include contributions to (knowledge translation) theory development, progress toward resolution of major conceptual issues in the field, progress toward resolution of methodological problems in the field, and advances in the design of effective knowledge translation strategies. Importantly, a better understanding of the contextual influences on knowledge use in LTC will contribute to improving outcomes for residents and providers in LTC settings. PMID:19664285

  8. Intervention to improve social and family support for caregivers of dependent patients: ICIAS study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the existence of formal professional support services, informal support (mainly family members) continues to be the main source of eldercare, especially for those who are dependent or disabled. Professionals on the primary health care are the ideal choice to educate, provide psychological support, and help to mobilize social resources available to the informal caregiver. Controversy remains concerning the efficiency of multiple interventions, taking a holistic approach to both the patient and caregiver, and optimum utilization of the available community resources. .For this reason our goal is to assess whether an intervention designed to improve the social support for caregivers effectively decreases caregivers burden and improves their quality of life. Methods/design Design: Controlled, multicentre, community intervention trial, with patients and their caregivers randomized to the intervention or control group according to their assigned Primary Health Care Team (PHCT). Study area: Primary Health Care network (9 PHCTs). Study participants: Primary informal caregivers of patients receiving home health care from participating PHCTs. Sample: Required sample size is 282 caregivers (141 from PHCTs randomized to the intervention group and 141 from PHCTs randomized to the control group. Intervention: a) PHCT professionals: standardized training to implement caregivers intervention. b) Caregivers: 1 individualized counselling session, 1 family session, and 4 educational group sessions conducted by participating PHCT professionals; in addition to usual home health care visits, periodic telephone follow-up contact and unlimited telephone support. Control: Caregivers and dependent patients: usual home health care, consisting of bimonthly scheduled visits, follow-up as needed, and additional attention upon request. Data analysis Dependent variables: Caregiver burden (short-form Zarit test), caregivers’ social support (Medical Outcomes Study), and caregivers’ reported quality of life (SF-12) Independent variables: a) Caregiver: sociodemographic data, Goldberg Scale, Apgar family questionnaire, Holmes and Rahe Psychosocial Stress Scale, number of chronic diseases. b) Dependent patient: sociodemographic data, level of dependency (Barthel Index), cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer test). Discussion If the intervention intended to improve social and family support is effective in reducing the burden on primary informal caregivers of dependent patients, this model can be readily applied throughout usual PHCT clinical practice. Trial registration Clinical trials registrar: NCT02065427 PMID:24666438

  9. Developing the Autism Model of Implementation for Autism spectrum disorder community providers: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, 1 out of 88 children are diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the estimated cost for treatment services is $126 billion annually. Typically, ASD community providers (ASD-CPs) provide services to children with any severity of ASD symptoms using a combination of various treatment paradigms, some with an evidence-base and some without. When evidence-based practices (EBPs) are successfully implemented by ASD-CPs, they can result in positive outcomes. Despite this promise, EBPs are often implemented unsuccessfully and other treatments used by ASD-CPs lack supportive evidence, especially for school-age children with ASD. While it is not well understood why ASD-CPs are not implementing EBPs, organizational and individual characteristics likely play a role. As a response to this need and to improve the lives of children with ASD and their families, this study aims to develop and test the feasibility and acceptability of the Autism Model of Implementation (AMI) to support the implementation of EBPs by ASD-CPs. Methods/design An academic-community collaboration developed to partner with ASD-CPs will facilitate the development of the AMI, a process specifically for use by ASD community-based agencies. Using a mixed methods approach, the project will assess agency and individual factors likely to facilitate or hinder implementing EBPs in this context; develop the AMI to address identified barriers and facilitators; and pilot test the AMI to examine its feasibility and acceptability using a specific EBP to treat anxiety disorders in school-age children with ASD. Discussion The AMI will represent a data-informed approach to facilitate implementation of EBPs by ASD-CPs by providing an implementation model specifically developed for this context. This study is designed to address the real-world implications of EBP implementation in ASD community-based agencies. In doing so, the AMI will help to provide children with ASD the best and most effective services in their own community. Moreover, the proposed study will positively impact the field of implementation science by providing an empirically supported and tested model of implementation to facilitate the identification, adoption, and use of EBPs. PMID:22963616

  10. Expert recommendations for implementing change (ERIC): protocol for a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying feasible and effective implementation strategies that are contextually appropriate is a challenge for researchers and implementers, exacerbated by the lack of conceptual clarity surrounding terms and definitions for implementation strategies, as well as a literature that provides imperfect guidance regarding how one might select strategies for a given healthcare quality improvement effort. In this study, we will engage an Expert Panel comprising implementation scientists and mental health clinical managers to: establish consensus on a common nomenclature for implementation strategy terms, definitions and categories; and develop recommendations to enhance the match between implementation strategies selected to facilitate the use of evidence-based programs and the context of certain service settings, in this case the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health services. Methods/Design This study will use purposive sampling to recruit an Expert Panel comprising implementation science experts and VA mental health clinical managers. A novel, four-stage sequential mixed methods design will be employed. During Stage 1, the Expert Panel will participate in a modified Delphi process in which a published taxonomy of implementation strategies will be used to establish consensus on terms and definitions for implementation strategies. In Stage 2, the panelists will complete a concept mapping task, which will yield conceptually distinct categories of implementation strategies as well as ratings of the feasibility and effectiveness of each strategy. Utilizing the common nomenclature developed in Stages 1 and 2, panelists will complete an innovative menu-based choice task in Stage 3 that involves matching implementation strategies to hypothetical implementation scenarios with varying contexts. This allows for quantitative characterizations of the relative necessity of each implementation strategy for a given scenario. In Stage 4, a live web-based facilitated expert recommendation process will be employed to establish expert recommendations about which implementations strategies are essential for each phase of implementation in each scenario. Discussion Using a novel method of selecting implementation strategies for use within specific contexts, this study contributes to our understanding of implementation science and practice by sharpening conceptual distinctions among a comprehensive collection of implementation strategies. PMID:24669765

  11. A cluster-randomized trial of task shifting and blood pressure control in Ghana: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are experiencing an epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) propelled by rapidly increasing rates of hypertension. Barriers to hypertension control in SSA include poor access to care and high out-of-pocket costs. Although SSA bears 24% of the global disease burden, it has only 3% of the global health workforce. Given such limited resources, cost-effective strategies, such as task shifting, are needed to mitigate the rising CVD epidemic in SSA. Ghana, a country in SSA with an established community health worker program integrated within a national health insurance scheme provides an ideal platform to evaluate implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) task-shifting strategy. This study will evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the implementation of the WHO Package targeted at CV risk assessment versus provision of health insurance coverage, on blood pressure (BP) reduction. Methods Using a cluster randomized design, 32 community health centers (CHCs) and district hospitals in Ghana will be randomized to either the intervention group (16 CHCs) or the control group (16 CHCs). A total of 640 patients with uncomplicated hypertension (BP 140–179/90–99 mm Hg and absence of target organ damage) will be enrolled in this study (20 patients per CHC). The intervention consists of WHO Package of CV risk assessment, patient education, initiation and titration of antihypertensive medications, behavioral counseling on lifestyle behaviors, and medication adherence every three months for 12 months. The primary outcome is the mean change in systolic BP from baseline to 12 months. The secondary outcomes are rates of BP control at 12 months; levels of physical activity, percent change in weight, and dietary intake of fruits and vegetables at 12 months; and sustainability of intervention effects at 24 months. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, six months and 12 months. Trained community health nurses will deliver the intervention as part of Ghana’s community-based health planning and services (CHPS) program. Discussion Findings from this study will provide policy makers and other stakeholders needed information to recommend scalable and cost-effective policy with respect to comprehensive CV risk reduction and hypertension control in resource-poor settings. Trial registration NCT01802372. PMID:24923300

  12. Does telecare prolong community living in dementia? A study protocol for a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assistive technology and telecare (ATT) are relatively new ways of delivering care and support to people with social care needs. It is claimed that ATT reduces the need for community care, prevents unnecessary hospital admission, and delays or prevents admission into residential or nursing care. The current economic situation in England has renewed interest in ATT instead of community care packages. However, at present, the evidence base to support claims about the impact and effectiveness of ATT is limited, despite its potential to mitigate the high financial cost of caring for people with dementia and the social and psychological cost to unpaid carers. Method/design ATTILA (Assistive Technology and Telecare to maintain Independent Living At Home for People with Dementia) is a pragmatic, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial over 104 weeks that compares outcomes for people with dementia who receive ATT and those who receive equivalent community services but not ATT. The study hypothesis is that fewer people in the ATT group will go into institutional care over the 4-year period for which the study is funded. The study aims to recruit 500 participants, living in community settings, with dementia or significant cognitive impairment, who have recently been referred to social services. Primary outcome measures are time in days from randomisation to institutionalisation and cost effectiveness. Secondary outcomes are caregiver burden, health-related quality of life in carers, number and severity of serious adverse events, and data on acceptability, applicability and reliability of ATT intervention packages. Assessments will be undertaken in weeks 0 (baseline), 12, 24, 52 and 104 or until institutionalisation or withdrawal of the participant from the trial. Discussion In a time of financial austerity, CASSRs in England are increasingly turning to ATT in the belief that it will deliver good outcomes for less money. There is an absence of robust evidence for the cost-effectiveness and benefit of using assistive technology and telecare. The ATTILA trial meets a pressing need for robust, generalisable evidence to either justify continuing investment or reappraise the appropriate scale of ATT use. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86537017 PMID:24152600

  13. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY): protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Ghert, Michelle; Deheshi, Benjamin; Holt, Ginger; Randall, R Lor; Ferguson, Peter; Wunder, Jay; Turcotte, Robert; Werier, Joel; Clarkson, Paul; Damron, Timothy; Benevenia, Joseph; Anderson, Megan; Gebhardt, Mark; Isler, Marc; Mottard, Sophie; Healey, John; Evaniew, Nathan; Racano, Antonella; Sprague, Sheila; Swinton, Marilyn; Bryant, Dianne; Thabane, Lehana; Guyatt, Gordon; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Limb salvage with endoprosthetic reconstruction is the standard of care for the management of lower-extremity bone tumours in skeletally mature patients. The risk of deep postoperative infection in these procedures is high and the outcomes can be devastating. The most effective prophylactic antibiotic regimen remains unknown, and current clinical practice is highly varied. This trial will evaluate the effect of varying postoperative prophylactic antibiotic regimens on the incidence of deep infection following surgical excision and endoprosthetic reconstruction of lower-extremity bone tumours. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial, using a parallel two-arm design. 920 patients 15?years of age or older from 12 tertiary care centres across Canada and the USA who are undergoing surgical excision and endoprosthetic reconstruction of a primary bone tumour will receive either short (24?h) or long (5?days) duration postoperative antibiotics. Exclusion criteria include prior surgery or infection within the planned operative field, known colonisation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus at enrolment, or allergy to the study antibiotics. The primary outcome will be rates of deep postoperative infections in each arm. Secondary outcomes will include type and frequency of antibiotic-related adverse events, patient functional outcomes and quality-of-life scores, reoperation and mortality. Randomisation will be blocked, with block sizes known only to the methods centre responsible for randomisation, and stratified by location of tumour and study centre. Patients, care givers and a Central Adjudication Committee will be blinded to treatment allocation. The analysis to compare groups will be performed using Cox regression and log-rank tests to compare survival functions at ?=0.05. Ethics and dissemination This study has ethics approval from the McMaster University/Hamilton Health Sciences Research Ethics Board (REB# 12-009). Successful completion will significantly impact on clinical practice and enhance patients’ lives. More broadly, this trial will develop a network of collaboration from which further high-quality trials in Orthopaedic Oncology will follow. PMID:23194956

  14. A knowledge synthesis of patient and public involvement in clinical practice guidelines: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Boivin, Antoine; Weijden, Trudy van der; Packenham, Christine; Tapp, Sylvie; Burgers, Jako

    2009-01-01

    Background Failure to reconcile patient preferences and values as well as social norms with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) recommendations may hamper their implementation in clinical practice. However, little is known about patients and public involvement programs (PPIP) in CPGs development and implementation. This study aims at identifying what it is about PPIP that works, in which contexts are PPIP most likely to be effective, and how are PPIP assumed to lead to better CPGs development and implementation. Methods and design A knowledge synthesis will be conducted in four phases. In phase one, literature on PPIP in CPGs development will be searched through bibliographic databases. A call for bibliographic references and unpublished reports will also be sent via the mailing lists of relevant organizations. Eligible publications will include original qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods study designs reporting on a PPIP pertaining to CPGs development or implementation. They will also include documents produced by CPGs organizations to describe their PPIP. In phase two, grounded in the program's logic model, two independent reviewers will extract data to collect information on the principal components and activities of PPIP, the resources needed, the contexts in which PPIP were developed and tested, and the assumptions underlying PPIP. Quality assessment will be made for all retained publications. Our literature search will be complemented with interviews of key informants drawn from of a purposive sample of CPGs developers and patient/public representatives. In phase three, we will synthesize evidence from both the publications and interviews data using template content analysis to organize the identified components in a meaningful framework of PPIP theories. During a face-to-face workshop, findings will be validated with different stakeholder and a final toolkit for CPGs developers will be refined. Discussion The proposed research project will be among the first to explore the PPIP in CPGs development and implementation based on a wide range of publications and key informants interviews. It is anticipated that the results generated by the proposed study will significantly contribute to the improvement of the reconciliation of CPGs with patient preferences and values as well as with social norms. PMID:19497114

  15. Brief education to increase uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnant women are the highest priority group for annual influenza vaccination. Studies have shown unacceptably low uptake of both seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women. This paper will describe the study protocol and methodology of a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in improving the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with pregnant women in at least the second trimester of pregnancy from four publicly funded hospital antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. Participants will be randomly assigned to either one of the two treatment groups: standard care (control) or standard care plus brief education (intervention). Pregnant women in the standard care group will receive the usual antenatal care with an educational pamphlet developed by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection and those in the intervention group will be provided with usual care plus a brief ten-minute education intervention. Content of the education session will cover four core components recommended in the research literature. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants who have received influenza vaccine during their pregnancy. A total of 184 pregnant women (92 per group) will be required to give an 80% power to detect a treatment effect of 15%. Discussion Most intervention studies aimed at improving influenza vaccination rates in pregnant women have targeted obstetric-care providers and the results of the two patient-oriented RCT interventions are conflicting. The high priority for vaccination given to pregnant women and the low influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women worldwide strongly indicates a need for interventions to improve uptake. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry at www.clinicaltrials.gov(NCT01772901). PMID:24423245

  16. A prospective cohort study to evaluate peridomestic infection as a determinant of dengue transmission: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vector control programs, which have focused mainly on the patient house and peridomestic areas around dengue cases, have not produced the expected impact on transmission. This project will evaluate the assumption that the endemic/epidemic transmission of dengue begins around peridomestic vicinities of the primary cases. Its objective is to assess the relationship between symptomatic dengue case exposure and peridomestic infection incidence. Methods/Design A prospective cohort study will be conducted (in Tepalcingo and Axochiapan, in the state of Morelos, Mexico), using the state surveillance system for the detection of incident cases. Paired blood specimens will be collected from both the individuals who live with the incident cases and a sample of subjects residing within a 25-meter radius of such cases (exposed cohort), in order to measure dengue-specific antibodies. Other subjects will be selected from areas which have not presented any incident cases within 200 meters, during the two months preceding the sampling (non-exposed cohort). Symptomatic/asymptomatic incident infection will be considered as the dependent variable, exposure to confirmed dengue cases, as the principal variable, and the socio-demographic, environmental and socio-cultural conditions of the subjects, as additional explanatory variables. Discussion Results indicating a high infection rate among the exposed subjects would justify the application of peridomestic control measures and call for an evaluation of alternate causes for insufficient program impact. On the other hand, a low incidence of peridomestic-infected subjects would support the hypothesis that infection occurs outside the domicile, and would thus explain why the vector control measures applied in the past have exerted such a limited impact on cases incidence rates. The results of the present study may therefore serve to reassess site selection for interventions of this type. PMID:22471857

  17. The ASTUTE Health study protocol: Deliberative stakeholder engagements to inform implementation approaches to healthcare disinvestment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Governments and other payers are yet to determine optimal processes by which to review the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of technologies and procedures that are in active use within health systems, and rescind funding (partially or fully) from those that display poor profiles against these parameters. To further progress a disinvestment agenda, a model is required to support payers in implementing disinvestment in a transparent manner that may withstand challenge from vested interests and concerned citizens. Combining approaches from health technology assessment and deliberative democratic theory, this project seeks to determine if and how wide stakeholder engagement can contribute to improved decision-making processes, wherein the views of both vested and non-vested stakeholders are seen to contribute to informing policy implementation within a disinvestment context. Methods/design Systematic reviews pertaining to illustrative case studies were developed and formed the evidence base for discussion. Review findings were presented at a series of deliberative, evidence-informed stakeholder engagements, including partisan (clinicians and consumers) and non-partisan (representative community members) stakeholders. Participants were actively facilitated towards identifying shared and dissenting perspectives regarding public funding policy for each of the case studies and developing their own funding models in response to the evidence presented. Policy advisors will subsequently be invited to evaluate disinvestment options based on the scientific and colloquial evidence presented to them, and to explore the value of this information to their decision-making processes with reference to disinvestment. Discussion Analysis of the varied outputs of the deliberative engagements will contribute to the methodological development around how to best integrate scientific and colloquial evidence for consideration by policy advisors. It may contribute to the legitimization of broad and transparent stakeholder engagement in this context. It is anticipated that decision making will benefit from the knowledge delivered through informed deliberation with engaged stakeholders, and this will be explored through interviews with key decision makers. PMID:23088222

  18. Psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavior therapy of chronic depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite limited effectiveness of short-term psychotherapy for chronic depression, there is a lack of trials of long-term psychotherapy. Our study is the first to determine the effectiveness of controlled long-term psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral (CBT) treatments and to assess the effects of preferential vs. randomized assessment. Methods/design Patients are assigned to treatment according to their preference or randomized (if they have no clear preference). Up to 80 sessions of psychodynamic or psychoanalytically oriented treatments (PAT) or up to 60 sessions of CBT are offered during the first year in the study. After the first year, PAT can be continued according to the ‘naturalistic’ usual method of treating such patients within the system of German health care (normally from 240 up to 300 sessions over two to three years). CBT therapists may extend their treatment up to 80 sessions, but focus mainly maintenance and relapse prevention. We plan to recruit a total of 240 patients (60 per arm). A total of 11 assessments are conducted throughout treatment and up to three years after initiation of treatment. The primary outcome measures are the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS, independent clinician rating) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) after the first year. Discussion We combine a naturalistic approach with randomized controlled trials(RCTs)to investigate how effectively chronic depression can be treated on an outpatient basis by the two forms of treatment reimbursed in the German healthcare system and we will determine the effects of treatment preference vs. randomization. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN91956346 PMID:22834725

  19. Community pharmacist intervention in depressed primary care patients (PRODEFAR study): randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Valera, Maria; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Travé, Pere; Peñarrubia-María, M Teresa; Ruiz, Mar; Pujol, Marian March

    2009-01-01

    Background Treatment of depression, the most prevalent and costly mental disorder, needs to be improved. Non-concordance with clinical guidelines and non-adherence can limit the efficacy of pharmacological treatment of depression. Through pharmaceutical care, pharmacists can improve patients' compliance and wellbeing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention developed to improve adherence and outcomes of primary care patients with depression. Methods/design A randomized controlled trial, with 6-month follow-up, comparing patients receiving a pharmaceutical care support programme in primary care with patients receiving usual care. The total sample comprises 194 patients (aged between 18 and 75) diagnosed with depressive disorder in a primary care health centre in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Subjects will be asked for written informed consent in order to participate in the study. Diagnosis will be confirmed using the SCID-I. The intervention consists of an educational programme focused on improving knowledge about medication, making patients aware of the importance of compliance, reducing stigma, reassuring patients about side-effects and stressing the importance of carrying out general practitioners' advice. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Main outcome measure is compliance with antidepressants. Secondary outcomes include; clinical severity of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (STAI-S), health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D), satisfaction with the treatment received, side-effects, chronic physical conditions and socio-demographics. The use of healthcare and social care services will be assessed with an adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI). Discussion This trial will provide valuable information for health professionals and policy makers on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmaceutical intervention programme in the context of primary care. Trial registration NCT00794196 PMID:19656386

  20. A randomized controlled trial examining Iyengar yoga for young adults with rheumatoid arthritis: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, disabling disease that can compromise mobility, daily functioning, and health-related quality of life, especially in older adolescents and young adults. In this project, we will compare a standardized Iyengar yoga program for young people with rheumatoid arthritis to a standard care wait-list control condition. Methods/Design Seventy rheumatoid arthritis patients aged 16-35 years will be randomized into either the 6-week Iyengar yoga program (12 - 1.5 hour sessions twice weekly) or the 6-week wait-list control condition. A 20% attrition rate is anticipated. The wait-list group will receive the yoga program following completion of the first arm of the study. We will collect data quantitatively, using questionnaires and markers of disease activity, and qualitatively using semi-structured interviews. Assessments include standardized measures of general and arthritis-specific function, pain, mood, and health-related quality of life, as well as qualitative interviews, blood pressure/resting heart rate measurements, a medical exam and the assessment of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data will be collected three times: before treatment, post-treatment, and two months following the treatment. Discussion Results from this study will provide critical data on non-pharmacologic methods for enhancing function in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In particular, results will shed light on the feasibility and potential efficacy of a novel intervention for rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, paving the way for a larger clinical trial. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01096823 PMID:21255431

  1. Transitions in Parkinson's disease in primary care: protocol of a longitudinal mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Plouvier, Annette O A; Olde Hartman, Tim C; van Weel, Chris; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parkinson's disease affects many aspects of the lives of patients and their relatives. Patients must adapt continuously to disabilities that necessitate changes in (medical) support, such as domestic adjustments, involvement of (non)professional caregivers or admission to hospital. Such changes mark a transition: a transfer of a patient between levels or locations of care. Transitions are likely to be multifold and complex, given that Parkinson's disease care extends across all echelons of healthcare. Patients and relatives are vulnerable during a transition, which imposes risks for their safety and quality of life. Guidance by the general practitioner, who knows the preferences of the patient, can help to overcome challenges associated with a transition. However, patient-centred primary care requires insight into the transitions patients with Parkinson's disease encounter. We aim to examine these transitions and the way patients, relatives and general practitioners experience them and cope with them. Moreover, we will study the patients’ expectations of their general practitioner during a transition and the general practitioners’ views on their role. Methods and analysis A longitudinal mixed methods study will be conducted, using qualitative research methods combined with quantitative data as a validated questionnaire on quality of life. Patients will be asked to make a video diary every 2?weeks for a period of 1?year. Once they encounter a transition, patients and their general practitioners will be interviewed to identify causes and consequences of the transition. The verbatim transcripts of the videos and interviews will be analysed according to the principles of constant comparative analysis. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was not needed according to Dutch legislation. Informed consent of patients, relatives and general practitioners will be obtained. We will disseminate the results in peer-reviewed journals, at research conferences and on the website of the Dutch Parkinson's Disease Association. PMID:26038355

  2. Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure: Three-Stage Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liangtao; Chen, Jianxin; Guo, Shuzhen; Wang, Juan; Gao, Kuo; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Chan; Zhao, Huihui; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) for a long time. Treatment based on syndrome differentiation and the main characteristic of TCM is the fundamental principle of TCM practice. In this study protocol, we have designed a trial to assess the efficacy and safety of CHM on CHF based on syndrome differentiation. Methods/Design. This is a three-stage trial of CHM in the treatment of CHF. The first stage is a literature review aiming to explore the common syndromes of CHF. The second is a multicentral, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CHM for the treatment of CHF. The third is a multicentral, randomized controlled clinical trial aiming to make cost-effectiveness analysis and evaluate the feasibility, compliance, and universality of CHM on CHF. Discussion. This trial will evaluate the efficacy, safety, feasibility, compliance, and universality of CHM on CHF. The expected outcome is to provide evidence-based recommendations for CHM on CHF and develop a prescription of CHM in the treatment of CHF. This trial is registered with NCT01939236 (Stage Two of the whole trial).

  3. Acupoint Application in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris: Study Protocol of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yulan; Li, Dehua; Lv, Junling; Leng, Junyan; Zhang, Linglin; Zhang, Jie; Fan, Hailong; Liang, Fanrong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP) is a major syndrome of ischemic heart disease (IHD). CSAP manifests as chest pain or discomfort and affects patients' quality of life. Acupoint application (AP) has been reported to be effective for managing the symptoms of CSAP, but the evidence is not convincing. Therefore, we designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of AP in the treatment of CSAP. Methods and Analysis. Two hundred participants with CSAP will be randomly assigned in a 1?:?1?:?1?:?1 ratio into 4 groups. All participants will receive 12 sessions of treatment in 4 weeks and the same basic treatment procedure. The participants will be visited and assessed for 12 weeks, including a 4-week screening, a 4-week treatment phase, and a 4-week follow-up phase. The primary outcome is the change in the total frequency of self-reported angina attack at 4th week compared with the baseline. The secondary outcomes include the intensity of angina pain, consumption of nitroglycerin or Suxiao Jiuxin pills, CCS angina classification, SAQ, SAS and SDS score. Ethics. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Sichuan Regional Ethics Review Committee on TCM (number 2013kl-001). This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02029118. PMID:25250055

  4. Implementation of evidence-based antenatal care in Mozambique: a cluster randomized controlled trial: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) reduces maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality directly through the detection and treatment of pregnancy-related illnesses, and indirectly through the detection of women at increased risk of delivery complications. The potential benefits of quality antenatal care services are most significant in low-resource countries where morbidity and mortality levels among women of reproductive age and neonates are higher. WHO developed an ANC model that recommended the delivery of services scientifically proven to improve maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an intervention designed to increase the use of the package of evidence-based services included in the WHO ANC model in Mozambique. The primary hypothesis is that the intervention will increase the use of evidence-based practices during ANC visits in comparison to the standard dissemination channels currently used in the country. Methods This is a demonstration project to be developed through a facility-based cluster randomized controlled trial with a stepped wedge design. The intervention was tailored, based on formative research findings, to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. The intervention includes four components: the provision of kits with all necessary medicines and laboratory supplies for ANC (medical and non-medical equipment), a storage system, a tracking system, and training sessions for health care providers. Ten clinics were selected and will start receiving the intervention in a random order. Outcomes will be computed at each time point when a new clinic starts the intervention. The primary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending the first ANC visit, and secondary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending second and higher ANC visits as well as the attitude of midwives in relation to adopting the practices. This demonstration project is pragmatic in orientation and will be conducted under routine conditions. Discussion There is an urgent need for effective and sustainable scaling-up approaches of health interventions in low-resource countries. This can only be accomplished by the engagement of the country’s health stakeholders at all levels. This project aims to achieve improvement in the quality of antenatal care in Mozambique through the implementation of a multifaceted intervention on three levels: policy, organizational and health care delivery levels. The implementation of the trial will probably require a change in accountability and behaviour of health care providers and we expect this change in ‘habits’ will contribute to obtaining reliable health indicators, not only related to research issues, but also to health care outcomes derived from the new health care model. At policy level, the results of this study may suggest a need for revision of the supply chain management system. Given that supply chain management is a major challenge for many low-resource countries, we envisage that important lessons on how to improve the supply chain in Mozambique and other similar settings, will be drawn from this study. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry database. Identification number: PACTR201306000550192. PMID:24886392

  5. Protocol for a randomized controlled study of Iyengar yoga for youth with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome affects as many as 14% of high school-aged students. Symptoms include discomfort in the abdomen, along with diarrhea and/or constipation and other gastroenterological symptoms that can significantly impact quality of life and daily functioning. Emotional stress appears to exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome symptoms suggesting that mind-body interventions reducing arousal may prove beneficial. For many sufferers, symptoms can be traced to childhood and adolescence, making the early manifestation of irritable bowel syndrome important to understand. The current study will focus on young people aged 14-26 years with irritable bowel syndrome. The study will test the potential benefits of Iyengar yoga on clinical symptoms, psychospiritual functioning and visceral sensitivity. Yoga is thought to bring physical, psychological and spiritual benefits to practitioners and has been associated with reduced stress and pain. Through its focus on restoration and use of props, Iyengar yoga is especially designed to decrease arousal and promote psychospiritual resources in physically compromised individuals. An extensive and standardized teacher-training program support Iyengar yoga's reliability and safety. It is hypothesized that yoga will be feasible with less than 20% attrition; and the yoga group will demonstrate significantly improved outcomes compared to controls, with physiological and psychospiritual mechanisms contributing to improvements. Methods/Design Sixty irritable bowel syndrome patients aged 14-26 will be randomly assigned to a standardized 6-week twice weekly Iyengar yoga group-based program or a wait-list usual care control group. The groups will be compared on the primary clinical outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, quality of life and global improvement at post-treatment and 2-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will include visceral pain sensitivity assessed with a standardized laboratory task (water load task), functional disability and psychospiritual variables including catastrophizing, self-efficacy, mood, acceptance and mindfulness. Mechanisms of action involved in the proposed beneficial effects of yoga upon clinical outcomes will be explored, and include the mediating effects of visceral sensitivity, increased psychospiritual resources, regulated autonomic nervous system responses and regulated hormonal stress response assessed via salivary cortisol. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01107977. PMID:21244698

  6. LMA Supreme for neonatal resuscitation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important action in the resuscitation of a newborn in the delivery room is to establish effective assisted ventilation. The face mask and endotracheal tube are the devices used to achieve this goal. Laryngeal mask airways that fit over the laryngeal inlet have been shown to be effective for ventilating newborns at birth and should be considered as an alternative to facemask ventilation or endotracheal intubation among newborns weighing >2,000 g or delivered ?34 weeks’ gestation. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of supraglottic airways in neonatal resuscitation reported the results of four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) stating that fewer infants in the group using laryngeal mask airways required endotracheal intubation (1.5%) compared to the group using face masks (12.0%). However, there were methodological concerns over all the RCTs including the fact that the majority of the operators in the trials were anesthesiologists. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that ventilating newborns needing positive pressure ventilation with a laryngeal mask airway will be more effective than ventilating with a face mask in a setting where neonatal resuscitation is performed by midwives, nurses, and pediatricians. The primary aim of this study will be to assess the effectiveness of the laryngeal mask airway over the face mask in preventing the need for endotracheal intubation. Methods/design This will be an open, prospective, randomized, single center, clinical trial. In this study, 142 newborns weighing >1,500 g or delivered ?34 weeks gestation needing positive pressure ventilation at birth will be randomized to be ventilated with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA SupremeTM, LMA Company, UK - intervention group) or with a face mask (control group). Primary outcome: Proportion of newborns needing endotracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes: Apgar score at 5 minutes, time to first breath, onset of the first cry, duration of resuscitation, death or moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy within 7 days of life. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01963936 (October 11, 2013). PMID:25027230

  7. Enteral vs. intravenous ICU sedation management: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A relevant innovation about sedation of long-term Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients is the ‘conscious target’: patients should be awake even during the critical phases of illness. Enteral sedative administration is nowadays unusual, even though the gastrointestinal tract works soon after ICU admission. The enteral approach cannot produce deep sedation; however, it is as adequate as the intravenous one, if the target is to keep patients awake and adapted to the environment, and has fewer side effects and lower costs. Methods/Design A randomized, controlled, multicenter, single-blind trial comparing enteral and intravenous sedative treatments has been done in 12 Italian ICUs. The main objective was to achieve and maintain the desired sedation level: observed RASS = target RASS ± 1. Three hundred high-risk patients were planned to be randomly assigned to receive either intravenous propofol/midazolam or enteral melatonin/hydroxyzine/lorazepam. Group assignment occurred through online minimization process, in order to balance variables potentially influencing the outcomes (age, sex, SAPS II, type of admission, kidney failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sepsis) between groups. Once per shift, the staff recorded neurological monitoring using validated tools. Three flowcharts for pain, sedation, and delirium have been proposed; they have been designed to treat potentially correctable factors first, and, only once excluded, to administer neuroactive drugs. The study lasted from January 24 to December 31, 2012. A total of 348 patients have been randomized, through a centralized website, using a specific software expressly designed for this study. The created network of ICUs included a mix of both university and non-university hospitals, with different experience in managing enteral sedation. A dedicated free-access website was also created, in both Italian and English, for continuous education of ICU staff through CME courses. Discussion This ‘educational research’ project aims both to compare two sedative strategies and to highlight the need for a profound cultural change, improving outcomes by keeping critically-ill patients awake. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01360346 PMID:23551983

  8. Effectiveness of occupational therapy in Parkinson’s disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational therapists may have an added value in the care of patients with Parkinson’s disease whose daily functioning is compromised, as well as for their immediate caregivers. Evidence for this added value is inconclusive due to a lack of rigorous studies. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the (cost) effectiveness of occupational therapy in improving daily functioning of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods/Design A multicenter, assessor-blinded, two-armed randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted, with evaluations at three and six months. One hundred ninety-two home-dwelling patients with Parkinson’s disease and with an occupational therapy indication will be assigned to the experimental group or to the control group (2:1). Patients and their caregivers in the experimental group will receive ten weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to recent Dutch guidelines. The intervention will be delivered by occupational therapists who have been specifically trained to treat patients according to these guidelines. Participants in the control group will not receive occupational therapy during the study period. The primary outcome for the patient is self-perceived daily functioning at three months, assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Secondary patient-related outcomes include: objective performance of daily activities, self-perceived satisfaction with performance in daily activities, participation, impact of fatigue, proactive coping skills, health-related quality of life, overall quality of life, health-related costs, and effectiveness at six months. All outcomes at the caregiver level will be secondary and will include self-perceived burden of care, objective burden of care, proactive coping skills, overall quality of life, and care-related costs. Effectiveness will be evaluated using a covariance analysis of the difference in outcome at three months. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective will be conducted, as well as a process evaluation. Discussion This is the first large-scale trial specifically evaluating occupational therapy in Parkinson’s disease. It is expected to generate important new information about the possible added value of occupational therapy on daily functioning of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01336127. PMID:23374761

  9. Acupuncture for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuro-psychiatric problem, affecting 7-9% of children. Pharmacological interventions are widely used with behavioral treatments in ADHD. Still, the origin of ADHD is unclear, limiting pharmacological effectiveness and making adverse effects common. The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased, especially for developmental and behavioral disorders, such as ADHD. CAM is used by 60-65% of parents of children with ADHD to relieve ADHD-associated symptoms and to avoid the side effects of conventional medication. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with ADHD, but the available evidence of its effectiveness is insufficient. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in patients (both and each treatment naive and conventional therapy children) with ADHD (any subtype) compared to the waitlist control. Methods/Design This study is a waitlist controlled open trial. We used a computer generated randomization scheme. This randomised, controlled trial had two parallel arms (acupuncture, and waitlist group). Each arm consisted of 40 participants. The acupuncture group received acupuncture treatment two times per week for a total of 12 sessions over 6 weeks. Post-treatment follow-up was performed 3 weeks later to complement the 12 acupuncture sessions. Participants in the waitlist group did not receive acupuncture treatments during the first six weeks but were only required to be assessed. After 6 weeks, the same treatments given to the acupuncture group were provided to the waitlist group. The primary outcome of this trial included differences in Korean version of ADHD-Rating Scale (K-ADHD-RS) before randomization, 3 weeks and 6 weeks after randomization, and 3 weeks after completing the treatment. Discussion Subjective measurements, like K-ADHD-RS, are commonly used in ADHD. Although these measurements have adequate reliability and validity, lack of objective assessment in ADHD may lead to some disputes, like parental placebo effects. More objective measurements, like Computerized Neurocognitive function Test (CNT) in this study, are needed in ADHD trials. Furthermore, this trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for ADHD. Trial Registration Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS) KCT0000019 PMID:21745388

  10. EXACKTE2: Exploiting the clinical consultation as a knowledge transfer and exchange environment: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Stewart, Moira; Frosch, Dominick; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Labrecque, Michel; Magnan, Martine; Ouimet, Mathieu; Rousseau, Michel; Stacey, Dawn; van der Weijden, Trudy; Elwyn, Glyn

    2009-01-01

    Background While the evidence suggests that the way physicians provide information to patients is crucial in helping patients decide upon a course of action, the field of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) is silent about how the physician and the patient influence each other during clinical interactions and decision-making. Consequently, based on a novel relationship-centered model, EXACKTE2 (EXploiting the clinicAl Consultation as a Knowledge Transfer and Exchange Environment), this study proposes to assess how patients and physicians influence each other in consultations. Methods We will employ a cross-sectional study design involving 300 pairs of patients and family physicians from two primary care practice-based research networks. The consultation between patient and physician will be audio-taped and transcribed. Following the consultation, patients and physicians will complete a set of questionnaires based on the EXACKTE2 model. All questionnaires will be similar for patients and physicians. These questionnaires will assess the key concepts of our proposed model based on the essential elements of shared decision-making (SDM): definition and explanation of problem; presentation of options; discussion of pros and cons; clarification of patient values and preferences; discussion of patient ability and self-efficacy; presentation of doctor knowledge and recommendation; and checking and clarifying understanding. Patients will be contacted by phone two weeks later and asked to complete questionnaires on decisional regret and quality of life. The analysis will be conducted to compare the key concepts in the EXACKTE2 model between patients and physicians. It will also allow the assessment of how patients and physicians influence each other in consultations. Discussion Our proposed model, EXACKTE2, is aimed at advancing the science of KTE based on a relationship process when decision-making has to take place. It fosters a new KTE paradigm by putting forward a relationship-centered perspective and has the potential to reveal unknown mechanisms that underline effective KTE in clinical contexts. This will result in better understanding of the mechanisms that may promote a new generation of knowledge transfer strategies. PMID:19284659

  11. Lifestyle modification and metformin as long-term treatment options for obese adolescents: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a serious health concern affecting over 155 million children in developed countries worldwide. Childhood obesity is associated with significantly increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychosocial functioning problems (i.e., depression and decreased quality of life). The two major strategies for management of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities are lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy. This paper will provide the background rationale and methods of the REACH childhood obesity treatment program. Methods/design The REACH study is a 2-year multidisciplinary, family-based, childhood obesity treatment program. Seventy-two obese adolescents (aged 10-16 years) and their parents are being recruited to participate in this randomized placebo controlled trial. Participants are randomized to receive either metformin or placebo, and are then randomized to a moderate or a vigorous intensity supervised exercise program for the first 12-weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, participants engage in weekly exercise sessions with an exercise facilitator at a local community center. Participants engage in treatment sessions with a dietitian and social worker monthly for the first year, and then every three months for the second year. The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index and the secondary outcome measures are changes in body composition, risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, changes in diet, physical activity, and psychosocial well-being (e.g., quality of life). It is hypothesized that participants who take metformin and engage in vigorous intensity exercise will show the greatest improvements in body mass index. In addition, it is hypothesized that participants who adhere to the REACH program will show improvements in body composition, physical activity, diet, psychosocial functioning and risk factor profiles for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These improvements are expected to be maintained over the 2-year program. Discussion The findings from this study will advance the knowledge regarding the long-term efficacy and sustainability of interventions for childhood obesity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00934570 PMID:19943971

  12. A Complete Network-On-Chip Emulation Framework N. Genko , D. Atienza

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Chip (SoC) architectures consisting of complex in- tegrated components communicating with each other, for instance, the selection of suitable protocols or topologies of switches to use. Concrete options for No of different actual realizations of NoC on silicon. In this paper, we present a complete mixed HW-SW No

  13. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO) high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Lum-Kwong, Margaret Moy; Perkins, Nancy; Von Sychowski, Shirley; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Kiss, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal of improving the management of this chronic health condition by primary care providers and patients in the community. Methods This study will test the effect of a systems change on the management of high blood pressure in real world practice in primary care in Ontario, Canada. The systems change intervention involves an interprofessional educational program bringing together physicians, nurses and pharmacists with tools for both providers and patients to facilitate blood pressure management. Each of two waves of subjects were enrolled over a 6 month period with the initial enrollment between waves separated by 9 months. Blood pressure will be measured with the BpTru ® automated blood pressure device. To determine the effectiveness of the intervention, a before and after analysis within all subjects will compare blood pressure at baseline to annual measurements for the three year study. To assess whether the intervention has an impact on blood pressure control independent of community trends, a betwen group comparison of baseline blood pressures in the delayed wave will be made with the immediate wave during the same time period, so that the immediate wave has experienced the intervention for at least 9 months. The total enrollment goal is 5,000 subjects. The practice locations include 10 Family Health Teams (FHTs) and 1 Community Health Centre (CHC) and approximately 49 primary care physicians, 15 nurse practitioners, 37 registered nurses and over 150 community pharmacists across the 11 communities throughout the province of Ontario. The 11 primary care sites will be divided into immediate and delayed groups based on geography and the use of an electronic versus a traditional chart patient record. Discussion Initial consideration was given to randomizing the groups, however, for a number of reasons, this was deemed to not be possible. In order to ensure that the sites in the immediate intervention and delayed intervention groups are not different from each other, the sites will be assigned to the intervention groups manually to ensure a distribution of the variables as evenly as possible. Given that HSFO approached this particular group of health care providers to participate in a program relating to hypertension, this may have heightened their awareness of the issue and affected their management of patients with hypertension. Thus, data will be collected to allow an assessment of previous practice patterns and determine any impact of the Hawthorne Effect. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00425828 PMID:19068141

  14. Study protocol: home-based telehealth stroke care: a randomized trial for veterans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stroke is one of the most disabling and costly impairments of adulthood in the United States. Stroke patients clearly benefit from intensive inpatient care, but due to the high cost, there is considerable interest in implementing interventions to reduce hospital lengths of stay. Early discharge rehabilitation programs require coordinated, well-organized home-based rehabilitation, yet lack of sufficient information about the home setting impedes successful rehabilitation. This trial examines a multifaceted telerehabilitation (TR) intervention that uses telehealth technology to simultaneously evaluate the home environment, assess the patient's mobility skills, initiate rehabilitative treatment, prescribe exercises tailored for stroke patients and provide periodic goal oriented reassessment, feedback and encouragement. Methods We describe an ongoing Phase II, 2-arm, 3-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) that determines primarily the effect of TR on physical function and secondarily the effect on disability, falls-related self-efficacy, and patient satisfaction. Fifty participants with a diagnosis of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) TR; or (b) Usual Care. The TR intervention uses a combination of three videotaped visits and five telephone calls, an in-home messaging device, and additional telephonic contact as needed over a 3-month study period, to provide a progressive rehabilitative intervention with a treatment goal of safe functional mobility of the individual within an accessible home environment. Dependent variables will be measured at baseline, 3-, and 6-months and analyzed with a linear mixed-effects model across all time points. Discussion For patients recovering from stroke, the use of TR to provide home assessments and follow-up training in prescribed equipment has the potential to effectively supplement existing home health services, assist transition to home and increase efficiency. This may be particularly relevant when patients live in remote locations, as is the case for many veterans. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00384748 PMID:20591171

  15. Healthcare use and costs associated with obesity in Badalona, Spain: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Sicras-Mainar, Antonio; Gil, Joan; Mora, Toni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ayma, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of the study are twofold. First, to calculate healthcare resource utilisation and costs for a cohort of adult overweight and obese patients observed in primary and hospital care centres during eight consecutive years (2003-2010) in an urban setting in Spain. An analysis of whether these costs vary by groups of individuals and types of disease, and of how they compare with the previous literature, is carried out in order to predict actions or policies for resource optimisation. The second objective is to estimate the impact of overweight and obesity on the consumption of resources and costs, accounting for a wide array of controls. Methods and analysis Observational and retrospective cohort data are used, consisting of medical records of patients followed up in outpatient and hospital care facilities during the years 2003-2010. Three cohorts of patients are analysed: normal weight (18.5? body mass index (BMI) <25), overweight (25? BMI <30) and obese (BMI ?30); BMI is computed using clinical information. Individual-level data on comorbidity, resource utilisation and costs are available, and external information provided by the population census regarding socioeconomic status is used. Utilisation and associated costs across BMI groups are compared by computing ratios for overweight and obese individuals relative to those of normal weight. Count data regression models (hurdle and finite mixture models) are used, together with two-part model regression models and taking into account the panel structure of the data set to explore the impact of overweight and obesity on the increased utilisation of health services and costs, accounting for a wide set of controls. PMID:22267689

  16. Study Protocol: A randomized controlled trial of patient navigation-activation to reduce cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer health disparities affecting low-income and minority patients are well documented. Root-causes are multifactorial, including diagnostic and treatment delays, social and financial barriers, and poor communication. Patient navigation and communication coaching (activation) are potential interventions to address disparities in cancer treatment. The purpose of this clinical trial is to test the effectiveness of an intervention combining patient navigation and activation to improve cancer treatment. Methods/Design The Rochester Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) is a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, patient-level randomized trial (RCT) of patient navigation and activation, targeting newly-diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients in Rochester, NY. The goal of the program is to decrease cancer health disparities by addressing barriers to receipt of cancer care and promoting patient self-efficacy. The intervention uses trained, paraprofessional patient navigators recruited from the target community, and a detailed training and supervisory program. Recruited patients are randomly assigned to receive either usual care (except for baseline and follow-up questionnaires and interviews) or intervention. The intervention patients receive tailored assistance from their patient navigators, including phone calls, in-person meetings, and behind-the-scenes coordination of care. A total of 344 patients have been recruited. Outcomes measured at three month intervals include timeliness of care, patient adherence, patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, health literacy, and cancer knowledge. Discussion This unique intervention combining patient navigation and patient activation is designed to address the multifactorial problem of cancer health disparities. If successful, this study will affect the design and implementation of patient navigation programs. Trials Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00496678 PMID:20939928

  17. Putting health status guided COPD management to the test: protocol of the MARCH study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and usually progressive. Current guidelines, among which the Dutch, have so far based their management strategy mainly on lung function impairment as measured by FEV1, while it is well known that FEV1 has a poor correlation with almost all features of COPD that matter to patients. Based on this discrepancy the GOLD 2011 update included symptoms and impact in their treatment algorithm proposal. Health status measures capture both symptoms and impact and could therefore be used as a standardized way to capture the information a doctor could otherwise only collect by careful history taking and recording. We hypothesize that a treatment algorithm that is based on a simple validated 10 item health status questionnaire, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), improves health status (as measured by SGRQ) and classical COPD outcomes like exacerbation frequency, patient satisfaction and health care utilization compared to usual care based on guidelines. Methods/Design This hypothesis will be tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) following 330 patients for two years. During this period general practitioners will receive treatment advices every four months that are based on the patient’s health status (in half of the patients, intervention group) or on lung function (the remaining half of the patients, usual care group). Discussion During the design process, the selection of outcomes and the development of the treatment algorithm were challenging. This is discussed in detail in the manuscript to facilitate researchers in designing future studies in this changing field of implementation research. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register, NTR2643 PMID:23826685

  18. Healthcare use and costs associated with obesity in Badalona, Spain: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Joan; Mora, Toni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ayma, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of the study are twofold. First, to calculate healthcare resource utilisation and costs for a cohort of adult overweight and obese patients observed in primary and hospital care centres during eight consecutive years (2003–2010) in an urban setting in Spain. An analysis of whether these costs vary by groups of individuals and types of disease, and of how they compare with the previous literature, is carried out in order to predict actions or policies for resource optimisation. The second objective is to estimate the impact of overweight and obesity on the consumption of resources and costs, accounting for a wide array of controls. Methods and analysis Observational and retrospective cohort data are used, consisting of medical records of patients followed up in outpatient and hospital care facilities during the years 2003–2010. Three cohorts of patients are analysed: normal weight (18.5? body mass index (BMI) <25), overweight (25? BMI <30) and obese (BMI ?30); BMI is computed using clinical information. Individual-level data on comorbidity, resource utilisation and costs are available, and external information provided by the population census regarding socioeconomic status is used. Utilisation and associated costs across BMI groups are compared by computing ratios for overweight and obese individuals relative to those of normal weight. Count data regression models (hurdle and finite mixture models) are used, together with two-part model regression models and taking into account the panel structure of the data set to explore the impact of overweight and obesity on the increased utilisation of health services and costs, accounting for a wide set of controls. PMID:22267689

  19. Individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for dementia (iCST): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving the quality of care for people with dementia and their carers has become a national priority in many countries. Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) groups can be beneficial in improving cognition and quality of life for people with dementia. The aim of the current study is to develop and evaluate a home-based individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (iCST) programme for people with dementia which can be delivered by their family carer. Methods This multi-centre, pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) will compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of iCST for people with dementia with a treatment as usual control group. The intervention consists of iCST sessions delivered by a carer for 30 minutes, 3 times a week over 25 weeks. For people with dementia the primary outcome measures are cognition assessed by the ADAS-Cog, and quality of life assessed by QoL-AD. For carers, quality of life using the SF-12 is the primary outcome measure. Using a 5% significance level, comparison of 306 participants will yield 80% power to detect an effect size of 0.35 for cognition as measured by the ADAS-Cog, and quality of life as measured by the QoL-AD. Quality of life for the carer will be measured using the SF-12. The trial will include a cost-effectiveness analysis from a public sector perspective. Discussion The UK Department of Health has recently stressed that improving access to psychological therapies is a national priority, but many people with dementia are unable to access psychological interventions. The development of a home-based individual version of CST will provide an easy to use, widely available therapy package that will be evaluated for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in a multi centre RCT. PMID:22998983

  20. Electronic decision protocols for ART patient triaging to expand access to HIV treatment in South Africa: A cross sectional study for development and validation

    PubMed Central

    MITCHELL, Marc; HEDT, Bethany L.; ESHUN-WILSON, Ingrid; FRASER, Hamish; JOHN, Melanie-Anne; MENEZES, Colin; GROBUSCH, Martin P.; JACKSON, Jonathan; TALJAARD, Jantjie; LESH, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Background The shortage of doctors and nurses, along with future expansion into rural clinics, will require that the majority of clinic visits by HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are managed by non-doctors. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a screening protocol to determine which patients needed a full clinical assessment and which patients were stable enough to receive their medications without a doctor’s consultation. For this study, we developed an electronic, handheld tool to guide non-physician counselors through screening questions. Methods Patients visiting two ART clinics in South Africa for routine follow-up visits between March 2007 – April 2008 were included in our study. Each patient was screened by non-physician counselors using the handheld device and then received a full clinical assessment. Clinicians’ report on whether full clinical assessment had been necessary was used as the gold standard for determining “required referral”. Observations were randomly divided into two datasets – 989 for developing a referral protocol and 200 for validating protocol performance. Results A third of patients had at least one physical complaint, and 16% had five or more physical complaints. 38% of patients required referral for full clinical assessment. We identify a subset of questions which are 87% sensitive and 47% specific for recommended patient referral. Conclusions The final screening protocol is highly sensitive and could reduce burden on ART clinicians by 30%. The uptake and acceptance of the handheld tool to support implementation of the protocol was high. Further examination of the data reveals several important questions to include in future referral algorithms to improve sensitivity and specificity. Based on these results, we identify a refined algorithm to explore in future evaluations. PMID:22178295

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy for adolescents with antisocial behaviour: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is an intensive, short, family- and community-based treatment for serious antisocial behaviour and delinquency in youth. It is an emerging intervention for serious juvenile delinquents. However, conclusive evidence on the balance between costs and effects is limited and in fact non-existent for the Netherlands. The aim of this protocol is to describe the design of a study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of MST as compared to Care-As-Usual (CAU). Methods The cost-effectiveness of MST will be assessed through a Randomised Controlled Trial. Primary outcomes aggressive and delinquent behaviour will be assessed with the parent-reported CBCL and adolescent-reported YSR. Health care utilisation, production loss, and quality of life are recorded using the self-report 'Trimbos and iMTA questionnaire on Costs associated with Psychiatric illness' (TiC-P), and with the MOS Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-20) and EuroQol -5D (EQ-5D), respectively. The study aims to enrol 100 clients in both conditions (MST and CAU). Data will be obtained before treatment (T1), immediately after treatment (T2; 5 months after T1) and at follow up (T3; 6 months after the end of the treatment) from a variety of sources, i.e. clients, parents/primary carers, professionals and police records. Discussion Studying the cost-effectiveness of this treatment for youth antisocial behaviour is important in order to provide information to policy makers on whether the provision of this intervention represents good value for money. Introducing a cost-effective evidence based programme may result in valuable health gains for moderate costs. Trial registration NTR1390 PMID:23597036

  2. Effectiveness of an Early Mobilization Protocol in a Trauma and Burns Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lowman, John D.; Griffin, Russell L.; Matthews, Helen M.; Reiff, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bed rest and immobility in patients on mechanical ventilation or in an intensive care unit (ICU) have detrimental effects. Studies in medical ICUs show that early mobilization is safe, does not increase costs, and can be associated with decreased ICU and hospital lengths of stay (LOS). Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an early mobilization protocol on complication rates, ventilator days, and ICU and hospital LOS for patients admitted to a trauma and burn ICU (TBICU). Design This was a retrospective cohort study of an interdisciplinary quality-improvement program. Methods Pre– and post–early mobility program patient data from the trauma registry for 2,176 patients admitted to the TBICU between May 2008 and April 2010 were compared. Results No adverse events were reported related to the early mobility program. After adjusting for age and injury severity, there was a decrease in airway, pulmonary, and vascular complications (including pneumonia and deep vein thrombosis) post–early mobility program. Ventilator days and TBICU and hospital lengths of stay were not significantly decreased. Limitations Using a historical control group, there was no way to account for other changes in patient care that may have occurred between the 2 periods that could have affected patient outcomes. The dose of physical activity both before and after the early mobility program were not specifically assessed. Conclusions Early mobilization of patients in a TBICU was safe and effective. Medical, nursing, and physical therapy staff, as well as hospital administrators, have embraced the new culture of early mobilization in the ICU. PMID:22879442

  3. Whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Discussion Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708. PMID:24693945

  4. Protocol for the Women And Their Children’s Health (WATCH) Study: A Cohort of Pregnancy and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Hure, Alexis J; Collins, Clare E; Giles, Warwick B; Wright, Ian MR; Smith, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Background The developmental origins of health and disease is a conceptual framework that helps explain the links between our early life exposures and later health outcomes, and is a burgeoning field of research. In this report, we describe the study protocol used in a prospective cohort of women recruited during pregnancy, with postnatal follow-up of the mothers and offspring. Methods The Women And Their Children’s Health (WATCH) cohort (n = 180 women) is being conducted at the John Hunter Hospital, Australia (from June 2006). Women attended study visits during pregnancy at 19, 24, 30, and 36 weeks’ gestation. Postnatal follow-up of the women and their offspring occurred at 3-month intervals during the first year after birth and annually thereafter, until age 4 years. Fetal ultrasound scans were performed at each pregnancy visit. Pregnancy and birth data were obtained from hospital records. Data collection has included maternal and child anthropometric, biochemical, dietary, physical activity, socioeconomic, medical, and other variables. Conclusions The 2 most novel components of our prospective cohort study are (1) the regular and systematic tracking of fetal and child growth and body composition, starting in the second trimester of pregnancy and continuing to age 4 years, and (2) the detailed maternal and child dietary data collection, including biochemical parameters. Detailed cohorts that collect data on the early nutritional, physiological, and social determinants of health are valuable. Despite its relatively small sample size, many hypotheses on developmental origins can be tested or piloted using data collected from the WATCH cohort. PMID:22374367

  5. Effect of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy on adiposity in their infants in India: a protocol of a multicentre cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Giridhara R; Garadi, Lavanya; Murthy, G V S; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The carbohydrate ‘fuel’ metabolism in a pregnant woman may have a long-term impact on the development of her offspring (‘fuel-mediated teratogenesis’ hypothesis) including in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia leading to fetal hyperinsulinaemia, and the consequent increase in fetal fat cells. Therefore, a feed-forward loop can exist of rising adiposity and hyperinsulinaemia throughout childhood, perhaps leading to obesity and diabetes in later life. There is a need for prospective examination of body fat distribution in children born to mothers with different glycaemic levels to understand the plausible association between glucose metabolism and future risk of diabetes in offspring. The hypothesis is that maternal glucose levels in pregnant women are related to skinfold thickness in their infants. Methods and analysis Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and adiposity in infants is a multicentre cohort study to evaluate the effects of glucose levels in pregnancy on the risk of adverse infant outcomes, especially in predicting the risk of chronic diseases in infants. The study aims to recruit 1045 participants over a period of 1?year, who will be followed up irrespective of their glycaemia status for a period of 15?months, beginning in the 24th week of gestation. The glucose levels in pregnant women would be obtained through oral glucose tolerance testing. The primary outcome of our study was skinfold thickness in infants at the age of 6?weeks, 3rd and 9th month (as a proxy for fat distribution/adiposity). Ethics and dissemination The institutional review board at The Indian Institute of Public Health (IIPH)-Hyderabad, Public Health Foundation of India has approved the protocol. All participants are required to provide written informed consent. PMID:24972608

  6. Proactive tobacco treatment for low income smokers: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a high prevalence of smoking and high burden of tobacco-related diseases among low-income populations. Effective, evidenced-based smoking cessation treatments are available, but low-income smokers are less likely than higher-income smokers to use these treatments, especially the most comprehensive forms that include a combination of pharmacotherapy and intensive behavioral counseling. Methods/Design The primary objectives of this randomized controlled trial are to compare the effects of a proactive tobacco treatment intervention compared to usual care on population-level smoking abstinence rates and tobacco treatment utilization rates among a diverse population of low-income smokers, and to determine the cost-effectiveness of proactive tobacco treatment intervention. The proactive care intervention systematically offers low-income smokers free and easy access to evidence-based treatments and has two primary components: (1) proactive outreach to current smokers in the form of mailed invitation materials and telephone calls containing targeted health messages, and (2) facilitated access to free, comprehensive, evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments in the form of NRT and intensive, telephone-based behavioral counseling. The study aims to include a population-based sample (N?=?2500) of adult smokers enrolled in the Minnesota Health Care Programs (MHCP), a state-funded health insurance plan for low-income persons. Baseline data is obtained from MHCP administrative databases and a participant survey that is conducted prior to randomization. Outcome data is collected from a follow-up survey conducted 12 months after randomization and MHCP administrative data. The primary outcome is six-month prolonged smoking abstinence at one year and is assessed at the population level. All randomized individuals are asked to complete the follow-up survey, regardless of whether they participated in tobacco treatment. Data analysis of the primary aims will follow intent-to-treat methodology. Discussion There is a critical need to increase access to effective tobacco dependence treatments. This randomized trial evaluates the effects of proactive outreach coupled with free NRT and telephone counseling on the population impact of tobacco dependence treatment. If proven to be effective and cost-effective, national dissemination of proactive treatment approaches would reduce tobacco-related morbidity, mortality, and health care costs for low income Americans. Clinical trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01123967 PMID:24716466

  7. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01338428 PMID:23702221

  8. Preliminary reliability evaluation of flip chip on flex interconnect technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Jack J.; Virmani, Naresh

    1997-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the flip-chip-on-flex (FCOF) interconnection process in order to determine its feasibility for space flight applications. The key objectives were to: develop and apply simple and cost effective process steps needed to manufacture FCOFs and build test samples; perform a preliminary technology validation, and determine any initial environmental or application risks. The FCOF was shown to be simpler and more economical than other chip interconnection schemes.

  9. Integrated electrochemical detection for lab on a chip analytical microsystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Pai; M. M. Crain; D. J. Jackson; J. A. Conklin; R. P. Baldwin; R. S. Keynton; J. F. Naber; K. M. Walsh

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a portable capillary electrophoresis (CE) “lab-on-a-chip” device that is integrated with on-chip separation and electrochemical detection (ECD) electrodes. Platinum electrodes were photolithographically patterned on soda lime glass substrates and 20 ?m by 80 ?m channels were constructed within a second soda lime glass substrate. To fully realize the portability offered by this

  10. Lab-on-a-chip: a component view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Lim; A. Z. Kouzani; W. Duan

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization is being increasingly applied to biological and chemical analysis processes. Lab-on-a-chip systems are direct\\u000a creation of the advancement in the miniaturization of these processes. They offer a host of exciting applications in several\\u000a areas including clinical diagnostics, food and environmental analysis, and drug discovery and delivery studies. This paper\\u000a reviews lab-on-a-chip systems from their components perspective. It provides a

  11. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  12. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  13. RFID security protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoda Daou; Ayman Kayssi; Ali Chehab

    2008-01-01

    We implement and test four RFID security protocols: strong private authentication protocol, efficient mutual-authentication protocol, Dimitriou's lightweight protocol, and advanced semi-randomized access control, by emulating the RFID system. Then, we analyze the results to provide an evaluation of each protocol. RFID tags are very limited in terms of processing power, and cannot perform complex computations. Two types of analysis are

  14. A multiple path photonic lab on a chip for parallel protein concentration measurements.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Conejero-Muriel, Mayte; Ackermann, Tobias N; Gavira, José A; Llobera, Andreu

    2015-02-21

    We propose a PDMS-based photonic system for the accurate measurement of protein concentration with minute amounts of the sample. As opposed to the state of the art approach, in the multiple path photonic lab on a chip (MPHIL), analyte concentration or molar absorptivity is obtained with a single injection step, by performing simultaneous parallel optical measurements varying the optical path length. Also, as opposed to the standard calibration protocol, the MPHIL approach does not require a series of measurements at different concentrations. MPHIL has three main advantages: firstly the possibility of dynamically selecting the path length, always working in the absorbance vs. concentration linear range for each target analyte. Secondly, a dramatic reduction of the total volume of the sample required to obtain statistically reliable results. Thirdly, since only one injection is required, the measurement time is minimized, reducing both contamination and signal drifts. These characteristics are clearly advantageous when compared to commercial micro-spectrophotometers. The MPHIL concept was validated by testing three commercial proteins, lysozyme (HEWL), glucose isomerase (d-xylose-ketol-isomerase, GI) and Aspergillus sp. lipase L (BLL), as well as two proteins expressed and purified for this study, B. cereus formamidase (FASE) and dihydropyrimidinase from S. meliloti CECT41 (DHP). The use of MPHIL is also proposed for any spectrophotometric measurement in the UV-VIS range, as well as for its integration as a concentration measurement platform in more advanced photonic lab on a chip systems. PMID:25537135

  15. Gaps between policy, protocols and practice: a qualitative study of the views and practice of emergency ambulance staff concerning the care of patients with non-urgent needs

    PubMed Central

    Snooks, H; Kearsley, N; Dale, J; Halter, M; Redhead, J; Foster, J

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To describe emergency ambulance crews' views about (1) how they make decisions on whether to convey patients to hospital; (2) an intervention enabling them to triage patients to non-conveyance; and (3) their experience of using new protocols for undertaking such triage. Methods: Two focus groups were held at the outset of an evaluation of Treat and Refer (T&R) protocols: one with staff based at an ambulance station who were to implement the new service (intervention station), and the other with staff from a neighbouring station who would be continuing their normal practice during the study (control station). A third session was held with staff from the intervention station following training and 3 months' experience of protocol usage. Results: Before the introduction of the T&R protocols, crews reported experience, intuition, training, time of call during shift, patient preference, and home situation as influencing their decisions concerning conveyance. Crews were positive about changing practice but foresaw difficulties with advising patients who wanted to go to hospital, and with referral to other agencies. Following experience of T&R protocol use, crews felt they had needed more training than had been provided. Some felt their practice and job satisfaction had improved. Problems with referral and with persuading some patients that they did not need to go to hospital were discussed. There was consensus that the initiative should be introduced across the service. Conclusions: With crews generally positive about this intervention, an opportunity to tackle this difficult area of emergency care now exists. This study has, however, highlighted the complexity of the change in practice and service delivery, and professional and organisational constraints that need to be considered. PMID:16076788

  16. Evaluation of an optimized protocol using human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells for the in vitro detection of sensitizers: Results of a ring study in five laboratories.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Hendrik; Gerlach, Silke; Spieker, Jochem; Ryan, Cindy; Bauch, Caroline; Mangez, Claire; Winkler, Petra; Landsiedel, Robert; Templier, Marie; Mignot, Aurelien; Gerberick, Frank; Wenck, Horst; Aeby, Pierre; Schepky, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed T-cell mediated allergic response associated with relevant social and economic impacts. Animal experiments (e.g. the local lymph node assay) are still supplying most of the data used to assess the sensitization potential of new chemicals. However, the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetic Directive have introduced a testing ban for cosmetic ingredients after March 2013. We have developed and optimized a stable and reproducible in vitro protocol based on human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells to assess the sensitization potential of chemicals. To evaluate the transferability and the predictivity of this PBMDCs based test protocol, a ring study was organized with five laboratories using seven chemicals with a known sensitization potential (one none-sensitizer and six sensitizers, including one pro-hapten). The results indicated that this optimized test protocol could be successfully transferred to all participating laboratories and allowed a correct assessment of the sensitization potential of the tested set of chemicals. This should allow a wider acceptance of PBMDCs as a reliable test system for the detection of human skin sensitizers and the inclusion of this protocol in the toolbox of in vitro methods for the evaluation of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. PMID:25868915

  17. Public-key cryptography and password protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shai Halevi; Hugo Krawczyk

    1999-01-01

    We study protocols for strong authentication and key exchange in asymmetric scenarios where the authentication server possesses ~a pair of private and public keys while the client has only a weak human-memorizable password as its authentication key. We present and analyze several simple password authentication protocols in this scenario, and show that the security of these protocols can be formally

  18. Public-key cryptography and password protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shai Halevi; Hugo Krawczykt

    1998-01-01

    We study protocols for strong authentication and key exchangein asymmetric scenarios where the authenticationserver possesses a pair of private and public keys while theclient has only a weak human-memorizable password as itsauthentication key. We present and analyze several simplepassword protocols in this scenario, and show that under thechoice of suitable public key encryption functions the securityof these protocols can be

  19. State Medicaid & CHIP Policies 2014

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Reports and Evaluations Basic Health Program State Resources Innovation Accelerator Program Medicaid State Technical Assistance Medicaid and ... Monthly Medicaid and CHIP Eligibility and Enrollment Data Innovation Accelerator Program (IAP) State Highlights A federal government ...

  20. Prevalence of obesity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Samuele; Moreira Maia, Carlos Renato; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Morcillo-Peñalver, Carmen; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of clinical and epidemiological studies suggest a possible association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity/overweight. However, overall evidence is mixed. Given the public health relevance of ADHD and obesity/overweight, understanding whether and to what extent they are associated is paramount to plan intervention and prevention strategies. We describe the protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at assessing the prevalence of obesity/overweight in individuals with ADHD versus those without ADHD. Methods and analysis We will include studies of any design (except case reports or case series) comparing the prevalence of obesity and/or overweight in children or adults with and without ADHD (or hyperkinetic disorder). We will search an extensive number of databases including PubMed, Ovid databases, Web of Knowledge and Thomson-Reuters databases, ERIC and CINAHL. No restrictions of language will be applied. We will also contact experts in the field for possible unpublished or in press data. Primary and additional outcomes will be the prevalence of obesity and overweight, respectively. We will combine ORs using random-effects models in STATA V.12.0. The quality of the study will be assessed primarily using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Subgroup meta-analyses will be conducted according to participants’ age (children vs adults) and study setting (clinical vs general population). We will explore the feasibility of conducting meta-regression analyses to assess the moderating effect of age, gender, socioeconomic status, study setting, geographic location of the study (low-income, middle-income countries vs high-income countries), definition of obesity, method to assess ADHD, psychiatric comorbidities and medication status. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences of psychiatry, psychology, obesity and paediatrics. Registration PROSPERO-National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42013006410). PMID:24643169

  1. Effect of bump height on the strain variation during the thermal cycling test of ACA flip-chip joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuntjoro Pinardi; Zonghe Lai; Dietmar Vogel; Yi Lan Kang; Johan Liu; Sheng Liu; Ralf Haug; Magnus Willander

    2000-01-01

    Flip chip joining using anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA) has become a very attractive technique for electronics packaging. Many factors can influence the reliability of the ACA flip-chip joint. Bump height, is one of these factors. In this work, the strain development during the thermal cycling test of flip-chip joining with different bump heights was studied. The effect of bump height

  2. A multilevel Lab on chip platform for DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Marasso, Simone Luigi; Giuri, Eros; Canavese, Giancarlo; Castagna, Riccardo; Quaglio, Marzia; Ferrante, Ivan; Perrone, Denis; Cocuzza, Matteo

    2011-02-01

    Lab-on-chips (LOCs) are critical systems that have been introduced to speed up and reduce the cost of traditional, laborious and extensive analyses in biological and biomedical fields. These ambitious and challenging issues ask for multi-disciplinary competences that range from engineering to biology. Starting from the aim to integrate microarray technology and microfluidic devices, a complex multilevel analysis platform has been designed, fabricated and tested (All rights reserved-IT Patent number TO2009A000915). This LOC successfully manages to interface microfluidic channels with standard DNA microarray glass slides, in order to implement a complete biological protocol. Typical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) materials and process technologies were employed. A silicon/glass microfluidic chip and a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) reaction chamber were fabricated and interfaced with a standard microarray glass slide. In order to have a high disposable system all micro-elements were passive and an external apparatus provided fluidic driving and thermal control. The major microfluidic and handling problems were investigated and innovative solutions were found. Finally, an entirely automated DNA hybridization protocol was successfully tested with a significant reduction in analysis time and reagent consumption with respect to a conventional protocol. PMID:20827509

  3. In vitro comparative study of two decellularization protocols in search of an optimal myocardial scaffold for recellularization

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Gil, Isaac; Uriarte, Juan J; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Roura, Santiago; Llucià-Valldeperas, Aida; Soler-Botija, Carolina; Farré, Ramon; Navajas, Daniel; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Selection of a biomaterial-based scaffold that mimics native myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture can facilitate functional cell attachment and differentiation. Although decellularized myocardial ECM accomplishes these premises, decellularization processes may variably distort or degrade ECM structure. Materials and methods. Two decellularization protocols (DP) were tested on porcine heart samples (epicardium, mid myocardium and endocardium). One protocol, DP1, was detergent-based (SDS and Triton X-100), followed by DNase I treatment. The other protocol, DP2, was focused in trypsin and acid with Triton X-100 treatments. Decellularized myocardial scaffolds were reseeded by embedding them in RAD16-I peptidic hydrogel with adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (ATDPCs). Results. Both protocols yielded acellular myocardial scaffolds (~82% and ~94% DNA reduction for DP1 and DP2, respectively). Ultramicroscopic assessment of scaffolds was similar for both protocols and showed filamentous ECM with preserved fiber disposition and structure. DP1 resulted in more biodegradable scaffolds (P = 0.04). Atomic force microscopy revealed no substantial ECM stiffness changes post-decellularization compared to native tissue. The Young’s modulus did not differ between heart layers (P = 0.69) or decellularization protocols (P = 0.15). After one week, recellularized DP1 scaffolds contained higher cell density (236 ± 106 and 98 ± 56 cells/mm2 for recellularized DP1 and DP2 scaffolds, respectively; P = 0.04). ATDPCs in both DP1 and DP2 scaffolds expressed the endothelial marker isolectin B4, but only in the DP1 scaffold ATDPCs expressed the cardiac markers GATA4, connexin43 and cardiac troponin T. Conclusions. In our hands, DP1 produced myocardial scaffolds with higher cell repopulation and promotes ATDPCs expression of endothelial and cardiomyogenic markers.

  4. Improving patient-centeredness of fertility care using a multifaceted approach: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Beside traditional outcomes of safety and (cost-)effectiveness, the Institute of Medicine states patient-centeredness as an independent outcome indicator to evaluate the quality of healthcare. Providing patient-centered care is important because patients want to be heard for their ideas and concerns. Healthcare areas associated with high emotions and intensive treatment periods could especially benefit from patient-centered care. How care can become optimally improved in patient-centeredness is unknown. Therefore, we will conduct a study in the context of Dutch fertility care to determine the effects of a multifaceted approach on patient-centeredness, patients’ quality of life (QoL) and levels of distress. Our aims are to investigate the effectiveness of a multifaceted approach and to identify determinants of a change in the level of patient-centeredness, patients’ QoL and distress levels. This paper presents the study protocol. Methods/Design In a cluster-randomized trial in 32 Dutch fertility clinics the effects of a multifaceted approach will be determined on the level of patient-centeredness (Patient-centredness Questionnaire – Infertility), patients’ QoL (FertiQoL) and levels of distress (SCREENIVF). The multifaceted approach includes audit and feedback, educational outreach visits and patient-mediated interventions. Potential determinants of a change in patient-centeredness, patients’ QoL and levels of distress will be collected by an addendum to the patients’ questionnaire and a professionals’ questionnaire. The latter includes the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument about the clinic’s culture as a possible determinant of an increase in patient-centered care. Discussion The study is expected to yield important new evidence about the effects of a multifaceted approach on levels of patient-centeredness, patients’ QoL and distress in fertility care. Furthermore, determinants associated with a change in these outcome measures will be studied. With knowledge of these results, patient-centered care and thus the quality of healthcare can be improved. Moreover, the results of this study could be useful for similar initiatives to improve the quality of care delivery. The results of this project are expected at the end of 2013. Trial registration Clinicialtrials.gov NCT01481064 PMID:23006997

  5. Developing a patient and family-centred approach for measuring the quality of injury care: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quality indicators (QI) are used in health care to measure quality of service and performance improvement. Health care professionals and organizations caring for patients with injuries need information regarding the quality of care provided and the outcomes experienced in order to target improvement efforts. However, very little is known about the quality of injury care provided to individual patients and populations and even less about patients’ perspectives on quality of care. The absence of QIs that incorporate patient or family preferences, needs or values has been identified as an important gap in the science and practice of injury quality improvement. The primary objective of this research protocol is to develop and evaluate the first set of patient and family-centred QIs of injury care for critically injured patients Methods/design This mixed methods study is comprised of three Sub-Studies. Sub-Study A will utilize focus group methodology to describe the preferences, needs and values of critically injured patients and their family members regarding the quality of health care delivered. Qualitative content analysis of the transcripts will begin after the first completed focus group and will draw on grounded theory using a process of open, axial and selective coding. A panel of stakeholders will be assembled during Sub-Study B to review the themes identified from the focus groups and develop a catalogue of potential patient and family-centred QIs of injury care using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM). The QIs developed by the stakeholder panel will be pilot tested in Sub-Study C using surveys of patients and their family members to determine construct validity, intra-rater reliability and clinical sensibility. Discussion Measuring the quality of injury care is but a first step towards improving patient outcomes. This research will develop the first set of patient and family-centred QIs of injury care. To improve patient care, we need accessible, reliable indicators of quality that are important to patients, and that can then be used to establish quality of care benchmarks, to flag potential problems or successes, follow trends over time and identify disparities across organizations, communities, populations and regions. PMID:23351430

  6. On-Chip Cache Device Scaling Limits and Effective Fault Repair Techniques in Future Nanoscale Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Roberts; Nam Sung Kim; Trevor N. Mudge

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigate different cache fault tolerance techniques to determine which will be most effective when on-chip memory cell defect probabilities exceed those of current technologies, which is highly anticipated in processor on-chip caches manufactured with future nanometer scale technologies. Our most significant finding from this study is that the devices in on-chip memory cells cannot be scaled

  7. A monitoring and feedback tool embedded in a counselling protocol to increase physical activity of patients with COPD or type 2 diabetes in primary care: study protocol of a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is important for a healthy lifestyle. Although physical activity can delay complications and decrease the burden of the disease, the level of activity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) is often far from optimal. To stimulate physical activity, a monitoring and feedback tool, consisting of an accelerometer linked to a smart phone and webserver (It’s LiFe! tool), and a counselling protocol for practice nurses in primary care was developed (the Self-management Support Program). The main objective of this study is to measure the longitudinal effects of this counselling protocol and the added value of using the tool. Methods/Design This three-armed cluster randomised controlled trial with 120 participants with COPD and 120 participants with DM2 (aged 40–70), compares the counselling protocol with and without the use of the tool (group 1 and 2) with usual care (group 3). Recruitment takes place at GP practices in the southern regions of the Netherlands. Randomisation takes place at the practice level. The intended sample (three arms of 8 practices) powers the study to detect a 10-minute difference of moderate and intense physical activity per day between groups 1 and 3. Participants in the intervention groups have to visit the practice nurse 3–4 times for physical activity counselling, in a 4-6-month period. Specific activity goals tailored to the individual patient's preferences and needs will be set. In addition, participants in group 1 will be instructed to use the tool in daily life. The primary outcome, physical activity, will be measured in all groups with a physical activity monitor (PAM). Secondary outcomes are quality of life, general - and exercise - self-efficacy, and health status. Follow-up will take place after 6 and 9 months. Separately, a process evaluation will be conducted to explore reasons for trial non-participation, and the intervention’s acceptability for participating patients and nurses. Discussion Results of this study will give insight into the effects of the It’s LiFe! monitoring and feedback tool combined with care from a practice nurse for people with COPD or DM2 on physical activity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01867970 PMID:24885096

  8. The GenoChip: A New Tool for Genetic Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Elhaik, Eran; Greenspan, Elliott; Staats, Sean; Krahn, Thomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco; Pagani, Luca; Jin, Li; Li, Hui; Schurr, Theodore G.; Greenspan, Bennett; Spencer Wells, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Genographic Project is an international effort aimed at charting human migratory history. The project is nonprofit and nonmedical, and, through its Legacy Fund, supports locally led efforts to preserve indigenous and traditional cultures. Although the first phase of the project was focused on uniparentally inherited markers on the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the current phase focuses on markers from across the entire genome to obtain a more complete understanding of human genetic variation. Although many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, they were designed for medical genetic studies and contain medically related markers that are inappropriate for global population genetic studies. GenoChip, the Genographic Project’s new genotyping array, was designed to resolve these issues and enable higher resolution research into outstanding questions in genetic anthropology. The GenoChip includes ancestry informative markers obtained for over 450 human populations, an ancient human (Saqqaq), and two archaic hominins (Neanderthal and Denisovan) and was designed to identify all known Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups. The chip was carefully vetted to avoid inclusion of medically relevant markers. To demonstrate its capabilities, we compared the FST distributions of GenoChip SNPs to those of two commercial arrays. Although all arrays yielded similarly shaped (inverse J) FST distributions, the GenoChip autosomal and X-chromosomal distributions had the highest mean FST, attesting to its ability to discern subpopulations. The chip performances are illustrated in a principal component analysis for 14 worldwide populations. In summary, the GenoChip is a dedicated genotyping platform for genetic anthropology. With an unprecedented number of approximately 12,000 Y-chromosomal and approximately 3,300 mtDNA SNPs and over 130,000 autosomal and X-chromosomal SNPs without any known health, medical, or phenotypic relevance, the GenoChip is a useful tool for genetic anthropology and population genetics. PMID:23666864

  9. The GenoChip: a new tool for genetic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Elhaik, Eran; Greenspan, Elliott; Staats, Sean; Krahn, Thomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco; Pagani, Luca; Jin, Li; Li, Hui; Schurr, Theodore G; Greenspan, Bennett; Spencer Wells, R

    2013-01-01

    The Genographic Project is an international effort aimed at charting human migratory history. The project is nonprofit and nonmedical, and, through its Legacy Fund, supports locally led efforts to preserve indigenous and traditional cultures. Although the first phase of the project was focused on uniparentally inherited markers on the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the current phase focuses on markers from across the entire genome to obtain a more complete understanding of human genetic variation. Although many commercial arrays exist for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, they were designed for medical genetic studies and contain medically related markers that are inappropriate for global population genetic studies. GenoChip, the Genographic Project's new genotyping array, was designed to resolve these issues and enable higher resolution research into outstanding questions in genetic anthropology. The GenoChip includes ancestry informative markers obtained for over 450 human populations, an ancient human (Saqqaq), and two archaic hominins (Neanderthal and Denisovan) and was designed to identify all known Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups. The chip was carefully vetted to avoid inclusion of medically relevant markers. To demonstrate its capabilities, we compared the FST distributions of GenoChip SNPs to those of two commercial arrays. Although all arrays yielded similarly shaped (inverse J) FST distributions, the GenoChip autosomal and X-chromosomal distributions had the highest mean FST, attesting to its ability to discern subpopulations. The chip performances are illustrated in a principal component analysis for 14 worldwide populations. In summary, the GenoChip is a dedicated genotyping platform for genetic anthropology. With an unprecedented number of approximately 12,000 Y-chromosomal and approximately 3,300 mtDNA SNPs and over 130,000 autosomal and X-chromosomal SNPs without any known health, medical, or phenotypic relevance, the GenoChip is a useful tool for genetic anthropology and population genetics. PMID:23666864

  10. Markedly improved outcomes and acceptable toxicity in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment with a pediatric protocol: a phase II study by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, F; Sakura, T; Yujiri, T; Kondo, E; Fujimaki, K; Sasaki, O; Miyatake, J; Handa, H; Ueda, Y; Aoyama, Y; Takada, S; Tanaka, Y; Usui, N; Miyawaki, S; Suenobu, S; Horibe, K; Kiyoi, H; Ohnishi, K; Miyazaki, Y; Ohtake, S; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuo, K; Naoe, T

    2014-01-01

    The superiority of the pediatric protocol for adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has already been demonstrated, however, its efficacy in young adults remains unclear. The ALL202-U protocol was conducted to examine the efficacy and feasibility of a pediatric protocol in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with BCR-ABL-negative ALL. Patients aged 15-24 years (n=139) were treated with the same protocol used for pediatric B-ALL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the disease-free survival (DFS) rate and its secondary aims were to assess toxicity, the complete remission (CR) rate and the overall survival (OS) rate. The CR rate was 94%. The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 67% (95% confidence interval (CI) 58-75%) and 73% (95% CI 64-80%), respectively. Severe adverse events were observed at a frequency that was similar to or lower than that in children treated with the same protocol. Only insufficient maintenance therapy significantly worsened the DFS (hazard ratio 5.60, P<0.001). These results indicate that this protocol may be a feasible and highly effective treatment for AYA with BCR-ABL-negative ALL. PMID:25325302

  11. Design and parameter optimization of flip-chip bonder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyoungsub; Kang, Heuiseok; Jeong, Hoon; Cho, Youngjune; Kim, Wansoo; Kang, Shinill

    2005-12-01

    Bare-chip packaging becomes more popular along with the miniaturization of IT components. In this paper, we have studied flip-chip process, and developed automated bonding system. Among the several bonding method, NCP bonding is chosen and batch-type equipment is manufactured. The dual optics and vision system aligns the chip with the substrate. The bonding head equipped with temperature and force controllers bonds the chip. The system can be easily modified for other bonding methods such as ACF. In bonding process, the bonding force and temperature are known as the most dominant bonding parameters. A parametric study is performed for these two parameters. For the test sample, we used standard flip-chip test kit which consists of FR4 boards and dummy flip-chips. The bonding temperatures are chosen between 25°C to 300°C. The bonding forces are chosen between 5N and 300N. To test the bonding strength, a bonding strength tester was designed and constructed. After the bonding strength test, the samples are examined by microscope to determine the failure mode. The relations between the bonding strength and the bonding parameters are analyzed and compared with bonding models. Finally, the most suitable bonding condition is suggested in terms of temperature and force.

  12. Considerations in establishing a post-mortem brain and tissue bank for the study of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: a proposed protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our aim, having previously investigated through a qualitative study involving extensive discussions with experts and patients the issues involved in establishing and maintaining a disease specific brain and tissue bank for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), was to develop a protocol for a UK ME/CFS repository of high quality human tissue from well characterised subjects with ME/CFS and controls suitable for a broad range of research applications. This would involve a specific donor program coupled with rapid tissue collection and processing, supplemented by comprehensive prospectively collected clinical, laboratory and self-assessment data from cases and controls. Findings We reviewed the operations of existing tissue banks from published literature and from their internal protocols and standard operating procedures (SOPs). On this basis, we developed the protocol presented here, which was designed to meet high technical and ethical standards and legal requirements and was based on recommendations of the MRC UK Brain Banks Network. The facility would be most efficient and cost-effective if incorporated into an existing tissue bank. Tissue collection would be rapid and follow robust protocols to ensure preservation sufficient for a wide range of research uses. A central tissue bank would have resources both for wide-scale donor recruitment and rapid response to donor death for prompt harvesting and processing of tissue. Conclusion An ME/CFS brain and tissue bank could be established using this protocol. Success would depend on careful consideration of logistic, technical, legal and ethical issues, continuous consultation with patients and the donor population, and a sustainable model of funding ideally involving research councils, health services, and patient charities. This initiative could revolutionise the understanding of this still poorly-understood disease and enhance development of diagnostic biomarkers and treatments. PMID:24938650

  13. The Chip History Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Launched in September of 2004, the Chip History Center web site was originally developed by VLSI Research Inc. to be the semiconductor industry's History Channel on the internet to help strengthen the industry's infrastructure by providing an archive of videos and reports that document the industry's history and its development. Today its purpose is to serve as a virtual museum on the history of the semiconductor industry, preserve and archive the history of the industry that opened the doors to the information age, provide easy to access and free information to researchers, historians, and educators, provide educational resources for K-12 that show how things work, and provide role models for children of people for whom science and math have enriched their live. This a great website to explore the early days of the Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment and some of its most interesting pioneers from the 60's through the 90's. The site has historical pictures and interactive blogs for you to leave your comments and thoughts.

  14. Tailored Hospital-based Risk reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES) study: qualitative phase protocol

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Akinyemi, Rufus O.; Hurst, Samantha; Arulogun, Oyedunni; Olaniyan, Olanrewaju; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Salako, Babatunde L.; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to develop effective strategies to improve stroke outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where use of evidence-based therapies among patients receiving conventional care is poor. Designs of behavioral interventions to improve stroke care in SSA need to be sensitive to both individual and community factors (including local perceptions and public policies) contributing to the likelihood of compliance with recommended therapeutic goals. This article presents a community-based participatory research protocol that will evaluate systems and processes affecting the continuum of stroke preventive care in a SSA country. Methods/Design Phase 1 of the Tailored Hospital-based Risk Reduction to Impede Vascular Events (THRIVES) study will be implemented from 2013 to 2014 at four different types of hospital settings in Nigeria. Six adult stroke survivor and six stroke caregiver focus groups, comprising ~ 8 participants per group, and lasting 120 minutes each, will be conducted; as well as 22 semi-structured key informant interviews (informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework) with several types of providers and hospital administrators. Purposive and maximum variation sampling will be used to identify and recruit participants from participating hospitals. Transcript data will be analyzed by reviewers in an iterative process to identify recurrent and unifying themes using a constructivist variant of the grounded theory methodology, and will involve participatory co-analysis with key stakeholders to enhance authenticity and veracity of findings. Discussion Based on the results of THRIVES Phase 1, we intend to develop a culturally-sensitive, system-appropriate, multipronged intervention whose efficacy to boost adherence to evidence-based stroke preventive care will be tested in a future randomized trial (Phase 2). PMID:24526149

  15. Portrait of rural emergency departments in Quebec and utilisation of the Quebec Emergency Department Management Guide: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, Richard; Archambault, Patrick; Légaré, France; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Ouimet, Mathieu; Dupuis, Gilles; Haggerty, Jeannie; Poitras, Julien; Tanguay, Alain; Simard-Racine, Geneviève; Gauthier, Josée

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Emergency departments are important safety nets for people who live in rural areas. Moreover, a serious problem in access to healthcare services has emerged in these regions. The challenges of providing access to quality rural emergency care include recruitment and retention issues, lack of advanced imagery technology, lack of specialist support and the heavy reliance on ambulance transport over great distances. The Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services published a new version of the Emergency Department Management Guide, a document designed to improve the emergency department management and to humanise emergency department care and services. In particular, the Guide recommends solutions to problems that plague rural emergency departments. Unfortunately, no studies have evaluated the implementation of the proposed recommendations. Methods and analysis To develop a comprehensive portrait of all rural emergency departments in Quebec, data will be gathered from databases at the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services, the Quebec Trauma Registry and from emergency departments and ambulance services managers. Statistics Canada data will be used to describe populations and rural regions. To evaluate the use of the 2006 Emergency Department Management Guide and the implementation of its various recommendations, an online survey and a phone interview will be administered to emergency department managers. Two online surveys will evaluate quality of work life among physicians and nurses working at rural emergency departments. Quality-of-care indicators will be collected from databases and patient medical files. Data will be analysed using statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the CSSS Alphonse–Desjardins research ethics committee (Project MP-HDL-1213-011). The results will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented at one or more scientific conferences. PMID:23633423

  16. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring versus conventional glucose monitoring in critically ill patients: a systematic review study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weidong; Jiang, Libing; Jiang, Shouyin; Ma, Yuefeng; Zhang, Mao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress-induced hyperglycaemia, which has been shown to be associated with an unfavourable prognosis, is common among critically ill patients. Additionally, it has been reported that hypoglycaemia and high glucose variabilities are also associated with adverse outcomes. Thus, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may be the optimal method to detect severe hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia and decrease glucose excursion. However, the overall accuracy and reliability of CGM systems and the effects of CGM systems on glucose control and prognosis in critically ill patients remain inconclusive. Therefore, we will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the associations between CGM systems and clinical outcome. Methods and analysis We will search PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from inception to October 2014. Studies comparing CGM systems with any other glucose monitoring methods in critically ill patients will be eligible for our meta-analysis. The primary endpoints include the incidence of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, mean glucose level, and percentage of time within the target range. The second endpoints include intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU and hospital stay, and the Pearson correlation coefficient and the results of error grid analysis. In addition, we will record all complications (eg, acquired infections) in control and intervention groups and local adverse events in intervention groups (eg, bleeding or infections). Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required as this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference. Trial registration number PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014013488. PMID:25616512

  17. EQUIPT: protocol of a comparative effectiveness research study evaluating cross-context transferability of economic evidence on tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Subhash; Evers, Silvia; Leidl, Reiner; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Kalo, Zoltan; de Vries, Hein; Crossfield, Andrea; Andrews, Fiona; Rutter, Ailsa; Coyle, Kathryn; Lester-George, Adam; West, Robert; Owen, Lesley; Jones, Teresa; Vogl, Matthias; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Voko, Zoltan; Huic, Mirjana; Coyle, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoking claims 700?000 lives every year in Europe and the cost of tobacco smoking in the EU is estimated between €98 and €130 billion annually; direct medical care costs and indirect costs such as workday losses each represent half of this amount. Policymakers all across Europe are in need of bespoke information on the economic and wider returns of investing in evidence-based tobacco control, including smoking cessation agendas. EQUIPT is designed to test the transferability of one such economic evidence base—the English Tobacco Return on Investment (ROI) tool—to other EU member states. Methods and analysis EQUIPT is a multicentre, interdisciplinary comparative effectiveness research study in public health. The Tobacco ROI tool already developed in England by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) will be adapted to meet the needs of European decision-makers, following transferability criteria. Stakeholders' needs and intention to use ROI tools in sample countries (Germany, Hungary, Spain and the Netherlands) will be analysed through interviews and surveys and complemented by secondary analysis of the contextual and other factors. Informed by this contextual analysis, the next phase will develop country-specific ROI tools in sample countries using a mix of economic modelling and Visual Basic programming. The results from the country-specific ROI models will then be compared to derive policy proposals that are transferable to other EU states, from which a centralised web tool will be developed. This will then be made available to stakeholders to cater for different decision-making contexts across Europe. Ethics and dissemination The Brunel University Ethics Committee and relevant authorities in each of the participating countries approved the protocol. EQUIPT has a dedicated work package on dissemination, focusing on stakeholders’ communication needs. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, e-learning resources and policy briefs. PMID:25421342

  18. Study protocol to examine the effects of spaceflight and a spaceflight analog on neurocognitive performance: extent, longevity, and neural bases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long duration spaceflight (i.e., 22 days or longer) has been associated with changes in sensorimotor systems, resulting in difficulties that astronauts experience with posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes. Whether spaceflight also affects other central nervous system functions such as cognition is yet largely unknown, but of importance in consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both in- and post-flight. We are therefore conducting a controlled prospective longitudinal study to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the extent, longevity and neural bases of sensorimotor and cognitive performance changes. Here we present the protocol of our study. Methods/design This study includes three groups (astronauts, bed rest subjects, ground-based control subjects) for which each the design is single group with repeated measures. The effects of spaceflight on the brain will be investigated in astronauts who will be assessed at two time points pre-, at three time points during-, and at four time points following a spaceflight mission of six months. To parse out the effect of microgravity from the overall effects of spaceflight, we investigate the effects of seventy days head-down tilted bed rest. Bed rest subjects will be assessed at two time points before-, two time points during-, and three time points post-bed rest. A third group of ground based controls will be measured at four time points to assess reliability of our measures over time. For all participants and at all time points, except in flight, measures of neurocognitive performance, fine motor control, gait, balance, structural MRI (T1, DTI), task fMRI, and functional connectivity MRI will be obtained. In flight, astronauts will complete some of the tasks that they complete pre- and post flight, including tasks measuring spatial working memory, sensorimotor adaptation, and fine motor performance. Potential changes over time and associations between cognition, motor-behavior, and brain structure and function will be analyzed. Discussion This study explores how spaceflight induced brain changes impact functional performance. This understanding could aid in the design of targeted countermeasures to mitigate the negative effects of long-duration spaceflight. PMID:24350728

  19. Electroacupuncture to treat painful diabetic neuropathy: study protocol for a three-armed, randomized, controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to conduct a basic analysis of the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) as compared to placebo and usual care and to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale clinical research. Methods/design This study is a protocol for a three-armed, randomized, patient-assessor-blinded (to the type of treatment), controlled pilot trial. Forty-five participants with a ? six month history of PDN and a mean weekly pain score of ? 4 on the 11-point Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) will be assigned to the electroacupuncture group (n = 15), sham group (n = 15) or usual care group (n = 15). The participants assigned to the electroacupuncture group will receive electroacupuncture (remaining for 30 minutes with a mixed current of 2 Hz/120 Hz and 80% of the bearable intensity) at 12 standard acupuncture points (bilateral ST36, GB39, SP9, SP6, LR3 and GB41) twice per week for eight weeks (a total of 16 sessions) as well as the usual care. The participants in the sham group will receive sham electroacupuncture (no electrical current will be passed to the needle, but the light will be seen, and the sound of the pulse generator will be heard by the participants) at non-acupuncture points as well as the usual care. The participants in the usual care group will not receive electroacupuncture treatment during the study period and will receive only the usual care. The follow-up will be in the 5th, 9th and 17th weeks after random allocation. The PI-NRS score assessed at the ninth week will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), a sleep disturbance score (11-point Likert scale), the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey (SF-36), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) will be used as outcome variables to evaluate the effectiveness of the acupuncture. Safety will be assessed at every visit. Discussion The result of this trial will provide a basis for the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture for PDN. Trial registration Clinical Research information Service. Unique identifier: KCT0000466. PMID:23866906

  20. STREAM CONTROL TRANSMISSION PROTOCOL SESSION INITIATION PROTOCOL

    E-print Network

    Trajkovic, Ljiljana

    ) as a standard signaling protocol for service control in Third Generation (3G) wireless network. SIP Abstract In recent years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) developed by the Internet Engineering Task with the Internet Multimedia protocol H.323. SIP is also selected by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP

  1. Study on genes of the serotonergic system and suicidal behavior: protocol for a case–control study in Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Several studies have provided a possible relationship between genetic factors and suicidal behavior. Also, these studies have shown evidence for altered serotonergic neural transmission in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior. In addition, genes pertaining to the serotonergic system have been proposed as candidates to establish biological correlates between suicidal behavior and the serotonergic system. The most studied genes are SCL6A4, HTR2A, HTR2C, HTR1A, HTR1B, TPH-1, and TPH-2. To get a comprehensive understanding of the association with suicidal behavior we will conduct genotype assays studies in a Mexican population. Methods/Design We will conduct a case–control study. The population sample will comprise adolescent and adult patients admitted for attempted of suicide and diagnosed by a psychiatrist. A peripheral blood sample will be taken from all the subjects (cases and controls). Genomic DNA from the leukocytes blood sample will be extracted. The genotypes of interest are distributed in the following genes: SCL6A4, HTR2A, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2C, TPH-2 and TPH-1. All the samples will be analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) end-point method. We will evaluate the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test will be used to compare genotype and allele frequencies between control and case groups. The Quanto 1.2 software will measure the sample size of the association. For all the association analyses the level of significance will be set at p?=?0.05 and the confidence interval at 95%. Discussion Suicidal behavior has been increase in Mexico, principally in young population. Our study will demonstrate the association between serotoninergic genes and suicide behavior in Mexican population. PMID:24495559

  2. Uterotrophic assay, Hershberger assay, and repeated 28-day oral toxicity study of flumorph based on the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development draft protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Zhao; Leiming Cai; Jie Wang; Yingliang Wu; Baoyu Yao; Le Zhang

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the endocrine-mediated effects of flumorph, we performed the uterotrophic assay, the Hershberger assay, and the repeated 28-day oral toxicity study based on the OECD draft protocols. In the uterotrophic assay, female ovariectomized SD rats were subcutaneously injected with flumorph at doses of 0, 50, 150, and 500mg\\/kg on each of 3 days, and no changes were observed. In

  3. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scot M Sedlacek; Mary C Playdon; Pamela Wolfe; John N McGinley; Mark R Wisthoff; Elizabeth A Daeninck; Weiqin Jiang; Zongjian Zhu; Henry J Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Background  Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival.\\u000a However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic\\u000a benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns\\u000a that vary markedly

  4. Effectiveness and safety of a management protocol to correct over-anticoagulation with oral vitamin K: a retrospective study of 1,043 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Denas; F. Marzot; P. Offelli; A. Stendardo; U. Cucchini; R. Russo; G. Nante; S. Iliceto; Vittorio Pengo

    2009-01-01

    Background Timely reversal of excessive anticoagulation is important in preventing bleeding complications. The use of vitamin K in correcting\\u000a over-anticoagulation is widely accepted to be superior to discontinuation of therapy but its effectiveness and safety in large\\u000a scale cohort studies has not been assessed. Methods According to our protocol, 2 mg of oral vitamin K in addition to omitting the day’s

  5. Physical therapy treatment in patients suffering from cervicogenic somatic tinnitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tinnitus occurs in a large part of the general population with prevalences ranging from 10% to 15% in an adult population. One subtype is cervicogenic somatic tinnitus, arising from cervical spine dysfunctions, justifying cervical spine assessment and treatment. This study aims to investigate the effect of a standardized physical therapy treatment, directed to the cervical spine, on tinnitus. Additionally, a second aim is to identify a subgroup within the tinnitus population that benefits from physical therapy treatment. Methods and design This study is designed as a randomized controlled trial with delayed treatment design. Patients with severe subjective tinnitus (Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) between 25 and 90 points), in combination with neck complaints (Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire (NBQ) >14 points) will be recruited from the University Hospital of Antwerp. Patients suffering from tinnitus with clear otological etiologies, severe depression, traumatic cervical spine injury, tumors, cervical spine surgery, or conditions in which physical therapy is contra-indicated, will be excluded. After screening for eligibility, baseline data such as TFI, NBQ, and a set of cervical biomechanical and sensorimotor tests will be collected. Patients are randomized in an immediate therapy group and in a group with a delayed start of therapy by 6 weeks. Patients will receive physical therapy with a maximum of 12 sessions of 30 min for a 6-week program. Data from the TFI and NBQ will be collected at baseline (week 0), at the start of therapy (weeks 0 or 6), at the end of therapy (weeks 6 or 12), 6 weeks after therapy (weeks 12 or 18), and 3 months after therapy (weeks 18 or 24). Secondary outcome measures will be collected at baseline and 6 weeks after the therapy (weeks 12 or 18), as the maximal therapy effect on the cervical spine dysfunctions is expected at that moment. Discussion This study is the first to investigate the effect of a standardized physical therapy treatment protocol on somatic tinnitus with a prospective comparative delayed design and with blinded evaluator for baseline, end of therapy, and 6 and 12 weeks after therapy. Trial registration 12 September 2013, ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02016313 PMID:25056151

  6. South Yorkshire Cohort: a 'cohort trials facility' study of health and weight - Protocol for the recruitment phase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Growing levels of both obesity and chronic disease in the general population pose a major public health problem. In the UK, an innovative 'health and weight' cohort trials facility, the 'South Yorkshire Cohort', is being built in order to provide robust evidence to inform policy, commissioning and clinical decisions in this field. This protocol reports the design of the facility and outlines the recruitment phase methods. Method/Design The South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight study uses the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. This design recruits a large observational cohort of patients with the condition(s) of interest which then provides a facility for multiple randomised controlled trials (with large representative samples of participants, long term outcomes as standard, increased comparability between each trial conducted within the cohort and increased efficiency particularly for trials of expensive interventions) as well as ongoing information as to the natural history of the condition and treatment as usual. This study aims to recruit 20,000 participants to the population based South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight research trials facility. Participants are recruited by invitation letters from their General Practitioners. Data is collected using postal and/or online patient self completed Health Questionnaires. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. Participants are eligible if they are: aged 16 - 85 years, registered with one of 40 practices in South Yorkshire, provide consent for further contact from the researchers and to have their information used to look at the benefit of health treatments. The first wave of data is being collected during 2010/12 and further waves are planned at 2 - 5 year intervals for the planned 20 year duration of the facility. Discussion The South Yorkshire Cohort combines the strengths of the standard observational, longitudinal cohort study design with a population based cohort facility for multiple randomised controlled trials in a range of long term health and weight related conditions (including obesity). This infrastructure will allow the rapid and cheap identification and recruitment of patients, and facilitate the provision of robust evidence to inform the management and self-management of health and weight. PMID:21834964

  7. The optimized acupuncture treatment for neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis: a study protocol of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neck pain is one of the chief symptoms of cervical spondylosis (CS). Acupuncture is a well-accepted and widely used complementary therapy for the management of neck pain caused by CS. In this paper, we present a randomized controlled trial protocol evaluating the use of acupuncture for CS neck pain, comparing the effects of the optimized acupuncture therapy in real practice compared with sham and shallow acupuncture. Methods/Design This trial uses a multicentre, parallel-group, randomized, sham acupuncture and shallow acupuncture, controlled single-blind design. Nine hospitals are involved as trial centres. 945 patients who meet inclusion criteria are randomly assigned to receive optimized acupuncture therapy, sham acupuncture or shallow acupuncture by a computerized central randomization system. The interventions past for 4 weeks with eight to ten treatments in total. The group allocations and interventions are concealed to patients and statisticians. The Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) is used as the primary outcome measure, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and The Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) are applied as secondary outcome measures. The evaluation is performed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at the end of the first month and the third month during follow-up. The statistical analyses will include baseline data comparison and repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for primary and secondary outcomes of group and time differences. Adverse events (AEs) will be reported if they occur. Discussion This trial is a multicentre randomized control trial (RCT) on the efficacy of acupuncture for CS neck pain and has a large sample size and central randomization in China. It will strictly follow the CONSORT statement and STRICTA extension guideline to report high-quality study results. By setting the control groups as sham and shallow acupuncture, this study attempts to reveal the effects of real acupuncture versus placebo or non-classic acupuncture treatment and evaluate whether classic Chinese medical acupuncture is effective on CS neck pain. This study will provide evidence for the effects of acupuncture on CS neck pain. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-00000184. PMID:22776567

  8. Multisystemic engagement & nephrology based educational intervention: a randomized controlled trial protocol on the kidney team at home-study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) is the most successful form of renal replacement therapy in terms of wait time and survival rates. However, we observed a significant inequality in the number of LDKT performed between the Dutch and the non-Dutch patients. The objective of this study is to adapt, implement and test an educational home-based intervention to contribute to the reduction of this inequality. Our aim is to establish this through guided communication together with the social network of the patients in an attempt that well-informed decisions regarding renal replacement therapy can be made: Multisystemic Engagement & Nephrology. This manuscript is a detailed description of the Kidney Team At Home-study protocol. Methods and design All patients (>18 yrs) that are referred to the pre-transplantation outpatient clinic are eligible to participate in the study. Patients will be randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The control group will continue to receive standard care. The experimental group will receive standard care plus a home-based educational intervention. The intervention consists of two sessions at the patient’s home, an initial session with the patient and a second session for which individuals from their social network are invited to take part. Based on the literature and behavioural change theories we hypothesize that reducing hurdles in knowledge, risk perception, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and communication contribute to well-informed decision making and reducing inequality in accessing LDKT programs. A change in these factors is consequently our primary outcome-measure. Based on power calculations, we aim to include 160 patients over a period of two years. Discussion If we are able to show that this home-based group educational intervention contributes to 1) achieving well-informed decision regarding treatment and 2) reducing the inequality in LDKT, the quality of life of patients will be improved while healthcare costs are reduced. As the intervention is investigated in a random heterogeneous patient group in daily practice, the transfer to clinical practice in other kidney transplant centers should be relatively easy. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register, NTR2730. PMID:22824537

  9. The German MultiCare-study: Patterns of multimorbidity in primary health care – protocol of a prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingmar Schäfer; Heike Hansen; Gerhard Schön; Wolfgang Maier; Susanne Höfels; Attila Altiner; Angela Fuchs; Ferdinand M Gerlach; Juliana J Petersen; Jochen Gensichen; Sven Schulz; Steffi Riedel-Heller; Melanie Luppa; Siegfried Weyerer; Jochen Werle; Horst Bickel; Kerstin Barth; Hans-Helmut König; Anja Rudolph; Birgitt Wiese; Jana Prokein; Monika Bullinger; Olaf Knesebeck; Marion Eisele; Hanna Kaduszkiewicz; Karl Wegscheider; Hendrik van den Bussche

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is a highly frequent condition in older people, but well designed longitudinal studies on the impact of multimorbidity on patients and the health care system have been remarkably scarce in numbers until today. Little is known about the long term impact of multimorbidity on the patients' life expectancy, functional status and quality of life as well as health

  10. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children’s coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. Methods/design The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7–13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the “Ladder of life” which measures overall life satisfaction, and “Jag tycker jag är” (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale “Familjeklimat” (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. Discussion There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study therefore makes an important contribution to this novel field of research. In the article various problems related to pursuing a study with children at risk are discussed. Trial registration ISRCTN52310507 PMID:24460905

  11. Nonregeneration Protocol for Surface Plasmon Resonance: Study of High-Affinity Interaction with High-Density Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yijun; Mernaugh, Ray; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2008-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been used in determining kinetics and thermodynamics of biological interaction in the past decades. One difficulty encountered in this technology is the need for a proper regeneration, which means the removal of analytes from the bound complexes to regenerate the activity of the ligands. Regeneration is not always practical since the harsh regeneration reagents may destroy the bioactivity of the ligands. It is even more difficult for complexes with high affinity constants. In this paper, we report a nonregeneration protocol for SPR techniques in which subsequent ligand/analyte interactions can be measured without regeneration; thus ligand biological activity could be retained. Kinetics, binding models, and mathematics of this protocol are discussed in detail using rabbit IgG as the analyte and engineered recombinant antibody A10B single-chain fragment variables (scFv) as the ligand. The affinity constant of rabbit IgG binding with A10B scFv measured by using a nonregeneration protocol was (2.5 ± 0.2) × 107 M?1, which was comparable with the value determined with a conventional regeneration SPR method ((2.2 ± 1.5) × 107 M?1) and quartz crystal microbalance (1.9 × 107 M?1). A paradigm of streptavidin–biotin binding was analyzed to validate this protocol. The affinity constant for each binding subunit of streptavidin to the immobilized biotin was determined to be (7.3 ± 0.2) × 106M?1, which was comparable with the solution-based value of 2 × 107 M?1. The nonregeneration protocol requires a relatively high ligand density on the biosensor surface so that more data points can be obtained before surface saturation. The small size of scFv enables them to be constructed in the biosensors for such purpose. PMID:16536419

  12. Study protocol of KLIMOP: a cohort study on the wellbeing of older cancer patients in Belgium and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer is mainly a disease of older patients. In older cancer patients, additional endpoints such as quality of survival and daily functioning might be considered equally relevant as overall or disease free survival. However, these factors have been understudied using prospective designs focussing on older cancer patients. Therefore, this study will focus on the impact of cancer, ageing, and their interaction on the long-term wellbeing of older cancer patients. Methods/Design This study is an observational cohort study. We aim to recruit 720 cancer patients above 70 years with a new diagnosis of breast, prostate, lung or gastrointestinal cancer and two control groups: one control group of 720 patients above 70 years without a previous diagnosis of cancer and one control group of 720 cancer patients between 50 - 69 years newly diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung or gastrointestinal cancer. Data collection will take place at inclusion, after six months, after one year and every subsequent year until death or end of the study. Data will be collected through personal interviews (consisting of socio-demographic information, general health information, a comprehensive geriatric assessment, quality of life, health locus of control and a loneliness scale), a handgrip test, assessment of medical records, two buccal swabs and a blood sample from cancer patients (at baseline). As an annex study, caregivers of the participants will be recruited as well. Data collection for caregivers will consist of a self-administered questionnaire examining depression, coping, and burden. Discussion This extensive data collection will increase insight on how wellbeing of older cancer patients is affected by cancer (diagnosis and treatment), ageing, and their interaction. Results may provide new insights, which might contribute to the improvement of car