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1

Control of hyperglycaemia in paediatric intensive care (CHiP): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing evidence that tight blood glucose (BG) control improves outcomes in critically ill adults. Children show similar hyperglycaemic responses to surgery or critical illness. However it is not known whether tight control will benefit children given maturational differences and different disease spectrum. Methods/Design The study is an randomised open trial with two parallel groups to assess whether, for children undergoing intensive care in the UK aged ? 16 years who are ventilated, have an arterial line in-situ and are receiving vasoactive support following injury, major surgery or in association with critical illness in whom it is anticipated such treatment will be required to continue for at least 12 hours, tight control will increase the numbers of days alive and free of mechanical ventilation at 30 days, and lead to improvement in a range of complications associated with intensive care treatment and be cost effective. Children in the tight control group will receive insulin by intravenous infusion titrated to maintain BG between 4 and 7.0 mmol/l. Children in the control group will be treated according to a standard current approach to BG management. Children will be followed up to determine vital status and healthcare resources usage between discharge and 12 months post-randomisation. Information regarding overall health status, global neurological outcome, attention and behavioural status will be sought from a subgroup with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A difference of 2 days in the number of ventilator-free days within the first 30 days post-randomisation is considered clinically important. Conservatively assuming a standard deviation of a week across both trial arms, a type I error of 1% (2-sided test), and allowing for non-compliance, a total sample size of 1000 patients would have 90% power to detect this difference. To detect effect differences between cardiac and non-cardiac patients, a target sample size of 1500 is required. An economic evaluation will assess whether the costs of achieving tight BG control are justified by subsequent reductions in hospitalisation costs. Discussion The relevance of tight glycaemic control in this population needs to be assessed formally before being accepted into standard practice. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN61735247

2010-01-01

2

Extraction Protocols for Life Marker Chip-Style Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction experiments were performed to evaluate suitable sample-extraction and processing protocols that will be used by bioanalytical instruments like Life Marker Chip (LMC), focused on the detection of molecules associated with life that will be extracted from the Martian soil. LMC is an antibody microarray biosensor instrument with optical readout, which uses fluorescent labels, analogous to the expected biomarkers, to detect and quantify the presence of polar and non-polar biomolecules, extracted from the Martian soil. The success of the LMC biomarkers detection experiment is dependent on the sample extraction protocol. The currently recommended extraction procedure, optimized for aliphatic biomarkers, consists in sonicating the samples using as solvent system MeOH:H2O with surfactant, which respects all the tightening requirements associated to LMC biosensor. We have examined this procedure for a particular class of biomarkers, the nucleobases adenine, cytosine, uracil and hypoxanthine adsorbed onto martian analogues minerals.

Brucato, John Robert; Fornaro, Teresa; Pucci, Amaranta; Branciamore, Sergio

2013-04-01

3

[Protocols of proteins interactomics: molecular fishing on optical chips and magnetic nanoparticles].  

PubMed

Now it is absolutely clear, that the majority of proteins in living systems function due to interaction with each other in stable or dynamic proteins complexes. Therefore necessity of deeper studies of proteins functions causes expansion of protein-protein interaction research. In the present review the brief description and comparative estimation of experimental methods and protocols of protein interactomics, based on technology of molecular fishing on an optical chips and paramagnetic nanoparticles is given. PMID:23789344

Ivanov, A S; Ershov, P V; Poverennaya, E V; Lisitsa, A V; Archakov, A I

4

The Nostrum Backbone - a Communication Protocol Stack for Networks on Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a communication protocol stack to be used in Nostrum, our Network on Chip (NoC) architecture. In order to aid the designer in the selection process of what parts of protocols, and their respective facilities, to include, a lay- ered approach to communication is taken. A nomenclature for describing the individual layers' interfaces and service definitions of the layers

Mikael Millberg; Erland Nilsson; Rikard Thid; Shashi Kumar; Axel Jantsch

2004-01-01

5

TTA-C2, A Single Chip Communication Controller for the Time-Triggered-Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the architecture and implementation of the first industrial single chip communication controller for the Time Triggered Protocol (TTP\\/C). TTP\\/C is an emerging communication protocol for fault-tolerant real time systems. Typical applications are safety-critical digital control systems such as drive-by-wire and fly-by-wire. We applied a VHDL based design flow to implement an application specific RISC core with several

Manfred Ley; Herbert Grünbacher

2002-01-01

6

Multi-Protocol WiMedia UWB Radio Platform implemented in Single-Chip CMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are building single chip CMOS solutions which implement the WiMedia ultrawideband radio standard. This includes a WiMedia compliant radio (PHY), baseband, medium access controller (MAC), a processor, memory and standard I\\/O interfaces. Firmware can be loaded into the processor so that the device can support Bluetooth 3.0, WiNet (Internet protocols), and certified wireless USB.

B. Brackenridge

2007-01-01

7

IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

2013-03-01

8

Computational parameter study of chip scale package array cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a computational investigation into the thermal management of chip scale package arrays. The parameters considered include power dissipation, cooling air inlet velocity, chip package spacing, and circuit board conductivity. The geometry used throughout the study was an array of five packages placed on board with forced air cooling along the axis of the array.

Sean P. Watson; Bruce T. Murray; Bahgat G. Sammakia

2000-01-01

9

A microfluidic chip for electrochemical conversions in drug metabolism studies.  

PubMed

We have designed a microfluidic microreactor chip for electrochemical conversion of analytes, containing a palladium reference electrode and platinum working and counter electrodes. The counter electrode is placed in a separate side-channel on chip to prevent unwanted side-products appearing in the measured spectrograms. Using this chip, cyclic voltammograms are measured in volumes of 9.6 nL. Furthermore the conversion efficiency of ferricyanide is characterized using UV/vis-spectroscopy. We have obtained an on-line conversion of 97% using a flow rate of 1 microL/min. We have used the microreactor chip to study the electrochemical metabolism pathway of amodiaquine using electrochemistry (EC)-liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS). We have compared our results with measurements obtained with commercially available electrochemical flow-through cells. Using our chip it was possible to obtain similar results. Therefore, we have fabricated an electrochemical cell on-chip which is used successfully in EC-UV/vis and EC-LC-MS experiments. PMID:19495451

Odijk, M; Baumann, A; Lohmann, W; van den Brink, F T G; Olthuis, W; Karst, U; van den Berg, A

2009-03-23

10

A FEM study on mechanisms of discontinuous chip formation in hard machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chip types in machining are determined by the combined effects of workpiece material properties, cutting speed, and tool geometry. The understanding of chip formation plays an important role in machining process optimization and surface integrity. Discontinuous chips, one of the major chip types, are usually formed in hard machining at high speeds. In this study, a new method has been

Y. B. Guo; David W. Yen

2004-01-01

11

Computational parameter study of chip scale package array cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a computational investigation into the thermal management of chip scale package arrays. The parameters considered include power dissipation, cooling air inlet velocity, module spacing, and circuit board conductivity. The geometry used throughout the study was an array of five modules placed on board with forced air cooling along the axis of the array both

Sean P. Watson; Bruce T. Murray; Bahgat G. Sammakia

2001-01-01

12

Implementing the hypothermia protocol: a case study.  

PubMed

This case study describes a 72-year-old man who complained of epigastric abdominal pain, indigestion, fatigue, and shortness of breath for 2 days. He subsequently sustained a witnessed cardiac arrest with resuscitation and return of circulation. The patient was then placed on therapeutic hypothermia postresuscitation. The following case study incorporates an evidence-based practice protocol supporting the use of therapeutic hypothermia postresuscitation. This article discusses the pathophysiology, use of the hypothermia protocol and also inclusion and exclusion criteria. Educational information within the article provides guidelines for the advanced practice nurse regarding the use of therapeutic hypothermia in resuscitated patients. PMID:21543909

Heise, Lynn

13

Microelectrodes integrated cell-chip for drug effects study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon-based microelectrode chips are useful tools for temporal recording of neurotransmitter releasing from neural cells. Both invasive and non-invasive methods are targeted by different group researchers to perform electrical stimulating on neural cells. A microfabricated microelectrodes integrated biochip will be presented in this paper, which describes the dopaminergic cells growing on the chip directly. The dopamine exocytosis can be detected non-invasively from drug incubated dopaminergic cells growing on the chip. The abovementioned silicon-based electrochemical sensor chip has been designed with an electrode array located on the bottom of reaction chamber and each electrode is individually electrical controlled. MN9D, a mouse mesencephalic dopaminergic cell line, has been grown on the surface of the biochip chamber directly. Dopamine exocytosis from the chip-grown MN9D cells was detected using amperometry technology. The amperometric detection limit of dopamine of the biochip microelectrodes was found from 0.06?M to 0.21?M (S/N=3) statistically for the electrode diameters from 10 ?m to 90 ?m, the level of dopamine exocytosis from MN9D cells was undetectable whithout drug incubation. In contrast, after MN9D cells were incubated with L-dopa, a dopamine precursor, K+ induced dopamine extocytosis was temporally detected. The microelectrodes integrated biochip provides a non-invasive, temporal detection of dopamine exocytosis from dopaminergic cells, and holds the potential for applications in studying the mechanisms of dopamine exocytosis, and drug screening. It also provides a tool for pharmaceutical research and drug screening on dopaminergic cells, extendably to be used for other cell culture and drug effects study.

Chen, Yu; Cui, Hui-Fang; Ye, Jian-Shan; Chong, Ser-Choong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Sheu, Fwu-Shan; Cheong, Hui-Wing

2006-01-01

14

On-Chip THz Detection of Biomaterials: A Numerical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marker-free on-chip distinction betweenhybridised (double-stranded) DNA (HDNA) anddenatured (single-stranded) DNA (DDNA) hasrecently been demonstrated using ultrashortelectrical pulses. The electrical THzpulses propagate in integrated waveguidesincorporating resonant THz structures ontowhich the genetic material is deposited.For a possible future realisation of a highthroughput array, it is crucial to optimizethe experimental parameters and theresonant structure. In this paper weperform a first numerical study

T. Baras; T. Kleine-Ostmann; M. Koch

2003-01-01

15

Lab-on-a-chip technologies for single-molecule studies.  

PubMed

Recent developments on various lab-on-a-chip techniques allow miniaturized and integrated devices to perform on-chip single-molecule studies. Fluidic-based platforms that utilize unique microscale fluidic behavior are capable of conducting single-molecule experiments with high sensitivities and throughputs, while biomolecular systems can be studied on-chip using techniques such as DNA curtains, magnetic tweezers, and solid-state nanopores. The advances of these on-chip single-molecule techniques lead to next-generation lab-on-a-chip devices, such as DNA transistors, and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology for rapid and low-cost whole genome DNA sequencing. In this Focus article, we will discuss some recent successes in the development of lab-on-a-chip techniques for single-molecule studies and expound our thoughts on the near future of on-chip single-molecule studies. PMID:23670195

Zhao, Yanhui; Chen, Danqi; Yue, Hongjun; French, Jarrod B; Rufo, Joseph; Benkovic, Stephen J; Huang, Tony Jun

2013-05-14

16

Quality assessment of SPR sensor chips; case study on L1 chips.  

PubMed

Surface quality of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) chips is a major limiting issue in most SPR analyses, even more for supported lipid membranes experiments, where both the organization of the lipid matrix and the subsequent incorporation of the target molecule depend on the surface quality. A novel quantitative method to characterize the quality of SPR sensors chips is described for L1 chips subject to formation of lipid films, injection of membrane disrupting compounds, followed by appropriate regeneration procedures. The method consists in analysis of the SPR reflectivity curves for several standard solutions (e.g. PBS, HEPES or deionized water). This analysis reveals the decline of sensor surface as a function of the number of experimental cycles (consisting in biosensing assay and regeneration step) and enables active control of surface regeneration for enhanced reproducibility. We demonstrate that quantitative evaluation of the changes in reflectivity curves (shape of the SPR dip) and of the slope of the calibration curve provides a rapid and effective procedure for surface quality assessment. Whereas the method was tested on L1 SPR sensors chips, we stress on its amenability to assess the quality of other types of SPR chips, as well. PMID:23455045

Olaru, Andreea; Gheorghiu, Mihaela; David, Sorin; Polonschii, Cristina; Gheorghiu, Eugen

2013-02-04

17

On-Chip THz Detection of Biomaterials: A Numerical Study.  

PubMed

The marker-free on-chip distinction betweenhybridised (double-stranded) DNA (HDNA) anddenatured (single-stranded) DNA (DDNA) hasrecently been demonstrated using ultrashortelectrical pulses. The electrical THzpulses propagate in integrated waveguidesincorporating resonant THz structures ontowhich the genetic material is deposited.For a possible future realisation of a highthroughput array, it is crucial to optimizethe experimental parameters and theresonant structure. In this paper weperform a first numerical study ofdifferent resonator geometries and examinethe influence of critical experimentalparameters on the transmissioncharacteristics of the resonant structures.Our simulations demonstrate that the ringresonator shows a comparable performance tothe parallel-coupled resonator previouslyused in a first demonstration by Nagel andcoworkers. PMID:23345835

Baras, T; Kleine-Ostmann, T; Koch, M

2003-06-01

18

Novel sequential ChIP and simplified basic ChIP protocols for promoter co-occupancy and target gene identification in human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation, particularly in embryonic stem cells, has received increasing attention and involves the systematic identification of target genes and the analysis of promoter co-occupancy. High-throughput approaches based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) have been widely used for this purpose. However, these approaches remain time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, involve multiple steps, and require complex statistical

Ricardo B Medeiros; Kate J Papenfuss; Brian Hoium; Kristen Coley; Joy Jadrich; Saik-Kia Goh; Anuratha Elayaperumal; Julio E Herrera; Ernesto Resnik; Hsiao-Tzu Ni

2009-01-01

19

Reliability study of the laminate-based flip-chip chip scale package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The just about chip size package (JACS-Pak) design was developed for portable product applications. The package elements are solder bumped die, an epoxy underfill resin with inorganic filler, a low cost double-sided, semi-rigid epoxy glass or flex substrate, and solder ball terminals. This paper focuses on the board level reliability of the JACS-Pak package and benchmarks it with respect to

Yushi Matsuda; Tadashi Takai; Yoshio Okada; P. Lall; Corey Koehler; Ted Tessier; Dennis Olsen

1998-01-01

20

The POTATO chip architecture: a study in tradeoffs for signal processing chip design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe an example signal-processing design which illustrates partitioning, performance, cost, and fault-tolerance tradeoffs. They focus on high-performance multiplication using the power-of-two number representation as implemented in the POTATO (power of two arithmetic time-optimized) chip architecture. The implementation is compared to more conventional designs, and performance estimates are given. It is concluded that the design compares favourably to more

B. Sharma; R. Jain; M. A. Breuer; A. C. Parker; C. Raghavendra; C. Y. Tseng

1988-01-01

21

On Chip Cache Quantitative Optimization Approach: Study in Chip Multi-processor Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The nanoelectroincs era promotes multi-core processor (or chip multiprocessor, CMP) improvements with a good deal of both\\u000a opportunities and challenges. In CMP systems based on SMP organization, cache is much more important than before because performance\\u000a promoted by multiprocessor is easily degraded by memory latency in shared symmetric multiprocessors. A quantitative optimization\\u000a cache design is presented in SMP based CMP

Chi Zhang; Xiang Wang

2009-01-01

22

Lab-on-a-Chip for Studying Growing Pollen Tubes.  

PubMed

A major limitation in the study of pollen tube growth has been the difficulty in providing an in vitro testing microenvironment that physically resembles the in vivo conditions. Here we describe the development of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) for the manipulation and experimental testing of individual pollen tubes. The design was specifically tailored to pollen tubes from Camellia japonica, but it can be easily adapted for any other species. The platform is fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a silicon/SU-8 mold and makes use of microfluidics to distribute pollen grains to serially arranged microchannels. The tubes are guided into these channels where they can be tested individually. The microfluidic platform allows for specific testing of a variety of growth behavioral features as demonstrated with a simple mechanical obstacle test, and it permits the straightforward integration of further single-cell test assays. PMID:24132434

Agudelo, Carlos G; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Geitmann, Anja

2014-01-01

23

A case study report on the development, release, and deployment processes of ChipSoft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the results of a case study we performed of the Dutch software vendor ChipSoft. This case study is part of the Deliver research project, and it focused on ChipSoft's release, delivery, and deployment activities. We performed the case study to gain insight into these activities which, in turn, would enable us to propose new ways to ease

Gerco Ballintijn

2005-01-01

24

Radiation Tolerance Studies of BTeV Pixel Readout Chip Prototypes  

SciTech Connect

We report on several irradiation studies performed on BTeV preFPIX2 pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The preFPIX2 pixel readout chip has been implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose of 26 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been measured.

Gabriele Chiodini et al.

2001-09-11

25

Chip, Chip, Hooray!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)|

Kelly, Susan

2001-01-01

26

Development of a new and simple quick-stop device for the study on chip formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief survey in the literature, this paper described how a new, simple and effective quick-stop device was developed for the study of chip formation without employing any explosive charges or breaking any shear pins. A cutoff tool was employed to obtain orthogonal cutting on an engine lathe, imposing the device to collect chip-root sample. Design considerations of the

Gwo-Lianq Chern

2005-01-01

27

Studies on Chip Control in Turning by Partially Laser Hardening of Carbon Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the chip control in turning by in-situ laser heat treatment of work material. Medium carbon steel JIS S45C is chosen as workpiece material because the ductile ferrite-pearlite structure of the base material can be relatively easily changed into the hard-brittle martensitic structure by laser heat. For the purpose of practical use, the direct diode laser (DDL) is selected because of its compact size, easiness of handling and high absorbance. Prior to turning process, the continuous-wave laser beam is irradiated on the workpiece surface in a longitudinal direction. This linear heat treatment makes it possible to break chips in turning every one revolution of workpiece at which the material is embrittled. The chip breakability depends mainly on the ratio of heat-treated depth to depth of cut. In spite that the workpiece is partially hardened, abnormal wear or chipping is not observed on the tool face after turning.

Lin, Yongchuan; Tanaka, Ryutaro; Hosokawa, Akira; Kusano, Takahiko; Ueda, Takashi

28

An Experimental Study on Security Protocols in Wlans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are vulnerable to malicious attacks due to their open shared medium. Consequently, provisioning\\u000a enhanced security with strong cryptographic features and low performance overhead becomes exceedingly necessary to actualize\\u000a real-time services in WLANs. In order to exploit full advantage of existing security protocols at various layers, we study\\u000a the cross-layer interactions of security protocols in WLANs

Avesh Kumar Agarwal; Wenye Wang

29

Detection probability of forest pests in current inspection protocols ...  

Treesearch

Description: Increasing inter-continental trade of wood chips for biofuel ... there is a need for scientific studies that can evaluate the reliability of current import control ... Detection probability of forest pests in current inspection protocols - a case ...

30

The Gastric Emptying Study: Protocol Design Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the intrapatient correlation for gastric emp- tying times with instant oatmeal and scrambled egg meals. In addition, this study evaluated the degree of overlap between the stomach and the colon or jejunum in the anterior (AP) and left anterior oblique (LAO) projections in CT studies of the abdomen. Methods: Fifteen patients were studied twice, 1 d apart,

William C. Klingensmith; Steven P. Lawrence

2008-01-01

31

The Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS) Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The molecular basis for the genetic risk of ischemic stroke is likely to be multigenic and influenced by environmental factors. Several small case-control studies have suggested associations between ischemic stroke and polymorphisms of genes that code for coagulation cascade proteins and platelet receptors. Our aim is to investigate potential associations between hemostatic gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, with particular

James F Meschia; Thomas G Brott; Robert D Brown Jr; Richard JP Crook; Michael Frankel; John Hardy; José G Merino; Stephen S Rich; Scott Silliman; Bradford Burke Worrall

2003-01-01

32

The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) occurs in about 20,000 people per year in the U.S. annually and nearly half of the affected persons are dead within the first 30 days. Survivors of ruptured IAs are often left with substantial disability. Thus, primary prevention of aneurysm formation and rupture is of paramount importance. Prior studies indicate

Joseph P Broderick; Laura R Sauerbeck; Tatiana Foroud; John Huston; Nathan Pankratz; Irene Meissner; Robert D Brown Jr

2005-01-01

33

Screening of Chips.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the study is to survey the screening of chips, especially of fuel chips on a production scale. Further on screening of milled and sod peat is surveyed to some extent, because screening of these fuels resembles that of fuel chips. The study is ...

R. Laine

1987-01-01

34

Reliability study and failure analysis of fine pitch solder bumped flip chip on low-cost printed circuit board substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and proper selection of low-cost printed circuit board (PCB) is essential to the reliability and formation of solder joints for the fine-pitch solder-bumped flip-chip on board (FCOB) technology. By nature low-cost PCBs don't have the precision in patterns like the fine-pitch solder-bumped flip-chip technology. In this study, eutectic solder bumps (63Sn\\/37Pb) were electroplated on the test-chips with various

Guo-Wei Xiao; Philip C. H. Chan; Annette Teng; P. S. W. Lee; Matthew M. F. Yuen

2001-01-01

35

[Study of the influence of raw material and processing conditions on acrylamide level in fried potato chips].  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to examine relation between the asparagine level in raw material and acrylamide concentration in chips made from different varieties of potato. Relation between colour of potato chips and acrylamide content was also examined. Acrylamide concentration in fried potato chips ranged from 376 to 2348 microg/kg. We found the lowest acrylamide content in potato chips made from the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute Irga and the highest in Irga bought in the Warsaw market. We didn't find significant correlation between the asparagine content in raw material and the acrylamide level in potato chips (r = -0.13). The colour intensity of fried chips positively correlated with acrylamide concentration independently from the potato varieties and sequence of frying (r = 0.8045; p < 0.005). PMID:18807914

Mojska, Hanna; Gieleci?ska, Iwona; Marecka, Dorota; K?ys, Wojciech

2008-01-01

36

Parameter sensitivity study of cure-dependent underfill properties on flip chip failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parameter sensitivity study directed to the effects of cure-dependent underfill properties on Flip Chip's die cracking and solder fatigue lifetime is presented. The cure dependent behavior is modeled with a modified version of an earlier published cure dependent viscoelastic model. In the modified model the cure-dependent \\

D. G. Yang; G. Q. Zhang; W. van Driel; J. Janssen; H. J. L. Bressers; L. J. Ernst

2002-01-01

37

Study of Dynamic Warpage of Flip Chip Packages under Temperature Reflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flip chip deforms after assembly due to coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch of silicon and substrate coupled with underfills. Issues arise when excessive package warpage leads to improper joint during surface mount technology and increase in assembly yield loss. In this paper, application of shadow moire technique and finite element modeling approach were introduced to study the thermo-mechanical response of

Chee Kan Lee; Wei Keat Loh; Kang Eu Ong; I. Chin

2006-01-01

38

Study of Spin Dynamics by Means of On-Chip SQUIDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an on-chip SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) measurement technique to study spin dynamics in Single Molecular Magnets (SMMs) and other spin systems. SMMs systems are thought as potential qubit candidates, due to their quantum nature and the possibility to construct superposition of molecular spin states. If spins are enough diluted to minimize dipolar interactions and therefore increase decoherence

Lei Chen

2010-01-01

39

Finite element study of flip chip on board in drop test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliability of electronic packages in mechanical drop tests is critical especially for portable electronic devices as these electronic packages are very vulnerable to solder joint failures caused by the mechanical shock and the PCB warping upon impact. Drop test studies are performed to investigate the solder joints mechanical failure in electronic packages. In this paper, the mechanical impact on the solder joints of a flip chip in a simulated drop test is investigated. The drop test simulation consists of a typical flip chip on board (FCOB) that has 48 peripheral eutectic solder bumps modeled in CAD/CAM software. The flip chip solder joint reliability under mechanical shock is studied using 3D finite element simulation. Comprehensive design analyses are performed to study 3 different models. The design models are varied in the substrate dimensions and the addition of encapsulation. The results of the stresses and strains in the solder joints are obtained using finite element analysis in the drop test. The findings indicate that the stress on the flip chip corner solder joint decreases if the substrate is larger in dimension. In addition, the introduction of an encapsulation helps to reduce the stress experienced by the solder joint.

Nah, Siew Kuan; Zhong, Zhaowei

2005-04-01

40

Laboratory study on factors influencing nitrogen removal in marble chip biofilters incorporating nitritation and anammox.  

PubMed

It remains challenging to integrate nitritation and anammox in ecologically engineered treatment systems such as passive biofilters that are packed with natural materials and have low energy inputs. This study explored the factors influencing nitritation-anammox through parallel operation of two laboratory-scale biofilters packed with large and small marble chips respectively. Clean marble chips (mainly CaCO3) had an alkalinity dissolution rate of 130 mg CaCO3/kg marble d when water pH approached 6.5. Marble chips effectively increased water pH and provided sufficient alkalinity to support nitritation-anammox in the biofilters. Ammonium and total nitrogen removal decreased by 47 and 26%, respectively, when nutrients were not amended to influent. An influent nitrite concentration above 8.9 mg N/L could inhibit anammox in thin biofilms of biofilters. Nitritation-anammox was enhanced with a hydraulic retention time of 2 d relative to 7 d, likely due to enhanced air entrainment. Size of marble chips rarely made a significant difference in nitrogen removal, possibly due to sufficient surface area available for bacterial attachment and alkalinity dissolution. PMID:22214072

Tao, Wendong; Wen, Jianfeng; Norton, Christopher

2011-01-01

41

Securing Contactless Chips with PACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PACE (Password Authenticated Connection Establishment) is a cryptographic protocol that was developed to provide a secure knowledge-based authentication mechanism for contactless chips. The problems that are inherent to (but not limited to) contactless chips are described and PACE as a solution based on cryptographic tools is sketched. Finally, it is shown how to use PACE together with traditional short PINs of 4-6 digits as access control mechanism for contactless chips withstanding denial-of-service attacks.

Kügler, Dennis

42

Study of chip-breaking mechanisms in orthogonal cutting. Technical report, April 1, 1990--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities of the research project entitled {open_quotes}Study of Chip Breaking Mechanisms in Orthogonal Cutting{close_quotes}. The research effort took place from April 1990 to June 1991. The overall objective of the project was to develop a systematic procedure for gaining a more fundamental understanding of chip breaking mechanics. Central to this objective is a computer model that can simulate chip formation in orthogonal cutting. This model has been under development for the past seven years at NCSU. The model is based on an Eulerian formulation of the finite element technique. The model simulates the cutting process for various tool geometries over a wide range of cutting conditions. The model can be used to predict chip geometry, cutting forces, plastic strains, strain rates, and temperatures in the workpiece and chip, as well as temperatures in the tool itself. Of particular significance is that specific tool geometries can be simulated. Therefore, the model can be used to systematically evaluate the strains, strain rates, temperature, and geometry of the chip as a function of a specific chip-breaker tool design. These results can provide the crucial information necessary to formulate a fundamental understanding of the chip breaking mechanism over a wide range of operating conditions and workpiece materials.

Strenkowski, J.S.

1991-07-15

43

Think-aloud protocols: Analyzing three different think-aloud protocols with counts of verbalized frustrations in a usability study of an information-rich Web site  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an empirical, between-subjects study on the use of think-aloud protocols in usability testing of an information-rich Web site. This double-blind study used three different types of think-aloud protocols: a traditional protocol, a speech-communication protocol, and a coaching protocol. A silent condition served as the control. Eighty participants were recruited and randomly pre-assigned to one of four conditions. With

Erica L. Olmsted-Hawala; Elizabeth D. Murphy; Sam Hawala; Kathleen T. Ashenfelter

2010-01-01

44

Boosting bioluminescence neuroimaging: an optimized protocol for brain studies.  

PubMed

Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for optical cell tracking approaches. However, reliable and quantitative bioluminescence of transplanted cells in the brain is highly challenging. In this study we established a new bioluminescence imaging protocol dedicated for neuroimaging, which increases sensitivity especially for noninvasive tracking of brain cell grafts. Different D-Luciferin concentrations (15, 150, 300 and 750 mg/kg), injection routes (i.v., i.p., s.c.), types of anesthesia (Isoflurane, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbital) and timing of injection were compared using DCX-Luc transgenic mice for brain specific bioluminescence. Luciferase kinetics was quantitatively evaluated for maximal photon emission, total photon emission and time-to-peak. Photon emission followed a D-Luciferin dose-dependent relation without saturation, but with delay in time-to-peak increasing for increasing concentrations. The comparison of intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal substrate injection reflects expected pharmacokinetics with fastest and highest photon emission for intravenous administration. Ketamine/Xylazine and Pentobarbital anesthesia showed no significant beneficial effect on maximal photon emission. However, a strong difference in outcome was observed by injecting the substrate pre Isoflurane anesthesia. This protocol optimization for brain specific bioluminescence imaging comprises injection of 300 mg/kg D-Luciferin pre Isoflurane anesthesia as an efficient and stable method with a signal gain of approx. 200% (compared to 150 mg/kg post Isoflurane). Gain in sensitivity by the novel imaging protocol was quantitatively assessed by signal-to-noise calculations of luciferase-expressing neural stem cells grafted into mouse brains (transplantation of 3,000-300,000 cells). The optimized imaging protocol lowered the detection limit from 6,000 to 3,000 cells by a gain in signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:23405190

Aswendt, Markus; Adamczak, Joanna; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Hoehn, Mathias

2013-02-06

45

Boosting Bioluminescence Neuroimaging: An Optimized Protocol for Brain Studies  

PubMed Central

Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for optical cell tracking approaches. However, reliable and quantitative bioluminescence of transplanted cells in the brain is highly challenging. In this study we established a new bioluminescence imaging protocol dedicated for neuroimaging, which increases sensitivity especially for noninvasive tracking of brain cell grafts. Different D-Luciferin concentrations (15, 150, 300 and 750 mg/kg), injection routes (iv, ip, sc), types of anesthesia (Isoflurane, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbital) and timing of injection were compared using DCX-Luc transgenic mice for brain specific bioluminescence. Luciferase kinetics was quantitatively evaluated for maximal photon emission, total photon emission and time-to-peak. Photon emission followed a D-Luciferin dose-dependent relation without saturation, but with delay in time-to-peak increasing for increasing concentrations. The comparison of intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal substrate injection reflects expected pharmacokinetics with fastest and highest photon emission for intravenous administration. Ketamine/Xylazine and Pentobarbital anesthesia showed no significant beneficial effect on maximal photon emission. However, a strong difference in outcome was observed by injecting the substrate pre Isoflurane anesthesia. This protocol optimization for brain specific bioluminescence imaging comprises injection of 300 mg/kg D-Luciferin pre Isoflurane anesthesia as an efficient and stable method with a signal gain of approx. 200% (compared to 150 mg/kg post Isoflurane). Gain in sensitivity by the novel imaging protocol was quantitatively assessed by signal-to-noise calculations of luciferase-expressing neural stem cells grafted into mouse brains (transplantation of 3,000–300,000 cells). The optimized imaging protocol lowered the detection limit from 6,000 to 3,000 cells by a gain in signal-to-noise ratio.

Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Hoehn, Mathias

2013-01-01

46

Experimental and analytical study on the flow of encapsulant during underfill encapsulation of flip-chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the flow of encapsulant during the underfill encapsulation of flip-chips has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Analytical as well as numerical methods have been developed to analyze the flow during the underfill encapsulation process. For capillary-driven encapsulation, the capillary force at the melt-front has been calculated based on a model for the melt-front shape. A model has

Sejin Han; K. K. Wang; Sung-Yong Cho

1996-01-01

47

A study of cyclic bending reliability of bare-die-type chip-scale packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both experimental and numerical studies were carried out in this work to investigate the second-level reliability of a bare-die-type chip-scale package, named ultra-CSP, under cyclic bending conditions. We performed four-point cyclic bending tests with combinations of deflection amplitudes up to 3 mm and excitation frequencies up to 2 Hz. It was observed from the bending experiments that the influence of

Yi-Shao Lai; Tong Hong Wang; Han-Hui Tsai; Jenq-Dah Wu

2004-01-01

48

Computerized protocol for anatomical and functional studies of joints.  

PubMed

This chapter describes a new methodology for the acquisition and computer elaboration of joint anatomy and motion data and the study of their correlation. The method uses a commercial industrial electrogoniometer, custom tools, and software designed and developed by the authors for interactive display of the anatomical structures during joint motion, numerical interpolations of the articular geometries, and kinematic analysis of motion. The original data acquisition protocol and computer elaboration software are described in detail, and a final subheading describes briefly previous studies and future developments. PMID:15299223

Martelli, Sandra; Zaffagnini, Stefano

2004-01-01

49

Comparative study of different DNA chip preparation methods by means of Surface Plasmon Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we demonstrated that SFG vibrational spectroscopy allows the detection of the specific recognition between the two molecules of a model ligand-protein biosensor. Moreover, we studied by this technique, the formation of thiolated single stranded DNA (ssDNA) monolayers immobilized on metallic substrates which are the basis for various biotechnology applications. Before going further into monitoring the hybridisation process in DNA based sensors, it is important to identify a preparation method providing good quality DNA chips with respect to the recognition process. Therefore, we performed investigations by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Practically, we used four different methods of chip preparation on gold surfaces and we measured the amount of deposited molecules when the sensor is exposed to a target DNA solution. By this way, we monitored for each case the sensitivity and the selectivity of the sensor by comparing the hybridisation of complementary and non complementary target ssDNA, respectively.

Sartenaer, Yannick; Hara, Ryuji; Kawaguchi, Haruma; Thiry, Paul A.

2008-03-01

50

Electrochemistry-on-chip for on-line conversions in drug metabolism studies.  

PubMed

We have designed an integrated 3-electrode electrochemical cell on-chip with high analyte conversion rates for use in drug metabolism studies. The electrochemical cell contains platinum working and counter electrodes and an iridium oxide pseudo-reference electrode. The pseudo-reference electrode has a pH sensitivity of -52 mV/s, and thus will provide a constant potential in solutions with known and constant pH. The average drift of the iridium oxide electrode is below 5 mV for a typical 15 min conversion experiment. We have been able to mimic the oxidative drug metabolism reactions catalysed by enzymes of the cytochrome P-450 family, normally occurring in the human body. With the chip, the different reaction products of both rat liver cell microsome and human liver cell microsome incubations have been observed. PMID:20728333

Odijk, M; Baumann, A; Olthuis, W; van den Berg, A; Karst, U

2010-08-03

51

Combinatorial on-chip study of miniaturized 3D porous scaffolds using a patterned superhydrophobic platform.  

PubMed

One of the main challenges in tissue engineering (TE) is to obtain optimized products, combining biomaterials, cells and soluble factors able to stimulate tissue regeneration. Multiple combinations may be considered by changing the conditions among these three factors. The unpredictable response of each combination requires time-consuming tests. High-throughput methodologies have been proposed to master such complex analyses in TE. Usually, these tests are performed using cells cultured into 2D biomaterials or by dispensing arrays of cell-loaded hydrogels. For the first time an on-chip combinatorial study of 3D miniaturized porous scaffolds is proposed, using a patterned bioinspired superhydrophobic platform. Arrays of biomaterials are dispensed and processed in situ as porous scaffolds with distinct composition, surface characteristics, porosity/pore size, and mechanical properties. On-chip porosity, pore size, and mechanical properties of scaffolds based on chitosan and alginate are assessed by adapting microcomputed tomography equipment and a dynamic mechanical analyzer, as well as cell response after 24 hours. The interactions between cell types of two distinct origins-osteoblast-like and fibroblasts-and the scaffolds modified with fibronectin are studied and validated by comparison with conventional destructive methods (dsDNA quantification and MTS tests). Physical and biological on-chip analyses are coherent with the conventional measures, and conclusions about the most favorable conditions for each cell type are taken. PMID:23169604

Oliveira, Mariana B; Salgado, Christiane L; Song, Wenlong; Mano, João F

2012-11-21

52

Improving medical protocols through formalisation: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical practice protocols or guidelines contain more or less precise recommendations to assist practitioners and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific circumstances. In order to reach their po- tential benefits, protocols must fulfill strong quality require- ments. Medical bodies worldwide have made efforts in this direction, but mostly using informal methods such as peer review of protocols. In

Mar Marcos; Hugo Roomans; Frank van Harmelen

2002-01-01

53

Study protocol: The DOse REsponse Multicentre International collaborative initiative (DOREMI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Current practices for renal replacement therapy in intensive care units (ICUs) remain poorly defined. The DOse REsponse Multicentre\\u000a International collaborative initiative (DO-RE-MI) will address the issue of how the different modes of renal replacement therapy\\u000a are currently chosen and performed. Here, we describe the study protocol, which was approved by the Scientific and Steering\\u000a Committees.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  DO-RE-MI is an observational, multicentre

Detlef Kindgen-Milles; Didier Journois; Roberto Fumagalli; Sergio Vesconi; Javier Maynar; Anibal Marinho; Irene Bolgan; Alessandra Brendolan; Marco Formica; Sergio Livigni; Mariella Maio; Mariano Marchesi; Filippo Mariano; Gianpaola Monti; Elena Moretti; Daniela Silengo; Claudio Ronco

2005-01-01

54

Experimental study of boiling phenomena and heat transfer performances of FC72 over micro-pin-finned silicon chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to study the effects of micro-pin-fins on boiling phenomena and heat transfer from square simulated silicon chips immersed in a pool of FC-72. Two kinds of micro-pin-fins having fin thickness of 30 µm and fin heights of 60 and 200 µm, respectively, were fabricated on the silicon chip surface with the dry etching technique. The experiments were conducted at

J. J. Wei; L. J. Guo; H. Honda

2005-01-01

55

Chip Abacus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students understand place value and regrouping. Base 10 is the default, but users may choose to work in base 2 or 5. A user places (or removes) chips of three colors in three columns to represent numbers of up to three digits. When the number of chips in any column equals the base number, the user can exchange them for a chip in the next column. Similarly a chip of a higher value can be exchanged for the base number of chips of the lower value. The applet can be used to model addition and subtraction with regrouping.

2000-01-01

56

A Performance Comparison Study of Ad Hoc Wireless Multicast Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

óIn this paper we investigate the performance of multicast rout- ing protocols in wireless mobile ad hoc networks. An ad hoc network is composed of mobile nodes without the presence of a wired support infras- tructure. In this environment, routing\\/multicasting protocols are faced with the challenge of producing multihop routes under host mobility and band- width constraints. In recent years,

Sung-ju Lee; William Su; Julian Hsu; Mario Gerla; Rajive Bagrodia

2000-01-01

57

The Internet Backplane Protocol: A Study in Resource Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present the Internet Backplane Protocol (IBP), a middleware created to allow the sharing of storage resources, implemented as part of the network fabric. IBP allows an application to control intermediate data staging operations explicitly. As IBP follows a very simple philosophy, very similar to the Internet Protocol, and the resulting semantic might be too weak for

Alessandro Bassi; Micah Beck; Graham E. Fagg; Terry Moore; James S. Plank; D. Martin Swany; Richard Wolski

2002-01-01

58

Study on the network protocol of the IP-based storage area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the requirement of the application and the development of the technology have promoted the research of the new network protocols in network storage, and currently IP-based SAN has become new focus of study. The main network protocols used in IP-based SAN are: iSCSI, FCIP, iFCP and mFCP. They all implement the transmitting of block level storage data over TCP/IP. To understand and master the protocols deeply, this paper elaborates the latest development of these protocols, and analyzes and compares them intensively in regards of protocol stack, implementation model, naming, addressing, discovery and routing etc.

Fu, Xianglin; Liu, ZhaoBin; Cao, Qiang; Xie, Changsheng

2003-04-01

59

Study on thermally reworkable underfills for flip chip, BGA, and CSP applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underfill is a polymeric material used in the flip-chip devices that fills the gap between an integrated circuit (IC) chip and an organic printed wiring board (PWB), and encapsulates the solder interconnects. This underfill material dramatically enhances the reliability of the flip-chip devices as compared to the non-underfilled devices. Current underfills are mainly epoxy-based materials that are not reworkable after

Lejun Wang

2001-01-01

60

Reliability studies of two flip-chip BGA packages using power cycling test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power cycling tests of the second level reliability of two flip-chip BGA packages are discussed in this paper. The first one is for a flip-chip on laminate package (FCPBGA) and the other for a flip-chip on ceramic package (FCCBGA). For the FCPBGA, test strategies will be first discussed and then focus will be given to a unique failure mode associated

Quan Qi

2001-01-01

61

Experimental study about the effects of disc chipper settings on the distribution of wood chip size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays wood should be of principal sources of biomass. This wood is transformed into chips in order to increase automatic operations and to decrease the technical effort needed at the energy conversion plant. Typical high quality chips, which are used to feed small woodchip boilers, vary in size from 10 × 10 × 5 mm to 15 × 15 × 8 mm. Chips that are relatively square and flat are

Rami Abdallah; Sébastien Auchet; Pierre Jean Méausoone

2011-01-01

62

The effects of a regional telepathology project: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists.

2012-01-01

63

Protocol matters: which methylome are you actually studying?  

PubMed Central

The field of epigenetics is now capitalizing on the vast number of emerging technologies, largely based on second-generation sequencing, which interrogate DNA methylation status and histone modifications genome-wide. However, getting an exhaustive and unbiased view of a methylome at a reasonable cost is proving to be a significant challenge. In this article, we take a closer look at the impact of the DNA sequence and bias effects introduced to datasets by genome-wide DNA methylation technologies and where possible, explore the bioinformatics tools that deconvolve them. There remains much to be learned about the performance of genome-wide technologies, the data we mine from these assays and how it reflects the actual biology. While there are several methods to interrogate the DNA methylation status genome-wide, our opinion is that no single technique suitably covers the minimum criteria of high coverage and, high resolution at a reasonable cost. In fact, the fraction of the methylome that is studied currently depends entirely on the inherent biases of the protocol employed. There is promise for this to change, as the third generation of sequencing technologies is expected to again ‘revolutionize’ the way that we study genomes and epigenomes.

Robinson, Mark D; Statham, Aaron L; Speed, Terence P; Clark, Susan J

2011-01-01

64

A Study of Shared-Memory Mutual Exclusion Protocols Using CADP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual exclusion protocols are an essential building block of concurrent systems: indeed, such a protocol is required whenever a shared resource has to be protected against concurrent non-atomic accesses. Hence, many variants of mutual exclusion protocols exist in the shared-memory setting, such as Peterson's or Dekker's well-known protocols. Although the functional correctness of these protocols has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been paid to their non-functional aspects, such as their performance in the long run. In this paper, we report on experiments with the performance evaluation of mutual exclusion protocols using Interactive Markov Chains. Steady-state analysis provides an additional criterion for comparing protocols, which complements the verification of their functional properties. We also carefully re-examined the functional properties, whose accurate formulation as temporal logic formulas in the action-based setting turns out to be quite involved.

Mateescu, Radu; Serwe, Wendelin

65

Study on the chip-level thermal non-uniformity evaluation of semiconductor devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method is proposed to evaluate the chip-level thermal non-uniformity of semiconductor devices by electrical transient thermal response testing. It is found that the degree of integrated chip thermal non-uniformity could be determined non-destructively by the device heating response curves.

Zhang Guangchen; Feng Shiwei; Zhang Yuezong; Su Rong; Xie Xuesong; Ge Chenning

2009-01-01

66

A new technique for studying the chip formation process in diamond turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique to examine the chip formation process has been developed. This experimental method involves cutting along the interface of two workpieces that have been joined, stopping the cut, retracting the tool and then separating the two halves of the workpiece. By viewing the cross section of the chip in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the angle of shear

Christopher Arcona; Thomas A. Dow

1996-01-01

67

Study of interfacial crack propagation in flip chip assemblies with nano-filled underfill materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No-flow underfill materials that cure during the solder reflow process is a relatively new technology. Although there are several advantages in terms of cost, time and processing ease, there are several reliability challenges associated with no-flow underfill materials. When mum-sized filler particles are introduced in no-flow underfills to enhance the solder bump reliability, such filler particles could prevent the solder bumps making reliable electrical contacts with the substrate pads during solder reflow, and therefore, the assembly yield would be adversely affected. The use of nano-sized filler particles can potentially improve assembly yield while offering the advantages associated with filled underfill materials. The objective of this thesis is to study the thermo-mechanical reliability of nano-filled epoxy underfills (NFU) through experiments and theoretical modeling. In this work, the thermo-mechanical properties of NFU's with 20-nm filler particles have been measured. An innovative residual stress test method has been developed to measure the interfacial fracture toughness. Using the developed residual stress method and the single-leg bending test, the mode-mixity-dependent fracture toughness for NFU-SiN interface has been determined. In addition to such monotonic interfacial fracture characterization, the interface crack propagation under thermo-mechanical fatigue loading has been experimentally characterized, and a model for fatigue interface crack propagation has been developed. A test vehicle comprising of several flip chips was assembled using the NFU material and the reliability of the flip-chip assemblies was assessed under thermal shock cycles between -40°C and 125°C. The NFU-SiN interfacial delamination propagation and the solder bump reliability were monitored. In parallel, numerical models were developed to study the interfacial delamination propagation in the flip chip assembly using conventional interfacial fracture mechanics as well as cohesive zone modeling. Predictions for interfacial delamination propagation using the two approaches have been compared. Based on the theoretical models and the experimental data, guidelines for design of NFUs against interfacial delamination have been developed.

Mahalingam, Sakethraman

68

A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks  

SciTech Connect

We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2) Performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack need to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. The results suggest that in order to improve the performance of a communication network, it will be important to study the entire protocol stuck as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the 7 layer OSI stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point.

Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

2001-05-24

69

A Disposable Plastic-Silicon Micro PCR Chip Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board Protocols and Its Application to Genomic DNA Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel disposable and portable plastic-silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system using microfabrication technologies for the realization of miniaturized nucleic acid analyses. The system consists of a polyimide-based film microheating system, embedding with a microheater and a temperature sensor made entirely with flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) process protocols, and a bulk-micromachined silicon reaction chamber. Reduction of

Dae-Sik Lee; Se Ho Park; Kwang Hyo Chung; Hyeon-Bong Pyo

2008-01-01

70

Analytical study of a microfludic DNA amplification chip using water cooling effect.  

PubMed

A novel continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip has been analyzed in our work. Two temperature zones are controlled by two external controllers and the other temperature zone at the chip center is controlled by the flow rate of the fluid inside a channel under the glass chip. By employing a water cooling channel at the chip center, the sequence of denaturation, annealing, and extension can be created due to the forced convection effect. The required annealing temperature of PCR less than 313 K can also be demonstrated in this chip. The Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cooling channel with the thin aluminum cover is utilized to enhance the temperature uniformity. The size of this chip is 76 mm × 26 mm × 3 mm. This device represents the first demonstration of water cooling thermocycling within continuous-flow PCR microfluidics. The commercial software CFD-ACE+(TM) is utilized to determine the distances between the heating assemblies within the chip. We investigate the influences of various chip materials, operational parameters of the cooling channel and geometric parameters of the chip on the temperature uniformity on the chip surface. Concerning the temperature uniformity of the working zones and the lowest temperature at the annealing zone, the air gap spacing of 1 mm and the cooling channel thicknesses of 1 mm of the PMMA channel with an aluminum cover are recommended in our design. The hydrophobic surface of the PDMS channel was modified by filling it with 20 % Tween 20 solution and then adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution to the PCR mixture. DNA fragments with different lengths (372 bp and 478 bp) are successfully amplified with the device. PMID:23179465

Chen, Jyh Jian; Shen, Chia Ming; Ko, Yu Wei

2013-04-01

71

All polymer chip for amperometric studies of transmitter release from large groups of neuronal cells.  

PubMed

We present an all polymer electrochemical chip for simple detection of transmitter release from large groups of cultured PC 12 cells. Conductive polymer PEDOT:tosylate microelectrodes were used together with constant potential amperometry to obtain easy-to-analyze oxidation signals from potassium-induced release of transmitter molecules. The nature of the resulting current peaks is discussed, and the time for restoring transmitter reservoirs is studied. The relationship between released transmitters and potassium concentration was found to fit to a sigmoidal dose-response curve. Finally, we demonstrate how the presented device can be used for simple drug screening purposes, by measuring the increase of transmitter release due to short-term treatment with L-DOPA. PMID:22977881

Larsen, Simon T; Taboryski, Rafael

2012-09-14

72

GCOD - GeneChip Oncology Database  

PubMed Central

Background DNA microarrays have become a nearly ubiquitous tool for the study of human disease, and nowhere is this more true than in cancer. With hundreds of studies and thousands of expression profiles representing the majority of human cancers completed and in public databases, the challenge has been effectively accessing and using this wealth of data. Description To address this issue we have collected published human cancer gene expression datasets generated on the Affymetrix GeneChip platform, and carefully annotated those studies with a focus on providing accurate sample annotation. To facilitate comparison between datasets, we implemented a consistent data normalization and transformation protocol and then applied stringent quality control procedures to flag low-quality assays. Conclusion The resulting resource, the GeneChip Oncology Database, is available through a publicly accessible website that provides several query options and analytical tools through an intuitive interface.

2011-01-01

73

Methods for on-chip protein analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unambiguous identification of peptides\\/proteins is crucial for the definition of the proteome. Using ProteinChip Array technology also known as surface-enhanced laser desorption\\/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS), we developed experimental protocols and probed test conditions required for the protein identification on ProteinChip surfaces. We were able to directly digest peptides\\/proteins on-chip surfaces by specific proteases, such as trypsin,

Emilia Caputo; Ramy Moharram; Brian M. Martin

2003-01-01

74

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--LIST OF AVAILABLE DOCUMENTS: PROTOCOLS AND SOPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the NHEXAS Phase I Maryland study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis and general laboratory procedures, (3) Data Analysis Proced...

75

CHIP Utilization in South Texas: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of the Children's Health Insurance Program. JSRI Research Report No. 33  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) began as a federal stopgap measure to assist families whose incomes were too high to qualify for Medicaid, but too low to make health insurance for their children affordable. In 2002, efforts were launched around the United States to recruit eligible children into the program. This pilot study

Millard, Ann V.; Mier, Nelda; Gabriel, Olga; Flores, Soledad

2004-01-01

76

Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP): study protocol and implementation challenges  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension affects 29% of the adult U.S. population and is a leading cause of heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Despite numerous effective treatments, only 53% of people with hypertension are at goal blood pressure. The chronic care model suggests that blood pressure control can be achieved by improving how patients and physicians address patient self-care. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol of a nested 2 × 2 randomized controlled trial to test the separate and combined effects on systolic blood pressure of a behavioral intervention for patients and a quality improvement-type intervention for physicians. Primary care practices were randomly assigned to the physician intervention or to the physician control condition. Physician randomization occurred at the clinic level. The physician intervention included training and performance monitoring. The training comprised 2 internet-based modules detailing both the JNC-7 hypertension guidelines and lifestyle modifications for hypertension. Performance data were collected for 18 months, and feedback was provided to physicians every 3 months. Patient participants in both intervention and control clinics were individually randomized to the patient intervention or to usual care. The patient intervention consisted of a 6-month behavioral intervention conducted by trained interventionists in 20 group sessions, followed by 12 monthly phone contacts by community health advisors. Follow-up measurements were performed at 6 and 18 months. The primary outcome was the mean change in systolic blood pressure at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were diastolic blood pressure and the proportion of patients with adequate blood pressure control at 6 and 18 months. Discussion Overall, 8 practices (4 per treatment group), 32 physicians (4 per practice; 16 per treatment group), and 574 patients (289 control and 285 intervention) were enrolled. Baseline characteristics of patients and providers and the challenges faced during study implementation are presented. The HIP interventions may improve blood pressure control and lower cardiovascular disease risk in a primary care practice setting by addressing key components of the chronic care model. The study design allows an assessment of the effectiveness and cost of physician and patient interventions separately, so that health care organizations can make informed decisions about implementation of 1 or both interventions in the context of local resources. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00201136

Dolor, Rowena J; Yancy, William S; Owen, William F; Matchar, David B; Samsa, Gregory P; Pollak, Kathryn I; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Ard, Jamy D; Prempeh, Maxwell; McGuire, Heather L; Batch, Bryan C; Fan, William; Svetkey, Laura P

2009-01-01

77

Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care.\\u000a However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the\\u000a halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored\\u000a in health services research. We describe a protocol to

Christian D Helfrich; Dean Blevins; Jeffrey L Smith; P Adam Kelly; Timothy P Hogan; Hildi Hagedorn; Patricia M Dubbert; Anne E Sales

2011-01-01

78

STUDY ON THE PROTOCOL OF E-COMMERCE FOR CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains small-sum payments should have a high priority is second-best solution to China's conditions where business services and management systems are comparatively immature. Moreover, it demonstrates that mobile payment is to be promising in the development of China's small-sum payment services. The conclusion is that the SET protocol does not fit China's situation, though it has been the

GAO Cong; KAN Kaili

79

Partner randomized controlled trial: study protocol and coaching intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a 12-month telephone-coaching program designed to support primary care management of children with persistent asthma and subsequently to improve asthma control and disease-related quality of life and reduce urgent care events for asthma care. Randomization occurred at the practice level with eligible families within a practice having access to the coaching program or to usual care. The coaching intervention was based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Targeted behaviors included 1) effective use of controller medications, 2) effective use of rescue medications and 3) monitoring to ensure optimal control. Trained lay coaches provided parents with education and support for asthma care, tailoring the information provided and frequency of contact to the parent's readiness to change their child's day-to-day asthma management. Coaching calls varied in frequency from weekly to monthly. For each participating family, follow-up measurements were obtained at 12- and 24-months after enrollment in the study during a telephone interview. The primary outcomes were the mean change in 1) the child's asthma control score, 2) the parent's quality of life score, and 3) the number of urgent care events assessed at 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes reflected adherence to guideline recommendations by the primary care pediatricians and included the proportion of children prescribed controller medications, having maintenance care visits at least twice a year, and an asthma action plan. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention was also measured. Discussion Twenty-two practices (66 physicians) were randomized (11 per treatment group), and 950 families with a child 3-12 years old with persistent asthma were enrolled. A description of the coaching intervention is presented. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00860834.

2012-01-01

80

Comprehensive Study of Microgel Electrode for On-Chip Electrophoretic Cell Sorting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an on-chip cell sorting system and microgel electrode for applying electrostatic force in microfluidic pathways in the chip. The advantages of agarose electrodes are 1) current-driven electrostatic force generation, 2) stability against pH change and chemicals, and 3) no bubble formation caused by electrolysis. We examined the carrier ion type and concentration dependence of microgel electrode impedance,

Akihiro Hattori; Kenji Yasuda

2010-01-01

81

Adsorption behaviors of DNA/cation complexes on amino and silica chip surfaces: a dual polarization interferometry study.  

PubMed

The adsorption of DNA/Ca(2+), DNA/Cu(2+), and DNA/Co(NH3)6(3+) complexes on amino and silica chip surfaces were investigated using dual polarization interferometry. A more compact DNA/cation complex layer formed on the amino chip surface compared with that on the silica chip surface at the same cation condition. The real-time mass, thickness, and density changes were monitored during the adsorption process. The overall results show that the approaching complexes can cause the conformation rearrangement of the preadsorbed complexes and the preadsorbed complexes affect the deposition pattern of the approaching complexes during the adsorption of DNA/Ca(2+) and DNA/Cu(2+) complexes on both chip surfaces. The relatively strong electrostatic repulsion between the approaching and adsorbed complexes results in multiple mass loading rate changes and loose attachment of the approaching complexes. The weak repulsion between the DNA/Co(NH3)6(3+) complexes cannot induce this kind of conformation rearrangement. Thus, no multiple mass loading rate changes were observed. Meanwhile, the preadsorbed DNA/Co(NH3)6(3+) complex can also affect the deposition pattern of the approaching complex because of the geometric resistance. Therefore, this study will help better understand the conformation change and deposition pattern of complexes with different charge conditions during the adsorption process on the solid-liquid interface. PMID:23697755

Huang, Fujian; Liang, Haojun

2013-06-03

82

Single-chip mechatronic microsystem for surface imaging and force response studies  

PubMed Central

We report on a stand-alone single-chip (7 × 10 mm) atomic force microscopy unit including a fully integrated array of cantilevers, each of which has an individual actuation, detection, and control unit so that standard atomic force microscopy operations can be performed by means of the chip only without any external controller. The system offers drastically reduced overall size and costs as well as increased scanning speed and can be fabricated with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology with some subsequent micromachining steps to form the cantilevers. Full integration of microelectronic and micromechanical components on the same chip allows for the controlling and monitoring of all system functions. The on-chip circuitry, which includes analog signal amplification and filtering stages with offset compensation, analog-to-digital converters, a powerful digital signal processor, and an on-chip digital interface for data transmission, notably improves the overall system performance. The microsystem characterization evidenced a vertical resolution of <1nmand a force resolution of <1 nN as shown in the measurement results. The monolithic system represents a paradigm of a mechatronic microsystem that allows for precise and fully controlled mechanical manipulation in the nanoworld.

Hafizovic, Sadik; Barrettino, Diego; Volden, Tormod; Sedivy, Jan; Kirstein, Kay-Uwe; Brand, Oliver; Hierlemann, Andreas

2004-01-01

83

Study protocol of the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) etiology study  

PubMed Central

Background People in Appalachia experience some of the worst oral health in the United States. To develop effective intervention and prevention strategies in Appalachia, we must understand the complex relationships among the contributing factors and how they affect the etiology of oral diseases. To date, no such comprehensive analysis has been conducted. This report summarizes the characteristics of the sample and describes the protocol of a study determining contributions of individual, family, and community factors to oral diseases in Appalachian children and their relatives. Methods/Design Families participated in a comprehensive assessment protocol involving interviews, questionnaires, a clinical oral health assessment, a microbiological assessment, and collection of DNA. The design of the study is cross-sectional. Conclusion Due to its multilevel design and large, family-based sample, this study has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of factors that contribute to oral health in Appalachian children.

Polk, Deborah E; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard J; McNeil, Daniel W; Tarter, Ralph E; Thomas, John G; Marazita, Mary L

2008-01-01

84

Electrospray micromixer chip for on-line derivatization and kinetic studies.  

PubMed

An electrospray microchip for mass spectrometry comprising an integrated passive mixer to carry out on-chip chemical derivatizations is described. The microchip fabricated using UV-photoablation is composed of two microchannels linked together by a liquid junction. Downstream of this liquid junction, a mixing unit made of parallel oblique grooves is integrated to the microchannel in order to create flow perturbations. Several mixer designs are evaluated. The mixer efficiency is investigated both by fluorescence study and mass spectrometric monitoring of the tagging reaction of cysteinyl peptides with 1,4-benzoquinone. The comparisons with a microchip without a mixing unit and a kinetic model are used to assess the efficiency of the mixer showing tagging kinetics close to that of bulk reactions in an ideally mixed reactor. As an ultimate application, the electrospray micromixer is implemented in a LC-MS workflow. On-line derivatization of albumin tryptic peptides after a reversed-phase separation and counting of their cysteines drastically enhance the protein identification. PMID:18361520

Abonnenc, Mélanie; Dayon, Loïc; Perruche, Brice; Lion, Niels; Girault, Hubert H

2008-03-25

85

Website Experience Analysis: A New Research Protocol for Studying Relationship Building on Corporate Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a new research protocol for studying organization-public relationship building on organizational websites. The research protocol, Website Experience Analysis (WEA), and the experience-centered perspective it has emerged from are explained. Data from a study grounded in the experience-centered perspective is presented to illustrate this novel approach to the study of online relationship building. Nine corporate websites were examined

Mihaela Vorvoreanu

2008-01-01

86

Color Chips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides students with practice adding positive and negative integers. Students are given an addition problem, and using one-to-one correspondence, the student is able to see what happens when adding negative integers. The addition problems can be computer generated or teacher generated and there is a free play mode which allows the student to practice with the chips and become familiar with the process of moving the chips around the page, and creating a visual representation of an addition problem with integers.

University, Utah S.

2011-06-28

87

Implant Chips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A group of eight people, including all members of one Florida family, had an implant chip, roughly the size of a grain of rice, injected under their skin on Friday, May 10. Manufactured by Applied Digital Solutions (ADS), the chips store a special identification number that enables the retrieval of personal and medical information. In the event of a medical emergency, a special handheld scanner activates the dormant digital implant, which provides identification data with which medical personnel can query ADS's database, the location of the patient's medical records. Alzheimer's patients seem to be the most promising market for this technology, even though other people, like the Florida family, hope to benefit from it as well. Another product that ADS offers is called Digital Angel, a wearable global positioning system (GPS) device that, among other things, can track in real time the wearer's physical movements. In the future, ADS is planning to release a product that will utilize both of these technologies: an implanted GPS-enabled chip. Unlike VeriChip, though, the GPS-enabled implant would require Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, meaning the US market won't see its introduction until after FDA testing. Many organizations, ranging from privacy advocates to religious groups, have already denounced VeriChip and its eventually successors, associated them with "Big Brother" and the biblical "Mark of the Beast."To read about the eight people that received their implants, look at the first and second sites, articles from the Los Angeles Times and Miami Herald respectively. For a non-US perspective, view the news story posted by the British Broadcasting Company (BBC). The fourth site, an extensive analysis of the subject from ABC News, should give readers a broader understanding of implanted chips and their potential uses. Two sites from ADS are next -- VeriChip's product pages and the press release that details a FDA's decision regarding VeriChip in April, 2002. Finally, the last two sites give more information on Digital Angel and a sample of GPS technology already in use.

Schroeder, Ted.

2002-01-01

88

Cost of whole-tree chips for energy - Louisiana case study  

SciTech Connect

A computer simulation model (FSCAT) was used to examine the economics of different combinations of equipment, viz. feller/bunchers, skidders, chippers and chip vans. For each number of skidders there was an optimum number of vans; this number depended on the productivity of the rest of the system and the distance to the mill. Congestion had a significant effect on the economics of the operation. In Louisiana, whole-tree harvesting of chips for energy was marginally feasible, becoming economial only when optimum combinations of equipment were used and downtime was very low.

Massey, J.G.; McCollum, M.P.; Anderson, W.C.

1981-01-01

89

Fabrication of a microfluidic chip containing dam, weirs and gradient generator for studying cellular response to chemical modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microfluidic chip was designed and fabricated for studying cellular response to chemical modulation. The microfluidic network comprised an up-stream gradient-generating module and a down-stream cell culture module. The microchip was composed of a piece of glass plate and a covered PDMS film. By using a two-step wet etching method, the dam structure was fabricated on the inlet of the

Jing Ruan; Lihui Wang; Mingfei Xu; Daxiang Cui; Xiaomian Zhou; Dayu Liu

2009-01-01

90

Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities), and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities). Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and different aspects of job satisfaction: satisfaction with leadership, which should be highly correlated with readiness, versus satisfaction with salary, which should be less correlated with readiness. Content validity will be assessed using an expert panel and modified Delphi technique. Discussion We propose a comprehensive protocol for validating a survey instrument for assessing organizational readiness to change that specifically addresses key threats of bias related to halo effect, method bias and questions of construct validity that often go unexplored in research using measures of organizational constructs.

2011-01-01

91

Study on Board Level Drop Reliability of Wafer Level Chip Scale Package with Leadfree Solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) is a promising packaging technology to accommodate the demand for small, portable handheld electronic. This bare-die bumped package is able to offer significant area savings, improve package electrical parasitics and power dissipation performance over substrate-based BGA packages. However, its board level reliability especially mechanical performance under shock impact is a great concern for handheld

Zhang Xueren; Zhu Wenhui; P. Edith; Tan Hien Boon

2008-01-01

92

mRNA Expression in Rabbit Experimental Aneurysms: A Study Using Gene Chip Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The molecular characteristics of intracranial aneurysms are still poorly documented. A rabbit elastase aneurysm model has been helpful in the evaluation of devices and strategies involved in endovascular treatment of aneurysms. The goal of this project was to document the molecular changes, assessed by gene chip microarrays, associated with the creation of aneurysms in this model compared

W. I. Mangrum; F. Farassati; R. Kadirvel; C. P. Kolbert; S. Raghavakaimal; D. Dai; Y. H. Ding; D. Grill; V. G. Khurana; D. F. Kallmes

93

Chip scale studies of BCB based polymer bonding for MEMS packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents chip scale investigation of polymer based bonding processes for producing microcavities for encapsulation of MEMS and other microscale devices. The polymer sealing rings were fabricated on the glass covers using the photosensitive BCB polymer and photolithography. They were bonded onto a variety of substrates including silicon substrates, aluminum coated substrates and glass substrates with feedthrough structures to

C. H. Wang; J. Zeng; K. Zhao; H. L. Chan

2008-01-01

94

Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.

2010-01-01

95

In vitro electrical-stimulated wound-healing chip for studying electric field-assisted wound-healing process  

PubMed Central

The wound-healing assay is an easy and economical way to quantify cell migration under diverse stimuli. Traditional assays such as scratch assays and barrier assays are widely and commonly used, but neither of them can represent the complicated condition when a wound occurs. It has been suggested that wound-healing is related to electric fields, which were found to regulate wound re-epithelialization. As a wound occurs, the disruption of epithelial barrier short-circuits the trans-epithelial potential and then a lateral endogenous electric field is created. This field has been proved invitro as an important cue for guiding the migration of fibroblasts, macrophages, and keratinocytes, a phenomenon termed electrotaxis or galvanotaxis. In this paper, we report a microfluidic electrical-stimulated wound-healing chip (ESWHC) integrating electric field with a modified barrier assay. This chip was used to study the migration of fibroblasts under different conditions such as serum, electric field, and wound-healing-promoting drugs. We successfully demonstrate the feasibility of ESWHC to effectively and quantitatively study cell migration during wound-healing process, and therefore this chip could be useful in drug discovery and drug safety tests.

Sun, Yung-Shin; Peng, Shih-Wei; Cheng, Ji-Yen

2012-01-01

96

Chip Seals, Friction Courses, and Asphalt Pavement Rutting, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Washington State chip seal study; Friction courses for moderate traffic highways; Chip seals for high traffic pavements; Improving durability of open-graded friction courses; Estimating voids in a double chip seal; Correlation between field and ...

N. C. Kassabian A. G. Tobias L. Crayton K. Solomon N. Solomon

1990-01-01

97

A Study on the Thermal Reliability of Cu\\/SnAg Double-Bump Flip-Chip Assemblies on Organic Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cu\\/SnAg double-bump structure is a promising candidate for fine-pitch flip-chip applications. In this study, the interfacial\\u000a reactions of Cu (60 ?m)\\/SnAg (20 ?m) double-bump flip chip assemblies with a 100 ?m pitch were investigated. Two types of thermal treatments, multiple reflows and thermal aging, were performed to evaluate\\u000a the thermal reliability of Cu\\/SnAg flip-chip assemblies on organic printed circuit boards (PCBs).

Ho-Young Son; Gi-Jo Jung; Byung-Jin Park; Kyung-Wook Paik

2008-01-01

98

Void Formation Study of Flip Chip in Package Using No-Flow Underfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advanced flip chip in package (FCIP) process using no-flow underfill material for high I\\/O density and fine-pitch interconnect applications presents challenges for an assembly process that must achieve high electrical interconnect yield and high reliability performance. With respect to high reliability, the voids formed in the underfill between solder bumps or inside the solder bumps during the no-flow underfill

Sangil Lee; Myung Jin Yim; Raj N. Master; C. P. Wong; Daniel F. Baldwin

2008-01-01

99

LAN (Local Area Network) interoperability study of protocols needed for distributed command and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examined distrubuted processing requirements for strategic and tactical C3I systems, reviewed the characteristics and architectural issues for distributed processing global operating systems, compared the DoD and ISO networking protocol architecture models, the protocols for LAN's developed by the IEEE and ANSI, reviewed and conducted performance evaluation of Ethernet, DoD's Internet Protocal and Transmission Control Protocol and reported characteristics of CSMA/CD, Token Bus and Token Ring LAN's, reviewed three alternatives to using TCP for an intra-LAN protocol and examined the methods for employing gateway elements to interconnect LAN-based system elements. A comprehensive discussion of the results is given followed by a set of concise conclusions. Ten recommendations are given, providing a roadmap to guide the Air Force in developing C3I systems and LAN-based protocols. Three major areas are identified where future work is needed. A set of protocols and design approaches for internetworking is contained in a set of appendices.

Elden, W. L.; Miller, A. L.; Morgan, S. L.; Romanzo, B. A.

1985-03-01

100

The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Family history and twins studies suggest an inherited component to ischemic stroke risk. Candidate gene association studies have been performed but have limited capacity to identify novel risk factor genes. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) aims to conduct a genome-wide scan in sibling pairs concordant or discordant for ischemic stroke to identify novel genetic risk factors through

James F Meschia; Robert D Brown Jr; Thomas G Brott; Felix E Chukwudelunzu; John Hardy; Stephen S Rich

2002-01-01

101

INTERLABORATORY STUDY OF AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY)/AMES/SALMONELLA TEST PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Seven laboratories participated in a collaborative study to evaluate a proposed EPA standard protocol for the Ames test. The study utilized Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with three metabolic activation levels (0, 2, and coded unknowns. The three primary study goal...

102

Case-control study on analgesics and nephropathy (SAN): protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The association between intake of non-phenacetin-containing analgesics and the occurrence of chronic renal failure is still controversially discussed. A new epidemiologic study was planned and conducted in Germany and Austria. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The objective of the international, multicenter case-control study was to evaluate the association between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and use of non-phenacetin-containing analgesics with particular emphasis on combined

Lothar AJ Heinemann; Edeltraut Garbe; Michael Lewis; Fokko van der Woude; Helmut Graf

2005-01-01

103

Older Persons' Transitions in Care (OPTIC): a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH) residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs). During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS), and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT) approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual) and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases). Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and researchers to participate equally in developing study goals, design, data collection, analysis and implications of findings. As preliminary and ongoing study findings are developed, their implications for practice and policy in study settings will be discussed by the research team and shared with study site administrators and staff. The study is designed to investigate the complexities of transitions and to enhance the potential for successful and sustained improvement of these transitions.

2012-01-01

104

Design of a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies in individual sports: the Swedish Athletics injury study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiological studies have mainly been performed on team sports. The authors set out to develop a protocol for large-scale epidemiological studies of injuries among elite athletics athletes.MethodsAn argument-based method for investigation of complex design problems was used to structure the collection and analysis of data. Specification of the protocol was preceded by an examination of requirements on injury surveillance in

Jenny Jacobsson; Toomas Timpka; Joakim Ekberg; Jan Kowalski; Sverker Nilsson; Per Renström

2010-01-01

105

Chip Scale Vacuum Packaging for Uncooled IRFPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed chip scale vacuum packaging for an uncooled IRFPA and successfully obtained excellent IR images less than 60 mK in NETD. This package consists of a device chip and a silicon lid. A 160×120 SOI diode uncooled IRFPA with a 25 mum pixel pitch is used as the device chip in this study. The size of the package

Munehisa Takeda; Hisatoshi Hata; Yoshiyuki Nakaki; Yasuhiro Kosasayama; Masafumi Kimata

2007-01-01

106

Uncooled IRFPA with chip scale vacuum package  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an uncooled IRFPA with a chip scale vacuum package and succeeded in obtaining excellent IR images of less than 60 mK in NETD. This package consists of a device chip and a silicon lid. The chip in this study is a 160 x 120 SOI diode IRFPA with a 25 mum pixel pitch. The size of the

Hisatoshi Hata; Yoshiyuki Nakaki; Hiromoto Inoue; Yasuhiro Kosasayama; Yasuaki Ohta; Hiroshi Fukumoto; Toshiki Seto; Keisuke Kama; Munehisa Takeda; Masafumi Kimata

2006-01-01

107

Recovery of hand function through mental practice: A study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study aims to assess the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery training in stroke patients with persistent motor weakness. There is evidence to suggest that mental rehearsal of movement can produce effects normally attributed to practising the actual movements. Imagining hand movements could stimulate the redistribution of brain activity, which accompanies recovery of hand function, thus resulting in a

Magdalena Ietswaart; Marie Johnston; H Chris Dijkerman; Clare L Scott; Sara A Joice; Steven Hamilton; Ronald S MacWalter

2006-01-01

108

Rapid manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore sensors by trans-chip illumination lithography.  

PubMed

In recent years, the concept of nanopore sensing has matured from a proof-of-principle method to a widespread, versatile technique for the study of biomolecular properties and interactions. While traditional nanopore devices based on a nanopore in a single layer membrane supported on a silicon chip can be rapidly fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, chips with additional insulating layers beyond the membrane region can provide significantly lower noise levels, but at the expense of requiring more costly and time-consuming fabrication steps. Here we present a novel fabrication protocol that overcomes this issue by enabling rapid and reproducible manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore experiments. The fabrication protocol, termed trans-chip illumination lithography, is based on illuminating a membrane-containing wafer from its backside such that a photoresist (applied on the wafer's top side) is exposed exclusively in the membrane regions. Trans-chip illumination lithography permits the local modification of membrane regions and hence the fabrication of nanopore chips containing locally patterned insulating layers. This is achieved while maintaining a well-defined area containing a single thin membrane for nanopore drilling. The trans-chip illumination lithography method achieves this without relying on separate masks, thereby eliminating time-consuming alignment steps as well as the need for a mask aligner. Using the presented approach, we demonstrate rapid and reproducible fabrication of nanopore chips that contain small (12 ?m × 12 ?m) free-standing silicon nitride membranes surrounded by insulating layers. The electrical noise characteristics of these nanopore chips are shown to be superior to those of simpler designs without insulating layers and comparable in quality to more complex designs that are more challenging to fabricate. PMID:23103750

Janssen, Xander J A; Jonsson, Magnus P; Plesa, Calin; Soni, Gautam V; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H

2012-10-26

109

Studies on phytosterol oxides. I: Effect of storage on the content in potato chips prepared in different vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato chips fried in palm oil, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oil were studied for the content of different phytosterol\\u000a oxides during 0 to 25 weeks of storage in the dark. Oxidation products of sitosterol (24?-ethyl-5-cholesten-3?-ol) and campesterol\\u000a (24?-methyl-t-cholesten-3?-ol) were synthesized to help identify the phytosterol oxides. The oxides of phytosterols were analyzed\\u000a by preparative thin-layer chromatography, solid-phase extraction, capillary

Paresh Chandra Dutta; Lars-Åke Appelqvist

1997-01-01

110

Addressing the Limitations of Protocol Analysis in the Study of Complex Human Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commentators have argued that the protocol analysis method (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) has considerable utility in the study of complex human behavior. In particular, it has recently been suggested that this method allows for detailed analyses of human language and cognition from a behavioral perspective. Despite this utility, however, relatively few behavioral studies have employed this technique. In the

Francisco Cabello; Denis OHora

2002-01-01

111

Study protocol: a systematic review of pediatric shared decision making  

PubMed Central

Background Shared decision making in pediatrics is unique because it often involves active participation of both the child or adolescent patient and his or her caregiver(s) in the decision making process with the clinician or care team, and the extent to which the patient is involved is commensurate with their developmental level. However, little is known about the nature of pediatric-specific shared decision making interventions and their impact. Methods/Design We will perform a systematic review with the objective of summarizing the nature of shared decision making practices, tools, techniques and technologies in the pediatric setting as well as their effects. A literature search will include Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus and Ovid PsycInfo databases in addition to consultation of a group of shared decision making experts to identify unpublished or in-progress works. We will include original research studies involving patients <18 years, their caregivers, or both, and summarize methods and approaches designed to engage participants in the health care decision making process with clinicians. Perinatal and research participation decisions will be excluded. Descriptions of participants involved, interventions used and the measured outcomes will be reported. Quality assessment will be performed according to the design of each study, where possible. Discussion We anticipate that the paucity of published quantitative data and the heterogeneous nature of the reported results will preclude quantitative analysis. In this event, a meta-narrative approach will be undertaken. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004761

2013-01-01

112

Thermal management for high performance integrated circuits with non-uniform chip power considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal management for nonuniform chip power integrated circuits is studied. Circuit chip power analysis was used to generate nonuniform chip power and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used to calculate the chip temperature. This paper also presents an integrated thermomechanical analysis of a ceramic ball grid array (CBGA) single chip module (SCM) system under chip power loads. A three-dimensional

Tsorng-Dih Yuan; Bor Zen Hong; Howard H. Chen; Li-Kong Wang

2001-01-01

113

A Cell Programmable Assay (CPA) chip.  

PubMed

This article describes two kinds of "Cell Programmable Assay" (CPA) chips that utilize passive pumping for the culture and autonomous staining of cells to simply common protocols. One is a single timer channel CPA (sCPA) chip that has one timer channel and one main channel containing a cell culture chamber. The sCPA is used to culture and stain cells using Hoechst nuclear staining dye (a 2 step staining process). The other is a dual timer channel CPA (dCPA) chip that has two timer channels and one main channel with a chamber for cell culture. The dCPA is used here to culture, fix, permeablize, and stain cells using DAPI. The additional timer channel of the dCPA chip allows for automation of 3 steps. The CPA chips were successfully evaluated using HEK 293 cells. In addition, we provide a simplified equation for tuning or redesigning CPA chips to meet the needs of a variety of protocols that may require different timings. The equation is easy to use as it only depends upon the dimensions of microchannel and the volume of the reagent drops. The sCPA and dCPA chips can be readily modified to apply to a wide variety of common cell culture methods and procedures. PMID:20614082

Ju, Jongil; Warrick, Jay; Beebe, David J

2010-07-08

114

Preparation and study on performance of submicron nickel powder for multilayer chip positive temperature coefficient resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Base metal nickel is often used as the inner electrode in multilayer chip positive temperature coefficient resistance (PTCR). The fine grain of ceramic powders and base metal nickel are necessary. This paper uses reducing hydrazine to gain submicron nickel powder whose diameter was 200-300 nm through adjusting the consumption of nucleating agent PVP properly. The submicron nickel powder could disperse well and was fit for co—fired of multilayer chip PTCR. It analyes the submicron nickel powder through x-ray Diffraction (XRD) and calculates the diameter of nickel by PDF cards. Using XRD analyses it obtains several conclusions: If the molar ratio of hydrazine hydrate and nickel sulfate is kept to be a constant, when enlarging the molar ratio of NaOH/Ni2+, the diameter of nickel powder would become smaller. When the temperature in the experiment raises to 70-80 °C, nickel powder becomes smaller too. And if the molar ratio of NaOH/Ni2+ is 4, when molar ratio of (C2H5O)2/Ni2+ increases, the diameter of nickel would reduce. Results from viewing the powders by optical microscope should be the fact that the electrode made by submicron nickel powder has a better formation and compactness. Furthermore, the sheet resistance testing shows that the electrode made by submicron nickel is smaller than that made by micron nickel.

Chen, Yong; Gong, Shu-Ping; Fu, Qiu-Yun; Zheng, Zhi-Ping; Huang, Ri-Ming; Su, Peng

2010-11-01

115

Chip-based protein-protein interaction studied by atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

In this article, a technique for accurate direct measurement of protein-to-protein interactions before and after the introduction of a drug candidate is developed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The method is applied to known immunosuppressant drug candidate Echinacea purpurea derived cynarin. T-cell/CD28 is on-chip immobilized and B-cell/CD80 is immobilized on an AFM tip. The difference in unbinding force between these two proteins before and after the introduction of cynarin is measured. The method is described in detail including determination of the loading rates, maximum probability of bindings, and average unbinding forces. At an AFM loading rate of 1.44 × 10(4) pN/s, binding events were largely reduced from 61 ± 5% to 47 ± 6% after cynarin introduction. Similarly, maximum probability of bindings reduced from 70% to 35% with a blocking effect of about 35% for a fixed contact time of 0.5 s or greater. Furthermore, average unbinding forces were reduced from 61.4 to 38.9 pN with a blocking effect of ? 37% as compared with ? 9% by SPR. AFM, which can provide accurate quantitative measures, is shown to be a good method for drug screening. The method could be applied to a wider variety of drug candidates with advances in bio-chip technology and a more comprehensive AFM database of protein-to-protein interactions. PMID:22511236

Kao, Feng-Sheng; Ger, Waylon; Pan, Yun-Ru; Yu, Hui-Chen; Hsu, Ray-Quen; Chen, Hueih-Min

2012-04-26

116

Study protocol: can a school gardening intervention improve children's diets?  

PubMed Central

Background The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children’s fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. Method/Design Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as “Partner Schools” and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as “Associate Schools”. Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention “Associate Schools” or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children’s knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school’s gardening activities. Discussion The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children’s diets and school based interventions. Trial registration ISRCTN11396528

2012-01-01

117

Electromigration and thermomigration studies in composite high lead and eutectic tin-lead flip chip solder joint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of thermomigration and the combination effect of thermomigration and electromigration have been studied in composite SnPb flip chip solder joints. Because Al line on the silicon chip side is the major heat source exerted on flip chip solder joint, temperature gradient across the joint is induced when a long Al line is stressed with high current density. Under a estimated temperature gradient of 1000°C/cm, Sn-rich and Pb-rich phase separation is found to occur. Experimental results have shown that Sn-rich phase accumulates at the hot side and Pb-rich phase accumulates at the cold side after thermomigration. When solder bumps are current high current density, thermomigration was found to accompany electromigration. Not only Pb-rich phase migrated toward the anode side and Sn-rich phase migrated toward the cathode side due to electromigration, Sn-rich phase was found to migrate along the top of solder joint due to thermomigration. It was found that as void propagates along the top of the solder joint, current crowding region shifts with the tip of the void. This created a local hot spot and thus a lateral temperature gradient was induced for thermomigration to occur. To isolate the thermal effect from the current effect, ac stressing at 60 Hz was also utilized. Interestingly, ac seems to have an effect other than thermal effect due to the difference in microstructure evolution between pure thermomigration and ac case after stressing. Further investigation at different frequency is needed to fully understand the effect of ac. Furthermore, analysis was performed to explain the phenomena of phase separation and phase reversal in the solder joint considering a constraint volume within underfill. Both Kirkendall effect and back stress were considered. Finally, detail morphological change after thermomigration and electromigration were investigated. Grain refinement was found to occur at a certain stressing condition. Production of entropy and morphological instability were utilized to explain the phenomenon.

Huang, Annie Tzuyu

118

Copper chip technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, IBM announced the first silicon integrated circuit technology that incorporates copper on-chip wiring. This technology, which combines industry-leading CMOS ULSI devices with 6 levels of hierarchically-scaled Cu metallization, has reached the point of manufacturing, after passing the qualification tests required to prove feasibility, yield, reliability, and manufacturability. The discussion of the change from Al to Cu interconnects for ULSI encompasses a wide variety of issues. This paper attempts to address these by way of example, from the broad range of detailed studies that have been performed in the course of developing these so-called 'copper chips'. Motivational issues are covered by comparative modeling of performance aspects and cost. The technology parameters and features are shown, as well as data relating to the process integration, electrical yield and parametric behavior, early manufacturing data, high-frequency modeling and measurements, nose and clock skew. The viability of this technology is indicated by results from reliability stressing, as well as the first successful demonstrations of fully functional SRAM, DRAM, and microprocessor chips with Cu wiring. The advantages of integrated Cu wiring may be applied even more broadly in the future. An example shown here is the achievement of very high-quality integrated inductors; these may help prospects for complete integration of RF and wireless communications chips onto silicon.

Edelstein, Daniel C.

1998-08-01

119

Copper chip technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, IBM announced the first silicon integrated circuit technology that incorporates copper on-chip wiring. This technology, which combines industry-leading CMOS ULSI devices with 6 levels of hierarchically-scaled Cu metallization, has reached the point of manufacturing, after passing the qualification tests required to prove feasibility, yield, reliability, and manufacturability. The discussion of the change from Al To Cu interconnects for ULSI encompasses a wide variety of issues. This paper attempts to address these by way of example, from the broad range of detailed studies that have been performed in the course of developing these so-called 'copper chips.' Motivational issues are covered by comparative modeling of performance aspects and cost. The technology parameters and features are shown, as well as data relating to the process integration, electrical yield and parametric behavior, early manufacturing data, high-frequency modeling and measurements, noise and clock skew. The viability of this technology is indicated by results from reliability stressing, as well as the first successful demonstrations of fully functional SRAM, DRAM, and microprocessor chips with Cu wiring. The advantages of integrated Cu wiring may be applied even more broadly in the future. An example shown here is the achievement of very high-quality integrated inductors; these may help prospects for complete integration of RF and wireless communications chips onto silicon.

Edelstein, Daniel C.

1998-09-01

120

Copper chip technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, IBM announced the first silicon integrated circuit technology that incorporates copper on-chip wiring. This technology, which combines industry-leading CMOS ULSI devices with 6 levels of hierarchically-scaled Cu metallization, has reached the point of manufacturing, after passing the qualification test required to prove feasibility, yield, reliability, and manufacturability. The discussion of the change from Al to Cu interconnects for ULSI encompasses a wide variety of issues. This paper attempts to address these by way of example, from the broad range of detailed studies that have been performed in the course of developing these so-called 'copper chips'. Motivational issues are covered by comparative modeling of performance aspects and cost. The technology parameters and features are shown, as well as data relating to the process integration, electrical yield and parametric behavior, early manufacturing data, high-frequency modeling and measurements, noise and clock skew. The viability of this technology is indicated by results from reliability stressing, as well as the first successful demonstrations of fully functional SRAM, DRAM, and microprocessor chips with Cu wiring. The advantages of integrated Cu wiring may be applied even more broadly in the future. An example shown here is the achievement of very high-quality integrated inductor; these may help prospects for complete integration of RF and wireless communications chips onto silicon.

Edelstein, Daniel C.

1998-09-01

121

Copper chip technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, IBM announced the first silicon integrated circuit technology that incorporates copper on-chip wiring. This technology, which combines industry-leading CMOS ULSI devices with 6 levels of hierarchically-scaled Cu metallization, has reached the point of manufacturing, after passing the qualification tests required to prove feasibility, yield, reliability, and manufacturability. The discussion of the change from Al to Cu interconnects for ULSI encompasses a wide variety of issues. This paper attempts to address these by way of example, from the broad range of detailed studies that have been performed in the course of developing these so-called 'copper chips'. Motivational issues are covered by comparative modeling of performance aspects and cost. The technology parameters and features are shown, as well as data relating to the process integration, electrical yield and parametric behavior, early manufacturing data, high-frequency modeling and measurements, noise and clock skew. The viability of this technology is indicated by results from reliability stressing, as well as the first successful demonstrations of fully functional SRAM, DRAM, and microprocessor chips with Cu wiring. The advantages of integrated Cu wiring may be applied even more broadly in the future. An example shown here is the achievement of very high-quality integrated inductors; these may help prospects for complete integration of RF and wireless communications chips onto silicon.

Edelstein, Daniel C.

1998-08-01

122

Copper chip technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, IBM announced the first silicon integrated circuit technology that incorporates copper on-chip wiring. This technology, which combines industry-leading CMOS ULSI devices with 6 levels of hierarchically-scaled Cu metallization, has reached the point of manufacturing, after passing the qualification tests required to prove feasibility, yield, reliability, and manufacturability. The discussion of the change from Al to Cu interconnects for ULSI encompasses a wide variety of issues. This paper attempts to address these by way of example, from the broad range of detailed studies that have been performed in the course of developing these so-called 'copper chips.' Motivational issues are covered by comparative modeling of performance aspects and cost. The technology parameters and features are shown, as well as data relating to the process integration, electrical yield and parametric behavior, early manufacturing data, high-frequency modeling and measurements, noise and clock skew. The viability of this technology is indicated by results from reliability stressing, as well as the first successful demonstrations of fully functional SRAM, DRAM, and microprocessor chips with Cu wiring. The advantages of integrated Cu wiring may be applied even more broadly in the future. An example shown here is the achievement of very high-quality integrated inductors; these may help prospects for complete integration of RF and wireless communications chips onto silicon.

Edelstein, Daniel C.

1998-09-01

123

Design Cognition: Results From Protocol And Other Empirical Studies Of Design Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews protocol and other empirical studies of design activity, and summarises results relevant to understanding the nature of design cognition from an interdisciplinary, domain-independent overview. Results are presented in three major aspects of design cognition - the formulation of problems, the generation of solutions, and the utilisation of design process strategies. Parallels and comparisons between results are drawn,

Nigel Cross

2001-01-01

124

From Informal Knowledge to Formal Logic: A Realistic Case Study in Medical Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our experience in a case study with constructing fully for- malised knowledge models of realistic, specialised medical knowledge. We have taken a medical protocol in daily use by medical specialists, modelled this knowl- edge in a specific-purpose knowledge representation language, and finally for- malised this knowledge representation in terms of temporal logic and parallel programs. The value of

Mar Marcos; Michael Balser; Annette Ten Teije; Frank Van Harmelen

2002-01-01

125

ImmunoChip Study Implicates Antigen Presentation to T Cells in Narcolepsy  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures provide broad support for a post-infectious autoimmune basis for narcolepsy/hypocretin (orexin) deficiency. We genotyped loci associated with other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in 1,886 individuals with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy and 10,421 controls, all of European ancestry, using a custom genotyping array (ImmunoChip). Three loci located outside the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 were significantly associated with disease risk. In addition to a strong signal in the T cell receptor alpha (TRA@), variants in two additional narcolepsy loci, Cathepsin H (CTSH) and Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4, also called OX40L), attained genome-wide significance. These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this autoimmune disease.

Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Kenny, Eimear E.; Trynka, Gosia; Einen, Mali; Rico, Tom J.; Lichtner, Peter; Dauvilliers, Yves; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lecendreux, Michel; Javidi, Sirous; Geisler, Peter; Mayer, Geert; Pizza, Fabio; Poli, Francesca; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert Jan; Kemlink, David; Sonka, Karel; Nevsimalova, Sona; Rouleau, Guy; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Frauscher, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Hogl, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Bourgin, Patrice; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Iranzo, Alex; Bassetti, Claudio; Chen, Wei-Min; Concannon, Patrick; Thompson, Susan D.; Damotte, Vincent; Fontaine, Bertrand; Breban, Maxime; Gieger, Christian; Klopp, Norman; Deloukas, Panos; Wijmenga, Cisca; Hallmayer, Joachim; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S.; Winkelmann, Juliane; Mignot, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

126

Thermomechanical Reliability Study of Benzocyclobutene Film in Wafer-Level Chip-Size Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new wafer-level chip-scale package process for high-performance, low-cost packaging has been developed based on passivation with low dielectric constant. This process is simpler and shorter when using permanent photosensitive benzocyclobutene (BCB) compared with the conventional process. However, cracks nucleating on the BCB cause serious reliability problems. The major reasons for cracking of the BCB layer seem to be both thermal stress and a shortage of BCB cross-linking agent (cyclobutene). The stress was reduced by optimizing the thickness of the BCB layer and the underlying stress buffer layer. The BCB cracking resistance was improved by creating more cross-linking agent at the final curing process through modification of the photolithography processes.

Lee, K.-O.

2012-04-01

127

HuMiChip: Development of a Functional Gene Array for the Study of Human Microbiomes  

SciTech Connect

Microbiomes play very important roles in terms of nutrition, health and disease by interacting with their hosts. Based on sequence data currently available in public domains, we have developed a functional gene array to monitor both organismal and functional gene profiles of normal microbiota in human and mouse hosts, and such an array is called human and mouse microbiota array, HMM-Chip. First, seed sequences were identified from KEGG databases, and used to construct a seed database (seedDB) containing 136 gene families in 19 metabolic pathways closely related to human and mouse microbiomes. Second, a mother database (motherDB) was constructed with 81 genomes of bacterial strains with 54 from gut and 27 from oral environments, and 16 metagenomes, and used for selection of genes and probe design. Gene prediction was performed by Glimmer3 for bacterial genomes, and by the Metagene program for metagenomes. In total, 228,240 and 801,599 genes were identified for bacterial genomes and metagenomes, respectively. Then the motherDB was searched against the seedDB using the HMMer program, and gene sequences in the motherDB that were highly homologous with seed sequences in the seedDB were used for probe design by the CommOligo software. Different degrees of specific probes, including gene-specific, inclusive and exclusive group-specific probes were selected. All candidate probes were checked against the motherDB and NCBI databases for specificity. Finally, 7,763 probes covering 91.2percent (12,601 out of 13,814) HMMer confirmed sequences from 75 bacterial genomes and 16 metagenomes were selected. This developed HMM-Chip is able to detect the diversity and abundance of functional genes, the gene expression of microbial communities, and potentially, the interactions of microorganisms and their hosts.

Tu, Q.; Deng, Ye; Lin, Lu; Hemme, Chris L.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-05-17

128

A comparative study of the SIP and IAX VoIP protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a strong focus on the development of scalable voice over IP (VoIP) protocols, which are suitable for wide scale deployment. SIP (session initiation protocol) is one such protocol which has been the subject of extensive research over the past few years. More recently, IAX (interasterisk exchange protocol) has emerged as a new VoIP protocol which is

Taemoor Abbasi; Shekhar Prasad; Nabil Seddigh; Ioannis Lambadaris

2005-01-01

129

Bioindicators in the MIDUS National Study: Protocol, Measures, Sample, and Comparative Context  

PubMed Central

Objectives MIDUS is a national study of health and aging among individuals aged 25 to 74 at baseline(1995/96). Longitudinal survey assessments (2004/05), were followed by biological assessments on a subsample aged 35–85. To facilitate public use, we describe the protocol, measures, and sample. Methods Respondents traveled to clinics for a two-day data collection protocol that included fasting blood specimens, 12-hour urine specimen, medical history, physical exam, bone densitometry, a laboratory challenge (heart rate variability, blood pressure, respiration, salivary cortisol). Results Response rates for the biological protocol (N = 1,255) were 39.3%, or 43.1% (adjusting for those who could not be located or contacted). Reasons for non-participation were travel, family obligations, and being too busy. Respondents were comparable to the recruitment pool on most demographic characteristics and health assessments. Discussion Strengths of the protocol vis-à-vis other similar studies include opportunities to link biological factors with diverse content from other MIDUS projects.

Love, Gayle Dienberg; Seeman, Teresa E.; Weinstein, Maxine; Ryff, Carol D.

2010-01-01

130

What Is CHIP?  

MedlinePLUS

What is CHIP? The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) provides free or low-cost health coverage for more than 7 million ... 19. CHIP covers U.S. citizens and eligible immigrants. CHIP Is Available in Every State In general, children ...

131

Neurofeedback for insomnia: a pilot study of Z-score SMR and individualized protocols.  

PubMed

Insomnia is an epidemic in the US. Neurofeedback (NFB) is a little used, psychophysiological treatment with demonstrated usefulness for treating insomnia. Our objective was to assess whether two distinct Z-Score NFB protocols, a modified sensorimotor (SMR) protocol and a sequential, quantitative EEG (sQEEG)-guided, individually designed (IND) protocol, would alleviate sleep and associated daytime dysfunctions of participants with insomnia. Both protocols used instantaneous Z scores to determine reward condition administered when awake. Twelve adults with insomnia, free of other mental and uncontrolled physical illnesses, were randomly assigned to the SMR or IND group. Eight completed this randomized, parallel group, single-blind study. Both groups received fifteen 20-min sessions of Z-Score NFB. Pre-post assessments included sQEEG, mental health, quality of life, and insomnia status. ANOVA yielded significant post-treatment improvement for the combined group on all primary insomnia scores: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI p<.005), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI p<.0001), PSQI Sleep Efficiency (p<.007), and Quality of Life Inventory (p<.02). Binomial tests of baseline EEGs indicated a significant proportion of excessively high levels of Delta and Beta power (p<.001) which were lowered post-treatment (paired z-tests p<.001). Baseline EEGs showed excessive sleepiness and hyperarousal, which improved post-treatment. Both Z-Score NFB groups improved in sleep and daytime functioning. Post-treatment, all participants were normal sleepers. Because there were no significant differences in the findings between the two groups, our future large scale studies will utilize the less burdensome to administer Z-Score SMR protocol. PMID:21789650

Hammer, Barbara U; Colbert, Agatha P; Brown, Kimberly A; Ilioi, Elena C

2011-12-01

132

Microfabrication of human organs-on-chips.  

PubMed

'Organs-on-chips' are microengineered biomimetic systems containing microfluidic channels lined by living human cells, which replicate key functional units of living organs to reconstitute integrated human organ-level pathophysiology in vitro. These microdevices can be used to test efficacy and toxicity of drugs and chemicals, and to create in vitro models of human disease. Thus, they potentially represent low-cost alternatives to conventional animal models for pharmaceutical, chemical and environmental applications. Here we describe a protocol for the fabrication, microengineering and operation of these microfluidic organ-on-chip systems. First, microengineering is used to fabricate a multilayered microfluidic device that contains two parallel elastomeric microchannels separated by a thin porous flexible membrane, along with two full-height, hollow vacuum chambers on either side; this requires ?3.5 d to complete. To create a 'breathing' lung-on-a-chip that mimics the mechanically active alveolar-capillary interface of the living human lung, human alveolar epithelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells are cultured in the microdevice with physiological flow and cyclic suction applied to the side chambers to reproduce rhythmic breathing movements. We describe how this protocol can be easily adapted to develop other human organ chips, such as a gut-on-a-chip lined by human intestinal epithelial cells that experiences peristalsis-like motions and trickling fluid flow. Also, we discuss experimental techniques that can be used to analyze the cells in these organ-on-chip devices. PMID:24113786

Huh, Dongeun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Fraser, Jacob P; Shea, Daniel E; Khan, Mohammed; Bahinski, Anthony; Hamilton, Geraldine A; Ingber, Donald E

2013-10-10

133

Integrated on-chip lens applied to microfluidic chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical signal on microfluidic chip is hard to be collected. To improve the excitation power and collection efficiency, we introduced a simple, inexpensive fabrication method to increase the couple rate of optical fiber. This small element is a polymer and air integrated microlens that can improve the optical signal detection. Compared to other established protocols, this procedure allows a simple, miniaturizing and inexpensive microlens fabrication with high reproducibility. The air microlens was produced by using direct lithograph of SU-8 resist to reduce the beam divergence of optical fiber. Owing to its ability to achieve customized microlens for specific applications, this technique can be used in a variety of applications, such as a blood cell counting system based on microfluidic chip.

Zhao, Yingying; Li, Qin; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Dong-Fang

2012-12-01

134

Numerical and experimental study of the evolution of stresses in flip chip assemblies during assembly and thermal cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal cycling of flip chip assemblies is one of the commonly used tests to identify potential reliability concerns. The CTE mismatch among dissimilar materials in a flip-chip assembly produces thermo-mechanical stresses, which can lead to failures such as solder cracking, interfacial delamination, die cracking, etc. Although much work has been done in understanding the eutectic solder fatigue failure during thermal

C. E. Hanna; S. Michaelides; P. Palaniappan; D. F. Baldwin; S. K. Sitarman

1999-01-01

135

Image data transfer over the Internet protocol for air quality studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern digital technology allows image data transfer over the internet protocol, which provides real time observation and more frequent air quality studies can be carried at multi locational simultaneously. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of using internet protocol camera to transfer image data, and then these data were analysed using a developed algorithm to determine air quality information. The concentrations of particulate matter of size less than 10 micron (PM10) were collected simultaneously with the image data acquisitions. The atmospheric reflectance components were subtracted from their corresponding recorded radiance values for algorithm regression analysis. The proposed algorithm produced high correlation coefficient (R) and low root-mean square error (RMS) values. The efficiency of the present algorithm, in comparison to other forms of algorithm, was also investigated. Based on the values of the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square deviation, the proposed algorithm is considered superior. The accuracy of using IP camera data was compared with a normal digital camera, Kodak DC290 data in this study. This preliminary study gave promising results of air quality studies over USM campus by using internet protocol data.

Wong, C. J.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

2006-06-01

136

Smart-pixel-based network interface chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and experimental setup of an optically interconnected smart-pixel network interface chip designed to implement a collisionless multichannel-access control protocol. The design demonstrates the cointegration of optoelectronic pixel modules of various levels of complexity for dense, high-speed interconnection of highly functional digital logic components typical of multiprocessor network routers.

Pinkston, Timothy Mark; Kuznia, Charles

1997-07-01

137

Smart-pixel-based network interface chip.  

PubMed

We present the design and experimental setup of an optically interconnected smart-pixel network interface chip designed to implement a collisionless multichannel-access control protocol. The design demonstrates the cointegration of optoelectronic pixel modules of various levels of complexity for dense, high-speed interconnection of highly functional digital logic components typical of multiprocessor network routers. PMID:18259291

Pinkston, T M; Kuznia, C

1997-07-10

138

Italian Multicenter Study on Dementia: A Protocol for Data Collection and Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a protocol for identifying patients suspected of having Alzheimer's disease (AD) which was used in a long-term multicenter study in Italy. It relies on a progressive elimination procedure to arrive at a clinical diagnosis of 'very probable AD', with a sensitivity of 0.96 in terms of 2 years follow-up data.Copyright © 1992 S. Karger AG, Basel

Laura Bracco; Luigi Amaducci

1992-01-01

139

Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such\\u000a as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through\\u000a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain\\u000a and functioning, children with low expectations

Laura B Allen; Jennie CI Tsao; Loran P Hayes; Lonnie K Zeltzer

2011-01-01

140

Hodgkin's lymphoma in adolescents treated with adult protocols: a report from the German Hodgkin study group.  

PubMed

PURPOSE The standard of care for adolescent patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is undefined, particularly the choice between pediatric and adult protocols. Thus, we compared risk factors and outcome of adolescents and young adults treated within study protocols of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). PATIENTS AND METHODS Three thousand seven hundred eighty-five patients treated within the GHSG studies HD4 to HD9 were analyzed; 557 patients were adolescents age 15 to 20 years, and 3,228 patients were young adults age 21 to 45 years. Results Large mediastinal mass and involvement of three or more lymph node areas were more frequent in adolescents (P < .001). The incidence of other risk factors did not differ significantly between age groups. With a median observation time of 81 months for freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) and 85 months for overall survival (OS), log-rank test showed no significant differences between age groups regarding FFTF (P = .305) and a superior OS (P = .008) for adolescents. Six-year estimates for FFTF and OS were 80% and 94%, respectively, for adolescents and 80% and 91%, respectively, for young adults. After adjustment for other predictive factors, Cox regression analysis revealed age as a significant predictor for OS (P = .004), with a higher mortality risk for young adults. Secondary malignancies were more common in young adults (P = .037). CONCLUSION Outcome of adolescent and young adult patients treated within GHSG study protocols is comparable. These data suggest that adult treatment protocols exhibit a safe and effective treatment option for adolescent patients with HL. However, longer follow-up, including assessment of late toxicity, is necessary for final conclusions. PMID:19901121

Eichenauer, Dennis A; Bredenfeld, Henning; Haverkamp, Heinz; Müller, Horst; Franklin, Jeremy; Fuchs, Michael; Borchmann, Peter; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Eich, Hans T; Müller, Rolf-Peter; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas

2009-11-09

141

Thomas Jefferson University study finds deviating from radiation protocols increases risk of treatment failure and death  

Cancer.gov

Implementing measures to ensure radiation therapy protocols are followed not only decreases deviations, but it can also improve overall survival in cancer patients, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital researchers suggest in a first-of-its kind study presented during a plenary session at the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 54th Annual Meeting in Boston. Thomas Jefferson University Hospital is home to the Kimmel Cancer Center.

142

Integrated polymerase chain reaction chips utilizing digital microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports an integrated microfluidic chip for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications utilizing digital microfluidic\\u000a chip (DMC) technology. Several crucial procedures including sample transportation, mixing, and DNA amplification were performed\\u000a on the integrated chip using electro-wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) effect. An innovative concept of hydrophobic\\/hydrophilic\\u000a structure has been successfully demonstrated to integrate the DMC chip with the on-chip PCR device. Sample

Yi-Hsien Chang; Gwo-Bin Lee; Fu-Chun Huang; Yi-Yu Chen; Jr-Lung Lin

2006-01-01

143

Risk of chipping or facings failure of metal ceramic fixed partial prostheses--a retrospective data record analysis.  

PubMed

This retrospective study investigated the frequency and time history of chipping or facings failure of three-unit and four-unit tooth-supported metal ceramic (MC) fixed partial prostheses (FPDs). Six hundred fifty-four MC FPDs were inserted according to a standardized treatment protocol at the Department of Prosthodontics of the Regensburg University Medical Center between 1984 and 2009. Frequency and time history of chipping or facings failure as well as possible risk factors were evaluated on the basis of historical clinical data. We estimated the survival times of FPDs by means of the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The 5-year survival rate (time to renewal of a FPD) of all MC FPDs was 94%; the 10-year survival rate was 87%. Twenty-eight (4.3%) MC FPDs showed chipping; the 5-year free-of-event rate of chipping was 95%, the 10-year rate was 94%. Possible risk factors had no statistically significant influence on chipping or facings failure. The annual hazard rate of MC chipping in the first year was 0.03, i.e., 3 out of 100 person-years of exposure showed chipping. The annual hazard rates for the next 6 years dropped to 0.009, 0.003, 0.007, 0.004, 0.005, and 0.007. Thus, about 3-9 out of 1,000 person-years of exposure showed chipping. Patients with MC FPD may expect a long survival rate of their restoration. During the first year, the risk of chipping may be higher than during the following years. Despite the long period of experience with MC FPDs, chipping of the facing will still occur. PMID:21287210

Behr, Michael; Winklhofer, Christina; Schreier, Maria; Zeman, Florian; Kobeck, Carola; Bräuer, Isabel; Rosentritt, Martin

2011-02-02

144

DESIGN ACTIVITIES AND PERSONAL CREATIVITY CHARACTERISTICS: A CASE STUDY OF DUAL PROTOCOL ANALYSIS USING DESIGN INFORMATION AND PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to explore design activities such as design process and design information through protocol analysis of design sessions of expert designers and student designers and to understand the relations between their personal creativity characteristics and design activities. In protocol analysis, we instituted dual coding schemes based on design information and design process. Regarding design process,

YONG SE KIM; SUN TAI JIN; SANG WON LEE

2006-01-01

145

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP): revisiting the efficacy of sample preparation, sonication, quantification of sheared DNA, and analysis via PCR.  

PubMed

The "quantitative" ChIP, a tool commonly used to study protein-DNA interactions in cells and tissue, is a difficult assay often plagued with technical error. We present, herein, the process required to merge multiple protocols into a quick, reliable and easy method and an approach to accurately quantify ChIP DNA prior to performing PCR. We demonstrate that high intensity sonication for at least 30 min is required for full cellular disruption and maximum DNA recovery because ChIP lysis buffers fail to lyse formaldehyde-fixed cells. In addition, extracting ChIP DNA with chelex-100 yields samples that are too dilute for evaluation of shearing efficiency or quantification via nanospectrophotometry. However, DNA extracted from the Mock-ChIP supernatant via the phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCIA) method can be used to evaluate DNA shearing efficiency and used as the standard in a fluorescence-based microplate assay. This enabled accurate quantification of DNA in chelex-extracted ChIP samples and normalization to total DNA concentration prior to performing real-time PCR (rtPCR). Thus, a quick ChIP assay that can be completed in nine bench hours over two days has been validated along with a rapid, accurate and repeatable way to quantify ChIP DNA. The resulting rtPCR data more accurately depicts treatment effects on protein-DNA interactions of interest. PMID:22046253

Schoppee Bortz, Pamela D; Wamhoff, Brian R

2011-10-25

146

A follow-up study of heroin addicts (VEdeTTE2): study design and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background In Italy, a large cohort study (VEdeTTE1) was conducted between 1998–2001 to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments in reducing mortality and increasing treatment retention among heroin addicts. The follow-up of this cohort (VEdeTTE2) was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments on long-term outcomes, such as rehabilitation and social re-integration. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of the VEdeTTE2 study, and to present the results of the pilot study carried out to assess the feasibility of the study and to improve study procedures. Methods The source population for the VEdeTTE2 study was the VEdeTTE1 cohort, from which a sample of 2,200 patients, traced two or more years after enrolment in the cohort, were asked to participate. An interview investigates drug use; overdose; family and social re-integration. Illegal activity are investigated separately in a questionnaire completed by the patient. Patients are also asked to provide a hair sample to test for heroin and cocaine use. Information on treatments and HIV, HBV and HCV morbidity are obtained from clinical records. A pilot phase was planned and carried out on 60 patients. Results The results of the pilot phase pointed out the validity of the procedures designed to limit attrition: the number of traced subjects was satisfactory (88%). Moreover, the pilot phase was very useful in identifying possible causes of delays and attrition, and flaws in the instruments. Improvements to the procedures and the instruments were subsequently implemented. Sensitivity of the biological test was quite good for heroin (78%) but lower for cocaine (42.3%), highlighting the need to obtain a hair sample from all patients. Conclusion In drug addiction research, studies investigating health status and social re-integration of subjects at long-term follow-up are lacking. The VEdeTTE2 study aims to investigate these outcomes at long-term follow-up. Results of the pilot phase underline the importance of the pilot phase when planning a follow-up study.

Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D; Mathis, Federica; Diecidue, Roberto; Burroni, Paola; Iannaccone, Antonio; Lampis, Fabio; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pacifici, Roberta; Versino, Elisabetta; Davoli, Marina; Faggiano, Fabrizio

2007-01-01

147

A fish hepatoma cell line (PLHC-1) as a tool to study cytotoxicity and CYP1A induction properties of cellulose and wood chip extracts.  

PubMed

Cytotoxicity and CYP1A induction properties of celluloses and wood chips were studied with a teleost liver cell line, PLHC-1. Cells were exposed to acetone extracts of celluloses produced using new bleaching techniques (elemental chlorine free, ECF; totally chlorine free, TCF) in two sulphate mills or without any bleaching (unbleached, UB) in a sulphite mill. In another set of exposures, celluloses (ECF and TCF bleached) and wood chips (from pine and birch) were collected from a sulphate mill, extracted with acetone, and the extracts used to treat the cells. After exposure, O-deethylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin (EROD, a measure of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) catalytic activity), and total protein content, a measure of cytotoxicity, were assayed. The presence of the CYP1A protein in the exposed cells was assessed by immunoblotting. The cellulose and wood chip extracts were able to cause both cytotoxicity and EROD induction in the PLHC-1 cells. In the exposures conducted with the material from three different mills, the celluloses made of birch were more cytotoxic and more potent inducers of EROD activity than were the celluloses of pine. Further, UB celluloses increased EROD activity and caused cytotoxicity at lower doses than material bleached with modern bleaching techniques. In the exposures made with material from one single mill, there were no clear trends between the celluloses made of pine or birch. Wood chips of pine, however, were more cytotoxic than wood chips of birch. Especially with pine wood chips, cytotoxicity interfered with the induction of EROD activity, thus complicating the evaluation of CYP1A induction. CYP1A protein content was not detected in cells exposed to extracts of celluloses or wood chips, possibly due to low amounts of protein available for the assay. Wood and pulp processing, like bleaching, may change the chemical composition of the raw material in a way that reduces the potency for biological effects of the final product, cellulose. This could explain why both UB celluloses and wood chips were more potent in the cells than ECF or TCF bleached celluloses. In this study the PLHC-1 cell line showed its potential for use in evaluating the biological activity existing in pulp and paper mill products and raw materials. The identity and source of the compounds that were able to affect the PLHC-1 cell line remain to be determined. PMID:9734273

Huuskonen, S E; Hahn, M E; Lindström-Seppä, P

1998-06-01

148

The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS): study protocol and participation in the first decade  

PubMed Central

Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1) Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2) Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3) Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4) Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5) Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs) were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60?years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n?=?3,326 (48?%) agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline) and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1). In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation). In 2009/2010 n?=?1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation) resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2) and 2009/2010 (wave 3) are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS shows that a cohort study of older persons is feasible and can maintain a good participation rate over ten years, even when extensive self-reported health data are collected repeatedly through self-filled questionnaires. Evidently individual health developments of elderly persons can be tracked quantifying simultaneously behaviour, co-morbidity, functional competence and their changes. In future, we expect to generate results of significance about the five study aims listed above.

2012-01-01

149

On-Chip Networks for Multicore Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With Moore’s law supplying billions of transistors, and uniprocessor architectures delivering diminishing performance, multicore chips are emerging as the prevailing architecture in both general-purpose and application-specific markets. As the core count increases, the need for a scalable on-chip communication fabric that can deliver high bandwidth is gaining in importance, leading to recent multicore chips interconnected with sophisticated on-chip networks. In this chapter, we first present a tutorial on on-chip network architecture fundamentals including on-chip network interfaces, topologies, routing, flow control, and router microarchitectures. Next, we detail case studies on two recent prototypes of on-chip networks: the UT-Austin TRIPS operand network and the Intel TeraFLOPS on-chip network. This chapter organization seeks to provide the foundations of on-chip networks so that readers can appreciate the different design choices faced in the two case studies. Finally, this chapter concludes with an outline of the challenges facing research into on-chip network architectures.

Peh, Li-Shiuan; Keckler, Stephen W.; Vangal, Sriram

150

Tetrameric assembly of CHIP28 water channels in liposomes and cell membranes: a freeze-fracture study  

PubMed Central

Channel forming integral protein of 28 kD (CHIP28) functions as a water channel in erythrocytes, kidney proximal tubule and thin descending limb of Henle. CHIP28 morphology was examined by freeze-fracture EM in proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified CHIP28, CHO cells stably transfected with CHIP28k cDNA, and rat kidney tubules. Liposomes reconstituted with HPLC-purified CHIP28 from human erythrocytes had a high osmotic water permeability (Pf0.04 cm/s) that was inhibited by HgCl2. Freeze-fracture replicas showed a fairly uniform set of intramembrane particles (IMPs); no IMPs were observed in liposomes without incorporated protein. By rotary shadowing, the IMPs had a diameter of 8.5 +/- 1.3 nm (mean +/- SD); many IMPs consisted of a distinct arrangement of four smaller subunits surrounding a central depression. IMPs of similar size and appearance were seen on the P-face of plasma membranes from CHIP28k-transfected (but not mock-transfected) CHO cells, rat thin descending limb (TDL) of Henle, and S3 segment of proximal straight tubules. A distinctive network of complementary IMP imprints was observed on the E-face of CHIP28-containing plasma membranes. The densities of IMPs in the size range of CHIP28 IMPs, determined by non-linear regression, were (in IMPs/microns 2): 2,494 in CHO cells, 5,785 in TDL, and 1,928 in proximal straight tubules; predicted Pf, based on the CHIP28 single channel water permeability of 3.6 x 10(-14) cm3/S (10 degrees C), was in good agreement with measured Pf of 0.027 cm/S, 0.075 cm/S, and 0.031 cm/S, respectively, in these cell types. Assuming that each CHIP28 monomer is a right cylindrical pore of length 5 nm and density 1.3 g/cm3, the monomer diameter would be 3.2 nm; a symmetrical arrangement of four cylinders would have a greatest diameter of 7.2 nm, which after correction for the thickness of platinum deposit, is similar to the measured IMP diameter of approximately 8.5 nm. These results provide a morphological signature for CHIP28 water channels and evidence for a tetrameric assembly of CHIP28 monomers in reconstituted proteoliposomes and cell membranes.

1993-01-01

151

Thermal stress analysis and design optimization of direct chip attach (DCA) and chip scale package (CSP) in flip chip technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underfill encapsulation is a technique used to reinforce the solder bumps between the chip and the substrate in flip chip technology. To determine the optimal geometrical parameters and material properties for the package and candidate underfill materials is an important strategy for improving the thermo-mechanical reliability of flip chip packages. In this study, a stress-function-based energy method was developed to

D. S. Liu; C. Y. Ni; T. C. Tsay; C. Y. Kao

2002-01-01

152

Detecting cell surface proteins with the Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer by on-chip antibody staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Application Note describes a new protocol for detecting cell sur- face protein targets with the Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer and the cell fluo- rescence LabChip® kit. The specific advantage of an on-chip staining reaction is the amount of time, cells and reagents saved. CD3 on-chip staining on Jurkat cells as well as CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on- chip staining

Gerd Luedke; Martina Sester; Tobias Preckel

153

Chip-based on-line nanospray MS method enabling study of the kinetics of isocyanate derivatization reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of propyl isocyanate (2), benzyl isocyanate (3), and toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (4) with 4-nitro-7-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (1) to yield the corresponding urea derivatives 5 was carried out in a continuous flow glass microfluidics chip. Real-time monitoring of the derivatization reactions was done by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, making use of a recently reported modular chip-MS interface. Rate constants of 1.5 × 104,

Monica Brivio; André Liesener; R. Edwin Oosterbroek; Willem Verboom; Uwe Karst; Berg van den Albert; David N. Reinhoudt

2005-01-01

154

Color Chips-Subtraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative is designed to help conceptualize the subtraction of integers. Positive integers are black chips and negative integers are red chips. Dragging a single black on top of a red chip together makes the pair disappear (visually emphasizing that the sum is 0). Users may practice problems generated by the computer, themselves or free play with the chips. There are separate tabs to access information for the user, the teacher and to seek help with instructions.

2005-01-01

155

Engineering atom chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atom Chips are a new and exciting technology that enable the manipulation of atoms close to a chip surface. These chips combine cold atom physics with MEMS microfabrication techniques to create electric, magnetic and optical fields to trap and manipulate ultra-cold atom clouds.

Michael Kraft

2009-01-01

156

A simulation study of the intelligent wireless ad hoc routing (IWAR) protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc networks are dynamically configurable wireless networks that have no fixed infrastructures and do not require predefined configurations. We introduced a new intelligent routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks. The Intelligent Wireless Ad Hoc Routing (IWAR) protocol is an on-demand protocol and self-configuring; it selects optimal routes, provides load balancing, and fault tolerance. IWAR dynamically adjusts its routing

Hamed El-Afandi; Hossein Hosseini; K. Vairavan

2005-01-01

157

Metabolite extraction from adherently growing mammalian cells for metabolomics studies: optimization of harvesting and extraction protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypsin\\/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment and cell scraping in a buffer solution were compared for harvesting\\u000a adherently growing mammalian SW480 cells for metabolomics studies. In addition, direct scraping with a solvent was tested.\\u000a Trypsinated and scraped cell pellets were extracted using seven different extraction protocols including pure methanol, methanol\\/water,\\u000a pure acetone, acetone\\/water, methanol\\/chloroform\\/water, methanol\\/isopropanol\\/water, and acid–base methanol. The extracts were\\u000a analyzed

Katja Dettmer; Nadine Nürnberger; Hannelore Kaspar; Michael A. Gruber; Martin F. Almstetter; Peter J. Oefner

2011-01-01

158

Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips.  

PubMed

We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. PMID:20689865

Gong, Xiuqing; Yi, Xin; Xiao, Kang; Li, Shunbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

2010-08-05

159

Study protocol. A prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women: the pregnancy outcome prediction study  

PubMed Central

Background There have been dramatic changes in the approach to screening for aneuploidy over the last 20 years. However, the approach to screening for other complications of pregnancy such as intra-uterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and stillbirth remains largely unchanged. Randomised controlled trials of routine application of high tech screening methods to the general population have generally failed to show improvement in outcome. We have previously reviewed this and concluded it was due, in large part, to poor performance of screening tests. Here, we report a study design where the primary aim is to generate clinically useful methods to screen women to assess their risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Methods/design We report the design of a prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women recruited at the time of their first ultrasound scan. Participation involves serial phlebotomy and obstetric ultrasound at the dating ultrasound scan (typically 10–14 weeks), 20 weeks, 28 weeks and 36 weeks gestation. In addition, maternal demographic details are obtained; maternal and paternal height are measured and maternal weight is serially measured during the pregnancy; maternal, paternal and offspring DNA are collected; and, samples of placenta and membranes are collected at birth. Data will be analysed as a prospective cohort study, a case-cohort study, and a nested case-control study. Discussion The study is expected to provide a resource for the identification of novel biomarkers for adverse pregnancy outcome and to evaluate the performance of biomarkers and serial ultrasonography in providing clinically useful prediction of risk.

Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Dacey, Alison; Cook, Emma; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; White, Ian R; Smith, Gordon CS

2008-01-01

160

[Study protocol of the VISEP study. Response of the SepNet study group].  

PubMed

In the commentary by Zander et al. the authors appear concerned about the methods and results of our, at that time, unpublished sepsis trial evaluating hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and insulin therapy. Unfortunately, the authors' concerns are based on false assumptions about the design, conduct and modes of action of the compounds under investigation. For instance, in our study the HES solution was not used for maintenance of daily fluid requirements, so that the assumption of the authors that this colloid was used "exclusively" is wrong. Moreover, the manufacturer of Hemohes, the HES product we used, gives no cut-off value for creatinine, thus the assumption that this cut-off value was "doubled" in our study is also incorrect. Other claims by the authors such as that lactated solutions cause elevated lactate levels, iatrogenic hyperglycemia and increase O(2) consumption are unfounded. There is no randomized controlled trial supporting such a claim - this claim is neither consistent with our study data nor with any credible published sepsis guidelines or with routine practice worldwide. We fully support open scientific debate. Our study methods and results have now been published after a strict peer-reviewing process and this data is now open to critical and constructive reviewing. However, in our opinion this premature action based on wrong assumptions and containing comments by representatives of pharmaceutical companies does not contribute to a serious, unbiased scientific discourse. PMID:18584135

Reinhart, K; Brunkhorst, F M; Engel, C; Bloos, F; Meier-Hellmann, A; Ragaller, M; Weiler, N; Moerer, O; Gruendling, M; Oppert, M; Grond, S; Olthoff, D; Jaschinski, U; John, S; Rossaint, R; Welte, T; Schaefer, M; Kern, P; Kuhnt, E; Kiehntopf, M; Deufel, T; Hartog, C; Gerlach, H; Stüber, F; Volk, H-D; Quintel, M; Loeffler, M

2008-07-01

161

[Evaluation of a linear TEOAE protocol in hearing screening of neonates: feasibility study].  

PubMed

The audiological screening of newborns based on recording TEOAEs--the expression of anatomical-functional integrity of the cochlea--has unanimously gained importance. The prevalence of severe of genetic or congenital hearing loss in the healthy infant population and in the population at risk for audiological disorders, as well as the consequent psycholinguist and socialization problems such children have to deal with, have led the authors to set up a preliminary protocol for the audiological screening of neonates. The purpose of this protocol is to improve the feasibility of applying such a program. To this purpose, the preliminary protocol called for the recording of the TEOAE in both non linear (NL) and linear (L) modes. Examination was performed in 347 newborns (30% of all the children born during 1997) the second day of life and during spontaneous sleep. The ILO 92 was used for the screening. The results obtained with the two methods were statistically compared using the 9 parameters considered response indicators. Using the linear method of a function-window and improving the signal-to-noise ratio, the study showed a significant difference in the quality of the TEOAE using the linear method as compared with the non linear method, although this did not modify response reliability. This lead to the definition, through free distribution statistical analysis, of broader than normal criteria by which to evaluate the responses evoked with the L method. All this is aimed at increasing system specificity and reducing the number of false positives which feeds family anxiety. PMID:10205919

Pelosi, G; Hatzopoulos, S; Chierici, R; Vigi, V; Martini, A

1998-08-01

162

Chip-based on-line nanospray MS method enabling study of the kinetics of isocyanate derivatization reactions.  

PubMed

The reaction of propyl isocyanate (2), benzyl isocyanate (3), and toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (4) with 4-nitro-7-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (1) to yield the corresponding urea derivatives 5 was carried out in a continuous flow glass microfluidics chip. Real-time monitoring of the derivatization reactions was done by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, making use of a recently reported modular chip-MS interface. Rate constants of 1.5 x 10(4), 5.2 x 10(4), and 2.4 x 10(4) M(-1) min(-1) were determined for 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Using macroscale batch conditions, the rate constants are 3-4 times lower. The faster on-chip kinetics is attributed to the more efficient molecular diffusion in the micrometer-sized channel. PMID:16255582

Brivio, Monica; Liesener, Andre; Oosterbroek, R Edwin; Verboom, Willem; Karst, Uwe; van den Berg, Albert; Reinhoudt, David N

2005-11-01

163

DCP CONSORTIA CHEMOPREVENTION PROTOCOL TEMPLATE  

Cancer.gov

The protocol template is a tool to facilitate rapid protocol development. It is not intended to supersede the role of the Protocol Principal Investigator in the authoring and scientific development of the protocol. It contains the language required in protocols submitted to the NCI, Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). Please modify all sections as necessary to meet the scientific aims of the study and development of the protocol.

164

Methods and protocols to study T cell signaling abnormalities in human systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Abnormal expression of key signaling molecules and defective functions of T lymphocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). T cell receptor (TCR/CD3)-mediated stimulation of SLE T cells show increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins with faster kinetics, heightened calcium flux response, and decreased IL-2 production. The molecular mechanisms of T cell signaling abnormalities in SLE T cells are complex. Current research has been directed towards investigating various factors that contribute to abnormal tyrosine phosphorylation, intracellular calcium response, and cytokine production. Central to this dysfunction is the aberrant expression and function of the TCR/CD3? chain. Latest developments suggest multiple explanations are involved, including altered receptor structure, supramolecular assembly, modulation of membrane clustering, aberrant cellular distribution, and pre-compartmentalization with lipid-rafts. The methods and protocols described here pertaining to T cell signaling abnormalities in SLE T cells are optimized in many ways and are derived by the combined task and continuous efforts of many researchers in the lab over a long period of time. These simplified protocols can be readily applied to study T cell signaling abnormalities in SLE to identify the genetic, molecular, and biochemical factors contributing to aberrant immune cell function and unravel the pathophysiology of SLE. PMID:22933064

Moulton, Vaishali R; Lo, Mindy S; Tsokos, George C

2012-01-01

165

The activity of French Research Ethics Committees and characteristics of biomedical research protocols involving humans: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical trials throughout the world must be evaluated by research ethics committees. No one has yet attempted to clearly quantify at the national level the activity of ethics committees and describe the characteristics of the protocols submitted. The objectives of this study were to describe 1) the workload and the activity of Research Ethics Committees in France, and 2) the characteristics of protocols approved on a nation-wide basis. Methods Retrospective cohort of 976 protocols approved by a representative sample of 25/48 of French Research Ethics Committees in 1994. Protocols characteristics (design, study size, investigator), number of revisions requested by the ethics committee before approval, time to approval and number of amendments after approval were collected for each protocol by trained research assistant using the committee's files and archives. Results Thirty-one percent of protocols were approved with no modifications requested in 16 days (95% CI: 14–17). The number of revisions requested by the committee, and amendments submitted by the investigator was on average respectively 39 (95% CI: 25–53) and 37 (95% CI: 27–46), per committee and per year. When revisions were requested, the main reasons were related to information to the patient (28%) and consent modalities (18%). Drugs were the object of research in 68% of the protocols examined. The majority of the research was national (80%) with a predominance of single-centre studies. Workload per protocol has been estimated at twelve and half hours on average for administrative support and at eleven and half hours for expertise. Conclusion The estimated workload justifies specific and independent administrative and financial support for Research Ethics Committees.

Decullier, Evelyne; Lheritier, Veronique; Chapuis, Francois

2005-01-01

166

IC chip stress during plastic package molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 95% of the world's integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metallization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study we developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over

D. W. Palmer; D. A. Benson; D. W. Peterson; J. N. Sweet

1998-01-01

167

Cardiac Mitochondria l Membrane Stability after Deep Hypothermia using a Xenon Clathrate Cryostasis Protocol - an Electron Microscopy Study  

PubMed Central

We investigated a new cryopreservation method using xenon, a clathrate-forming gas, under medium pressure (100psi). The objective of the study was to determine whether this cryostasis protocol could protect cardiac mitochondria at cryogenic temperatures (below 100 degrees Celsius).We analyzed transmission electron microscopy images to obtain information about changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by cryopreservation of the hearts. Our data showed absence of mitochondrial swelling, rupture of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of mitochondrial matrix into the cytoplasm after applying this cryostasis protocol. The electron microscopy results provided the first evidence that a cryostasis protocol using xenon as a clathrate-forming gas under pressure may have protective effects on intracellular membranes. This cryostasis technology may find applications in developing new approaches for long-term cryopreservation protocols.

Sheleg, Sergey; Hixon, Hugh; Cohen, Bruce; Lowry, David; Nedzved, Mikhail

2008-01-01

168

Bioprinting cell-laden matrigel for radioprotection study of liver by pro-drug conversion in a dual-tissue microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel cell printing and microfluidic system to serve as a portable ground model for the study of drug conversion and radiation protection of living liver tissue analogs. The system is applied to study behavior in ground models of space stress, particularly radiation. A microfluidic environment is engineered by two cell types to prepare an improved higher fidelity in vitro micro-liver tissue analog. Cell-laden Matrigel printing and microfluidic chips were used to test radiation shielding to liver cells by the pro-drug amifostine. In this work, the sealed microfluidic chip regulates three variables of interest: radiation exposure, anti-radiation drug treatment and single- or dual-tissue culture environments. This application is intended to obtain a scientific understanding of the response of the multi-cellular biological system for long-term manned space exploration, disease models and biosensors. PMID:21881168

Snyder, J E; Hamid, Q; Wang, C; Chang, R; Emami, K; Wu, H; Sun, W

2011-09-01

169

B rief episode of ischemia activates protective genetic program in rat heart: a gene chip study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Brief episodes of ischemia of 20 min or less have the potential to protect the heart. Such episodes are associated primarily with reversible ischemic injury yet they induce changes in gene expression. The purpose of the study was to determine whether activation of protective genes takes place within 4 h following a brief episode of ischemia that would mimic

Boris Z. Simkhovich; Paul Marjoram; Coralie Poizat; Larry Kedes; Robert A. Kloner

170

Finite element study of flip chip on board in drop test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of electronic packages in mechanical drop tests is critical especially for portable electronic devices as these electronic packages are very vulnerable to solder joint failures caused by the mechanical shock and the PCB warping upon impact. Drop test studies are performed to investigate the solder joints mechanical failure in electronic packages. In this paper, the mechanical impact on

Siew Kuan Nah; Zhaowei Zhong

2005-01-01

171

Fundamental Study of the Intermixing of 95Pb5Sn High-Lead Solder Bumps and 37Pb63Sn Pre-Solder on Chip-Carrier Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the intermixing of 95Pb-5Sn solder bumps and 37Pb-63Sn pre-solder in flip-chip solder joints. The reaction conditions included multiple reflows (up to ten) at 240°C, whereby previously solder-coated parts are joined by heating without using additional solder. We found that the molten pre-solder had an irregular shape similar to a calyx (i.e., a cup-like structure) wrapped around a

C. C. Chang; Y. W. Lin; Y. S. Lai; C. R. Kao

2009-01-01

172

Study on board level solder joints reliability analysis of the copper stud bump flip-chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the investigation focuses on the copper stud bump solder joint thermal-mechanical reliability. The copper stud bump processing is simulated by FEM software Ansys\\/Ls-dyna, and then the relationship between the copper stud bump and processing parameters (bonding force, ultrasonic power, bonding time and bonding temperature) is studied. Based on the simulation result, the dimension of the bonded copper

Mu Wei; Zhou Dejian; Wu Zhaohua

2010-01-01

173

Protein Chips and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation – Emerging Technologies to Study Macromolecule Interactions in M. grisea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the post genome era, a major challenge is to understand the transcriptional control of each gene and the network of interactions\\u000a control growth, development, and differentiation. The genome sequence of many fungi is now available, as are growing data\\u000a sets of large-scale transcriptional studies. Microarray analysis reveals that specific sets of genes are coordinately regulated,\\u000a presumably via the action

Thomas K. Mitchell; Ralph A. Dean; Jin-Rong Xu; Heng Zhu; Yeon Yee Oh; Hee-Sool Rho

174

Simulation and Reliability Study of Cu\\/Low-k Devices in Flip-chip Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The package impact to the mechanical integrity of the low dielectric constant (low-k) dielectrics back end of the line (BEOL) structure has been proven to be significant in recent publications. This work reports a simulation study of the package-induced delamination in low-k structures by interfacial fracture mechanics combined with multi-scale finite element method. The numerical simulation is validated by reliability

Jie-Hua Zhao; Brett Wilkerson; Trent Uehling

2004-01-01

175

Studies on a novel flip-chip interconnect structure. Pillar bump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pillar bump is a novel interconnect structure, including non-reflowable base and a reflowable cap like a pillar shape. In this study, pillar bump with copper base and Sn63\\/Pb37 eutectic solder cap is processed via electrolytic plating. Based on whether flat eutectic cap is reflowed prior to assembly, pillar bump is further split into two categories, namely pre-reflowed and non-reflowed, respectively.

T. Wang; F. Tung; L. Foo; V. Dutta

2001-01-01

176

Concept and approach of human signal-molecular-profiling database: A pilot study on depression using Lab-on-chips.  

PubMed

Signal molecular profiling (SMP) in serum can reveal abundant medical information about the human body. The construction of a human signal-molecular-profiling database (HSMPD) will greatly prompt the research of medical science. However, some challenges hinder the construction of HSMPD. A promising strategy is proposed to provide a convenient way for the establishment of HSMPD. Firstly, a low-cost and high-throughput tool for measuring SMP should be developed and standardized. When the SMP-oriented tools were accepted by most hospitals worldwide, SMP information will be decoded by a cloud-based system and stored into the online database naturally. In the pilot study, an ultrasensitive Lab-on-chips (LOC) device was developed as a specific tool for SMP. Clinical serum samples from 10 women within 4 weeks of giving birth, including 2 patients with postpartum depression were studied by the LOC devices, since accumulating evidence has indicated that hormones and cytokines in patients with mood disorders are abnormal. HSMPD may be applied to diagnose depression in the future. Here, five kinds of signal molecules were quantified on the devices, namely, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and IL-8. The preliminary results showed that the concentrations of IL-2 and IL-8 in the depression group may be higher than those in the control group, whereas the other kinds of signal molecules did not change significantly. Although the correlations are not enough to induct any diagnostic criterion, the SMP-oriented tool was verified. The results also indicated that the strategy to establish HSMPD is conceivable. PMID:24110801

Dong, Tao; Zhao, Xinyan; Yang, Zhaochu

2013-07-01

177

Phase I study of weekly-administered iproplatin [cis-dichloro-trans-dihydroxy-bis-isopropylamine platin (chip, JM9)].  

PubMed

Iproplatin [cis-dichlor-trans-dihydroxy-bis-isopropylamine platinum (CHIP, JM9)] is a new antineoplastic platinum analogue with an octahedral conformation. It has more water solubility than does cisplatin and was found to have less neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in experimental animals than cisplatin. Like cisplatin, it has been demonstrated to have a broad spectrum of activity in experimental tumor systems. A phase I study of iproplatin was conducted in 28 patients (12 with melanoma, 8 with sarcoma, 6 with breast cancer, and 2 with colon cancer). All patients had failed prior chemotherapy. Four consecutive doses of iproplatin were administered at weekly intervals followed by a rest period of two weeks for hematologic recovery (one course). One hundred forty-two weekly doses were administered with all patients except three receiving at least one full course. The weekly starting dose of 40 mg/m2 was increased to 120 mg/m2 given over 30 minutes without hydration. Myelosuppression predominantly thrombocytopenia, was the dose-limiting toxicity at weekly doses of greater than or equal to 95 mg/m2 per course. With iproplatin doses 75 mg/m2, 95 mg/m2, and 120 mg/m2, the lowest median granulocyte counts were 2.6 x 10(3)/mm3, 2.2 x 10(3)/mm3, and 1.8 x 10(3)/mm3, respectively. Similarly, at iproplatin doses of 75 mg/m2, 95 mg/m2, and 120 mg/m2, the lowest median platelet counts were 144 x 10(3)/mm3, 99 x 10(3)/mm3, and 31 x 10(3)/mm3, respectively. Mild to moderate nausea and vomiting were observed in the majority of patients. No significant neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, or ototoxicity was observed. Objective tumor regression was not observed in this study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3229943

Chawla, S P; Yap, B S; Tenney, D M; Bodey, G P; Benjamin, R S

1988-12-01

178

The decomposition of windrowed, chipped logging slash and tree seedling response: A plant growth and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest management practices historically have reduced the mass of logging slash to facilitate planting and reduce fire risk. However, coarse woody debris (CWD) is considered an important component of unmanaged forests of western and coastal North America. An experiment was established in northern California using chipped logging slash concentrated in windrows to emulate large fallen logs to determine the effects

Caroline M. Preston; Ronald J. Smernik; Robert F. Powers; John G. McColl; Therese M. McBeath

2011-01-01

179

Study of the gene expression profile of human ovarian carcinoma by a gene chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the difference in gene expression between human ovarian carcinoma and normal ovarian tissues, and screen\\u000a the novel associated genes by cDNA microarrays.  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Total RNA from 10 cases of ovarian cancer and from normal ovarian tissues were extracted by a single step method. The cDNA\\u000a was retro-transcribed from an equal quantity of mRNA derived from the 10 cases

Shenhua Xu; Hanzhou Mou; Chihong Zhu; Lijuan Qian; Zhengyan Yang; Ye Ying; Xianglin Liu

2005-01-01

180

Does an oral analgesic protocol improve pain control for patients with cancer? An intergroup study coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cancer pain is highly prevalent and commonly undertreated. This study was designed to determine whether dissemination of a clinical protocol for pain management would improve outcomes in community oncology practices. Patients and methods: A pain management protocol was developed based on accepted guidelines. After baseline assessment, oncology practices were randomly assigned to 'analgesic protocol' (AP) sites, where oncologists implemented

C. S. Cleeland; R. K. Portenoy; M. Rue; T. R. Mendoza; E. Weller; R. Payne; J. Kirshner; J. N. Atkins; P. A. Johnson; A. Marcus

2005-01-01

181

Flip Chip Tutorial Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page covers flip chip assembly processes and applications. The first tutorial describes what a flip chip is and does, with some bumping and assembly methods. Subsequent tutorials cover each major element of flip chip processing, explaining the basics in more detail, updating and supplementing earlier tutorials, and presenting a growing range of micropackaging topics. Tutorials are added monthly. Keywords: Semiconductor, processing, packaging, handling

2012-12-27

182

Centrifugation protocol for the NASA Artificial Gravity-Bed Rest Pilot Study.  

PubMed

We have implemented a 41-day ground-based study to investigate the effects of daily artificial gravity loading on bed rest deconditioned human subjects. Each subject underwent 21 days of 6 degree head-down bed rest. Treatment subjects received 60 min daily doses of inertial mechanical loading (2.5 G at the feet decreasing to 1 G at the heart) produced by a short radius centrifuge. During rotation, the subject's cardiovascular responses were monitored via ECG, blood pressure and pulse oximetry, and subjective assessment of motion sickness and overall health were periodically requested. The subject's weight distribution at the feet was measured using a force plate, and lower leg muscle activity was monitored via surface electromyography. Control subjects were instrumented but did not receive any centrifugation. This paper provides details on the centrifuge protocol development and efficacy. PMID:18372684

Arya, Maneesh; Paloski, William H; Young, Laurence R

2007-07-01

183

Color Chips-Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps the learner conceptualize the addition of signed numbers. The user clicks and drags red and black colored chips to a circle to represent a problem and then simplifies by placing a red negative chip on top of a positive black chip. The student actually sees the opposite pair disappear. Users may practice problems generated by the computer, themselves or free play with the chips. There are separate tabs to access information for the learner, the instructor and to seek help.

2005-01-01

184

Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real experiences using advanced technologies (virtual reality, advanced sensors and smartphones) is a feasible way to address actual limitations of existing protocols for psychological stress. Trial registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01683617

2013-01-01

185

Ecological Development and Global Climate Change: A Cross-National Study of Kyoto Protocol Ratification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article adapts a theory of ecological modernization to characterize countries by their economic, political, and cultural development to estimate their structural and strategic readiness to commit and comply with the Kyoto Protocol. Hypotheses logically derived from ecological modernization theory perform as expected, with substantial variation in Kyoto Protocol ratification explained by our variable pool. Results from logistic and Cox

Sammy Zahran; Eunyi Kim; Xi Chen; Mark Lubell

2007-01-01

186

An experimental study on wireless security protocols over mobile IP networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security protocols have emerged as a vital issue to support secure and reliable communications over wireless networks. Many works have discussed security services from a functional perspective; however, there is a lack of quantitative results demonstrating the impact of security protocols on system performance that can be affected dramatically by applying security policies in combination with mobility. Therefore, we conduct

Avesh K. Agarwal; Jorinjit S. Gill; Wenye Wang

2004-01-01

187

A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to ellestad stress test protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the

Y. K. Lee; A. Za'aba; N. K. Madzhi; A. Ahmad

2009-01-01

188

A Laboratory Wood Chipper for Chipping Under Realistic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood chipping is a critical component part of many pulp and paper making processes. In order to study the damage mechanisms,\\u000a when wood chips are created through the wood chipping process, it is crucial to have access to an experimental equipment in\\u000a which chips can be produced under realistic conditions. In this paper, a laboratory chipper is presented, which has

L. M. Hellström; P. A. Gradin; M. Gulliksson; T. Carlberg

189

Capability evaluation and validation of FC chip scale package structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirement of Chip Scale Package (CSP) is growing popular in current 3C industries due to the increasing needs of handheld devices and energy saving. Flip-Chip Chip Scale Package (FCCSP) structure is then designed to meet the small form factor as well as high electrical performance requirements with cost efficiency. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance

Kenet Liu; Eason Chen; Daniel Lee; Mike Ma

2011-01-01

190

Uptake of fluids by boreal wood chips: Implications for bioenergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a long term study of pipeline transport of wood chips for bioenergy applications, we have determined the uptake of two fluids by hardwood and softwood chips from the boreal forest. Water or oil would be the likely carrier fluids in pipelining wood chips for ultimate use as bioenergy (e.g. any of combustion, gasification, pyrolysis to form bio-oil,

Amit Kumar; Peter C. Flynn

2006-01-01

191

Intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of primary trigeminal neuralgia refractory to carbamazepine: a study protocol[ISRCTN33042138  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported successful treatment of patients with chronic pain syndromes using human pooled intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in a prospective, open-label cohort study. A randomised, placebo controlled, double blinded study is needed to confirm these results. We chose to study patients with carbamazepine resistant primary Trigeminal Neuralgia (rpTN), as these had responded particularly well to IVIG. A protocol

Andreas Goebel; Andrew Moore; Rosamund Weatherall; Norbert Roewer; Robert Schedel; Guenter Sprotte

2003-01-01

192

Mean-time-to-failure study of flip chip solder joints on Cu/Ni(V)/Al thin-film under-bump-metallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromigration of eutectic SnPb flip chip solder joints and their mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) have been studied in the temperature range of 100 to 140 °C with current densities of 1.9 to 2.75×104 A/cm2. In these joints, the under-bump-metallization (UBM) on the chip side is a multilayer thin film of Al/Ni(V)/Cu, and the metallic bond-pad on the substrate side is a very thick, electroless Ni layer covered with 30 nm of Au. When stressed at the higher current densities, the MTTF was found to decrease much faster than what is expected from the published Black's equation. The failure occurred by interfacial void propagation at the cathode side, and it is due to current crowding near the contact interface between the solder bump and the thin-film UBM. The current crowding is confirmed by a simulation of current distribution in the solder joint. Besides the interfacial void formation, the intermetallic compounds formed on the UBM as well as the Ni(V) film in the UBM have been found to dissolve completely into the solder bump during electromigration. Therefore, the electromigation failure is a combination of the interfacial void formation and the loss of UBM. Similar findings in eutectic SnAgCu flip chip solder joints have also been obtained and compared.

Choi, W. J.; Yeh, E. C. C.; Tu, K. N.

2003-11-01

193

Chip Packaging Systems and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automated process for performing MEMS packaging including automatically attaching a die to a chip carrier, resulting in a chip carrier assembly, automatically moving the chip carrier assembly into a vacuum chamber, wherein the vacuum chamber includes o...

H. L. Curtis J. B. DCamp L. A. Dunaway M. C. Glenn

2004-01-01

194

Causes and consequences of cerebral small vessel disease. The RUN DMC study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a frequent finding on CT and MRI scans of elderly people and is related to vascular risk factors and cognitive and motor impairment, ultimately leading to dementia or parkinsonism in some. In general, the relations are weak, and not all subjects with SVD become demented or get parkinsonism. This might be explained by the diversity of underlying pathology of both white matter lesions (WML) and the normal appearing white matter (NAWM). Both cannot be properly appreciated with conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides alternative information on microstructural white matter integrity. The association between SVD, its microstructural integrity, and incident dementia and parkinsonism has never been investigated. Methods/Design The RUN DMC study is a prospective cohort study on the risk factors and cognitive and motor consequences of brain changes among 503 non-demented elderly, aged between 50-85 years, with cerebral SVD. First follow up is being prepared for July 2011. Participants alive will be included and invited to the research centre to undergo a structured questionnaire on demographics and vascular risk factors, and a cognitive, and motor, assessment, followed by a MRI protocol including conventional MRI, DTI and resting state fMRI. Discussion The follow up of the RUN DMC study has the potential to further unravel the causes and possibly better predict the consequences of changes in white matter integrity in elderly with SVD by using relatively new imaging techniques. When proven, these changes might function as a surrogate endpoint for cognitive and motor function in future therapeutic trials. Our data could furthermore provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive and motor disturbances in elderly with SVD. The execution and completion of the follow up of our study might ultimately unravel the role of SVD on the microstructural integrity of the white matter in the transition from "normal" aging to cognitive and motor decline and impairment and eventually to incident dementia and parkinsonism.

2011-01-01

195

Short and long-term effectiveness of couple counselling: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Healthy couple relationships are fundamental to a healthy society, whereas relationship breakdown and discord are linked to a wide range of negative health and wellbeing outcomes. Two types of relationship services (couple counselling and relationship education) have demonstrated efficacy in many controlled studies but evidence of the effectiveness of community-based relationship services has lagged behind. This study protocol describes an effectiveness evaluation of the two types of community-based relationship services. The aims of the Evaluation of Couple Counselling study are to: map the profiles of clients seeking agency-based couple counselling and relationship enhancement programs in terms of socio-demographic, relationship, health, and health service use indicators; to determine 3 and 12-month outcomes for relationship satisfaction, commitment, and depression; and determine relative contributions of client and therapy factors to outcomes. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental pre-post-post evaluation design is used to assess outcomes for couples presenting for the two types of community-based relationship services. The longitudinal design involves a pre-treatment survey and two follow-up surveys at 3- and 12-months post-intervention. The study is set in eight Relationships Australia Victoria centres, across metropolitan, outer suburbs, and regional/rural sites. Relationships Australia, a non-government organisation, is the largest provider of couple counselling and relationship services in Australia. The key outcomes are couple satisfaction, relationship commitment, and depression measured by the CESD-10. Multi-level modelling will be used to account for the dyadic nature of couple data. Discussion The study protocol describes the first large scale investigation of the effectiveness of two types of relationship services to be conducted in Australia. Its significance lies in providing more detailed profiles of couples who seek relationship services, in evaluating both 3 and 12-month relationship and health outcomes, and in determining factors that best predict improvements. It builds on prior research by using a naturalistic sample, an effectiveness research design, a more robust measure of relationship satisfaction, robust health indicators, a 12-month follow-up period, and a more rigorous statistical procedure suitable for dyadic data. Findings will provide a more precise description of those seeking relationship services and factors associated with improved relationship and health outcomes.

2012-01-01

196

Study of a novel cell lysis method with titanium dioxide for Lab-on-a-Chip devices.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel method is proposed and demonstrated to be able to lyse gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria cells for Lab-on-a-Chip applications. The proposed method incorporates using titanium dioxide particles as photocatalysts and a miniaturized UV LED array as an excitation light source to perform cell lysis on microchips. The experimental result demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed prototype device. The working device suggests an inexpensive, easy to be fabricated and effective way for microchip cell lysis. The miniaturized UV LED array and the microchip with a reaction chamber can be easily integrated with other functional components to form a customized whole Lab-on-a-Chip system. PMID:21369761

Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

2011-06-01

197

Plastic chip carrier package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic QFP, SOIC packages have been dominant surface mount packages for several years for many of their attractive features like compactness and small form factor. The recent needs are for higher I\\/O packages, with small form factor has led to many novel packaging schemes like the chip scale package. Currently, the cost of a chip scale package is very high.

R. Joshi; B. J. Shanker

1996-01-01

198

Heterogeneous Chip Multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneous (or asymmetric) chip multiprocessors present unique opportunities for improving system throughput, reducing processor power, and mitigating Amdahl's law. On-chip heterogeneity allow the processor to better match execution resources to each application's needs and to address a much wider spectrum of system loads - from low to high thread parallelism - with high efficiency.

Rakesh Kumar; Dean M. Tullsen; Norman P. Jouppi; Parthasarathy Ranganathan

2005-01-01

199

Genes in Canine Articular Cartilage That Respond to Mechanical Injury: Gene Expression Studies With Affymetrix Canine GeneChip  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Affymetrix canine GeneChip with 23,836 probe sets was used to look for cartilage genes that are significantly altered in response to mechanical impact. The model using canine articular cartilage explants loaded in vitro has been described pre- viously (Chen et al., J Orthop Res 19:703-711, 2001). It is our hypothesis that genes that are activated or repressed in articular

N. Burton-Wurster; R. G. MATEESCU; R. J. TODHUNTER; K. M. CLEMENTS; Q. SUN; V. SCARPINO; G. LUST

2005-01-01

200

Experimental studies of board-level reliability of chip-scale packages subjected to JEDEC drop test condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate in this paper board-level drop reliability of chip-scale packages subjected to JEDEC drop test condition B, which features an impact pulse profile with a peak acceleration of 1500G and a pulse duration of 0.5ms. Effects of Sn–Ag–Cu or Sn–Pb solder joint compositions, fluxes, and substrate pads with Ni\\/Au surface finish or OSP coating on the drop reliability of

Yi-shao Lai; Ping-feng Yang; Chang-lin Yeh

2006-01-01

201

Study of Ni as a barrier metal in AuSn soldering application for laser chip\\/submount assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of replacing Pt in the Ti\\/Pt\\/Au base and traditionally used metallurgical structure by Ni, while bonding InP laser chip to a submount with AuSn (80% Au) solder, has been investigated. Various Ni-based metal alloys have been prepared by evaporation. Reflow experiments were conducted in a chamber under forming gas-controlled ambient. The Ti\\/Ni\\/AuSn system provided much longer surface local

C. H. Lee; Y. M. Wong; C. Doherty; K. L. Tai; E. Lane; D. D. Bacon; F. Baiocchi; A. Katz

1992-01-01

202

Plant for the Production of Chips and Pellet: Technical and Economic Aspects of an Case Study in the Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work is the result of a technical and economic analysis about the process of transformation of forest wood in biofuels,\\u000a pellets and wood chips. The experimental pilot plant is managed by a forest consortium located in the province of Terni, Umbria\\u000a Region (central Italy), near the Mountain Community “Valle del Nera” and Mountain San Pancrazio. The structure and all

Danilo Monarca; Massimo Cecchini; Andrea Colantoni

203

Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants). The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18) who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants) and at 4 month follow-up to see if improvements persist. Measures of treatment adherence, pain, disability, and anxiety and depression will be assessed throughout study participation. Qualitative interviews for mentors, mentored participants, and control subjects will also be administered. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01118988.

2011-01-01

204

Developing psychotherapists' competence through clinical supervision: protocol for a qualitative study of supervisory dyads  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health professionals face unique demands and stressors in their work, resulting in high rates of burnout and distress. Clinical supervision is a widely adopted and valued mechanism of professional support, development, and accountability, despite the very limited evidence of specific impacts on therapist or client outcomes. The current study aims to address this by exploring how psychotherapists develop competence through clinical supervision and what impact this has on the supervisees’ practice and their clients’ outcomes. This paper provides a rationale for the study and describes the protocol for an in-depth qualitative study of supervisory dyads, highlighting how it addresses gaps in the literature. Methods/Design The study of 16–20 supervisor-supervisee dyads uses a qualitative mixed method design, with two phases. In phase one, supervisors who are nominated as expert by their peers are interviewed about their supervision practice. In phase two, supervisors record a supervision session with a consenting supervisee; interpersonal process recall interviews are conducted separately with supervisor and supervisee to reflect in depth on the teaching and learning processes occurring. All interviews will be transcribed, coded and analysed to identify the processes that build competence, using a modified form of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) strategies. Using a theory-building case study method, data from both phases of the study will be integrated to develop a model describing the processes that build competence and support wellbeing in practising psychotherapists, reflecting the accumulated wisdom of the expert supervisors. Discussion The study addresses past study limitations by examining expert supervisors and their supervisory interactions, by reflecting on actual supervision sessions, and by using dyadic analysis of the supervisory pairs. The study findings will inform the development of future supervision training and practice and identify fruitful avenues for future research.

2013-01-01

205

Protocol to study wavefront preservation capabilities of reflective X-ray optics with coherent synchrotron light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavefront preservation of reflective X-ray optics, i.e., homogeneity and coherence properties of the reflected beam, are of crucial importance for their application in combination with high-brilliance synchrotron light sources. In order to compare the performance of optical elements in a quantitative manner, a protocol has been established using the Talbot effect to access the coherence properties of the reflective beam as well as long propagation distance imaging to study its homogeneity. The basic idea is to operate in a single-bounce geometry: a high-resolution imaging detector translated at short propagation distances along the beam is used to measure the visibility of a diffraction grating in transmission geometry placed close to the mirror under study. The change of the fringe visibility as a function of distance between the grating and the detector gives access to the angular source size. A second high-resolution imaging detector at longer propagation distances of up to several meters allows one to measure the homogeneity of the beam. This article outlines the concept as realized at beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, gives insight into some of the technical details to be considered for implementation at other facilities and ends with an example application: the study of a W/B4C multilayer mirror.

Rack, A.; Weitkamp, T.; Assoufid, L.; Rack, T.; Zanette, I.; Morawe, Ch.; Kluender, R.; David, C.

2013-05-01

206

Study of a Potential Single Point Household Communications Product Utilizing Internet Protocol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The future of networking technology and the Internet offer a great deal of promise. The potential is forthcoming as newer hardware technology and higher bandwidth capable protocols are designed and implemented. This thesis investigates the possibility of ...

D. L. Fortin

2000-01-01

207

PLUG: flexible lookup modules for rapid deployment of new protocols in high-speed routers  

Microsoft Academic Search

New protocols for the data link and network layer are being pro- posed to address limitations of current protocols in terms of scala- bility, security, andmanageability. High-speedroutersandswitches that implement these protocols traditionally perform packet pro- cessing using ASICs which offer high speed, low chip area, and low power. But with inflexible custom hardware, the deployment of new protocols could happen

Lorenzo De Carli; Yi Pan; Amit Kumar; Cristian Estan; Karthikeyan Sankaralingam

2009-01-01

208

A simulation study between the ad hoc protocols IWAR and AODV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless ad hoc networks are becoming a center of research interest for the last few years due to the promise of being self-configurable networks. Wireless ad hoc networks do not require predefined configuration and do not have fixed infrastructure. Ad hoc on-demand distance-vector (AODV) protocol is a well-known wireless ad hoc protocol that makes its routing decision based on the

Hamed El-Afandi; Hossein Hosseini; K. Vairavan

2005-01-01

209

Control of environmental variables in a field study using a chronobiological protocol.  

PubMed

Field work in chronobiology usually is based on observations which differ from those in laboratory studies which are experimental. Non-invasive protocols are recommended in the field in order not to introduce additional variables. We propose an alternative strategy here. The effect of environmental cycles on biological rhythms can be estimated when the observations are made in more than one area. The areas under study must have at least one characteristic in common which is a guarantee that the limits of oscillation of an environmental cycle will be similar. This proposal has been tested using the biological system consisting of an Onagraceae plant, Ludwigia elegans, and its bee visitors, which is found in two localities at the same latitude, but at different altitudes. Under the same photoperiod, but with the mean temperature ranging within known limits, it was possible to determine temporal characteristics of the system in the field by examining the effects of the light/dark and temperature daily cycles. PMID:8731344

Marques, M D; Gimenes, M

1996-01-01

210

A transdisciplinary approach to protocol development for tobacco control research: a case study.  

PubMed

The increasing complexity of scientific problems related to lifestyle risk factors has prompted substantial investments in transdisciplinary or team science initiatives at the biological, psychosocial, and population levels of analysis. To date, the actual process of conducting team science from the perspectives of investigators engaged in it has not been well documented. We describe the experience of developing and implementing data collection protocols using the principles of transdisciplinary science. The New England Family Study Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center was a 10-year collaboration involving more than 85 investigators and consultants from more than 20 disciplines as well as more than 50 research staff. We used a two-phase process in which all the study personnel participated in the developing and testing of 160 instruments. These instruments were used in 4,378 assessments with 3,501 participants. With substantial effort, it is possible to build a team of scientists from diverse backgrounds that can develop a set of instruments using a shared conceptual approach, despite limited or no experience working together previously. PMID:24073144

Clark, Melissa A; Rogers, Michelle L; Boergers, Julie; Kahler, Christopher W; Ramsey, Susan; Saadeh, Frances M; Abrams, David B; Buka, Stephen L; Niaura, Raymond; Colby, Suzanne M

2012-12-01

211

Early signaling, referral, and treatment of adolescent chronic pain: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic pain is prevalent among young people and negatively influences their quality of life. Furthermore, chronic pain in adolescence may persist into adulthood. Therefore, it is important early on to promote the self-management skills of adolescents with chronic pain by improving signaling, referral, and treatment of these youngsters. In this study protocol we describe the designs of two complementary studies: a signaling study and an intervention study. Methods and design The signaling study evaluates the Pain Barometer, a self-assessed signaling instrument for chronic pain in adolescents. To evaluate the feasibility of the Pain Barometer, the experiences of youth-health care nurses will be evaluated in semi-structured interviews. Also, we will explore the frequencies of referral per health-care provider. The intervention study evaluates Move It Now, a guided self-help intervention via the Internet for teenagers with chronic pain. This intervention uses cognitive behavioural techniques, including relaxation exercises and positive thinking. The objective of the intervention is to improve the ability of adolescents to cope with pain. The efficacy of Move It Now will be examined in a randomized controlled trial, in which 60 adolescents will be randomly assigned to an experimental condition or a waiting list control condition. Discussion If the Pain Barometer is proven to be feasible and Move It Now appears to be efficacious, a health care pathway can be created to provide the best tailored treatment promptly to adolescents with chronic pain. Move It Now can be easily implemented throughout the Netherlands, as the intervention is Internet based. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1926

2012-01-01

212

A study protocol to evaluate the relationship between outdoor air pollution and pregnancy outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based on air quality monitor stations. Therefore, estimating individual exposures are one of the major challenges when investigating these relationships with a semi-ecologic design. Methods/Design Semi-ecologic study consisting of a retrospective cohort study with ecologic assignment of exposure is applied. Health outcomes and covariates are collected at Primary Health Care Center. Data from pregnant registry, clinical record and specific questionnaire administered orally to the mothers of children born in period 2007-2010 in Portuguese Alentejo Litoral region, are collected by the research team. Outdoor air pollution data are collected with a lichen diversity biomonitoring program, and individual pregnancy exposures are assessed with spatial geostatistical simulation, which provides the basis for uncertainty analysis of individual exposures. Awareness of outdoor air pollution uncertainty will improve validity of individual exposures assignments for further statistical analysis with multivariate regression models. Discussion Exposure misclassification is an issue of concern in semi-ecological design. In this study, personal exposures are assigned to each pregnant using geocoded addresses data. A stochastic simulation method is applied to lichen diversity values index measured at biomonitoring survey locations, in order to assess spatial uncertainty of lichen diversity value index at each geocoded address. These methods assume a model for spatial autocorrelation of exposure and provide a distribution of exposures in each study location. We believe that variability of simulated exposure values at geocoded addresses will improve knowledge on variability of exposures, improving therefore validity of individual exposures to input in posterior statistical analysis.

2010-01-01

213

Experimental performance study of wireless ad hoc system utilizing 802.11a standard base on different routing protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wireless ad hoc network technology provides a flexible infrastructure for next generation mobile telecommunication. In this paper, the performances of the networks based on IEEE802.11a standard, including packets successful delivery rate, average end-to-end delay and system throughput, have been studied with different routing protocols (AODV, WRP, and FISHEYE) using GloMoSim to evaluate the effects of various factors, such as node mobility, node density, and node radio transmission range. The simulation results show that adaptive routing protocol will be more suitable for the variation ad hoc network and the results are helpful for the optimum design and deployment of an actual network.

Zhong, Xiao F.; Wang, You-Zheng; Mei, Shunliang; Wang, Jing

2002-08-01

214

Importance of Cover and Air under-Base with Storage of Fuel Chip Chips.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation has been to study moisture content changes, matter losses, and fungus diaspore amounts in outdoor storage of fuel chip piles. Fresh harvesting residuals (logging slash) were chipped and laid up in 4 piles. The pile height...

T. Thoernqvist

1982-01-01

215

Acupuncture, Counseling, and Usual care for Depression (ACUDep): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The evidence on the effect of acupuncture or counseling for depression is not conclusive yet is sufficient to warrant further research. Our aim is to conduct a full-scale RCT to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of acupuncture and counseling compared to usual care alone. We will explore the experiences and perspectives of patients and practitioners. Methods/Design Randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms: acupuncture plus usual care, counseling plus usual care, and usual care alone, in conjunction with a nested qualitative study using in-depth interviews with purposive samples of trial participants. Participants: Patients aged over 18 years diagnosed with depression or mood disorder by their GP and with a score of 20 or above on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Randomization: Computer randomization by York Trials Unit to acupuncture, counseling, and usual care alone in proportions of 2:2:1, respectively, with secure allocation concealment. Interventions: Patients allocated to acupuncture and counseling groups receive the offer of up to 12 weekly sessions. Both interventions allow flexibility to address patient variation, yet are constrained within defined protocols. Acupuncture is based on traditional Chinese medicine and counseling is non-directive within the humanistic tradition. Outcome: The PHQ-9 is the primary outcome measure, collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Also measured is BDI-II, SF-36 Bodily pain subscale, and EQ-5D. Texted mood scores are collected weekly over the first 15 weeks. Health-related resource use is collected over 12 months. Analysis: The sample size target was for 640 participants, calculated for an effect size of 0.32 on the PHQ-9 when comparing acupuncture with counseling given 90% power, 5% significance, and 20% loss to follow-up. Analysis of covariance will be used on an intention-to-treat basis. Thematic analysis will be used for qualitative data. We will compare incremental cost-effectiveness of the three treatment options at 12 months. Discussion Ethical approval was obtained in October 2009. There were six subsequent protocol amendments, the last of which was approved in January 2012. Recruitment of 755 participants took place over 18 months. Data collection will be completed by June 2012. No interim analyses have been conducted. Trial registration ISRCTN63787732

2012-01-01

216

Which dressing do donor site wounds need?: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Donor site wounds after split-skin grafting are rather 'standard' wounds. At present, lots of dressings and topical agents for donor site wounds are commercially available. This causes large variation in the local care of these wounds, while the optimum 'standard' dressing for local wound care is unclear. This protocol describes a trial in which we investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options for these donor site wounds. Methods A 14-center, six-armed randomized clinical trial is being carried out in the Netherlands. An a-priori power analysis and an anticipated dropout rate of 15% indicates that 50 patients per group are necessary, totaling 300 patients, to be able to detect a 25% quicker mean time to complete wound healing. Randomization has been computerized to ensure allocation concealment. Adult patients who need a split-skin grafting operation for any reason, leaving a donor site wound of at least 10 cm2 are included and receive one of the following dressings: hydrocolloid, alginate, film, hydrofiber, silicone dressing, or paraffin gauze. No combinations of products from other intervention groups in this trial are allowed. Optimum application and changes of these dressings are pursued according to the protocol as supplied by the dressing manufacturers. Primary outcomes are days to complete wound healing and pain (using a Visual Analogue Scale). Secondary outcomes are adverse effects, scarring, patient satisfaction, and costs. Outcome assessors unaware of the treatment allocation will assess whether or not an outcome has occurred. Results will be analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. The first patient was randomized October 1, 2009. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effectiveness of different treatment options for donor site wounds. The dressing(s) that will prevail in effectiveness, satisfaction and costs will be promoted among clinicians dealing with such patients. Thus, we aim to contribute a well-designed trial, relevant to all clinicians involved in the care for donor site wounds, which will help enhance uniformity and quality of care for these patients. Trial registration http://www.trialregister.nl, NTR1849. Date registered: June 9, 2009

2011-01-01

217

A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. Methods/Design The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS) group (n = 206) with that of a control (WHS) group (n = 206). The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. Discussion This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the preventive actions undertaken by them within the scope of a job-specific WHS. Trial registration NTR3012

2011-01-01

218

Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants levels that are taken as exposure levels.

Yunesian, Masud; Asghari, Fariba; Vash, Javad Homayoun; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Farhud, Dariush

2006-01-01

219

Does periarticular injection have additional pain relieving effects during contemporary multimodal pain control protocols for TKA?: A randomised, controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the analgesic effects of periarticular multimodal drug injection (PMDI) after TKA have been well documented, there is little information about additional pain relieving effects of PMDI incorporated to contemporary multimodal pain control protocols which have been proved to provide excellent analgesia. We performed a parallel-group, randomised, controlled study to determine whether PMDI provides additional clinical benefits on contemporary multimodal

In Jun Koh; Yeon Gwi Kang; Chong Bum Chang; Sang-Hwan Do; Sang Cheol Seong; Tae Kyun Kim

220

An Ecological Study of Nonresidential Services for Battered Women Within a Comprehensive Community Protocol for Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an ecological study of services provided to 392 battered women under a comprehensive domestic violence protocol. It focuses on microsystemic interactions between battered women and battered women's services and legal systems. We examine the relationships between women's receipt of services from a battered women's agency, receipt of protective orders, and completion of prosecution of batterers. We also

Arlene N. Weisz; Richard M. Tolman; Larry Bennett

1998-01-01

221

An In Vivo Study of Locking and Grasping Techniques Using a Passive Mobilization Protocol in Experimental Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vivo experimental study was performed on the flexor profundus tendons of adult canines to determine tensile strength differences between locking and grasping technique repairs and to document the tensile strength using a passive mobilization protocol through the first 21 days following surgery. Forty experimental third and fourth flexor tendons of the right forepaws were lacerated and repaired with

Hitoshi Hatanaka; Jinfan Zhang; Paul R. Manske

2000-01-01

222

Protocols for nuclei isolation and nuclear protein extraction from the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa for proteomic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant nucleus is an important subcellular organelle but the isolation of pure and enriched nuclei from plants and subsequent extraction of nuclear proteins for proteomic studies is challenging. Here, we present protocols for nuclei isolation and nuclear protein extraction from the resurrection plant, Xerophyta viscosa, and show optimization and modification of the most critical steps.

Kamal Omer Abdalla; Jennifer Ann Thomson; Muhammad Suhail Rafudeen

2009-01-01

223

Teacher's Perceptions of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol for Teaching Young English Language Learners: A Qualitative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative case study explored the use of sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) instructional practices to promote the language development and learning of elementary English language learners (ELLs) in an immersion setting in 1st and 2nd grades. The SIOP model was developed for middle school ELLs, and there is scant information…

Rodriguez Moux, Shirley

2010-01-01

224

Effective protein extraction protocol for proteomics studies of Jerusalem artichoke leaves.  

PubMed

Protein extraction is a crucial step for proteomics studies. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) analysis in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), three different protein extraction methods-trichloroacetic acid/acetone, Mg/NP-40, and phenol/ammonium acetate-were evaluated using Jerusalem artichoke leaves as source materials. Of the three methods, trichloroacetic acid/acetone yielded the best protein separation pattern and highest number of protein spots in 2DE analysis. Proteins highly abundant in leaves, such as Rubisco, are typically problematic during leaf 2DE analysis, however, and this disadvantage was evident using trichloroacetic acid/acetone. To reduce the influence of abundant proteins on the detection of low-abundance proteins, we optimized the trichloroacetic acid/acetone method by incorporating a PEG fractionation approach. After optimization, 363 additional (36.2%) protein spots were detected on the 2DE gel. Our results suggest that trichloroacetic acid/acetone method is a better protein extraction technique than Mg/NP-40 and phenol/ammonium acetate in Jerusalem artichoke leaf 2DE analysis, and that trichloroacetic acid/acetone method combined with PEG fractionation procedure is the most effective approach for leaf 2DE analysis of Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:23630184

Zhang, Meide; Shen, Shihua

2013-06-10

225

Acupuncture for patients with functional dyspepsia: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Whether acupuncture is efficacious for patients with functional dyspepsia is still controversial. So we designed a randomised controlled trial to settle the problem. Methods and analysis We designed a multicentre, two-arm, sham-controlled clinical trial. 200 participants with functional dyspepsia will be randomly assigned to the true acupuncture (TA) group and sham acupuncture (SA) group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the TA group will receive acupuncture at points selected according to syndrome differentiation. Participants in the sham acupuncture group will receive penetrations at sham points. Participants in both groups will receive 20 sessions of electroacupuncture in 4?weeks, five times continuously with a 2?day rest in a week. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients reporting the absence of dyspeptic symptoms at 16?weeks after inclusion. The secondary outcome includes a Short-Form Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire, the Chinese version of the 36-Item Short Form Survey, the Chinese version of the Nepean dyspepsia index, etc. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the institutional review boards and ethics committees of the first affiliated hospital of Chengdu University of TCM, the first affiliated hospital of Hunan University of TCM and Chongqing Medical University, respectively (from April to August 2012). The results of this trial will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671670.

Zheng, Hui; Xu, Jing; Li, Juan; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Ling; Chang, Xiaorong; Liu, Mi; Gong, Biao; Li, Xuezhi; Liang, Fanrong

2013-01-01

226

Enabling Reuse via an IP Core-centric Communications Protocol: Open Core ProtocolTM  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate true IP (intellectual property) core plug-and-play and simplify reuse, the cores need to be decoupled from the on-chip interconnect system and from one another using a clearly-specified core interface protocol. This core interface must allow an IP core developer to focus on IP core generation without having to know any details about the system-on-a-chip that the core might

Wolf-Dietrich Weber

227

DreamTel; Diabetes risk evaluation and management tele-monitoring study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes underlines the importance of secondary strategies for the prevention of target organ damage. While access to diabetes education centers and diabetes intensification management has been shown to improve blood glucose control, these services are not available to all that require them, particularly in rural and northern areas. The provision of these services through the Home Care team is an advance that can overcome these barriers. Transfer of blood glucose data electronically from the home to the health care provider may improve diabetes management. Methods and design The study population will consist of patients with type 2 diabetes with uncontrolled A1c levels living on reserve in the Battlefords region of Saskatchewan, Canada. This pilot study will take place over three phases. In the first phase over three months the impact of the introduction of the Bluetooth enabled glucose monitor will be assessed. In the second phase over three months, the development of guidelines based treatment algorithms for diabetes intensification will be completed. In the third phase lasting 18 months, study subjects will have diabetes intensification according to the algorithms developed. Discussion The first phase will determine if the use of the Bluetooth enabled blood glucose devices which can transmit results electronically will lead to changes in A1c levels. It will also determine the feasibility of recruiting subjects to use this technology. The rest of the Diabetes Risk Evaluation and Management Tele-monitoring (DreamTel) study will determine if the delivery of a diabetes intensification management program by the Home Care team supported by the Bluetooth enabled glucose meters leads to improvements in diabetes management. Trial Registration Protocol NCT00325624

Tobe, Sheldon W; Wentworth, Joan; Ironstand, Laurie; Hartman, Susan; Hoppe, Jackie; Whiting, Judi; Kennedy, Janice; McAllister, Colin; Kiss, Alex; Perkins, Nancy; Vincent, Lloyd; Pylypchuk, George; Lewanczuk, Richard Z

2009-01-01

228

How does capacity building of health managers work? A realist evaluation study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction There has been a lot of attention on the role of human resource management interventions to improve delivery of health services in low- and middle-income countries. However, studies on this subject are few due to limited research on implementation of programmes and methodological difficulties in conducting experimental studies on human resource interventions. The authors present the protocol of an evaluation of a district-level capacity-building intervention to identify the determinants of performance of health workers in managerial positions and to understand how changes (if any) are brought about. Methods and analysis The aim of this study is to understand how capacity building works. The authors will use realist evaluation to evaluate an intervention in Karnataka, India. The intervention is a capacity-building programme that seeks to improve management capacities of health managers at district and subdistrict levels through periodic classroom-based teaching and mentoring support at the workplace. The authors conducted interviews and reviewed literature on capacity building in health to draw out the programme theory of the intervention. Based on this, the authors formulated hypothetical pathways connecting the expected outcomes of the intervention (planning and supervision) to the inputs (contact classes and mentoring). The authors prepared a questionnaire to assess elements of the programme theory—organisational culture, self-efficacy and supervision. The authors shall conduct a survey among health managers as well as collect qualitative data through interviews with participants and non-participants selected purposively based on their planning and supervision performance. The authors will construct explanations in the form of context–mechanism–outcome configurations from the results. This will be iterative and the authors will use a realist evaluation framework to refine the explanatory theories that are based on the findings to explain and validate an improved theory on ‘what works for whom and under what conditions’. Discussion The scope for applying realist evaluation to study human resource management interventions in health are discussed.

Marchal, Bruno; Hoeree, Tom; Devadasan, Narayanan; Macq, Jean; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

2012-01-01

229

Pilot study of a protocol to administer inhaled nitric oxide to treat severe acute submassive pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Inhaled nitric oxide has been reported to benefit patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). To date, all published literature has derived from case reports or case series conducted without a structured protocol. Here we report the results of a phase I trial with a predefined clinical protocol to treat patients with CT-demonstrated, submassive PE and moderate to severe dyspnoea. METHODS: Patients were recruited from the emergency department of an academic teaching hospital. Informed consent and the entire treatment protocol was administered by a study physician. Nitric oxide was administered using a commercial device (Inovent) and a custom-made non-rebreathing face mask. The NO concentration was increased at 1 ppm/min (parts per million) until a maximum of 25 ppm and continued for 120 min and then weaned at 1 ppm/min. Dyspnoea was assessed with the Borg score, oxygenation by pulse oximetry, and haemodynamic status by shock index (HR/SBP). RESULTS: Eight patients were enrolled. All patients tolerated the entire protocol without adverse events, and all had decreased numerical Borg score by >50%. The changes from baseline to 155 min were as follows: Borg score 7.5±2.5 to 2.3±1.9 (p=0.06, Signed rank test), SaO2% 93±5 to 97±3 and shock index 1.0±0.11 to 0.86±0.09. No patient experienced worsening during weaning. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled NO reduced dyspnoea without adverse events in eight patients with severe submassive PE. This protocol can serve as the basis for a phase II trial or for a compassionate use protocol. PMID:23585574

Kline, Jeffrey A; Hernandez, Jackeline; Garrett, John S; Jones, Alan E

2013-04-13

230

OligoChip To Identify HLA-B*5101: Association Study in Male Patients with Behcet's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the association of HLA-B*5101 and male Behcet's disease (BD). HLA-B51 antigens and HLA-B51 allele genotyping in 27 BD patients and 53 healthy controls were performed by complement-dependent microlymphocyte toxicity assay, OligoChip and PCR-sequence specific primer (SSP) method. HLA-B51 was found in 63% (17\\/27) of BD patients and in 15.1% (8\\/53) of controls < 0.0001, OR = 11.7, 95%

Zheng Yan; Sun Yuping; Wang Yunshan; Tian Yufeng; Sun Hongsheng

2009-01-01

231

Fundamental Study of the Intermixing of 95Pb5Sn High-Lead Solder Bumps and 37Pb63Sn Pre-Solder on Chip-Carrier Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the intermixing of 95Pb-5Sn solder bumps and 37Pb-63Sn pre-solder in flip-chip solder joints. The\\u000a reaction conditions included multiple reflows (up to ten) at 240°C, whereby previously solder-coated parts are joined by heating\\u000a without using additional solder. We found that the molten pre-solder had an irregular shape similar to a calyx (i.e., a cup-like\\u000a structure) wrapped around a

C. C. Chang; Y. W. Lin; Y. S. Lai; C. R. Kao

2009-01-01

232

Integrating evidence on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions: protocol of the patient-VIP study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a strong movement towards active patient involvement in healthcare policy decisions, systematic and explicit consideration of evidence of this research on patient preferences seems limited. Furthermore, little is known about the opinions of several stakeholders towards consideration of research evidence on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions. This paper describes the protocol for an explorative study on the integration of research on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions. The study questions: to what extent research evidence on patient preferences is considered in current procedures for healthcare policy decisions; opinions of stakeholders regarding the integration of this type of evidence in healthcare policy decisions; and what could be a decision framework for the integration of such research evidence in healthcare policy decisions. Methods/design The study is divided in three sub-studies, predominantly using qualitative methods. The first sub-study is a scoping review in five European countries to investigate whether and how results of research on patient preferences are considered in current procedures for coverage decisions and clinical practice guideline development. The second sub-study is a qualitative study to explore the opinions of stakeholders with regard to the possibilities for integrating evidence on patient preferences in the process of healthcare decision-making in the Netherlands. The third sub-study is the development of a decision framework for research on patient preferences. The framework will consist of: a process description regarding the place of evidence on patient preferences in the decision-making process; and a taxonomy describing different terminologies and conceptualisations of ‘preferences’ and an overview of existing methodologies for investigating preferences. The concept framework will be presented to and discussed with experts. Discussion This study will create awareness regarding the existence and potential value of research evidence on patient preferences for healthcare policy decision-making and provides insight in the methods for investigating patient preferences and the barriers and facilitators for integration of such research in healthcare policy decisions. Results of the study will be useful for researchers, clinical practice guideline developers, healthcare policy makers, and patient representatives.

2013-01-01

233

Dynamic Chip Breaker Design for Inconel 718 Using Positive Angle Tool Holder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has focused on the chip-breaker design and experimental cutting of Inconel 718 with the designed chip breaker. The process of chip breakage for Inconel 718 with respect to cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed rate then chips and machined surfaces were analyzed from the experimental results. For this purpose, the nickel-based super alloy, Inconel 718, was machined

Abdulkadir Güllü; ?ener Karabulut

2008-01-01

234

False-positive diatom test: a real challenge? A post-mortem study using standardized protocols.  

PubMed

The main criticism of the validity of the diatom test for the diagnosis of drowning is based on the potential ante- and post-mortem penetration of diatoms and the finding of diatoms in bodies of non-drowned human beings. However, qualitative and quantitative studies on diatoms in organs of the non-drowned have yielded both conflicting and contradictory results. In the present study, we have analysed under standardised methods the diatom content in several organs of 14 non-drowned human bodies. Overall, only 9 diatoms (6 entire, 3 fragmented) were disclosed in 6 of the 14 non-drowned bodies. Each of these 6 cadavers had only a single "positive" organ. Six diatoms were found in the bone marrow, 2 in the lung, and one in the pleural liquid. No diatoms were recovered from the brain, liver, kidney, or blood samples of any of these 14 bodies. Moreover, in five additional cadavers, whose lungs were injected, prior autopsy, with a 3.5L solution containing a bi-cellulate diatom culture (Thalassiosira baltica, Thalassiosira levanderi) via tracheostomy, a few diatoms appeared in the pleural cavity and in the blood from the left heart chamber, but none in any other internal organs investigated. The results of the presented study demonstrate that the issue of the false-positive diatom test should not be a logical impediment to the performance of the diatom method. However, strict and standardized protocols aimed at avoiding contamination during sample preparation must be used, appropriate separation values set and taxonomic analysis of all diatoms performed. PMID:23701706

Lunetta, Philippe; Miettinen, Arto; Spilling, Kristian; Sajantila, Antti

2013-05-21

235

Study of extraction procedures for protein analysis in plankton samples by OFFGEL electrophoresis hyphenated with Lab-on-a-chip technology.  

PubMed

Extraction procedures for protein analysis from plankton samples were studied. OFFGEL electrophoresis combined with Lab-on-a-chip technology has been applied for protein analysis in plankton samples. BCR-414 (plankton) certified reference material from the European Commission was used to evaluate the protein extraction procedures. Three protein extraction procedures were studied: (1) by using Tris-HCl buffer containing a protease inhibitor cocktail, (2) urea/triton X-100 buffer extraction, and (3) using the phenol/sodium dodecyl sulphate method after different washing steps with 10% trichloroacetic acid/acetone solution and methanol. The pellet of proteins obtained was dried and then dissolved in the OFFGEL buffer. Proteins were separated according to their isoelectric points by OFFGEL electrophoresis. This separation was performed using 24cm, pH 3-10 IPG Dry Strips. The proteins present in each liquid fraction (24 fractions) were separated according to their molecular weight using a microfluidic Lab-on-a-chip electrophoresis with the Protein 80 LabChip kit. This kit allows for the separation of proteins with a molecular weight ranging from 5 to 80kDa. Taking into account the intensity and the number of the protein bands obtained, the protein extraction procedure using the phenol/sodium dodecyl sulphate after different wash steps with 10% trichloroacetic acid/acetone solution was selected. The developed method was applied for protein determination in a fresh marine plankton sample. The proteins found in this sample have a molecular weight ranging from 6.4 to 57.3kDa, and the proteins with highest molecular weight were in the OFFGEL fractions with an isoelectric point ranging from 4.40 to 8.60. The concentration of proteins were calculated using external calibration with Bovine Serum Albumin, and the protein concentrations varied from 50.0 to 925.9ngµL(-1). PMID:24054642

García-Otero, Natalia; Barciela-Alonso, Ma Carmen; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

2013-06-25

236

Study of Intermetallic Growth and Kinetics in Fine-Pitch Lead-Free Solder Bumps for Next-Generation Flip-Chip Assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continued advances in microelectronics, it is anticipated that next-generation microelectronic assemblies will require a reduction of the flip-chip solder bump pitch to 100 ?m or less from the current industrial practice of 130 ?m to 150 ?m. With this reduction in pitch size, and thus in bump height and diameter, the interaction between die pad metallurgy and substrate pad metallurgy becomes more critical due to the shorter diffusion path and greater stress. Existing literature has not addressed such metallurgical interaction in actual fine-pitch flip-chip assemblies. This work studies intermetallic growth and kinetics in fine-pitch lead-free solder bumps through thermal aging of flip-chip assemblies. Based on this study, it is seen that Ni from the die pad diffuses to the substrate pad region and Cu from the substrate pad diffuses to the die pad region, thus the resulting intermetallic compounds at the die and substrate pad regions are influenced by the other pad as well. Such cross-pad interaction is much stronger in fine-pitch solder bumps with smaller standoff height. It is seen that the die pad region contains Ni3P and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 after thermal aging, while the substrate pad region contains Cu3Sn and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5. By digitally measuring the thickness of the interfacial phases, the kinetics parameters and the activation energy were calculated for the growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 on the substrate side. The Cu diffusion coefficient through the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was found to be 0.03370 ?m2/h, 0.1423 ?m2/h, and 0.4463 ?m2/h at 100°C, 125°C, and 150°C, respectively, and the apparent activation energy for the growth of compound layers was 67.89 kJ/mol.

Tian, Ye; Chow, Justin; Liu, Xi; Wu, Yi Ping; Sitaraman, Suresh K.

2013-02-01

237

Sydney epilepsy incidence study to measure illness consequences: the SESIMIC observational epilepsy study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Epilepsy affects an estimated 50 million people and accounts for approximately 1% of days lost to ill health globally, making it one of the most common, serious neurological disorders. While there are abundant global data on epilepsy incidence, prevalence and treatment, there is a paucity of Australian incidence data. There is also a general lack of information on the psychosocial impact and socioeconomic consequences of a new diagnosis of epilepsy on an individual, their family, household, and community which are often specific to the health and social system of each country. Methods/Design The Sydney Epilepsy Incidence Study to Measure Illness Consequences (SEISMIC) is an Australian population-based epilepsy incidence and outcome study that will recruit every newly diagnosed case of epilepsy in the Sydney South West Area Health Service to an epilepsy register. Multiple and overlapping sources of notification will be used to identify all new cases of epilepsy over a 24 month period in the Eastern Zone of the Sydney South West Area Health Service (SSWAHS) and follow up will occur over 12 months. SEISMIC will use the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definitions and classifications for epidemiologic studies of epilepsy. The study will examine outcomes including mood, quality of life, employment, education performance, driving status, marital and social problems, medication use, health care usage, costs and stigma. Discussion This study is designed to examine how clinical, psychological factors, socioeconomic circumstances, and healthcare delivery influence the experience of epilepsy for individuals and families allowing better targeting of specific services and informing policy makers and practitioners. In addition, the study will provide the basis for a longitudinal population-based cohort study and potentially inform qualitative sub-studies and randomised controlled trials of intervention strategies. The study has been registered on the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration database with ANZCTRN12609000059268.

2011-01-01

238

Metabolite extraction from adherently growing mammalian cells for metabolomics studies: optimization of harvesting and extraction protocols.  

PubMed

Trypsin/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment and cell scraping in a buffer solution were compared for harvesting adherently growing mammalian SW480 cells for metabolomics studies. In addition, direct scraping with a solvent was tested. Trypsinated and scraped cell pellets were extracted using seven different extraction protocols including pure methanol, methanol/water, pure acetone, acetone/water, methanol/chloroform/water, methanol/isopropanol/water, and acid-base methanol. The extracts were analyzed by GC-MS after methoximation/silylation and derivatization with propyl chloroformate, respectively. The metabolic fingerprints were compared and 25 selected metabolites including amino acids and intermediates of energy metabolism were quantitatively determined. Moreover, the influence of freeze/thaw cycles, ultrasonication and homogenization using ceramic beads on extraction yield was tested. Pure acetone yielded the lowest extraction efficiency while methanol, methanol/water, methanol/isopropanol/water, and acid-base methanol recovered similar metabolite amounts with good reproducibility. Based on overall performance, methanol/water was chosen as a suitable extraction solvent. Repeated freeze/thaw cycles, ultrasonication and homogenization did not improve overall metabolite yield of the methanol/water extraction. Trypsin/EDTA treatment caused substantial metabolite leakage proving it inadequate for metabolomics studies. Gentle scraping of the cells in a buffer solution and subsequent extraction with methanol/water resulted on average in a sevenfold lower recovery of quantified metabolites compared with direct scraping using methanol/water, making the latter one the method of choice to harvest and extract metabolites from adherently growing mammalian SW480 cells. PMID:21125262

Dettmer, Katja; Nürnberger, Nadine; Kaspar, Hannelore; Gruber, Michael A; Almstetter, Martin F; Oefner, Peter J

2010-12-02

239

Study and Analysis of the Internet Protocol Security and Its Impact on Interactive Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is the defacto standard, which offers secured Internet communications, providing traffic integrity, confidentiality and authentication. Besides this, it is assumed that IPSec is not suitable for the protection of realtime audio transmissions as the IPSec related enlargement of packets and the usage of the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode contradict stringent requirements. IPSec overhead of at least 44 bytes for each Internet Protocol (IP)-packet cannot guarantee Quality of Service (QOS) due to a bad wireless link by which the Ethernet flow control intercepts and makes a real time transmission impossible.

Khan, Arshi; Ansari, Seema

240

Investigation of formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting of mild steel and the transformation conditions between various morphology chips. It is supposed that the modeling material follows the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. In orthogonal cutting process, both the plastic flow and the instability behaviors of chip materials are caused by the plane strain loadings. Therefore, the general instability behaviors of materials in plane strain state are first analyzed with linear perturbation method and a universal instability criterion is established. Based on the analytical results, the formation mechanisms of chips and the transformation conditions between continuous and serrated chips are further studied by instability phase diagram method. The results show that the chip formation strongly depends on the intensity ratios between shear and normal stresses. The ratios of dissipative rates of plastic work done by compression and shear stresses govern the transformation from continuous to serrated chips. These results are verified by the numerical simulations on the orthogonal cutting process.

Ma, W.

2012-08-01

241

Factors dominating adhesion of NaCl onto potato chips.  

PubMed

In this study, the adhesion factors examined were time between frying and coating, surface oil content, chip temperature, oil composition, NaCl size, NaCl shape, and electrostatic coating. Three different surface oil content potato chips, high, low, and no, were produced. Oils used were soybean, olive, corn, peanut, and coconut. After frying, chips were coated immediately, after 1 d, and after 1 mo. NaCl crystals of 5 different particle sizes (24.7, 123, 259, 291, and 388 microm) were coated both electrostatically and nonelectrostatically. Adhesion of cubic, dendritic, and flake crystals was examined. Chips were coated at different temperatures. Chips with high surface oil had the highest adhesion of salt, making surface oil content the most important factor. Decreasing chip temperature decreased surface oil and adhesion. Increasing time between frying and coating reduced adhesion for low surface oil chips, but did not affect high and no surface oil chips. Changing oil composition did not affect adhesion. Increasing salt size decreased adhesion. Salt size had a greater effect on chips with lower surface oil content. When there were significant differences, cubic crystals gave the best adhesion followed by flake crystals then dendritic crystals. For high and low surface oil chips, electrostatic coating did not change adhesion of small size crystals but decreased adhesion of large salts. For no surface oil content chips, electrostatic coating improved adhesion for small salt sizes but did not affect adhesion of large crystals. PMID:17995602

Buck, V E; Barringer, S A

2007-10-01

242

Outcomes of usual chiropractic, harm & efficacy, the ouch study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. Methods One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000542998

2011-01-01

243

Study protocol: The Improving Care of Acute Lung Injury Patients (ICAP) study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The short-term mortality benefit of lower tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) for patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) has been demonstrated in a large, multi-center randomized trial. However, the impact of LTVV and other critical care therapies on the longer-term outcomes of ALI/ARDS survivors remains uncertain. The Improving Care of ALI Patients (ICAP) study is a multi-site, prospective cohort study that aims to evaluate the longer-term outcomes of ALI/ARDS survivors with a particular focus on the effect of LTVV and other critical care therapies. Methods Consecutive mechanically ventilated ALI/ARDS patients from 11 intensive care units (ICUs) at four hospitals in the city of Baltimore, MD, USA, will be enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Exposures (patient-based, clinical management, and ICU organizational) will be comprehensively collected both at baseline and throughout patients' ICU stay. Outcomes, including mortality, organ impairment, functional status, and quality of life, will be assessed with the use of standardized surveys and testing at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI/ARDS diagnosis. A multi-faceted retention strategy will be used to minimize participant loss to follow-up. Results On the basis of the historical incidence of ALI/ARDS at the study sites, we expect to enroll 520 patients over two years. This projected sample size is more than double that of any published study of long-term outcomes in ALI/ARDS survivors, providing 86% power to detect a relative mortality hazard of 0.70 in patients receiving higher versus lower exposure to LTVV. The projected sample size also provides sufficient power to evaluate the association between a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including quality of life. Conclusion The ICAP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will build on previous critical care research to improve our understanding of the longer-term impact of ALI/ARDS, LTVV and other aspects of critical care management. Given the paucity of information about the impact of interventions on long-term outcomes for survivors of critical illness, this study can provide important information to inform clinical practice.

Needham, Dale M; Dennison, Cheryl R; Dowdy, David W; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Ciesla, Nancy; Desai, Sanjay V; Sevransky, Jonathan; Shanholtz, Carl; Scharfstein, Daniel; Herridge, Margaret S; Pronovost, Peter J

2006-01-01

244

Renal Athersosclerotic reVascularization Evaluation (RAVE Study): Study protocol of a randomized trial [NCT00127738  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether patients with renal vascular disease will have renal or mortality benefit from re-establishing renal blood flow with renal revascularization procedures. The RAVE study will compare renal revascularization to medical management for people with atherosclerotic renal vascular disease (ARVD) and the indication for revascularization. Patients will be assessed for the standard nephrology research outcomes of progression

Sheldon W Tobe; M Atri; N Perkins; R Pugash; Chaim M Bell

2007-01-01

245

The RootChip: An Integrated Microfluidic Chip for Plant Science[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Studying development and physiology of growing roots is challenging due to limitations regarding cellular and subcellular analysis under controlled environmental conditions. We describe a microfluidic chip platform, called RootChip, that integrates live-cell imaging of growth and metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana roots with rapid modulation of environmental conditions. The RootChip has separate chambers for individual regulation of the microenvironment of multiple roots from multiple seedlings in parallel. We demonstrate the utility of The RootChip by monitoring time-resolved growth and cytosolic sugar levels at subcellular resolution in plants by a genetically encoded fluorescence sensor for glucose and galactose. The RootChip can be modified for use with roots from other plant species by adapting the chamber geometry and facilitates the systematic analysis of root growth and metabolism from multiple seedlings, paving the way for large-scale phenotyping of root metabolism and signaling.

Grossmann, Guido; Guo, Woei-Jiun; Ehrhardt, David W.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Sit, Rene V.; Quake, Stephen R.; Meier, Matthias

2011-01-01

246

Study protocol: The registrar clinical encounters in training (ReCEnT) study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient encounters are the core learning activity of Australian general practice (family practice) training. Exposure to patient demographics and presentations may vary from one general practice registrar (vocational trainee) to another. This can affect comprehensiveness of training. Currently, there is no mechanism to systematically capture the content of GP registrar consultations. The aim of the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) study is to document longitudinally the nature and associations of consultation-based clinical and educational experiences of general practice registrars. Methods/design This is an ongoing prospective multi-site cohort study of general practice registrars’ consultations, entailing paper-based recording of consultation data. The study setting is general practices affiliated with three geographically-based Australian general practice regional training providers. Registrars record details of 60 consecutive consultations. Data collected includes registrar demographics, details of the consultation, patient demographics, reasons for encounter and problems managed. Problems managed are coded with the International Classification of Primary Care (second edition) classification system. Additionally, registrars record educational factors related to the encounter. The study will follow the clinical exposure of each registrar six-monthly over the 18 months to two years (full-time equivalent) of their general practice training program. Conclusions The study will provide data on a range of factors (patient, registrar and consultation factors). This data will be used to inform a range of educational decisions as well as being used to answer educational research questions. We plan to use ReCEnT as a formative assessment tool for registrars and help identify and address educational needs. The study will facilitate program evaluation by the participating training providers and thus improve articulation of educational programs with practice experience. From the research point of view it will address an evidence gap – the in-practice clinical and educational experience of general practice trainees, determinants of these experiences, and the determinants of registrars’ patterns of practice (for example, prescribing practice) over the course of their training.

2012-01-01

247

An alternate protocol for establishment of primary caprine fetal myoblast cell culture: an in vitro model for muscle growth study.  

PubMed

Cultured myoblasts have been used extensively as an in vitro model in understanding the underlying mechanisms of myogenesis. Various protocols for establishing a pure myoblast culture have been reported which involve the use of special procedures like flow cytometry and density gradient centrifugation. In goat, only a few protocols for establishing a myogenic cell culture are available and these protocols use adult muscle tissues which often does not yield sufficient numbers of precursor cells with adequate proliferative capacity. Considering the disadvantages of adult myoblasts, we are proposing an alternate protocol using caprine fetus which does not require any special procedures. In the present study, more than 90-95% fetal-derived cell populations had the typical spindle to polyhedral shape of myoblast cell and stained positive for desmin, hence confirming their myogenic origin. These cells attained the maximum confluency as early as 3-4 d against 3 wk by adult myoblasts indicating a better growth potential. Further, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a higher expression (p?

Singh, Satyendra Pal; Kumar, Rohit; Kumari, Priya; Mitra, Abhijit

2013-06-06

248

DESIGN AND MEASUREMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR EXERCISE PROTOCOLS IN HUMAN AIR POLLUTION INHALATION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact on pulmonary functions of exercising at different intensities during pollutant exposures was evaluated. It was apparent that there was considerable variation in exercise protocols. These variations occurred in the magnitude of the exercise load, the duration of the exe...

249

The Development of the Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed description of treatment utilizing the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment, is presented using a clinical case example treated during the most current phase of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of the UP. The implementation of the UP in its current, modular version is illustrated. A working case conceptualization is presented from the perspective of the

Christina L. Boisseau; Todd J. Farchione; Christopher P. Fairholme; Kristen K. Ellard; David H. Barlow

2010-01-01

250

Design and measurement considerations for exercise protocols in human air-pollution inhalation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact on pulmonary functions of exercising at different intensities during pollutant exposures was evaluated. It was apparent that there was considerable variation in exercise protocols. These variations occurred in the magnitude of the exercise load, the duration of the exercise period, and the timing of the exercise during exposure. It was also apparent that ventilation during rest and exercise

Horvath

1985-01-01

251

Viewing the Future: A Pilot Study with an Error-Detecting Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a precognition experiment in which two re- searchers took the part of viewers, and worked with two judges to design and implement an experiment in associative remote viewing. We used a redun- dant protocol to eliminate some of the problems experienced by many of us who have tried to harness psi for real world applications. We carried

RUSSELL TARG; JANE KATRA; DEAN BROWN; WENDEN WIEGAND

1995-01-01

252

Development of a triage protocol for patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Many patients presenting with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage (GIH) are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for monitoring. A simple triage protocol based upon validated risk factors could decrease ICU utilization. METHODS: Records of 188 patients admitted with GIH from the emergency department (ED) were reviewed for BLEED criteria (visualized red blood, systolic blood pressure below 100 mm Hg,

Aneesa M Das; Namita Sood; Katherine Hodgin; Lydia Chang; Shannon S Carson

2008-01-01

253

PRO-COW: Protocol Compliance on the Web - A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

experiments based on the protocol standard. The tests were run on a comprehensive list of popular Web sites to wh ich a good fraction of the Web traffic is directed. Our experiments were conducted on a global extensible testing infrastructure that we built to answer the above questions. The tests were carried out over a period of 16 months and

Balachander Krishnamurthy; Martin F. Arlitt

2001-01-01

254

A pilot study of digital camera resolution metrology protocols proposed under ISO 12233, edition 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edition 2 of ISO 12233, Resolution and Spatial Frequency Response (SFR) for Electronic Still Picture Imaging, is likely to offer a choice of techniques for determining spatial resolution for digital cameras different from the initial standard. These choices include 1) the existing slanted-edge gradient SFR protocols but with low contrast features, 2) polar coordinate sine wave SFR technique using a

Don Williams; Dietmar Wueller; Kevin Matherson; Hideaka Yoshida; Paul Hubel

2008-01-01

255

A prospective cohort study of surgical treatment for back pain with degenerated discs; study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of discogenic back pain often leads to spinal fusion surgery and may partly explain the recent rapid increase in lumbar fusion operations in the United States. Little is known about how patients undergoing lumbar fusion compare in preoperative physical and psychological function to patients who have degenerative discs, but receive only non-surgical care. Methods Our group is implementing a multi-center prospective cohort study to compare patients with presumed discogenic pain who undergo lumbar fusion with those who have non-surgical care. We identify patients with predominant low back pain lasting at least six months, one or two-level disc degeneration confirmed by imaging, and a normal neurological exam. Patients are classified as surgical or non-surgical based on the treatment they receive during the six months following study enrollment. Results Three hundred patients discogenic low back pain will be followed in a prospective cohort study for two years. The primary outcome measure is the Modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire at 24-months. We also evaluate several other dimensions of outcome, including pain, functional status, psychological distress, general well-being, and role disability. Conclusion The primary aim of this prospective cohort study is to better define the outcomes of lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain as it is practiced in the United States. We additionally aim to identify characteristics that result in better patient selection for surgery. Potential predictors include demographics, work and disability compensation status, initial symptom severity and duration, imaging results, functional status, and psychological distress.

Deyo, Richard A; Mirza, Sohail K; Heagerty, Patrick J; Turner, Judith A; Martin, Brook I

2005-01-01

256

Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP???5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date.

2013-01-01

257

Study protocol: The Improving Care of Acute Lung Injury Patients (ICAP) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The short-term mortality benefit of lower tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) for patients with acute lung injury\\/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI\\/ARDS) has been demonstrated in a large, multi-center randomized trial. However, the impact of LTVV and other critical care therapies on the longer-term outcomes of ALI\\/ARDS survivors remains uncertain. The Improving Care of ALI Patients (ICAP) study is a multi-site,

Dale M Needham; Cheryl R Dennison; David W Dowdy; Pedro A Mendez-Tellez; Nancy Ciesla; Sanjay V Desai; Jonathan Sevransky; Carl Shanholtz; Daniel Scharfstein; Margaret S Herridge; Peter J Pronovost

2006-01-01

258

Structure of chip on chip mounting preventing from crosstalk noise  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention reduces crosstalk, which occurs as a result of interference between signals running in each of respective wiring layers of a first semiconductor chip and a second semiconductor chip stacked surface to surface with a small gap. The semiconductor device includes a first semiconductor chip 1 having a first electrode pad 2 and a first wiring layer 9 in the main surface, and a second semiconductor chip 5 having a second electrode pad 6 and a second wiring layer 10 in the main surface confronting the first semiconductor chip. A bump 4 is provided for electrically coupling the first electrode pad 2 and the second electrode pad 6 together. An insulation layer 8 is disposed between the main surfaces of first semiconductor chip 1 and second semiconductor chip 5. An electro-conductive layer 7 is disposed between the main confronting surfaces of the first semiconductor chip and the second semiconductor chip.

Yoshida; Takayuki (Osaka, JP); Otsuka; Takashi (Osaka, JP); Fujimoto; Hiroaki (Osaka, JP); Mimura; Tadaaki (Osaka, JP); Yamane; Ichiro (Osaka, JP); Yamashita; Takio (Kyoto, JP); Matsuki; Toshio (Kyoto, JP); Kasuga; Yoshiaki (Shiga, JP)

1998-10-13

259

Simple and inexpensive DNA extraction protocol for studying the bacterial composition of sludges used in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Bacteria oxidize organic matter and nutrients to produce electric energy in microbial fuel cells (MFC) - a technology of increasing importance because of its sustainability. To improve the performance of MFCs, it is necessary not only to gain a better understanding of MFC engineering designs, but also to improve the understanding of the composition of the microbial communities in MFCs. Fast and efficient DNA extraction protocols that are suitable for extracting diverse bacterial genomes are necessary to identify the bacterial diversity present in MFCs and to further monitor the dynamic changes of microbial communities. This study focused on testing different direct cell lysis protocols to extract DNA from a microbial sludge harvested from an MFC. The protocol that achieved the best results was based on a previous study, but was modified by eliminating a chaotropic salt and the special columns used for nucleic acid purification. The efficiency of this less expensive and more straightforward protocol was confirmed by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, which confirmed the extraction of multiple genomes. The sequences of 10 clones revealed the presence of phyla, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, comprising both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Some of these bacteria were identified at the genus level, e.g., Clostridium, Pseudoxanthomonas, Tistrella, and Enterobacter; these genera have been described in active sludges from wastewater treatment, supporting the congruency of our results. Therefore, this protocol is a useful tool for analysis of the bacteria responsible for energy production in MFCs. PMID:23408415

Canto-Canché, B; Tzec-Simá, M; Vázquez-Loría, J I; Espadas-Álvarez, H; Chí-Manzanero, B H; Rojas-Herrera, R; Valdez-Ojeda, R; Alzate-Gaviria, L

2013-02-04

260

Leadless chip carrier compatible printed wiring boards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages gained by reduced space and diminished weight through the use of leadless chip carriers (LCCs) have been negated by the low reliability of the LCC/printed wiring board (PWB) interconnections. This paper addresses the cause of the solder joint failure and work being done to reduce it. Both material studies and test methods are discussed. Future trends and expected results indicate that reliable electronic systems with leadless chip carriers 1-1/2 to 2 inches square can be produced.

Lamoureux, R. T.

261

Mechanics of formation of sawtooth chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of sawtooth chips was studied while machining case carburized 8620 steel (of varying degrees of hardness--upto Rc62), Titanium and Brass. Cutting forces were measured and an attempt was made to measure temperature during machining of case carburized 8620 steel. Conventional tool-chip thermocouple technique was modified to accommodate the effects due to design of Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) cutting inserts.

Amitabh Vyas

1997-01-01

262

Regeneration of commercial Biacore chips to analyze biomolecular interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface plasmon resonance is particularly important due to the ability of biomolecules of interest to interact with a specific binding partner, and may therefore be more informative than generic measurement techniques. A growing number of robust and reproducible immobilized surfaces chips are available from Biacore, allowing us to analyze various biomolecular interactions. Here we describe a protocol by which the Biacore chips may be reused multiple times to analyze biomolecular interactions without interfering analysis from previously used surfaces or analytes. This procedure will not only help to extend the lifetime of these chips but at the same time render them to be more commercially affordable, especially in a resource-poor setting. The time range for the entire protocol is ~1 day, including stripping off previously immobilized materials and re-functionalization of gold surface.

Yuan, Yong J.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Kumar, Penmetcha K. R.

2011-03-01

263

Brief intervention to reduce risky drinking in pregnancy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Risky drinking in pregnancy by UK women is likely to result in many alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Studies from the USA suggest that brief intervention has promise for alcohol risk reduction in antenatal care. However, further research is needed to establish whether this evidence from the USA is applicable to the UK.?This pilot study aims to investigate whether pregnant women can be recruited and retained in a randomized controlled trial of brief intervention aimed at reducing risky drinking in women receiving antenatal care. Methods The trial will rehearse the parallel-group, non-blinded design and procedures of a subsequent definitive trial. Over 8 months, women aged 18 years and over (target number 2,742) attending their booking appointment with a community midwife (n?=?31) in north-east England will be screened for alcohol consumption using the consumption questions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Those screening positive, without a history of substance use or alcohol dependence, with no pregnancy complication, and able to give informed consent, will be invited to participate in the trial (target number 120). Midwives will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to deliver either treatment as usual (control) or structured brief advice and referral for a 20-minute motivational interviewing session with an alcohol health worker (intervention). As well as demographic and health information, baseline measures will include two 7-day time line follow-back questionnaires and the EuroQoL EQ-5D-3 L questionnaire. Measures will be repeated in telephone follow-ups in the third trimester and at 6 months post-partum, when a questionnaire on use of National Health Service and social care resources will also be completed. Information on pregnancy outcomes and stillbirths will be accessed from central health service records before the follow-ups. Primary outcomes will be rates of eligibility, recruitment, intervention delivery, and retention in the study population, to inform power calculations for a definitive trial. The health-economics component will establish how cost-effectiveness will be assessed, and examine which data on health service resource use should be collected in a main trial. Participants’ views on instruments and procedures will be sought to confirm their acceptability. Discussion The study will produce a full trial protocol with robust sample-size calculations to extend evidence on effectiveness of screening and brief intervention. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43218782

2012-01-01

264

Executive functioning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: protocol for a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Early brain injury, as found in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP), may cause deficits in higher-order cognitive tasks known as executive functions (EF). EF has been conceptualised as comprised of four distinct yet inter-related components: (1) attentional control, (2) cognitive flexibility, (3) goal setting and (4) information processing. The aim of this study was to examine EF in children with unilateral CP and compare their performance with a typically developing reference group (TDC). The potential laterality effects of unilateral CP on EF will be explored, as will the relationship between the cognitive measures of EF, behavioural manifestations of EF, psychological functioning and clinical features of unilateral CP. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional study aims to recruit a total of 42 children with unilateral CP (21 right unilateral CP and 21 left unilateral CP) and 21 TDC aged between 8 and 16?years. Clinical severity will be described for gross motor function and manual ability. Outcomes for cognitive EF measureswill include subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Rey Complex Figure Test and the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. Behavioural manifestations of EF will be assessed using the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Parent and Teacher versions. Psychological functioning will be examined using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Between-groups differences will be examined in a series of one-way analyses of covariance and followed up using linear comparisons. An overall composite of cognitive EF measures will be created. Bivariate correlations between the EF composite and psychological measures will be calculated. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that, to our knowledge, is the first to examine multiple components of EF using a cohort of children with unilateral CP. Exploration of potential laterality effects of EF among children with a congenital, unilateral brain injury is also novel. Possible relationships between EF and psychological functioning will also be investigated. Ethics have been obtained through the University of Queensland School of Psychology Ethics Committee and the Queensland Children's Health Services Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be disseminated in peer reviewed publications and presentations at national and international conferences. This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000263998).

Bodimeade, Harriet L; Whittingham, Koa; Lloyd, Owen; Boyd, Roslyn N

2013-01-01

265

The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH) is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11-17. 55% were male and 45% female. Discussion SEARCH is built on strong community partnerships, under Aboriginal leadership, and addresses community priorities relating to a number of under-researched areas. SEARCH will provide a unique long-term resource to investigate the causes and trajectories of health and illness in urban Aboriginal children and to identify potential targets for interventions to improve health.

2010-01-01

266

Assessing function in patients undergoing joint replacement: a study protocol for a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Joint replacement is an effective intervention for people with advanced arthritis, although there is an important minority of patients who do not improve post-operatively. There is a need for robust evidence on outcomes after surgery, but there are a number of measures that assess function after joint replacement, many of which lack any clear theoretical basis. The World Health Organisation has introduced the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which divides function into three separate domains: Impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The aim of this study is to compare the properties and responsiveness of a selection of commonly used outcome tools that assess function, examine how well they relate to the ICF concepts, and to explore the changes in the measures over time. Methods/design Two hundred and sixty three patients listed for lower limb joint replacement at an elective orthopaedic centre have been recruited into this study. Participants attend the hospital for a research appointment prior to surgery and then at 3-months and 1-year after surgery. At each assessment time, function is assessed using a range of measures. Self-report function is assessed using the WOMAC, Aberdeen Impairment, Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction Measure, SF-12 and Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile 2. Clinician-administered measures of function include the American Knee Society Score for knee patients and the Harris Hip Score for hip patients. Performance tests include the timed 20-metre walk, timed get up and go, sit-to-stand-to-sit, step tests and single stance balance test. During the performance tests, participants wear an inertial sensor and data from motion analysis are collected. Statistical analysis will include exploring the relationship between measures describing the same ICF concepts, assessing responsiveness, and studying changes in measures over time. Discussion There are a range of tools that can be used to assess function before and after joint replacement, with little information about how these various measures compare in their properties and responsiveness. This study aims to provide this data on a selection of commonly used assessments of function, and explore how they relate to the ICF domains.

2012-01-01

267

Function, Adjustment, Quality of Life and Symptoms (FAQS) in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) Survivors: A Study Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The population of survivors following allogeneic HSCT continues to increase, and yet their experiences of recovery and long-term\\u000a survivorship have not been fully characterized. This paper presents a study protocol examining over time the functional status,\\u000a psychosocial adjustment, health-related quality of life, and symptom experience of survivors who have undergone allogeneic\\u000a transplantation. The aims of the study are to: 1)

Margaret F Bevans; Sandra A Mitchell; A John Barrett; Michael Bishop; Richard Childs; Daniel Fowler; Michael Krumlauf; Patricia Prince; Nonniekaye Shelburne; Leslie Wehrlen

2011-01-01

268

Optimizing sequential dual tracer P.E.T. studies using a combined 2D\\/3D imaging protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated a combined 2D\\/3D protocol for minimizing contamination in dual tracer P.E.T. studies in which the tracers are administered on a timescale that is short compared to the half-lives. We have performed a series of phantom studies on an Advance and a Discovery ST (GE Healthcare Technologies), using a torso phantom with cardiac insert (Data Spectrum Corporation) to

John W. Wilson; Timothy G. Turkington; James G. Colsher; Salvador Borges-Neto; Robert E. Reiman; R. E. Coleman

2004-01-01

269

Study Protocol: The Behaviour and Pain in Dementia Study (BePAID)  

PubMed Central

Background People with dementia admitted to the acute hospital often receive poor quality care particularly with regards to management of behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and of pain. There have been no UK studies on the prevalence and type of pain or BPSD in people with dementia in this setting, or on how these may impact on patients, carers, staff and costs of care. Methods/Design We shall recruit older people with dementia who have unplanned acute medical admissions and measure the prevalence of BPSD using the Behave-AD (Behaviour in Alzheimer's Disease) and the CMAI (Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory). Pain prevalence and severity will be assessed by the PAINAD (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia) and the FACES pain scale. We will then analyse how these impact on a variety of outcomes and test the hypothesis that poor management of pain is associated with worsening of BPSD. Discussion By demonstrating the costs of BPSD to individuals with dementia and the health service this study will provide important evidence to drive improvements in care. We can then develop effective training for acute hospital staff and alternative treatment strategies for BPSD in this setting.

2011-01-01

270

Charting the progression of disability in parkinson disease: study protocol for a prospective longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background People with Parkinson disease (PD), even in the presence of symptomatic relief from medical, surgical, and rehabilitative interventions, face a persistent worsening of disability. This disability is characterized by diminished quality of life, reduced functional mobility, declining performance in activities of daily living and worsening neurological impairments. While evidence has emerged supporting the clinically meaningful benefits of short-term exercise programs on these underlying factors, assertions regarding the effects of sustained programs of exercise and physical activity on the trajectory of disablement in PD are made in the absence of direct evidence. Indeed, the natural decline in quality of life and functional mobility in people diagnosed with PD is poorly understood. Moreover, outcome measures commonly used in clinical exercise trials typically do not capture the full spectrum of disability as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods/Design The objective of this multicenter prospective study will be to examine the 2-year trajectory of disablement in a cohort of persons with PD. Two hundred sixty participants will be recruited to produce an expected final sample size of 150 individuals. Participants will be included if they are greater than 40 years of age, have a neurologist confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic PD, and are at Hoehn and Yahr stages 1 through 4. Data will be collected every 6 months during the study period. Primary outcome measures reflecting a broad spectrum of disablement will include, but will not be limited to, MDS-UPDRS, Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Test, Nine Hole Peg Test, PDQ-39, and directly monitored ambulatory activity. Self-reported exercise and physical activity data also will be recorded. Statistical analyses will be used to characterize the trajectory of disablement and examine the influence of its underlying contributing factors. Discussion Tertiary prevention is an important component of contemporary healthcare for individuals living with degenerative disease. For individuals with PD, there is growing recognition that exercise and/or physical activity efforts to slow the rate of functional mobility decline, in particular, may be critical for optimizing quality of life. By describing the natural trajectory of disablement, exercise habits, and physical activity in a cohort of persons with PD, this investigation will establish an important foundation for future intervention research. Specifically, through the evaluation of the influence of sustained exercise and physical activity on disablement, the study will serve as a preliminary step toward developing a randomized controlled trial of long-term exercise in persons with PD.

2010-01-01

271

Campath, calcineurin inhibitor reduction and chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) study: background, rationale, and study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for patients with end-stage renal failure, but uncertainty remains about the best immunosuppression strategy. Long-term graft survival has not improved substantially, and one possible explanation is calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity. CNI exposure could be minimized by using more potent induction therapy or alternative maintenance therapy to remove CNIs completely. However, the safety and efficacy of such strategies are unknown. Methods/Design The Campath, Calcineurin inhibitor reduction and Chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) Study is a multicentre, open-label, randomized controlled trial with 852 participants which is addressing two important questions in kidney transplantation. The first question is whether a Campath (alemtuzumab)-based induction therapy strategy is superior to basiliximab-based therapy, and the second is whether, from 6 months after transplantation, a sirolimus-based maintenance therapy strategy is superior to tacrolimus-based therapy. Recruitment is complete, and follow-up will continue for around 5 years post-transplant. The primary endpoint for the induction therapy comparison is biopsy-proven acute rejection by 6 months, and the primary endpoint for the maintenance therapy comparison is change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 2 years after transplantation. The study is sponsored by the University of Oxford and endorsed by the British Transplantation Society, and 18 centers for adult kidney transplant are participating. Discussion Late graft failure is a major issue for kidney-transplant recipients. If our hypothesis that minimizing CNI exposure with Campath-based induction therapy and/or an elective conversion to sirolimus-based maintenance therapy can improve long-term graft function and survival is correct, then patients should experience better graft function for longer. A positive outcome could change clinical practice in kidney transplantation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01120028 and ISRCTN88894088

2013-01-01

272

Neck Injury Assessment Protocol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a protocol of suggested autopsy procedures based upon an autopsy examination and study of twenty-two motor vehicular deaths, studied at the Department of Chief Medical Examiner-Coroner, County of Los Angeles, California.

G. Hieshima H. H. Itabashi I. Rehman T. T. Noguchi V. S. Grinnell

1978-01-01

273

IC chip stress during plastic package molding  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 95% of the world`s integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metalization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study the authors developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over the surface of an integrated circuit during the molding process. A CMOS test chip with 25 diffused resistor stress sensors was applied to a commercial lead frame. Both compression and shear stresses were measured at all 25 locations on the surface of the chip every 50 milliseconds during molding. These measurements have a fine time and stress resolution which should allow comparison with computer simulation of the molding process, thus allowing optimization of both the manufacturing process and mold geometry.

Palmer, D.W.; Benson, D.A.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.

1998-02-01

274

Prednisolone and acupuncture in Bell's palsy: study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There are a variety of treatment options for Bell's palsy. Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates corticosteroids can be used as a proven therapy for Bell's palsy. Acupuncture is one of the most commonly used methods to treat Bell's palsy in China. Recent studies suggest that staging treatment is more suitable for Bell's palsy, according to different path-stages of this disease. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of prednisolone and staging acupuncture in the recovery of the affected facial nerve, and to verify whether prednisolone in combination with staging acupuncture is more effective than prednisolone alone for Bell's palsy in a large number of patients. Methods/Design In this article, we report the design and protocol of a large sample multi-center randomized controlled trial to treat Bell's palsy with prednisolone and/or acupuncture. In total, 1200 patients aged 18 to 75 years within 72 h of onset of acute, unilateral, peripheral facial palsy will be assessed. There are six treatment groups, with four treated according to different path-stages and two not. These patients are randomly assigned to be in one of the following six treatment groups, i.e. 1) placebo prednisolone group, 2) prednisolone group, 3) placebo prednisolone plus acute stage acupuncture group, 4) prednisolone plus acute stage acupuncture group, 5) placebo prednisolone plus resting stage acupuncture group, 6) prednisolone plus resting stage acupuncture group. The primary outcome is the time to complete recovery of facial function, assessed by Sunnybrook system and House-Brackmann scale. The secondary outcomes include the incidence of ipsilateral pain in the early stage of palsy (and the duration of this pain), the proportion of patients with severe pain, the occurrence of synkinesis, facial spasm or contracture, and the severity of residual facial symptoms during the study period. Discussion The result of this trial will assess the efficacy of using prednisolone and staging acupuncture to treat Bell's palsy, and to determine a best combination therapy with prednisolone and acupuncture for treating Bell's palsy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01201642

2011-01-01

275

The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevalence has more than doubled over two decades. In Australia, diabetes is the second highest contributor to the burden of disease. Lifestyle modification programs comprising diet changes, weight loss and moderate physical activity, have been proven to reduce the incidence of T2DM in high risk individuals. As part of the Council of Australia Governments, the State of Victoria committed to develop and support the diabetes prevention program ‘Life! Taking action on diabetes’ (Life!) which has direct lineage from effective clinical and implementation trials from Finland and Australia. The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS) has been set up to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specific version of the Life! program. Methods/design We intend to recruit 796 participants for this open randomized clinical trial; 398 will be allocated to the intervention arm and 398 to the usual care arm. Several methods of recruitment will be used in order to maximize the number of participants. Individuals aged 50 to 75 years will be screened with a risk tool (AUSDRISK) to detect those at high risk of developing T2DM. Those with existing diabetes will be excluded. Intervention participants will undergo anthropometric and laboratory tests, and comprehensive surveys at baseline, following the fourth group session (approximately three months after the commencement of the intervention) and 12 months after commencement of the intervention, while control participants will undergo testing at baseline and 12 months only. The intervention consists of an initial individual session followed by a series of five structured-group sessions. The first four group sessions will be carried out at two week intervals and the fifth session will occur eight months after the first group session. The intervention is based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model and sessions will empower and enable the participants to follow the five goals of the Life! program. Discussion This study will determine whether the effect of this intervention is larger than the effect of usual care in reducing central obesity and cardiovascular risk factors and thus the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Also it will evaluate how these two options compare economically. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000507280

2013-01-01

276

Amoeba Protocol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Amoeba distributed operating system, which supports the transaction as its communication primitive, is addressed. The protocol that the Amoeba system uses to carry out sequences of transactions reliably and efficiently is analyzed in terms of process ...

J. C. Mulder

1988-01-01

277

Packaging a free-space intra-chip optical interconnect module: Monte Carlo tolerance study and assembly results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we give an overview of the fabrication and assembly induced performance degradation of an intra-multi-chip-module free-space optical interconnect, integrating micro-lenses and a deflection prism above a dense opto-electronic chip. The proposed component is used to demonstrate the capabilities of an accurate micro-optical rapid prototype technique, namely the Deep Proton Writing (DPW). To evaluate the accuracy of DPW and to assess whether our assembly scheme will provide us with a reasonable process yield, we have built a simulation framework combining mechanical Monte Carlo analysis with optical simulations. Both the technological requirements to ensure a high process yield, and the specifications of our in-house DPW technology are discussed. Therefore, we first conduct a sensitivity analysis and we subsequently simulate the effect of combined errors using a Monte Carlo simulation. We are able to investigate the effect of a technology accuracy enhancement on the fabrication and assembly yield by scaling the standard deviation of the errors proportionally to each sensitivity interval. We estimate that 40% of the systems fabricated with DPW will show an optical transmission efficiency above -4.32 dB, which is -3 dB below the theoretical obtainable value. We also discuss our efforts to implement an opto-mechanical Monte Carlo simulator. It enables us to address specific issues not directly related with the micro-optical or DPW components, such as the influence of glueing layers and structures that allow for self-alignment, by combining mechanical tolerancing algorithms with optical simulation software. More in particular we determined that DPW provides ample accuracy to meet the requirements to obtain a high manufacturing yield. Finally, we shortly highlight the basic layout of a completed demonstrator. The adhesive bonding of opto-electronic devices in their package is subject to further improvement to enhance the tilt accuracy of the devices with respect to the optical interconnect modules.

Vervaeke, Michael; Lahti, Markku; Karpinnen, Mikko; Debaes, Christof; Volckaerts, Bart; Karioja, Pentti; Thienpont, Hugo

2006-04-01

278

Design and study protocol of the maternal smoking cessation during pregnancy study, (M-SCOPE)  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal smoking is the most significant cause of preventable complications during pregnancy, with smoking cessation during pregnancy shown to increase birth weight and reduce preterm birth among pregnant women who quit smoking. Taking into account the fact that the number of women who smoke in Greece has increased steadily throughout the previous decade and that the prevalence of smoking among Greek females is one of the highest in the world, smoking cessation should be a top priority among Greek health care professionals. Methods/Design The Maternal Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy Study (M-SCOPE), is a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) that aims to test whether offering Greek pregnant smokers a high intensity intervention increases smoking cessation during the third trimester of pregnancy, when compared to a low intensity intervention. Prospective participants will be pregnant smokers of more than 5 cigarettes per week, recruited up to the second trimester of pregnancy. Urine samples for biomarker analysis of cotinine will be collected at three time points: at baseline, at around the 32nd week of gestation and at six months post partum. The control group/low intensity intervention will include: brief advice for 5 minutes and a short leaflet, while the experimental group/intensive intervention will include: 30 minutes of individualized cognitive-behavioural intervention provided by a trained health professional and a self-help manual especially tailored for smoking cessation during pregnancy, while counselling will be based on the ''5 As.'' After childbirth, the infants' birth weight, gestational age and any other health related complications during pregnancy will be recorded. A six months post-partum a follow up will be performed in order to re-assess the quitters smoking status. Discussion If offering pregnant smokers a high intensity intervention for smoking cessation increases the rate of smoking cessation in comparison to a usual care low intensity intervention in Greek pregnant smokers, such a scheme if beneficial could be implemented successfully within clinical practice in Greece. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01210118

2011-01-01

279

Fundamental Study of the Intermixing of 95Pb-5Sn High-Lead Solder Bumps and 37Pb-63Sn Pre-Solder on Chip-Carrier Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the intermixing of 95Pb-5Sn solder bumps and 37Pb-63Sn pre-solder in flip-chip solder joints. The reaction conditions included multiple reflows (up to ten) at 240°C, whereby previously solder-coated parts are joined by heating without using additional solder. We found that the molten pre-solder had an irregular shape similar to a calyx (i.e., a cup-like structure) wrapped around a high-lead solder bump. The height to which the molten pre-solder ascended along the solid high-lead solder bump increased with the number of reflows. The molten pre-solder was able to reach the under bump metallurgy (UBM)/95Pb-5Sn interface after three to five reflows. The molten pre-solder at the UBM/95Pb-5Sn interface generated two important phenomena: (1) the molten solder dewetted (i.e., flowed away from the soldered surface) along the UBM/95Pb-5Sn interface, particularly when the number of reflows was high, and (2) the molten pre-solder transported Cu?atoms to the UBM/95Pb-5Sn interface, which in turn caused the Ni-Sn compounds at the chip-side interface to change into (Cu0.6Ni0.4)6Sn5.

Chang, C. C.; Lin, Y. W.; Lai, Y. S.; Kao, C. R.

2009-11-01

280

Assessing the efficacy of the electronic patient record system EDeR: implementation study--study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite many innovations in information technology, many clinics still rely on paper-based medical records. Critics, however, claim that they are hard to read, because of illegible handwriting, and uncomfortable to use. Moreover, a chronological overview is not always easily possible, content can be destroyed or get lost. There is an overall opinion that electronic medical records (EMRs) should solve these problems and improve physicians’ efficiency, patients’ safety and reduce the overall costs in practice. However, to date, the evidence supporting this view is sparse. Methods and analysis In this protocol, we describe a study exploring differences in speed and accuracy when searching clinical information using the paper-based patient record or the Elektronische DateneRfassung (EDeR). Designed as a randomised vignette study, we hypothesise that the EDeR increases efficiency, that is, reduces time on reading the patient history and looking for relevant examination results, helps finding mistakes and missing information quicker and more reliably. In exploratory analyses, we aim at exploring factors associated with a higher performance. Ethics and dissemination The ethics committee of the Canton Lucerne, Switzerland, approved this study. We presume that the implementation of the EMR software EDeR will have a positive impact on the efficiency of the doctors, which will result in an increase of consultations per day. We believe that the results of our study will provide a valid basis to quantify the added value of an EMR system in an ophthalmological environment.

Job, Oliver; Bachmann, Lucas M; Schmid, Martin K; Thiel, Michael A; Ivic, Sandra

2013-01-01

281

The effects of a mobile stress management protocol on nurses working with cancer patients: a preliminary controlled study.  

PubMed

Oncology nurses face extraordinary stresses that may lead to emotional exhaustion, a feeling of emotional distance from patients and burnout. The presentation describes the preliminary results of a study to test the effects of an innovative 4-week 8-session self-help stress management training for oncology nurses supported by mobile tools (Nokia N70 smarthphone). The sample included 16 female oncology nurses with permanent status employed in different oncology hospitals in Milan, Italy. The study used a between-subjects design, comparing the experimental condition (mobile phone stress management protocol) with a control group (neutral videos through mobile phones). In addition to a significant reduction in anxiety state at the end of each session, the experimental group demonstrated a significant improvement in affective change in terms of anxiety trait reduction and coping skills acquisition at the end of the protocol. PMID:22357050

Villani, Daniela; Grassi, Alessandra; Cognetta, Chiara; Cipresso, Pietro; Toniolo, Davide; Riva, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

282

Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols  

SciTech Connect

This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

2002-05-07

283

Implementing the information prescription protocol in a family medicine practice: a case study*†‡  

PubMed Central

Question: Can an information prescription protocol be successfully integrated into a family medicine practice seeking to enhance patient education and self-management? Setting: Milton Family Practice, an outpatient clinic and resident teaching site of the University of Vermont and Fletcher Allen Health Care, is located in a semirural area fifteen miles from main campus. Objectives: The objectives were to increase physicians' knowledge and use of information prescriptions, sustain integration of information prescription use, and increase physicians' ability to provide patient education information. Methods: Methods used were promotion of the National Library of Medicine's Information Rx, physician instruction, installation of patient and provider workstations, and a collaborative approach to practice integration. Main Results: A post-intervention survey showed increased physician knowledge and use of the Information Rx protocol. Support procedures were integrated at the practice. Conclusions: Sustainable integration of Information Rx in a primary care clinic requires not only promotion and education, but also attention to clinic organization and procedures.

Carey, Peggy; Haines, Laura; Lampson, Alan P; Pond, Fred

2010-01-01

284

Study and Analysis of the Internet Protocol Security and Its Impact on Interactive Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is the defacto standard, which offers secured Internet communications, providing traffic\\u000a integrity, confidentiality and authentication. Besides this, it is assumed that IPSec is not suitable for the protection of\\u000a realtime audio transmissions as the IPSec related enlargement of packets and the usage of the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)\\u000a mode contradict stringent requirements. IPSec overhead of at

Arshi Khan; Seema Ansari

2008-01-01

285

A randomised controlled trial linking mental health inpatients to community smoking cessation supports: A study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Mental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than the general population and are disproportionately affected by tobacco\\u000a dependence. Despite the advent of smoke free policies within mental health hospitals, limited systems are in place to support\\u000a a cessation attempt post hospitalisation, and international evidence suggests that most smokers return to pre-admission smoking\\u000a levels following discharge. This protocol describes a randomised

Emily AL Stockings; Jennifer A Bowman; John Wiggers; Amanda L Baker; Margarett Terry; Richard Clancy; Paula M Wye; Jenny Knight; Lyndell H Moore

2011-01-01

286

STUDY IMPACT OF A DESIGNED NURSING INTERVENTION PROTOCOL ON PERFORMING SELF-CARE ACTIVITIES AMONG RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIC WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the impact of a designed nursing intervention protocol on performing self-care activities among arthritic women. Four research hypothesis were formulated:1-the mean knowledge scores of patients who will receive instruction about self-care activities will be higher than that of a control group.2-the mean practice scores of patients who will apply self-care practices will be higher

Jehan S. Ali; Mimi M. Mekayee; Tayseer M. Khidre; Warda Y. Mohamed

287

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxious children and adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety disorders affect approximately 10% to 20% of young people, can be enduring if left untreated, and have been associated with psychopathology in later life. Despite this, there is a paucity of empirical research to assist clinicians in determining appropriate treatment options. We describe a protocol for a randomized controlled trial in which we will examine the effectiveness of a group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy program for children and adolescents with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder. For the adolescent participants we will also evaluate the elements of the intervention that act as mechanisms for change. Methods/design We will recruit 150 young people (90 children and 60 adolescents) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and their parent or caregiver. After completion of baseline assessment, participants will be randomized to one of three conditions (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy or waitlist control). Those in the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy groups will receive 10 × 1.5 hour weekly group-therapy sessions using a manualized treatment program, in accordance with the relevant therapy, to be delivered by psychologists. Controls will receive the Cognitive Behavior Therapy program after 10 weeks waitlisted. Repeated measures will be taken immediately post-therapy and at three months after therapy cessation. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this study will be the largest trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the treatment of children and young people to date. It will provide comprehensive data on the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxiety disorders and will offer evidence for mechanisms involved in the process of change. Furthermore, additional data will be obtained for the use of Cognitive Behavior Therapy in this population and this research will illustrate the comparative effectiveness of these two interventions, which are currently implemented widely in contemporary clinical practice. Anticipated difficulties for the trial are the recruitment and retention of participants, particularly adolescents. To avert these concerns and maximize recruitment, several strategies will be adopted to optimize referral rates as well as reduce participant drop-outs. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, registration number: ACTRN12611001280998

2013-01-01

288

Integrated Circuit Chip that Supports through Chip Electromagnetic Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One embodiment of the present invention provides an integrated circuit chip, including an active face upon which active circuitry and signal pads reside, and a back face opposite the active face. The integrated circuit chip additionally comprises an elect...

A. R. Zingherann A. V. Krishnamoorthy R. J. Drost

2005-01-01

289

World with Chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although we are well advised to look at the future 1 day at a time, we have seen in the chapters of this book, and they necessarily could cover only a selection on the features and applications of those tiny chips, that their potential continues to grow at the exceptional rates of the past. However, the new commitment has to be towards Sustainable Nanoelectronics, guided by creating sensing, computing, memory, and communication functions, which move just a few electrons per operation, each operation consuming energy less than one or a few femtojoule, less than any of the 1014 synapses in our brains. At these energy levels, chips can serve everywhere, making them ubiquitous, pervasive, certainly wireless, and often energy-autonomous. The expected six Billion users of these chips in 2020, through their mobile, intelligent companions, will benefit from global and largely equal access to information, education, knowledge, skills, and care.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

290

Gladstone, Australia Field Studies: Weathering and Degradation of Hydrocarbons in Oiled Mangrove and Salt Marsh Sediments With and Without the Application of an Experimental Bioremediation Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This field study was a combined chemical and biological investigation of the relative rates of weathering and biodegradation of oil spilled in sediments and testing the influence of a bioremediation protocol. The aim of the chemistry work presented here was to determine whether the bioremediation protocol affected the rate of penetration, dissipation or long-term retention of a medium range crude

K. A. BURNS; S. CODI; N. C. DUKE

2000-01-01

291

Microfluidic Chips for Immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of microfluidic chips for immunoassays has been extensively explored in recent years. The combination of immunoassays and microfluidics affords a promising platform for multiple, sensitive, and automatic point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. In this review, we focus on the description of recent achievements in microfluidic chips for immunoassays categorized by their detection method. Following a brief introduction to the basic principles of each detection method, we examine current microfluidic immunosensor detection systems in detail. We also highlight interesting strategies for sensitive immunosensing configurations, multiplexed analysis, and POC diagnostics in microfluidic immunosensors.

Han, Kwi Nam; Li, Cheng Ai; Seong, Gi Hun

2013-06-01

292

Chocolate Chip Cookie Constellations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chocolate chip cookie recipe includes templates for baking night sky constellations of the season right on top! Two templates are included, one for 9pm mid-April, and one for 10pm mid-July. Learners can help place the chips in order to learn about the relative positions of the constellations. Although no background information is given, there is an opportunity to discuss how the star positions change with seasons. A printed version in Spanish is available, but it's not free online.

Chippindale, Suzanne

2001-01-01

293

Benefit of using muscle relaxants in the routine treatment protocol of oral submucosal fibrosis: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The aim of this present work is to describe the nature and extent of fibrosis within muscle and to correlate this with the mouth opening (MO) in OSE patients and to prove our results in improvement of mouth opening in patients with OSMF with use of "muscle relaxants" along with other modalities of treatment . The study was conducted on 40 patients who visited our outpatient department with grade 3 (<19 mm) mouth opening. 20 of these patients underwent the routine treatment protocol of weekly injection of hyaluronidase with hydrocortisone and antioxidant capsules with added lycopene for 1 month. The remaining test subjects in addition to the routine injections and antioxidants were given skeletal muscle relaxants like thiocolchicoside or chlorzoxazone. The mouth opening (interincisal distance of maxillary and mandibular incisors at maximum possible mouth opening) was measured and graded as follows: grade 1 (>40 mm), grade 2 (20-39 mm) and grade 3 (<19 mm) with the help of vernier callipers after the study period of 1 month. 17 out of the 20 test patients who received muscle relaxants in addition to the routine protocol showed marked improvement with shift from grade 3 (<19 mm) to grade 1 (>40 mm) i.e. a greater than 20 mm improvement in mouth opening. Using muscle relaxants as a adjuvant therapy in the routine protocol of treatment of oral submucosal fibrosis will not only cater and halt the problem of fibrosis but also will take care of the muscle spasm and inflammation which also inadvertently contribute to the restricted mouth opening. We found excellent improvement on adding muscle relaxants to the routine protocol which was not just an objective but also a subjective success. PMID:23024934

Nichlani, Sunil Srichand; Jagade, Mohan V; Ganeshan, Arunprabhu

2011-09-09

294

The COMPlaints After Stroke (COMPAS) study: protocol for a Dutch cohort study on poststroke subjective cognitive complaints  

PubMed Central

Background Although many studies have assessed poststroke objective cognitive impairment, only a few have evaluated patients’ subjective cognitive complaints (SCC). Although these SCC are found to be common in the early and chronic phases after stroke, knowledge about their risk factors, course over time, differences with healthy controls and their diagnostic relevance is limited. The aim of the COMPlaints After Stroke (COMPAS) study is therefore to determine the possible risk factors, prognosis, time course and predictive value of SCC in the first 2?years after stroke. Methods and design A prospective cohort study is conducted in which patients are compared to non-stroke controls at 3, 6, 12 and 24?months after stroke. Approximately 300 patients are recruited from the stroke units of three hospitals in the Netherlands, while 300 controls are sought among the relatives (spouses excluded) and social networks of participants. A wide range of subjective and objective variables is assessed in both groups using interviews, questionnaires and neuropsychological assessment. The primary outcomes include SCC and objective cognitive impairment, whereas secondary outcomes are quality of life, subjective recovery and daily life functioning. Ethics and dissemination The study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act. The protocol has been approved by the medical ethics committees of the participating centres and all participants give written informed consent. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the medical society and general public. Discussion The COMPAS study is the first to systematically evaluate poststroke SCC in a prospective longitudinal design, taking a wide range of subjective and objective variables into account. The results obtained can be used to accurately inform patients and their families, as well as to develop patient-tailored intervention programmes to ultimately improve stroke patient care.

van Rijsbergen, Marielle W A; Mark, Ruth E; de Kort, Paul L M; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

2013-01-01

295

On-chip constructive cell-Network study (I): Contribution of cardiac fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte beating synchronization and community effect  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds To clarify the role of cardiac fibroblasts in beating synchronization, we have made simple lined-up cardiomyocyte-fibroblast network model in an on-chip single-cell-based cultivation system. Results The synchronization phenomenon of two cardiomyocyte networks connected by fibroblasts showed (1) propagation velocity of electrophysiological signals decreased a magnitude depending on the increasing number of fibroblasts, not the lengths of fibroblasts; (2) fluctuation of interbeat intervals of the synchronized two cardiomyocyte network connected by fibroblasts did not always decreased, and was opposite from homogeneous cardiomyocyte networks; and (3) the synchronized cardiomyocytes connected by fibroblasts sometimes loses their synchronized condition and recovered to synchronized condition, in which the length of asynchronized period was shorter less than 30 beats and was independent to their cultivation time, whereas the length of synchronized period increased according to cultivation time. Conclusions The results indicated that fibroblasts can connect cardiomyocytes electrically but do not significantly enhance and contribute to beating interval stability and synchronization. This might also mean that an increase in the number of fibroblasts in heart tissue reduces the cardiomyocyte 'community effect', which enhances synchronization and stability of their beating rhythms.

2011-01-01

296

Cryogenic on-chip multiplexer for the study of quantum transport in 256 split-gate devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multiplexing scheme for the measurement of large numbers of mesoscopic devices in cryogenic systems. The multiplexer is used to contact an array of 256 split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, in which each split gate can be measured individually. The low-temperature conductance of split-gate devices is governed by quantum mechanics, leading to the appearance of conductance plateaux at intervals of 2e2/h. A fabrication-limited yield of 94% is achieved for the array, and a ``quantum yield'' is also defined, to account for disorder affecting the quantum behaviour of the devices. The quantum yield rose from 55% to 86% after illuminating the sample, explained by the corresponding increase in carrier density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. The multiplexer is a scalable architecture, and can be extended to other forms of mesoscopic devices. It overcomes previous limits on the number of devices that can be fabricated on a single chip due to the number of electrical contacts available, without the need to alter existing experimental set ups.

Al-Taie, H.; Smith, L. W.; Xu, B.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

2013-06-01

297

The Development of the Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

A detailed description of treatment utilizing the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment, is presented using a clinical case example treated during the most current phase of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of the UP. The implementation of the UP in its current, modular version is illustrated. A working case conceptualization is presented from the perspective of the UP drawing from theory and research that underlies current transdiagnostic approaches to treatment and consistent with recent dimensional classification proposals (Brown & Barlow, in press). Treatment is illustrated module-by-module describing how the principles of the UP were applied in the presented case.

Boisseau, Christina L.; Farchione, Todd J.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Ellard, Kristen K.; Barlow, David H.

2013-01-01

298

The Combating Obesity in M?ori and Pasifika Adolescent School-Children Study: COMPASS Methodology and Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: Lifestyle modifications including, physical activity can reduce obesity-related morbidity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in youth. This study will investigate the efficacy of a culturally-sensitive, non-contact, boxing-orientated training program on obesity and related cardio-metabolic conditions in M?ori and Pasifika adolescents. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, cultural sensitivity, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation, and statistical analyses are described. Methods: This study will be a community based, New Zealand, randomized control trial (RCT). Male and female obese (body mass index >95th percentile) M?ori and Pasifika adolescents aged 14-16 years will be recruited and the sample size will be confirmed through a feasibility study. Combating Obesity in M?ori and Pasifika Adolescent School-children Study (COMPASS) is a 6-month, theory-based program, conducted 3-times/week in a culturally appropriate setting. Each session includes 40 min boxing-orientated training and 30 min resistance training. Assessments will be made at baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and 24-months. Main outcomes include abdominal obesity, endothelial function, and insulin resistance. Other outcomes include arterial stiffness, lipid profile, inflammatory biomarkers, well-being, and aerobic fitness. Control measures include physical activity, sleep behavior, and dietary intake. Results: As a protocol paper there are no specific results to present, our purpose is to share our RCT design with the scientific community. Conclusions: COMPASS will be used to provide direction for exercise prescription policy in at-risk M?ori and Pasifika adolescents.

Stoner, Lee; Shultz, Sarah P.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Krebs, Jeremy; Weatherall, Mark; Palmer, Barry R.; Lane, Andrew M.; Kira, Geoff; Witter, Trevor; Williams, Michelle A.

2013-01-01

299

Combined chips for atom optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates on a combined atom chip. The combined structure consists of a large-scale ``carrier chip'' and smaller ``atom-optics chips,'' containing micron-sized elements. This allows us to work with condensates very close to chip surfaces without suffering from fragmentation or losses due to thermally driven spin flips. Precise three-dimensional positioning and transport with constant trap frequencies

A. Guenther; M. Kemmler; S. Kraft; C. J. Vale; C. Zimmermann; J. Fortágh

2005-01-01

300

Chipping Resistance of Graded Zirconia Ceramics for Dental Crowns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serious drawback of veneering porcelains is a pronounced susceptibility to chipping. Glass-infiltrated dense zirconia structures can now be produced with esthetic quality, making them an attractive alternative. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that such infiltrated structures are much more chip-resistant than conventional porcelains, and at least as chip-resistant as non-infiltrated zirconia. A sharp indenter was used to

Y. Zhang; H. Chai; J. J.-W. Lee; B. R. Lawn

2012-01-01

301

Interaction between reinforcing geosynthetics and soil-tire chip mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of tire chips and soil-tire chip mixtures relevant to geosynthetic-reinforced earthworks. Tests were conducted to evaluate shear strength and pull-out capacity with a woven geotextile and two geogrids. Soil-tire chip mixtures made with clean sand and sandy silt were tested. These properties were then used to assess the

Nilay Tatlisoz; Tuncer B. Edil; Craig H. Benson

1998-01-01

302

Ship the Chip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore engineering package designs that meet the needs of safely shipping a product. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design a package using standard materials that will safely ship a single chip through the mail to their address.

Ieee

2013-07-08

303

Benefits of Chipping Almond Brush  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wood chipping of almond (Prunus dulcis) prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and would add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips interfere with harvest or deplete the soil of critica...

304

Chipping citrus wood for gasification  

SciTech Connect

Non-productive citrus trees were chipped with a portable fly-wheel-type chipper powered by a 45 kW engine. Chips were air dried under an open shed to 14% (w.b.) moisture content. By weight, approximately 50% of the total tree could be made into usable chips. The root system averaged 36% of the total tree weight.

Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

1985-01-01

305

The Use of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to Study the Binding of Viral Proteins to the Adenovirus Genome In Vivo.  

PubMed

The encapsidation of adenovirus (Ad) DNA into virus particles depends on cis-acting sequences located at the left end of the viral genome. Repeated DNA sequences in the packaging domain contribute to viral DNA encapsidation and several viral proteins bind to these repeats when analyzed using in vitro DNA-protein binding assays. In this chapter, we describe a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) approach to study the binding of viral proteins to packaging sequences in vivo. This assay permits accurate quantification over a wide range of DNA concentrations. The use of formaldehyde cross-linking to stabilize DNA-protein and protein-protein complexes formed in vivo allows the identification of macromolecular complexes found in living cells. PMID:24132479

Zheng, Yueting; Hearing, Patrick

2014-01-01

306

A field-based cleaning protocol for sampling devices used in life-detection studies.  

PubMed

Analytical approaches to extant and extinct life detection involve molecular detection often at trace levels. Thus, removal of biological materials and other organic molecules from the surfaces of devices used for sampling is essential for ascertaining meaningful results. Organic decontamination to levels consistent with null values on life-detection instruments is particularly challenging at remote field locations where Mars analog field investigations are carried out. Here, we present a seven-step, multi-reagent decontamination method that can be applied to sampling devices while in the field. In situ lipopolysaccharide detection via low-level endotoxin assays and molecular detection via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to test the effectiveness of the decontamination protocol for sampling of glacial ice with a coring device and for sampling of sediments with a rover scoop during deployment at Arctic Mars-analog sites in Svalbard, Norway. Our results indicate that the protocols and detection technique sufficiently remove and detect low levels of molecular constituents necessary for life-detection tests. PMID:19496672

Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Benning, Liane G; Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Amundsen, Hans E F

2009-06-01

307

[Wood chip alveolitis].  

PubMed

A 52 year old farmer was referred to us for investigation of suspected farmer's lung. For many years the farmer had been exposed to hay, straw, pigeons, and fuel chip dust. Under exertion he suffered from shortness of breath. In the farmer's own fuel chips we could identify Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Mucor species. In the farmer's blood we found IgG-antibodies against his own fuel chips, thermophilic actinomycetes, Penicillium species, Mucor species and Aspergillus fumigatus. We did not detect any IgG-antibodies against pigeon serum or pigeon faeces. In order to determine the responsible allergen we performed two challenge tests. In the first test the farmer had to inhale his own hay and straw dust for one hour. This provocation was negative. A second one-hour inhalative challenge was carried out 16 days later using his own fuel chips. This time he experienced significant pulmonary and systemic reactions: body temperature rose by 3.3 degrees C, leucocytes by 12,200/mm3; PO2 fell by 39.4 mmHg, vital capacity by 52%, DLCO by 36%. After the challenge the farmer complained of coughing and dyspnoea. Rales could be heard on auscultation, and an interstitial infiltrate was seen to develop on chest x-rays. After the challenge the patient had to be treated with oxygen and systemic corticosteroids. We diagnosed a fuel chip-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). Eight days later the parameters were back to normal and the farmer was discharged from our hospital with further corticosteroid medication. This method of inhalative provocation is very important in diagnosing an EAA. Problems arise when the mode and duration of exposure to substances has to be chosen. Because of the risk of severe reactions, inhalative provocations relating to EAAs should only be performed in special centres with an intensive care unit. In this paper we present a diagnosis of fuel chip lung, which is rarely seen in Germany. However, with the rising use of fuel chips as heating material it is necessary to consider this use as a cause of EAA among farmers. PMID:10444953

Müller-Wening, D; Renck, T; Neuhauss, M

1999-07-01

308

Non-planar and flexible chip technology for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

We report a novel non-planar flexible silicon chip technology by means of patterning thin films of high residual stress on top of shaped thin silicon substrate. High residual stresses of thin films make thin chip deform into designed three-dimensional shapes. In this study, a series of patterned stress films and "petal-like" chips were fabricated and analyzed. Large curvatures can also be formed and maintained by the packaging process bonding the chips to constraining elements such as thin-film polymer ring structures. As a demonstration, a CMOS image-sensing retina chip is made into a contact-lens shape conforming to a human eyeball 12.5mm in radius. This non-planar and flexible chip technology provides a desirable device surface interface to soft or non-planar bio surfaces and opens up possibilities for many biomedical applications. PMID:24111312

Liu, Ching-Yu; Lin, Hsiao-Chen; Teng, Chih-Chiao; Fan, Long-Sheng

2013-07-01

309

Energy-aware routing in hybrid optical network-on-chip for future multi-processor system-on-chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of Multi-Processor System-on-Chip (MP-SoC) in recent years, the intra-chip communication is becoming the bottleneck of the whole system. Current electronic network-on-chip (NoC) designs face serious challenges, such as bandwidth, latency and power consumption. Optical interconnection networks are a promising technology to overcome these problems. In this paper, we study the routing problem in optical NoCs with arbitrary

Lin Liu; Yuanyuan Yang

2010-01-01

310

Chip-nanoelectrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry of meningioma gangliosides: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

A strategy combining high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), laser densitometry, and fully automated chip-based nanoelectrospray (nanoESIchip) performed on a NanoMate robot coupled to QTOF-MS was developed, optimized, and for the first time applied for mapping and structural identification of gangliosides (GGs) extracted and purified from a human angioblastic meningioma specimen. While HPTLC pattern indicated only seven fractions migrating as GM3, GM2, GM1, GD3, GD1a (nLD1, LD1), GD1b, GT1b, and possibly GD2, due to the high sensitivity, mass accuracy, and ability to ionize minor species in complex mixtures, nanoESIchip-QTOF MS was able to discover significantly more GG species than ever reported in meningioma. Thirty-four distinct glycosphingolipid components of which five asialo, one GM4, nine GM3, two GM2, two GD3, nine GM1, and six GD1 differing in their ceramide compositions were identified. All structures presented long-chain bases with 18 carbon atoms, while the length of the fatty acid was found to vary from C11 to C25. MS screening results indicated also that the diversity of the expressed GM1 structures is higher than expected in view of the low proportions evidenced by densitometric quantification. Simultaneous fragmentation of meningioma-associated GM1 (d18:1/24:1) and GM1 (d18:1/24:0) by MS/MS using CID confirmed the postulated structures of the ceramide moieties and provided data on the glycan core, which document that for each of the GM1 (d18:1/24:1) and GM1 (d18:1/24:0) forms both GM1a and GM1b isomers are expressed in the investigated meningioma tissue. PMID:22740466

Schiopu, Catalin; Vukeli?, Zeljka; Capitan, Florina; Kalanj-Bognar, Svjetlana; Sisu, Eugen; Zamfir, Alina D

2012-07-01

311

A critical role for CHIP in the aggresome pathway.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that aggresome formation is a physiologic stress response not limited to misfolded proteins. That stress response, termed "physiologic aggresome," is exemplified by aggresome formation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an important host defense protein. CHIP (carboxy terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) is a highly conserved protein that has been shown to mediate substrate ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. In this study, we show that CHIP has a previously unexpected critical role in the aggresome pathway. CHIP interacts with iNOS and promotes its ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome as well as its sequestration to the aggresome. CHIP-mediated iNOS targeting to the proteasome sequentially precedes CHIP-mediated iNOS sequestration to the aggresome. CHIP is required for iNOS preaggresome structures to form a mature aggresome. Furthermore, CHIP is required for targeting the mutant form of cystic fibrosis transconductance regulator (CFTRDeltaF508) to the aggresome. Importantly, the ubiquitin ligase function of CHIP is required in targeting preaggresomal structures to the aggresome by promoting an iNOS interaction with histone deacetylase 6, which serves as an adaptor between ubiquitinated proteins and the dynein motor. This study reveals a critical role for CHIP in the aggresome pathway. PMID:18955503

Sha, Youbao; Pandit, Lavannya; Zeng, Shenyan; Eissa, N Tony

2008-10-27

312

Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing the efficiency of two provider-endorsed manual paediatric fluid resuscitation techniques  

PubMed Central

Introduction Paediatric shock is a life-threatening condition with many possible causes and a global impact. Current resuscitation guidelines require rapid fluid administration as a cornerstone of paediatric shock management. However, little evidence is available to inform clinicians how to most effectively perform rapid fluid administration where this is clinically required, resulting in suboptimal knowledge translation of current resuscitation guidelines into clinical practice. Objectives This study aims to determine which of the two commonly used techniques for paediatric fluid resuscitation (disconnect–reconnect technique and push–pull technique) yields a higher fluid administration rate in a simulated clinical scenario. Secondary objectives include determination of catheter dislodgement rates, subjective and objective measures of provider fatiguability and descriptive information regarding any technical issues encountered with performance of each method under the study. Methods and analysis This study will utilise a randomised crossover trial design. Participants will include consenting healthcare providers from McMaster Children's Hospital. Each participant will administer 900?ml (60?ml/kg) of normal saline to a simulated 15?kg infant as quickly as possible on two separate occasions using the manual fluid administration techniques under the study. The primary outcome, rate of fluid administration, will be evaluated using a paired two-tailed Student t test. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Hamilton Health Sciences Research Ethics Board. Results These will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and presented at one or more scientific conferences. Protocol Registration Protocol Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01774214

Cole, Evan T; Harvey, Greg; Foster, Gary; Thabane, Lehana; Parker, Melissa J

2013-01-01

313

NutriChip: nutrition analysis meets microfluidics.  

PubMed

This focus article introduces the concept of NutriChip, an integrated microfluidic platform for investigating the potential of the immuno-modulatory function of dairy food. The core component of the NutriChip is a miniaturized artificial human gastrointestinal tract (GIT), which consists of a confluent layer of epithelial cells separated from a co-culture of immune cells by a permeable membrane. This setting creates conditions mimicking the human GIT and allows studying processes that characterize the passage of nutrients though the human GIT, including the activation of immune cells in response to the transfer of nutrients across the epithelial layer. The NutriChip project started by developing a biologically active in vitro cellular system in a commercial Transwell co-culture system. This Transwell system serves as a reference for the micro-scale device which is being developed. The microfluidic setup of NutriChip allows monitoring of the response of immune cells to pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as lipid polysaccharide (LPS), and to the application of potentially anti-inflammatory dairy food. This differential response will be quantified by measuring the variation in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), secreted by the immune cells, and this is achieved by using a dedicated optical imager. A series of dairy products will be screened for their anti-inflammatory properties using the NutriChip system and, finally, the outcome of the NutriChip will be validated by a human nutrition trial. Therefore, the NutriChip platform offers a new option to evaluate the influence of food quality on health, by monitoring the expression of relevant immune cell biomarkers. PMID:23184124

Ramadan, Qasem; Jafarpoorchekab, Hamideh; Huang, Chaobo; Silacci, Paolo; Carrara, Sandro; Koklü, Gözen; Ghaye, Julien; Ramsden, Jeremy; Ruffert, Christine; Vergeres, Guy; Gijs, Martin A M

2012-11-27

314

A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system) analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes) and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims). Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that future research, policy and practice need to address the sociology of improvement in equal measure to the science and technique of improvement, or at least expand the discipline of improvement to include these critical organisational and cultural processes. We define the 'organisational and cultural characteristics associated with better quality of care' in a broad sense that encompasses all the features of a hospital that might be hypothesised to impact upon clinical effectiveness, patient safety and/or patient experience.

2011-01-01

315

Failure mechanisms of flip chip DCA assembly using eutectic solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability performance is still the major concern for flip chip interconnection. While solder fatigue is believed to be the contributing factor for packaging failure and is the most widely studied for flip chip soldering, experimental work in this study find out solder fatigue itself is seldom the driving force for early failure. With the introduction of underfill, failures solely due

Qing Tan; Rebecca Cole; Addi Mistry; Craig Beddingfield

2000-01-01

316

Interaction between reinforcing geosynthetics and soil-tire chip mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of tire chips and soil-tire chip mixtures relevant to geosynthetic-reinforced earthworks. Tests were conducted to evaluate shear strength and pull-out capacity with a woven geotextile and two geogrids. Soil-tire chip mixtures made with clean sand and sandy silt were tested. These properties were then used to assess the potential advantages of using soil-tire chip backfills for geosynthetic-reinforced retaining walls and embankments. The test results show that the geosynthetic pull-out force in tire chip and soil-tire chip backfills increases with displacement--i.e., no peak pull-out force is generally obtained, at least for displacements {le}100 mm. Pull-out interaction coefficients for the chip backfills are typically greater than 1, whereas for soil-tire chip backfills are typically greater than 1, whereas for soil-tire chip backfills they typically range between 0.2 and 0.7, even though the pull-out capacity for soil-tire chip backfills is generally similar to or greater than the pull-out capacity in a soil backfill. The higher strength, lower unit weight and good backfill-geosynthetic interaction obtained with soil-tire chip backfills can result in walls requiring less geosynthetic reinforcement than walls backfilled with soil. In addition, embankments can potentially be constructed with steeper slopes and a smaller volume of material when soil-tire chip fill is used, while providing greater resistance against lateral sliding and foundation settlement.

Tatlisoz, N. [International United Consultants, Inc., Istanbul (Turkey); Edil, T.B.; Benson, C.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering

1998-11-01

317

An evaluation of two large scale demand side financing programs for maternal health in India: the MATIND study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background High maternal mortality in India is a serious public health challenge. Demand side financing interventions have emerged as a strategy to promote access to emergency obstetric care. Two such state run programs, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)and Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY), were designed and implemented to reduce financial access barriers that preclude women from obtaining emergency obstetric care. JSY, a conditional cash transfer, awards money directly to a woman who delivers in a public health facility. This will be studied in Madhya Pradesh province. CY, a voucher based program, empanels private obstetricians in Gujarat province, who are reimbursed by the government to perform deliveries of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. The programs have been in operation for the last seven years. Methods/designs The study outlined in this protocol will assess and compare the influence of the two programs on various aspects of maternal health care including trends in program uptake, institutional delivery rates, maternal and neonatal outcomes, quality of care, experiences of service providers and users, and cost effectiveness. The study will collect primary data using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, including facility level questionnaires, observations, a population based survey, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Primary data will be collected in three districts of each province. The research will take place at three levels: the state health departments, obstetric facilities in the districts and among recently delivered mothers in the community. Discussion The protocol is a comprehensive assessment of the performance and impact of the programs and an economic analysis. It will fill existing evidence gaps in the scientific literature including access and quality to services, utilization, coverage and impact. The implementation of the protocol will also generate evidence to facilitate decision making among policy makers and program managers who currently work with or are planning similar programs in different contexts.

2012-01-01

318

Microfluidic chips with reversed-phase monoliths for solid phase extraction and on-chip labeling  

PubMed Central

The integration of sample preparation methods into microfluidic devices provides automation necessary for achieving complete micro total analysis systems. We have developed a technique that combines on-chip sample enrichment with fluorescence labeling and purification. Polymer monoliths made from butyl methacrylate were fabricated in cyclic olefin copolymer microdevices and used for solid phase extraction. We studied the retention of fluorophores, amino acids and proteins on these columns. The retained samples were subsequently labeled with both Alexa Fluor 488 and Chromeo P503, and unreacted dye was rinsed off the column before sample elution. Additional purification was obtained from the differential retention of proteins and fluorescent labels. A linear relation between the eluted peak areas and concentrations of on-chip labeled heat shock protein 90 samples demonstrated the utility of this method for on-chip quantitation. Our fast and simple method of simultaneously concentrating and labeling samples on-chip is compatible with miniaturization and desirable for automated analysis.

Nge, Pamela N.; Pagaduan, Jayson V.; Yu, Ming; Woolley, Adam T.

2012-01-01

319

Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

320

A single chip modem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a VLSI CMOS chip designed to be used as a core processor in a high-speed modem (14400 b\\/s). This VLSI circuit integrated a 16-b fixed-point digital signal processor with its associated data and instruction memories, an analog-digital and digital-analog front-end converter using sigma-delta modulation, and a function called modem adaptor handling the signal-processor clocks and interrupts, the

P. d'Audigier; M. Cukier

1989-01-01

321

Potato Chip Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

1998-01-01

322

DNA Gene Chip Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Melton describes the process used to extract DNA from a cell and to analyze it on a gene chip. This video presentation is also featured on the DVD Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration, available free from HHMI. This video is 57 seconds in length, and available in Quicktime (13 MB) and Windows Media (20 MB) formats. All Stem Cell videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/video.html.

Dr. Melton (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2007-03-31

323

Effects of chipping, grinding, and heat on survival of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in chips.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding, chipping, and heat treatment on survival of A. planipennis prepupae in ash material. Heavily infested ash bolts containing roughly 8,700 prepupae were processed by a horizontal grinder with either a 2.5- or 10-cm screen. There was no evidence of A. planipennis survival in chips processed with the 2.5-cm screen, but eight viable prepupae were recovered from chips processed with the 10-cm screen. We chiseled additional sentinel chips with prepupae from ash logs and buried 45 in each chip pile. In total, six prepupae in sentinel chips survived the winter, but we found no sign of adult A. planipennis emergence from the processed chips. Subsequently, we assessed prepupal survival in chips processed by a chipper or a horizontal grinder fit with 5-, 10-, or 12.7-cm screens. An estimated 1,565 A. planipennis prepupae were processed by each treatment. Chips from the chipper were shorter than chips from the grinder regardless of the screen size used. No live prepupae were found in chips produced by the chipper, but 21 viable prepupae were found in chips from the grinder. Infested wood and bark chips chiseled from logs were held in ovens at 25, 40, or 60 degrees C for 8, 24, or 48 h. Prepupal survival was consistently higher in wood chips than bark chips at 40 degrees C, whereas no prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for eight or more hours. In a second study, prepupae in wood chips were exposed to 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 degrees C for 20 or 120 min. Some prepupae survived 20 min of exposure to all temperatures. No prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for 120 min, but 17% survived exposure to 55 degrees C for 120 min, suggesting that some fraction of the population may survive internationally recognized phytosanitary standards (ISPM-15) for treatment of wood packing material. PMID:17849884

McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Cappaert, David; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor; Smith, Sarah; Pell, Christopher

2007-08-01

324

EVALUATING NURSES' IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INFANT-FEEDING COUNSELING PROTOCOL FOR HIV-INFECTED MOTHERS: THE BAN STUDY IN LILONGWE, MALAWI  

PubMed Central

A process evaluation of nurses’ implementation of an infant-feeding counseling protocol was conducted for the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral and Nutrition (BAN) Study, a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Six trained nurses counseled HIV-infected mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 24 weeks postpartum and to stop breastfeeding within an additional four weeks. Implementation data were collected via direct observations of 123 infant feeding counseling sessions (30 antenatal and 93 postnatal) and interviews with each nurse. Analysis included calculating a percent adherence to checklists and conducting a content analysis for the observation and interview data. Nurses were implementing the protocol at an average adherence level of 90% or above. Although not detailed in the protocol, nurses appropriately counseled mothers on their actual or intended formula milk usage after weaning. Results indicate that nurses implemented the protocol as designed. Results will help to interpret the BAN Study’s outcomes.

Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Eng, Eugenia; Bentley, Margaret; Sandelowski, Margarete; Steckler, Allan; Randall-David, Elizabeth; Piwoz, Ellen G.; Zulu, Cynthia; Chasela, Charles; Soko, Alice; Tembo, Martin; Martinson, Francis; Tohill, Beth Carlton; Ahmed, Yusuf; Kazembe, Peter; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles

2010-01-01

325

Using a standardized Viniyoga protocol for lung cancer survivors: a pilot study examining effects on breathing ease.  

PubMed

Although lung cancer is perceived as a dire diagnosis, increases in the 5-year survival rate of individuals with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been reported. Survivors, however, continue to be excessively burdened with symptoms such as respiratory distress which interfere with functioning and quality of life. While exercise and physical activity are strongly recommended, NSCLC survivors may be reluctant to participate due to actual or anticipated shortness of breath exacerbated with movement.This quasi-experimental, intervention-only pilot study aimed to determine the effects of an 8-week standardized yoga protocol for Stage I-IIIa NSCLC survivors (n=9). The protocol was developed within the Viniyoga (Hatha) tradition with respiratory experts. Breathing ease, dyspnea, oxygen saturation, and respiratory function were explored in relationship to yoga practice (45-minute sessions once per week and home practice) using repeated-measures analysis. Number of participants reporting dyspnea ranged from 25 to 50% prior to practice with no significant increase during sessions, and moderate decreases noted at times. Oxygen saturation remained high and vital signs stable; forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) values increased significantly over the 14-week study period (p<0.0001). Yoga, with an emphasis on postures coordinated with breathing and meditation practices, offers a potentially feasible and beneficial option that requires further study in this population. PMID:23828333

M Fouladbakhsh, Judith; Davis, Jean E; Yarandi, Hossein N

2013-06-26

326

Phish and Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys existing and new security issues affecting the EMV electronic payments protocol. We first introduce a new\\u000a price\\/effort point for the cost of deploying eavesdropping and relay attacks – a microcontroller-based interceptor costing\\u000a less than $100. We look next at EMV protocol failures in the back-end security API, where we describe two new attacks based\\u000a on chosen-plaintext CBC

Ben Adida; Mike Bond; Jolyon Clulow; Amerson Lin; Steven J. Murdoch; Ross J. Anderson; Ronald L. Rivest

2006-01-01

327

Sample processing for DNA chip array-based analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)  

PubMed Central

Background Exploitation of DNA-based analyses of microbial pathogens, and especially simultaneous typing of several virulence-related genes in bacteria is becoming an important objective of public health these days. Results A procedure for sample processing for a confirmative analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) on a single colony with DNA chip array was developed and is reported here. The protocol includes application of fragmented genomic DNA from ultrasonicated colonies. The sample processing comprises first 2.5 min of ultrasonic treatment, DNA extraction (2×), and afterwards additional 5 min ultrasonication. Thus, the total sample preparation time for a confirmative analysis of EHEC is nearly 10 min. Additionally, bioinformatic revisions were performed in order to design PCR primers and array probes specific to most conservative regions of the EHEC-associated genes. Six strains with distinct pathogenic properties were selected for this study. At last, the EHEC chip array for a parallel and simultaneous detection of genes etpC-stx1-stx2-eae was designed and examined. This should permit to sense all currently accessible variants of the selected sequences in EHEC types and subtypes. Conclusion In order to implement the DNA chip array-based analysis for direct EHEC detection the sample processing was established in course of this work. However, this sample preparation mode may also be applied to other types of EHEC DNA-based sensing systems.

Basselet, Pascal; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Enfors, Sven-Olof; Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena

2008-01-01

328

A suction-type microfluidic immunosensing chip for rapid detection of the dengue virus.  

PubMed

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used in medical diagnostics. In order to reduce the diagnosis time and to lower the consumption of sample/reagents in an ELISA assay, a suction-type, automatic, pneumatically-driven microfluidic chip has been designed and fabricated in this study. The microfluidic chip integrates a multi-functional micro-transport/mixing unit, for transporting metering and mixing of samples and reagents in order to automatically perform the entire ELISA protocol. A new surface modification has been adopted which allows for a high processing capacity. The detection sensitivity for the dengue virus is found to be 10(1) PFU/ml, which is much better than a conventional ELISA assay (10(3) PFU/ml). The entire assay time is only 30 min, which is much faster than with 96-well microtiter plates (4 h). The consumed sample and reagent volume is only 12 ?l, which is less than a conventional assay (100 ?l). The development of this microfluidic chip may be promising for other immunosensing applications. PMID:21448655

Weng, Chen-Hsun; Huang, Tze-Bin; Huang, Chih-Chia; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Lei, Huan-Yao; Lee, Gwo-Bin

2011-06-01

329

Prevention of abdominal wound infection (PROUD trial, DRKS00000390): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Wound infection affects a considerable portion of patients after abdominal operations, increasing health care costs and postoperative morbidity and affecting quality of life. Antibacterial coating has been suggested as an effective measure to decrease postoperative wound infections after laparotomies. The INLINE metaanalysis has recently shown the superiority of a slowly absorbable continuous suture for abdominal closure; with PDS plus® such a suture has now been made available with triclosan antibacterial coating. Methods/Design The PROUD trial is designed as a randomised, controlled, observer, surgeon and patient blinded multicenter superiority trial with two parallel groups and a primary endpoint of wound infection during 30 days after surgery. The intervention group will receive triclosan coated polydioxanone sutures, whereas the control group will receive the standard polydioxanone sutures; abdominal closure will otherwise be standardized in both groups. Statistical analysis is based on intention-to-treat population via binary logistic regression analysis, the total sample size of n = 750 is sufficient to ensure alpha = 5% and power = 80%, an interim analysis will be carried out after data of 375 patients are available. Discussion The PROUD trial will yield robust data to determine the effectiveness of antibacterial coating in one of the standard sutures for abdominal closure and potentially lead to amendment of current guidelines. The exploration of clinically objective parameters as well as quality of life holds immediate relevance for clinical management and the pragmatic trial design ensures high external validity. Trial Registration The trial protocol has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000390).

2011-01-01

330

A pilot study of digital camera resolution metrology protocols proposed under ISO 12233, edition 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edition 2 of ISO 12233, Resolution and Spatial Frequency Response (SFR) for Electronic Still Picture Imaging, is likely to offer a choice of techniques for determining spatial resolution for digital cameras different from the initial standard. These choices include 1) the existing slanted-edge gradient SFR protocols but with low contrast features, 2) polar coordinate sine wave SFR technique using a Siemens star element, and 3) visual resolution threshold criteria using a continuous linear spatial frequency bar pattern features. A comparison of these methods will be provided. To establish the level of consistency between the results of these methods, theoretical and laboratory experiments were performed by members of ISO TC42/WG18 committee. Test captures were performed on several consumer and SLR digital cameras using the on-board image processing pipelines. All captures were done in a single session using the same lighting conditions and camera operator. Generally, there was good conformance between methods albeit with some notable differences. Speculation on the reason for these differences and how this can be diagnostic in digital camera evaluation will be offered.

Williams, Don; Wueller, Dietmar; Matherson, Kevin; Yoshida, Hideaka; Hubel, Paul

2008-01-01

331

Integration of Optical Pumped Dye Laser on Organic Microflowcytometry Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration techniques of tunable film dye laser on a plastic optical application chip were studied. The developed film dye lasers were waveguided distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, and they can cover the wavelength from 400 to 1100 nm. We fabricated microflowcytometry chip integrated with DFB film lasers as a first example. Partly film-coating technique and film lithography fabrication with an excimer laser

Yuji Oki; Yukinori Ogawa; Kenichi Yamashita; Masaya Miyazaki; Mitsuo Maeda

2007-01-01

332

Flip chip solder joint fatigue life model investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many solder fatigue models based on strain-range and energy density methods have been developed to predict the fatigue life of solder joints. The application of these fatigue models to flip chip solder joint reliability has been investigated. In this study, the solder joint fatigue life of non-underfill and underfilled flip chip on board (FCOB) assemblies was assessed

Alfred Yeo; Charles Lee; J. H. L. Pang

2002-01-01

333

Compression Debarked Chips from a Whole-Tree Chipper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses case study results of debarking whole-tree aspen and red oak chips produced with a whole-tree chipper. The results indicate promise for successful bark removal after chipping and strengthen the argument for continued research. (Author...

R. A. Arola

1973-01-01

334

Distributed On-Chip Operating System for Network on Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network on Chip (NoC) is proposed as a promising solution for processors with many cores integrated onto a single chip. The main advantages of NoC are favorable scalability and high bandwidth for on-chip cores and communications. However, OS designed for NoC have not been fully researched to date. Because the microkernel operating system is composed of modules, such architecture is

Wei Hu; Jianliang Ma; Binbin Wu; Lihan Ju; Tianzhou Chen

2010-01-01

335

Design of highway embankments using tire chips  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes research undertaken to develop design procedures for using shredded scrap tires as a lightweight fill material in highway construction. The benefits of using scrap tires are particularly enhanced if they can be used to replace virgin construction materials made from nonrenewable resources. This paper addresses the use of tire chips as a highway embankment material. Design parameters for embankments constructed using discarded shredded tires are presented based on laboratory model studies, numerical analyses, and field performance of test fills. The conclusions of this report support the use of tire chips as an environmentally acceptable lightweight fill in highway applications if properly confined. Recommendations for design procedures and construction specifications for the use of tire chips in highway fills are provided.

Bosscher, P.J.; Edil, T.B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Kuraoka, S. [National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Research in Construction

1997-04-01

336

Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral filtering or post-selection. After splitting the twin-photons immediately after they emerge from the chip, we perform a variety of correlation tests on the photon pairs and show non-classical behaviour in their polarization. Combined with the BRW's versatile architecture our results signify the BRW design as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices.

Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng; Abolghasem, Payam; Scarcella, Carmelo; Frera, Adriano Della; Tosi, Alberto; Helt, Lukas G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Sipe, J. E.; Weihs, Gregor; Helmy, Amr S.; Jennewein, Thomas

2013-07-01

337

Washing scaling of GeneChip microarray expression  

PubMed Central

Background Post-hybridization washing is an essential part of microarray experiments. Both the quality of the experimental washing protocol and adequate consideration of washing in intensity calibration ultimately affect the quality of the expression estimates extracted from the microarray intensities. Results We conducted experiments on GeneChip microarrays with altered protocols for washing, scanning and staining to study the probe-level intensity changes as a function of the number of washing cycles. For calibration and analysis of the intensity data we make use of the 'hook' method which allows intensity contributions due to non-specific and specific hybridization of perfect match (PM) and mismatch (MM) probes to be disentangled in a sequence specific manner. On average, washing according to the standard protocol removes about 90% of the non-specific background and about 30-50% and less than 10% of the specific targets from the MM and PM, respectively. Analysis of the washing kinetics shows that the signal-to-noise ratio doubles roughly every ten stringent washing cycles. Washing can be characterized by time-dependent rate constants which reflect the heterogeneous character of target binding to microarray probes. We propose an empirical washing function which estimates the survival of probe bound targets. It depends on the intensity contribution due to specific and non-specific hybridization per probe which can be estimated for each probe using existing methods. The washing function allows probe intensities to be calibrated for the effect of washing. On a relative scale, proper calibration for washing markedly increases expression measures, especially in the limit of small and large values. Conclusions Washing is among the factors which potentially distort expression measures. The proposed first-order correction method allows direct implementation in existing calibration algorithms for microarray data. We provide an experimental 'washing data set' which might be used by the community for developing amendments of the washing correction.

2010-01-01

338

University of Heidelberg: Atom Chip Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Atom Chip Group at the University of Heidelberg details research in "the study of the interaction between light and atoms, both for understanding the system itself and for investigating its possible uses for Quantum Information Processing and Control." The project and examples of the group's experiments are described on this website, along with a section overviewing the theory grounding its work. Their research has potential applications for highly sensitive sensors and quantum-information processing. The News section includes a link to a journal article, "Microscopic Atom Optics: From Wires to an Atom Chip," which details the group's work.

339

Cleanroom Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. The final module of MATEC's contamination curriculum develops your learners' skills in specific cleanroom protocols: wafer handling and transfer, area wipedowns, and area or equipment isolation. The instruction stresses that contaminants travel via many channels- air, people, process equipment, manufacturing process, wiping materials, wafer handling, electrostatic discharge, and chemicals. MATEC aims to make each learner acutely aware that minimizing contamination in the cleanroom requires his or her personal commitment. The module also discusses the automated systems used in modern and upcoming 300-mm fabs.

2012-12-21

340

Chronic hand eczema - self-management and prognosis: a study protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hand eczema has a one-year prevalence of approximately 10 % in the general Danish population. Often the disease becomes chronic with numerous implications for the individual’s daily life, occupation and quality of life. However, no guidelines of self-management recommendations beyond the acute stage are given. Self-management of the disease is pivotal and involves self-monitoring of the condition, medication adherence, and preventive behaviour. Interventions best to support the individual in this ongoing process need to be developed. Methods/design This paper describes the design of a randomised clinical trial to test a newly developed intervention of individual counselling versus conventional information. 300 patients consecutively referred to dermatologic treatment at two different settings are individually randomised to either the intervention programme, named ‘The Healthy Skin Clinic’ or to the control group. Block-wise randomisation according to setting and gender is carried out. The intervention offers a tool for self-monitoring; basic and specific individual counselling; the possibility of asynchronous communication with the intervention team; and an electronic patient dialogue forum. Primary outcome variable is objective assessment of the hand eczema severity performed at baseline prior to randomisation, and repeated at six months follow-up. Secondary outcome variables are dermatology related life quality and perceived global burden of disease. Discussion The trial aims at evaluating a newly developed guidance programme which is expected to support self-management of patients referred to dermatology treatment due to chronic hand eczema. The design of the protocol is pragmatic with blinding of neither participants nor the investigator. Thus, in the interpretation of the results, the investigator takes into account effects that may be attributed to actors of the interventions rather than the intervention per se as well of potential observer bias. Inclusion criterions are wide in order to increase transferability of the results. Trial registration The trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.Gov with registration number NCT01482663.

2012-01-01

341

Use acupuncture to treat functional constipation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation. Design A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9?weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1) Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group); (2) He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group); (3) Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group). The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The first two of second outcomes are measured 1?week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8?weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1?week before randomization and 2 and 4?weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4?weeks after randomization. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012) will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it. Trials registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501

2012-01-01

342

Comparative Evaluation of Stroke Triage Algorithms for Emergency Medical Dispatchers (MeDS): Prospective Cohort Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is a major cause of death and leading cause of disability in the United States. To maximize a stroke patient's chances of receiving thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke, it is important to improve prehospital recognition of stroke. However, it is known from published reports that emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) using Card 28 of the Medical Priority Dispatch System protocols recognize stroke poorly. Therefore, to improve EMD's recognition of stroke, the National Association of Emergency Medical Dispatchers recently designed a new diagnostic stroke tool (Cincinnati Stroke Scale -CSS) to be used with Card 28. The objective of this study is to determine whether the addition of CSS improves diagnostic accuracy of stroke triage. Methods/Design This prospective experimental study will be conducted during a one-year period in the 911 call center of Santa Clara County, CA. We will include callers aged ? 18 years with a chief complaint suggestive of stroke and second party callers (by-stander or family who are in close proximity to the patient and can administer the tool) ? 18 years of age. Life threatening calls will be excluded from the study. Card 28 questions will be administered to subjects who meet study criteria. After completion of Card 28, CSS tool will be administered to all calls. EMDs will record their initial assessment of a cerebro-vascular accident (stroke) after completion of Card 28 and their final assessment after completion of CSS. These assessments will be compared with the hospital discharge diagnosis (ICD-9 codes) recorded in the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) database after linking the EMD database and OSHPD database using probabilistic linkage. The primary analysis will compare the sensitivity of the two stroke protocols using logistic regression and generalizing estimating equations to account for clustering by EMDs. To detect a 15% difference in sensitivity between the two groups with 80% power, we will enroll a total of 370 subjects in this trial. Discussion A three week pilot study was performed which demonstrated the feasibility of implementation of the study protocol.

2011-01-01

343

Guidelines to select underfills for flip chip on board assemblies and compliant interposers for chip scale package assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of thermomechanical properties of underfill and compliant interposer materials, such as coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and stiffness (Young's modulus) on reliability of flip chip on board (FCOB) and chip scale packages (CSPs) under thermal cycling stresses is investigated in this study. Quasi-three-dimensional viscoplastic stress analysis using finite element modeling (FEM) is combined with an energy partitioning (EP)

J. H Okura; S Shetty; B Ramakrishnan; A Dasgupta; J. F. J. M Caers; T Reinikainen

2000-01-01

344

On-Chip Biomedical Imaging  

PubMed Central

Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and micro electromechanical systems achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lensfree holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lensfree optical tomography.

Gorocs, Zoltan; Ozcan, Aydogan

2012-01-01

345

Distribution of mRNA encoding the FA-CHIP water channel in amphibian tissues: Effects of salt adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water channel, the frog aquaporin-CHIP (FA-CHIP) was recently cloned from Rana esculenta urinary bladder. The 28.9 kDa encoded protein shows 78.8%, 77.4%, 42.4% and 35.6% identity with rat CHIP28, human CHIP28, rat WCH-CD and ?-TIP, other members of the new transmembrane water channel family (Aquaporin-CHIP). We have now studied membranes from different frog (R. esculenta) organs employing semiquantitative PCR

L. Abrami; C. Capurro; C. Ibarra; M. Parisi; J.-M. Buhler; P. Ripoche

1995-01-01

346

Utilization of two sample t-test statistics from redundant probe sets to evaluate different probe set algorithms in GeneChip studies  

PubMed Central

Background The choice of probe set algorithms for expression summary in a GeneChip study has a great impact on subsequent gene expression data analysis. Spiked-in cRNAs with known concentration are often used to assess the relative performance of probe set algorithms. Given the fact that the spiked-in cRNAs do not represent endogenously expressed genes in experiments, it becomes increasingly important to have methods to study whether a particular probe set algorithm is more appropriate for a specific dataset, without using such external reference data. Results We propose the use of the probe set redundancy feature for evaluating the performance of probe set algorithms, and have presented three approaches for analyzing data variance and result bias using two sample t-test statistics from redundant probe sets. These approaches are as follows: 1) analyzing redundant probe set variance based on t-statistic rank order, 2) computing correlation of t-statistics between redundant probe sets, and 3) analyzing the co-occurrence of replicate redundant probe sets representing differentially expressed genes. We applied these approaches to expression summary data generated from three datasets utilizing individual probe set algorithms of MAS5.0, dChip, or RMA. We also utilized combinations of options from the three probe set algorithms. We found that results from the three approaches were similar within each individual expression summary dataset, and were also in good agreement with previously reported findings by others. We also demonstrate the validity of our findings by independent experimental methods. Conclusion All three proposed approaches allowed us to assess the performance of probe set algorithms using the probe set redundancy feature. The analyses of redundant probe set variance based on t-statistic rank order and correlation of t-statistics between redundant probe sets provide useful tools for data variance analysis, and the co-occurrence of replicate redundant probe sets representing differentially expressed genes allows estimation of result bias. The results also suggest that individual probe set algorithms have dataset-specific performance.

Hu, Zihua; Willsky, Gail R

2006-01-01

347

Atomic spectroscopy on a chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guiding light through hollow optical waveguides has opened the field of photonics to the investigation of non-solid materials that have all the convenience of integrated optics. Of particular interest is the confinement of atomic vapours, such as rubidium, because of its wide range of applications, including slow and stopped light, single-photon nonlinear optics, quantum information processing, precision spectroscopy and frequency stabilization. Here, we present the first monolithically integrated rubidium vapour cell using hollow-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs) on a silicon chip. The cells have a footprint of less than 1 cm2, fully planar fibre-optical access, and a cell volume more than 7 orders of magnitude less than conventional bulk cells. The micrometre-sized mode areas enable high beam intensities over near centimetre lengths. We demonstrate optical densities in excess of 2, and saturation absorption spectroscopy on a chip. These results allow the study of atoms and molecules on a platform that combines the advantages of photonic-crystal-like structures with integrated optics.

Yang, Wenge; Conkey, Donald B.; Wu, Bin; Yin, Dongliang; Hawkins, Aaron R.; Schmidt, Holger

2007-06-01

348

Mindfulness-based intervention for teenagers with cancer: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals living with cancer must learn to face not only the physical symptoms of their condition, but also the anxiety and uncertainty related to the progression of the disease, the anticipation of physical and emotional pain related to illness and treatment, the significant changes implied in living with cancer, as well as the fear of recurrence after remission. Mindfulness-based meditation constitutes a promising option to alleviate these manifestations. Methods/Design This article presents the rationale and protocol development for a research project aimed at evaluating the effects of a mindfulness-based meditation intervention on quality of life, sleep, and mood in adolescents with cancer compared to a control group. A prospective, longitudinal, experimental design involving three time points (baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up) and two groups (experimental and control) was developed for this project. Participants will be assigned randomly to either group. Eligible participants are adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with a diagnosis of cancer, with no specific selection/exclusion based on type, stage, or trajectory of cancer. A final sample size of 28 participants is targeted. Adolescents in the experimental group will be completing the mindfulness meditation intervention, taught by two trained therapists. The intervention will comprise of eight weekly sessions, lasting 90 min each. Once the follow-up assessment is completed by the experimental group, wait-list controls will be offered to complete the mindfulness-based program. Intra-group analyses will serve to evaluate the impact of the mindfulness-based meditation intervention on quality of life, sleep, and mood pre-post intervention, as well as follow-up. Analyses will also be used to carry out inter-group comparisons between the experimental group and the wait-list controls. Voluntary participation, risk of attrition, and the small sample size are potential limitations of this project. In spite of possible limitations, this project will be one among very few aimed at improving quality of life, sleep, and mood in adolescents living with cancer, will evaluate the potential benefits of such a practice on both psychological and physical health of youth with cancer, and help in creating mindfulness-based intervention programs, in order to provide the necessary psychological help to adolescents living with cancer. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01783418

2013-01-01

349

HEART: heart exercise and remote technologies: A randomized controlled trial study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is aimed at improving health behaviors to slow or reverse the progression of CVD disease. Exercise is a central element of CR. Technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet (mHealth) offer potential to overcome many of the psychological, physical, and geographical barriers that have been associated with lack of participation in exercise-based CR. We aim to trial the effectiveness of a mobile phone delivered exercise-based CR program to increase exercise capacity and functional outcomes compared with usual CR care in adults with CVD. This paper outlines the rationale and methods of the trial. Methods A single-blinded parallel two-arm randomized controlled trial is being conducted. A total of 170 people will be randomized at 1:1 ratio either to receive a mHealth CR program or usual care. Participants are identified by CR nurses from two metropolitan hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand through outpatient clinics and existing databases. Consenting participants are contacted to attend a baseline assessment. The intervention consists of a theory-based, personalized, automated package of text and video message components via participants' mobile phones and the Internet to increase exercise behavior, delivered over six months. The control group will continue with usual CR. Data collection occurs at baseline and 24 weeks (post-intervention). The primary outcome is change in maximal oxygen uptake from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include post-intervention measures on self-reported physical activity (IPAQ), cardiovascular risk factors (systolic blood pressure, weight, and waist to hip ratio), health related quality of life (SF-36), and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a mHealth exercise-based CR program. Results of this trial will provide much needed information about physical and psychological well-being, and cost-effectiveness of an automated telecommunication intervention. If effective, this intervention has enormous potential to improve the delivery of CR and could easily be scaled up to be delivered nationally (and internationally) in a very short time, enhancing the translational aspect of this research. It also has potential to extend to comprehensive CR (nutrition advice, smoking cessation, medication adherence). Trial Registration ACTRN12611000117910

2011-01-01

350

Risk factors and prognosis of young stroke. The FUTURE study: A prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term prognosis is extremely important, especially in young stroke patients with a life expectancy of decades. To date, detailed information on risk factors and the long-term prognosis in young stroke patients, and more specific risk of mortality or recurrent vascular events, remains scarce. Methods/Design The FUTURE study is a prospective cohort study on risk factors and prognosis of young ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among 1006 patients, aged 18-50 years, included in our study database between 1-1-1980 and 1-11-2010. Follow-up visits at our research centre take place from the end of 2009 until the end of 2011. Control subjects will be recruited among the patients' spouses, relatives or social environment. Information on mortality and incident vascular events will be retrieved via structured questionnaires. In addition, participants are invited to the research centre to undergo an extensive sub study including MRI. Discussion The FUTURE study has the potential to make an important contribution to increase the knowledge on risk factors and long-term prognosis in young stroke patients. Our study differs from previous studies by having a maximal follow-up of more than 30 years, including not only TIA and ischemic stroke but also hemorrhagic stroke, the addition of healthy controls and prospectively collect data during an extensive follow-up visit. Completion of the FUTURE study may provide better information for treating physicians and patients with respect to the prognosis of young stroke.

2011-01-01

351

Detection DNA Point Mutation with Rolling-Circle Amplification Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a protocol with isothermal rolling-circle amplification (RCA) to detect DNA point mutation on chip. The basic principle of the method is an allele-specific oligonucleotide circularization mediated by special DNA ligase. The probe is circularized when perfect complementary sequences between the probe oligonucleotide and target DNA. Mismatches around the ligation site can prevent probe circularization. The circularized probe (C-probe)

Lingwei Wu; Yun Ling; Anshu Yang; Shuixing Wang

2010-01-01

352

A high performance VLSI chip of the elliptic curve cryptosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance VLSI for elliptic curve cryptosystems, based on the elliptic curve K-233 in the field GF(2233), THECC\\/233-100, is presented in this paper. It can perform all four computational functionalities: the digital signature generation and verification; the curve point-multiplication; and the public-secret key-pair generation, needed by the ECDSA protocol. The chip has been successfully designed and fabricated with Shanghai

BAI Guoqiangl; Huang Zhun; Yuan Hang; Chen Hongyi; Liu Ming; Chen Gang; Zhou Tao; Chen Zhihua

2004-01-01

353

PROCESS-INDUCED RESIDUAL STRESSES IN A GLOB TOP ENCAPSULATED SILICON CHIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process-induced thermal stress field in a glob top encapsulated single chip module is studied in this paper. The coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the encapsulant (epoxy) and the chip (silicon) can generate a high stress field near the encapsulant\\/chip interface when the chip assembly cools to room temperature after processing. This process-induced thermal stress field may cause undesirable

Russell R. Shepherd; Jianmin Qu; Tien Y. Wu

354

A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled ‘Fun without Smokes’. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils’ smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Discussion The present study protocol describes the purpose, intervention design and study protocol of ‘Fun without Smokes’. Expectations are that pupils receiving tailored advice will be less likely to smoke after 24 months in contrast to pupils in the control condition. Furthermore, tailored feedback letters and prompting is expected to be more effective than providing tailored feedback letters only. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3116

2012-01-01

355

Protocol Interactions and the Chosen Protocol Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many cases in the literature in which reuse of the same key material for dierent functions can open up security holes. In this paper, we discuss such interactions between protocols, and present a new attack, called the chosen protocol attack, in which an attacker may write a new protocol using the same key material as a target protocol,

John Kelsey; Bruce Schneier; David Wagner

1997-01-01

356

Slow-light enhanced spectrometers on chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose using slow light structures to greatly enhance the spectral performance of on-chip spectrometers. We design a calzone photonic crystal line-defect waveguide which can have large group index over a certain wavelength range. An arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) is studied as an example, and the performance of such a slow-light AWG is analyzed numerically.

Shi, Zhimin; Boyd, Robert W.

2011-06-01

357

Comparison of electrical, optical and plasmonic on-chip interconnects based on delay and energy considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With continued shrinking of device dimensions on chip, major advancements in intra chip interconnect technology are required to minimize delay, energy dissipation and cross-talk. In this paper, two alternative on-chip interconnect technology options are studied, namely the plasmonic and optical interconnects. It is shown that plasmonic interconnects can be 3 orders of magnitude faster than minimum sized CMOS interconnects at

Shaloo Rakheja; Vachan Kumar

2012-01-01

358

Bone Chips and Diced Cartilage: An Anatomically Adopted Graft for the Nasal Dorsum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, cranial bone chips or septal bone chips harvested during septal deviation surgery and small chips of ear or septal cartilage have been used in 67 patients for dorsal nasal augmentation or for smoothing dorsal nasal irregularities. In this study, 59 overresections of ostecartilaginous nose structures during previous aesthetic nose surgeries and 8 primary rhinoplasties occasioned the use of

Muzaffer Çelik; Tamer Halilo?lu; Nazmi Bayç?n

2004-01-01

359

Wood chip mulch thickness effects on soil water, soil temperature, weed growth, and landscape plant growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wood chip mulches are used in landscapes to reduce soil water evaporation and competition from weeds. A study was conducted over a three-year period to determine soil water content at various depths under four wood chip mulch treatments and to evaluate the effects of wood chip thickness on growth of...

360

An Evaluation of the Standardized Chipping Hammer Test Specified in ISO 8662-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Prolonged exposure to severe chipping hammer vibration may cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. A reliable test method is required to select appropriate tools and assist in the development of better chipping hammers. In the present study, the ISO standardized test method (ISO 8662-2, 1992) was examined through an investigation of the vibration character- istics of chipping hammers operating on the

R. G. DONG; T. W. MCDOWELL; D. E. WELCOME; C. WARREN; A. W. SCHOPPER

2004-01-01

361

FEA modeling and simulation of shear localized chip formation in metal cutting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite element analysis (FEA) has been applied to model and simulate the chip formation and the shear localization phenomena in the metal cutting process. The updated Lagrangian formulation of plane strain condition is used in this study. A strain-hardening thermal-softening material model is used to simulate shear localized chip formation. Chip formation, shear banding, cutting forces, effects of tool

J. Q. Xie; A. E. Bayoumi; H. M. Zbib

1998-01-01

362

Development of a Plastic-Based Microfluidic Immunosensor Chip for Detection of H1N1 Influenza  

PubMed Central

Lab-on-a-chip can provide convenient and accurate diagnosis tools. In this paper, a plastic-based microfluidic immunosensor chip for the diagnosis of swine flu (H1N1) was developed by immobilizing hemagglutinin antigen on a gold surface using a genetically engineered polypeptide. A fluorescent dye-labeled antibody (Ab) was used for quantifying the concentration of Ab in the immunosensor chip using a fluorescent technique. For increasing the detection efficiency and reducing the errors, three chambers and three microchannels were designed in one microfluidic chip. This protocol could be applied to the diagnosis of other infectious diseases in a microfluidic device.

Lee, Kyoung G.; Lee, Tae Jae; Jeong, Soon Woo; Choi, Ho Woon; Heo, Nam Su; Park, Jung Youn; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Seok Jae

2012-01-01

363

Development of a plastic-based microfluidic immunosensor chip for detection of H1N1 influenza.  

PubMed

Lab-on-a-chip can provide convenient and accurate diagnosis tools. In this paper, a plastic-based microfluidic immunosensor chip for the diagnosis of swine flu (H1N1) was developed by immobilizing hemagglutinin antigen on a gold surface using a genetically engineered polypeptide. A fluorescent dye-labeled antibody (Ab) was used for quantifying the concentration of Ab in the immunosensor chip using a fluorescent technique. For increasing the detection efficiency and reducing the errors, three chambers and three microchannels were designed in one microfluidic chip. This protocol could be applied to the diagnosis of other infectious diseases in a microfluidic device. PMID:23112630

Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Tae Jae; Jeong, Soon Woo; Choi, Ho Woon; Heo, Nam Su; Park, Jung Youn; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Seok Jae

2012-08-06

364

Stress measurements in large area array flip chip microprocessor chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microprocessor packaging in modern workstations and servers often consists of one or more large flip chip die that are mounted to a high performance ceramic chip carrier. The final assembly configuration features a complex stack up of area array solder interconnects, underfill, ceramic substrate, lid, heat sink, thermal interface materials, second level solder joints, organic PCB, etc., so that a

Jordan C. Roberts; M. Kaysar Rahim; Jeffrey C. Suhling; Richard C. Jaeger; Pradeep Lall; Ron Zhang; James Jones

2008-01-01

365

Technology Requirements for Chip-On-Chip Packaging Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend towards smaller, lighter and thinner products requires a steady miniaturization which has brought-up the concept of Chip Scale Packaging (CSP). The next step to reduce packaging cost was the chip packaging directly on the wafer. Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) enables the FC assembly on PWB without interposers. New and improved microelectronic systems require significant more complex devices which

M. Topper; Th. Fritzsch; V. Glaw; R. Jordan; C. Lopper; J. Roder; L. Dietrich; M. Lutz; H. Oppermann; O. Ehrmann; H. Reichl

2005-01-01

366

Flip Chip molding - Recent progress in flip chip encapsulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the development of microelectronics is still driving towards further miniaturization, Flip Chip technology has been widely accepted as a means for. maximum miniaturization with additional advantages. These are shortest interconnect length for minimum signal disturbance and simultaneous interconnection leading to reduced process times especially for high I\\/O counts and for RF applications. Flip Chip technology allows for reliabilities required

T. Braun; K.-F. Becker; M. Koch; V. Bader; R. Aschenbrenner; H. Reichl

2002-01-01

367

Using tire chips as a leachate drainage layer  

SciTech Connect

Old tires represent a potentially cost-effective construction material that can be used in the installation of leachate drainage and collection systems. In fact, recent studies show that using shredded tires in conjunction with granular soil materials can even enhance the long-term performance of these systems. A typical design using shredded tire chips involves the placement of a minimum 1-foot-thick layer of chips on a granular soil layer overlaying the composite liner system. However, implementation of this design is not as simple as it looks. Protecting the liner from wire protruding from the tire chips derived from belted tires is essential. Because tire chips tend to clump together, placement and spreading also must be in relatively thick lifts and performed by low-ground-pressure equipment. In addition, a significant volume reduction in the tire chip layer can be anticipated as a result of normal loadings from the overlying waste. Equivalent internal friction angles and cohesiveness for the tire chips should be estimated for factors of safety against side-slope failure. Despite theses concerns, however,the advantages of constructing a tire-chip drainage layer often can outweigh the disadvantages, as long as the chips` long-term permeability characteristics and resistance to clogging -- a result of biological activity -- are at least equal to that of typical granular soil materials commonly used in leachate drainage and collection systems.

Duffy, D.P. [RMT, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-09-01

368

Aerosols Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure the aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere (how much of the sun's light is scattered or absorbed by particles suspended in the air). Students point a GLOBE sun photometer at the sun and record the largest voltage reading they obtain on a digital voltmeter connected to the photometer. Students observe sky conditions near the sun, perform the Cloud, Optional Barometric Pressure (optional) and Relative Humidity Protocols, and measure current air temperature. Intended outcomes are that students will understand the concept that the atmosphere prevents all of the sun's light from reaching Earth's surface and they learn what causes hazy skies. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

369

Decapsulation Method for Flip Chips with Ceramics in Microelectronic Packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decapsulation of flip chips bonded to ceramic substrates is a challenging task in the packaging industry owing to the vulnerability of the chip surface during the process. In conventional methods, such as manual grinding and polishing, the solder bumps are easily damaged during the removal of underfill, and the thin chip may even be crushed due to mechanical stress. An efficient and reliable decapsulation method consisting of thermal and chemical processes was developed in this study. The surface quality of chips after solder removal is satisfactory for the existing solder rework procedure as well as for die-level failure analysis. The innovative processes included heat-sink and ceramic substrate removal, solder bump separation, and solder residue cleaning from the chip surface. In the last stage, particular temperatures were selected for the removal of eutectic Pb-Sn, high-lead, and lead-free solders considering their respective melting points.

Shih, T. I.; Duh, J. G.

2008-06-01

370

Chipping Resistance of Graded Zirconia Ceramics for Dental Crowns  

PubMed Central

A serious drawback of veneering porcelains is a pronounced susceptibility to chipping. Glass-infiltrated dense zirconia structures can now be produced with esthetic quality, making them an attractive alternative. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that such infiltrated structures are much more chip-resistant than conventional porcelains, and at least as chip-resistant as non-infiltrated zirconia. A sharp indenter was used to produce chips in flat and anatomically correct glass-infiltrated zirconia crown materials, and critical loads were measured as a function of distance from the specimen edge (flat) or side wall (crown). Control data were obtained on zirconia specimens without infiltration and on crowns veneered with porcelains. The results confirmed that the resistance to chipping in graded zirconia is more than 4 times higher than that of porcelain-veneered zirconia and is at least as high as that of non-veneered zirconia.

Zhang, Y.; Chai, H.; Lee, J.J.-W.; Lawn, B.R.

2012-01-01

371

A Distributed Stream Multiplexing Architecture for Multi-Chip Configuration beyond HDTV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a distributed stream multiplexing architecture for video codec LSIs with multi-chip configuration. This distributed architecture utilizes a built-in media multiplexing unit with an external stream input and inter-chip communication interfaces. Parallel protocol processing, with an autonomous inter-chip control mechanism to mix and concatenate packets through daisy-chained transfer paths, provides a complete multi-chip stream output at the end of the chain. Dispensing with external post-processing devices contributes to both high throughput and downsizing of high-end video codec systems. It is configurable for parallel encoding of super high-resolution video, multi-view/-angled HDTV vision and multiple HDTV programs. The architecture was successfully implemented in a fabricated single-chip MPEG-2 422P@HL codec LSI and utilized for the development of a super high-resolution video codec system.

Onishi, Takayuki; Nakamura, Ken; Yoshitome, Takeshi; Naganuma, Jiro

372

Study protocol. The Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (The CHAMPS-study DK)  

PubMed Central

Background An increasingly passive life-style in the Western World has led to a rise in life-style related disorders. This is a major concern for all segments of society. The county council of the municipality of Svendborg in Denmark, created six Sport Schools with increased levels of suitable physical activities, which made it possible to study the health outcomes in these children whilst comparing them to children who attended the ‘normal’ schools of the region using the design of a “natural experiment”. Methods Children from the age of 6 till the age of 10, who accepted to be included in the monitoring process, were surveyed at baseline with questionnaires, physical examinations and physical and biological testing, including DXA scans. The physical examination and testing was repeated during the early stage of the study. Every week over the whole study period, the children will be followed with an automated mobile phone text message (SMS-Track) asking questions on their leisure time sports activities and the presence of any musculoskeletal problems. Children who report any such problems are monitored individually by health care personnel. Data are collected on demography, health habits and attitudes, physical characteristics, physical activity using accelerometers, motor performance, fitness, bone health, life-style disorders, injuries and musculoskeletal problems. Data collection will continue at least once a year until the children reach grade 9. Discussion This project is embedded in a local community, which set up the intervention (The Sport Schools) and thereafter invited researchers to provide documentation and evaluation. Sport schools are well matched with the ‘normal’ schools, making comparisons between these suitable. However, subgroups that would be specifically targeted in lifestyle intervention studies (such as the definitely obese) could be relatively small. Therefore, results specific to minority groups may be diluted. Nonetheless, the many rigorously collected data will make it possible to study, for example, the general effect that different levels of physical activity may have on various health conditions and on proxy measures of life-style conditions. Specifically, it will help answer the question on whether increased physical activity in school has a positive effect on health in children.

2012-01-01

373

Integrated Blood Barcode Chips  

PubMed Central

Blood comprises the largest version of the human proteome1. Changes of plasma protein profiles can reflect physiological or pathological conditions associated with many human diseases, making blood the most important fluid for clinical diagnostics2-4. Nevertheless, only a handful of plasma proteins are utilized in routine clinical tests. This is due to a host of reasons, including the intrinsic complexity of the plasma proteome1, the heterogeneity of human diseases and the fast kinetics associated with protein degradation in sampled blood5. Simple technologies that can sensitively sample large numbers of proteins over broad concentration ranges, from small amounts of blood, and within minutes of sample collection, would assist in solving these problems. Herein, we report on an integrated microfluidic system, called the Integrated Blood Barcode Chip (IBBC). It enables on-chip blood separation and the rapid measurement of a panel of plasma proteins from small quantities of blood samples including a fingerprick of whole blood. This platform holds potential for inexpensive, non-invasive, and informative clinical diagnoses, particularly, for point-of-care.

Fan, Rong; Vermesh, Ophir; Srivastava, Alok; Yen, Brian K.H.; Qin, Lidong; Ahmad, Habib; Kwong, Gabriel A.; Liu, Chao-Chao; Gould, Juliane; Hood, Leroy; Heath, James R.

2008-01-01

374

Wavefront image sensor chip  

PubMed Central

We report the implementation of an image sensor chip, termed wavefront image sensor chip (WIS), that can measure both intensity/amplitude and phase front variations of a light wave separately and quantitatively. By monitoring the tightly confined transmitted light spots through a circular aperture grid in a high Fresnel number regime, we can measure both intensity and phase front variations with a high sampling density (11 µm) and high sensitivity (the sensitivity of normalized phase gradient measurement is 0.1 mrad under the typical working condition). By using WIS in a standard microscope, we can collect both bright-field (transmitted light intensity) and normalized phase gradient images. Our experiments further demonstrate that the normalized phase gradient images of polystyrene microspheres, unstained and stained starfish embryos, and strongly birefringent potato starch granules are improved versions of their corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope images in that they are artifact-free and quantitative. Besides phase microscopy, WIS can benefit machine recognition, object ranging, and texture assessment for a variety of applications.

Cui, Xiquan; Ren, Jian; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Changhuei

2010-01-01

375

MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS Study Group  

PubMed Central

MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11), funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR. Background Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort) and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented. Methods/Design Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford). Women with circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477) or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477). Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH)-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years. Discussion As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform public health policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. It will also provide a valuable resource in which to study the influence of maternal vitamin D status on other childhood outcomes such as glucose tolerance, blood pressure, cardiovascular function, IQ and immunology.

2012-01-01

376

Prospective research on musculoskeletal disorders in office workers (PROMO): study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This article describes the background and study design of the PROMO study (Prospective Research on Musculoskeletal disorders in Office workers). Few longitudinal studies have been performed to investigate the risk factors responsible for the incidence of hand, arm, shoulder and neck symptoms among office workers, given the observation that a large group of office workers might be at risk

Stefan IJmker; Birgitte M Blatter; Allard J van der Beek; Willem van Mechelen; Paulien M Bongers

2006-01-01

377

Evaluation of the implementation of an 'oral hygiene protocol' in nursing homes: a 5-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To explore the long-term effects of the implementation of an oral hygiene protocol in nursing homes. METHODS: Out of 14 nursing homes (Flanders) seven nursing homes were randomly allocated to the intervention group and confirmed to implement an 'oral hygiene protocol'. The remaining nursing homes (the control group) continued to perform oral hygiene as usual. Oral hygiene levels were

L. de Visschere; C. de Baat; J. M. Schols; E. Deschepper; J. Vanobbergen

2011-01-01

378

EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR THE NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: CASE STUDY AT THE TWIN CITIES ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

At the request of staff in the EPA Regions, EPA?s Office of Research and Development carried out an independent evaluation of the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA/600/R-98/128). The Protocol was developed around c...

379

EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: CASE STUDY AT THE TWIN CITIES ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

At the request of staff in the EPA Regions, EPA's Office of Research and Development carried out an independent evaluation of the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA/600/R-98/128). The Protocol was developed around...

380

The Rodent Uterotrophic Assay: Critical Protocol Features, Studies with Nonyl Phenols, and Comparison with a Yeast Estrogenicity Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major protocol features of the immature rat uterotrophic assay have been evaluated using a range of reference chemicals. The protocol variables considered include the selection of the test species and route of chemical administration, the age of the test animals, the maintenance diet used, and the specificity of the assay for estrogens. It is concluded that three daily oral

J. Odum; P. A. Lefevre; S. Tittensor; D. Paton; E. J. Routledge; N. A. Beresford; J. P. Sumpter; J. Ashby

1997-01-01

381

A single cell electroporation chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the cell membrane's permeability can be accomplished via single cell electroporation. Polar substances that cannot otherwise permeate the plasma membrane (such as dyes, drugs, DNA, proteins, peptides, and amino acids) can thus be introduced into the cell. We developed a polymeric chip that can selectively immobilize and locally electroporate single cells. This easy-to- use chip focuses the electric field,

Michelle Khine; Adrian Lau; Cristian Ionescu-Zanetti; Jeonggi Seo; Luke P. Lee

2005-01-01

382

Flip chip packaging for MEMS microphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a microphone package using flip chip technology instead of chip and wire bonding to create smaller MEMS\\u000a microphones. With this new packaging technology the transducer chip and an ASIC chip are flip chip bonded on a ceramic substrate.\\u000a The package is sealed by a polymer foil laminated over the chips and by a metal layer. The sound

Gregor Feiertag; Matthias Winter; Anton Leidl

2010-01-01

383

Storage of fuelwood chips in fraction 25-30 mm  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to study storage of fuelwood chips in the fraction 25 - 30 mm. Dry matter loss, moisture content, temperature, basic density and the amount of fungal particles were studied.

Bjoerklund, L.

1982-01-01

384

Cessation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist on triggering day in flexible multiple-dose protocol: A randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate outcomes of stimulated IVF cycles in which GnRH antagonist was omitted on the ovulation triggering day. Methods A total of 86 women who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH and GnRH antagonist flexible multiple-dose protocols were recruited and prospectively randomized into the conventional group (group A) or cessation group (group B). The GnRH antagonist, 0.25 mg/day of cetrorelix, was started when the leading follicle reached 14 mm in diameter and was continuously administered until the hCG triggering day (group A, 43 cycles) or until the day before hCG administration (group B, 43 cycles). The maturity of oocytes, fertilization rate, embryo quality, and implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were evaluated. Results The duration of ovarian stimulation, total dose of gonadotropins, serum estradiol levels on hCG administration day, and number of oocytes retrieved were not significantly different between the two groups. The total dose of GnRH antagonist was significantly lower in group B than group A (2.5±0.9 vs. 3.2±0.8 ampoules, p<0.05). There was no premature luteinization in any of the subjects. The proportion of mature oocytes and fertilization rate were not significantly different in group B than group A (70.7% vs. 66.7%; 71.1% vs. 66.4%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the implantation or clinical pregnancy rates. Conclusion Our prospective randomized study suggested that cessation of GnRH antagonist on the hCG administration day during a flexible multiple-dose protocol could reduce the total dose of GnRH antagonist without compromising its effects on pregnancy rates.

Chang, Hye Jin; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Don; Kim, Seok Hyun

2013-01-01

385

An in situ perfusion protocol of rat epididymal adipose tissue useful in metabolic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental approaches involving the perfu- sion of tissues and organs offer the advantage of improved physiological relevance over the use of isolated tissues or cells while at the same time being much more controlled and tissue-specific than studies in vivo. Nevertheless, there have been few metabolic studies performed in perfused white adipose tissue, largely because of the difficulty of the

G. Consol; Anna Moles; David Ricart-Jané; Miquel Llobera

2005-01-01

386

Study protocol: optimization of complex palliative care at home via telemedicine. A cluster randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT\\\\BACKGROUND:Due to the growing number of elderly with advanced chronic conditions, healthcare services will come under increasing pressure. Teleconsultation is an innovative approach to deliver quality of care for palliative patients at home. Quantitative studies assessing the effect of teleconsultation on clinical outcomes are scarce. The aim of this present study is to investigate the effectiveness of teleconsultation in complex

F. Duursma; H. J. Schers; K. C. P. Vissers; J. G. J. Hasselaar

2011-01-01

387

Melancholic versus non-melancholic depression: differences on cognitive function. A longitudinal study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is common among depressed patients. However, the pattern and magnitude of impairment during episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) through to clinical remission remains unclear. Heterogeneity of depressive patients and the lack of longitudinal studies may account for contradictory results in previous research. METHODS\\/DESIGN: This longitudinal study will analyze cognitive differences between CORE-defined melancholic depressed patients (n

Saray Monzón; Margalida Gili; Margalida Vives; Maria Jesus Serrano; Natalia Bauza; Rosa Molina; Mauro García-Toro; Joan Salvà; Joan Llobera; Miquel Roca

2010-01-01

388

An experimental study of cross-layer security protocols in public access wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless networks require strong security mechanisms due to their open medium. However, security effects system performance, and therefore impacts quality of service (QoS) of communications. To analyze the impact of security on system performance, we conduct a detailed experimental study on a wireless IP testbed with security at different layers. We study their impact on different types of data streams

Avesh K. Agarwal; Wenye Wang; Janise Y. McNair

2005-01-01

389

Integrative Data Analysis through Coordination of Measurement and Analysis Protocol across Independent Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and…

Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

2009-01-01

390

Prospective research on musculoskeletal disorders in office workers (PROMO): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background This article describes the background and study design of the PROMO study (Prospective Research on Musculoskeletal disorders in Office workers). Few longitudinal studies have been performed to investigate the risk factors responsible for the incidence of hand, arm, shoulder and neck symptoms among office workers, given the observation that a large group of office workers might be at risk worldwide. Therefore, the PROMO study was designed. The main aim is to quantify the contribution of exposure to occupational computer use to the incidence of hand, arm, shoulder and neck symptoms. The results of this study might lead to more effective and/or cost-efficient preventive interventions among office workers. Methods/Design A prospective cohort study is conducted, with a follow-up of 24 months. In total, 1821 participants filled out the first questionnaire (response rate of 74%). Data on exposure and outcome is collected using web-based self-reports. Outcome assessment takes place every three months during the follow-up period. Data on computer use are collected at baseline and continuously during follow-up using a software program. Discussion The advantages of the PROMO study include the long follow-up period, the repeated measurement of both exposure and outcome, and the objective measurement of the duration of computer use. In the PROMO study, hypotheses stemming from lab-based and field-based research will be investigated.

IJmker, Stefan; Blatter, Birgitte M; van der Beek, Allard J; van Mechelen, Willem; Bongers, Paulien M

2006-01-01

391

Indoor air pollution on nurseries and primary schools: impact on childhood asthma - study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have demonstrated an association between the exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) and childhood asthma. Evidence is suggesting that several air pollutants may contribute to both exacerbation and development of asthma, but some uncertainty remains concerning the specific causative role of IAP. This paper reports an epidemiologic study aiming to reduce the existing lacks on the association between long-term exposure to pollution mixtures and the development and exacerbation of childhood asthma. Methods/design Based on the implementation of the study in 8 nurseries and 8 primary schools, from which, 2 nurseries and 2 primary schools in sites influenced by traffic and other 2 nurseries and 2 primary schools in background sites at urban and rural areas, the study will analyse the exposure to both urban and rural pollution as well as to traffic emissions (some homes of the children will be included in the study). Furthermore, based on the answers to validated questionnaires (as those used in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood - ISAAC) filled in by the parents and on medical exams, the study will assess the prevalence, incidence and exacerbation of asthma, thus considering both short and long-term effects. The approximate number of children in the study will never be less than 600, guaranteeing 80% of study power (significant at a 5% level). Discussion This study intends to contribute for the understanding of the role of environmental factors, namely indoor air pollution, on asthma considering a risk group of different ages, and for the development of preventive measures, which are considered priority issues by the European Commission, according to the European Environmental Agency and the World Health Organization.

2012-01-01

392

Gene-chip studies of adipogenesis-regulated microRNAs in mouse primary adipocytes and human obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Adipose tissue abundance relies partly on the factors that regulate adipogenesis, i.e. proliferation and differentiation of\\u000a adipocytes. While components of the transcriptional program that initiates adipogenesis is well-known, the importance of microRNAs\\u000a in adipogenesis is less well studied. We thus set out to investigate whether miRNAs would be actively modulated during adipogenesis\\u000a and obesity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Several models exist to study adipogenesis

Pernille Keller; Valentina Gburcik; Natasa Petrovic; Iain J Gallagher; Jan Nedergaard; Barbara Cannon; James A Timmons

2011-01-01

393

Gene expression in the rat brain during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep: an Affymetrix GeneChip® study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that macromolecular synthesis in the brain is modulated in association with the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness. Similarly, the spectral composition of electroencephalographic activity that occurs during sleep is dependent on the duration of prior wakefulness. Since this homeostatic relationship between wake and sleep is highly conserved across mammalian species, genes that are truly involved in

A. Terao; J. P. Wisor; C. Peyron; A. Apte-Deshpande; S. W. Wurts; D. M. Edgar; T. S. Kilduff

2006-01-01

394

Profiling the Needs of Young Female Offenders: A Protocol and Pilot Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes steps necessary to conduct this Needs Assessment and provides information for those interested in studying this underserved population. In outlining these steps, we provide suggestions on customizing the instruments and give examples...

B. Bloom B. Owen

1999-01-01

395

A novel protocol for studying food or drug seeking in rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if multiple aspects of drug and food-reinforced behavior could be measured in\\u000a a single study. Drug or food seeking can be observed under four conditions: 1) internal drug or food cues and external stimulus\\u000a cues present; self-administration, 2) only internal cues present; priming, 3) no internal or external stimulus cues present;\\u000a abstinence,

R. W. Foltin; Suzette M. Evans

1997-01-01

396

Effects of acupuncture on patients with fibromyalgia: study protocol of a multicentre randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Fibromyalgia is a multidimensional disorder for which treatment as yet remains unsatisfactory. Studies of an acupuncture-based\\u000a approach, despite its broad acceptance among patients and healthcare staff, have not produced sufficient evidence of its effectiveness\\u000a in treating this syndrome. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of individualized acupuncture for patients\\u000a with fibromyalgia, with respect to reducing their pain and

Jorge Vas; Manuela Modesto; Inmaculada Aguilar; Koldo Santos-Rey; Nicolás Benítez-Parejo; Francisco Rivas-Ruiz

2011-01-01

397

Disseminating quality improvement: study protocol for a large cluster-randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Dissemination is a critical facet of implementing quality improvement in organizations. As a field, addiction treatment has\\u000a produced effective interventions but disseminated them slowly and reached only a fraction of people needing treatment. This\\u000a study investigates four methods of disseminating quality improvement (QI) to addiction treatment programs in the U.S. It is,\\u000a to our knowledge, the largest study of organizational

Andrew R Quanbeck; David H Gustafson; James H Ford II; Alice Pulvermacher; Michael T French; K John McConnell; Dennis McCarty

2011-01-01

398

What determines adherence to treatment in cardiovascular disease prevention? Protocol for a mixed methods preference study.  

PubMed

Background Significant gaps exist between guidelines-recommended therapies for cardiovascular disease prevention and current practice. Fixed-dose combination pills ('polypills') potentially improve adherence to therapy. This study is a preference study undertaken in conjunction with a clinical trial of a polypill and seeks to examine the underlying reasons for variations in treatment adherence to recommended therapy. Methods/design A preference study comprising: (1) Discrete Choice Experiment for patients; and (2) qualitative study of patients and providers. Both components will be conducted on participants in the trial. A joint model combining the observed adherence in the clinical trial (revealed preference) and the Discrete Choice Experiment data (stated preference) will be estimated. Estimates will be made of the marginal effect (importance) of each attribute on overall choice, the extent to which respondents are prepared to trade-off one attribute for another and predicted values of the level of adherence given a fixed set of attributes, and contextual and socio-demographic characteristics. For the qualitative study, a thematic analysis will be used as a means of exploring in depth the preferences and ultimately provide important narratives on the experiences and perspectives of individuals with regard to adherence behaviour. Ethics and dissemination Primary ethics approval was received from Sydney South West Area Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital zone). In addition to usual scientific forums, the findings will be reported back to the communities involved in the studies through site-specific reports and oral presentations. PMID:22080542

Jan, Stephen; Usherwood, Tim; Brien, Jo Anne; Peiris, David; Rose, John; Hayman, Noel; Howard, Kirsten; Redfern, Julie; Laba, Tracey; Cass, Alan; Patel, Anushka

2011-01-01

399

Persistent Supercurrent Atom Chip  

SciTech Connect

Rubidium-87 atoms are trapped in an Ioffe-Pritchard potential generated with a persistent supercurrent that flows in a loop circuit patterned on a sapphire surface. The superconducting circuit is a closed loop made of a 100 {mu}m wide molecular-beam epitaxy-grown MgB{sub 2} stripe carrying a supercurrent of 2.5 A. To control the supercurrent in the stripe, an on-chip thermal switch operated by a focused argon-ion laser is developed. The switch operates as an on/off switch of the supercurrent or as a device to set the current to a specific value with the aid of an external magnetic field. The current can be set even without an external source if the change is in the decreasing direction.

Mukai, T.; Kasper, A. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1, Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Hufnagel, C. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1, Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Atominstitut Oesterreichischer Universitaeten, TU-Wien, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Meno, T. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); NTT Advanced Technology Corporation, 3-1, Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Tsukada, A.; Semba, K. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1, Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Shimizu, F. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1, Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 113-8585 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

2007-06-29

400

Indoor air quality investigation protocols  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 10 to 15 years, an increasing number of complaints about discomfort and health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) have been reported. The increase in complaints has been accompanied by an increase in requests for IAQ investigations. This study presents an overview of the many IAQ investigation protocols published since 1984. For analysis, the protocols are divided into four categories: solution-oriented, building diagnostics, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology. In general, the protocols begin with general observations, proceed to collect more specific data as indicated, and end with conclusions and recommendations. A generic IAQ protocol is presented that incorporates the common aspects of the various protocols. All of the current protocols place heavy emphasis on the ventilation system during the investigation. A major problem affecting all of the current protocols is the lack of generally accepted IAQ standards. IN addition, the use of questionnaires, occupant interviews, and personal diaries (as well as the point in the investigation at which they are administered) differs among the protocols. Medical evaluations and verification procedures also differ among the protocols.

Greene, R.E.; Williams, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

1996-10-01

401

Studies of electroless nickel under bump metallurgy—Solder interfacial reactions and their effects on flip chip solder joint reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electroless-deposited Ni-P under bump metallurgy (UBM) layer was fabricated on Al pads for Sn containing solder bumps.\\u000a The amount of P in the electroless Ni film was optimized by controlling complexing agents and the pH of plating solution.\\u000a The interfacial reaction at the electroless Ni UBM\\/solder interface was investigated in this study. The intermetallic compound\\u000a (IMC) formed at the

Young-Doo Jeon; Kyung-Wook Paik; Kyung-Soon Bok; Woo-Suk Choi; Chul-Lae Cho

2002-01-01

402

Kinetic study of an on-chip isocyanate derivatization reaction by on-line nano-esi ms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-throughput method is presented for the study of reaction kinetics by nano- electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-ESI MS). The reaction of propyl isocyanate (2), benzyl isocyanate (3), and toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (4) with 4-nitro-7- piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBDPZ) (1) to yield the corresponding urea derivatives (5) was carried out in a continuous flow glass microchip. Real-time monitoring of the reactions was done by

M. Brivio; A. Liesner; R. E. Oosterbroek; W. Verboom; U. Karst; Berg van den A; D. N. Reinhoudt; K. F. Jensen; J. Han; D. J. Harrison; J. Voldman

2005-01-01

403

Geriatric rehabilitation of stroke patients in nursing homes: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Geriatric patients are typically underrepresented in studies on the functional outcome of rehabilitation after stroke. Moreover, most geriatric stroke patients do probably not participate in intensive rehabilitation programs as offered by rehabilitation centers. As a result, very few studies have described the successfulness of geriatric stroke rehabilitation in nursing home patients, although it appears that the majority of these patients are being discharged back to the community, rather than being transferred to residential care. Nevertheless, factors associated with the successfulness of stroke rehabilitation in nursing homes or skilled nursing facilities are largely unknown. The primary goal of this study is, therefore, to assess the factors that uniquely contribute to the successfulness of rehabilitation in geriatric stroke patients that undergo rehabilitation in nursing homes. A secondary goal is to investigate whether these factors are similar to those associated with the outcome of stroke rehabilitation in the literature. Methods/Design This study is part of the Geriatric Rehabilitation in AMPutation and Stroke (GRAMPS) study in the Netherlands. It is a longitudinal, observational, multicenter study in 15 nursing homes in the Southern part of the Netherlands that aims to include at least 200 patients. All participating nursing homes are selected based on the existence of a specialized rehabilitation unit and the provision of dedicated multidisciplinary care. Patient characteristics, disease characteristics, functional status, cognition, behavior, and caregiver information, are collected within two weeks after admission to the nursing home. The first follow-up is at discharge from the nursing home or one year after inclusion, and focuses on functional status and behavior. Successful rehabilitation is defined as discharge from the nursing home to an independent living situation within one year after admission. The second follow-up is three months after discharge in patients who rehabilitated successfully, and assesses functional status, behavior, and quality of life. All instruments used in this study have shown to be valid and reliable in rehabilitation research or are recommended by the Netherlands Heart Foundation guidelines for stroke rehabilitation. Data will be analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Besides descriptive analyses, both univariate and multivariate analyses will be performed with the purpose of identifying associated factors as well as their unique contribution to determining successful rehabilitation. Discussion This study will provide more information about geriatric stroke rehabilitation in Dutch nursing homes. To our knowledge, this is the first large study that focuses on the determinants of success of geriatric stroke rehabilitation in nursing home patients.

2010-01-01

404

Study protocol--an exploratory trial on health promoting schools at Dutch secondary schools  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies show adolescent health-related behaviours to co-occur synergistically. This paper describes the study design for an exploratory trial on the effects of a comprehensive, whole-school health promoting school intervention. This intervention tackles seven different behavioural domains simultaneously via a combination of education, creating a healthy environment and introducing healthy behavioural policies. Additionally, extensive partnerships are formed between schools, parents, neighbourhoods and youth health authorities to coordinate health promotion efforts. Study design and data collection methods The intervention will be implemented at two secondary schools. Results will be compared with two control schools (n?1500). The intervention’s effectiveness in changing student behaviours as well as physical and psychosocial health status along with qualitative lessons learned on the integration of youth health care services and school health education practices are the main aimed outcomes of this study. Data are collected via a mixed methods design combining an annual youth health (behaviour) monitor with a qualitative process evaluation via interviews with key stakeholders. Data analysis A multilevel analysis is performed combined with a systematic analysis of qualitative interview data. Conclusions This study will produce an evaluation of a comprehensive health promoting school intervention that combines an integrated approach of schools, neighbourhoods, families and youth health services to improve adolescent health.

Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; Petrus Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus

2012-01-01

405

Internet Protocols over Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the problems that arise when standard Internet protocols are used over wireless links, such as degraded Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) performance when wireless errors are interpreted as congestion losses. We use case studies drawn from com- mercial Wireless Local Area Networks and cellular telephony systems to illustrate these problems. Then, we survey some proposed approaches to mitigating such

George C. Polyzos; George Xylomenos

2000-01-01

406

Impregnation of bone chips with alendronate and cefazolin, combined with demineralized bone matrix: a bone chamber study in goats  

PubMed Central

Background Bone grafts from bone banks might be mixed with bisphosphonates to inhibit the osteoclastic response. This inhibition prevents the osteoclasts to resorb the allograft bone before new bone has been formed by the osteoblasts, which might prevent instability. Since bisphosphonates may not only inhibit osteoclasts, but also osteoblasts and thus bone formation, we studied different bisphosphonate concentrations combined with allograft bone. We investigated whether locally applied alendronate has an optimum dose with respect to bone resorption and formation. Further, we questioned whether the addition of demineralized bone matrix (DBM), would stimulate bone formation. Finally, we studied the effect of high levels of antibiotics on bone allograft healing, since mixing allograft bone with antibiotics might reduce the infection risk. Methods 25 goats received eight bone conduction chambers in the cortical bone of the proximal medial tibia. Five concentrations of alendronate (0, 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL, and 10 mg/mL) were tested in combination with allograft bone and supplemented with cefazolin (200 ?g/mL). Allograft not supplemented with alendronate and cefazolin served as control. In addition, allograft mixed with demineralized bone matrix, with and without alendronate, was tested. After 12 weeks, graft bone area and new bone area were determined with manual point counting. Results Graft resorption decreased significantly (p < 0.001) with increasing alendronate concentration. The area of new bone in the 1 mg/mL alendronate group was significantly (p = 0.002) higher when compared to the 10 mg/mL group. No differences could be observed between the group without alendronate, but with demineralized bone, and the control groups. Conclusions A dose-response relationship for local application of alendronate has been shown in this study. Most new bone was present at 1 mg/mL alendronate. Local application of cefazolin had no effect on bone remodelling.

2012-01-01

407

What Verbal Protocols Reveal About the Reading Strategies of Deaf Students: A Replication Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

EAF STUDENTS’ READING STRATEGIES were identified by investigating these students’ self-reported thinking during reading. In an earlier study (Schirmer, 2003), 10 elementary-level students attending a state school for the deaf had constructed meaning, monitored comprehension and activated strategies to improve comprehension, and evaluated comprehension, but had not demonstrated each of the reading strategies within these three overarching activities, all observed

Barbara R. Schirmer; Jill Bailey; Alison Schirmer Lockman

2004-01-01

408

PILOT STUDY PROTOCOL: APPLICATION OF MEASURES OF SPONTANEOUS MOTOR ACTIVITY FOR BEHAVORIAL ASSESSMENT IN HUMAN INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

As a participant in planning the National Childrens Study (NCS), EPA is interested in the investigation of key developmental disorders that may be associated with environmental exposures. This is particularly important in light of research that has established that prenatal and e...

409

Analysing Texts in Context: Current Practices and New Protocols for Critical Discourse Analysis in Organization Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in organization studies would be strengthened by an increased focus on a central CDA tenet that texts should be analysed in context. Context has, for the most part, been afforded a taken-for-granted status that is misplaced because of the diverse ways in which it may be defined and applied. These generally unacknowledged differences relate to

Shirley Leitch; Ian Palmer

2010-01-01

410

A conceptual framework for interprofessional shared decision making in home care: Protocol for a feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Shared decision making (SDM) is fundamental to informed consent and client-centered care. So far, SDM frameworks have been limited to the client-physician dyad, even though care is increasingly delivered by interprofessional (IP) teams. IP collaboration is especially essential in home care, one of health care's most rapidly growing areas. This study will assess whether it is possible to practice

Dawn Stacey; Nathalie Brière; Sophie Desroches; Serge Dumont; Kimberley Fraser; Mary-Anne Murray; Anne Sales; Denise Aubé

2011-01-01

411

Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project  

PubMed Central

Introduction In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. Methods and analysis The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. Ethics and dissemination The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations.

Lillehagen, Ida; V?llestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

2013-01-01

412

The organisational and human resource challenges facing primary care trusts: protocol of a multiple case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study is designed to assess the organisational and human resource challenges faced by Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). Its objectives are to: specify the organisational and human resources challenges faced by PCTs in fulfilling the roles envisaged in government and local policy; examine how PCTs are addressing these challenges, in particular, to describe the organisational forms they have adopted,

Elizabeth V Newbronner; Mike J Pedler; J Tim Scott; Trevor A Sheldon

2001-01-01

413

Palliative care for the management of chronic illness: a systematic review study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic illnesses are marked by fluctuations and variations over time. Individuals with chronic illness experience pain and other symptoms that are not always adequately managed. Their caregivers often have to deal with enormous burden as the illness progresses. Palliative care can serve as an intervention to manage chronic illness, not just at the end of life but also in the early phases of illness. Methods and analysis Randomised and non-randomised studies will be included in the systematic review. The focus will be on non-cancer chronic illness. Sources of data will be from PubMed and other databases and will include the reference list of studies included in the systematic review. The primary outcome will be to assess the efficacy of palliative care on chronic illness. Secondary outcomes will include health-related quality of life, care giver burden, quality of care and cost-effectiveness of interventions. The study population will consist of patients aged 18?years or over. Ethics and dissemination For purposes of privacy and confidentiality, the systematic review will be limited to studies with de-identified data. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. It will also be disseminated electronically and in print. Brief reports of review findings will be disseminated directly to appropriate audiences via email and other modes of communication. Updates of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number PROSPEROCRD42011001794.

Effiong, Andem I

2012-01-01

414

Exercise rehabilitation on home-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease - a randomized, controlled trial. Study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Besides cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to physical disability, need for help and permanent institutional care. The trials investigating effects of exercise rehabilitation on physical functioning of home-dwelling older dementia patients are still scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of intensive exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year on mobility and physical functioning of

Kaisu H Pitkala; Minna M Raivio; Marja-Liisa Laakkonen; Reijo S Tilvis; Hannu Kautiainen; Timo E Strandberg

2010-01-01

415

Nonblocking commit protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocols that allow operational sites to continue transaction processing even though site failures have occurred are called nonblocking. Many applications require nonblocking protocols. This paper investigates the properties of nonblocking protocols. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a protocol to be nonblocking are presented and from these conditions a method for designing them is derived. Both a central site nonblocking protocol

Dale Skeen

1981-01-01

416

Study protocol of a Dutch smoking cessation e-health program  

PubMed Central

Background The study aims to test the differential effects of a web-based text and a web-based video-driven computer-tailored approach for lower socio-economic status (LSES) and higher socio-economic status (HSES) smokers which incorporate multiple computer-tailored feedback moments. The two programs differ only in the mode of delivery (video- versus text-based messages). The paper aims to describe the development and design of the two computer-tailored programs. Methods/design Respondents who smoked at the time of the study inclusion, who were motivated to quit within the following six months and who were aged 18 or older were included in the program. The study is a randomized control trial with a 2 (video/text) * 2(LSES/HSES) design. Respondents were assigned either to one of the intervention groups (text versus video tailored feedback) or to the control group (non-tailored generic advice). In all three conditions participants were asked to fill in the baseline questionnaire based on the I-Change model. The questionnaire assessed socio-demographics, attitude towards smoking, knowledge, self-efficacy, social influence, depression, level of addiction, action planning, goal actions, intention to quit smoking, seven-day point prevalence and continued abstinence. Follow-up measurements were conducted at six and twelve months after baseline. Discussion The present paper describes the development of the two computer-tailored smoking cessation programs, their components and the design of the study. The study results reveal different working mechanisms of multiple tailored smoking cessation interventions and will help us to gain more insight into effective strategies to target different subgroups, especially smokers with a lower socio-economic status. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3102

2011-01-01

417

Influence of societal and practice contexts on health professionals' clinical reasoning: a scoping study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction In a context of constrained resources, the efficacy of interventions is a pivotal aim of healthcare systems worldwide. Efficacy of healthcare interventions is highly compromised if clinical reasoning (CR), the process that practitioners use to plan, direct, perform and reflect on client care, is not optimal. The CR process of health professionals is influenced by the institutional dimension (ie, legal, regulatory, administrative and organisational aspects) of their societal and practice contexts. Although several studies have been conducted with respect to the institutional dimension influencing health professionals’ CR, no clear integration of their results is yet available. The aim of this study is to synthesise and disseminate current knowledge on the influence of the institutional dimension of contexts on health professionals’ CR. Methods and analysis A scoping study of the scientific literature from January 1980 to March 2013 will be undertaken to summarise and disseminate research findings about the influence of the institutional dimension on CR. Numerous databases (n=18) from three relevant fields (healthcare, health law and politics and management) will be searched. Extended search strategies will include the manual search of bibliographies, health-related websites, public registries and journals of interest. Data will be collected and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. A systematic multidisciplinary team approach will allow optimal identification of relevant studies, as well as effective and valid content analysis and dissemination of the results. Discussion This scoping study will provide a rigorous, accurate and up-to-date synthesis of existing knowledge regarding: (1) those aspects of the institutional dimension of health professionals’ societal and practice contexts that impact their CR and (2) how these aspects influence health professionals’ CR. Through the synergy of a multidisciplinary research team from a wide range of expertise, clinical pertinence and an exhaustive dissemination of results to knowledge-users will be ensured.

Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Melanie; Freeman, Andrew; Mullins, Gary; Quenec'hdu, Suzanne; Lalonde, Louise; Gagnon, Michael; Lacasse, Francis

2013-01-01

418

On-chip copper/low-k interconnects for advanced IC devices: Materials integration and processing optimization studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance requirement of Moore's law continues to push the integrated circuits fabrication technology to reduce not only gate delay but also back-end-of-the-line (BEOL) delay. To meet these requirements, the implementation of copper as an interconnect in conjunction with ultra low-k materials as interlevel dielectrics (ILDs) in the fabrication of ULSI circuits has been a main stream. Presented in this dissertation is mainly focusing on the materials integration and processing optimization study of advanced Cu/low-k interconnections. The dielectric soft-breakdown and conduction mechanisms in PTFE low-k thin films have been studied. Temperature accelerated effects on leakage current and dielectric soft-breakdown behavior in low-k thin films are investigated and analyzed. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant of low-k thin films are also investigated and analyzed with frequency range up to 3 GHz. The extendibility of PVD seed layer for future devices needs to be enhanced with electrochemical techniques. Developing analytical techniques for plating bath is a particular challenge because bath ingredients are difficult to ascertain. The feasibility of using an Ion Chromatography for electrochemical copper Seed Layer Enhancement process metrology is studied. The compatibility of low-k polymer dielectrics with the electrochemical Cu deposition solution is investigated. Also, the drift of copper ions in low-k polymer dielectrics to identify copper barrier requirements for reliable interconnect integration is addressed by means of capacitance-voltage measurement which can quantify uncompensated dielectric charge in a MIS system with high sensitivity. It is found that the strength against soft-breakdown decreases with increasing temperature and with decreasing low-k film thickness. Ion conduction mechanism is expected to be dominant before soft-breakdown and Schottky conduction mechanism is expected to be dominant after soft-breakdown. The dielectric constant decreases with increasing frequency, and the frequency dependence is more pronounced in thinner low-k films. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant could be attributed to the orientation polarization of polymer chains and thickness dependence could be attributed to the crystallite size of low-k polymers. An Ion Chromatography method is shown to be capable for electrochemical Copper Seed Layer Enhancement process metrology. A strong correlation between the ion chromatograms and the electroplated copper film properties is observed.

Lee, Shih-Wei

419

The Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study: protocol design, methodology and feasibility report  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) is a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute–sponsored, four-center study designed to: 1) optimize symptom evaluation and diagnostic testing for ischemic heart disease; 2) explore mechanisms for symptoms and myocardial ischemia in the absence of epicardial coronary artery stenoses, and 3) evaluate the influence of reproductive hormones on symptoms and diagnostic test response.BACKGROUNDAccurate diagnosis

C. Noel Bairey Merz; Sheryl F Kelsey; Carl J Pepine; Nathaniel Reichek; Steven E Reis; William J Rogers; Barry L Sharaf; George Sopko

1999-01-01

420

Ear acupressure for smoking cessation: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Background: Smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease worldwide but smokers often fail to quit due to nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Current available pharmaceutical therapies may assist with smoking cessation but may have side effects. Ear acupressure (EAP) and ear acupuncture have been used for smoking cessation, and some positive results have been reported. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy and safety of EAP in assisting individuals to quit smoking and/or support them in the management of nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Methods: This study will be a randomised, single-blind, sham-controlled study conducted at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. Adult smokers will be randomly assigned to receive EAP specifically for smoking cessation or nonspecific EAP treatments. After a 2-week run-in, participants will be treated once a week for 8 weeks and followed up for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures will be 7 day point-prevalence cessation rate by self-report validated by expired carbon monoxide and nicotine withdrawal symptoms measured by the Mood and Physical Symptoms Score questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will be self-reported usage of nicotine replacement therapies, cigarette consumption, body weight change and quality of life. The safety end point will be self-reported adverse events associated with EAP. Intention-to-treat analysis will be applied. Discussion: Findings from this study will determine if this EAP intervention alone can be an effective and safe therapy to assist with smoking cessation and the management of nicotine withdrawal symptoms. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. PMID:24030452

Zhang, Anthony L; Di, Yuan Ming; Worsnop, Christopher; May, Brian H; Xue, Charlie C L

2013-08-15

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