BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that tight blood glucose (BG) control improves outcomes in critically ill adults. Children show similar hyperglycaemic responses to surgery or critical illness. However it is not known whether tight control will benefit children given maturational differences and different disease spectrum. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The study is an randomised open trial with two parallel groups to assess whether,
Duncan Macrae; John Pappachan; Richard Grieve; Roger Parslow; Simon Nadel; Margrid Schindler; Paul Baines; Peter-Marc Fortune; Zdenek Slavik; Allan Goldman; Ann Truesdale; Helen Betts; Elizabeth Allen; Claire Snowdon; Deborah Percy; Michael Broadhead; Tara Quick; Mark Peters; Kevin Morris; Robert Tasker; Diana Elbourne
Background There is increasing evidence that tight blood glucose (BG) control improves outcomes in critically ill adults. Children show similar hyperglycaemic responses to surgery or critical illness. However it is not known whether tight control will benefit children given maturational differences and different disease spectrum. Methods/Design The study is an randomised open trial with two parallel groups to assess whether, for children undergoing intensive care in the UK aged ? 16 years who are ventilated, have an arterial line in-situ and are receiving vasoactive support following injury, major surgery or in association with critical illness in whom it is anticipated such treatment will be required to continue for at least 12 hours, tight control will increase the numbers of days alive and free of mechanical ventilation at 30 days, and lead to improvement in a range of complications associated with intensive care treatment and be cost effective. Children in the tight control group will receive insulin by intravenous infusion titrated to maintain BG between 4 and 7.0 mmol/l. Children in the control group will be treated according to a standard current approach to BG management. Children will be followed up to determine vital status and healthcare resources usage between discharge and 12 months post-randomisation. Information regarding overall health status, global neurological outcome, attention and behavioural status will be sought from a subgroup with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A difference of 2 days in the number of ventilator-free days within the first 30 days post-randomisation is considered clinically important. Conservatively assuming a standard deviation of a week across both trial arms, a type I error of 1% (2-sided test), and allowing for non-compliance, a total sample size of 1000 patients would have 90% power to detect this difference. To detect effect differences between cardiac and non-cardiac patients, a target sample size of 1500 is required. An economic evaluation will assess whether the costs of achieving tight BG control are justified by subsequent reductions in hospitalisation costs. Discussion The relevance of tight glycaemic control in this population needs to be assessed formally before being accepted into standard practice. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN61735247
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has become a central method when studying in vivo protein-DNA interactions, with the major challenge being the hope to capture "authentic" interactions. While ChIP protocols have been optimized for use with specific cell types and tissues including adipose tissue-derived cells, a working ChIP protocol addressing the challenges imposed by fresh whole human adipose tissue has not been described. Utilizing human paired omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained during elective abdominal surgeries, we have carefully identified and optimized individual steps in the ChIP protocol employed directly on fresh tissue fragments. We describe a complete working protocol for using ChIP on whole adipose tissue fragments. Specific steps required adaptation of the ChIP protocol to human whole adipose tissue. In particular, a cross-linking step was performed directly on fresh small tissue fragments. Nuclei were isolated before releasing chromatin, allowing better management of fat content; a sonication protocol to obtain fragmented chromatin was optimized. We also demonstrate the high sensitivity of immunoprecipitated chromatin from adipose tissue to freezing. In conclusion, we describe the development of a ChIP protocol optimized for use in studying whole human adipose tissue, providing solutions for the unique challenges imposed by this tissue. Unraveling protein-DNA interaction in whole human adipose tissue will likely contribute to elucidating molecular pathways contributing to common human diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24002573
Haim, Yulia; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Bashari, Dana; Rudich, Assaf
This report explores a new way to think about designing digital systems, creating chip generators rather than chips, to resolve the crisis facing the chip industry: the need for high energy efficiency pushes us to create customized computing devices tailo...
D. Stark M. Horowitz O. Azizi R. Hameed Z. Asgar
Extraction experiments were performed to evaluate suitable sample-extraction and processing protocols that will be used by bioanalytical instruments like Life Marker Chip (LMC), focused on the detection of molecules associated with life that will be extracted from the Martian soil. LMC is an antibody microarray biosensor instrument with optical readout, which uses fluorescent labels, analogous to the expected biomarkers, to detect and quantify the presence of polar and non-polar biomolecules, extracted from the Martian soil. The success of the LMC biomarkers detection experiment is dependent on the sample extraction protocol. The currently recommended extraction procedure, optimized for aliphatic biomarkers, consists in sonicating the samples using as solvent system MeOH:H2O with surfactant, which respects all the tightening requirements associated to LMC biosensor. We have examined this procedure for a particular class of biomarkers, the nucleobases adenine, cytosine, uracil and hypoxanthine adsorbed onto martian analogues minerals.
Brucato, John Robert; Fornaro, Teresa; Pucci, Amaranta; Branciamore, Sergio
Background The investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation, particularly in embryonic stem cells, has received increasing attention and involves the systematic identification of target genes and the analysis of promoter co-occupancy. High-throughput approaches based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) have been widely used for this purpose. However, these approaches remain time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, involve multiple steps, and require complex statistical analysis. Advances in this field will greatly benefit from the development and use of simple, fast, sensitive and straightforward ChIP assay and analysis methodologies. Results We initially developed a simplified, basic ChIP protocol that combines simplicity, speed and sensitivity. ChIP analysis by real-time PCR was compared to analysis by densitometry with the ImageJ software. This protocol allowed the rapid identification of known target genes for SOX2, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX17, KLF4, RUNX2, OLIG2, SMAD2/3, BMI-1, and c-MYC in a human embryonic stem cell line. We then developed a novel Sequential ChIP protocol to investigate in vivo promoter co-occupancy, which is basically characterized by the absence of antibody-antigen disruption during the assay. It combines centrifugation of agarose beads and magnetic separation. Using this Sequential ChIP protocol we found that c-MYC associates with the SOX2/NANOG/OCT3/4 complex and identified a novel RUNX2/BMI-1/SMAD2/3 complex in BG01V cells. These two TF complexes associate with two distinct sets of target genes. The RUNX2/BMI-1/SMAD2/3 complex is associated predominantly with genes not expressed in undifferentiated BG01V cells, consistent with the reported role of those TFs as transcriptional repressors. Conclusion These simplified basic ChIP and novel Sequential ChIP protocols were successfully tested with a variety of antibodies with human embryonic stem cells, generated a number of novel observations for future studies and might be useful for high-throughput ChIP-based assays.
Medeiros, Ricardo B; Papenfuss, Kate J; Hoium, Brian; Coley, Kristen; Jadrich, Joy; Goh, Saik-Kia; Elayaperumal, Anuratha; Herrera, Julio E; Resnik, Ernesto; Ni, Hsiao-Tzu
A critical part of generating robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data is the optimization of chromatin purification and size selection. This is particularly important when ChIP is combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify targets of DNA-binding proteins, genome-wide. Current protocols refined by the ENCODE consortium generally use a two-step cell lysis procedure that is applicable to a wide variety of cell types. However, the isolation and size selection of chromatin from primary human epithelial cells may often be particularly challenging. These cells tend to form sheets of formaldehyde cross-linked material in which cells are resistant to membrane lysis, nuclei are not released and subsequent sonication produces extensive high molecular weight contamination. Here we describe an optimized protocol to prepare high quality ChIP-grade chromatin from primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The ENCODE protocol was used as a starting point to which we added the following key steps to separate the sheets of formaldehyde-fixed cells prior to lysis. (1) Incubation of the formaldehyde-fixed adherent cells in Trypsin-EDTA (0.25% room temperature) for no longer than 5 min. (2) Equilibration of the fixed cells in detergent-free lysis buffers prior to each lysis step. (3) The addition of 0.5% Triton X-100 to the complete cell membrane lysis buffer. (4) Passing the cell suspension (in complete cell membrane lysis buffer) through a 25-gauge needle followed by continuous agitation on ice for 35 min. Each step of the modified protocol was documented by light microscopy using the Methyl Green-Pyronin dual dye, which stains cytoplasm red (Pyronin) and the nuclei grey-blue (Methyl green). This modified method is reproducibly effective at producing high quality sheared chromatin for ChIP and is equally applicable to other epithelial cell types. PMID:24971909
Browne, James A; Harris, Ann; Leir, Shih-Hsing
A critical part of generating robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data is the optimization of chromatin purification and size selection. This is particularly important when ChIP is combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify targets of DNA-binding proteins, genome-wide. Current protocols refined by the ENCODE consortium generally use a two-step cell lysis procedure that is applicable to a wide variety of cell types. However, the isolation and size selection of chromatin from primary human epithelial cells may often be particularly challenging. These cells tend to form sheets of formaldehyde cross-linked material in which cells are resistant to membrane lysis, nuclei are not released and subsequent sonication produces extensive high molecular weight contamination. Here we describe an optimized protocol to prepare high quality ChIP-grade chromatin from primary human bronchial epithelial cells. The ENCODE protocol was used as a starting point to which we added the following key steps to separate the sheets of formaldehyde-fixed cells prior to lysis. (1) Incubation of the formaldehyde-fixed adherent cells in Trypsin-EDTA (0.25% room temperature) for no longer than 5 min. (2) Equilibration of the fixed cells in detergent-free lysis buffers prior to each lysis step. (3) The addition of 0.5% Triton X-100 to the complete cell membrane lysis buffer. (4) Passing the cell suspension (in complete cell membrane lysis buffer) through a 25-gauge needle followed by continuous agitation on ice for 35 min. Each step of the modified protocol was documented by light microscopy using the Methyl Green-Pyronin dual dye, which stains cytoplasm red (Pyronin) and the nuclei grey-blue (Methyl green). This modified method is reproducibly effective at producing high quality sheared chromatin for ChIP and is equally applicable to other epithelial cell types.
Browne, James A.; Harris, Ann; Leir, Shih-Hsing
Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.
Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia
Massive levels of integration following Moore's Law ushered in a paradigm shift in the way on-chip interconnections were designed. With higher and higher number of cores on the same die traditional bus based interconnections are no longer a scalable communication infrastructure. On-chip networks were proposed enabled a scalable plug-and-play mechanism for interconnecting hundreds of cores on the same chip. Wired interconnects between the cores in a traditional Network-on-Chip (NoC) system, becomes a bottleneck with increase in the number of cores thereby increasing the latency and energy to transmit signals over them. Hence, there has been many alternative emerging interconnect technologies proposed, namely, 3D, photonic and multi-band RF interconnects. Although they provide better connectivity, higher speed and higher bandwidth compared to wired interconnects; they also face challenges with heat dissipation and manufacturing difficulties. On-chip wireless interconnects is one other alternative proposed which doesn't need physical interconnection layout as data travels over the wireless medium. They are integrated into a hybrid NOC architecture consisting of both wired and wireless links, which provides higher bandwidth, lower latency, lesser area overhead and reduced energy dissipation in communication. However, as the bandwidth of the wireless channels is limited, an efficient media access control (MAC) scheme is required to enhance the utilization of the available bandwidth. This thesis proposes using a multiple access mechanism such as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to enable multiple transmitter-receiver pairs to send data over the wireless channel simultaneously. It will be shown that such a hybrid wireless NoC with an efficient CDMA based MAC protocol can significantly increase the performance of the system while lowering the energy dissipation in data transfer. In this work it is shown that the wireless NoC with the proposed CDMA based MAC protocol outperformed the wired counterparts and several other wireless architectures proposed in literature in terms of bandwidth and packet energy dissipation. Significant gains were observed in packet energy dissipation and bandwidth even with scaling the system to higher number of cores. Non-uniform traffic simulations showed that the proposed CDMA-WiNoC was consistent in bandwidth across all traffic patterns. It is also shown that the CDMA based MAC scheme does not introduce additional reliability concerns in data transfer over the on-chip wireless interconnects.
Peptide microarrays are useful tools for the characterization of humoral responses against peptide antigens. The study of post-translational modifications requires the printing of appropriately modified peptides, whose synthesis can be time-consuming and expensive. We describe here a method named "chips from chips", which allows probing the presence of antibodies directed toward modified peptide antigens starting from unmodified peptide microarrays. The chip from chip concept is based on the modification of peptide microspots by simple chemical reactions. The starting peptide chip (parent chip) is covered by the reagent solution, thereby allowing the modification of specific residues to occur, resulting in the production of a modified peptide chip (daughter chip). Both parent and daughter chips can then be used for interaction studies. The method is illustrated using reductive methylation for converting lysines into dimethyllysines. The rate of methylation was studied using specific antibodies and fluorescence detection, or surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. This later technique showed unambiguously the efficient methylation of the peptide probes. The method was then used to study the humoral response against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis heparin-binding hemagglutinin, a methylated surface-associated virulence factor and powerful diagnostic and protective antigen. PMID:20949974
Piret, Gaëlle; Desmet, Rémi; Diesis, Eric; Drobecq, Hervé; Segers, Jérome; Rouanet, Carine; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Boukherroub, Rabah; Locht, Camille; Melnyk, Oleg
Live imaging is an important technique for studying cell biological processes, however this can be challenging in live animals. The translucent cuticle of the Drosophila larva makes it an attractive model organism for live imaging studies. However, an important challenge for live imaging techniques is to noninvasively immobilize and position an animal on the microscope. This protocol presents a simple and easy to use method for immobilizing and imaging Drosophila larvae on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device, which we call the 'larva chip'. The larva chip is comprised of a snug-fitting PDMS microchamber that is attached to a thin glass coverslip, which, upon application of a vacuum via a syringe, immobilizes the animal and brings ventral structures such as the nerve cord, segmental nerves, and body wall muscles, within close proximity to the coverslip. This allows for high-resolution imaging, and importantly, avoids the use of anesthetics and chemicals, which facilitates the study of a broad range of physiological processes. Since larvae recover easily from the immobilization, they can be readily subjected to multiple imaging sessions. This allows for longitudinal studies over time courses ranging from hours to days. This protocol describes step-by-step how to prepare the chip and how to utilize the chip for live imaging of neuronal events in 3(rd) instar larvae. These events include the rapid transport of organelles in axons, calcium responses to injury, and time-lapse studies of the trafficking of photo-convertible proteins over long distances and time scales. Another application of the chip is to study regenerative and degenerative responses to axonal injury, so the second part of this protocol describes a new and simple procedure for injuring axons within peripheral nerves by a segmental nerve crush. PMID:24562098
Mishra, Bibhudatta; Ghannad-Rezaie, Mostafa; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Xin; Hao, Yan; Ye, Bing; Chronis, Nikos; Collins, Catherine A
The application of microfluidic technologies to stem cell research is of great interest to biologists and bioengineers. This is chiefly due to the intricate ability to control the cellular environment, the reduction of reagent volume, experimentation time and cost, and the high-throughput screening capabilities of microscale devices. Despite this importance, a simple-to-use microfluidic platform for studying the effects of growth factors on stem cell differentiation has not yet emerged. With this consideration, we have designed and characterized a microfluidic device that is easy to fabricate and operate, yet contains several functional elements. Our device is a simple polyester-based microfluidic chip capable of simultaneously screening multiple independent stem cell culture conditions. Generated by laser ablation and stacking of multiple layers of polyester film, this device integrates a 10?×?10 microwell array for cell culture with a continuous perfusion system and a non-linear concentration gradient generator. We performed numerical calculations to predict the gradient formation and calculate the shear stress acting on the cells inside the device. The device operation was validated by culturing murine embryonic stem cells inside the microwells for 5 days. Furthermore, we showed the ability to maintain the pluripotency of stem cell aggregates in response to concentrations of leukemia inhibitory factor ranging from 0 to ?1000 U/ml. Given its simplicity, fast manufacturing method, scalability, and the cell-compatible nature of the device, it may be a useful platform for long-term stem cell culture and studies.
Piraino, Francesco; Selimovic, Seila; Adamo, Marco; Pero, Alessandro; Manoucheri, Sam; Bok Kim, Sang; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali
The application of microfluidic technologies to stem cell research is of great interest to biologists and bioengineers. This is chiefly due to the intricate ability to control the cellular environment, the reduction of reagent volume, experimentation time and cost, and the high-throughput screening capabilities of microscale devices. Despite this importance, a simple-to-use microfluidic platform for studying the effects of growth factors on stem cell differentiation has not yet emerged. With this consideration, we have designed and characterized a microfluidic device that is easy to fabricate and operate, yet contains several functional elements. Our device is a simple polyester-based microfluidic chip capable of simultaneously screening multiple independent stem cell culture conditions. Generated by laser ablation and stacking of multiple layers of polyester film, this device integrates a 10?×?10 microwell array for cell culture with a continuous perfusion system and a non-linear concentration gradient generator. We performed numerical calculations to predict the gradient formation and calculate the shear stress acting on the cells inside the device. The device operation was validated by culturing murine embryonic stem cells inside the microwells for 5 days. Furthermore, we showed the ability to maintain the pluripotency of stem cell aggregates in response to concentrations of leukemia inhibitory factor ranging from 0 to ?1000 U/ml. Given its simplicity, fast manufacturing method, scalability, and the cell-compatible nature of the device, it may be a useful platform for long-term stem cell culture and studies. PMID:24278097
Piraino, Francesco; Selimovi?, Seila; Adamo, Marco; Pero, Alessandro; Manoucheri, Sam; Bok Kim, Sang; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali
Chip types in machining are determined by the combined effects of workpiece material properties, cutting speed, and tool geometry. The understanding of chip formation plays an important role in machining process optimization and surface integrity. Discontinuous chips, one of the major chip types, are usually formed in hard machining at high speeds. In this study, a new method has been
Y. B. Guo; David W. Yen
Background The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is highly effective in promoting weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. However, one-on-one DPP sessions are costly. As a cost-saving alternative, a group version of the DPP, called Group Lifestyle Balance program (GLB), has been developed but has been shown to be less effective. The aim of this two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial is to increase the effectiveness of the GLB by integrating habit formation techniques, namely if-then plans and their mental practice, into the program. Methods/Design A total of 154 participants will be randomized to a standard or enriched GLB program. For the enriched GLB program, if-then plans and their mental practice will be integrated into the standard GLB program. Participants will be overweight or obese men and women (BMI of 28 to 45 kg/m2, waist circumference???88 for women, ? 102 for men, 18 to 75 years of age) who do less than 200 minutes of self-reported moderate or vigorous exercise per week. Measures will be completed at baseline, 3 months, post-intervention (12 months), and 12 months post-intervention (24 months). The primary outcome measure is weight loss at 3, 12, and 24 months. Secondary outcomes include percent reaching weight loss goal, physical activity at 3, 12, and 24 months, and weight-related risk factors (waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol/HDL ratio). Standardized training of the life-style coaches, use of standardized manuals, and audio taping and reviewing of the sessions will ensure intervention fidelity. Discussion The study will provide evidence-based data on the effectiveness of an enhanced GLB intervention in promoting weight loss and in reducing weight-related risk factors for chronic health problems. Ethical clearance has been received from the Research Ethics and Compliance Board of the Faculty of Medicine Research and Graduate Studies Office at McGill University (Montreal, Canada). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02008435. Registered 6 December 2013.
Cardiotoxicity testing with a multi-electrode array (MEA) system requires the stable beating of cardiomyocytes for the measurement of the field potential duration (FPD), because different spontaneous beating rates cause different responses of FPD prolongation induced by drugs, and the beating rate change effected by drugs complicates the FPD prolongation assessment. We have developed an on-chip MEA system with electrical stimulation for the measurement of the FPD during the stable beating of human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. Using a conventional bipolar stimulation protocol, we observed such large artifacts in electrical stimulation that we could not estimate the FPD quantitatively. Therefore, we improved the stimulation protocol by using sequential rectangular pulses in which the positive and negative stimulation voltages and number of pulses could be changed flexibly. The balanced voltages and number of pulses for sequential rectangular pulses enabled the recording of small negative artifacts only, which hardly affected the FPD measurement of human-ES-cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. These conditions of electrical stimulation are expected to find applications for the control of constant beating for cardiotoxicity testing.
Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Fumimasa; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji
Silicon-based microelectrode chips are useful tools for temporal recording of neurotransmitter releasing from neural cells. Both invasive and non-invasive methods are targeted by different group researchers to perform electrical stimulating on neural cells. A microfabricated microelectrodes integrated biochip will be presented in this paper, which describes the dopaminergic cells growing on the chip directly. The dopamine exocytosis can be detected non-invasively from drug incubated dopaminergic cells growing on the chip. The abovementioned silicon-based electrochemical sensor chip has been designed with an electrode array located on the bottom of reaction chamber and each electrode is individually electrical controlled. MN9D, a mouse mesencephalic dopaminergic cell line, has been grown on the surface of the biochip chamber directly. Dopamine exocytosis from the chip-grown MN9D cells was detected using amperometry technology. The amperometric detection limit of dopamine of the biochip microelectrodes was found from 0.06?M to 0.21?M (S/N=3) statistically for the electrode diameters from 10 ?m to 90 ?m, the level of dopamine exocytosis from MN9D cells was undetectable whithout drug incubation. In contrast, after MN9D cells were incubated with L-dopa, a dopamine precursor, K+ induced dopamine extocytosis was temporally detected. The microelectrodes integrated biochip provides a non-invasive, temporal detection of dopamine exocytosis from dopaminergic cells, and holds the potential for applications in studying the mechanisms of dopamine exocytosis, and drug screening. It also provides a tool for pharmaceutical research and drug screening on dopaminergic cells, extendably to be used for other cell culture and drug effects study.
Chen, Yu; Cui, Hui-Fang; Ye, Jian-Shan; Chong, Ser-Choong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Sheu, Fwu-Shan; Cheong, Hui-Wing
Slide show on Human protocols (the rules followed in human interactions); Networking protocols (rules followed in networked communication systems Examples: HTTP, FTP, etc.) and Security protocols (the communication rules followed in a security application)
In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to quantify relationships in data. Despite an increased focus on statistical content and complexity of biomedical research these topics remain difficult for most researchers. Statistical methods enable researchers to condense large spreadsheets with data into means, proportions, and difference between means, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models ? meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are “statistically significant” or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings.
The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements.
Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S.M. Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup
Flip-chip assembly technology is becoming more and more important to radio frequency (RF) MCM with the following advantages: automated assembly, compact size, low cost, low crosstalk, and low insertion loss. However, flip-chip assembly also demands careful evaluation of solder joint reliability. For an assembly with a large MMIC chip or with a polymer substrate, underfill epoxy should be used to
Wenge Zhang; Bingzhi Su; Zhiping Feng; K. C. Gupta; Y. C. Lee
Surface quality of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) chips is a major limiting issue in most SPR analyses, even more for supported lipid membranes experiments, where both the organization of the lipid matrix and the subsequent incorporation of the target molecule depend on the surface quality. A novel quantitative method to characterize the quality of SPR sensors chips is described for L1 chips subject to formation of lipid films, injection of membrane disrupting compounds, followed by appropriate regeneration procedures. The method consists in analysis of the SPR reflectivity curves for several standard solutions (e.g. PBS, HEPES or deionized water). This analysis reveals the decline of sensor surface as a function of the number of experimental cycles (consisting in biosensing assay and regeneration step) and enables active control of surface regeneration for enhanced reproducibility. We demonstrate that quantitative evaluation of the changes in reflectivity curves (shape of the SPR dip) and of the slope of the calibration curve provides a rapid and effective procedure for surface quality assessment. Whereas the method was tested on L1 SPR sensors chips, we stress on its amenability to assess the quality of other types of SPR chips, as well. PMID:23455045
Olaru, Andreea; Gheorghiu, Mihaela; David, Sorin; Polonschii, Cristina; Gheorghiu, Eugen
Recent developments on various lab-on-a-chip techniques allow miniaturized and integrated devices to perform on-chip single-molecule studies. Fluidic-based platforms that utilize the unique microscale fluidic behavior are capable of conducting single-molecule experiments with high sensitivities and throughputs, while biomolecular systems can be studied on-chip using techniques such as DNA curtains, magnetic tweezers, and solid-state nanopores. The advances of these on-chip single-molecule techniques lead to next-generation lab-on-a-chip devices such as DNA transistors, and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology for rapid and low-cost whole genome DNA sequencing. In this Focus article, we will discuss some recent successes on developing lab-on-a-chip techniques for single-molecule studies and expound our thoughts on the near future of on-chip single-molecule studies.
Zhao, Yanhui; Chen, Danqi; Yue, Hongjun; French, Jarrod B.; Rufo, Joey; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Huang, Tony Jun
An innovative non-conventional technique, called impulsive chip breaking, is developed in the present study to break difficult-to-break chips that are often generated in machining high toughness or soft gummy materials, such as pure aluminum, pure copper, aluminum alloys, copper alloys, low carbon steels, and stainless steels. These materials have a wide variety of engineering applications. In impulsive chip breaking, the
N. Fang; Q. Wu
Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)
We report on several irradiation studies performed on BTeV preFPIX2 pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The preFPIX2 pixel readout chip has been implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose of 26 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been measured.
Gabriele Chiodini et al.
Present days cores composing a System-on-Chip might be interconnected by means of both dedicated channels or shared buses. Nevertheless, future systems will have strong requirements on reusability and communication performance, which will constrain the use of such interconnect systems. An emerging approach, the Networks-on-Chip (NOCs), will potentially fulfill those requirements, because NOCs are reusable and their communication performance gracefully scales
Cesar A. Zeferino; Márcio E. Kreutz; Luigi Carro; Altamiro A. Susin
Electrokinetic properties and morphology of PDMS microfluidic chips intended for bioassays are studied. The chips are fabricated by a casting method followed by polymerization bonding. Microchannels are coated with 1% solution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Tris buffer. Albumin passively adsorbs on the PDMS surface. Electrokinetic characteristics (electro-osmotic velocity, electro-osmotic mobility, and zeta potential) of the coated PDMS channels
Walter Schrott; Marek Nebyla
This study presents the design, simulation, fabrication and measurement of a microfluidic chip with micro cylindrical post array for separating particles. The structure of microfluidic chip is consisted of top glass, a micro channel with cylindrical post array, two Au end electrodes and bottom glass. Both in-line and staggered arrays of micro cylindrical posts were designed and made of SU-8
Ching-Hua Weil; Jong-Zen Huang; Chin-Tu Lul; Wen-Hsiang Han; You-Ming Hsu; Jian-Tang Lul
This report presents the results of the evaluation of anisotropic conductive adhesives for flip chip applications. Samples consist of bumped test chips mounted on rigid substrates with pitches down to 150 ?m. The dies were prepared with different bumps-electroless Ni, mechanical and electroplated Au. Several commercially available adhesives were selected to be investigated in this study. A detailed thermo-mechanical analysis
R. Miessner; R. Aschenbrenner; H. Reichl
A revised clinical study protocol is presented for a randomized, double-blind, three-treatment-group trial to study the efficacy and safety of chenodeoxycholic acid in dissolving cholesterol gallstones over a two year period in gallstone patients of both ...
The current light-emitting diodes (LED) flip chip has the advantage of high speed electricity, small volume, good heat dissipation and high I\\/O density for modern display technology. Thermosonic bonding system for LED seeking to feature with lower temperature and lower pressure for industrial application is overwhelming. Development of such potential precision, fine pitch and with shorten ultrasonic time for manufacturing
Yi-Cheng Huang; K.-Y. Li; F.-S. Hsiao; C.-H. Chen
This article presents a study on the dynamics of lateral motion of a liquid meniscus confined by a pad and a chip moving parallel\\u000a to the pad. This problem is a typical flip-chip case study, whose use is widespread in industrial assembly. The proposed model\\u000a describing this dynamics is built upon two coupled physics: the Navier–Stokes equation governing the liquid
P. Lambert; M. Mastrangeli; J.-B. Valsamis; G. Degrez
In this paper we study bus-based and switch-based on-chip networks for an embedded video application, the Smart Camera SoC (system on chip). We analyze network performance and overall system performance in detail. We explore system performance using crossbars with different sizes, fixed size but different numbers of ports, and different numbers of shared memories. We find that network is a
Jiang Xu; Wayne Wolf; Joerg Henkel; Srimat T. Chakradhar; Tiehan Lv
This study deals with the chip control in turning by in-situ laser heat treatment of work material. Medium carbon steel JIS S45C is chosen as workpiece material because the ductile ferrite-pearlite structure of the base material can be relatively easily changed into the hard-brittle martensitic structure by laser heat. For the purpose of practical use, the direct diode laser (DDL) is selected because of its compact size, easiness of handling and high absorbance. Prior to turning process, the continuous-wave laser beam is irradiated on the workpiece surface in a longitudinal direction. This linear heat treatment makes it possible to break chips in turning every one revolution of workpiece at which the material is embrittled. The chip breakability depends mainly on the ratio of heat-treated depth to depth of cut. In spite that the workpiece is partially hardened, abnormal wear or chipping is not observed on the tool face after turning.
Lin, Yongchuan; Tanaka, Ryutaro; Hosokawa, Akira; Kusano, Takahiko; Ueda, Takashi
We present the design of a higher throughput "heart on a chip" which utilizes a semi-automated fabrication technique to process sub millimeter sized thin film cantilevers of soft elastomers. Anisotropic cardiac microtissues which recapitulate the laminar architecture of the heart ventricle are engineered on these cantilevers. Deflection of these cantilevers, termed Muscular Thin Films (MTFs), during muscle contraction allows calculation of diastolic and systolic stresses generated by the engineered tissues. We also present the design of a reusable one channel fluidic microdevice completely built out of autoclavable materials which incorporates various features required for an optical cardiac contractility assay: metallic base which fits on a heating element for temperature control, transparent top for recording cantilever deformation and embedded electrodes for electrical field stimulation of the tissue. We employ the microdevice to test the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol on cardiac contractility at dosages ranging from 1 nM to 100 ?M. The higher throughput fluidic heart on a chip has applications in testing of cardiac tissues built from rare or expensive cell sources and for integration with other organ mimics. These advances will help alleviate translational barriers for commercial adoption of these technologies by improving the throughput and reproducibility of readout, standardization of the platform and scalability of manufacture. PMID:23807141
Agarwal, Ashutosh; Goss, Josue Adrian; Cho, Alexander; McCain, Megan Laura; Parker, Kevin Kit
Respiratory long-term facilitation is a form of neuronal plasticity that is induced following exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Long-term facilitation is characterized by a progressive increase in respiratory motor output during normoxic periods that separate hypoxic episodes and by a sustained elevation in respiratory activity for up to 90 min after exposure to intermittent hypoxia. This phenomenon is associated with increases in phrenic, hypoglossal or carotid sinus nerve inspiratory-modulated discharge. The examination of long-term facilitation has been steadily ongoing for approximately 3 decades. During this period of time a variety of animal models (e.g. cats, rats and humans), experimental preparations and intermittent hypoxia protocols have been used to study long-term facilitation. This review is designed to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the models, preparations and protocols that have been used to study LTF over the past 30 years. The review is divided into two primary sections. Initially, the models and protocols used to study LTF in animals other than humans will be discussed, followed by a section specifically focused on human studies. Each section will begin with a discussion of various factors that must be considered when selecting an experimental preparation and intermittent hypoxia protocol to examine LTF. Model and protocol design recommendations will follow, with the goal of presenting a prevailing model and protocol that will ultimately ensure standardized comparisons across studies.
Mateika, Jason H.; Sandhu, Kulraj S.
Background The Whitehall II (WHII) study of British civil servants provides a unique source of longitudinal data to investigate key factors hypothesized to affect brain health and cognitive ageing. This paper introduces the multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and cognitive assessment designed to investigate brain health in a random sample of 800 members of the WHII study. Methods/design A total of 6035 civil servants participated in the WHII Phase 11 clinical examination in 2012–2013. A random sample of these participants was included in a sub-study comprising an MRI brain scan, a detailed clinical and cognitive assessment, and collection of blood and buccal mucosal samples for the characterisation of immune function and associated measures. Data collection for this sub-study started in 2012 and will be completed by 2016. The participants, for whom social and health records have been collected since 1985, were between 60–85 years of age at the time the MRI study started. Here, we describe the pre-specified clinical and cognitive assessment protocols, the state-of-the-art MRI sequences and latest pipelines for analyses of this sub-study. Discussion The integration of cutting-edge MRI techniques, clinical and cognitive tests in combination with retrospective data on social, behavioural and biological variables during the preceding 25 years from a well-established longitudinal epidemiological study (WHII cohort) will provide a unique opportunity to examine brain structure and function in relation to age-related diseases and the modifiable and non-modifiable factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse brain changes.
We report a microfluidic chip that is capable of measuring volume changes in single cells in real-time. Single eukaryotic cells were immobilized in the sensing area and changes in volume in response to hypotonic challenges and drugs were measured using the electrical impedance method. Experiments on MDCK cells showed that the maximum swelling and the time course of swelling vary between individual cells following hypotonic stimulation. The microfluidic chip allows, rapid and convenient change of solutions, enabling detailed studies of various drugs and chemicals that may play important role in cell physiology at the single cell level.
A comparative, protocol-based study is reported of the first (Chinese) and foreign (English) language writing processes of six postgraduate English-as-a-Foreign-Language students. The study revealed the approaches of the six writers to the task of producing academic written discourse to be very different, and suggested that if composing strategies…
The flip chip bonding process using anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACA) and the consequent joint reliability were studied. The substrates used were rigid FR-4 boards, which are interesting due to their low cost and wide range of applications. The problems associated with the technique are discussed in this paper from the reliability point of view. Also, some aspects concerning production are
A. Seppälä; Eero Ristolainen
The study on the modeling of timed-token protocol (TTP) in metropolitan area network is presented in this paper. The classification of queueing models of TTP is given, and the mathematical analysis as well as numerical emulation for one of the queueing models i.e. L\\/G\\/1 [Intermittent, Station priority, TTP, Time-limited service] are presented.
Zhaoyi Lu; Lihong Wang; Dongyi Yao
Although there are many retrospective accounts from teachers and professional writers concerning the effect of computers on their writing, there are few real-time accounts of students struggling to simultaneously develop as writers and cope with computers. To fill this void in "testimonial data," a study examining talking-aloud protocols from a…
The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is designed for use in ad hoc mobile networks. Because of the difficulty of testing an ad hoc routing protocol in a real-world environment, a simulation was first created so that the protocol design could be tested in a variety of scenarios. Once simulation of the protocol was nearly complete, the
Elizabeth M. Royer; Charles E. Perkins
This study deals with the chip control in turning by in-situ laser heat treatment of work material. Medium carbon steel JIS S45C is chosen as workpiece material because the ductile ferrite-pearlite structure of the base material can be relatively easily changed into the hard-brittle martensitic structure by laser heat. For the purpose of practical use, the direct diode laser (DDL)
Yongchuan Lin; Ryutaro Tanaka; Akira Hosokawa; Takahiko Kusano; Takashi Ueda
Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for optical cell tracking approaches. However, reliable and quantitative bioluminescence of transplanted cells in the brain is highly challenging. In this study we established a new bioluminescence imaging protocol dedicated for neuroimaging, which increases sensitivity especially for noninvasive tracking of brain cell grafts. Different D-Luciferin concentrations (15, 150, 300 and 750 mg/kg), injection routes (iv, ip, sc), types of anesthesia (Isoflurane, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbital) and timing of injection were compared using DCX-Luc transgenic mice for brain specific bioluminescence. Luciferase kinetics was quantitatively evaluated for maximal photon emission, total photon emission and time-to-peak. Photon emission followed a D-Luciferin dose-dependent relation without saturation, but with delay in time-to-peak increasing for increasing concentrations. The comparison of intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal substrate injection reflects expected pharmacokinetics with fastest and highest photon emission for intravenous administration. Ketamine/Xylazine and Pentobarbital anesthesia showed no significant beneficial effect on maximal photon emission. However, a strong difference in outcome was observed by injecting the substrate pre Isoflurane anesthesia. This protocol optimization for brain specific bioluminescence imaging comprises injection of 300 mg/kg D-Luciferin pre Isoflurane anesthesia as an efficient and stable method with a signal gain of approx. 200% (compared to 150 mg/kg post Isoflurane). Gain in sensitivity by the novel imaging protocol was quantitatively assessed by signal-to-noise calculations of luciferase-expressing neural stem cells grafted into mouse brains (transplantation of 3,000–300,000 cells). The optimized imaging protocol lowered the detection limit from 6,000 to 3,000 cells by a gain in signal-to-noise ratio.
Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Hoehn, Mathias
Clinical trial simulation studies can be used to assess the impact of many aspects of trial design, conduct, analysis and decision making on trial performance metrics. Simulation studies can play a vital role in improving the efficiency of the drug development process within the pharmaceutical industry, but only if they are well designed and conducted. It is imperative therefore that a protocol or simulation plan is developed, documenting how the simulation study is to be conducted, analysed and reported. This article emphasises the specific considerations necessary for designing good quality simulation studies. These include defining data generation processes, data analytic methods, decision criteria and also determining the presentation of results for all intended audiences. With clinical trial simulations becoming a vital part of the drug development process, the protocol for clinical trial simulations may in future become part of the regulatory peer review process. More rigour in the planning and execution of simulation studies will ensure that the design, analysis and decision-making process for the subsequent clinical trial is based on credible evidence that can be independently verified. PMID:20688782
Smith, Mike K; Marshall, Andrea
An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method, and was capable of removing virtually all S0 from the pyrite grains. As pyrite oxidation and dissolution processes are surface-dependent, and even the slightest coating by Fe2+ or sulfide oxidation products can sharply decrease pyrite reactivity, the improved removal of S0 prevents such decreases and allows clearer insights into pyrite reaction mechanisms to be gained from experimental studies. In addition to S0 removal, the suggested method was shown not to introduce any biases in the particle size distribution. The main difference observed between the two protocols is the removal of larger amounts of surface-attached fine particles in the proposed method along with S0. This also removes a potential bias, associated with the surface area of pyrite available for chemical reaction. The suggested pyrite pretreatment protocol is more efficient in removal of S0 contamination from pyrite grains and provides multiple advantages for both kinetic and isotopic investigations of pyrite transformations under various environmental conditions.
Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay
This paper presents an experimental study on different microelectrode fabrication techniques, with particular focus on the robustness of the surface insulation towards typical working conditions required in lab-on-a-chip applications. Pt microelectrodes with diameters of 50 ?m, 100 ?m and 200 ?m are patterned on a Si substrate with SiO(2) film. Sputtered SiO(2), low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) low-temperature oxide (LTO), Parylene C, SU-8, and dry-film were deposited and patterned on top of the chips as the passivation layer. This paper provides the detailed fabrication processes, the adhesion enhancement strategies, and the major advantages and disadvantages of each fabrication technique. Firstly, the quality and adhesion strength of the passivations were investigated by means of hydrolysis tests, in which sputtered SiO(2) and dry-film resist showed serious delamination issues and LTO showed minor defects. Secondly, the reliability of the microelectrodes was tested by impedance measurements after overnight ethanol incubation and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation. Thirty chips, representing a total of 300 electrodes, were measured, and statistical analyses of the results were conducted for each passivation technique. All of the electrodes passivated with these five techniques showed consistent impedance values after ethanol incubation. On the other hand, only LTO, Parylene C, and SU-8 ensured uniform electrical behavior after SAM formation. Having used both hydrolysis and impedance tests to verify the superior quality of the Parylene-based passivation, electrochemical experiments were performed to study the long-term stability of the passivation layer. Finally, the electrodes were incubated with electroactive alkanethiols functionalized with ferrocene. Square-wave voltammetry measurements demonstrated reproducible results on electrochemical label detection, which confirms the suitability of the Parylene passivation for charge-transfer-based measurements. PMID:23042440
Temiz, Yuksel; Ferretti, Anna; Leblebici, Yusuf; Guiducci, Carlotta
The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) poses a real challenge in the design of a MANET routing protocol. Over the last 10 years, a variety of routing protocols have been developed and their performance simulations are made by network researchers. Most of the previous research on MANET routing protocols have focused on simulation study by varying
Nurul I. Sarkar; Wilford G. Lol
In vitro compartmentalization (IVC) is a powerful tool for studying protein-protein reactions, due to its high capacity and the versatility of droplet technologies. IVC bridges the gap between chemistry and biology as it enables the incorporation of unnatural amino acids with modifications into biological systems, through protein transcription and translation reactions, in a cell-like microdrop environment. The quest for the ultimate chip for protein studies using IVC is the drive for the development of various microfluidic droplet technologies to enable these unusual biochemical reactions to occur. These techniques have been shown to generate precise microdrops with a controlled size. Various chemical and physical phenomena have been utilized for on-chip manipulation to allow the droplets to be generated, fused, and split. Coupled with detection techniques, droplets can be sorted and selected. These capabilities allow directed protein evolution to be carried out on a microchip. With further technological development of the detection module, factors such as addressable storage, transport and interfacing technologies, could be integrated and thus provide platforms for protein studies with high efficiency and accuracy that conventional laboratories cannot achieve. PMID:18594785
Zhu, Yonggang; Power, Barbara E
Spent sulphite liquor is a lignocellulosic residue obtained in the acid sulphite pulping process after the digestion of hardwood chips, and composed mainly by lignosulphonates and hemicelluloses. The aim of this work is to study the main process variables at different digestion conditions: maximum temperature, heating rate, and total SO? content, which affect the delignification process of hardwood chips to obtain dissolving pulp and to increase the total amount of fermentable sugars and lignosulphonates presented in this lignocellulosic waste. The best results are 210.5 g/L of lignosulphonates and 47.26 g/L of total monosaccharides obtained at higher temperatures of 1.058T and 1.072T, low heating rates of 0.334R and 0.285R, and total SO? content of 6.20%. Furthermore, concentrate-acid hydrolysis of the liquor with sulphuric acid was performed in order to study the evolution of the sugar content and the release of the inhibitors. Temperature, acid concentration, acid/liquor ratio and time were modified, showing that acid/liquid ratio is the most influential variable. Although increase in the content of sugars in neither case, a notable furfural and acetic acid concentration decrease is registered, 97.88% and 36.57% respectively, at 20 °C, 60% (w/w) sulphuric acid and acid/sample ratio of 1/0.1 (v/v). PMID:22801518
Llano, Tamara; Rueda, Cristina; Quijorna, Natalia; Blanco, Alain; Coz, Alberto
The structures and electronic states of boron- and nitrogen-substituted graphene chips (B-, N-, and BN-doped graphene chips) have been investigated by means of the density functional theory (DFT) method in order to shed light on the mechanism of change in the electronic properties of graphene chips caused by heteroatoms. The atomic charge of nitrogen atoms in N-graphene was a negative
Hiroto Tachikawa; Tetsuji Iyama; Kazuhisa Azumi
The web browsers are the application software that are used to access information from the World Wide Web. With the increasing popularity of the web browsers, the modern web browsers are designed to contain more features as compared to the existing web browsers. For the transferring of information through these browsers, various protocols have been implemented on these modern web browsers to make these browsers more efficient. Different protocols used in different layers have different functions and by increasing the efficiency of these protocols we can make the working of browsers more efficient.
Mishra, Bharat; Baghel, Harish Singh; Patil, Manoj; Singh, Pramod
This paper presents a method for calculating power transmitted to the hands of operators who use vibrating hand tools. Results that relate to a comprehensive multidisciplined NIOSH field study of several hundred chipper and grinder workers who used pneumatic hand tools are presented. The results of this study indicated that the power in the frequency range of 6·3 Hz to 1000 Hz transmitted to the hand ranged from 1·08 × 10 3 to 7·23 × 10 3 J/s for the chisel and from 8·52 × 10 -1 to 1·57 × 10 2 J/s for the handle of chipping hammers. For pneumatic grinders the power transmitted to the hands of the tool operators was in the range of 6·58 × 10 -3 to 2·35 × 10 -3 J/s over the same frequency range.
Reynolds, D. D.; Basel, R.; Wasserman, D. E.; Taylor, W.
Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists.
Background DNA microarrays have become a nearly ubiquitous tool for the study of human disease, and nowhere is this more true than in cancer. With hundreds of studies and thousands of expression profiles representing the majority of human cancers completed and in public databases, the challenge has been effectively accessing and using this wealth of data. Description To address this issue we have collected published human cancer gene expression datasets generated on the Affymetrix GeneChip platform, and carefully annotated those studies with a focus on providing accurate sample annotation. To facilitate comparison between datasets, we implemented a consistent data normalization and transformation protocol and then applied stringent quality control procedures to flag low-quality assays. Conclusion The resulting resource, the GeneChip Oncology Database, is available through a publicly accessible website that provides several query options and analytical tools through an intuitive interface.
A novel continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip has been analyzed in our work. Two temperature zones are controlled by two external controllers and the other temperature zone at the chip center is controlled by the flow rate of the fluid inside a channel under the glass chip. By employing a water cooling channel at the chip center, the sequence of denaturation, annealing, and extension can be created due to the forced convection effect. The required annealing temperature of PCR less than 313 K can also be demonstrated in this chip. The Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cooling channel with the thin aluminum cover is utilized to enhance the temperature uniformity. The size of this chip is 76 mm × 26 mm × 3 mm. This device represents the first demonstration of water cooling thermocycling within continuous-flow PCR microfluidics. The commercial software CFD-ACE+(TM) is utilized to determine the distances between the heating assemblies within the chip. We investigate the influences of various chip materials, operational parameters of the cooling channel and geometric parameters of the chip on the temperature uniformity on the chip surface. Concerning the temperature uniformity of the working zones and the lowest temperature at the annealing zone, the air gap spacing of 1 mm and the cooling channel thicknesses of 1 mm of the PMMA channel with an aluminum cover are recommended in our design. The hydrophobic surface of the PDMS channel was modified by filling it with 20 % Tween 20 solution and then adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution to the PCR mixture. DNA fragments with different lengths (372 bp and 478 bp) are successfully amplified with the device. PMID:23179465
Chen, Jyh Jian; Shen, Chia Ming; Ko, Yu Wei
Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion. Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence. The initial focus of CATS is on adrenarche, the first hormonal process in the pubertal cascade, which begins for most children at around 8 years of age. Methods/Design CATS is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. All Grade 3 students (8–9 years of age) from a stratified cluster sample of schools in Melbourne, Australia were invited to take part. In total, 1239 students and a parent/guardian were recruited to participate in the study. Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche. Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development. The cohort will provide rich detail of the development, lifestyle, external circumstances and health of children during the transition from childhood through to adolescence. Baseline associations between the hormonal measures and measures of mental health and behaviour will initially be examined cross-sectionally, and then in later waves longitudinally. CATS will make a unique contribution to the understanding of adrenarche and puberty in children’s health and development.
This paper describes a novel disposable and portable plastic-silicon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system using microfabrication technologies for the realization of miniaturized nucleic acid analyses. The system consists of a polyimide-based film microheating system, embedding with a microheater and a temperature sensor made entirely with flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) process protocols, and a bulk-micromachined silicon reaction chamber. Reduction of
Dae-Sik Lee; Se Ho Park; Kwang Hyo Chung; Hyeon-Bong Pyo
We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2) Performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack need to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. The results suggest that in order to improve the performance of a communication network, it will be important to study the entire protocol stuck as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the 7 layer OSI stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point.
Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)
Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061
Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B
The major impetus for flight qualifying Chip-On-Board (COB) packaging technology is the shift in emphasis for space missions to smaller, better, and cheaper spacecraft and satellites resulting from the NASA New Millenium initiative and similar requirements in DoD-sponsored programs. The most important benefit that can potentially be derived from miniaturizing spacecraft and satellites is the significant cost saving realizable if a smaller launch vehicle may be employed. Besides the program cost saving, there are several other advantages to building COB-based space hardware. First, once a well-controlled process is established, COB can be low cost compared to standard Multi-Chip Module (MCM) technology. This cost competitiveness is regarded as a result of the generally greater availability and lower cost of Known Good Die (KGD). Coupled with the elimination of the first level of packaging (chip package), compact, high-density circuit boards can be realized with Printed Wiring Boards (PWB) that can now be made with ever-decreasing feature size in line width and via hole. Since the COB packaging technique in this study is based mainly on populating bare dice on a suitable multi-layer laminate substrate which is not hermetically sealed, die coating for protection from the environment is required. In recent years, significant improvements have been made in die coating materials which further enhance the appeal of COB. Hysol epoxies, silicone, parylene and silicon nitride are desirable because of their compatible Thermal Coefficient of Expansion (TCE) and good moisture resistant capability. These die coating materials have all been used in the space and other industries with varying degrees of success. COB technology, specifically siliconnitride coated hardware, has been flown by Lockheed on the Polar satellite. In addition, DARPA has invested a substantial amount of resources on MCM and COB-related activities recently. With COB on the verge of becoming a dominant player in DoD programs, DARPA is increasing its support of the availability of KGDs which will help decrease their cost. Aside from the various major developments and trends in the space and defense industries that are favorable to the acceptance and widespread use of'COB packaging technology, implementing COB can be appealing in other aspects. Since the interconnection interface is usually the weak link in a system, the overall circuit or system reliability may actually be improved because of the elimination of a level of interconnect/packaging at the chip. With COB, mixing packaging technologies is possible. Because some devices are only available in commercial plastic packages, populating a multi-layer laminate substrate with both bare dice and plastic-package parts is inevitable. Another attractive feature of COB is that re-workability is possible if die coating is applied only on the die top. This method allows local replacement of individual dice that were found to be defective instead of replacing an entire board. In terms of thermal management, unpackaged devices offer a shorter thermal resistance path than their packaged counterparts thereby improving thermal sinking and heat removal from the parts.
Le, Binh Q.; Nhan, Elbert; Maurer, Richard H.; Lew, Ark L.; Lander, Juan R.
Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.
Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela
We describe a multi-chip CMOS VLSI visual motion processing system which combines analog circuitry with an asynchronous digital interchip communications protocol to allow more complex motion processing than is possible with all the circuitry in the focal plane. The two basic VLSI building blocks are a sender chip which incorporates a 2D imager array and transmits the position of moving
Charles M. Higgins; Christof Koch
In this work, the finite element method is used to simulate the flip chip assembly process using anisotropically conductive adhesive bonding. Since the structure is complex and consists of composite materials, we first study different models of the PCB substrate, which lead to different results in the numerical calculations. The stress during the assembly process is also discussed. We give
K. Pinardi; J. Liu; R. Haug; C. Treutler; M. Willander
This presents the protocol used in the Recurrence Study (Phase III) of the National Cooperative Gallstone Study. The aim of this double-blind, randomized control trial is to determine the following factors in patients from the Phase II trial in whom chole...
We have developed an on-chip cell sorting system and microgel electrode for applying electrostatic force in microfluidic pathways in the chip. The advantages of agarose electrodes are 1) current-driven electrostatic force generation, 2) stability against pH change and chemicals, and 3) no bubble formation caused by electrolysis. We examined the carrier ion type and concentration dependence of microgel electrode impedance, and found that CoCl2 has less than 1/10 of the impedance from NaCl, and the reduction of the impedance of NaCl gel electrode was plateaued at 0.5 M. The structure control of the microgel electrode exploiting the surface tension of sol-state agarose was also introduced. The addition of 1% (w/v) trehalose into the microgel electrode allowed the frozen storage of the microgel electrode chip. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of our system and microgel electrode for practical applications in microfluidic chips.
Akihiro Hattori,; Kenji Yasuda,
Background Many clinical studies are ultimately not fully published in peer-reviewed journals. Underreporting of clinical research is wasteful and can result in biased estimates of treatment effect or harm, leading to recommendations that are inappropriate or even dangerous. Methods We assembled a cohort of clinical studies approved 2000–2002 by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Freiburg, Germany. Published full articles were searched in electronic databases and investigators contacted. Data on study characteristics were extracted from protocols and corresponding publications. We characterized the cohort, quantified its publication outcome and compared protocols and publications for selected aspects. Results Of 917 approved studies, 807 were started and 110 were not, either locally or as a whole. Of the started studies, 576 (71%) were completed according to protocol, 128 (16%) discontinued and 42 (5%) are still ongoing; for 61 (8%) there was no information about their course. We identified 782 full publications corresponding to 419 of the 807 initiated studies; the publication proportion was 52% (95% CI: 0.48–0.55). Study design was not significantly associated with subsequent publication. Multicentre status, international collaboration, large sample size and commercial or non-commercial funding were positively associated with subsequent publication. Commercial funding was mentioned in 203 (48%) protocols and in 205 (49%) of the publications. In most published studies (339; 81%) this information corresponded between protocol and publication. Most studies were published in English (367; 88%); some in German (25; 6%) or both languages (27; 6%). The local investigators were listed as (co-)authors in the publications corresponding to 259 (62%) studies. Conclusion Half of the clinical research conducted at a large German university medical centre remains unpublished; future research is built on an incomplete database. Research resources are likely wasted as neither health care professionals nor patients nor policy makers can use the results when making decisions.
Blumle, Anette; Meerpohl, Joerg J.; Schumacher, Martin; von Elm, Erik
Increasing demand for high-density flip-chip packaging and lead-free solder technology has led to the development of fine-pitch copper pillar and lead-free solder Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC). However, the challenges associated with the technology include controlling the of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and preventing copper migration during bonding and reliability testing. Because the reliability of a flip-chip-on-module (FCOM) joint is significantly affected by
Mark Huang; Ong Gee Yeow; Chia Yong Poo; Tom Jiang
VANETs has emerged as the new network environment for intelligent transportations systems. In this paper, we focus on two types of VANET applications and evaluate the effectiveness of our data dissemination protocol for these two types of applications. In particular, we investigate traffic monitoring (TM) and roadside message transfer (RMT) applications. The traffic monitoring application (TMA) allows drivers to query
Mooi Choo Chuah; Fen Fu
Instant messaging (IM) and network chat communication have seen an enormous rise in popularity over the last several years. However, since many of these systems are proprietary, little has been described about the network technology behind them. This analysis helps bridge this gap by providing an overview of the available features, functions, system architectures, and protocol specifications of the three
Raymond B. Jennings III; Erich M. Nahum; David P. Olshefski; Debanjan Saha; Zon-yin Shae; Chris Waters
This paper describes the in depth performance comparison and evaluation among three major solutions for forming multi-hop networks of Bluetooth devices (scatternet formation). The three protocols considered in this paper are BlueTrees, BlueStars, and the \\
Mohammad Shafkat Amin; Fahima Amin Bhuyan
Hyper-IgM syndrome and Common Variable Immunodeficiency are heterogeneous disorders characterized by predisposition to serious infection and impaired or absent neutralizing antibody responses. While a number of single gene defects have been associated with these immune deficiency disorders, the genetic basis of many cases is not known. To facilitate mutation screening in patients with these syndromes, we have developed a custom 300-kb resequencing array, the Hyper-IgM/CVID chip, which interrogates 1576 coding exons and intron-exon junction regions from 148 genes implicated in B cell development and immunoglobulin isotype switching. Genomic DNAs extracted from patients were hybridized to the array using a high-throughput protocol for target sequence amplification, pooling, and hybridization. A web-based application, SNP Explorer, was developed to directly analyze and visualize the single nucleotide polymorphism annotation and for quality filtering. Several mutations in known disease-susceptibility genes such as CD40LG, TNFRSF13B, IKBKG, AICDA, as well as rare nucleotide changes in other genes such as TRAF3IP2 were identified in patient DNA samples and validated by direct sequencing. We conclude that the Hyper-IgM/CVID chip combined with SNP Explorer may provide a cost-effective tool for high-throughput discovery of novel mutations among hundreds of disease-relevant genes in patients with inherited antibody deficiency.
Wang, Hong-Ying; Gopalan, Vivek; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Yeager, Meredith; Ma, Chi Adrian; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Quinones, Mariam; Matthews, Casey; Boland, Joseph; Niemela, Julie E.; Torgerson, Troy R; Giliani, Silvia; Uzel, Gulbu; Orange, Jordan S.; Shapiro, Ralph; Notarangelo, Luigi; Ochs, Hans D.; Fleisher, Thomas; Kastner, Daniel; Chanock, Stephen J.; Jain, Ashish
There is growing recognition that lipids play key roles in ion channel physiology, both through the dynamic formation and dissolution of lipid ion channels and by indirect regulation of protein ion channels. Because existing technologies cannot rapidly modulate the local (bio)chemical conditions at artificial bilayer lipid membranes used in ion channel studies, the ability to elucidate the dynamics of these lipid–lipid and lipid–protein interactions has been limited. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic system supporting exceptionally rapid perfusion of reagents to an on-chip bilayer lipid membrane, enabling the responses of lipid ion channels to dynamic changes in membrane boundary conditions to be probed. The thermoplastic microfluidic system allows initial perfusion of reagents to the membrane in less than 1 s, and enables kinetic behaviors with time constants below 10 s to be directly measured. Application of the platform is demonstrated toward kinetic studies of ceramide, a biologically important lipid known to self-assemble into transmembrane ion channels, in response to dynamic treatments of small ions (La3+) and proteins (Bcl-xL mutant). The results reveal the broader potential of the technology for studies of membrane biophysics, including lipid ion channel dynamics, lipid–protein interactions, and the regulation of protein ion channels by lipid micro domains.
Shao, Chenren; Sun, Bing; Colombini, Marco; DeVoe, Don L.
There is growing recognition that lipids play key roles in ion channel physiology, both through the dynamic formation and dissolution of lipid ion channels and by indirect regulation of protein ion channels. Because existing technologies cannot rapidly modulate the local (bio)chemical conditions at artificial bilayer lipid membranes used in ion channel studies, the ability to elucidate the dynamics of these lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions has been limited. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic system supporting exceptionally rapid perfusion of reagents to an on-chip bilayer lipid membrane, enabling the responses of lipid ion channels to dynamic changes in membrane boundary conditions to be probed. The thermoplastic microfluidic system allows initial perfusion of reagents to the membrane in less than 1 s, and enables kinetic behaviors with time constants below 10 s to be directly measured. Application of the platform is demonstrated toward kinetic studies of ceramide, a biologically important lipid known to self-assemble into transmembrane ion channels, in response to dynamic treatments of small ions (La(3+)) and proteins (Bcl-x(L) mutant). The results reveal the broader potential of the technology for studies of membrane biophysics, including lipid ion channel dynamics, lipid-protein interactions, and the regulation of protein ion channels by lipid micro domains. PMID:21556947
Shao, Chenren; Sun, Bing; Colombini, Marco; Devoe, Don L
Embedded networks for chip-to-chip networks are emerging as communication infrastructure in mobile devices. We present three novel embedded network protocols: a sliding window protocol, a protocol for opening and closing connections, and a bandwidth reservation protocol. The design of these protocols is tailored to the low power and low cost requirements of mobile devices. The model checker SPIN played an important role in the design and analysis of these protocols. Large instances of the protocols could be analyzed successfully using the distributed model checker DiVinE.
Galataki, Despo; Radulescu, Andrei; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan
This protocol describes a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of arthroscopic and open surgery in the management of rotator cuff tears. This trial began in 2007 and was modified in 2010, with the removal of a non-operative arm due to high rates of early crossover to surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:155–60.
Carr, A. J.; Rees, J. L.; Ramsay, C. R.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Gray, A.; Moser, J.; Dawson, J.; Bruhn, H.; Cooper, C. D.; Beard, D. J.; Campbell, M. K.
A group of eight people, including all members of one Florida family, had an implant chip, roughly the size of a grain of rice, injected under their skin on Friday, May 10. Manufactured by Applied Digital Solutions (ADS), the chips store a special identification number that enables the retrieval of personal and medical information. In the event of a medical emergency, a special handheld scanner activates the dormant digital implant, which provides identification data with which medical personnel can query ADS's database, the location of the patient's medical records. Alzheimer's patients seem to be the most promising market for this technology, even though other people, like the Florida family, hope to benefit from it as well. Another product that ADS offers is called Digital Angel, a wearable global positioning system (GPS) device that, among other things, can track in real time the wearer's physical movements. In the future, ADS is planning to release a product that will utilize both of these technologies: an implanted GPS-enabled chip. Unlike VeriChip, though, the GPS-enabled implant would require Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, meaning the US market won't see its introduction until after FDA testing. Many organizations, ranging from privacy advocates to religious groups, have already denounced VeriChip and its eventually successors, associated them with "Big Brother" and the biblical "Mark of the Beast."To read about the eight people that received their implants, look at the first and second sites, articles from the Los Angeles Times and Miami Herald respectively. For a non-US perspective, view the news story posted by the British Broadcasting Company (BBC). The fourth site, an extensive analysis of the subject from ABC News, should give readers a broader understanding of implanted chips and their potential uses. Two sites from ADS are next -- VeriChip's product pages and the press release that details a FDA's decision regarding VeriChip in April, 2002. Finally, the last two sites give more information on Digital Angel and a sample of GPS technology already in use.
This article attempts to define terminology and to describe a process for writing adaptive, early phase study protocols which are transparent, self-intuitive and uniform. It provides a step by step guide, giving templates from projects which received regulatory authorisation and were successfully performed in the UK. During adaptive studies evolving data is used to modify the trial design and conduct within the protocol-defined remit. Adaptations within that remit are documented using non-substantial protocol amendments which do not require regulatory or ethical review. This concept is efficient in gathering relevant data in exploratory early phase studies, ethical and time- and cost-effective.
Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols.
Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit
Background Adverse drug reactions and lack of therapeutic efficacy associated with currently prescribed pharmacotherapeutics may be attributed, in part, to inter-individual variability in drug metabolism. Studies on the pharmacogenetics of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes offer insight into this variability. The objective of this study was to compare the AmpliChip CYP450 Test® (AmpliChip) to alternative genotyping platforms for phenotype prediction of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in a representative cohort of the South African population. Methods AmpliChip was used to screen for thirty-three CYP2D6 and three CYP2C19 alleles in two different cohorts. As a comparison cohort 2 was then genotyped using a CYP2D6 specific long range PCR with sequencing (CYP2D6 XL-PCR + Sequencing) platform and a PCR-RFLP platform for seven CYP2C19 alleles. Results Even though there was a low success rate for the AmpliChip, allele frequencies for both CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 were very similar between the two different cohorts. The CYP2D6 XL-PCR + Sequencing platform detected CYP2D6*5 more reliably and could correctly distinguish between CYP2D6*2 and *41 in the Black African individuals. Alleles not covered by the AmpliChip were identified and four novel CYP2D6 alleles were also detected. CYP2C19 PCR-RFLP identified CYP2C19*9,*15, *17 and *27 in the Black African individuals, with *2, *17 and *27 being relatively frequent in the cohort. Eliminating mismatches and identifying additional alleles will contribute to improving phenotype prediction for both enzymes. Phenotype prediction differed between platforms for both genes. Conclusion Comprehensive genotyping of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 with the platforms used in this study, would be more appropriate than AmpliChip for phenotypic prediction in the South African population. Pharmacogenetically important novel alleles may remain undiscovered when using assays that are designed according to Caucasian specific variation, unless alternate strategies are utilised.
Some current and most future systems-on-chips use and will use network architectures\\/protocols to implement on- chip communication. On-chip networks borrow features and design methods from those used in parallel computing clusters and computer system area networks. They differ from traditional networks because of larger on-chip wiring resources and flexibility, as well as constraints on area and energy consumption (in addition
Terry Tao Ye; Luca Benini; Giovanni De Micheli
Clinical diagnostics is one of the most promising applications for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip or lab-on-card systems. DNA\\u000a chips, which provide multiparametric data, are privileged tools for genomic analysis. However, automation of molecular biology\\u000a protocol and use of these DNA chips in fully integrated systems remains a great challenge. Simplicity of chip and\\/or card\\/instrument\\u000a interfaces is amongst the most critical issues to
Gilles Marchand; Patrick Broyer; Véronique Lanet; Cyril Delattre; Frédéric Foucault; Lionel Menou; Bernard Calvas; Denis Roller; Frédéric Ginot; Raymond Campagnolo; Frédéric Mallard
A microfluidic chip was designed and fabricated for studying cellular response to chemical modulation. The microfluidic network comprised an up-stream gradient-generating module and a down-stream cell culture module. The microchip was composed of a piece of glass plate and a covered PDMS film. By using a two-step wet etching method, the dam structure was fabricated on the inlet of the
Jing Ruan; Lihui Wang; Mingfei Xu; Daxiang Cui; Xiaomian Zhou; Dayu Liu
This paper presents chip scale investigation of polymer based bonding processes for producing microcavities for encapsulation of MEMS and other microscale devices. The polymer sealing rings were fabricated on the glass covers using the photosensitive BCB polymer and photolithography. They were bonded onto a variety of substrates including silicon substrates, aluminum coated substrates and glass substrates with feedthrough structures to
C. H. Wang; J. Zeng; K. Zhao; H. L. Chan
BACKGROUND: The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result,
Martin Röösli; Patrizia Frei; John Bolte; Georg Neubauer; Elisabeth Cardis; Maria Feychting; Peter Gajsek; Sabine Heinrich; Wout Joseph; Simon Mann; Luc Martens; Evelyn Mohler; Roger C Parslow; Aslak Harbo Poulsen; Katja Radon; Joachim Schüz; György Thuroczy; Jean-François Viel; Martine Vrijheid
As an innovative as well as an interdisciplinary research project, this study performed an analysis of brain signals so as to establish BrainIC as an auxiliary tool for physician diagnosis. Cognition behavior sciences, embedded technology, system on chips (SOC) design and physiological signal processing are integrated in this work. Moreover, a chip is built for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) processing purposes and a Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) system, and a knowledge database is constructed to diagnose psychosis and body challenges in learning various behaviors and signals antithesis by a fuzzy inference engine. This work is completed with a medical support system developed for the mentally disabled or the elderly abled.
Sung, Wen-Tsai; Chen, Jui-Ho; Chang, Kung-Wei
The enhancement of release of oak-related compounds from oak chips during wine aging with oak chips may interest the winemaking industry. In this study, the 25-kHz ultrasound waves were used to intensify the mass transfer of phenolics from oak chips into a model wine. The influences of acoustic energy density (6.3-25.8 W/L) and temperature (15-25 °C) on the release kinetics of total phenolics were investigated systematically. The results exhibited that the total phenolic yield released was not affected by acoustic energy density significantly whereas it increased with the increase of temperature during sonication. Furthermore, to describe the mechanism of mass transfer of phenolics in model wine under ultrasonic field, the release kinetics of total phenolics was simulated by both a second-order kinetic model and a diffusion model. The modeling results revealed that the equilibrium concentration of total phenolics in model wine, the initial release rate and effective diffusivity of total phenolics generally increased with acoustic energy density and temperature. In addition, temperature had a negative effect on the second-order release rate constant whereas acoustic energy density had an opposite effect. PMID:24726419
Tao, Yang; Zhang, Zhihang; Sun, Da-Wen
Transcription is a sophisticated multi-step process in which RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribes a DNA template into RNA in concert with a broad array of transcription initiation, elongation, capping, termination, and histone modifying factors. Recent global analyses of Pol II distribution have indicated that many genes are regulated during the elongation phase, shedding light on a previously underappreciated mechanism for controlling gene expression. Understanding how various factors regulate transcription elongation in living cells has been greatly aided by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies, which can provide spatial and temporal resolution of protein-DNA binding events. The coupling of ChIP with DNA microarray and high-throughput sequencing technologies (ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq) has significantly increased the scope of ChIP studies and genome-wide maps of Pol II or elongation factor binding sites can now be readily produced. However, while ChIP-chip/ChIP-seq data allow for high-resolution localization of protein-DNA binding sites, they are not sufficient to dissect protein function. Here we describe techniques for coupling ChIP-chip/ChIP-seq with genetic, chemical, and experimental manipulation to obtain mechanistic insight from genome-wide protein-DNA binding studies. We have employed these techniques to discern immature promoter-proximal Pol II from productively elongating Pol II, and infer a critical role for the transition between initiation and full elongation competence in regulating development and gene induction in response to environmental signals.
Gilchrist, Daniel A.; Fargo, David; Adelman, Karen
Transcription is a sophisticated multi-step process in which RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribes a DNA template into RNA in concert with a broad array of transcription initiation, elongation, capping, termination, and histone modifying factors. Recent global analyses of Pol II distribution have indicated that many genes are regulated during the elongation phase, shedding light on a previously underappreciated mechanism for controlling gene expression. Understanding how various factors regulate transcription elongation in living cells has been greatly aided by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies, which can provide spatial and temporal resolution of protein-DNA binding events. The coupling of ChIP with DNA microarray and high-throughput sequencing technologies (ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq) has significantly increased the scope of ChIP studies and genome-wide maps of Pol II or elongation factor binding sites can now be readily produced. However, while ChIP-chip/ChIP-seq data allow for high-resolution localization of protein-DNA binding sites, they are not sufficient to dissect protein function. Here we describe techniques for coupling ChIP-chip/ChIP-seq with genetic, chemical, and experimental manipulation to obtain mechanistic insight from genome-wide protein-DNA binding studies. We have employed these techniques to discern immature promoter-proximal Pol II from productively elongating Pol II, and infer a critical role for the transition between initiation and full elongation competence in regulating development and gene induction in response to environmental signals. PMID:19275938
Gilchrist, Daniel A; Fargo, David C; Adelman, Karen
Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities), and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities). Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and different aspects of job satisfaction: satisfaction with leadership, which should be highly correlated with readiness, versus satisfaction with salary, which should be less correlated with readiness. Content validity will be assessed using an expert panel and modified Delphi technique. Discussion We propose a comprehensive protocol for validating a survey instrument for assessing organizational readiness to change that specifically addresses key threats of bias related to halo effect, method bias and questions of construct validity that often go unexplored in research using measures of organizational constructs.
In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.
Smith, D. B.; Woodruff, L. G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W. F.; Garrett, R. G.; Kilburn, J. E.; Goldhaber, M. B.
Traditionally, muscle physiology experiments require multiple tissue samples to obtain morphometric, electrophysiological, and contractility data. Furthermore, these experiments are commonly completed one at a time on cover slips of single cells, isotropic monolayers, or in isolated muscle strips. In all of these cases, variability of the samples hinders quantitative comparisons among experimental groups. Here, we report the design of a “heart on a chip” that exploits muscular thin film technology – biohybrid constructs of an engineered, anisotropic ventricular myocardium on an elastomeric thin film – to measure contractility, combined with a quantification of action potential propagation, and cytoskeletal architecture in multiple tissues in the same experiment. We report techniques for real-time data collection and analysis during pharmacological intervention. The chip is an efficient means of measuring structure-function relationships in constructs that replicate the hierarchical tissue architectures of laminar cardiac muscle.
Grosberg, Anna; Alford, Patrick W.; McCain, Megan L.; Parker, Kevin Kit
A test fixture for via electrical performance characterization is designed in an eight layer flip-chip package, which consists of two identical top-to-bottom via structures and a segment of trace on the bottom layer. The via structure is modeled by two commercial 3D full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulators based on method of moment (MOM) and finite element method (FEM), respectively. The fixture
Hao Shi; Sam Khalili; Chuck Yuan
The nanosilica filled composite is a promising material for the no-flow underfill in flip-chip application. However, as the filler size decreases into the nano length scale, the rheological, mechanical, and thermal mechanical properties of the composite change significantly. The filler-filler and filler-polymer interactions have a profound impact on the material properties. The purpose of this paper is to achieve an
Yangyang Sun; Zhuqing Zhang; C. P. Wong
The ability of proteins to associate with genomic DNA in the context of chromatin is critical for many nuclear processes including transcription, replication, recombination, and DNA repair. Chromatin immunoprecipication (ChIP) is a practical and useful technique for characterizing protein / DNA association in vivo. The procedure generally includes six steps: (1) crosslinking the protein to the DNA; (2) isolating the chromatin; (3) chromatin fragmentation; (4) imunoprecipitation with antibodies against the protein of interest; (5) DNA recovery; and (6) PCR identification of factor associated DNA sequences. In this protocol, we describe guidelines, experimental setup, and conditions for ChIP in intact Arabidopsis tissues. This protocol has been used to study association of histone modifications, of chromatin remodeling ATPases, as well as of sequence-specific transcription factors with the genomic DNA in various Arabidopsis thaliana tissues. The protocol described focuses on ChIP-qPCR, but can readily be adapted for use in ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq experiments. The entire procedure can be completed within 3 days.
Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Winter, Cara M.; Wu, Miin-Feng; Kwon, Chang Seob; William, Dilusha A.; Wagner, Doris
Seven laboratories participated in a collaborative study to evaluate a proposed EPA standard protocol for the Ames test. The study utilized Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with three metabolic activation levels (0, 2, and coded unknowns. The three primary study goal...
This case study describes the use of World Wide Web discussion pages and examines the evaluation of online communication protocols in one graduate class. The study begins by describing the theories and grounding literature that guided the development of the online discussion site. The study also describes the process used to develop the online…
Potato chips fried in palm oil, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oil were studied for the content of different phytosterol\\u000a oxides during 0 to 25 weeks of storage in the dark. Oxidation products of sitosterol (24?-ethyl-5-cholesten-3?-ol) and campesterol\\u000a (24?-methyl-t-cholesten-3?-ol) were synthesized to help identify the phytosterol oxides. The oxides of phytosterols were analyzed\\u000a by preparative thin-layer chromatography, solid-phase extraction, capillary
Paresh Chandra Dutta; Lars-Åke Appelqvist
In recent years, the concept of nanopore sensing has matured from a proof-of-principle method to a widespread, versatile technique for the study of biomolecular properties and interactions. While traditional nanopore devices based on a nanopore in a single layer membrane supported on a silicon chip can be rapidly fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, chips with additional insulating layers beyond the membrane region can provide significantly lower noise levels, but at the expense of requiring more costly and time-consuming fabrication steps. Here we present a novel fabrication protocol that overcomes this issue by enabling rapid and reproducible manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore experiments. The fabrication protocol, termed trans-chip illumination lithography, is based on illuminating a membrane-containing wafer from its backside such that a photoresist (applied on the wafer’s top side) is exposed exclusively in the membrane regions. Trans-chip illumination lithography permits the local modification of membrane regions and hence the fabrication of nanopore chips containing locally patterned insulating layers. This is achieved while maintaining a well-defined area containing a single thin membrane for nanopore drilling. The trans-chip illumination lithography method achieves this without relying on separate masks, thereby eliminating time-consuming alignment steps as well as the need for a mask aligner. Using the presented approach, we demonstrate rapid and reproducible fabrication of nanopore chips that contain small (12 ?m × 12 ?m) free-standing silicon nitride membranes surrounded by insulating layers. The electrical noise characteristics of these nanopore chips are shown to be superior to those of simpler designs without insulating layers and comparable in quality to more complex designs that are more challenging to fabricate.
Janssen, Xander J. A.; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Plesa, Calin; Soni, Gautam V.; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H.
In recent years, the concept of nanopore sensing has matured from a proof-of-principle method to a widespread, versatile technique for the study of biomolecular properties and interactions. While traditional nanopore devices based on a nanopore in a single layer membrane supported on a silicon chip can be rapidly fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, chips with additional insulating layers beyond the membrane region can provide significantly lower noise levels, but at the expense of requiring more costly and time-consuming fabrication steps. Here we present a novel fabrication protocol that overcomes this issue by enabling rapid and reproducible manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore experiments. The fabrication protocol, termed trans-chip illumination lithography, is based on illuminating a membrane-containing wafer from its backside such that a photoresist (applied on the wafer's top side) is exposed exclusively in the membrane regions. Trans-chip illumination lithography permits the local modification of membrane regions and hence the fabrication of nanopore chips containing locally patterned insulating layers. This is achieved while maintaining a well-defined area containing a single thin membrane for nanopore drilling. The trans-chip illumination lithography method achieves this without relying on separate masks, thereby eliminating time-consuming alignment steps as well as the need for a mask aligner. Using the presented approach, we demonstrate rapid and reproducible fabrication of nanopore chips that contain small (12 ?m × 12 ?m) free-standing silicon nitride membranes surrounded by insulating layers. The electrical noise characteristics of these nanopore chips are shown to be superior to those of simpler designs without insulating layers and comparable in quality to more complex designs that are more challenging to fabricate. PMID:23103750
Janssen, Xander J A; Jonsson, Magnus P; Plesa, Calin; Soni, Gautam V; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H
De novo synthesis of long double-stranded DNA constructs has a myriad of applications in biology and biological engineering. However, its widespread adoption has been hindered by high costs. Cost can be significantly reduced by using oligonucleotides synthesized on high-density DNA chips. However, most methods for using off-chip DNA for gene synthesis have failed to scale due to the high error rates, low yields, and high chemical complexity of the chip-synthesized oligonucleotides. We have recently demonstrated that some commercial DNA chip manufacturers have improved error rates, and that the issues of chemical complexity and low yields can be solved by using barcoded primers to accurately and efficiently amplify subpools of oligonucleotides. This article includes protocols for computationally designing the DNA chip, amplifying the oligonucleotide subpools, and assembling 500-800 basepair (bp) constructs.
Eroshenko, Nikolai; Kosuri, Sriram; Marblestone, Adam H; Conway, Nicholas; Church, George M.
Objective To assess the quality of the Current Population Survey's (CPS) Child Health Insurance Program (CHIP) data. Data Sources Linked 2000–2004 Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) and the 2001–2004 CPS. Data Collection Methods Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services provided the Census Bureau with its MSIS file. The Census Bureau linked the MSIS to the CPS data within its secure data analysis facilities. Study Design We compared responses to the CPS health insurance items with Medicaid and CHIP status according to the MSIS. Principal Findings CHIP reporting in the CPS is unreliable. Only 10–30 percent of those with CHIP (but not Medicaid) report this type of coverage in the CPS. Many with CHIP report Medicaid coverage, so the reporting error for a Medicaid–CHIP composite is smaller, but still substantial. Conclusions: The quality of the CPS CHIP information renders it effectively unusable for health policy analysis. Analysts should consider using a Medicaid–CHIP composite for CPS-based analyses.
Klerman, Jacob; Plotzke, Michael R.; Davern, Mike
The creation of nanostructured materials with enhanced mechanical properties by controlled chip formation has been demonstrated. The present study examines the microstructure and mechanical properties of chips from various alloys -Waspaloy AMS 5704, Inconel 718, Al 6061-T6, and titanium - produced in aerospace machining operations. While the deformation conditions with respect to chip formation may be 'less than controlled' in
Y. Uluca; B. C. Rao; M. Ravi; T. L. Brown; J. B. Mann; S. Chandrasekar; W. D. Compton
The patch clamp technique is widely used for recording the activity of ion channels in single cells and lipid bilayers. Most platforms utilize borosilicate glass configured as a pipette, however more recently planar patch clamp chips have been developed that require less technical expertise. Planar patch clamp chips in systems like the Nanion Port-a-Patch are useful in that they allow more rapid throughput in drug screening studies. This technique also has the ability to perform rapid solution changes from the intracellular side. A current drawback with the planar patch clamp chips is the need to utilize a separate chip for each experiment. This increases the cost of each experiment and is due to the fact that the ?1?m aperture used for cell attachment is thought to retain cellular debris thereby preventing subsequent cell attachment and formation of G? seals. In the present study we have for the first time solved the technical problem of developing a simple protocol for re-use of Nanion planar patch clamp chips. The re-use methodology is demonstrated in whole cell patch clamp studies of HEK-293 cells expressing the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A in protocols involving external and internal solution changes, and CHO-K1 cells with incorporated gramicidin channels. PMID:22609774
Kao, Liyo; Abuladze, Natalia; Shao, Xuesi M; McKeegan, Kevin; Kurtz, Ira
This article describes two kinds of "Cell Programmable Assay" (CPA) chips that utilize passive pumping for the culture and autonomous staining of cells to simply common protocols. One is a single timer channel CPA (sCPA) chip that has one timer channel and one main channel containing a cell culture chamber. The sCPA is used to culture and stain cells using Hoechst nuclear staining dye (a 2 step staining process). The other is a dual timer channel CPA (dCPA) chip that has two timer channels and one main channel with a chamber for cell culture. The dCPA is used here to culture, fix, permeablize, and stain cells using DAPI. The additional timer channel of the dCPA chip allows for automation of 3 steps. The CPA chips were successfully evaluated using HEK 293 cells. In addition, we provide a simplified equation for tuning or redesigning CPA chips to meet the needs of a variety of protocols that may require different timings. The equation is easy to use as it only depends upon the dimensions of microchannel and the volume of the reagent drops. The sCPA and dCPA chips can be readily modified to apply to a wide variety of common cell culture methods and procedures. PMID:20614082
Ju, Jongil; Warrick, Jay; Beebe, David J
This retrospective observational quality improvement study was conducted to determine whether an evidence-based protocol for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis improved patient outcomes in our academic medical center. This study evaluated fidelity of providers to the protocol, as well as time to resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis as measured by closure of the anion gap (AG). Other secondary outcomes included time to intravenous fluids, time to potassium replacement, and rates of hypoglycemia and hypokalemia.Two cohorts including historical (N = 41) and current (N = 37) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the protocol. There were no differences between group demographics at baseline. After implementation of the protocol, 43.2% of patients were treated using full protocol fidelity, 21.6% were treated with partial fidelity, and 35.1% were not treated using the protocol. Although none of the outcomes reached statistical significance, patients in the current group who were treated with full protocol fidelity had an average time to AG closure that was 3 hr less than those who were not treated according to the protocol, and an average time to potassium replacement that was 2 hr less. When comparing the historical cohort with the patients treated with full protocol fidelity, there was improvement in protocol-treated patients in time to AG closure (2 hr), time to dextrose replacement (1.7 hr), and time to potassium replacement (2 hr). The rates of hypokalemia were improved with protocol treatment; 37.5% of protocol-treated patients had hypokalemia as opposed to 63.4% of those not treated according to protocol.Overall, despite the low fidelity in our institution, the protocol promoted evidence-based practice and patients treated according to the protocol had decreased time to treatment outcomes including quicker AG closure, improved intravenous fluids resuscitation, and more accurate and timely electrolyte correction. PMID:24785671
Evans, Kathryn J; Thompson, Julie; Spratt, Susan E; Lien, Lillian F; Vorderstrasse, Allison
The effect of thermomigration and the combination effect of thermomigration and electromigration have been studied in composite SnPb flip chip solder joints. Because Al line on the silicon chip side is the major heat source exerted on flip chip solder joint, temperature gradient across the joint is induced when a long Al line is stressed with high current density. Under a estimated temperature gradient of 1000°C/cm, Sn-rich and Pb-rich phase separation is found to occur. Experimental results have shown that Sn-rich phase accumulates at the hot side and Pb-rich phase accumulates at the cold side after thermomigration. When solder bumps are current high current density, thermomigration was found to accompany electromigration. Not only Pb-rich phase migrated toward the anode side and Sn-rich phase migrated toward the cathode side due to electromigration, Sn-rich phase was found to migrate along the top of solder joint due to thermomigration. It was found that as void propagates along the top of the solder joint, current crowding region shifts with the tip of the void. This created a local hot spot and thus a lateral temperature gradient was induced for thermomigration to occur. To isolate the thermal effect from the current effect, ac stressing at 60 Hz was also utilized. Interestingly, ac seems to have an effect other than thermal effect due to the difference in microstructure evolution between pure thermomigration and ac case after stressing. Further investigation at different frequency is needed to fully understand the effect of ac. Furthermore, analysis was performed to explain the phenomena of phase separation and phase reversal in the solder joint considering a constraint volume within underfill. Both Kirkendall effect and back stress were considered. Finally, detail morphological change after thermomigration and electromigration were investigated. Grain refinement was found to occur at a certain stressing condition. Production of entropy and morphological instability were utilized to explain the phenomenon.
Huang, Annie Tzuyu
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants, which are difficult to transform. The pea early-browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. However, the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis.
BACKGROUND: The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based
Manuel C Ribeiro; Maria J Pereira; Amílcar Soares; Cristina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Esteve Llop; Susana Fonseca; Joaquim G Nave; António B Tavares; Carlos M Dias; Ana Silva; Ismael Selemane; Joaquin de Toro; Mário J Santos; Fernanda Santos
The Raynaud's Treatment Study (RTS) compared temperature biofeedback training and a behavioral control procedure (frontalis EMG biofeedback) with nifedipine-XL and a medication placebo for treatment of primary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in a large (N = 313) multicenter trial. The present study describes the RTS biofeedback protocols and presents data on the acquisition of digital skin temperature and frontalis EMG responses
Susan J. Middaugh; Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite; Bruce Thompson; Robin Hill; Kathleen M. Brown; Robert R. Freedman; Virginia Attanasio; Rolf G. Jacob; Michael Scheier; Edwin A. Smith
Background The prevalence of latex allergy varies according to the population studied from 3% to 64%. No data exist in the present literature about elderly people because they were not considered among populations at risk. We report a retrospective observational study of 88 elderly patients of our centre of Dermatology and Allergology at Policlinico Umberto I, University of Rome, Sapienza. Results First and second level diagnostic tests showed latex positivity in 11,4% of patients studied for latex allergy in the elderly population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a prevalence of elderly-latex sensitization of 11,4%, showing that allergy to latex is a growing disease that can occur at any age. So, we propose these patients as an additional risk category for latex allergy.
Background Insight into the frequency and seriousness of potentially unsafe situations may be the first step towards improving patient safety. Most patient safety attention has been paid to patient safety in hospitals. However, in many countries, patients receive most of their healthcare in primary care settings. There is little concrete information about patient safety in primary care in the Netherlands. The overall aim of this study was to provide insight into the current patient safety issues in Dutch general practices, out-of-hours primary care centres, general dental practices, midwifery practices, and allied healthcare practices. The objectives of this study are: to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients; to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals; and to provide insight into patient safety management in primary care practices. Design and methods The study consists of three parts: a retrospective patient record study of 1,000 records per practice type was conducted to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients (objective one); a prospective component concerns an incident-reporting study in each of the participating practices, during two successive weeks, to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals (objective two); to provide insight into patient safety management in Dutch primary care practices (objective three), we surveyed organizational and cultural items relating to patient safety. We analysed the incidents found in the retrospective patient record study and the prospective incident-reporting study by type of incident, causes (Eindhoven Classification Model), actual harm (severity-of-outcome domain of the International Taxonomy of Medical Errors in Primary Care), and probability of severe harm or death. Discussion To estimate the frequency of incidents was difficult. Much depended on the accuracy of the patient records and the professionals' consensus about which types of adverse events have to be recognized as incidents.
Recently, IBM announced the first silicon integrated circuit technology that incorporates copper on-chip wiring. This technology, which combines industry-leading CMOS ULSI devices with 6 levels of hierarchically-scaled Cu metallization, has reached the point of manufacturing, after passing the qualification tests required to prove feasibility, yield, reliability, and manufacturability. The discussion of the change from Al to Cu interconnects for ULSI encompasses a wide variety of issues. This paper attempts to address these by way of example, from the broad range of detailed studies that have been performed in the course of developing these so-called 'copper chips'. Motivational issues are covered by comparative modeling of performance aspects and cost. The technology parameters and features are shown, as well as data relating to the process integration, electrical yield and parametric behavior, early manufacturing data, high-frequency modeling and measurements, nose and clock skew. The viability of this technology is indicated by results from reliability stressing, as well as the first successful demonstrations of fully functional SRAM, DRAM, and microprocessor chips with Cu wiring. The advantages of integrated Cu wiring may be applied even more broadly in the future. An example shown here is the achievement of very high-quality integrated inductors; these may help prospects for complete integration of RF and wireless communications chips onto silicon.
Edelstein, Daniel C.
This 1-group, 4-week observational study aimed to (1) assess the feasibility of recruiting, retention, and completion of a 4-week auricular point acupressure (APA) treatment protocol for chronic pain in adult patients and (2) assess the effects of APA in pain reduction (pain severity and pain interference) among these patients. The participants received a 4-week APA treatment protocol in weekly cycles. Each weekly cycle included 5 days with APA seeds taped onto the ear and 2 days without. Each participant was called every day to monitor adherence to the treatment protocol (the actual times the participant pressed the seeds each day and the duration of applied pressure), to answer analgesic use, and to answer the pain intensity questionnaire. Thirty participants were initially enrolled in this study, but 5 did not continue. The retention rate was 83% (n = 25). Approximately 60% of the participants (n = 15) adhered to the 4-week APA and completed all data assessments. At baseline assessment, only 40% of all participants (n = 12 of 30) were confident that APA would reduce and eliminate pain; nonetheless, all participants reported fewer episodes of pain occurrences and pain intensity with the APA treatment. For the participants who completed the 4-week APA protocol (n = 15), 96% (n = 14) decreased analgesic medication intake and 88% (n = 13) felt "much better" after the APA treatment. Participants reported an average reduction of 63% in the worst pain intensity at day 7. By the end of the 4-week APA protocol, an even greater reduction in pain intensity was reported (66%, n = 10, at day 28). The participants who did not complete the treatment protocol reported an average pain reduction of 29%, which fluctuated to 22% before they dropped out. Auricular point acupressure is feasible for patients with chronic pain. The preliminary findings of this feasibility study show a reduction in pain intensity and improvement in physical function, which demonstrate the potential for APA as a treatment option for patients with chronic pain. PMID:24722613
Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chien, Lung-Chang; Huang, Li Chun; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping
Background Over recent decades, the prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased markedly in developed and developing countries, and the impact of obesity on health throughout the lifespan has led to urgent calls for action. Family-based weight management interventions that emphasize healthy lifestyle changes can lead to modest improvements in weight status of children with obesity. However, these interventions are generally short in duration, reported in the context of randomized controlled trials and there are few reports of outcomes of these treatment approaches in the clinical setting. Answering these questions is critical for improving the care of children with obesity accessing outpatient health services for weight management. In response, the CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR) was designed with the following three primary aims: 1. Document changes in anthropometric, lifestyle, behavioural, and obesity-related co-morbidities in children enrolled in Canadian pediatric weight management programs over a three-year period; 2. Characterize the individual-, family-, and program-level determinants of change in anthropometric and obesity-related co-morbidities; 3. Examine the individual-, family-, and program-level determinants of program attrition. Methods/Design This prospective cohort, multi-centre study will include children (2–17 years old; body mass index ?85th percentile) enrolled in one of eight Canadian pediatric weight management centres. We will recruit 1,600 study participants over a three-year period. Data collection will occur at presentation and 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-months follow-up. The primary study outcomes are BMI z-score and change in BMI z-score over time. Secondary outcomes include anthropometric (e.g., height, waist circumference,), cardiometabolic (e.g., blood pressure, lipid profile, glycemia), lifestyle (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary activity), and psychosocial (e.g., health-related quality of life) variables. Potential determinants of change and program attrition will include individual-, family-, and program-level variables. Discussion This study will enable our interdisciplinary team of clinicians, researchers, and trainees to address foundational issues regarding the management of pediatric obesity in Canada. It will also serve as a harmonized, evidence-based registry and platform for conducting future intervention research, which will ultimately enhance the weight management care provided to children with obesity and their families.
Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results.
Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza
Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated) affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites) for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation), with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the start of the facilitation interventions. Detailed contextual and process data are collected throughout, using interviews with staff, residents and next of kin, observations, assessment of context using the Alberta Context Tool, and documentary evidence. A realistic evaluation framework is used to develop explanatory theory about what works for whom in what circumstances. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN11598502.
Background The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children’s fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. Method/Design Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as “Partner Schools” and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as “Associate Schools”. Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention “Associate Schools” or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children’s knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school’s gardening activities. Discussion The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children’s diets and school based interventions. Trial registration ISRCTN11396528
BACKGROUND: The Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP) is a multi dimensional instrument designed for longitudinal follow up of the clubfoot deformity during growth. Item reliability has shown to be sufficient. In this article the CAP's validity and responsiveness is studied using the Dimeglio classification scoring as a gold standard. METHODS: Thirty-two children with 45 congenital clubfeet were assessed prospectively and consecutively
Hanneke Andriesse; Ewa M Roos; Gunnar Hägglund; Gun-Britt Jarnlo
With rapid advancement of internet and web technology, damage from phishing has been increasing. To meet this issue, network authentication protocol with security implementation has been extensively studied. Single authentication such as password identification requires the authentication upon login, and session might be interrupted by ill-intentioned user once session is accomplished. Authentication method for fragmented packet is proposed to block
Daesung Lee; Kuinam J. Kim; Ki Chang Kim
The parameter study of a machine-tool with interrupted cutting is completed for eccentricity frequency and amplitude. The effects with respect to chip length are also incorporated, such that comparisons of the parameter maps can be accomplished. Specific areas within the parameter maps are studied to explain the complicated motions within. In such a case, the switching characteristics are shown with respect to eccentricity frequency. The complexity of the periodic solution structure is discussed regarding the stability, in relation to the vector fields and mapping quantities. Furthermore, the traditional definition of a stability boundary is extended beyond existing literature. The most useful data is the overlay of the # of mappings and minimum switching force product record. These measures point out the extent and location of complexity in the machine-tool model studied herein.
Gegg, Brandon C.; Suh, Steve C. S.; Luo, Albert C. J.
Background Over the years, there has been a strong consensus in dentistry that at least two implants are required to retain a complete mandibular denture. It has been shown in several clinical trials that one single median implant can retain a mandibular overdenture sufficiently well for up to 5 years without implant failures, when delayed loading was used. However, other trials have reported conflicting results with in part considerable failure rates when immediate loading was applied. Therefore it is the purpose of the current randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that immediate loading of a single mandibular midline implant with an overdenture will result in a comparable clinical outcome as using the standard protocol of delayed loading. Methods/design This prospective nine-center randomized controlled clinical trial is still ongoing. The final patient will complete the trial in 2016. In total, 180 edentulous patients between 60 and 89 years with sufficient complete dentures will receive one median implant in the edentulous mandible, which will retain the existing complete denture using a ball attachment. Loading of the median implant is either immediately after implant placement (experimental group) or delayed by 3 months of submerged healing at second-stage surgery (control group). Follow-up of patients will be performed for 24 months after implant loading. The primary outcome measure is non-inferiority of implant success rate of the experimental group compared to the control group. The secondary outcome measures encompass clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German research foundation, KE 477/8-1). Discussion This multi-center clinical trial will give information on the ability of a single median implant to retain a complete mandibular denture when immediately loaded. If viable, this treatment option will strongly improve everyday dental practice. Trial registration The trial has been registered at Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German register of clinical trials) under DRKS-ID: DRKS00003730 since 23 August 2012. (http://www.germanctr.de).
Objectives MIDUS is a national study of health and aging among individuals aged 25 to 74 at baseline(1995/96). Longitudinal survey assessments (2004/05), were followed by biological assessments on a subsample aged 35–85. To facilitate public use, we describe the protocol, measures, and sample. Methods Respondents traveled to clinics for a two-day data collection protocol that included fasting blood specimens, 12-hour urine specimen, medical history, physical exam, bone densitometry, a laboratory challenge (heart rate variability, blood pressure, respiration, salivary cortisol). Results Response rates for the biological protocol (N = 1,255) were 39.3%, or 43.1% (adjusting for those who could not be located or contacted). Reasons for non-participation were travel, family obligations, and being too busy. Respondents were comparable to the recruitment pool on most demographic characteristics and health assessments. Discussion Strengths of the protocol vis-à-vis other similar studies include opportunities to link biological factors with diverse content from other MIDUS projects.
Love, Gayle Dienberg; Seeman, Teresa E.; Weinstein, Maxine; Ryff, Carol D.
The optical signal on microfluidic chip is hard to be collected. To improve the excitation power and collection efficiency, we introduced a simple, inexpensive fabrication method to increase the couple rate of optical fiber. This small element is a polymer and air integrated microlens that can improve the optical signal detection. Compared to other established protocols, this procedure allows a simple, miniaturizing and inexpensive microlens fabrication with high reproducibility. The air microlens was produced by using direct lithograph of SU-8 resist to reduce the beam divergence of optical fiber. Owing to its ability to achieve customized microlens for specific applications, this technique can be used in a variety of applications, such as a blood cell counting system based on microfluidic chip.
Zhao, Yingying; Li, Qin; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Dong-Fang
'Organs-on-chips' are microengineered biomimetic systems containing microfluidic channels lined by living human cells, which replicate key functional units of living organs to reconstitute integrated human organ-level pathophysiology in vitro. These microdevices can be used to test efficacy and toxicity of drugs and chemicals, and to create in vitro models of human disease. Thus, they potentially represent low-cost alternatives to conventional animal models for pharmaceutical, chemical and environmental applications. Here we describe a protocol for the fabrication, microengineering and operation of these microfluidic organ-on-chip systems. First, microengineering is used to fabricate a multilayered microfluidic device that contains two parallel elastomeric microchannels separated by a thin porous flexible membrane, along with two full-height, hollow vacuum chambers on either side; this requires ?3.5 d to complete. To create a 'breathing' lung-on-a-chip that mimics the mechanically active alveolar-capillary interface of the living human lung, human alveolar epithelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells are cultured in the microdevice with physiological flow and cyclic suction applied to the side chambers to reproduce rhythmic breathing movements. We describe how this protocol can be easily adapted to develop other human organ chips, such as a gut-on-a-chip lined by human intestinal epithelial cells that experiences peristalsis-like motions and trickling fluid flow. Also, we discuss experimental techniques that can be used to analyze the cells in these organ-on-chip devices. PMID:24113786
Huh, Dongeun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Fraser, Jacob P; Shea, Daniel E; Khan, Mohammed; Bahinski, Anthony; Hamilton, Geraldine A; Ingber, Donald E
Rapid and accurate identification of species is required for the biological control of pest Noctuoidea moths. DNA barcodes and thin-film biosensor chips are two molecular approaches that have gained wide attention. Here, we compare these two methods for the identification of a limited number of Noctuoidea moth species. Based on the commonly used mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (the standard DNA barcode for animal species), 14 probes were designed and synthesized for 14 species shared by two national nature reserves in Beijing and Hebei, China. Probes ranged in length from 18 to 27 bp and were designed as mismatch probes to guarantee that there were at least three base differences between the probe and nontarget sequences. The results on the chip could be detected by the naked eye without needing special equipment. No cross-hybridizations were detected although we tested all probes on the 14 target and 24 nontarget Noctuoidea species. The neighbour-joining tree of the 38 species based on COI sequences gave 38 highly supported independent groups. Both DNA barcoding and thin-film biosensor chips, based on the COI gene, are able to accurately identify and discriminate the 14 targeted moth species in this study. Because of its speed, high accuracy and low cost, the thin-film biosensor chip is a very practical means of species identification. Now, a more comprehensive chip will be developed for the identification of additional Noctuoidea moths for pest control and ecological protection. PMID:24103324
Yang, F; Shi, Z Y; Bai, S L; Ward, R D; Zhang, A B
The idea of using on chip packet switched networks for interconnecting a large number of IP cores is very practical for designing complex SoCs since it gives possibility of not only reusing IP cores but also the interconnection infrastructure. However, the real effort and time in using these Networks on Chip (NoC) goes in developing interfaces for connecting cores to
Rickard Holsmark; Alf Johansson; Shashi Kumar
"Healthy Twin" is a twin family study extension of the existing Korean Twin-Family Register. Healthy Twin recruits adult like-sex twins over the age of 30 and their adult family members. Healthy Twin protocols are primarily tailored to the study of the quantitative trait loci of complex traits as well as to the role of environment in the etiology of complex diseases. A full-length survey is underway, including questionnaires, health examinations and the collection of biological specimens. So far, 820 individuals (169 twin pairs and their families) have participated in the survey and 1068 individual twins (608 twin pairs) have replied to the mailed zygosity questionnaire as of July 2006. The first phase (2005-2006) of Healthy Twin will recruit 1550 individuals (including about 380 twin pairs), and the second phase a proposed 1500 to 2500 additional participants. We report study protocols and zygosity and the distribution of family size of the study participants. PMID:17254419
Sung, Joohon; Cho, Sung-Il; Lee, Kayoung; Ha, Mina; Choi, Eun-Young; Choi, Ji-Sook; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jihae; Hong, Kyoung Sue; Kim, Yeonju; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Chan; Song, Yun-Mi
A new system-on-a-chip radar sensor for next-generation wearable wireless interface applied to the human health care and safeguard is presented. The system overview is provided and the feasibility study of the radar sensor is presented. In detail, the overall system consists of a radar sensor for detecting the heart and breath rates and a low-power IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee radio interface, which provides a wireless data link with remote data acquisition and control units. In particular, the pulse radar exploits 3.1–10.6 GHz ultra-wideband signals which allow a significant reduction of the transceiver complexity and then of its power consumption. The operating principle of the radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is highlighted and the results of the system analysis are reported. Moreover, the results obtained from the building-blocks design, the channel measurement, and the ultra-wideband antenna realization are reported.
Zito, Domenico; Pepe, Domenico; Neri, Bruno; Zito, Fabio; De Rossi, Danilo; Lanata, Antonio
A new system-on-a-chip radar sensor for next-generation wearable wireless interface applied to the human health care and safeguard is presented. The system overview is provided and the feasibility study of the radar sensor is presented. In detail, the overall system consists of a radar sensor for detecting the heart and breath rates and a low-power IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee radio interface, which provides a wireless data link with remote data acquisition and control units. In particular, the pulse radar exploits 3.1-10.6 GHz ultra-wideband signals which allow a significant reduction of the transceiver complexity and then of its power consumption. The operating principle of the radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is highlighted and the results of the system analysis are reported. Moreover, the results obtained from the building-blocks design, the channel measurement, and the ultra-wideband antenna realization are reported. PMID:18389068
Zito, Domenico; Pepe, Domenico; Neri, Bruno; Zito, Fabio; De Rossi, Danilo; Lanatà, Antonio
This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the ARQ protocol in 802.11b networks. The study focuses on the situation in which the positions of wireless hosts are not optimised, such as in the hotspot environment. Our results indicate that the link-layer ARQ is very effective in reducing packet losses due to medium noise and transmission collisions with
Chung Ho Nam; Soung C. Liew; Cheng Peng Fu
The present study uses the dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrothermal (ET) forces to develop on-chip micromixers and microconcentrators. A microchannel with rectangular array of microelectrodes, patterned either on its bottom surface only or on both the top and the bottom surfaces, is considered for the analysis. A mathematical model to compute electrical field, temperature field, the fluid velocity, and the concentration distributions is developed. Both analytical and numerical solutions of standing wave DEP (SWDEP), traveling wave DEP (TWDEP), standing wave ET (SWET), and traveling wave ET (TWET) forces along the length and the height of the channel are compared. The effects of electrode size and their placement in the microsystem on micromixing and microconcentrating performance are studied and compared to velocity and concentration profiles. SWDEP forces can be used to collect the particles at different locations in the microchannel. Under positive and negative DEP effect, the particles are collected at electrode edges and away from the electrodes, respectively, irrespective of the position, size, and number of electrodes. The location of the concentration region can be shifted by changing the electrode position. SWET and TWET forces are used for mixing and producing concentration regions by circulating the fluid at a given location. The effect of forces can be changed with the applied voltage. The TWDEP method is the better method for mixing along the length of the channels among the four options explored in the present work. If two layers of particle suspension are placed side by side in the channel, triangular electrode configuration can be used to mix the suspensions. Triangular and rectangular electrode configurations can efficiently mix two layers of particle suspension placed side-by-side and one-atop-the-other, respectively. Hence, SWDEP forces can be successfully used to create microconcentrators, whereas TWDEP, SWET, and TWET can be used to produce efficient micromixers in a microfluidic chip.
Siva Kumar Gunda, Naga; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Mitra, Sushanta K.
The voltage acquisition system based on modbus industrial bus and single chip is designed and its prototype is also implemented. It consists of MCS51 single chip and multichannel voltage acquisition card. And the single chip communicates with the card through modbus industrial bus protocol, which collects, copes with and real-time display voltage related data. The system can be applied to
The PCI local bus protocol and the PCI interface principle are introduced briefly. A design for controlling the PCI network card by single-chip processor and CPLD (complex programmable logical device) to realize Ethernet communication are presented, and the emphasis is on explaining how to design PCI interface between single chip processor and PCI network card using CPLD chip.
Modern digital technology allows image data transfer over the internet protocol, which provides real time observation and more frequent air quality studies can be carried at multi locational simultaneously. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of using internet protocol camera to transfer image data, and then these data were analysed using a developed algorithm to determine air quality information. The concentrations of particulate matter of size less than 10 micron (PM10) were collected simultaneously with the image data acquisitions. The atmospheric reflectance components were subtracted from their corresponding recorded radiance values for algorithm regression analysis. The proposed algorithm produced high correlation coefficient (R) and low root-mean square error (RMS) values. The efficiency of the present algorithm, in comparison to other forms of algorithm, was also investigated. Based on the values of the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square deviation, the proposed algorithm is considered superior. The accuracy of using IP camera data was compared with a normal digital camera, Kodak DC290 data in this study. This preliminary study gave promising results of air quality studies over USM campus by using internet protocol data.
Wong, C. J.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.
The purpose of our research was to examine the influence of an online protocol on asynchronous discussions. A mixed-methods study compared two online graduate classes: one that used a protocol and one that did not use a protocol for the same discussion about a complex reading. Analysis of the data revealed that the online protocol more evenly…
Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju
This study reports an integrated microfluidic chip for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications utilizing digital microfluidic\\u000a chip (DMC) technology. Several crucial procedures including sample transportation, mixing, and DNA amplification were performed\\u000a on the integrated chip using electro-wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) effect. An innovative concept of hydrophobic\\/hydrophilic\\u000a structure has been successfully demonstrated to integrate the DMC chip with the on-chip PCR device. Sample
Yi-Hsien Chang; Gwo-Bin Lee; Fu-Chun Huang; Yi-Yu Chen; Jr-Lung Lin
We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of
Christopher L. Barrett; Martin Drozda; Madhav V. Marathe
Implementing measures to ensure radiation therapy protocols are followed not only decreases deviations, but it can also improve overall survival in cancer patients, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital researchers suggest in a first-of-its kind study presented during a plenary session at the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 54th Annual Meeting in Boston. Thomas Jefferson University Hospital is home to the Kimmel Cancer Center.
Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such\\u000a as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through\\u000a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain\\u000a and functioning, children with low expectations
Laura B Allen; Jennie CI Tsao; Loran P Hayes; Lonnie K Zeltzer
The U.S. EPA screening protocol for initial evaluation of monitored natural attenuation was applied to a waste site on the National Priority List. The site is contaminated with chlorinated solvents. This case study demonstrated how the protocol can be applied to a site with multi-component contaminant plume in an aquifer with transient flow conditions.
Clement, Thangadurai P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Truex, Michael J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Lee, Peter B. (EcoScience Resource Group)
Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifiers, based on MMIC HEMT technology, require a careful packaging to reach optimal performance. Differences between modeled and measured performance can often be related to chip mounting details. In the framework of the development of new cryogenic LNAs, described in a companion paper, we have developed a specific packaging to host W-band cryogenic MMIC LNAs. We present here some of the main factors analyzed in the design and chip integration activities. In particular, mechanical and thermal modeling, LNA chip gluing and adhesive properties, sensitivity to components integration accuracy (i.e. deviation from the ideal orientation). Preliminary test results are also reported.
Valenziano, L.; Mariotti, S.; Armogida, A.; Baz, A.; Biggi, M.; Carbonaro, L.; Cremonini, A.; De Rosa, A.; Gervasi, M.; Passerini, A.; Schiavone, F.; Zannoni, M.; Zuccarelli, J.
Introduction The optimal transfusion protocol remains unknown in the trauma setting. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine if goal-directed transfusion protocol based on standard thrombelastography (TEG) is feasible and beneficial in patients with abdominal trauma. Methods Sixty adult patients with abdominal trauma who received 2 or more units of red blood cell transfusion within 24 hours of admission were studied. Patients managed with goal-directed transfusion protocol via TEG (goal-directed group) were compared to patients admitted before utilization of the protocol (control group). Results There were 29 patients in the goal-directed group and 31 in the control group. Baseline parameters were similar except for higher admission systolic blood pressure in the goal-directed group than the control group (121.8?±?23.1 mmHg vs 102.7?±?26.5 mmHg, p?0.01). At 24 h, patients in the goal-directed group had shorter aPTT compared to patients in the control group (39.2?±?16.3 s vs 58.6?±?36.6 s, p?=?0.044). Administration of total blood products at 24 h appeared to be fewer in the goal-directed group than the control group (10.2 [7.0-43.1]U vs 14.8 [8.3-37.6]U, p?=?0.28), but this was not statistically significant. Subgroup analysis including patients with ISS ?16 showed that patients in the goal-directed group had significantly fewer consumption of total blood products than patients in the control group (7[6.1, 47.0]U vs 37.6[14.5, 89.9]U, p?=?0.015). No differences were found in mortality at 28d, length of stay in intensive care unit and hospital between the two groups. Conclusions Goal-directed transfusion protocol via standard TEG was achievable in patients with abdominal trauma. The novel protocol, compared to conventional transfusion management, has the potential to decrease blood product utilization and prevent exacerbation of coagulation function.
Miniaturization is a key issue to achieve either high performance devices or to lower overall system costs. Here, flip chip technology provides excellent capabilities to fulfil the needs of both current and future requirements. In particular, the cost and performance sensitive markets of telecommunication and automotive applications are preparing to apply flip chip technology. The paper presents two product prototypes
E. Jung; R. Aschenbrenner; E. Busse; H. Reichl
Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1) Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2) Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3) Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4) Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5) Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs) were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60?years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n?=?3,326 (48?%) agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline) and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1). In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation). In 2009/2010 n?=?1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation) resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2) and 2009/2010 (wave 3) are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS shows that a cohort study of older persons is feasible and can maintain a good participation rate over ten years, even when extensive self-reported health data are collected repeatedly through self-filled questionnaires. Evidently individual health developments of elderly persons can be tracked quantifying simultaneously behaviour, co-morbidity, functional competence and their changes. In future, we expect to generate results of significance about the five study aims listed above.
In the field of single-chip-microcomputers the authors finished the development of the nanocomputer successfully. Moreover they succeeded in the development of two application-oriented single-chip-microcomputers for use in entertainment electronic systems...
G. Sander B. Huber I. Bromme H. Kessler
Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.
Huang Hu; Zhao Hongwei; Shi Chengli; Wu Boda; Fan Zunqiang; Wan Shunguang; Geng Chunyang [College of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Renmin Street 5988, Changchun, Jilin 130025 (China)
Introduction There are well-established protocols and procedures for the majority of common surgical diseases, yet surgical services remain largely inaccessible for much of the world's rural poor. Data on the process and outcome of surgical care expansion, however, are very limited, and the roll-out process of rural surgical implementation in particular has never been studied. Here, we propose the first implementation research study to assess the surgical scale-up process in the rural district of Achham, Nepal. Methods and analysis Based primarily on the protocols of the WHO's Integrated Management for Emergency and Essential Surgical Care (IMEESC), this study's threefold implementation strategy will include: (1) the core IMEESC surgical care program, (2) community-based follow-up via health workers, and (3) hospital-based quality improvement programs. The implementation program will employ additional emergency and surgical care protocols developed collaboratively by physicians, nurses and the authors. This strategy will be referred to as IMEESC-Plus. This study will employ both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies to collect clinical data and information on the reception and utilisation of services. The first 18?months of the implementation process will be studied and divided into an initial phase (first 6?months) and a consolidation phase (subsequent 12?months). Discussion This study aims to describe the logistics of the implementation process of IMEESC-Plus, and assess the quality of the resulting IMEESC-Plus services during the course of the implementation process. Using data generated from this study, larger, multi-site implementation studies can be planned that assess the scale-up of surgical services worldwide in resource-limited areas.
Maru, Duncan Smith-Rohrberg; Schwarz, Ryan; Schwarz, Dan; Andrews, Jason; Panizales, Maria Theresa; Karelas, Gregory; Rogers, Selwyn
ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients.
Yildirim, Gulsun; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan
Formation of sawtooth chips was studied while machining case carburized 8620 steel (of varying degrees of hardness--upto Rc62), Titanium and Brass. Cutting forces were measured and an attempt was made to measure temperature during machining of case carburized 8620 steel. Conventional tool-chip thermocouple technique was modified to accommodate the effects due to design of Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) cutting inserts. The chips produced were examined under Optical Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope. A technique was developed for specimen preparation to study the microstructure of a non-etching white layer under a transmission electron microscope. All the experiments done during this study for an investigation into the root cause of a sawtooth chip formation suggest that a cyclic crack formation on the free surface side of the chip is responsible for the formation of the sawtooth chips; contrary to the widely accepted view of adiabatic shear being the root cause of the sawtooth chip formation. A Quick-Stop device was also used to determine the mechanism of the sawtooth chip formation. A new method of evaluating cutting ratio for the sawtooth chips is proposed and was verified experimentally.
Recently, heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) routing protocols have drawn more and more attention. Various HWSN routing protocols have been proposed to improve the performance of HWSNs. Among these protocols, hierarchical HWSN routing protocols can improve the performance of the network significantly. In this paper, we will evaluate three hierarchical HWSN protocols proposed recently-EDFCM, MCR, and EEPCA-together with two previous classical routing protocols-LEACH and SEP. We mainly focus on the round of the first node dies (also called the stable period) and the number of packets sent to sink, which is an important aspect to evaluate the monitoring ability of a protocol. We conduct a lot of experiments and simulations on Matlab to analyze the performance of the five routing protocols. PMID:25050393
Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Xu; Qian, Aihua; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Cheng, Long
Recently, heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) routing protocols have drawn more and more attention. Various HWSN routing protocols have been proposed to improve the performance of HWSNs. Among these protocols, hierarchical HWSN routing protocols can improve the performance of the network significantly. In this paper, we will evaluate three hierarchical HWSN protocols proposed recently—EDFCM, MCR, and EEPCA—together with two previous classical routing protocols—LEACH and SEP. We mainly focus on the round of the first node dies (also called the stable period) and the number of packets sent to sink, which is an important aspect to evaluate the monitoring ability of a protocol. We conduct a lot of experiments and simulations on Matlab to analyze the performance of the five routing protocols.
Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Xu; Qian, Aihua; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Cheng, Long
Background The UK, like other developed countries, is experiencing a marked change in the age structure of its population characterised by increasing life expectancy and continuing growth in the older fraction of the population. There is remarkably little up-to-date information about the health of the oldest old (over 85 years), demographically the fastest growing section of the population. There is a need, from both a policy and scientific perspective, to describe in detail the health status of this population and the factors that influence individual health trajectories. For a very large proportion of medical conditions, age is the single largest risk factor. Gaining new knowledge about why aged cells and tissues are more vulnerable to pathology is likely to catalyse radical new insights and opportunities to intervene. The aims of the Newcastle 85+ Study are to expose the spectrum of health within an inception cohort of 800 85 year-olds; to examine health trajectories and outcomes as the cohort ages and their associations with underlying biological, medical and social factors; and to advance understanding of the biological nature of ageing. Methods A cohort of 800 85 year olds from Newcastle and North Tyneside will be recruited at baseline and followed until the last participant has died. Eligible individuals will be all those who turn 85 during the year 2006 (i.e. born in 1921) and who are registered with a Newcastle or North Tyneside general practice. Participants will be visited in their current residence (own home or institution) by a research nurse at baseline, 18 months and 36 months. The assessment protocol entails a detailed multi-dimensional health assessment together with review of general practice medical records. Participants will be flagged with the NHS Central Register to provide details of the date and cause of death. Discussion The Newcastle 85+ Study will address key questions about health and health-maintenance in the 85+ population, with a particular focus on quantitative assessment of factors underlying variability in health, and on the relationships between health, nutrition and biological markers of the fundamental processes of ageing.
Collerton, Joanna; Barrass, Karen; Bond, John; Eccles, Martin; Jagger, Carol; James, Oliver; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Robinson, Louise; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Kirkwood, Tom
A nanomechanical lab-on-chip set-up has been used to study the creep/relaxation response of thin palladium films with temperature. The basic idea is to use residual stresses present in a silicon nitride thin beam to load the test film after etching the underneath sacrificial layer. The main advantage of this experimental method is that we can simultaneously perform thousands of creep/relaxation tests without monopolizing any external actuating/loading equipment and without using any time consuming calibration procedures. A signature of the dominant relaxation mechanism is given by the activation volume which has been determined for different levels of plastic deformation and different temperatures. The activation volume is equal to ~15-40 b3 at room temperature and tends to decrease with increasing plastic deformation. The activation volume decreases when relaxation takes place at 50 °C down to ~7-20 b3. These variations of the activation volume indicate the competition between two different thermally activated deformation mechanisms in the temperature range between 20 °C and 50 °C.
Guisbiers, G.; Colla, M.-S.; Coulombier, M.; Raskin, J.-P.; Pardoen, T.
This paper presents the results for the verification of the S3.mp cache coherence protocol. The S3.mp protocol uses a distributed directory with limited number of pointers and hardware sup- ported overflow handling that keeps processing nodes sharing a data block in a singly linked list. The complexity of the protocol is high and its validation is challenging because of the
Fong Pong; Andreas Nowatzyk; Guiles Aybay; Michel Dubois
This procedure describes the preparation of protocols as part of the quality assurance program for the Region 5 NHEXAS study. In general, protocols describe the objectives, methods, and procedures used to conduct a study or experiment. A protocol may include some detailed informa...
Background The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the effects of rigid gas permeable and soft contact lenses on the protein\\u000a composition in the tear film of contact lens wearers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Wearers of soft contact lenses (CL_S, n?=?13) and rigid gas permeable contact lenses (CL_H, n?=?13) were recruited for this study. Thirteen non-contact lens wearers were also included as
Christina Kramann; Nils Boehm; Katrin Lorenz; Nelli Wehrwein; Bernhard M. Stoffelns; Norbert Pfeiffer; Franz H. Grus
The protocol template is a tool to facilitate rapid protocol development. It is not intended to supersede the role of the Protocol Principal Investigator in the authoring and scientific development of the protocol. It contains the language required in protocols submitted to the NCI, Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). Please modify all sections as necessary to meet the scientific aims of the study and development of the protocol.
The purpose of this paper is to achieve an indepth understanding of the effect of the filler size and surface treatment on material properties and therefore to design a nanocomposite formulation with desirable material properties for no-flow underfill applications. Mono-dispersed nanosilica filler of 100 nm in size were used in this study. An epoxy\\/anhydride mixture was used as the base
Yangyang Sun; C. P. Wong
Anatomical information on most lichen species, including Parmeliaceae species, is scarce and superficial. This is partially due to the technical difficulties found during the preparation of samples and sections suitable for optical microscopy analysis. There is a lack of pictures of anatomical sections as well as detailed anatomical protocols related to the sample processing made by specialized plant anatomists in literature. This work aimed to look for a standardized histological technique and to develop a protocol for histological studies of foliose Parmeliaceae under light microscopy. Four common pantropical species of Parmeliaceae, abundant in the Brazilian cerrado vegetation, were processed in several ways in relation to fixing and inclusion media, sectioning thicknesses, and staining, including both fresh and 2-year-old herbarium specimens. The best technique found for anatomical studies of Parmeliaceae under light microscopy is represented by 2 or 3 microm thick sections of fresh or herbarium samples, desiccated and fixed in FAA 50, infiltrated and embedded in glycol-methacrylate resin (Leica), and stained by Toluidine Blue or Methylene Blue. PMID:18977150
Barbosa, Suzana Bissacot; Marcelli, Marcelo Pinto; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues
Mobility is a key factor in the performance of many everyday tasks required for independent living as a person grows older. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to test a theory-based mobility monitoring protocol by comparing sensor-based measures to self-report measures of mobility and assessing the acceptability of in-home sensors with older adults. Standardized instruments to measure physical, psychosocial and cognitive parameters were administered to 8 community-dwelling older adults at baseline, 3 month and 6 month visits (examples: FES, GDS-SF, Mini-cog). Semi-structured interviews to characterize acceptability of the technology were conducted at 3 month and 6 month visits. Technical issues prevented comparison of sensor-based measures with self-report measures. In-home sensor technology for monitoring mobility is acceptable to older adults. Implementing our theory-based mobility monitoring protocol in a field study in the homes of older adults is a feasible undertaking but requires more robust technology for sensor-based measure validation.
Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Lazar, Amanda; Joe, Jonathan; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J.
Abstract This paper presents a systematic,analysis of insider attacks against mobile,ad-hoc routing protocols, using the Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol as an example. It identifies a number of attack goals, and then studies how to achieve these goals through,misuses of the routing messages. To facilitate the analysis, it classifies insider attacks into two categories: atomic misuses and compound misuses.
Peng Ning; Kun Sun
The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic IC chip inspection and recognition system. This vision system can find the pins in an IC chip and then determine its major axis precisely. Based on the rules developed in this study, the system can successfully detect the label blocks printed on the IC surface. An algorithm for dividing merged
A neural network experiment conducted for the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) 1-b launched in June 1994. Identical sets of analog feed-forward neural network chips was used to study and compare the effects of space and ground radiation on the chips. Three failure mechanisms are noted.
Langenbacher, H.; Zee, F.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A.
Chip scale package with the flip-chip technologies on the optical devices, CMOS image sensor (CIS), has been developed for mobile product with camera module built-in. Flip-chip bumping technologies may be driven by size reduction as well as cost effectiveness compared with conventional packaging. In the study, gold and solder bumping technologies on the CIS device have been studied in terms
Gi-Jo Jung; Young-Woon Yeo; Yun-Mook Park; In-Soo Kang; Jong-Heon Kim; Jay Choi
We report a range of elementary optical coding and decoding experiments employing superstructured fiber Bragg grating (SSFBG) components: first, we perform a comparative study of the relative merits of bipolar and unipolar coding: decoding schemes and show that the SSFBG approach allows high-quality unipolar and bipolar coding. A performance close to that-theoretically predicted for seven-chip, 160-Gchip\\/s M-sequence codes is obtained.
Peh Chiong Teh; Periklis Petropoulos; Morten Ibsen; David J. Richardson
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) represents one of the most frequently diagnosed disorders of the immune system. Though several causative and associated genes have been identified, the origins of most cases remain unknown. Diagnostic delay is common due to the gradual evolution and wide spectrum of phenotypes, which can include autoimmune disease, enteropathy, and lung disease. A recent genome wide array identified novel gene associations with CVID, and also showed that identification of a genetic signature via a Support Vector Machine algorithm may be a powerful diagnostic tool. Studies utilizing whole genome or exome sequencing have also met with success in identifying new causes of CVID in subgroups of patients.
Keller, Michael D; Jyonouchi, Soma
In recent years, the advantages of using small invertebrate animals as model systems for human disease have become increasingly apparent and have resulted in three Nobel Prizes in medicine or chemistry during the last six years for studies conducted on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The availability of a wide array of species-specific genetic techniques, along with the transparency of the worm and its ability to grow in minute volumes make C. elegans an extremely powerful model organism. We present a suite of technologies for complex high-throughput whole-animal genetic and drug screens. We demonstrate a high-speed microfluidic sorter that can isolate and immobilize C. elegans in a well-defined geometry, an integrated chip containing individually addressable screening chambers for incubation and exposure of individual animals to biochemical compounds, and a device for delivery of compound libraries in standard multiwell plates to microfluidic devices. The immobilization stability obtained by these devices is comparable to that of chemical anesthesia and the immobilization process does not affect lifespan, progeny production, or other aspects of animal health. The high-stability enables the use of a variety of key optical techniques. We use this to demonstrate femtosecond-laser nanosurgery and three-dimensional multiphoton microscopy. Used alone or in various combinations these devices facilitate a variety of high-throughput assays using whole animals, including mutagenesis and RNAi and drug screens at subcellular resolution, as well as high-throughput high-precision manipulations such as femtosecond-laser nanosurgery for large-scale in vivo neural degeneration and regeneration studies.
Rohde, Christopher B.; Zeng, Fei; Gilleland, Cody; Samara, Chrysanthi; Yanik, Mehmet F.
The ability to culture cells in vitro has revolutionized hypothesis testing in basic cell and molecular biology research and has become a standard methodology in drug screening and toxicology assays. However, the traditional cell culture methodology—consisting essentially of the immersion of a large population of cells in a homogeneous fluid medium—has become increasingly limiting, both from a fundamental point of view (cells in vivo are surrounded by complex spatiotemporal microenvironments) and from a practical perspective (scaling up the number of fluid handling steps and cell manipulations for high-throughput studies in vitro is prohibitively expensive). Micro fabrication technologies have enabled researchers to design, with micrometer control, the biochemical composition and topology of the substrate, the medium composition, as well as the type of neighboring cells surrounding the microenvironment of the cell. In addition, microtechnology is conceptually well suited for the development of fast, low-cost in vitro systems that allow for high-throughput culturing and analysis of cells under large numbers of conditions. Here we review a variety of applications of microfabrication in cell culture studies, with an emphasis on the biology of various cell types.
Li, Nianzhen; Tourovskaia, Anna; Folch, Albert
Background Clinical trials throughout the world must be evaluated by research ethics committees. No one has yet attempted to clearly quantify at the national level the activity of ethics committees and describe the characteristics of the protocols submitted. The objectives of this study were to describe 1) the workload and the activity of Research Ethics Committees in France, and 2) the characteristics of protocols approved on a nation-wide basis. Methods Retrospective cohort of 976 protocols approved by a representative sample of 25/48 of French Research Ethics Committees in 1994. Protocols characteristics (design, study size, investigator), number of revisions requested by the ethics committee before approval, time to approval and number of amendments after approval were collected for each protocol by trained research assistant using the committee's files and archives. Results Thirty-one percent of protocols were approved with no modifications requested in 16 days (95% CI: 14–17). The number of revisions requested by the committee, and amendments submitted by the investigator was on average respectively 39 (95% CI: 25–53) and 37 (95% CI: 27–46), per committee and per year. When revisions were requested, the main reasons were related to information to the patient (28%) and consent modalities (18%). Drugs were the object of research in 68% of the protocols examined. The majority of the research was national (80%) with a predominance of single-centre studies. Workload per protocol has been estimated at twelve and half hours on average for administrative support and at eleven and half hours for expertise. Conclusion The estimated workload justifies specific and independent administrative and financial support for Research Ethics Committees.
Decullier, Evelyne; Lheritier, Veronique; Chapuis, Francois
We investigated a new cryopreservation method using xenon, a clathrate-forming gas, under medium pressure (100psi). The objective of the study was to determine whether this cryostasis protocol could protect cardiac mitochondria at cryogenic temperatures (below 100 degrees Celsius).We analyzed transmission electron microscopy images to obtain information about changes in mitochondrial morphology induced by cryopreservation of the hearts. Our data showed absence of mitochondrial swelling, rupture of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of mitochondrial matrix into the cytoplasm after applying this cryostasis protocol. The electron microscopy results provided the first evidence that a cryostasis protocol using xenon as a clathrate-forming gas under pressure may have protective effects on intracellular membranes. This cryostasis technology may find applications in developing new approaches for long-term cryopreservation protocols.
Sheleg, Sergey; Hixon, Hugh; Cohen, Bruce; Lowry, David; Nedzved, Mikhail
We investigated the effects of scan protocols on CT-based material extraction to minimize radiation dose while maintaining sufficient image information in small animal studies. The phantom simulation experiments were performed with the high dose (HD), medium dose (MD) and low dose (LD) protocols at 50, 70 and 80 kVp with varying mA s. The reconstructed CT images were segmented based on Hounsfield unit (HU)-physical density (?) calibration curves and the dual-energy CT-based (DECT) method. Compared to the (HU;?) method performed on CT images acquired with the 80 kVp HD protocol, a 2-fold improvement in segmentation accuracy and a 7.5-fold reduction in radiation dose were observed when the DECT method was performed on CT images acquired with the 50/80 kVp LD protocol, showing the possibility to reduce radiation dose while achieving high segmentation accuracy.
Yang, Ching-Ching; Yu, Jhih-An; Yang, Bang-Hung; Wu, Tung-Hsin
Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol utilising longitudinal outcome measurement, surveys, patient and family qualitative interviews and focus groups, staff qualitative interviews, health economics and document analysis. Aim 1) To describe the nature and scope of HIV care and support in two African countries, including the types of facilities available, clients seen, and availability of specific components of care [Study Phase 1]. Aim 2) To determine patient health outcomes over time and principle cost drivers [Study Phase 2]. The study objectives are as follows. 1) To undertake a cross-sectional survey of service configuration and activity by sampling 10% of the facilities being funded by PEPFAR to provide HIV care and support in Kenya and Uganda (Phase 1) in order to describe care currently provided, including pharmacy drug reviews to determine availability and supply of essential drugs in HIV management. 2) To conduct patient focus group discussions at each of these (Phase 1) to determine care received. 3) To undertake a longitudinal prospective study of 1200 patients who are newly diagnosed with HIV or patients with HIV who present with a new problem attending PEPFAR care and support services. Data collection includes self-reported quality of life, core palliative outcomes and components of care received (Phase 2). 4) To conduct qualitative interviews with staff, patients and carers in order to explore and understand service issues and care provision in more depth (Phase 2). 5) To undertake document analysis to appraise the clinical care procedures at each facility (Phase 2). 6) To determine principle cost drivers including staff, overhead and laboratory costs (Phase 2). Discussion This novel mixed methods protocol will permit transparent presentation of subsequent dataset results publication, and offers a substantive model of protocol design to measure and integrate key activities and outcomes that underpin a public health approach to disease management in a low-income setting.
An initial study of protein phosphorylation in human cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is described. CSF is an important body fluid for study of proteins and metabolites and may lead to the ultimate development of molecular markers to predict neurological diseases or their complications, such as in the case of hemorrhagic stroke. The use of capillary liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (capLC-ICPMS) for screening using 31P as the internal elemental tag atom at ultratrace levels, in combination with molecular mass spectrometry using Spectrum Mill and MASCOT database search engines for peptide identification, is a novel approach in its application to CSF relevant phosphopeptides and phosphorylated proteins. CapLC-ICPMS combined with nano liquid chromatography electrospray ionization, ion trap mass spectrometry (nanoLC-CHIP/ITMS), was utilized for initial experiments with CSF. Specific low-level screening for 31P containing compounds is accomplished, and nanoLC-CHIP/ITMS provided the corresponding peptide information and subsequent protein identifications. The fractions containing 31P from screening by the capLC-ICPMS were collected offline and analyzed separately with nanoLC-CHIP/ITMS. Synthetic phosphopeptides were used to test the method and to estimate lowest quantifiable limits for phosphorus. Tryptically digested ?-casein was then used to demonstrate the viability of the methodology for the complex CSF matrix from hemorrhagic stroke patients while also analyzing for native phosphopeptides in the CSF.
Ellis, Jenny; Grimm, Rudolf; Clark, Joseph F.; Pyne-Gaithman, Gail; Wilbur, Steve; Caruso, Joseph A.
Helen Cole, the project manager for the Lab-on-a-Chip Applications Development program, and Lisa Monaco, the project scientist for the program, insert a lab on a chip into the Caliper 42 which is specialized equipment that controls processes on commercial chips to support development of lab-on-a-chip applications. The system has special microscopes and imaging systems, so scientists can process and study different types of fluid, chemical, and medical tests conducted on chips. For example, researchers have examined fluorescent bacteria as it flows through the chips' fluid channels or microfluidic capillaries. Researchers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have been studying how the lab-on-a-chip technology can be used for microbial detection, water quality monitoring, and detecting biosignatures of past or present life on Mars. The Marshall Center team is also collaborating with scientists at other NASA centers and at universities to develop custom chip designs for not only space applications, but for many Earth applications, such as for detecting deadly microbes in heating and air systems. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)
In this work, a viscosimeter implemented on a microfluidic chip is presented. The physical principle of this system is to use laminar parallel flows in a microfluidic channel. The fluid to be studied flows side by side with a reference fluid of known viscosity. By using optical microscopy, the shape of the interface between both fluids can be determined. Knowing
Pierre Guillot; Pascal Panizza; Jean-Baptiste Salmon; Mathieu Joanicot; Annie Colin; Charles-Henri Bruneau; Thierry Colin
Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.
Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.
The study deals with the storage of fuel chips in perforated plastic bags with respect to drying, loss of wood substance and change in energy. Trees from pre-commercial thinnings have been used as the raw material for chips. The chips consisted of 54 % wo...
Thermomechanical reliability of solder joints in flip-chip packages is usually analyzed by assuming a homogeneous underfill ignoring the settling of filler particles. However, filler settling does impact flip chip reliability. This paper reports a numerical study of the influence of filler settling on the fatigue estimation of flip-chip solder joints. In total, nine underfill materials ( 35 vol% silica filler
Cheng-fu Chen; Pramod C. Karulkar
We have implemented a 41-day ground-based study to investigate the effects of daily artificial gravity loading on bed rest deconditioned human subjects. Each subject underwent 21 days of 6 degree head-down bed rest. Treatment subjects received 60 min daily doses of inertial mechanical loading (2.5 G at the feet decreasing to 1 G at the heart) produced by a short radius centrifuge. During rotation, the subject's cardiovascular responses were monitored via ECG, blood pressure and pulse oximetry, and subjective assessment of motion sickness and overall health were periodically requested. The subject's weight distribution at the feet was measured using a force plate, and lower leg muscle activity was monitored via surface electromyography. Control subjects were instrumented but did not receive any centrifugation. This paper provides details on the centrifuge protocol development and efficacy. PMID:18372684
Arya, Maneesh; Paloski, William H; Young, Laurence R
Purpose Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. Materials and Methods We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. Results The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 ?B and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Conclusion Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.
Park, Wonse; Lee, Hae-Na; Jeong, Jin-Sun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Grace H.
Burnout is a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment that has been found to exist in a significant number of healthcare and helping professionals. It imposes a significant societal burden by shortened practitioner lifespan, decreased efficiency, negative health outcomes and poorer levels of patient care. Theoretical models suggest that it appears to be the result of a complex interaction between job resources and job demands. It may be reasonable to conclude that Chiropractic professionals experience similar vocational demands and thus experience significant levels of occupational stress and subsequent burnout. However the data on burnout within the chiropractic profession is limited. It is possible that this results in significant negative outcomes on chiropractors and their patients. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to explore burnout in chiropractic practice and offer a research protocol for a potential study.
In this paper, a novel method is proposed and demonstrated to be able to lyse gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria cells for Lab-on-a-Chip applications. The proposed method incorporates using titanium dioxide particles as photocatalysts and a miniaturized UV LED array as an excitation light source to perform cell lysis on microchips. The experimental result demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed prototype device. The working device suggests an inexpensive, easy to be fabricated and effective way for microchip cell lysis. The miniaturized UV LED array and the microchip with a reaction chamber can be easily integrated with other functional components to form a customized whole Lab-on-a-Chip system. PMID:21369761
Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W
A VLSI chip (AI chip) has been developed for artificial intelligence (AI) workstations to support both AI and other procedural languages. The chip is based on the former AI processor (AIP), which combines RISC (reduced instruction set computer) architectu...
T. Aikawa Y. Bandai T. Kinoshita
A test chip set being developed to aid in the qualification of spaceborne Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) is described. The chip set consists of a process monitor for process parameter verification, a fault chip for yield analysis, a reli...
M. G. Buehler B. R. Blaes Y. Lin N. Zamani U. Lieneweg
A previously validated detailed model of a 119-pin Flip-Chip Plastic Ball Grid Array (FC-PBGA) package was created and validated against experimental data for natural convection and forced convection environments. Next, two compact models were derived, a two-resistor model (created using the JEDEC-standard based computational approach), and a multi-resistor model (created using the DELPHI optimization approach that was boundary condition independent
S. Shidore; V. Adams; Tien-Yu Tom Lee
A previously validated detailed model of a 119-pin flip-chip plastic ball grid array (FC-PBGA) package was created and validated against experimental data for natural convection and forced convection environments. Next, two compact models mere derived, a two-resistor model (created using the JEDEC-standard based computational approach), and a multiresistor model (created using the DELPHI optimization approach that was boundary condition independent
Sarang Shidore; Vance Adams; Tien-Yu Tom Lee
This paper describes the development of computer-aided design of a very precise progressive die for lead frame of semiconductor chip. The approach to the system is based on knowledge-based rules. Knowledge for the system is formulated from plasticity theories, experimental results, and the empirical knowledge of field experts. This system has been written in AutoLISP using AutoCAD on a personal
Jae Hun Kim; Jae Chan Choi
Clinical diagnostics is one of the most promising applications for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip or lab-on-card systems. DNA chips, which provide multiparametric data, are privileged tools for genomic analysis. However, automation of molecular biology protocol and use of these DNA chips in fully integrated systems remains a great challenge. Simplicity of chip and/or card/instrument interfaces is amongst the most critical issues to be addressed. Indeed, current detection systems for DNA chip reading are often complex, expensive, bulky and even limited in terms of sensitivity or accuracy. Furthermore, for liquid handling in the lab-on-cards, many devices use complex and bulky systems, either to directly manipulate fluids, or to ensure pneumatic or mechanical control of integrated valves. All these drawbacks prevent or limit the use of DNA-chip-based integrated systems, for point-of-care testing or as a routine diagnostics tool. We present here a DNA-chip-based protocol integration on a plastic card for clinical diagnostics applications including: (1) an opto-electronic DNA-chip, (2) fluid handling using electrically activated embedded pyrotechnic microvalves with closing/opening functions. We demonstrate both fluidic and electric packaging of the optoelectronic DNA chip without major alteration of its electronical and biological functionalities, and fluid control using novel electrically activable pyrotechnic microvalves. Finally, we suggest a complete design of a card dedicated to automation of a complex biological protocol with a fully electrical fluid handling and DNA chip reading. PMID:17636395
Marchand, Gilles; Broyer, Patrick; Lanet, Véronique; Delattre, Cyril; Foucault, Frédéric; Menou, Lionel; Calvas, Bernard; Roller, Denis; Ginot, Frédéric; Campagnolo, Raymond; Mallard, Frédéric
This paper is condensed from a full report (1) that describes the needs, reasoning, approaches, and technical details to establish a practical accelerated weathering test (AWT) protocol for indoor testing of the photothermal stability of encapsulation materials and encapsulated solar cells and minimodules. Essentially the AWT Protocol resembles ASTM methods and is designed solely to better utilize the capabilities of
F. J. Pern
Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the
Y. K. Lee; A. Za'aba; N. K. Madzhi; A. Ahmad
Compares some of the writing behaviors present in the think-aloud protocols of three male Spanish university students while writing in Catalan, their native language, and in Spanish and English. Analysis of the subjects' composing behaviors based on think-aloud protocols shows that their planning and other strategies are consistent across the…
Simulation is used to estimate the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols derived from carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA\\/CD), and operating in local area networks comprising several parallel broadcast channels. The influence of possible protocol and system alternatives on the network performance is discussed, based on results of the packet delay average, variance, mean square, coefficient of
Marco Ajmone Marsan; Fabio Neri
A test chip set being developed to aid in the qualification of spaceborne Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) is described. The chip set consists of a process monitor for process parameter verification, a fault chip for yield analysis, a reliability chip for ASIC failure rate analysis, and total ionizing dose and single event upset chips for radiation effect analysis. The test structures contained in these chips are discussed along with representative test results.
Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Zamani, N.; Lieneweg, U.
Accurate, fast, and affordable analysis of the cellular component of blood is of prime interest for medicine and research. Yet, most often sample preparation procedures for blood analysis involve handling steps prone to introducing artifacts, whereas analysis methods commonly require skilled technicians and well-equipped, expensive laboratories. Developing more gentle protocols and affordable instruments for specific blood analysis tasks is becoming possible through the recent progress in the area of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip-type devices. Precise control over the cell microenvironment during separation procedures and the ability to scale down the analysis to very small volumes of blood are among the most attractive capabilities of the new approaches. Here we review some of the emerging principles for manipulating blood cells at microscale and promising high-throughput approaches to blood cell separation using microdevices. Examples of specific single-purpose devices are described together with integration strategies for blood cell separation and analysis modules.
Toner, Mehmet; Irimia, Daniel
An all day workshop was held on August 27, 2002 to review and revise the ongoing monitoring protocol for arroyo toads at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. The revised protocol focuses on monitoring the extent of arroyo toad habitat on base and monitoring ...
A. J. Atkinson B. S. Yang E. Ervin H. B. Shaffer N. Scott R. N. Fisher T. J. Case
Objective To investigate the planning of subgroup analyses in protocols of randomised controlled trials and the agreement with corresponding full journal publications. Design Cohort of protocols of randomised controlled trial and subsequent full journal publications. Setting Six research ethics committees in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada. Data sources 894 protocols of randomised controlled trial involving patients approved by participating research ethics committees between 2000 and 2003 and 515 subsequent full journal publications. Results Of 894 protocols of randomised controlled trials, 252 (28.2%) included one or more planned subgroup analyses. Of those, 17 (6.7%) provided a clear hypothesis for at least one subgroup analysis, 10 (4.0%) anticipated the direction of a subgroup effect, and 87 (34.5%) planned a statistical test for interaction. Industry sponsored trials more often planned subgroup analyses compared with investigator sponsored trials (195/551 (35.4%) v 57/343 (16.6%), P<0.001). Of 515 identified journal publications, 246 (47.8%) reported at least one subgroup analysis. In 81 (32.9%) of the 246 publications reporting subgroup analyses, authors stated that subgroup analyses were prespecified, but this was not supported by 28 (34.6%) corresponding protocols. In 86 publications, authors claimed a subgroup effect, but only 36 (41.9%) corresponding protocols reported a planned subgroup analysis. Conclusions Subgroup analyses are insufficiently described in the protocols of randomised controlled trials submitted to research ethics committees, and investigators rarely specify the anticipated direction of subgroup effects. More than one third of statements in publications of randomised controlled trials about subgroup prespecification had no documentation in the corresponding protocols. Definitive judgments regarding credibility of claimed subgroup effects are not possible without access to protocols and analysis plans of randomised controlled trials.
Background Despite the increasing use of pre- and posthydration protocols and low-osmolar instead of high-osmolar iodine-containing contrast media, the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is still significant. There is evidence that contrast media cause ischemia-reperfusion injury of the medulla. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive, safe, and low-cost method to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The RIPCIN study is a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial in which 76 patients at risk of CIN will receive standard hydration combined with RIPC or hydration with sham preconditioning. RIPC will be applied by four cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion of the forearm by inflating a blood pressure cuff at 50 mmHg above the actual systolic pressure. The primary outcome measure will be the change in serum creatinine from baseline to 48 to 72 h after contrast administration. Discussion A recent pilot study reported that RIPC reduced the incidence of CIN after coronary angioplasty. The unusual high incidence of CIN in this study is of concern and limits its generalizability. Therefore, we propose a randomized controlled trial to study whether RIPC reduces contrast-induced kidney injury in patients at risk for CIN according to the Dutch guidelines. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76496973
Recent progress in the field of genetic engineering has opened up the door to novel synthetic biology applications. Microfluidic technology has been emphasized as a key technology to support the development of these applications. While several important synthetic biology protocols have been developed in microfluidic format, no study has yet demonstrated on-chip error control. In synthetic biology protocols, the purification phase is a critical error control process which enhances the reliability of the genome segment assembly by removing undesired oligos. In this context, we report the design and characterization of a fully integrated platform, demonstrating the purification of up to 4 genome segments in parallel, prior to their off-chip assembly. The key innovation of this platform is the decoupling control strategy which eliminates the need to integrate expensive components onto the microfluidic device, enabling lower cost, disposability and rapid operation. Unlike most microfluidic chips where fluid connector plugs are needed to connect external pumps, this approach is plug-less and the chips are simply connected to the control breadboard by clamping. Furthermore the passive chip is isolated from the active control layer thereby eliminating the risk of sample-to-sample contamination in the reusable parts. As a validation of this fully-integrated system, the parallel on-chip purification of genome segments was demonstrated with ratio of correct phenotypes after final assembly up to 20% superior to the bench controls, proving thereby the suitability of the platform for synthetic biology applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1627-1637. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24615218
Kersaudy-Kerhoas, M; Amalou, F; Che, A; Kelly, J; Liu, Y; Desmulliez, M P Y; Shu, W
For the quantitative analysis of cellular metabolism and its dynamics it is essential to achieve rapid sampling, fast quenching of metabolism and the removal of extracellular metabolites. Common manual sample preparation methods and protocols for cells are time-consuming and often lead to the loss of physiological conditions. In this work, we present a microchip-bioreactor setup which provides an integrated and rapid sample preparation of mammalian cells. The lab-on-a-chip system consists of five connected units that allow sample treatment, mixing and incubation of the cells, followed by cell separation and simultaneous exchange of media within seconds. This microsystem is directly integrated into a bioreactor for mammalian cell cultivation. By applying overpressure (2 bar) onto the bioreactor, this setup allows pulsation free, defined, fast, and continuous sampling. Experiments evince that Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO-K1) can be separated from the culture broth and transferred into a new medium efficiently. Furthermore, this setup permits the treatment of cells for a defined time (9 s or 18 s) which can be utilized for pulse experiments, quenching of cell metabolism, and/or another defined chemical treatment. Proof of concept experiments were performed using glutamine containing medium for pulse experiments. Continuous sampling of cells showed a high reproducibility over a period of 18 h.
Bahnemann, Janina; Rajabi, Negar; Fuge, Grischa; Platas Barradas, Oscar; Muller, Jorg; Portner, Ralf; Zeng, An-Ping
Background Patients with retinitis pigmentosa are motivated to try complementary or integrative therapies to slow disease progression. Basic science, clinical research and retinitis pigmentosa patients' self-reports support the hypothesis that acupuncture may improve visual function. Methods A prospective, case series, pilot study enrolled 12 adult patients with RP treated at an academic medical centre with a standardised protocol that combined electroacupuncture to the forehead and below the eyes and acupuncture to the body, at 10 half-hour sessions over two weeks. Pre- and post-treatment tests included Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (VA), Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (CS), Goldmann visual fields, and dark-adapted full-field stimulus threshold (FST)(n = 9). Scotopic Sensitivity Tester-1 (SST-1) dark-adaptometry was performed on the last two subjects. Results Six of 12 subjects had measurable, significant visual function improvements after treatment. Three of nine subjects tested with the FST had a significant 10.3 to 17.5 dB (that is, 13- to 53-fold) improvement in both eyes at one week after acupuncture, maintained for at least 10 to 12 months, which was well outside typical test-retest variability (95% CI: 3–3.5 dB) previously found in retinitis pigmentosa. SST-1 dark-adaptation was shortened in both subjects tested on average by 48.5 per cent at one week (range 36 to 62 per cent across 10 to 30 dB), which was outside typical coefficients of variation of less than 30 per cent previously determined in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and normals. Four of the five subjects with psychophysically measured scotopic sensitivity improvements reported subjective improvements in vision at night or in dark environments. One subject had 0.2 logMAR improvement in VA; another had 0.55 logCS improvement. Another subject developed more than 20 per cent improvement in the area of the Goldmann visual fields. The acupuncture protocol was completed and well tolerated by all, without adverse events or visual loss. Conclusions Acupuncture entails minimal risk, if administered by a well-trained acupuncturist and may have significant, measurable benefits on residual visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, in particular scotopic sensitivity, which had not previously been studied. These preliminary findings support the need for future controlled studies of potential mechanisms.
Bittner, Ava K; Gould, Jeffrey M; Rosenfarb, Andy; Rozanski, Collin; Dagnelie, Gislin
Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants). The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18) who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants) and at 4 month follow-up to see if improvements persist. Measures of treatment adherence, pain, disability, and anxiety and depression will be assessed throughout study participation. Qualitative interviews for mentors, mentored participants, and control subjects will also be administered. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01118988.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are one of the most crucial topics in rare cell biology and have become the focus of a significant and emerging area of cancer research. While CTC enumeration is a valid biomarker in prostate cancer, the current FDA-approved CTC technology is unable to detect CTCs in a large portion of late stage prostate cancer patients. Here we introduce the NanoVelcro CTC Chip, a device composed of a patterned silicon nanowire substrate (SiNW) and an overlaid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chaotic mixer. Validated by two institutions participating in the study, the NanoVelcro Chip assay exhibits very consistent efficiency in CTC-capture from patient samples. The utilized protocol can be easily replicated at different facilities. We demonstrate the clinical utility of the NanoVelcro Chip by performing serial enumerations of CTCs in prostate cancer patients after undergoing systemic therapy. Changes in CTC numbers after 4–10 weeks of therapy were compared with their clinical responses. We observed a statistically significant reduction in CTCs counts in the clinical responders. We performed long-term follow up with serial CTC collection and enumeration in one patient observing variations in counts correlating with treatment response. This study demonstrates the consistency of the NanoVelcro Chip assay over time for CTC enumeration and also shows that continuous monitoring of CTC numbers can be employed to follow responses to different treatments and monitor disease progression.
Lu, Yi-Tsung; Zhao, Libo; Shen, Qinglin; Garcia, Mitch A.; Wu, Dongxia; Hou, Shuang; Song, Min; Xu, Xiaochun; OuYang, Wei-Han; OuYang, William W.-L.; Lichterman, Jake; Luo, Zheng; Xuan, Xuan; Huang, Jiaoti; Chung, Leland W. K.; Rettig, Matthew; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Shao, Chen; Posadas, Edwin M.
Background Mental health professionals face unique demands and stressors in their work, resulting in high rates of burnout and distress. Clinical supervision is a widely adopted and valued mechanism of professional support, development, and accountability, despite the very limited evidence of specific impacts on therapist or client outcomes. The current study aims to address this by exploring how psychotherapists develop competence through clinical supervision and what impact this has on the supervisees’ practice and their clients’ outcomes. This paper provides a rationale for the study and describes the protocol for an in-depth qualitative study of supervisory dyads, highlighting how it addresses gaps in the literature. Methods/Design The study of 16–20 supervisor-supervisee dyads uses a qualitative mixed method design, with two phases. In phase one, supervisors who are nominated as expert by their peers are interviewed about their supervision practice. In phase two, supervisors record a supervision session with a consenting supervisee; interpersonal process recall interviews are conducted separately with supervisor and supervisee to reflect in depth on the teaching and learning processes occurring. All interviews will be transcribed, coded and analysed to identify the processes that build competence, using a modified form of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) strategies. Using a theory-building case study method, data from both phases of the study will be integrated to develop a model describing the processes that build competence and support wellbeing in practising psychotherapists, reflecting the accumulated wisdom of the expert supervisors. Discussion The study addresses past study limitations by examining expert supervisors and their supervisory interactions, by reflecting on actual supervision sessions, and by using dyadic analysis of the supervisory pairs. The study findings will inform the development of future supervision training and practice and identify fruitful avenues for future research.
OBJECTIVES: To review the characteristics and performance of research ethics committees in Spain in the evaluation of multicentre clinical trial drug protocols. DESIGN: A prospective study of 100 applications. SETTING: Forty-one committees reviewing clinical trial protocols, involving 50 hospitals in 25 cities. MAIN MEASURES: Protocol-related features, characteristics of research ethics committees and evaluation dynamics. RESULTS: The 100 applications involved 15 protocols (of which 12 were multinational) with 12 drugs. Committees met monthly (except one). They had a mean number of 12 members, requested a mean of six complete dossiers and nine additional copies of the protocol with a mean deadline of 14 days before the meeting. All applications were approved except three (two of the three were open-label long-term safety trials rejected by the same committee), which were approved by the other committees involved. The mean time from submission to approval was 64 days. The mean time from submission to arrival of the approval document at our offices was 85 days. Twenty-five committees raised queries for 38 of the 97 finally approved applications. Impact of evaluation fee, number of members, queries raised and experience of committees on timings were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Obtaining ethical approval is time-consuming. There is much diversity in the research ethics committees' performance. A remarkable delay (> 20 days) exists between the decision and the arrival of the written approval, suggesting administrative or organisational problems.
Dal-Re, R; Espada, J; Ortega, R
Background Racial disparities in blood pressure control are well established; however the impact of low health literacy (LHL) on blood pressure has garnered less attention. Office based interventions that are created with iterative patient, practice and community stakeholder input and are rolled out incrementally, may help address these disparities in hypertension control. This paper describes our study protocol. Methods/design Using a community based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we designed and implemented a cohort study that includes both a practice level and patient level intervention to enhance the care and support of patients with hypertension in primary care practices in a rural region of eastern North Carolina. The study is divided into a formative phase and an ongoing 2.5 year implementation phase. Our main care enhancement activities include the integration of a community health coach, using home blood pressure monitoring in clinical decision making, standardizing care delivery processes, and working to improve medication adherence. Main outcomes include overall blood pressure change, the differential change in blood pressure by race (African American vs. White) and health literacy level (low vs. higher health literacy). Discussion Using a community based participatory approach in primary care practice settings has helped to engage patients and practice staff and providers in the research effort and in making practice changes to support hypertension care. Practices have engaged at varying levels, but progress has been made in implementing and iteratively improving upon the interventions to date. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01425515.
The purpose of this investigation has been to study moisture content changes, matter losses, and fungus diaspore amounts in outdoor storage of fuel chip piles. Fresh harvesting residuals (logging slash) were chipped and laid up in 4 piles. The pile height...
Background Weaning is the process during which mechanical ventilation is withdrawn and the work of breathing is transferred from the ventilator back to the patient. Prolonged weaning is associated with development of ventilator-related complications and longer stays in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Computerized or Automated Weaning is a novel weaning strategy that continuously measures and adapts ventilator support (by frequently measuring and averaging three breathing parameters) and automatically conducts Spontaneous Breathing Trials to ascertain whether patients can resume autonomous breathing. Automated Weaning holds promise as a strategy to reduce the time spent on the ventilator, decrease ICU length of stay, and improve clinically important outcomes. Methods/Design A pilot weaning randomized controlled trial (RCT) is underway in the ICUs of 8 Canadian hospitals. We will randomize 90 critically ill adults requiring invasive ventilation for at least 24 hours and identified at an early stage of the weaning process to either Automated Weaning (SmartCare™) or Protocolized Weaning. The results of a National Weaning Survey informed the design of the Protocolized Weaning arm. Both weaning protocols are operationalized in Pressure Support mode, include opportunities for Spontaneous Breathing Trials, and share a common sedation protocol, oxygen titration parameters, and extubation and reintubation criteria. The primary outcome of the WEAN study is to evaluate compliance with the proposed weaning and sedation protocols. A key secondary outcome of the pilot RCT is to evaluate clinician acceptance of the weaning and sedation protocols. Prior to initiating the WEAN Study, we conducted a run-in phase, involving two patients per centre (randomizing the first participant to either weaning strategy and assigning the second patient to the alternate strategy) to ensure that participating centres could implement the weaning and sedation protocols and complete the detailed case report forms. Discussion Mechanical ventilation studies are difficult to implement; requiring protocols to be operationalized continuously and entailing detailed daily data collection. As the first multicentre weaning RCT in Canada, the WEAN Study seeks to determine the feasibility of conducting a large scale future weaning trial and to establish a collaborative network of ICU clinicians dedicated to advancing the science of weaning. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN43760151
Burns, Karen EA; Meade, Maureen O; Lessard, Martin R; Keenan, Sean P; Lellouche, Francois
Frustration with emergency department wait times may contribute to patient delays in seeking care for subsequent episodes of chest pain and lower patient satisfaction ratings. In response to patient feedback and the dissemination of new knowledge, the existing emergency chest pain protocol was updated to include point-of-care laboratory testing and evaluation at baseline and 90 minutes. A case study was utilized to illustrate implementation of this protocol in the management of a patient presenting to the emergency department with chest pain. PMID:24895948
Bunch, Azalea Marie; Carithers, Cathrin; Leasure, A Renee
We present the integrated imaging of cold molecules in a microchip environment. The on-chip detection is based on resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, which is quantum state selective and generally applicable. We demonstrate and characterize time-resolved spatial imaging and subsequently use it to analyze the effect of a phase-space manipulation sequence aimed at compressing the velocity distribution of a molecular ensemble with a view to future high-resolution spectroscopic studies. The realization of such on-chip measurements adds the final fundamental component to the molecule chip, offering a new and promising route for investigating cold molecules.
Marx, S.; Adu Smith, D.; Abel, M. J.; Zehentbauer, T.; Meijer, G.; Santambrogio, G.
Background Sedation in palliative care has received growing attention in recent years; and so have guidelines, position statements, and related literature that provide recommendations for its practice. Yet little is known collectively about the content, scope and methodological quality of these materials. According to research, there are large variations in palliative sedation practice, depending on the definition and methodology used. However, a standardised approach to comparing and contrasting related documents, across countries, associations and governmental bodies is lacking. This paper reports on a protocol designed to enable thorough and systematic comparison of guidelines and guidance documents on palliative sedation. Methods and design A multidisciplinary and international group of palliative care researchers, identified themes and clinical issues on palliative sedation based on expert consultations and evidence drawn from the EAPC (European Association of Palliative Care) framework for palliative sedation and AGREE II (Appraisal Guideline Research and Evaluation) instrument for guideline assessment. The most relevant themes were selected and built into a comprehensive checklist. This was tested on people working closely with practitioners and patients, for user-friendliness and comprehensibility, and modified where necessary. Next, a systematic search was conducted for guidelines in English, Dutch, Flemish, or Italian. The search was performed in multiple databases (PubMed, CancerLit, CNAHL, Cochrane Library, NHS Evidence and Google Scholar), and via other Internet resources. Hereafter, the final version of the checklist will be used to extract data from selected literature, and the same will be compiled, entered into SPSS, cleaned and analysed systematically for publication. Discussion We have together developed a comprehensive checklist in a scientifically rigorous manner to allow standardised and systematic comparison. The protocol is applicable to all guidelines on palliative sedation, and the approach will contribute to rigorous and systematic comparison of international guidelines on any challenging topic such as this. Results from the study will provide valuable insights into common core elements and differences between the selected guidelines, and the extent to which recommendations are derived from, or match those in the EAPC framework. The outcomes of the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and directly to appropriate audiences.
Disposable polymer microfluidic chips have been used more and more in miniaturized analytical devices. The surface of the polymers often needs to be treated to acquire specific properties. This study investigates the characteristics of capillary flow in three microfluidic chips under different surface conditions and the aim is to understand how the surface property could affect the capillary flow over the shelf life of the chips. The channel surfaces of polymer chips were treated using air plasma. The interface pattern and velocity were measured by a photographic technique and a micron Particle Imaging Velocimetry (MicroPIV) method. The glass chip could maintain a capillary flow velocity of around 3.0 mm/s and showed little reduction with time. The velocity agreed well with theory by Washburn. The PDMS chip surfaces could be easily modified and the capillary flow rate could reach 4 mm/s. However, the hydrophilicity decreased rapidly over time and was lost completely within a few hours. The polycarbonate chips need more powerful surface treatment. Once modified, the surface could sustain for much longer time. It took one month for the capillary flow velocity to decrease by 50%.
Zhu, Y.; Petkovic-Duran, K.
With continued advances in microelectronics, it is anticipated that next-generation microelectronic assemblies will require a reduction of the flip-chip solder bump pitch to 100 ?m or less from the current industrial practice of 130 ?m to 150 ?m. With this reduction in pitch size, and thus in bump height and diameter, the interaction between die pad metallurgy and substrate pad metallurgy becomes more critical due to the shorter diffusion path and greater stress. Existing literature has not addressed such metallurgical interaction in actual fine-pitch flip-chip assemblies. This work studies intermetallic growth and kinetics in fine-pitch lead-free solder bumps through thermal aging of flip-chip assemblies. Based on this study, it is seen that Ni from the die pad diffuses to the substrate pad region and Cu from the substrate pad diffuses to the die pad region, thus the resulting intermetallic compounds at the die and substrate pad regions are influenced by the other pad as well. Such cross-pad interaction is much stronger in fine-pitch solder bumps with smaller standoff height. It is seen that the die pad region contains Ni3P and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 after thermal aging, while the substrate pad region contains Cu3Sn and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5. By digitally measuring the thickness of the interfacial phases, the kinetics parameters and the activation energy were calculated for the growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 on the substrate side. The Cu diffusion coefficient through the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was found to be 0.03370 ?m2/h, 0.1423 ?m2/h, and 0.4463 ?m2/h at 100°C, 125°C, and 150°C, respectively, and the apparent activation energy for the growth of compound layers was 67.89 kJ/mol.
Tian, Ye; Chow, Justin; Liu, Xi; Wu, Yi Ping; Sitaraman, Suresh K.
Background The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based on air quality monitor stations. Therefore, estimating individual exposures are one of the major challenges when investigating these relationships with a semi-ecologic design. Methods/Design Semi-ecologic study consisting of a retrospective cohort study with ecologic assignment of exposure is applied. Health outcomes and covariates are collected at Primary Health Care Center. Data from pregnant registry, clinical record and specific questionnaire administered orally to the mothers of children born in period 2007-2010 in Portuguese Alentejo Litoral region, are collected by the research team. Outdoor air pollution data are collected with a lichen diversity biomonitoring program, and individual pregnancy exposures are assessed with spatial geostatistical simulation, which provides the basis for uncertainty analysis of individual exposures. Awareness of outdoor air pollution uncertainty will improve validity of individual exposures assignments for further statistical analysis with multivariate regression models. Discussion Exposure misclassification is an issue of concern in semi-ecological design. In this study, personal exposures are assigned to each pregnant using geocoded addresses data. A stochastic simulation method is applied to lichen diversity values index measured at biomonitoring survey locations, in order to assess spatial uncertainty of lichen diversity value index at each geocoded address. These methods assume a model for spatial autocorrelation of exposure and provide a distribution of exposures in each study location. We believe that variability of simulated exposure values at geocoded addresses will improve knowledge on variability of exposures, improving therefore validity of individual exposures to input in posterior statistical analysis.
This qualitative case study explored the use of sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) instructional practices to promote the language development and learning of elementary English language learners (ELLs) in an immersion setting in 1st and 2nd grades. The SIOP model was developed for middle school ELLs, and there is scant information…
Rodriguez Moux, Shirley
Partial response to the mandate of PL 99-272. The study is one of three that make up the full VA response to the mandate to look into the health of women Vietnam veterans. The protocol describes the reproductive history of women who served in the military...
Although the analgesic effects of periarticular multimodal drug injection (PMDI) after TKA have been well documented, there is little information about additional pain relieving effects of PMDI incorporated to contemporary multimodal pain control protocols which have been proved to provide excellent analgesia. We performed a parallel-group, randomised, controlled study to determine whether PMDI provides additional clinical benefits on contemporary multimodal
In Jun Koh; Yeon Gwi Kang; Chong Bum Chang; Sang-Hwan Do; Sang Cheol Seong; Tae Kyun Kim
Background Healthcare reform in the United States is encouraging Federally Qualified Health Centers and other primary-care practices to integrate treatment for addiction and other behavioral health conditions into their practices. The potential of mobile health technologies to manage addiction and comorbidities such as HIV in these settings is substantial but largely untested. This paper describes a protocol to evaluate the implementation of an E-Health integrated communication technology delivered via mobile phones, called Seva, into primary-care settings. Seva is an evidence-based system of addiction treatment and recovery support for patients and real-time caseload monitoring for clinicians. Methods/Design Our implementation strategy uses three models of organizational change: the Program Planning Model to promote acceptance and sustainability, the NIATx quality improvement model to create a welcoming environment for change, and Rogers’s diffusion of innovations research, which facilitates adaptations of innovations to maximize their adoption potential. We will implement Seva and conduct an intensive, mixed-methods assessment at three diverse Federally Qualified Healthcare Centers in the United States. Our non-concurrent multiple-baseline design includes three periods — pretest (ending in four months of implementation preparation), active Seva implementation, and maintenance — with implementation staggered at six-month intervals across sites. The first site will serve as a pilot clinic. We will track the timing of intervention elements and assess study outcomes within each dimension of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework, including effects on clinicians, patients, and practices. Our mixed-methods approach will include quantitative (e.g., interrupted time-series analysis of treatment attendance, with clinics as the unit of analysis) and qualitative (e.g., staff interviews regarding adaptations to implementation protocol) methods, and assessment of implementation costs. Discussion If implementation is successful, the field will have a proven technology that helps Federally Qualified Health Centers and affiliated organizations provide addiction treatment and recovery support, as well as a proven strategy for implementing the technology. Seva also has the potential to improve core elements of addiction treatment, such as referral and treatment processes. A mobile technology for addiction treatment and accompanying implementation model could provide a cost-effective means to improve the lives of patients with drug and alcohol problems. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01963234).
Background Donor site wounds after split-skin grafting are rather 'standard' wounds. At present, lots of dressings and topical agents for donor site wounds are commercially available. This causes large variation in the local care of these wounds, while the optimum 'standard' dressing for local wound care is unclear. This protocol describes a trial in which we investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options for these donor site wounds. Methods A 14-center, six-armed randomized clinical trial is being carried out in the Netherlands. An a-priori power analysis and an anticipated dropout rate of 15% indicates that 50 patients per group are necessary, totaling 300 patients, to be able to detect a 25% quicker mean time to complete wound healing. Randomization has been computerized to ensure allocation concealment. Adult patients who need a split-skin grafting operation for any reason, leaving a donor site wound of at least 10 cm2 are included and receive one of the following dressings: hydrocolloid, alginate, film, hydrofiber, silicone dressing, or paraffin gauze. No combinations of products from other intervention groups in this trial are allowed. Optimum application and changes of these dressings are pursued according to the protocol as supplied by the dressing manufacturers. Primary outcomes are days to complete wound healing and pain (using a Visual Analogue Scale). Secondary outcomes are adverse effects, scarring, patient satisfaction, and costs. Outcome assessors unaware of the treatment allocation will assess whether or not an outcome has occurred. Results will be analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. The first patient was randomized October 1, 2009. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effectiveness of different treatment options for donor site wounds. The dressing(s) that will prevail in effectiveness, satisfaction and costs will be promoted among clinicians dealing with such patients. Thus, we aim to contribute a well-designed trial, relevant to all clinicians involved in the care for donor site wounds, which will help enhance uniformity and quality of care for these patients. Trial registration http://www.trialregister.nl, NTR1849. Date registered: June 9, 2009
Background Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common health problem currently without any optimal treatments. Acupuncture has been traditionally sought as a treatment for FD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether acupuncture treatment helps improve symptoms of FD. Methods/design A two-center, randomized, waitlist-controlled trial will be carried out to evaluate whether acupuncture treatment improves FD symptoms. Seventy six participants aged 18 to 75 years with FD as diagnosed by Rome III criteria will be recruited from August 2013 to January 2014 at two Korean Medicine hospitals. They will be randomly allocated either into eight sessions of partially individualized acupuncture treatment over 4 weeks or a waitlist group. The acupuncture group will then be followed-up for 3 weeks with six telephone visits and a final visit will be paid at 8 weeks. The waitlist group will receive the identical acupuncture treatment after a 4-week waiting period. The primary outcome is the proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief and the secondary outcomes include Nepean dyspepsia index, EQ-5D, FD-related quality of life, Beck’s depression inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory questionnaire, and level of ghrelin hormone. The protocol was approved by the participating centers’ Institutional Review Boards. Discussion Results of this trial will help clarify not only whether the acupuncture treatment is beneficial for symptom improvement in FD patients but also to elucidate the related mechanisms of how acupuncture might work. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01921504.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the examination method of choice for the diagnosis of a variety of diseases. MRI allows us to obtain not only anatomical information but also identification of physiological and functional parameters such as networks in the brain and tumor cellularity, which plays an increasing role in oncologic imaging, as well as blood flow and tissue perfusion. However, in many cases such as in epilepsy, degenerative neurological diseases and oncological processes, additional metabolic and molecular information obtained by PET can provide essential complementary information for better diagnosis. The combined information obtained from MRI and PET acquired in a single imaging session allows a more accurate localization of pathological findings and better assessment of the underlying physiopathology, thus providing a more powerful diagnostic tool. Two hundred and twenty-one patients were scanned from April 2011 to January 2012 on a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MRI system. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the techniques used for the optimization of different protocols performed in our hospital by specialists in the following fields: neuroradiology, head and neck, breast, and prostate imaging. This paper also discusses the different problems encountered, such as the length of studies, motion artifacts, and accuracy of image fusion including physical and technical aspects, and the proposed solutions. PMID:23008016
Vargas, Maria-Isabel; Becker, Minerva; Garibotto, Valentina; Heinzer, Susanne; Loubeyre, Pierre; Gariani, Joanna; Lovblad, Karl; Vallée, Jean-Paul; Ratib, Osman
Background Acupuncture has been widely used as a treatment for stroke in China for more than 3,000 years. However, previous research has not yet shown that acupuncture is effective as a stroke treatment. We report a protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled, and outcome assessor-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture on acute ischemic stroke. Methods/Design In a prospective trial involving three hospitals in the Zhejiang Province (China) 250 patients with a recent (less than 1 week previous) episode of ischemic stroke will be included. Patients will be randomized into two groups: an acupuncture group given scalp acupuncture and electroacupuncture, and a control group given no acupuncture. Eighteen treatment sessions will be performed over a three-week period. The primary outcome will be measured by changes in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at the one, three, and four-week follow-up. Secondary outcome measures will be: 1) the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale for motor function; 2) the mini-mental state examination and Montreal cognitive assessment for cognitive function; 3) the video-fluoroscopic swallowing study for swallowing ability; and 4) the incidence of adverse events. Discussion This trial is expected to clarify whether or not acupuncture is effective for acute stroke. It will also show if acupuncture can improve motor, cognitive, or swallowing function. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12001971.
Protein extraction is a crucial step for proteomics studies. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) analysis in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), three different protein extraction methods-trichloroacetic acid/acetone, Mg/NP-40, and phenol/ammonium acetate-were evaluated using Jerusalem artichoke leaves as source materials. Of the three methods, trichloroacetic acid/acetone yielded the best protein separation pattern and highest number of protein spots in 2DE analysis. Proteins highly abundant in leaves, such as Rubisco, are typically problematic during leaf 2DE analysis, however, and this disadvantage was evident using trichloroacetic acid/acetone. To reduce the influence of abundant proteins on the detection of low-abundance proteins, we optimized the trichloroacetic acid/acetone method by incorporating a PEG fractionation approach. After optimization, 363 additional (36.2%) protein spots were detected on the 2DE gel. Our results suggest that trichloroacetic acid/acetone method is a better protein extraction technique than Mg/NP-40 and phenol/ammonium acetate in Jerusalem artichoke leaf 2DE analysis, and that trichloroacetic acid/acetone method combined with PEG fractionation procedure is the most effective approach for leaf 2DE analysis of Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:23630184
Zhang, Meide; Shen, Shihua
Background The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes underlines the importance of secondary strategies for the prevention of target organ damage. While access to diabetes education centers and diabetes intensification management has been shown to improve blood glucose control, these services are not available to all that require them, particularly in rural and northern areas. The provision of these services through the Home Care team is an advance that can overcome these barriers. Transfer of blood glucose data electronically from the home to the health care provider may improve diabetes management. Methods and design The study population will consist of patients with type 2 diabetes with uncontrolled A1c levels living on reserve in the Battlefords region of Saskatchewan, Canada. This pilot study will take place over three phases. In the first phase over three months the impact of the introduction of the Bluetooth enabled glucose monitor will be assessed. In the second phase over three months, the development of guidelines based treatment algorithms for diabetes intensification will be completed. In the third phase lasting 18 months, study subjects will have diabetes intensification according to the algorithms developed. Discussion The first phase will determine if the use of the Bluetooth enabled blood glucose devices which can transmit results electronically will lead to changes in A1c levels. It will also determine the feasibility of recruiting subjects to use this technology. The rest of the Diabetes Risk Evaluation and Management Tele-monitoring (DreamTel) study will determine if the delivery of a diabetes intensification management program by the Home Care team supported by the Bluetooth enabled glucose meters leads to improvements in diabetes management. Trial Registration Protocol NCT00325624
Tobe, Sheldon W; Wentworth, Joan; Ironstand, Laurie; Hartman, Susan; Hoppe, Jackie; Whiting, Judi; Kennedy, Janice; McAllister, Colin; Kiss, Alex; Perkins, Nancy; Vincent, Lloyd; Pylypchuk, George; Lewanczuk, Richard Z
Background: Adolescents have particular health and developmental needs that suggest they should neither be treated as older children nor younger adults. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to report the protocol for a mixed methods study that set out to investigate the health concerns of Iranian adolescents and their sources of health information with the goal of identifying suitable strategies to address their health concerns. Materials and Methods: This mixed methods study consists of an explanatory sequential design to be conducted in two phases. The first phase was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 915, 14-18 year old adolescents who were selected by stratified cluster random sampling method from the 22 main municipal sectors of Tehran, Iran. They completed a series of self-administered questionnaires which were analyzed using quantitative approaches. The second phase was a qualitative study in which adolescents were selected using purposeful sampling for individual in-depth semi-structured interviews on the basis of the quantitative findings from the first phase. These data, together with a literature review and data obtained through nominal group technique, would then be used to in the development of strategies to reduce adolescents’ health concerns. Results: The findings of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study are expected to provide unique information about the health concerns of Iranian adolescents and their sources of information, which to date have received little attention. Conclusions: These data will provide a rich source of information that can be used by intervention programs, health professionals and policy makers in addressing the health concerns of adolescents, with the goal of facilitating a successful passage to adult life.
Baheiraei, Azam; Khoori, Elham; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah
Background Knowledge about the prevalence and consequences of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Norwegian population is limited. This study has been designed to gain a greater understanding of musculoskeletal pain in the general population with a focus on clinically and radiologically confirmed OA, as well as risk factors, consequences, and management of OA. Methods/Design The Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker STudy (MUST) has been designed as an observational study comprising a population-based postal survey and a comprehensive clinical examination of a sub-sample with self-reported OA (MUST OA cohort). All inhabitants in Ullensaker municipality, Norway, aged 40 to 79 years receive the initial population-based postal survey questionnaire with questions about life style, general health, musculoskeletal pain, self-reported OA, comorbidities, health care utilisation, medication use, and functional ability. Participants who self-report OA in their hip, knee and/or hand joints are asked to attend a comprehensive clinical examination at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, including a comprehensive medical examination, performance-based functional tests, different imaging modalities, cardiovascular assessment, blood and urine samples, and a number of patient-reported questionnaires including five OA disease specific instruments. Data will be merged with six national data registries. A subsample of those who receive the questionnaire has previously participated in postal surveys conducted in 1990, 1994, and 2004 with data on musculoskeletal pain and functional ability in addition to demographic characteristics and a number of health related factors. This subsample constitutes a population based cohort with 20 years follow-up. Discussion This protocol describes the design of an observational population-based study that will involve the collection of data from a postal survey on musculoskeletal pain, and a comprehensive clinical examination on those with self-reported hand, hip and/or knee OA. These data, in addition to data from national registries, will provide unique insights into clinically and radiologically confirmed OA with respect to risk factors, consequences, and management.
Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural) and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in the longer term, more effective and culturally-appropriate interventions to improve health.
Introduction There has been a lot of attention on the role of human resource management interventions to improve delivery of health services in low- and middle-income countries. However, studies on this subject are few due to limited research on implementation of programmes and methodological difficulties in conducting experimental studies on human resource interventions. The authors present the protocol of an evaluation of a district-level capacity-building intervention to identify the determinants of performance of health workers in managerial positions and to understand how changes (if any) are brought about. Methods and analysis The aim of this study is to understand how capacity building works. The authors will use realist evaluation to evaluate an intervention in Karnataka, India. The intervention is a capacity-building programme that seeks to improve management capacities of health managers at district and subdistrict levels through periodic classroom-based teaching and mentoring support at the workplace. The authors conducted interviews and reviewed literature on capacity building in health to draw out the programme theory of the intervention. Based on this, the authors formulated hypothetical pathways connecting the expected outcomes of the intervention (planning and supervision) to the inputs (contact classes and mentoring). The authors prepared a questionnaire to assess elements of the programme theory—organisational culture, self-efficacy and supervision. The authors shall conduct a survey among health managers as well as collect qualitative data through interviews with participants and non-participants selected purposively based on their planning and supervision performance. The authors will construct explanations in the form of context–mechanism–outcome configurations from the results. This will be iterative and the authors will use a realist evaluation framework to refine the explanatory theories that are based on the findings to explain and validate an improved theory on ‘what works for whom and under what conditions’. Discussion The scope for applying realist evaluation to study human resource management interventions in health are discussed.
Marchal, Bruno; Hoeree, Tom; Devadasan, Narayanan; Macq, Jean; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart
Background Spondylolisthesis is the major cause of refractory low back pain. There are many studies of the surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis, but few of conservative treatments. There is also no optimal conservative treatment protocol, however, low back pain caused by low-grade spondylolisthesis is controlled with non-surgical pain management. Acupuncture has become a useful method for treating low back pain, but there has not been any study of its efficacy in relation to spondylolisthesis. This study was designed to establish the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial and the safety of acupuncture for low back pain due to low-grade spondylolisthesis. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled pilot clinical trial of five weeks duration. Fourteen patients will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: an acupuncture plus interlaminar epidural steroid injection group (experimental group), and an interlaminar epidural steroid injection group (control group). All patients will be administered an interlaminar epidural steroid injection once a week for three weeks (three injections in total), but only the experimental group will receive additional treatment with three acupuncture sessions a week for three weeks (nine acupuncture sessions in total). The primary outcome will be measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Our primary end point is three-week VAS. The secondary outcome will be measured using the PainVision system, the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Oswestry Disability Index. Assessments will be made at baseline and at one, three and five weeks thereafter (that is, the five-week assessment will be made two weeks after treatment cessation). Discussion This randomized controlled pilot trial will inform the design of a further full-scale trial. The outcomes will provide some resources for incorporating acupuncture into existing pain management methods such as interlaminar epidural steroid injection in low-grade spondylolisthesis. Trial registration This trial is registered with the US National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials registry: NCT01909284.
Background The method of chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays (ChIP-Chip) is a powerful tool for genome-wide analysis of protein binding. However, a high background signal is a common phenomenon. Results Reinvestigation of the chromatin immunoprecipitation procedure led us to discover four causes of high background: i) non-unique sequences, ii) incomplete reversion of crosslinks, iii) retention of protein in spin-columns and iv) insufficient RNase treatment. The chromatin immunoprecipitation method was modified and applied to analyze genome-wide binding of SeqA and ?32 in Escherichia coli. Conclusions False positive findings originating from these shortcomings of the method could explain surprising and contradictory findings in published ChIP-Chip studies. We present a modified chromatin immunoprecipitation method greatly reducing the background signal.
This work investigates the formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting of mild steel and the transformation conditions between various morphology chips. It is supposed that the modeling material follows the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. In orthogonal cutting process, both the plastic flow and the instability behaviors of chip materials are caused by the plane strain loadings. Therefore, the general instability behaviors of materials in plane strain state are first analyzed with linear perturbation method and a universal instability criterion is established. Based on the analytical results, the formation mechanisms of chips and the transformation conditions between continuous and serrated chips are further studied by instability phase diagram method. The results show that the chip formation strongly depends on the intensity ratios between shear and normal stresses. The ratios of dissipative rates of plastic work done by compression and shear stresses govern the transformation from continuous to serrated chips. These results are verified by the numerical simulations on the orthogonal cutting process.
Various technologies are used in the agricultural sites now. Especially, the recent application of sensor network related technology is quite notable. Considering the efficiency of MAC protocol of WSN is being researched in various aspects, it is believed that a research on how to apply the MAC protocol to agriculture would be also required. This research is based on the sensor node developed by Sunchon University ITRC. Once the sensor nodes are effectively located in the farm, they operate for a long time and they are rarely relocated once installed. The concentration of multiple sensor nodes in a narrow area is another characteristic the sensor node. The purpose of this research is to select a sensor network MAC protocol, which would be most proper to agricultural site with good energy efficiency and excellent transmission delay performance. The applicable protocols such as S-MAC and X-MAC were set up for the installation environment. They were compared and a methodology to select the most optimum protocol to agricultural site is suggested.
Lee, Ho-Chul; Lee, Ji-Woong; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Yoe, Hyun
Background Cancer survivors are a rapidly growing and aging population in the U.S., but there are many challenges associated with the survivorship experience such as functional disabilities and psychosocial distress. When viewed next to the general population, Veterans are especially at risk for these challenges as they are older and have a high incidence of co-morbid conditions. While the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has called for further cancer survivorship research to address these challenges, we still know little about this experience from the perspective of aging Veterans. Methods/design We conducted a longitudinal, mixed-methods study over the course of three and a half years at the Boston and Houston VA Medical Centers. We recruited 170 Veterans diagnosed with head and neck, colorectal and esophageal/gastric cancers that were identified from the VA tumor registry. Veterans completed three in-depth interviews, conducted at 6, 12 and 18?months after pathology confirmation, measuring the physical, social and psychological factors related to cancer survivorship. The longitudinal design allowed us to assess any changes in cancer related disability and distress over time. Discussion Weekly teleconference study team meetings were a key aspect to the research process. Issues related to recruitment, data management and analysis, and the dissemination of research results was discussed. Interviewers presented detailed case reports of completed interviews that allowed us to refine our interview protocols. We also discussed issues relevant to the Veteran population of which we were previously unaware and some of the challenges of the research process itself. This novel study produced a robust data set that documents the functional and psychosocial cancer survivorship experiences of aging Veterans. The longitudinal design will help us more fully understand the recovery patterns for this specific population, and identify the unique needs and gaps in health services.
Cell biology applications, protocols in immunology and stem cell research, require that individual cells are handled under strict control of their contacts to other cells or synthetic surfaces. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) in microfluidic chips is an established technique to investigate, group, wash, cultivate and sort cells contact-free under physiological conditions: microelectrode octode cages, versatile dielectrophoretic elements energized with radio frequency electric
M. S. Jaeger; T. Mueller; T. Schnelle
SUMMARY SETTING: The State of Alabama Department of Public Health Division of Tuberculosis Control. OBJECTIVE: To standardize contact investigation protocols and implement an intervention to increase TB field worker adherence to the protocols with the goal of promoting efficiency and effectiveness in contact investigations. DESIGN: A process evaluation of existing data collection and management systems and protocols was performed. Standardized protocols and an intervention to increase TB field worker adherence to the protocols were created and pilot tested. These were then implemented and formative evaluation data were collected. RESULTS: The process evaluation revealed considerable variance among field workers with regard to protocols and definitions of variables related to contact investigations. Protocols were standardized and an intervention targeted at TB field workers was developed. The intervention consisted of a training workshop and the development of a computer-based contact investigation module. This was successfully implemented throughout the state. CONCLUSIONS: To perform effective contact investigations and conduct studies to improve the effectiveness of these investigations, TB control programs must pay careful attention to precisely defining variables and concepts related to the contact investigation. Furthermore, protocols must be standardized and resources devoted to training of TB field workers to ensure adherence to protocols.
Gerald, L. B.; Bruce, F.; Brooks, C. M.; Brook, N.; Kimerling, M. E.; Windsor, R. A.; Bailey, W. C.
Bonding is an essential step to enclose microchannels or microchambers in lab-on-a-chip. Ultrasonic bonding was studied as a deformation-free technique to realize high efficiency bonding of microfluidic chips. Based on viscoelastic dissipation theory, the main influential factors of heat generation rate during ultrasonic bonding was theoretically analyzed and numerically calculated using finite element method. According to the results, micro energy
Zong-bo Zhang; Yi Luo; Xiao-dong Wang; Zhen-qiang Zhang; Li-ding Wang
Fluorescent reactions of a heterogeneous sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) in an all-PDMS [poly (dimethylsiloxane)] microfluidic device were detected using a cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera interfaced with an epifluorescence microscope. The study represents preliminary efforts to integrate biochemical reactions and detection on-chip using the “hybrid” detection approach. In initial experiments, the PDMS chip microsensor was successfully used to quantify
Edward Eteshola; Michal Balberg
The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.
Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)
Dialysate sodium prescription has major implications for hemodialysis tolerance but also for dialyzed patients' cardiovascular morbidity as a determinant factor of blood pressure. Biofeedback systems have been developed to drive dialysate conductivity in order to reach a prescribed serum sodium concentration, indirectly evaluated by a dialysate or an ultrafiltrate conductivity measurement. A biofeedback system using hemodiafiltration with online regeneration of ultrafiltrate (HFR) has been specially developed with an isonatric mode maintaining an equal serum sodium concentration between start and end of the dialysis session, combined with ultrafiltration and conductivity profiles. We hypothesized that using this biofeedback in an isonatric mode would have a beneficial effect on blood pressure and dialysis tolerance. The study protocol has been approved by our ethics committee and is presented herein. PMID:22322821
Mercadal, Lucile; Piékarski, Céline; Renaux, Jean-Louis; Petitclerc, Thierry; Deray, Gilbert
Background Korea is one of the fastest aging countries and is expected to become a super-aged society within 12 years. The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study was developed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and establish the prevention and management of major disorders of the elderly in Korea. Methods/Design The KURE study is a community-based prospective cohort study on health, aging, and common geriatric disorders of Korean elderly persons aged at least 65 years. To construct a cohort reflecting both urban and rural areas, we selected 2 representative communities in the country. To establish multidisciplinary approaches to geriatric health, this study was performed by researchers in the divisions of geriatrics, preventive medicine, endocrinology, and sociology. The baseline examinations began in 2012; the study will follow more than 4,000 elderly Koreans over 10 years. The first and second follow-up health examinations will be performed every 4 years. Every 2 years after each health examination, inter-assessment interview will be conducted to improve participant retention. Discussion The KURE study will provide longitudinal epidemiologic data on health, aging, and common geriatric disorders of the elderly in Korea. This is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study of the elderly with respect to biological, physical, socio-economic, and environmental factors. The results of this study will contribute to improve public health and welfare policies for the aging society in Korea.
A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.
Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)
Introduction Many patients presenting with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage (GIH) are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for monitoring. A simple triage protocol based upon validated risk factors could decrease ICU utilization. Methods Records of 188 patients admitted with GIH from the emergency department (ED) were reviewed for BLEED criteria (visualized red blood, systolic blood pressure below 100 mm Hg, elevated prothrombin time [PT], erratic mental status, and unstable comorbid disease) and complication within the first 24 hours of admission. Variables associated with early complication were reassessed in 132 patients prospectively enrolled as a validation cohort. A triage model was developed using significant predictors. Results We studied 188 patients in the development set and 132 in the validation set. Red blood (relative risk [RR] 4.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.04, 10.07) and elevated PT (RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.53, 7.01) were significantly associated with complication in the development set. In the validation cohort, the combination of red blood or unstable comorbidity had a sensitivity of 0.73, a specificity of 0.55, a positive predictive value of 0.24, and a negative predictive value of 0.91 for complication within 24 hours. In simulation studies, a triage model using these variables could reduce ICU admissions without increasing the number of complications. Conclusion Patients presenting to the ED with GIH who have no evidence of ongoing bleeding or unstable comorbidities are at low risk for complication during hospital admission. A triage model based on these variables should be tested prospectively to optimize critical care resource utilization in this common condition.
Das, Aneesa M; Sood, Namita; Hodgin, Katherine; Chang, Lydia; Carson, Shannon S
Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health issue worldwide in the aging population who are also commonly deficient in vitamin D. Our previous study suggested that higher serum 25-(OH)D levels were associated with reduced knee cartilage loss, implying that vitamin D supplementation may prevent the progression of knee OA. The aim of the VItamin D Effects on OA (VIDEO) study is to compare, over a 2- year period, the effects of vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on knee structural changes, knee pain, and lower limb muscle strength in patients with symptomatic knee OA. Methods/design Randomised, placebo-controlled, and double-blind clinical trial aiming to recruit 400 subjects (200 from Tasmania and 200 from Victoria) with both symptomatic knee OA and vitamin D deficiency (serum [25-(OH)D] level of >12.5?nmol/liter and <60?nmol/liter). Participants will be randomly allocated to vitamin D supplementation (50,000?IU compounded vitamin D3 capsule monthly) or identical inert placebo group for 2?years. The primary endpoint is loss of knee cartilage volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of OA (WOMAC) knee pain score. The secondary endpoints will be other knee structural changes, and lower limb muscle strength. Several other outcome measures including core muscle images and central blood pressure will be recorded. Linear and logistic regression will be used to compare changes between groups using univariable and multivariable modeling analyses. Both intention to treat and per protocol analyses will be utilized. Discussion The trial is designed to test if vitamin D supplementation will reduce loss of knee cartilage volume, prevent the progression of other knee structural abnormalities, reduce knee pain and strengthen lower limb muscle strength, thus modify disease progression in knee OA. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176344; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000495022
Trypsin/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment and cell scraping in a buffer solution were compared for harvesting adherently growing mammalian SW480 cells for metabolomics studies. In addition, direct scraping with a solvent was tested. Trypsinated and scraped cell pellets were extracted using seven different extraction protocols including pure methanol, methanol/water, pure acetone, acetone/water, methanol/chloroform/water, methanol/isopropanol/water, and acid-base methanol. The extracts were analyzed by GC-MS after methoximation/silylation and derivatization with propyl chloroformate, respectively. The metabolic fingerprints were compared and 25 selected metabolites including amino acids and intermediates of energy metabolism were quantitatively determined. Moreover, the influence of freeze/thaw cycles, ultrasonication and homogenization using ceramic beads on extraction yield was tested. Pure acetone yielded the lowest extraction efficiency while methanol, methanol/water, methanol/isopropanol/water, and acid-base methanol recovered similar metabolite amounts with good reproducibility. Based on overall performance, methanol/water was chosen as a suitable extraction solvent. Repeated freeze/thaw cycles, ultrasonication and homogenization did not improve overall metabolite yield of the methanol/water extraction. Trypsin/EDTA treatment caused substantial metabolite leakage proving it inadequate for metabolomics studies. Gentle scraping of the cells in a buffer solution and subsequent extraction with methanol/water resulted on average in a sevenfold lower recovery of quantified metabolites compared with direct scraping using methanol/water, making the latter one the method of choice to harvest and extract metabolites from adherently growing mammalian SW480 cells. PMID:21125262
Dettmer, Katja; Nürnberger, Nadine; Kaspar, Hannelore; Gruber, Michael A; Almstetter, Martin F; Oefner, Peter J
In this paper we give an overview of the fabrication and assembly induced performance degradation of an intra-multi-chip-module free-space optical interconnect, integrating micro-lenses and a deflection prism above a dense opto-electronic chip. The proposed component is used to demonstrate the capabilities of an accurate micro-optical rapid prototype technique, namely the Deep Proton Writing (DPW). To evaluate the accuracy of DPW and to assess whether our assembly scheme will provide us with a reasonable process yield, we have built a simulation framework combining mechanical Monte Carlo analysis with optical simulations. Both the technological requirements to ensure a high process yield, and the specifications of our in-house DPW technology are discussed. Therefore, we first conduct a sensitivity analysis and we subsequently simulate the effect of combined errors using a Monte Carlo simulation. We are able to investigate the effect of a technology accuracy enhancement on the fabrication and assembly yield by scaling the standard deviation of the errors proportionally to each sensitivity interval. We estimate that 40% of the systems fabricated with DPW will show an optical transmission efficiency above -4.32 dB, which is -3 dB below the theoretical obtainable value. We also discuss our efforts to implement an opto-mechanical Monte Carlo simulator. It enables us to address specific issues not directly related with the micro-optical or DPW components, such as the influence of glueing layers and structures that allow for self-alignment, by combining mechanical tolerancing algorithms with optical simulation software. More in particular we determined that DPW provides ample accuracy to meet the requirements to obtain a high manufacturing yield. Finally, we shortly highlight the basic layout of a completed demonstrator. The adhesive bonding of opto-electronic devices in their package is subject to further improvement to enhance the tilt accuracy of the devices with respect to the optical interconnect modules.
Vervaeke, Michael; Lahti, Markku; Karpinnen, Mikko; Debaes, Christof; Volckaerts, Bart; Karioja, Pentti; Thienpont, Hugo
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is the defacto standard, which offers secured Internet communications, providing traffic integrity, confidentiality and authentication. Besides this, it is assumed that IPSec is not suitable for the protection of realtime audio transmissions as the IPSec related enlargement of packets and the usage of the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode contradict stringent requirements. IPSec overhead of at least 44 bytes for each Internet Protocol (IP)-packet cannot guarantee Quality of Service (QOS) due to a bad wireless link by which the Ethernet flow control intercepts and makes a real time transmission impossible.
Khan, Arshi; Ansari, Seema
In this review, the evolution of new P300-based protocols for detection of concealed information is summarized. The P300-based complex trial protocol (CTP) is described as one such countermeasure (CM)-resistant protocol. Recent lapses in diagnostic accuracy (from 90% to 75%) with CTPs applied to mock crime protocols are summarized, as well as recent enhancements to the CTP which have restored accuracy. These enhancements include 1) use of performance feedback during testing, 2) use of other ERP components such as N200 in diagnosis, 3) use of auxiliary tests, including the autobiographical implicit association test, as leading to restored diagnostic accuracy, and 4) a study of the mechanisms underlying CMs. A novel, doubly efficient version of the CTP involving presentation of two probes in one trial is described as a new way to improve accuracy to levels above 90% in mock crime situations. Finally, a thorough analysis of the legal issues surrounding use of the CTP in U.S. is given. PMID:24012907
Rosenfeld, J Peter; Hu, Xiaoqing; Labkovsky, Elena; Meixner, John; Winograd, Michael R
Ensuring retention in longitudinal studies of individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) is a continual challenge for researchers. This study made several modifications to a highly intensive follow-up protocol (Scott, 2004), originally designed for adults with SUD, in order to adapt it to a group of adolescents in low-intensity outpatient SUD treatment (N = 127, M age 16.7 yrs) and to accommodate limitations in the financial resources available for study staffing and transportation. In the present sample, adolescent participants generally found it unreasonable for study staff to request to contact people outside their immediate family in order to locate them and to attempt to schedule interviews 3–6 months in advance, as specified in the original protocol. Changes were made to accommodate these concerns and follow-up rates remained high (85–91%). Even though this study is limited by its non-experimental nature, it provides a replicable example of a scaled-down, less costly version of a highly intensive follow-up protocol that can be used to achieve high follow-up rates in studies of adolescents with SUD. We hope this will be encouraging for researchers and program evaluators who have limited resources or who work with participants who express concerns about privacy or study burden.
Yeterian, Julie D.; Dow, Sarah J.; Kelly, John F.
Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment. However, because of these studies design we do not know the frequency and extent of these events when compared to sham treatment. The principal aims of this study are to establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared to a sham treatment group. The secondary aim of this study is to establish the efficacy of usual short term chiropractic care for spinal pain when compared to a sham intervention. Methods One hundred and eighty participants will be randomly allocated to either usual chiropractic care or a sham intervention group. To be considered for inclusion the participants must have experienced non-specific spinal pain for at least one week. The study will be conducted at the clinics of registered chiropractors in Western Australia. Participants in each group will receive two treatments at intervals no less than one week. For the usual chiropractic care group, the selection of therapeutic techniques will be left to the chiropractors' discretion. For the sham intervention group, de-tuned ultrasound and de-tuned activator treatment will be applied by the chiropractors to the regions where spinal pain is experienced. Adverse events will be assessed two days after each appointment using a questionnaire developed for this study. The efficacy of short term chiropractic care for spinal pain will be examined at two week follow-up by assessing pain, physical function, minimum acceptable outcome, and satisfaction with care, with the use of the following outcome measures: Numerical Rating Scale, Functional Rating Index, Neck Disability Index, Minimum Acceptable Outcome Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and a global measure of treatment satisfaction. The statistician, outcome assessor, and participants will be blinded to treatment allocation. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000542998
The main purpose of this study was to manufacture water-resistant particleboard for use in kitchens and bathrooms, and as flooring-based material and in outdoor environments. The chips were from recycled wood wastes of different wood species. The chips were divided into coarse chips with dimensions of 5–8 mesh and fine chips of 8–20 mesh, then, these chips were immersed in
Te-Hsin Yang; Cheng-Jung Lin; Song-Yung Wang; Ming-Jer Tsai
Three-dimensional (3D) LSI chip stacking with through chip electrodes can realize high-density packaging and high-speed operation performance because the through chip electrode offers the shortest interconnection between stacked chips. The through chip via size we studied was 10 ?m-square and 70 ?m-deep. The void free plating is necessary to avoid problems caused by acid solutions remaining in voids. In this
Manabu Tomisaka; Hitoshi Yonemura; Masataka Hoshino; Kenji Takahashi; Takuji Okamura; Jian Jun Sun; Kazuo Kondo
This study aims at developing an advanced clamped through-silicon via (C-TSV) interconnection technology for three-dimensional (3D) chip-to-chip or chip-to-wafer packaging. The special features of the C-TSV technology include (1) the proposal of metal caps on the pads of the chip to form a nearly symmetric double-side-metal-cap structure that firmly clamps the vias on the chip, (2) the employment of a
Li-Cheng Shen; Chien-Wei Chien; Hsien-Chie Cheng; Chia-Te Lin
Background Severe mental illness is responsible for a significant proportion of burden of diseases in Iranian population. People with severe mental illnesses are more likely to have high rates of non-attendance at follow-up visits, and lack of an active follow-up system, particularly in the country’s urban areas that has resulted in the revolving door phenomenon of rehospitalizations. Therefore, there is an increasing need for implementation of effective and cost-effective aftercare services. Method/Design This is a randomized control trial with the primary hypothesis that aftercare services delivered to patients with severe mental illnesses in outpatient department and patient's home by a community care team would be more effective when compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in reducing length of hospital stay and any psychiatric hospitalization. Patients were recruited from three psychiatric hospitals in Iran. After obtaining informed written consent, they were randomly allocated into aftercare intervention and control (TAU) groups. Aftercare services included treatment follow-up (through either home care or telephone follow-up prompts for outpatient attendance), family psychoeducation, and patient social skills training that were provided by community mental health teams. Patients were followed for 12 months after discharge. The primary outcome measures were length of hospital stay and any hospitalization in the 12 month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures included patients' clinical global impression, global functioning, quality of life, and patient's satisfaction. The trial also allowed an assessment of direct cost-effectiveness of the aftercare services. Discussion This paper presents a protocol for an RCT of aftercare services delivered to patients with severe mental illnesses within patients' home or outpatient department. The findings of this study can influence policy and program planning for people with severe mental illnesses in Iran. Trial registration IRCT201009052557N2
Background Persistent atrial fibrillation frequently shows multiple different electrophysiological mechanisms of induction. This heterogeneity causes a low success rate of single procedures of ablation and a high incidence of recurrence. Surgical ablation through bilateral thoracotomy demonstrates better results after a single procedure. Prospective observational studies in inhomogeneous populations without control groups report a remarkable 90% of success with hybrid or staged procedures of surgical ablation coupled with catheter ablation. In this trial, we will examine the hypothesis that a staged approach involving initial minimally invasive surgical ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation, followed by a second percutaneous procedure in case of recurrence, has a higher success rate than repeated percutaneous procedures. Methods/Design This is a controlled (2:1) randomized trial comparing use of a percutaneous catheter with minimally invasive transthoracic surgical ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation. The inclusion and exclusion criteria, definitions, and treatment protocols are those reported by the 2012 Expert Consensus Statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. Patients will be randomized to either percutaneous catheter (n?=?100) or surgical (n?=?50) ablation as the first procedure. After 3 months, they are re-evaluated, according to the same guidelines, and receive a second procedure if necessary. Crossover will be allowed and data analyzed on an “intention-to-treat” basis. Primary outcomes are the incidence of sinus rhythm at 6 and 12 months and the proportions of patients requiring a second procedure. Discussion The use of a staged strategy combining surgical and percutaneous approaches might be more favorable in treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation than the controversial single percutaneous ablation. Trial registration ISRCTN08035058 Reg 06.20.2013
Background A frequent complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is recurrent bleeding from the aneurysm. The risk is highest within the first 6 hours after the initial hemorrhage. Securing the aneurysm within this timeframe is difficult owing to logistical delays. The rate of recurrent bleeding can also be reduced by ultra-early administration of antifibrinolytics, which probably improves functional outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ultra-early and short-term administration of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA), as add-on to standard SAH management, leads to better functional outcome. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoint (PROBE) assessment. Adult patients with the diagnosis of non-traumatic SAH, as proven by computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours after the onset of headache, will be randomly assigned to the treatment group or the control group. Patients in the treatment group will receive standard treatment with the addition of a bolus of TXA (1 g intravenously) immediately after randomization, followed by continuous infusion of 1 g per 8 hours until the start of aneurysm treatment, or a maximum of 24 hours after the start of medication. Patients in the control group will receive standard treatment without TXA. The primary outcome measure is favorable functional outcome, defined as a score of 0 to 3 on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), at 6 months after SAH. Primary outcome will be determined by a trial nurse blinded for treatment allocation. We aim to include 950 patients in 3 years. Discussion The strengths of this study are: 1. the ultra-early and short-term administration of TXA, resulting in a lower dose as compared to previous studies, which should reduce the risk for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), an important risk factor in the long-term treatment with antifibrinolytics; 2. the power calculation is based on functional outcome and calculated with use of recent study results of our own population, supported by data from prominent studies; and 3. the participation of several specialized SAH centers, and their referring hospitals, in the Netherlands with comparative treatment protocols. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register (Dutch Trial Registry) number NTR3272
Surveys in four irrigated rice sites in the Philippines over a span of eight years (1984–91) focused on farmers’ insecticide decision making protocol before formalized farmer field school training programmes. Despite past extension campaigns to the contrary, farmers based their decisions more on crop monitoring than prophylaxis. Farmers were deficient in pest identification skills using terms such as worms, moths,
J. P Bandong; B. L Canapi; C. G dela Cruz; J. A Litsinger
Traditionally, mobility in ad hoc networks was considered a necessary evil that hinders node communication. However, it has recently been recognized that mobility can be turned into a useful ally, by making nodes carry data between disconnected parts. Yet, this model of routing requires new theoretical tools to analyse its performance. A mobility-assisted or encounter-based protocol forwards data only when
Thrasyvoulos Spyropoulos; Apoorva Jindal; Konstantinos Psounis
This paper describes a precognition experiment in which two re- searchers took the part of viewers, and worked with two judges to design and implement an experiment in associative remote viewing. We used a redun- dant protocol to eliminate some of the problems experienced by many of us who have tried to harness psi for real world applications. We carried
RUSSELL TARG; JANE KATRA; DEAN BROWN; WENDEN WIEGAND
Summary Introduction: In patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) refractory to systemic chemotherapy including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) / folinic acid (FA), oxaliplatin and irinotecan we assessed the feasibility, toxicity and response to hepatic transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). At the time of treatment, patients had exclusively or dominantly liver metastasis of CRC. Patients and Methods: The following protocol was applied via a
W. Voigt; C. Behrmann; A. Schlueter; T. Kegel; A. Grothey; H.-J. Schmoll
INTRODUCTION: Many patients presenting with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage (GIH) are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for monitoring. A simple triage protocol based upon validated risk factors could decrease ICU utilization. METHODS: Records of 188 patients admitted with GIH from the emergency department (ED) were reviewed for BLEED criteria (visualized red blood, systolic blood pressure below 100 mm Hg,
Aneesa M Das; Namita Sood; Katherine Hodgin; Lydia Chang; Shannon S Carson
Nowadays, there exists a wide variety of verification tools. Some, like SPIN, are designed and mainly used for the verification of interleaving software systems, such as com- munications protocols. Others, like VIS, are designed and used for synchronous hardware systems verification. In this paper, we compare and contrast SPIN and VIS. In particu- lar, we devote a special attention to
Hong Peng; Sofiène Tahar; Ferhat Khendek
We consider a wavelength division multiplexing metro ring architecture with optical burst switching. The ring consists of N nodes, and each node owns a home wavelength on which it transmits its bursts. The ring operates under the fixed transmitter tunable receiver scheme. Control information is transmitted on a separate control channel. Five dierent burst switching access protocols are proposed, and
Lisong Xu; Harry G. Perros; George N. Rouskas
Several proposals describing transport layer protocols for sensor networks appear in the literature. As each pro- posal is typically evaluated in the context of carefully se- lected parameters and scenarios, the benefits can be sub- jective. Also, given the limited details available of different proposals, it is difficult for developers of sensor network applications to select from the range of
Faisal Karim Shaikh; Abdelmajid Khelil; Neeraj Suri
Power management is an important problem in battery-powered sensor networks as the sensors are required to operate for a long time (usually, several weeks to several months). One of the challenges in developing power management protocols for sensor networ...
M. Arumugam L. Wang S. S. Kulkarni
Background Patient encounters are the core learning activity of Australian general practice (family practice) training. Exposure to patient demographics and presentations may vary from one general practice registrar (vocational trainee) to another. This can affect comprehensiveness of training. Currently, there is no mechanism to systematically capture the content of GP registrar consultations. The aim of the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) study is to document longitudinally the nature and associations of consultation-based clinical and educational experiences of general practice registrars. Methods/design This is an ongoing prospective multi-site cohort study of general practice registrars’ consultations, entailing paper-based recording of consultation data. The study setting is general practices affiliated with three geographically-based Australian general practice regional training providers. Registrars record details of 60 consecutive consultations. Data collected includes registrar demographics, details of the consultation, patient demographics, reasons for encounter and problems managed. Problems managed are coded with the International Classification of Primary Care (second edition) classification system. Additionally, registrars record educational factors related to the encounter. The study will follow the clinical exposure of each registrar six-monthly over the 18 months to two years (full-time equivalent) of their general practice training program. Conclusions The study will provide data on a range of factors (patient, registrar and consultation factors). This data will be used to inform a range of educational decisions as well as being used to answer educational research questions. We plan to use ReCEnT as a formative assessment tool for registrars and help identify and address educational needs. The study will facilitate program evaluation by the participating training providers and thus improve articulation of educational programs with practice experience. From the research point of view it will address an evidence gap – the in-practice clinical and educational experience of general practice trainees, determinants of these experiences, and the determinants of registrars’ patterns of practice (for example, prescribing practice) over the course of their training.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often coexists with other chronic diseases and comorbidities that can markedly influence patients' health status and prognosis. This is particularly true for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there have been no trials assessing the effect of COPD medications on CVD in patients with both diseases. The "Study to Understand Mortality and Morbidity in COPD" (SUMMIT) aims at determining the impact of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination and the individual components on the survival of patients with moderate COPD and either a history of CVD or at increased risk for CVD. SUMMIT is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of 16 000 patients with moderate COPD randomly assigned to once daily treatment with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (100/25 ?g), fluticasone furoate (100 ?g), vilanterol (25 ?g) or matched placebo; mortality is the primary end-point. The study is an event-driven trial powered by the comparison of furoate/vilanterol versus placebo. Secondary end-points are decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and effect on a composite cardiovascular end-point. This article describes the design of the SUMMIT study. PMID:23018908
Vestbo, Jørgen; Anderson, Julie; Brook, Robert D; Calverley, Peter M A; Celli, Bartolome R; Crim, Courtney; Haumann, Brett; Martinez, Fernando J; Yates, Julie; Newby, David E
Introduction Early brain injury, as found in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP), may cause deficits in higher-order cognitive tasks known as executive functions (EF). EF has been conceptualised as comprised of four distinct yet inter-related components: (1) attentional control, (2) cognitive flexibility, (3) goal setting and (4) information processing. The aim of this study was to examine EF in children with unilateral CP and compare their performance with a typically developing reference group (TDC). The potential laterality effects of unilateral CP on EF will be explored, as will the relationship between the cognitive measures of EF, behavioural manifestations of EF, psychological functioning and clinical features of unilateral CP. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional study aims to recruit a total of 42 children with unilateral CP (21 right unilateral CP and 21 left unilateral CP) and 21 TDC aged between 8 and 16?years. Clinical severity will be described for gross motor function and manual ability. Outcomes for cognitive EF measureswill include subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Rey Complex Figure Test and the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. Behavioural manifestations of EF will be assessed using the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Parent and Teacher versions. Psychological functioning will be examined using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Between-groups differences will be examined in a series of one-way analyses of covariance and followed up using linear comparisons. An overall composite of cognitive EF measures will be created. Bivariate correlations between the EF composite and psychological measures will be calculated. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that, to our knowledge, is the first to examine multiple components of EF using a cohort of children with unilateral CP. Exploration of potential laterality effects of EF among children with a congenital, unilateral brain injury is also novel. Possible relationships between EF and psychological functioning will also be investigated. Ethics have been obtained through the University of Queensland School of Psychology Ethics Committee and the Queensland Children's Health Services Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be disseminated in peer reviewed publications and presentations at national and international conferences. This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000263998).
Bodimeade, Harriet L; Whittingham, Koa; Lloyd, Owen; Boyd, Roslyn N
Background Breast reconstruction using the free muscle-sparing transversus abdominus myocutaneous or deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps are common methods for restoring mastectomy defects for breast cancer patients. Despite its increasing popularity and safety, the abdominal donor site remains a major source of postoperative pain. Conventional postoperative pain relief protocol consists primarily of a patient-controlled anesthesia device delivering intravenous opioids. Opioids can cause numerous side effects such as sedation, headache, nausea, vomiting, breathing difficulties and bladder and bowel dysfunction. A promising approach to provide postoperative pain control of the abdominal incision is the newly developed transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block. Methods/Design This study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial designed to rigorously test the effectiveness of a transversus abdominis plane catheter delivering intermittent local anesthetic in reducing postoperative abdominal pain following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction. The primary objective of this study is compare the mean total opioid consumption in the first postoperative 48 hours between the control and study groups including the patient-controlled anesthesia amounts and oral narcotic doses converted to intravenous morphine equivalent units. The secondary outcome measures include the following parameters: total in-hospital cumulative opioid consumption; daily patient-reported pain scores; total in-hospital cumulative anti-nausea consumption; nausea and sedation scores; and Quality of Recovery score; time to first bowel movement, ambulation, and duration of hospital stay. Discussion Autologous breast reconstruction using abdominal tissue is rapidly becoming the reconstructive option of choice for postmastectomy patients across North America. A substantial component of the pain experienced by patients after this abdominally based procedure is derived from the abdominal wall incision. By potentially decreasing the need for systemic opioids and their associated side effects, this transversus abdominis plane block study will utilize the most scientifically rigorous double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial methodology to potentially improve both clinical care and health outcomes in breast cancer surgery patients. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01398982
Introduction Evidence from animal studies suggest that the rate of ageing may be influenced not only by genetic and lifestyle factors, but also by the prenatal environment. We have previously shown that people who were exposed to famine during early gestation performed worse on a selective attention task, which may be a first sign of cognitive decline, and were on average 3?years younger at the time of coronary artery disease diagnosis. Women in this group seem to die at a younger age. We hypothesise that an accelerated ageing process, set in motion by the poor prenatal environment, underlies these findings. Methods and analysis The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort consists of 2414 men and women born in Amsterdam as term singletons around the time of the Dutch famine. In a subsample of 150 cohort members, who now are about 68?years of age, we are currently measuring cognitive decline and the incidence of white matter hyperintensities and cerebral microbleeds (through MRI), incidence of fractures, grip strength and physical performance, visual acuity and incidence of cataract operations. In this same subgroup, we will assess telomere length, oxidative stress and inflammatory status as potential underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, in the entire cohort, we will assess mortality as well as hospital admissions for age-related diseases up to the age of 68 years. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the local medical ethics committee (Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam) and is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants give written informed consent. Study findings will be widely disseminated to the scientific public as well as to the medical society and general public.
de Rooij, Susanne R; Roseboom, Tessa J
Although we are well advised to look at the future 1 day at a time, we have seen in the chapters of this book, and they necessarily could cover only a selection on the features and applications of those tiny chips, that their potential continues to grow at the exceptional rates of the past. However, the new commitment has to be towards Sustainable Nanoelectronics, guided by creating sensing, computing, memory, and communication functions, which move just a few electrons per operation, each operation consuming energy less than one or a few femtojoule, less than any of the 1014 synapses in our brains. At these energy levels, chips can serve everywhere, making them ubiquitous, pervasive, certainly wireless, and often energy-autonomous. The expected six Billion users of these chips in 2020, through their mobile, intelligent companions, will benefit from global and largely equal access to information, education, knowledge, skills, and care.
Background There are a variety of treatment options for Bell's palsy. Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates corticosteroids can be used as a proven therapy for Bell's palsy. Acupuncture is one of the most commonly used methods to treat Bell's palsy in China. Recent studies suggest that staging treatment is more suitable for Bell's palsy, according to different path-stages of this disease. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of prednisolone and staging acupuncture in the recovery of the affected facial nerve, and to verify whether prednisolone in combination with staging acupuncture is more effective than prednisolone alone for Bell's palsy in a large number of patients. Methods/Design In this article, we report the design and protocol of a large sample multi-center randomized controlled trial to treat Bell's palsy with prednisolone and/or acupuncture. In total, 1200 patients aged 18 to 75 years within 72 h of onset of acute, unilateral, peripheral facial palsy will be assessed. There are six treatment groups, with four treated according to different path-stages and two not. These patients are randomly assigned to be in one of the following six treatment groups, i.e. 1) placebo prednisolone group, 2) prednisolone group, 3) placebo prednisolone plus acute stage acupuncture group, 4) prednisolone plus acute stage acupuncture group, 5) placebo prednisolone plus resting stage acupuncture group, 6) prednisolone plus resting stage acupuncture group. The primary outcome is the time to complete recovery of facial function, assessed by Sunnybrook system and House-Brackmann scale. The secondary outcomes include the incidence of ipsilateral pain in the early stage of palsy (and the duration of this pain), the proportion of patients with severe pain, the occurrence of synkinesis, facial spasm or contracture, and the severity of residual facial symptoms during the study period. Discussion The result of this trial will assess the efficacy of using prednisolone and staging acupuncture to treat Bell's palsy, and to determine a best combination therapy with prednisolone and acupuncture for treating Bell's palsy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01201642
Background Reducing smoking prevalence is a public health priority that can save more lives and money than almost any other known preventive intervention. Internet interventions have the potential for enormous public health impact given their broad reach and effectiveness. However, most users engage only minimally with even the best designed websites, diminishing their impact due to an insufficient ‘dose’. Two approaches to improve adherence to Internet cessation programs are integrating smokers into an online social network and providing free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Active participation in online communities is associated with higher rates of cessation. Integrating smokers into an online social network can increase support and may also increase utilization of cessation tools and NRT. Removing barriers to NRT may increase uptake and adherence, and may also increase use of online cessation tools as smokers look for information and support while quitting. The combination of both strategies may exert the most powerful effects on adherence compared to either strategy alone. Methods/Design This study compares the efficacy of a smoking cessation website (WEB) alone and in conjunction with free NRT and a social network (SN) protocol designed to integrate participants into the online community. Using a 2 (SN, no SN) x 2 (NRT, no NRT) randomized, controlled factorial design with repeated measures at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months, this study will recruit N = 4,000 new members of an internet cessation program and randomize them to: 1) WEB, 2) WEB + SN, 3) WEB + NRT, or 4) WEB + SN + NRT. Hypotheses are that all interventions will outperform WEB and that WEB + SN + NRT will outperform WEB + NRT and WEB + SN on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 9 months. Exploratory analyses will examine theory-driven hypotheses about the mediators and moderators of outcome. Discussion Addressing adherence in internet cessation programs is critical and timely to leverage their potential public health impact. This study is innovative in its use of a social network approach to improve behavioral and pharmacological treatment utilization to improve cessation. This approach is significant for reducing tobacco’s devastating disease burden and for optimizing behavior change in other arenas where adherence is just as critical. Trial registration ISRCTN:ISRCTN45127327
Background Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients. The administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of surgical site infections . The optimal timing of this procedure is still a matter of debate. While most studies suggest that it should be given as close to the incision time as possible, others conclude that this may be too late for optimal prevention of surgical site infections. A large observational study suggests that surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered 74 to 30 minutes before surgery. The aim of this article is to report the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Methods/Design In this bi-center randomized controlled trial conducted at two tertiary referral centers in Switzerland, we plan to include 5,000 patients undergoing general, oncologic, vascular and orthopedic trauma procedures. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio into two groups: one receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (75 to 30 minutes before incision) and the other receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room (less than 30 minutes before incision). We expect a significantly lower rate of surgical site infections with surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis administered more than 30 minutes before the scheduled incision. The primary outcome is the occurrence of surgical site infections during a 30-day follow-up period (one year with an implant in place). When assuming a 5% surgical site infection risk with administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room, the planned sample size has an 80% power to detect a relative risk reduction for surgical site infections of 33% when administering surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (with a two-sided type I error of 5%). We expect the study to be completed within three years. Discussion The results of this randomized controlled trial will have an important impact on current international guidelines for infection control strategies in the hospital. Moreover, the results of this randomized controlled trial are of significant interest for patient safety and healthcare economics. Trial registration This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT01790529.
Background: The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations.Methods: J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25-50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants' spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013.Results: Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements.Conclusions: Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization's Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan's Healthy Japan 21. PMID:24814507
Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki
Background The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. Methods J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25–50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants’ spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Results Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Conclusions Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization’s Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan’s Healthy Japan 21.
Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki
Background Puberty is a critical developmental phase in physical, reproductive and socio-emotional maturation that is associated with the period of peak onset for psychopathology. Puberty also drives significant changes in brain development and function. Research to date has focused on gonadarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and yet increasing evidence suggests that the earlier pubertal stage of adrenarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, may play a critical role in both brain development and increased risk for disorder. We have established a unique cohort of children who differ in their exposure to adrenarcheal hormones. This presents a unique opportunity to examine the influence of adrenarcheal timing on brain structural and functional development, and subsequent health outcomes. The primary objective of the study is to explore the hypothesis that patterns of structural and functional brain development will mediate the relationship between adrenarcheal timing and indices of affect, self-regulation, and mental health symptoms collected across time (and therefore years of development). Methods/Design Children were recruited based upon earlier or later timing of adrenarche, from a larger cohort, with 128 children (68 female; M age 9.51 years) and one of their parents taking part. Children completed brain MRI structural and functional sequences, provided saliva samples for adrenarcheal hormones and immune biomarkers, hair for long-term cortisol levels, and completed questionnaires, anthropometric measures and an IQ test. Parents completed questionnaires reporting on child behaviour, development, health, traumatic events, and parental report of family environment and parenting style. Discussion This study, by examining the neurobiological and behavioural consequences of relatively early and late exposure to adrenarche, has the potential to significantly impact our understanding of pubertal risk processes.
Introduction Recent articles have described an endogenous breast flora, particularly in the nipple ducts, with potential implications in the outcome of aesthetic breast surgery. To characterize the ecology of the breast, we designed a study to assess the microbial species identified on the breast skin and parenchyma in patients undergoing breast surgical interventions. Methods After obtaining informed consent and background data on concurrent diseases, previous contact with the hospital system and prior use of antibiotics, samples are collected preoperatively from three areas of the breast skin, bilaterally: the inframammary fold, the areola and the axilla, prior to decontamination. These samples will serve as positive controls and will aid in characterizing the normal breast skin flora. After preoperative decontamination, samples are again collected, to check for any residual bacterial flora and the nipple is sealed with Tegaderm (3M, USA) and betadine ointment, to reduce any putative bacterial load. Intraoperatively, samples are collected from: a) the incision line (dermal level): 1. superficially, 2. medium depth in the breast parenchyma, 3. deep parenchyma, and b) axillary parenchyma (where possible), together with a bioptic fragment. Postoperatively, a second nipple sample is collected. For secondary breast augmentation surgeries, capsular biopsy is also performed (where relevant), and the implants undergo sonication, to allow biofilm identification. In the laboratory, all samples are cultured on blood agar incubated with CO2, cystine lactose electrolyte deficient medium and Sabouraud gentamicin-chloramphenicol agar. For positive culture samples, the number of colonies and their morphologic characteristics are reported. Identification will be carried out with MALDI-TOF and VITEK (bioMérieux, France), yielding automated antibiotic sensitivity profiles. For all germs with sensitivity profiles differing from the wild-type strain, E-tests will be performed. Follow-up information on the postoperative evolution will be collected and analyzed for potential factors predictive of good evolution. Discussion This study will provide important information about the microflora of the breast skin, its sensitivity profile, and the degree of contamination of the nipple ducts and parenchyma, if any, addressing a scientific hypothesis insufficiently explored so far.
Jianu, Dana Mihaela; Streinu-Cercel, Anca; Blidaru, Alexandru; Filipescu, Maria; Florescu, Ioan Petre; Berciu, Ioana; Cobani, Oltjon; Dorobat, Olga; Jianu, Stefan Adrian; Streinu-Cercel, Oana; Staniceanu, Floria; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian
Background Worldwide, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevalence has more than doubled over two decades. In Australia, diabetes is the second highest contributor to the burden of disease. Lifestyle modification programs comprising diet changes, weight loss and moderate physical activity, have been proven to reduce the incidence of T2DM in high risk individuals. As part of the Council of Australia Governments, the State of Victoria committed to develop and support the diabetes prevention program ‘Life! Taking action on diabetes’ (Life!) which has direct lineage from effective clinical and implementation trials from Finland and Australia. The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS) has been set up to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specific version of the Life! program. Methods/design We intend to recruit 796 participants for this open randomized clinical trial; 398 will be allocated to the intervention arm and 398 to the usual care arm. Several methods of recruitment will be used in order to maximize the number of participants. Individuals aged 50 to 75 years will be screened with a risk tool (AUSDRISK) to detect those at high risk of developing T2DM. Those with existing diabetes will be excluded. Intervention participants will undergo anthropometric and laboratory tests, and comprehensive surveys at baseline, following the fourth group session (approximately three months after the commencement of the intervention) and 12 months after commencement of the intervention, while control participants will undergo testing at baseline and 12 months only. The intervention consists of an initial individual session followed by a series of five structured-group sessions. The first four group sessions will be carried out at two week intervals and the fifth session will occur eight months after the first group session. The intervention is based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model and sessions will empower and enable the participants to follow the five goals of the Life! program. Discussion This study will determine whether the effect of this intervention is larger than the effect of usual care in reducing central obesity and cardiovascular risk factors and thus the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Also it will evaluate how these two options compare economically. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000507280
This virtual manipulative provides students with practice adding positive and negative integers. Students are given an addition problem, and using one-to-one correspondence, the student is able to see what happens when adding negative integers. The addition problems can be computer generated or teacher generated and there is a free play mode which allows the student to practice with the chips and become familiar with the process of moving the chips around the page, and creating a visual representation of an addition problem with integers.
University, Utah S.
A method for testing electrical connectivity between conductive structures on a chip that is preferably layered with conductive and nonconductive layers. The method includes determining the layer on which each structure is located and defining the perimeter of each structure. Conductive layer connections between each of the layers are determined, and, for each structure, the points of intersection between the perimeter of that structure and the perimeter of each other structure on the chip are also determined. Finally, electrical connections between the structures are determined using the points of intersection and the conductive layer connections.
Riley, Josh (Inventor); Patterson, George (Inventor)
Background Various treatment options for the prosthetic treatment of jaws where all molars are lost are under discussion. Besides the placement of implants, two main treatment types can be distinguished: replacement of the missing molars with removable dental prostheses and non-replacement of the molars, i.e. preservation of the shortened dental arch. Evidence is lacking regarding the long-term outcome and the clinical performance of these approaches. High treatment costs and the long time required for the treatment impede respective clinical trials. Methods/design This 14-center randomized controlled investigator-initiated trial is ongoing. Last patient out will be in 2010. Patients over 35 years of age with all molars missing in one jaw and with at least both canines and one premolar left on each side were eligible. One group received a treatment with removable dental prostheses for molar replacement (treatment A). The other group received a treatment limited to the replacement of all missing anterior and premolar teeth using fixed bridges (treatment B). A pilot trial with 32 patients was carried out. Two hundred and fifteen patients were enrolled in the main trial where 109 patients were randomized for treatment A and 106 for treatment B. The primary outcome measure is further tooth loss during the 5-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measures encompassed clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG WA 831/2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5). Discussion The particular value of this trial is the adaptation of common design components to the very specific features of complex dental prosthetic treatments. The pilot trial proved to be indispensable because it led to a number of adjustments in the study protocol that considerably improved the practicability. The expected results are of high clinical relevance and will show the efficacy of two common treatment approaches in terms of oral health. An array of secondary outcome measures will deliver valuable supplementary information. If the results can be implemented in the clinical practice, the daily dental care should strongly profit thereof. Trial registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under ISRCTN68590603 (pilot trial) and ISRCTN97265367 (main trial).
Background Maternal smoking is the most significant cause of preventable complications during pregnancy, with smoking cessation during pregnancy shown to increase birth weight and reduce preterm birth among pregnant women who quit smoking. Taking into account the fact that the number of women who smoke in Greece has increased steadily throughout the previous decade and that the prevalence of smoking among Greek females is one of the highest in the world, smoking cessation should be a top priority among Greek health care professionals. Methods/Design The Maternal Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy Study (M-SCOPE), is a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) that aims to test whether offering Greek pregnant smokers a high intensity intervention increases smoking cessation during the third trimester of pregnancy, when compared to a low intensity intervention. Prospective participants will be pregnant smokers of more than 5 cigarettes per week, recruited up to the second trimester of pregnancy. Urine samples for biomarker analysis of cotinine will be collected at three time points: at baseline, at around the 32nd week of gestation and at six months post partum. The control group/low intensity intervention will include: brief advice for 5 minutes and a short leaflet, while the experimental group/intensive intervention will include: 30 minutes of individualized cognitive-behavioural intervention provided by a trained health professional and a self-help manual especially tailored for smoking cessation during pregnancy, while counselling will be based on the ''5 As.'' After childbirth, the infants' birth weight, gestational age and any other health related complications during pregnancy will be recorded. A six months post-partum a follow up will be performed in order to re-assess the quitters smoking status. Discussion If offering pregnant smokers a high intensity intervention for smoking cessation increases the rate of smoking cessation in comparison to a usual care low intensity intervention in Greek pregnant smokers, such a scheme if beneficial could be implemented successfully within clinical practice in Greece. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01210118
This paper presents a systematic analysis of insider attacks against mobile ad-hoc routing protocols, using the Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) proto- col as an example. It identifies a number of attack goals, and then studies how to achieve these goals through misuses of the routing messages. To facilitate the anal- ysis, it classifies insider attacks into two categories: atomic
Peng Ning; Kun Sun
In France, more than 80% of children with Burkitt's lymphoma or Burkitt's leukemia (ALL3) are now cured with the LMB (B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and B-ALL) proto- cols of the Societe Franpaise d'Oncologie PBdiatrique, but so far, poor results have been obtained in the few adult studies available. We have analyzed the experience with LMB protocols in adult patients. This retrospective
Carole Soussain; Catherine Patte; Maurice Ostronoff; Alain Delmer; Frangoise Rigal-Huguet; Nathalie Cambier; Pierre-Yves Leprise; Sylvie Frangois; Pascale Cony-Makhoul; Jean Luc Harousseau; Maud Janvier; Laure Chauvenet; Francis Witz; Jose Pic
This study explored the impact of the NICHD protocol to enhance the quantity and content of details reported by children with low verbal abilities. Thirty-four children aged from 6 to 14 were interviewed following their experience of sexual abuse. Half the interviews were conducted using the NICHD protocol. Results indicate that NICHD interviews…
Dion, Jacinthe; Cyr, Mireille
A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the various species in a sample of cells is spatially encoded in the chip by the pattern of capture spots. The number of cells of a particular species is determined from the magnitude of the GCSPRI signal from that spot. GCSPRI as used here can be summarized as follows: The cytometer chip is fabricated with a diffraction grating on its front surface. The chip is illuminated with a light emitting diode (LED) from the front. By proper choice of grating parameters and of the wavelength and the angle of incidence of a laser beam, laser light can be made to be coupled into an electromagnetic mode that resonates with surface plasmons and thus couples light into surface plasmons. Coupling of light into a surface plasmon at a given location reduces the amount of incident light reflected from that location. A change in the index of refraction at the surface of a capture spot gives rise to a change in the resonance condition. Depending on the specific design, the change in the index of refraction could manifest itself as a brightening or darkening, a change in the wavelength needed to excite the plasmon at a given angle of incidence, or a change in the angle of incidence needed to excite the plasmon at a given wavelength. Whereas a multiwavelength laser system with multichannel detection would be needed to detect multiple species in conventional flow cytometry, it suffices to use an LED and a single detector channel in the GCSPRI approach: this contributes significantly to reductions in cost, complexity, size, mass, and power. GCSPRI cytometer chips could be made of plastic and could be mass-produced cheaply by use of molding and other methods adopted from the manufacture of digital video disks. These methods are amenable to a high degree of miniaturization: such additional features as fluidic channels, reaction chambers, and fluid-coupling ports could readily be incorporated into the chips, without incurring substantial additional costs.
Fernandez, Salvador M.
This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.
Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes
Background Mental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than the general population and are disproportionately affected by tobacco\\u000a dependence. Despite the advent of smoke free policies within mental health hospitals, limited systems are in place to support\\u000a a cessation attempt post hospitalisation, and international evidence suggests that most smokers return to pre-admission smoking\\u000a levels following discharge. This protocol describes a randomised
Emily AL Stockings; Jennifer A Bowman; John Wiggers; Amanda L Baker; Margarett Terry; Richard Clancy; Paula M Wye; Jenny Knight; Lyndell H Moore
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), also known as nosocomial infections, are one of the most serious health-care issues currently influencing health-care costs. Among them, those sustained by microbial biofilm represent a major public health concern. Here, we describe the experimental protocols for microbial biofilm inactivation relying on antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) as a new strategy for the control of these kinds of infections. PMID:24664842
This paper describes protocols for inter-vehicle communication (IVC) to support safe driving with wireless technology. Many IVC systems using DS\\/SS are proposed, but proposals that use FH\\/SS are less than those. This paper suggests IVC based on the FH\\/SS technique, assuming real road conditions, and evaluation via computer simulation. As a consequence, this simulation shows that the time to establish
T. Ikegami; E. Yamashita
The advent of Unified Modeling Language version 2.0 (UML 2.0) along with its UML testing profile in the recent years, promises to be a major break through in the field of formal description techniques. Thus in this paper we evaluate the suitability of UML 2.0 combined with its Testing profile for the engineering of industrial communication protocols using a case
Barath Kumar; Juergen Jasperneite
Background It is estimated that approximately 50% of stroke survivors will experience swallowing difficulty, or dysphagia. The associated sequelae of dysphagia include dehydration, malnutrition, and aspiration pneumonia, all of which have can have serious medical consequences. To improve swallowing safety and efficiency, alternative nutritional intake methods (for example, a feeding tube) or a modified diet texture (such as pureed foods or thickened liquids) may be recommended but these modifications may negatively affect quality of life. An alternative approach to treating dysphagia has emerged over the past few years, targeting stronger lingual muscles through maximal isometric pressure tasks. Although these studies have shown promising results, thin-liquid bolus control continues to be challenging for patients with dysphagia. Previous work investigating lingual pressures when healthy participants swallow has suggested that greater task specificity in lingual exercises may yield improved results with thin liquids. Methods/design This is a small, exploratory randomized clinical trial being conducted with post-stroke patients 4 to 20 weeks after onset of dysphagia secondary to impaired lingual control. At enrollment, participants are randomly assigned to one of two treatment protocols, either tongue pressure profile training (TPPT) or the control treatment, tongue pressure strength-and-accuracy training (TPSAT). Each treatment protocol consists of 24 sessions of treatment over 8 to 12 weeks with monitoring of tongue pressure as well as a baseline and outcome videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Tongue pressure measures, videofluoroscopic measures, and functional outcome measures will be obtained following training of 60 participants (30 in each condition), to determine whether TPPT yields better outcomes. Discussion This study will continue to explore options beyond tube feeding and modified diets for people with neurogenic dysphagia following stroke. Should the novel protocol, TPPT, prove to be more effective than the TPSAT protocol, this may influence standards of care and best practices for patients with dysphagia involving impaired thin-liquid control as a result of stroke. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov http://NCT01370083NCT01370083
Introduction The objective was to study the effects of a novel lung volume optimization procedure (LVOP) using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) upon gas exchange, the transpulmonary pressure (TPP), and hemodynamics in a porcine model of surfactant depletion. Methods With institutional review board approval, the hemodynamics, blood gas analysis, TPP, and pulmonary shunt fraction were obtained in six anesthetized pigs before and after saline lung lavage. Measurements were acquired during pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) prior to and after lung damage, and during a LVOP with HFOV. The LVOP comprised a recruitment maneuver with a continuous distending pressure (CDP) of 45 mbar for 2.5 minutes, and a stepwise decrease of the CDP (5 mbar every 5 minute) from 45 to 20 mbar. The TPP level was identified during the decrease in CDP, which assured a change of the PaO2/FIO2 ratio < 25% compared with maximum lung recruitment at CDP of 45 mbar (CDP45). Data are presented as the median (25th–75th percentile); differences between measurements are determined by Friedman repeated-measures analysis on ranks and multiple comparisons (Tukey's test). The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased from 99.1 (56.2–128) Torr at PCV post-lavage to 621 (619.4–660.3) Torr at CDP45 (CDP45) (P < 0.031). The pulmonary shunt fraction decreased from 51.8% (49–55%) at PCV post-lavage to 1.03% (0.4–3%) at CDP45 (P < 0.05). The cardiac output and stroke volume decreased at CDP45 (P < 0.05) compared with PCV, whereas the heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and intrathoracic blood volume remained unchanged. A TPP of 25.5 (17–32) mbar was required to preserve a difference in PaO2/FIO2 ratio < 25% related to CDP45; this TPP was achieved at a CDP of 35 (25–40) mbar. Conclusion This HFOV protocol is easy to perform, and allows a fast determination of an adequate TPP level that preserves oxygenation. Systemic hemodynamics, as a measure of safety, showed no relevant deterioration throughout the procedure.
Karmrodt, Jens; David, Matthias; Yuan, Shying; Markstaller, Klaus
Background Providing women with contraceptive methods following abortion is important to reduce repeat abortion rates, yet evidence for effective post-abortion family planning interventions are limited. This protocol outlines the evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial of 500 participants. Clients aged 18 or over, attending for abortion at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia, owning a mobile phone and not wishing to have a child at the current time are randomised to the mobile phone-based intervention or control (standard care) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention comprises a series of six automated voice messages to remind clients about available family planning methods and provide a conduit for additional support. Clients can respond to message prompts to request a phone call from a counsellor, or alternatively to state they have no problems. Clients requesting to talk to a counsellor, or who do not respond to the message prompts, receive a call from a Marie Stopes International Cambodia counsellor who provides individualised advice and support regarding family planning. The duration of the intervention is 3 months. The control group receive existing standard of care without the additional mobile phone-based support. We hypothesise that the intervention will remind clients about contraceptive methods available, identify problems with side effects early and provide support, and therefore increase use of post-abortion family planning, while reducing discontinuation and unsafe method switching. Participants are assessed at baseline and at 4 months. The primary outcome measure is use of an effective modern contraceptive method at 4 months post abortion. Secondary outcome measures include contraception use, pregnancy and repeat abortion over the 4-month post-abortion period. Risk ratios will be used as the measure of effect of the intervention on the outcomes, and these will be estimated with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses will be based on the ‘intention to treat’ principle. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support contraception use in a population with limited literacy. Findings could be generalisable to similar populations in different settings. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01823861
Background Anxiety disorders affect approximately 10% to 20% of young people, can be enduring if left untreated, and have been associated with psychopathology in later life. Despite this, there is a paucity of empirical research to assist clinicians in determining appropriate treatment options. We describe a protocol for a randomized controlled trial in which we will examine the effectiveness of a group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy program for children and adolescents with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder. For the adolescent participants we will also evaluate the elements of the intervention that act as mechanisms for change. Methods/design We will recruit 150 young people (90 children and 60 adolescents) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and their parent or caregiver. After completion of baseline assessment, participants will be randomized to one of three conditions (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy or waitlist control). Those in the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy groups will receive 10 × 1.5 hour weekly group-therapy sessions using a manualized treatment program, in accordance with the relevant therapy, to be delivered by psychologists. Controls will receive the Cognitive Behavior Therapy program after 10 weeks waitlisted. Repeated measures will be taken immediately post-therapy and at three months after therapy cessation. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this study will be the largest trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the treatment of children and young people to date. It will provide comprehensive data on the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxiety disorders and will offer evidence for mechanisms involved in the process of change. Furthermore, additional data will be obtained for the use of Cognitive Behavior Therapy in this population and this research will illustrate the comparative effectiveness of these two interventions, which are currently implemented widely in contemporary clinical practice. Anticipated difficulties for the trial are the recruitment and retention of participants, particularly adolescents. To avert these concerns and maximize recruitment, several strategies will be adopted to optimize referral rates as well as reduce participant drop-outs. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, registration number: ACTRN12611001280998
CIF (chip-in-flex) and COF (chip-on-flex) packages have the advantages of fine pitch capability, and flexibility. Anisotropic conductive films (ACFs) are used for the interconnection between chip and substrate. Display, mobile device, and semiconductor industry require for smaller and more integrated packages. Both CIF and COF packages are an alternative for the demands. However, there are some reliability problems of interconnection between the chip and substrate because the packages are subjected to various loading conditions. These may degrade the functionality of the packages. Therefore, reliability assessment of both packages is necessary. In this study, experimental tests were performed to evaluate the reliability of interconnection between the chip and substrate of CIF and COF packages. Thermal cycling tests were performed to evaluate the resistance against thermal fatigue. The shape and warpage of the chip of CIF and COF packages were observed using optical methods (e.g., shadow MoirÃ© and Twyman/Green interferometry). These optical MoirÃ© techniques are widely used for measuring small deformations in microelectronic packages. The stress distribution around the chip was evaluated through FEA (finite element analysis). In addition, we suggested modifying design parameter of CIF packages for the reliability enhancement.
Jang, Jae-Won; Suk, Kyoung-Lim; Paik, Kyung-Wook; Lee, Soon-Bok
Larger, more complex chips are being developed with more gates of logic per area. It is reported that data indicate that such chips will give fewer failures per gate. Attention is given to the use of computer-aided design tools such as programs for chip layout and testing. Finally, examples of CMOS chips are discussed as well as the techniques used for reliable design.
Hilibrand, J.; Anderson, K. R.
Background Efforts to increase physical activity in youth need to consider which activities are most likely to be sustained over time in order to promote lifelong participation in physical activity. The Monitoring Activities of Teenagers to Comprehend their Habits (MATCH) study is a prospective cohort study that uses quantitative and qualitative methods to develop new knowledge on the sustainability of specific physical activities. Methods/design Eight hundred and forty-three grade 5 and 6 students recruited from 17 elementary schools in New Brunswick, Canada, are followed-up three times per year. At each survey cycle, participants complete self-report questionnaires in their classroom under the supervision of trained data collectors. A sub-sample of 24 physically active students is interviewed annually using a semi-structured interview protocol. Parents (or guardians) complete telephone administered questionnaires every two years, and a health and wellness school audit is completed for each school. Discussion MATCH will provide a description of the patterns of participation in specific physical activities in youth, and enable identification of the determinants of maintenance, decline, and uptake of participation in each activity. These data will inform the development of interventions that take into account which activities are the most likely to be maintained and why activities are maintained or dropped.
Despite the current high level of interest in flip chip technology there remain many obstacles to its widespread acceptance. These include among others: 1) the cost of the bumping, 2) the cost for redistribution 3) reliability data on the assembled product, 4) compatibility issues with dielectrics, and 5) known good die. This paper describes processes that place bumps either on
P. A. Magill; P. A. Deane; J. D. Mis; G. A. Rinne
Gryphics, Inc. is developing a means of incorporating ICs into a very low cost replaceable chip module (RCM). This high density module accepts a wide variety of devices in many applications. Each device is interconnected by a very low inductance multi-mode compliance contact system, which is solderless and demateable. The loaded RCM can be used as a characterization, test, burn-in,
The ultimate objective of the Chip-to-System Testability program was the development of a structured testability implementation methodology which will be used as a basis for a PC-based tool called TESPAD. This tool can be used by development contractors a...
M. G. McNamer W. W. Weber
In 1989, Swift Current Division in Saskatchewan, Canada, initiated the Chalk, Chips, and Children technology project. The project was funded by various corporate partners and developed by a broadly constituted advisory committee. The principal's role changed drastically as he reexamined leadership competencies and faculty developed their own…
Yee, Dianne L.
In this activity, learners explore engineering package designs that meet the needs of safely shipping a product. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to design a package using standard materials that will safely ship a single chip through the mail to their address.
The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.
Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.
Implementation of observational pain management protocol to improve pain management for long-term institutionalized older care residents with dementia: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial
Background Systematic use of observational pain tools has been advocated as a means to improve pain management for care home residents with dementia. Pain experts suggest that any observational tool should be used as part of a comprehensive pain management protocol, which should include score interpretation and verification with appropriately suggested treatments. The Observational Pain Management Protocol (Protocol) was therefore developed. This study aims to investigate the extent to which the implementation of this Protocol can improve pain management in care home residents with dementia. Methods/design In this two-group, single-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled trial, 122 care home residents with dementia and pain-related diagnoses will be recruited from eight care homes (that is 15 to 16 residents from each care home). Invitations will be sent to all local care homes who meet the home selection criteria. The eight care homes will be randomly selected from all care homes that agree to join this trial. They will then be randomized to either the control or experimental conditions. Participants from each care home will be placed into their home’s corresponding group to avoid ‘contamination’ effects across participants. Each intervention cycle will take 16 weeks (that is, baseline assessment and care home staff training for 4 weeks and Protocol implementation for 12 weeks). The Protocol will guide the pain management of the participants in the experimental care homes. Meanwhile, the control care homes will continue their usual pain management strategies. Intervention effects will be measured weekly during the protocol implementation period and compared with the baseline measurements, as well as between the experimental and control conditions. Discussion Although similar pain protocols have been suggested previously, the recommendations were based on experts’ opinions rather than evaluation of research studies. The feasibility and effectiveness of this kind of pain management protocol, tailored to older people with dementia, remains unknown. The findings of this trial will offer strong evidence that better strategies for pain management should be used in the care home daily routine. Trial registration The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Centre for Clinical Trials: CUHK-CCT00367
The use of underfill materials is necessary with flip-chip interconnect technology to redistribute stresses due to mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between dissimilar materials in the overall assembly. Underfills are formulated using organic polymers and possibly inorganic filler materials. There are a few ways to apply the underfills with flip-chip technology. Traditional capillary-flow underfill materials now possess high flow speed and reduced time to cure, but they still require additional processing steps beyond the typical surface-mount technology (SMT) assembly process. Studies were conducted using underfills in a temperature range of -190 to 85 C, which resulted in an increase of reliability by one to two orders of magnitude. Thermal shock of the flip-chip test articles was designed to induce failures at the interconnect sites (-40 to 100 C). The study on the reliability of flip chips using underfills in the extreme temperature region is of significant value for space applications. This technology is considered as an enabling technology for future space missions. Flip-chip interconnect technology is an advanced electrical interconnection approach where the silicon die or chip is electrically connected, face down, to the substrate by reflowing solder bumps on area-array metallized terminals on the die to matching footprints of solder-wettable pads on the chosen substrate. This advanced flip-chip interconnect technology will significantly improve the performance of high-speed systems, productivity enhancement over manual wire bonding, self-alignment during die joining, low lead inductances, and reduced need for attachment of precious metals. The use of commercially developed no-flow fluxing underfills provides a means of reducing the processing steps employed in the traditional capillary flow methods to enhance SMT compatibility. Reliability of flip chips may be significantly increased by matching/tailoring the CTEs of the substrate material and the silicon die or chip, and also the underfill materials. Advanced packaging interconnects technology such as flip-chip interconnect test boards have been subjected to various extreme temperature ranges that cover military specifications and extreme Mars and asteroid environments. The eventual goal of each process step and the entire process is to produce components with 100 percent interconnect and satisfy the reliability requirements. Underfill materials, in general, may possibly meet demanding end use requirements such as low warpage, low stress, fine pitch, high reliability, and high adhesion.
Background Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between several loci in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster CHRNA5-A3-B4 and daily cigarette consumption. Recent studies have sought to refine this phenotype, and have shown that a locus within this cluster, marked primarily by rs1051730 and rs16969968, is also associated with levels of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine. This association remains after adjustment for self-reported smoking, which suggests that even amongst people who smoke the same number of cigarettes there is still genetically-influenced variation in nicotine consumption. This is likely to be due to differences in smoking topography, that is, how a cigarette is smoked (e.g., volume of smoke inhaled per puff, number of puffs taken per cigarette). The aim of this study is to determine potential mediation of the relationship between the rs1051730 locus and cotinine levels by smoking topography. Methods/Design Adopting a recall-by-genotype design, we will recruit 200 adults from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children on the basis of minor or major homozygote status at rs1051730 (100 in each genotype group). All participants will be current, daily smokers. Our primary study outcome measures will be measures of smoking topography: total volume of smoke (ml) inhaled per cigarette, total volume of smoke (ml) inhaled over of the course of one day, and salivary cotinine level (ng/ml). Discussion This study will extend our understanding of the biological basis of inter-individual variability in heaviness of smoking, and therefore in exposure to smoking-related toxins. The novel recall-by-genotype approach we will use is efficient, maximising statistical power, and enables the collection of extremely precise phenotypic data that are impractical to collect in a larger sample. The methods described within this protocol also hold the potential for wider application in the field of molecular genetics.
Although the analgesic effects of periarticular multimodal drug injection (PMDI) after TKA have been well documented, there is little information about additional pain relieving effects of PMDI incorporated to contemporary multimodal pain control protocols which have been proved to provide excellent analgesia. We performed a parallel-group, randomised, controlled study to determine whether PMDI provides additional clinical benefits on contemporary multimodal analgesic protocols including preemptive analgesics, continuous femoral nerve block, and IV-PCA. Eighty-seven patients were randomized to a PMDI group (n=45) or to a No-PMDI group (n=42). Pain level and opioid consumption were compared as primary outcomes. The incidences of narcotic and ropivacaine related side effects and complications, functional recovery, and satisfaction were also compared. The PMDI group experienced less pain during the operation night and the 1st postoperative day and showed lower opioid consumption over 24h after surgery. However, the PMDI group had a higher VAS pain score on the 1st postoperative day than during the operation night. No group differences in side-effects and complication incidences, functional recovery, and satisfaction were found. This study demonstrates that PMDI provides additional pain relief and reduces opioid consumption only during the early postoperative period in patients managed by the contemporary pain management protocol following TKA. PMID:21507661
Koh, In Jun; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Chang, Chong Bum; Do, Sang-Hwan; Seong, Sang Cheol; Kim, Tae Kyun
This letter report describes the current status of the core flow through apparatus and describes the protocol and test matrix to be followed during the initial experimental stage of radionuclide transport studies in the Integrated Testing task.
Viani, B.E.; Martin, S.I.
Non-productive citrus trees were chipped with a portable fly-wheel-type chipper powered by a 45 kW engine. Chips were air dried under an open shed to 14% (w.b.) moisture content. By weight, approximately 50% of the total tree could be made into usable chips. The root system averaged 36% of the total tree weight.
Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.
This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.
A serious drawback of veneering porcelains is a pronounced susceptibility to chipping. Glass-infiltrated dense zirconia structures can now be produced with esthetic quality, making them an attractive alternative. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that such infiltrated structures are much more chip-resistant than conventional porcelains, and at least as chip-resistant as non-infiltrated zirconia. A sharp indenter was used to
Y. Zhang; H. Chai; J. J.-W. Lee; B. R. Lawn
Background Although many studies have assessed poststroke objective cognitive impairment, only a few have evaluated patients’ subjective cognitive complaints (SCC). Although these SCC are found to be common in the early and chronic phases after stroke, knowledge about their risk factors, course over time, differences with healthy controls and their diagnostic relevance is limited. The aim of the COMPlaints After Stroke (COMPAS) study is therefore to determine the possible risk factors, prognosis, time course and predictive value of SCC in the first 2?years after stroke. Methods and design A prospective cohort study is conducted in which patients are compared to non-stroke controls at 3, 6, 12 and 24?months after stroke. Approximately 300 patients are recruited from the stroke units of three hospitals in the Netherlands, while 300 controls are sought among the relatives (spouses excluded) and social networks of participants. A wide range of subjective and objective variables is assessed in both groups using interviews, questionnaires and neuropsychological assessment. The primary outcomes include SCC and objective cognitive impairment, whereas secondary outcomes are quality of life, subjective recovery and daily life functioning. Ethics and dissemination The study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act. The protocol has been approved by the medical ethics committees of the participating centres and all participants give written informed consent. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the medical society and general public. Discussion The COMPAS study is the first to systematically evaluate poststroke SCC in a prospective longitudinal design, taking a wide range of subjective and objective variables into account. The results obtained can be used to accurately inform patients and their families, as well as to develop patient-tailored intervention programmes to ultimately improve stroke patient care.
van Rijsbergen, Marielle W A; Mark, Ruth E; de Kort, Paul L M; Sitskoorn, Margriet M
We report a novel non-planar flexible silicon chip technology by means of patterning thin films of high residual stress on top of shaped thin silicon substrate. High residual stresses of thin films make thin chip deform into designed three-dimensional shapes. In this study, a series of patterned stress films and "petal-like" chips were fabricated and analyzed. Large curvatures can also be formed and maintained by the packaging process bonding the chips to constraining elements such as thin-film polymer ring structures. As a demonstration, a CMOS image-sensing retina chip is made into a contact-lens shape conforming to a human eyeball 12.5mm in radius. This non-planar and flexible chip technology provides a desirable device surface interface to soft or non-planar bio surfaces and opens up possibilities for many biomedical applications. PMID:24111312
Liu, Ching-Yu; Lin, Hsiao-Chen; Teng, Chih-Chiao; Fan, Long-Sheng
Background: Lifestyle modifications including, physical activity can reduce obesity-related morbidity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in youth. This study will investigate the efficacy of a culturally-sensitive, non-contact, boxing-orientated training program on obesity and related cardio-metabolic conditions in M?ori and Pasifika adolescents. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, cultural sensitivity, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation, and statistical analyses are described. Methods: This study will be a community based, New Zealand, randomized control trial (RCT). Male and female obese (body mass index >95th percentile) M?ori and Pasifika adolescents aged 14-16 years will be recruited and the sample size will be confirmed through a feasibility study. Combating Obesity in M?ori and Pasifika Adolescent School-children Study (COMPASS) is a 6-month, theory-based program, conducted 3-times/week in a culturally appropriate setting. Each session includes 40 min boxing-orientated training and 30 min resistance training. Assessments will be made at baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and 24-months. Main outcomes include abdominal obesity, endothelial function, and insulin resistance. Other outcomes include arterial stiffness, lipid profile, inflammatory biomarkers, well-being, and aerobic fitness. Control measures include physical activity, sleep behavior, and dietary intake. Results: As a protocol paper there are no specific results to present, our purpose is to share our RCT design with the scientific community. Conclusions: COMPASS will be used to provide direction for exercise prescription policy in at-risk M?ori and Pasifika adolescents.
Stoner, Lee; Shultz, Sarah P.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Krebs, Jeremy; Weatherall, Mark; Palmer, Barry R.; Lane, Andrew M.; Kira, Geoff; Witter, Trevor; Williams, Michelle A.
\\u000a The Tokyo Children’s Cancer Study Group protocol (TCCSG L84-11), a randomized trial, was designed to evaluate moderate dose\\u000a methotrexate (MD-MTX) therapy plus late skull irradiation and intensified central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis by triple\\u000a intrathecal (IT) therapy. From 1984 to 1988, children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), except for\\u000a B-ALL, were enrolled in this protocol. Patients at high
Shinpei Nakazawa; Akitoshi Kinoshita; Masahiro Tsuchida; Ryota Hosoya; Kozo Nishmura; Masao Yamamoto; Yutaka Ueda; Nobutaka Hoshi; Junichi Akatsuka; Fumio Bessho; Yukiko Tsunematus; Ryo Koide; Nobuyuki Taguchi; Keiko Yamamoto; Koichi Nishihira; Takeshi Nagao; Koichiro Ikuta; Shusuke Matsuyama; Yuri Okimoto; Takeyuki Sato; Koichiro Yamada; Akira Ishikawa; Masashige Tukada; Taro Akabane; Mutsuro Ohira; Hiroshi Chihara; Kaneo Yamada; Kenichi Sugita; Toshiharu Furukawa; Yoji Okawa; Junichii Yata; Atushi Shibuya; Takashi Kaneko; Hiroshi Otsuki; Ichiro Inana; Mieko Wada; Koichi Ishimoto; Masafumi Kaneko; Koreatsu Ito; Yuji Gunji; Shunichi Kato; Tomohiro Saito
On-chip constructive cell-network study (II): on-chip quasi-in vivo cardiac toxicity assay for ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation measurement using ring-shaped closed circuit microelectrode with lined-up cardiomyocyte cell network
Backgrounds Conventional in vitro approach using human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) assay has been considered worldwide as the first screening assay for cardiac repolarization safety. However, it does not always oredict the potential QT prolongation risk or pro-arrhythmic risk correctly. For adaptable preclinical strategiesto evaluate global cardiac safety, an on-chip quasi-in vivo cardiac toxicity assay for lethal arrhythmia (ventricular tachyarrhythmia) measurement using ring-shaped closed circuit microelectrode chip has been developed. Results The ventricular electrocardiogram (ECG)-like field potential data, which includes both the repolarization and the conductance abnormality, was acquired from the self-convolutied extracellular field potentials (FPs) of a lined-up cardiomyocyte network on a circle-shaped microelectrode in an agarose microchamber. When Astemisol applied to the closed-loop cardiomyocyte network, self-convoluted FP profile of normal beating changed into an early afterdepolarization (EAD) like waveform, and then showed ventricular tachyarrhythmias and ventricular fibrilations (VT/Vf). QT-prolongation-like self-convoluted FP duration prolongation and its fluctuation increase was also observed according to the increase of Astemizole concentration. Conclusions The results indicate that the convoluted FPs of the quasi-in vivo cell network assay includes both of the repolarization data and the conductance abnormality of cardiomyocyte networks has the strong potential to prediction lethal arrhythmia.
Introduction Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. Methods and analysis This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. Trial Registration number UMIN000010826.
Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo
Forced convection and conjugate heat transfer of ceramic surface mount modules is studied by computational fluid dynamics technique. Both capless and capped flip chip and cavity down wirebond interconnections are considered in this study. Computational and experimental data of thermal resistance of capless flip chip modules are compared to assess the accuracy of the model. Thermal resistances, heat rate distributions,
T. D. Yuan
Reliability performance is still the major concern for flip chip interconnection. While solder fatigue is believed to be the contributing factor for packaging failure and is the most widely studied for flip chip soldering, experimental work in this study find out solder fatigue itself is seldom the driving force for early failure. With the introduction of underfill, failures solely due
Qing Tan; Rebecca Cole; Addi Mistry; Craig Beddingfield
Analytical approaches to extant and extinct life detection involve molecular detection often at trace levels. Thus, removal of biological materials and other organic molecules from the surfaces of devices used for sampling is essential for ascertaining meaningful results. Organic decontamination to levels consistent with null values on life-detection instruments is particularly challenging at remote field locations where Mars analog field investigations are carried out. Here, we present a seven-step, multi-reagent decontamination method that can be applied to sampling devices while in the field. In situ lipopolysaccharide detection via low-level endotoxin assays and molecular detection via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to test the effectiveness of the decontamination protocol for sampling of glacial ice with a coring device and for sampling of sediments with a rover scoop during deployment at Arctic Mars-analog sites in Svalbard, Norway. Our results indicate that the protocols and detection technique sufficiently remove and detect low levels of molecular constituents necessary for life-detection tests. PMID:19496672
Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Benning, Liane G; Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Amundsen, Hans E F
Background: Daily Increased rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in athletes calls for more investigation in these patients to differentiate copers from noncoper ACL-deficient (ACLD) knees as soon as possible. Objectives: The current study aims to introduce a new electromyographic protocol, named voluntary response index (VRI), that might help to categorize and differentiate patients with ACLD knee from others in the early stage. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with ACLD knee were allocated into two equal groups, namely, coper and noncoper groups, based upon their ability to return to sport during the preceding six months. The patients with ACLD knee were asked to perform a jump on a force platform from a 75-cm distance. Results: The results were compared with 17 matched healthy participants. The electromyographic disposable electrodes were attached to the seven muscles of the lower extremity of the participants before performing the test. The outcome measures were the magnitude and similarity index of the VRI, time to stop, vertical ground reaction force, the displacement of the center of pressure’s (COP) path line length, and the participants’ Tegner, IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) as well as KOOS (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) questionnaires scores. Using the appropriate statistical analysis, the electromyographic and force plate data were compared among the three groups. All efforts went into determining whether an association exists between the findings of each group and the participants’ functional questionnaires scores. Conclusions: The results of this study would be helpful in objectively differentiating the patients with ACLD knee into coper and noncoper groups to receive appropriate treatments before their return to the competitions.
Norouzi Fashkhami, Amin; Rahimi, Abbas; Khademi Kalantari, Khosro
This activity guides students through sampling, identification and counting of macroinvertebrates sampled in a GLOBE hydrology study site, and understand how the taxa composition found in the sample can be an indicator of water quality and ecosystem health. The resource includes 8 field and laboratory protocols. This resource is a protocol within the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.
Background Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia. Comprehensive tobacco control has reduced smoking rates in Australia from approximately 34 per cent in 1980 to 15 per cent in 2010. However, 46 per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (Indigenous Australians) smoke on a daily basis, more than double the rate of non-Indigenous Australians. The evidence of effective tobacco control strategies for Indigenous Australians is relatively scarce. The aim of this study is to (i) explore the influences of smoking in Indigenous Australian people and to (ii) help inform and evaluate a multi-component tobacco control strategy. The study aims to answer the following questions: - do individuals' social networks influence smoking behaviours; - is there an association between various social and cultural factors and being a smoker or non-smoker; and - does a multi-component tobacco control program impact positively on tobacco behaviours, attitudes and beliefs in Indigenous Australians. Methods and design Our prospective study will use a mixed-method approach (qualitative and quantitative), including a pre- and post-test evaluation of a tobacco control initiative. The study will explore the social and cultural context underlying Indigenous Australian tobacco use and associated factors which influence smoking behaviour. Primary data will be collected via a panel survey, interviews and focus groups. Secondary data will include de-identified PBS items related to smoking and also data collected from the Quitlines call service. Network analysis will be used to assess whether social networks influence smoking behaviours. For the survey, baseline differences will be tested using chi2 statistics for the categorical and dichotomous variables and t-tests for the continuous variables, where appropriate. Grounded theory will be used to analyse the interviews and focus groups. Local Aboriginal community controlled organisations will partner in the study. Discussion Our study will explore the key factors, including the influence of social networks, that impact on tobacco use and the extent to which smoking behaviours transcend networks within the Indigenous Australian community in the ACT. This will add to the evidence-base, identifying influential factors to tobacco use and the effectiveness and influence of a multi-component tobacco control strategy.
A new chip-based crystal-mounting approach for rapid room-temperature data collection from numerous crystals is described. This work was motivated by the recent development of X-ray free-electron lasers. These novel sources deliver very intense femtosecond X-ray pulses that promise to yield high-resolution diffraction data of nanocrystals before their destruction by radiation damage. Thus, the concept of `diffraction before destruction' requires rapid replenishment of the sample for each exposure. The chip promotes the self-assembly of an array of protein crystals on a surface. Rough features on the surface cause the crystals to adopt random orientations, allowing efficient sampling of reciprocal space. PMID:22349234
Zarrine-Afsar, Arash; Barends, Thomas R M; Müller, Christina; Fuchs, Martin R; Lomb, Lukas; Schlichting, Ilme; Miller, R J Dwayne
The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.
Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.
An optically pumped magnetometer was drastically miniaturized, by taking advantage of MEMS techniques, producing the chip-scale atomic magnetometers (CSAM) physics package. The key component of the package is an alkali vapor cell. To probe the magnetic field experienced by the atoms, the injection current to the VCSEL was modulated at 3.4 GHz near half the hyperfine frequency of 87Rb. Lock-in
Peter D. D. Schwindt; B. J. Lindseth; S. Knappe; John Kitching; J. Moreland; L. Hollberg
Introduction Paediatric shock is a life-threatening condition with many possible causes and a global impact. Current resuscitation guidelines require rapid fluid administration as a cornerstone of paediatric shock management. However, little evidence is available to inform clinicians how to most effectively perform rapid fluid administration where this is clinically required, resulting in suboptimal knowledge translation of current resuscitation guidelines into clinical practice. Objectives This study aims to determine which of the two commonly used techniques for paediatric fluid resuscitation (disconnect–reconnect technique and push–pull technique) yields a higher fluid administration rate in a simulated clinical scenario. Secondary objectives include determination of catheter dislodgement rates, subjective and objective measures of provider fatiguability and descriptive information regarding any technical issues encountered with performance of each method under the study. Methods and analysis This study will utilise a randomised crossover trial design. Participants will include consenting healthcare providers from McMaster Children's Hospital. Each participant will administer 900?ml (60?ml/kg) of normal saline to a simulated 15?kg infant as quickly as possible on two separate occasions using the manual fluid administration techniques under the study. The primary outcome, rate of fluid administration, will be evaluated using a paired two-tailed Student t test. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Hamilton Health Sciences Research Ethics Board. Results These will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and presented at one or more scientific conferences. Protocol Registration Protocol Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01774214
Cole, Evan T; Harvey, Greg; Foster, Gary; Thabane, Lehana; Parker, Melissa J
This study reports an integrated microfluidic chip for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications utilizing digital microfluidic chip (DMC) technology. Several crucial procedures including sample transportation, mixing, and DNA amplification were performed on the integrated chip using electro-wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) effect. An innovative concept of hydrophobic/hydrophilic structure has been successfully demonstrated to integrate the DMC chip with the on-chip PCR device. Sample droplets were generated, transported and mixed by the EWOD-actuation. Then the mixture droplets were transported to a PCR chamber by utilizing the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface to generate required surface tension gradient. A micro temperature sensor and two micro heaters inside the PCR chamber along with a controller were used to form a micro temperature control module, which could perform precise PCR thermal cycling for DNA amplification. In order to demonstrate the performance of the integrated DMC/PCR chips, a detection gene for Dengue II virus was successfully amplified and detected. The new integrated DMC/PCR chips only required an operation voltage of 12V(RMS) at a frequency of 3 KHz for digital microfluidic actuation and 9V(DC) for thermal cycling. When compared to its large-scale counterparts for DNA amplification, the developed system consumed less sample and reagent and could reduce the detection time. The developed chips successfully demonstrated the feasibility of Lab-On-a-Chip (LOC) by utilizing EWOD-based digital microfluidics. PMID:16718406
Chang, Yi-Hsien; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Huang, Fu-Chun; Chen, Yi-Yu; Lin, Jr-Lung
Tool chip contact length is an important parameter in machining, as it provides an indication of the size of area of interaction\\u000a between the hot chip and the tool surface and hence the interface heat transfer zone. Heat transfer and thermally activated\\u000a wear modes usually dominate tool wear in the high speed machining of steels and machining of titanium alloys
S. A. Iqbal; P. T. Mativenga; M. A. Sheikh
Cost-supply curves for delivered wood chips from short rotation woody crops were calculated for 21 regularly spaced locations spanning the state of Tennessee. These curves were used to systematically evaluate the combined effects of location and facility demand on wood chip feedstock costs in Tennessee. The cost-supply curves were developed using BRAVO, a GIS-based decision support system which calculates marginal
R. L. Graham; W. Liu; M. Downing; C. E. Noon; M. Daly; A. Moore
Built-in test and on-chip calibration features are becoming essential for reliable wireless connectivity of next generation\\u000a devices suffering from increasing process variations in CMOS technologies. This paper contains an overview of contemporary\\u000a self-test and performance enhancement strategies for single-chip transceivers. In general, a trend has emerged to combine\\u000a several techniques involving process variability monitoring, digital calibration, and tuning of analog
Marvin Onabajo; Didac Gómez; Eduardo Aldrete-Vidrio; Josep Altet; Diego Mateo; Jose Silva-Martinez
The impact on pulmonary functions of exercising at different intensities during pollutant exposures was evaluated. It was apparent that there was considerable variation in exercise protocols. These variations occurred in the magnitude of the exercise load, the duration of the exercise period, and the timing of the exercise during exposure. It was also apparent that ventilation during rest and exercise was not always determined; in many instances ventilation was estimated based on other criteria, such as heart rate. The influence of ambient temperature conditions was frequently not considered. Determinations of pulmonary functions were also made at various time intervals following exercise or subsequent rest periods. All of these factors could result in some degree of misinterpretation of the consequences of pollutant exposure.
With improvement in survival, it is important to evaluate the impact of treatment on secondary cancers in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) survivors. A retrospective cohort study comprising 2918 children diagnosed with ALL and enrolled on Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group (TCCSG) protocols between 1984 and 2005 was conducted to evaluate the incidence of secondary cancers and associated factors including treatment protocol, cranial irradiation and other characteristics of the primary ALL. Thirty-seven patients developed secondary cancers, including acute myeloid leukaemia (n = 11), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 5), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), brain tumours (n = 13) and other solid carcinomas (n = 6) within a median follow-up duration of 9·5 years. The cumulative incidence of any secondary cancers was 1·0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0·7-1·4%) at 10 years and 2·4% (95% CI, 1·5-3·7%) at 20 years, respectively. Standardized incidence rate ratio of secondary cancers was 9·3 (95% CI, 6·5-12·8). Multivariate analyses showed an increased risk of secondary cancers associated with the recent treatment protocol and cranial irradiation. There was no evidence of a reduction in secondary cancer incidence despite marked decreases in cranial irradiation use in the recent protocols. PMID:24116892
Ishida, Yasushi; Maeda, Miho; Urayama, Kevin Y; Kiyotani, Chikako; Aoki, Yuki; Kato, Yoko; Goto, Shoko; Sakaguchi, Sachi; Sugita, Kenichi; Tokuyama, Mika; Nakadate, Naoya; Ishii, Eizaburo; Tsuchida, Masahiro; Ohara, Akira
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding, chipping, and heat treatment on survival of A. planipennis prepupae in ash material. Heavily infested ash bolts containing roughly 8,700 prepupae were processed by a horizontal grinder with either a 2.5- or 10-cm screen. There was no evidence of A. planipennis survival in chips processed with the 2.5-cm screen, but eight viable prepupae were recovered from chips processed with the 10-cm screen. We chiseled additional sentinel chips with prepupae from ash logs and buried 45 in each chip pile. In total, six prepupae in sentinel chips survived the winter, but we found no sign of adult A. planipennis emergence from the processed chips. Subsequently, we assessed prepupal survival in chips processed by a chipper or a horizontal grinder fit with 5-, 10-, or 12.7-cm screens. An estimated 1,565 A. planipennis prepupae were processed by each treatment. Chips from the chipper were shorter than chips from the grinder regardless of the screen size used. No live prepupae were found in chips produced by the chipper, but 21 viable prepupae were found in chips from the grinder. Infested wood and bark chips chiseled from logs were held in ovens at 25, 40, or 60 degrees C for 8, 24, or 48 h. Prepupal survival was consistently higher in wood chips than bark chips at 40 degrees C, whereas no prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for eight or more hours. In a second study, prepupae in wood chips were exposed to 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 degrees C for 20 or 120 min. Some prepupae survived 20 min of exposure to all temperatures. No prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for 120 min, but 17% survived exposure to 55 degrees C for 120 min, suggesting that some fraction of the population may survive internationally recognized phytosanitary standards (ISPM-15) for treatment of wood packing material. PMID:17849884
McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Cappaert, David; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor; Smith, Sarah; Pell, Christopher
Cellular uptake is being widely investigated in the context of diverse biological activities of metal compounds on the cellular level. However, the applied techniques differ considerably, and a validated methodology is not at hand. Therefore, we have varied numerous aspects of sample preparation of the human colon carcinoma cell line SW480 exposed in vitro to the tumor-inhibiting metal complexes cisplatin and indazolium trans-[tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(iii)] (KP1019) prior to analysis with ICP-MS, and the results were found to be tremendously influenced by adsorption to the culture dishes. Adsorption to culture plates increases linearly with the concentration of KP1019, depends on the protein content of the medium, the duration of contact to protein-containing medium prior to drug addition and the hydrophilicity/lipophilicity of the compound. For varying degrees of cell confluence, adsorption of Ru hardly differs from cell-free experiments. Desorption from the plates contributes to total Ru detected in dependence on the cell harvesting method. Desorption kinetics for lysis in HNO3 and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) are comparable, but TMAH is a more potent desorbant. Sample storage conditions prior to analysis influence significantly the recovery of analyte. Protocols using cell lysis in the culture plate without proper corrections run the risk of producing artefacts resulting from metal adsorption/desorption to an extent comparable with the actual cellular content. However, experimental protocols reported in the literature frequently do not contain information whether adsorption or blank correction were performed and should be regarded with caution, especially if lysis was performed directly in the culture dishes.
Egger, Alexander E.; Rappel, Christina; Jakupec, Michael A.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Heffeter, Petra; Keppler, Bernhard K.
Background Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a common painful medical condition with a significant socioeconomic impact. In spite of widespread usage, the effectiveness and safety of combined treatments between conventional and complementary alternative medical treatment modalities has not been fully established in a rigorous randomized clinical trial (RCT). This pilot study will provide the clinical evidence to evaluate the feasibility and refine the protocol for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with CNP. Methods/Design This is a randomized, single-blind clinical trial with three parallel arms. Sixty patients between 18 and 65 years of age with non-specific, uncomplicated neck pain lasting for at least three months will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly allocated into the BVA, NSAIDs or combined treatment group. Assessors and statisticians will be blinded to the random allocation. All researchers will receive training to ensure their strict adherence to the study protocol. Patients from the BVA and combined treatment group will be treated with a bee venom increment protocol into predefined acupoints for six sessions over a three week period. BVA intervention is developed through a comprehensive discussion among interdisciplinary spine disorder experts, according to the guidelines of Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA). Patients from the NSAIDs and combined treatment groups will be prescribed loxoprofen (one tablet to be taken orally, three times a day for three weeks). Bothersomeness from CNP measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) will be the primary outcome assessed at screening, visit two (baseline), four, six, eight (4th week assessment) and nine (8th week assessment) follow-up session. VAS for pain intensity, neck disability index (NDI), quality of life, depressive status and adverse experiences will also be analyzed. Discussion Our study results will contribute to feasibility evaluation and to relevant RCT protocol development for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of BVA and NSAIDs for CNP patients. Trial registration This study is registered with the United States (US) National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry: NCT01922466.
Background Few cancers pose greater challenges than head and neck (H&N) cancer. Residual effects following treatment include body image changes, pain, fatigue and difficulties with appetite, swallowing and speech. Depression is a common comorbidity. There is limited evidence about ways to assist patients to achieve optimal adjustment after completion of treatment. In this study, we aim to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of a model of survivorship care to improve the quality of life of patients who have completed treatment for H&N cancer. Methods/Design This is a preliminary study in which 120 patients will be recruited. A prospective randomised controlled trial of the H&N Cancer Survivor Self-management Care Plan (HNCP) involving pre- and post-intervention assessments will be used. Consecutive patients who have completed a defined treatment protocol for H&N cancer will be recruited from two large cancer services and randomly allocated to one of three study arms: (1) usual care, (2) information in the form of a written resource or (3) the HNCP delivered by an oncology nurse who has participated in manual-based training and skill development in patient self-management support. The trained nurses will meet patients in a face-to-face interview lasting up to 60 minutes to develop an individualised HNCP, based on principles of chronic disease self-management. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure is quality of life. The secondary outcome measures include mood, self-efficacy and health-care utilisation. The feasibility of implementing this intervention in routine clinical care will be assessed through semistructured interviews with participating nurses, managers and administrators. Interviews with patients who received the HNCP will explore their perceptions of the HNCP, including factors that assisted them in achieving behavioural change. Discussion In this study, we aim to improve the quality of life of a patient population with unique needs by means of a tailored self-management care plan developed upon completion of treatment. Delivery of the intervention by trained oncology nurses is likely to be acceptable to patients and, if successful, will be a model of care that can be implemented for diverse patient populations. Trial registration ACTRN12613000542796 (registered on 15 May 2013)
It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.
Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.
Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral filtering or post-selection. After splitting the twin-photons immediately after they emerge from the chip, we perform a variety of correlation tests on the photon pairs and show non-classical behaviour in their polarization. Combined with the BRW's versatile architecture our results signify the BRW design as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices.
Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng; Abolghasem, Payam; Scarcella, Carmelo; Frera, Adriano Della; Tosi, Alberto; Helt, Lukas G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Sipe, J. E.; Weihs, Gregor; Helmy, Amr S.; Jennewein, Thomas
We discuss the possibility of building a matter wave interferometer using thermal (i.e. non condensed) cold atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip for quantum sensing of acceleration and gravity fields with reduced mean-field effects. To maintain a satisfactory level of coherence, a high degree of symmetry is required between the two arms of such an interferometer. We discuss this point quantitatively, and describe the experimental protocol we are developing for this purpose, based on internal state labeling and on the use of two parallel coplanar waveguides deposited on top of the atom chip to selectively address the potential of each internal state through microwave dressing. We also report our recent experimental work demonstrating the possibility of achieving a magneto-optical trap with some of the beams passing through the chip.
Schwartz, S.; Ammar, M.; Dupont-Nivet, M.; Huet, L.; Pocholle, J.-P.; Guerlin, C.; Reichel, J.; Rosenbusch, P.; Bouchoule, I.; Westbrook, C.
Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral filtering or post-selection. After splitting the twin-photons immediately after they emerge from the chip, we perform a variety of correlation tests on the photon pairs and show non-classical behaviour in their polarization. Combined with the BRW's versatile architecture our results signify the BRW design as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices.
Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng; Abolghasem, Payam; Scarcella, Carmelo; Frera, Adriano Della; Tosi, Alberto; Helt, Lukas G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Sipe, J. E.; Weihs, Gregor; Helmy, Amr S.; Jennewein, Thomas
We present a high-throughput continuous cell separation chip using hydrodynamic dielectrophoresis (DEP) process. The continuous cell separation chip uses three planar electrodes in a separation channel, where the positive DEP cells are moved away from the central streamline while the negative DEP cells remain in the central streamline. In the experimental study, we use the mixture of viable (live) and
Il Doh; Young-Ho Cho
We present a high-throughput continuous cell separation chip using hydrodynamic dielectrophoresis (DEP) process. The continuous cell separation chip uses three planar electrodes in a separation channel, where the positive DEP cells are moved away from the central streamline while the negative DEP cells remain in the central streamline. In the experimental study, we use the mixture of viable (live) and
Il Doh; Young-Ho Cho
Taking the next step from individual functional components to higher integrated devices, we present a feasibility study of a lab-on-a-chip system with flve difierent components monolith- ically integrated on one substrate. These flve components represent three main domains of microchip technology: optics, ?uidics and electronics. In particular, this device includes an on- chip optically pumped liquid dye laser, waveguides and
S. Balslev; A. M. Jorgensen; B. Bilenberg; K. B. Mogensen; D. Snakenborg; O. Geschke; J. P. Kutter; A. Kristensen
An underfill encapsulant can be used to improve the long-term reliability of flip chip interconnecting system by filling the gap between the chip and substrate around the solder bumps. The underfill encapsulant was filled by a capillary flow. This study was devoted to investigate the anisotropic effects of the capillary action induced by the solder bumps. A modified Hele–Shaw flow
Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-k?? CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb alloy. Anodic polarization behavior of the electrode materials was investigated using a microelectrochemical setup.
Daniel Minzari; Morten S. Jellesen; Per Moller; Pia Wahlberg; Rajan Ambat
During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.
Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie
Labs on chips are manufactured in many shapes and sizes and can be used for numerous applications, from medical tests to water quality monitoring to detecting the signatures of life on other planets. The eight holes on this chip are actually ports that can be filled with fluids or chemicals. Tiny valves control the chemical processes by mixing fluids that move in the tiny channels that look like lines, connecting the ports. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama designed this chip to grow biological crystals on the International Space Station (ISS). Through this research, they discovered that this technology is ideally suited for solving the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. For example, thousands of chips the size of dimes could be loaded on a Martian rover looking for biosignatures of past or present life. Other types of chips could be placed in handheld devices used to monitor microbes in water or to quickly conduct medical tests on astronauts. The portable, handheld Lab-on-a Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) made its debut flight aboard Discovery during the STS-116 mission launched December 9, 2006. The system allowed crew members to monitor their environment for problematic contaminants such as yeast, mold, and even E.coli, and salmonella. Once LOCAD-PTS reached the ISS, the Marshall team continued to manage the experiment, monitoring the study from a console in the Payload Operations Center at MSFC. The results of these studies will help NASA researchers refine the technology for future Moon and Mars missions. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)
Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and micro electromechanical systems achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lensfree holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lensfree optical tomography.
Gorocs, Zoltan; Ozcan, Aydogan
Background Despite major advances in transplant medicine, improvements in long-term kidney allograft survival have not been commensurate with those observed shortly after transplantation. The formation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and ongoing antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) processes may critically contribute to late graft loss. However, appropriate treatment for late AMR has not yet been defined. There is accumulating evidence that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib may substantially affect the function and integrity of alloantibody-secreting plasma cells. The impact of this agent on the course of late AMR has not so far been systematically investigated. Methods/design The BORTEJECT Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to clarify the impact of intravenous bortezomib on the course of late AMR. In this single-center study (nephrological outpatient service, Medical University Vienna) we plan an initial cross-sectional DSA screening of 1,000 kidney transplant recipients (functioning graft at ?180 days; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >20 ml/minute/1.73 m2). DSA-positive recipients will be subjected to kidney allograft biopsy to detect morphological features consistent with AMR. Forty-four patients with biopsy-proven AMR will then be included in a double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial (1:1 randomization stratified for eGFR and the presence of T-cell-mediated rejection). Patients in the active group will receive two cycles of bortezomib (4?×?1.3 mg/m2 over 2 weeks; 3-month interval between cycles). The primary end point will be the course of eGFR over 24 months (intention-to-treat analysis). The sample size was calculated according to the assumption of a 5 ml/minute/1.73 m2 difference in eGFR slope (per year) between the two groups (alpha: 0.05; power: 0.8). Secondary endpoints will be DSA levels, protein excretion, measured glomerular filtration rate, transplant and patient survival, and the development of acute and chronic morphological lesions in 24-month protocol biopsies. Discussion The impact of anti-humoral treatment on the course of late AMR has not yet been systematically investigated. Based on the hypothesis that proteasome inhibition improves the outcome of DSA-positive late AMR, we suggest that our trial has the potential to provide solid evidence towards the treatment of this type of rejection. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01873157.
Background: Abnormal weight gain during pregnancy increases the adverse health outcomes during the pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period. Most of the pregnant women develop weight gain more than the recommended limits; therefore, interventions to manage such disproportionate weight gain are needed. In this paper, the design of the maternal centered life-style intervention study is described, which focuses on controlling weight gaining during pregnancy for all body mass index (BMI) groups. Materials and Methods: In our randomized field trial, 160 pregnant women with 6-10 weeks of gestational age who visit one of the participating Isfahan four urban public-health centers and 4 private obstetric offices are included. The maternal centered life-style intervention carried out by trained midwives is standardized in a protocol. All the participants are visited at 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-34, 35-37, 38, 39, and 40 weeks of pregnancy. The women who are randomized in the intervention group receive maternal centered educational package of prenatal care for the pregnant woman and a log book in the first visit. Counselors accompany the pregnant women to maintain or develop a healthy life-style. Data collection will perform monthly measuring body weight, BMI. Conclusion: Because, we don’t have structured protocol for weight management during pregnancy especially, in private sectors if the maternal centered life-style intervention proves to be effective, it will be suggested to merge this package to routine care. Therewith by empowering women to manage their weight the public-health burden can be reduced. Beside that private obstetricians also have structured protocol for their client management.
Farajzadegan, Ziba; Pozveh, Zahra Amini
Chips sind die wohl komplexesten Strukturen, die vom Menschen entworfen und gefertigt wurden. Auf einem kleinen Silizium-Chip von der Größe eines Fingernagels werden heute Milliarden von Transistoren untergebracht, die mit vielen Millionen Verbindungen untereinander verknüpft sind, wobei die Gesamtlänge dieser Netze mehrere Kilometer betragen kann. Abb. 1 zeigt einen kleinen Ausschnitt (˜ 1 Milliardstel) eines Chips mit zweilagiger Verdrahtung im Raster-Tunnel-Mikroskop.
Koehl, Jürgen; Korte, Bernhard; Vygen, Jens
Moore?s Law has reached the point at which we can build single-chips with multiple processors and significant amounts of memory. Multiprocessor systems-on-chips (MPSoCs) have opened up new application areas, such as low-power and real-time embedded systems. This talk will review the architectures of multiprocessor systems-on-chips and the design methodologies used to create them. MPSoCs make use of advanced processors, memory
Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.
Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet
Introduction A single dose or short course of primaquine given to people infected with malaria may reduce transmission of Plasmodium falciparum through its effects on gametocytes. Primaquine is also known to cause haemolysis in people with variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the risk of adverse effects in people with G6PD deficiency given primaquine or other 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) as a single dose or short course (less than 7?days). Methods and analysis We will search the following databases: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS. Prospective cohort studies, randomised and quasi-randomised trials that evaluated 8AQs for whatever reason in adults or children with a known G6PD deficiency will be included. Two authors will independently assess each study for eligibility, risk of bias and extract data. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Brief reports of the review findings will be disseminated directly to the appropriate audiences and the WHO Technical Expert Group in Malaria Chemotherapy. As no primary data collection will be undertaken, no additional formal ethical assessment and informed consent are required. Protocol registration in PROSPERO The protocol is registered with PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013006518.
Uthman, Olalekan A; Saunders, Rachel; Sinclair, David; Graves, Patricia; Gelband, Hellen; Clarke, Aileen; Garner, Paul
The emergence of new applications requiring high data traffic necessitates the development of high speed local area networks. Optical fiber is selected as the transmission medium due to its inherent advantages over other possible media and the dual optical bus architecture is shown to be the most suitable topology. Asynchronous access protocols, including token, random, hybrid random/token, and virtual token schemes, are developed and analyzed. Exact expressions for insertion delay and utilization at light and heavy load are derived, and intermediate load behavior is investigated by simulation. A new tokenless adaptive scheme whose control depends only on the detection of activity on the channel is shown to outperform round-robin schemes under uneven loads and multipacket traffic and to perform optimally at light load. An approximate solution to the queueing delay for an oscillating polling scheme under chaining is obtained and results are compared with simulation. Solutions to the problem of building systems with a large number of stations are presented, including maximization of the number of optical couplers, and the use of passive star/bus topologies, bridges and gateways.
Yeh, C.; Gerla, M.; Rodrigues, P.
Background Wound infection affects a considerable portion of patients after abdominal operations, increasing health care costs and postoperative morbidity and affecting quality of life. Antibacterial coating has been suggested as an effective measure to decrease postoperative wound infections after laparotomies. The INLINE metaanalysis has recently shown the superiority of a slowly absorbable continuous suture for abdominal closure; with PDS plus® such a suture has now been made available with triclosan antibacterial coating. Methods/Design The PROUD trial is designed as a randomised, controlled, observer, surgeon and patient blinded multicenter superiority trial with two parallel groups and a primary endpoint of wound infection during 30 days after surgery. The intervention group will receive triclosan coated polydioxanone sutures, whereas the control group will receive the standard polydioxanone sutures; abdominal closure will otherwise be standardized in both groups. Statistical analysis is based on intention-to-treat population via binary logistic regression analysis, the total sample size of n = 750 is sufficient to ensure alpha = 5% and power = 80%, an interim analysis will be carried out after data of 375 patients are available. Discussion The PROUD trial will yield robust data to determine the effectiveness of antibacterial coating in one of the standard sutures for abdominal closure and potentially lead to amendment of current guidelines. The exploration of clinically objective parameters as well as quality of life holds immediate relevance for clinical management and the pragmatic trial design ensures high external validity. Trial Registration The trial protocol has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000390).
We report the design and fabrication of a chaotic mixer based on the electrorheological (ER) fluid-controlled valves. The flow in the main channel is perturbed by liquid flow in orthogonal side channels, driven by hydrodynamic pulsating pumps. Each pulsating pump consists of a chamber with diaphragm plus two out-of-phase ER valves operating in a push-pull mode. All the valves, pumps, and mixing channels are integrated in one polydimethylsioxane chip. Mixing characteristics in the main channel are controlled by the strength and frequency of external electric fields applied on the ER fluid.
Niu, Xize; Liu, Liyu; Wen, Weijia; Sheng, Ping
Microchannel cooling is applied to flip-chip bonded integrated circuits, in a manner which maintains the advantages of flip-chip bonds, while overcoming the difficulties encountered in cooling the chips. The technique is suited to either multi chip integrated circuit boards in a plane, or to stacks of circuit boards in a three dimensional interconnect structure. Integrated circuit chips are mounted on
This paper presents a system-on-chip passive RFID tag with an embedded temperature sensor for the EPC Gen-2 protocol in the 900-MHz UHF frequency band. A dual-path clock generator is proposed to support both applications with either very accurate link frequency or very low power consumption. On-chip temperature sensing is accomplished with a time-readout scheme to reduce the power consumption. Moreover,
Jun Yin; Jun Yi; M. K. Law; Yunxiao Ling; Man Chiu Lee; Kwok Ping Ng; Bo Gao; H. C. Luong; A. Bermak; Mansun Chan; Wing-Hung Ki; Chi-Ying Tsui; M. Yuen
The extent of pixel-parallel focal plane image processing is limited by pixel area and imager fill factor. In this paper, we describe a novel multi-chip neuromorphic VLSI visual motion processing system which combines analog circuitry with an asynchronous digital interchip communications protocol to allow more complex pixel-parallel motion processing than is possible in the focal plane. This multi-chip system retains
Charles M. Higgins; Christof Koch
Background Stroke is a major cause of death and leading cause of disability in the United States. To maximize a stroke patient's chances of receiving thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke, it is important to improve prehospital recognition of stroke. However, it is known from published reports that emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) using Card 28 of the Medical Priority Dispatch System protocols recognize stroke poorly. Therefore, to improve EMD's recognition of stroke, the National Association of Emergency Medical Dispatchers recently designed a new diagnostic stroke tool (Cincinnati Stroke Scale -CSS) to be used with Card 28. The objective of this study is to determine whether the addition of CSS improves diagnostic accuracy of stroke triage. Methods/Design This prospective experimental study will be conducted during a one-year period in the 911 call center of Santa Clara County, CA. We will include callers aged ? 18 years with a chief complaint suggestive of stroke and second party callers (by-stander or family who are in close proximity to the patient and can administer the tool) ? 18 years of age. Life threatening calls will be excluded from the study. Card 28 questions will be administered to subjects who meet study criteria. After completion of Card 28, CSS tool will be administered to all calls. EMDs will record their initial assessment of a cerebro-vascular accident (stroke) after completion of Card 28 and their final assessment after completion of CSS. These assessments will be compared with the hospital discharge diagnosis (ICD-9 codes) recorded in the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) database after linking the EMD database and OSHPD database using probabilistic linkage. The primary analysis will compare the sensitivity of the two stroke protocols using logistic regression and generalizing estimating equations to account for clustering by EMDs. To detect a 15% difference in sensitivity between the two groups with 80% power, we will enroll a total of 370 subjects in this trial. Discussion A three week pilot study was performed which demonstrated the feasibility of implementation of the study protocol.
This booklet describes the interstellar medium and the local bubble that is being studied by NASA-s CHIPS satellite. It contains review questions and problems for students, plus two activities to help to understand some of the concepts discussed. The material is appropriate for 9th grade through undergraduate levels. The booklet may be downloaded in PDF format.
The purpose of this study is to provide planning methods for leisure activity program to prevent the elderly’s deviance, using the program components and protocol factors. This section discusses the results obtained through document analysis and Delphi technique. First, the components of leisure activity program were classified into five stages such as definition, condition analysis, program composition, application and evaluation. Second, the protocol factors in each stage of leisure activity program for the elderly’s deviant prevention were 19 main themes and 75 sub-themes respectively. In the stage of condition analysis, five main themes such as deviant prediction, individual, socio-demographic, social and cultural factors and 25 sub-themes were found. Program composition included three main themes, facilities, instructor and program and 16 sub-themes and in the application stage, there were three key themes, facilities, instructor and program and 14 sub-themes. Lastly, the evaluation found four main themes such as deviant prevention, participation in leisure activities, management and wellbeing and 16 sub-themes.
Ahn, Chan-Woo; Yi, Eun-Surk; Park, Dong-Kyun; Lee, Hi-Wan; Lee, Kwang-Uk; Min, Byeong-Seok; Cho, Gun-Sang; Chang, Ik-Young
The purpose of this study is to provide planning methods for leisure activity program to prevent the elderly's deviance, using the program components and protocol factors. This section discusses the results obtained through document analysis and Delphi technique. First, the components of leisure activity program were classified into five stages such as definition, condition analysis, program composition, application and evaluation. Second, the protocol factors in each stage of leisure activity program for the elderly's deviant prevention were 19 main themes and 75 sub-themes respectively. In the stage of condition analysis, five main themes such as deviant prediction, individual, socio-demographic, social and cultural factors and 25 sub-themes were found. Program composition included three main themes, facilities, instructor and program and 16 sub-themes and in the application stage, there were three key themes, facilities, instructor and program and 14 sub-themes. Lastly, the evaluation found four main themes such as deviant prevention, participation in leisure activities, management and wellbeing and 16 sub-themes. PMID:24877046
Ahn, Chan-Woo; Yi, Eun-Surk; Park, Dong-Kyun; Lee, Hi-Wan; Lee, Kwang-Uk; Min, Byeong-Seok; Cho, Gun-Sang; Chang, Ik-Young
The present in vivo study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of apical negative pressure irrigation (ANP), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and positive pressure irrigation (PP) in the reduction of intracanal bacteria of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. Eighty root canals were randomly distributed into 3 experimental and 2 control groups according to the irrigation delivery system: group ANP (n=20), group PUI (n=20), group PP (n=20), group PC (positive control - sterile saline irrigation; n=10) and group NC (negative control - vital pulps not subjected to bacterial inoculation; n=10). The first sample (S1) was collected at baseline, and the second sample (S2) was collected after the disinfection protocols. All samples were seeded in culture media for anaerobic bacteria. CFU counts were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis, Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner post-hoc and Chi-square followed by Tukey like multiple comparisons for proportions (?=0.05). All experimental groups were effective in reducing Gram-positive bacteria compared with PC (p<0.05). Regarding the reduction of Gram-negative bacteria, group ANP was significantly better than PP (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference could be found between PP and PUI (p>0.05). In dog's teeth with apical periodontitis, the use of ANP and PUI can be considered promising disinfection protocols as both delivery systems promoted a significant bacterial reduction. PMID:24474286
Cohenca, Nestor; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Heilborn, Carlos; Watanabe, Evandro; Saraiva, Maria Conceição Pereira
Study of Optimal Replacement of Thyroxine in the ElDerly (SORTED): protocol for a mixed methods feasibility study to assess the clinical utility of lower dose thyroxine in elderly hypothyroid patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Background The population of the UK is ageing. There is compelling evidence that thyroid stimulating hormone distribution levels increase with age. Currently, in UK clinical practice elderly hypothyroid patients are treated with levothyroxine to lower their thyroid stimulating hormone levels to a standard non-age-related range. Evidence suggests that mortality is negatively associated with thyroid stimulating hormone levels. We report the protocol of a feasibility study working towards a full-scale randomized controlled trial to test whether lower dose levothyroxine has beneficial cardiovascular outcomes in the oldest old. Methods/design SORTED is a mixed methods study with three components: SORTED A: A feasibility study of a dual-center single-blinded randomized controlled trial of elderly hypothyroid patients currently treated with levothyroxine. Setting: Patients will be recruited from 20 general practices and two hospital trust endocrine units in Northumberland, Tyne and Wear. Participants: Target recruitment of 50 elderly hypothyroid patients currently treated with levothyroxine, identified in both primary and secondary care settings. Intervention: Reduced dose of levothyroxine to achieve an elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (target range 4.1 to 8.0 mU/L) versus standard levothyroxine replacement (target range 0.4 to 4.0 mU/L). Randomization: Using random permuted blocks, in a ratio of 1:1, randomization will be carried out by Newcastle Clinical Trials Unit. Outcomes: Study feasibility (recruitment and retention rates and medication compliance), acceptability of the trial design, assessment of mobility and falls risk, and change in cardiovascular risk factors. SORTED B: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews to understand patients’ willingness to take part in a randomized controlled trial and participants’ experience of the intervention. SORTED C: Retrospective cohort study of 400 treated hypothyroid patients aged 80 years or over registered in 2008 in primary care practices, studying their 4-year cardiovascular outcomes to inform the power of SORTED II. Discussion This is a study to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial in elderly hypothyroid patients in general practice and hospital settings. The results will inform the design of the definitive SORTED II trial to evaluate the effects of lower dose thyroxine in elderly hypothyroid patients. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials http://ISRCTN16043724
Various single-cell retention structures (SCRSs) were reported for analysis of single cells within microfluidic devices. Undesirable flow behaviors within micro-environments not only influence single-cell manipulation and retention significantly but also lead to cell damage, biochemical heterogeneity among different individual cells (e.g., different cell signaling pathways induced by shear stress). However, the fundamentals in flow behaviors for single-cell manipulation and shear stress reduction, especially comparison of these behaviors in different microstructures, were not fully investigated in previous reports. Herein, flow distribution and induced shear stress in two different single-cell retention structures (SCRS I and SCRS II) were investigated in detail to study their effects on single-cell trapping using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The results were successfully verified by experimental results. Comparison between these two SCRS shows that the wasp-waisted configuration of SCRS II has a better performance in trapping and manipulating long cylinder-shaped cardiac myocytes and provides a safer "harbor" for fragile cells to prevent cell damage due to the shear stress induced from strong flows. The simulation results have not only explained flow phenomena observed in experiments but also predict new flow phenomena, providing guidelines for new chip design and optimization, and a better understanding of the cell micro-environment and fundamentals of microfluidic flows in single-cell manipulation and analysis. PMID:24753729
Shen, Feng; Li, Xiujun; Li, Paul C H
Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is a proposed standard that builds on the current Internet Protocol by making the fact that a user is mobile transparent to applications and higher level protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram...
L. J. Brachfeld
Lab-on-a-chip can provide convenient and accurate diagnosis tools. In this paper, a plastic-based microfluidic immunosensor chip for the diagnosis of swine flu (H1N1) was developed by immobilizing hemagglutinin antigen on a gold surface using a genetically engineered polypeptide. A fluorescent dye-labeled antibody (Ab) was used for quantifying the concentration of Ab in the immunosensor chip using a fluorescent technique. For increasing the detection efficiency and reducing the errors, three chambers and three microchannels were designed in one microfluidic chip. This protocol could be applied to the diagnosis of other infectious diseases in a microfluidic device.
Lee, Kyoung G.; Lee, Tae Jae; Jeong, Soon Woo; Choi, Ho Woon; Heo, Nam Su; Park, Jung Youn; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Seok Jae
Background Genetic counseling for hereditary breast or colon cancer has implications for both counselees and their relatives. Although counselees are encouraged by genetic counselors to disclose genetic cancer risk information, they do not always share this information with their at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be generally categorized as a lack of knowledge, motivation and/or self-efficacy. Presented here is the protocol of a randomized controlled trial that aims to establish the effectiveness of an intervention focused on supporting counselees in their disclosure of genetic cancer information to their relatives. Methods/Design A multicenter randomized controlled trial with parallel group design will be used to compare the effects of an additional telephone counseling session performed by psychosocial workers to enhance the disclosure of genetic cancer information to at-risk relatives (intervention group) with a control group of standard care. Consecutive index patients with relatives at risk for hereditary or familial breast and/or ovarian cancer or colon cancer, are randomly assigned (block size: 8; 1:1 allocation ratio) to the intervention (n?=?132) or control group (n?=?132, standard care). Primary outcomes are counselees’ knowledge, motivation and self-efficacy regarding informing their relatives. Discussion This intervention may prove important in supporting counselees to disclose hereditary and/or familial cancer risk information to at-risk relatives and may enable more at-risk relatives to make a well-informed decision regarding genetic services and/or screening. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR) with trial ID number NTR3745.
Background Cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis has been a prominent intervention in the psychological treatment of psychosis. It is, however, a challenging therapy to deliver and, in the context of increasingly rigorous trials, recent reviews have tempered initial enthusiasm about its effectiveness in improving clinical outcomes. Acceptance and commitment therapy shows promise as a briefer, more easily implemented therapy but has not yet been rigorously evaluated in the context of psychosis. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate whether Acceptance and Commitment Therapy could reduce the distress and disability associated with psychotic symptoms in a sample of community-residing patients with chronic medication-resistant symptoms. Methods/Design This is a single (rater)-blind multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy with an active comparison condition, Befriending. Eligible participants have current residual hallucinations or delusions with associated distress or disability which have been present continuously over the past six months despite therapeutic doses of antipsychotic medication. Following baseline assessment, participants are randomly allocated to treatment condition with blinded, post-treatment assessments conducted at the end of treatment and at 6 months follow-up. The primary outcome is overall mental state as measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Secondary outcomes include preoccupation, conviction, distress and disruption to life associated with symptoms as measured by the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales, as well as social functioning and service utilisation. The main analyses will be by intention-to-treat using mixed-model repeated measures with non-parametric methods employed if required. The model of change underpinning ACT will be tested using mediation analyses. Discussion This protocol describes the first randomised controlled trial of Acceptance and commitment therapy in chronic medication-resistant psychosis with an active comparison condition. The rigor of the design will provide an important test of its action and efficacy in this population. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12608000210370. Date registered: 18 April 2008
Background Hand eczema has a one-year prevalence of approximately 10 % in the general Danish population. Often the disease becomes chronic with numerous implications for the individual’s daily life, occupation and quality of life. However, no guidelines of self-management recommendations beyond the acute stage are given. Self-management of the disease is pivotal and involves self-monitoring of the condition, medication adherence, and preventive behaviour. Interventions best to support the individual in this ongoing process need to be developed. Methods/design This paper describes the design of a randomised clinical trial to test a newly developed intervention of individual counselling versus conventional information. 300 patients consecutively referred to dermatologic treatment at two different settings are individually randomised to either the intervention programme, named ‘The Healthy Skin Clinic’ or to the control group. Block-wise randomisation according to setting and gender is carried out. The intervention offers a tool for self-monitoring; basic and specific individual counselling; the possibility of asynchronous communication with the intervention team; and an electronic patient dialogue forum. Primary outcome variable is objective assessment of the hand eczema severity performed at baseline prior to randomisation, and repeated at six months follow-up. Secondary outcome variables are dermatology related life quality and perceived global burden of disease. Discussion The trial aims at evaluating a newly developed guidance programme which is expected to support self-management of patients referred to dermatology treatment due to chronic hand eczema. The design of the protocol is pragmatic with blinding of neither participants nor the investigator. Thus, in the interpretation of the results, the investigator takes into account effects that may be attributed to actors of the interventions rather than the intervention per se as well of potential observer bias. Inclusion criterions are wide in order to increase transferability of the results. Trial registration The trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.Gov with registration number NCT01482663.
Background Whether acupuncture is effective for relieving perimenopausal syndrome has been controversial recently. In this article, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial using acupuncture to treat perimenopausal syndrome, aiming to answer this controversy. Design A multicenter randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms is underway in China. Two hundred and six women with perimenopausal syndrome will be randomly assigned to a treatment group using acupuncture plus auricular acupressure (AA group) and a control group using Climen® (Bayer Healthcare Company Limited, Guangzhou, China), a 28-day sequential hormone replacement therapy, in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the AA group will receive three acupuncture sessions per week in the first 4 weeks and two sessions per week in the following 8 weeks, for a total of 28 sessions over 12 weeks. Auricular points will be plastered by Semen Vaccariae twice per week for a consecutive 12 weeks, with both ears used alternately. The Climen® control group is prescribed a tablet containing estradiol valerate 2 mg/day for the first 11 days, and a tablet containing estradiol valerate 2 mg/day plus cyroterone acetate 1 mg/day for the following 10 days. The total treatment period of the control group is three cycles. The post-treatment follow-up period will last 24 weeks. The primary outcome is the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) assessed at baseline and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 36 weeks after randomization. The secondary outcomes are Menopause-Specific Quality of Life, average hot flash score during 24 hours, serum estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone level. The first two secondary outcomes are measured at the same point as the MRS. Other secondary outcomes are measured at baseline and 12, 24 weeks after randomization. Discussion The results of this trial, which will be available in 2015, will clarify whether acupuncture is effective to relieve perimenopausal syndrome. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01933204 (registered 9 August 2013)
Background Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation. Design A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9?weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1) Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group); (2) He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group); (3) Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group). The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The first two of second outcomes are measured 1?week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8?weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1?week before randomization and 2 and 4?weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4?weeks after randomization. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012) will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it. Trials registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501
Embedded active technology, in which thinned active chips are directly buried into a core or high-density-interconnect layers, is gaining more interest for ultra-miniaturization, increased functionality and better performance of SOP (system-on-package). In this study, chip-last embedded active concept is proposed to address some of process and reliability issues that current chip-first and chip-middle embedded active approaches have. The detailed process
Baik-Woo Lee; V. Sundaram; B. Wiedenman; C. K. Yoon; V. Kripesh; M. Iyer; R. R. Tummala
BACKGROUND: High density oligonucleotide tiling arrays are an effective and powerful platform for conducting unbiased genome-wide studies. The ab initio probe selection method employed in tiling arrays is unbiased, and thus ensures consistent sampling across coding and non-coding regions of the genome. Tiling arrays are increasingly used in chromatin immunoprecipitation (IP) experiments (ChIP on chip). ChIP on chip facilitates the
Srinka Ghosh; Heather A. Hirsch; Edward A. Sekinger; Kevin Struhl; Thomas R. Gingeras
We report the implementation of an image sensor chip, termed wavefront image sensor chip (WIS), that can measure both intensity/amplitude and phase front variations of a light wave separately and quantitatively. By monitoring the tightly confined transmitted light spots through a circular aperture grid in a high Fresnel number regime, we can measure both intensity and phase front variations with a high sampling density (11 µm) and high sensitivity (the sensitivity of normalized phase gradient measurement is 0.1 mrad under the typical working condition). By using WIS in a standard microscope, we can collect both bright-field (transmitted light intensity) and normalized phase gradient images. Our experiments further demonstrate that the normalized phase gradient images of polystyrene microspheres, unstained and stained starfish embryos, and strongly birefringent potato starch granules are improved versions of their corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope images in that they are artifact-free and quantitative. Besides phase microscopy, WIS can benefit machine recognition, object ranging, and texture assessment for a variety of applications.
Cui, Xiquan; Ren, Jian; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Changhuei
Currently, enormous innovative developments are taking place in the area of micro-electronics. In particular, advances in the sector of chip card controller ICs make it appear possible to quickly implement theoretical applications which, only just a few months ago would have been considered utopian and would have ended up gathering dust in the developer's drawer. The present paper describes a technical possibility, so far not implementable in practice, for always having personal emergency data available. Only a year or two ago any idea of implanting electronic circuitry employing memory modules would have been immediately dropped again. At the present state of development in the area of microelectronics, however, structures measuring less than 5 microns in length have become a matter of routine, and a personal memory chip in biotolerable packaging and measuring no more than about (5 x 5 x 1) mm3 can now be implanted subcutaneously. At the present time, further application based on the use of the same technological facilities, such as, for example, the cyclic recording and storage of the heart rate, are under discussion. PMID:9063953
Bedrich, M R
Packed beds of fuel wood chips are commonly found in thermal conversion processes such as combustion or gasification. Wood chips in particular are mostly used as fuel for small-scale domestic heating boilers but also for commercial-scale combustion units. The characterization of spatial voidage distribution inside the wood chip beds is of great importance for flow and reactor modelling. This study
Stefan Hamel; Wolfgang Krumm
Ultrasonic-standing-wave (USW) technology has potential to become a standard method for gentle and contactless cell handling in microfluidic chips. We investigate the viability of adherent cells exposed to USWs by studying the proliferation rate of recultured cells following ultrasonic trapping and aggregation of low cell numbers in a microfluidic chip. The cells form 2-D aggregates inside the chip and the
J. Hultström; O. Manneberg; K. Dopf; H. M. Hertz; H. Brismar; M. Wiklund
An understanding of the complex processes that occur during frying is necessary to control the quality of tortilla chips. Quantitative information is needed to describe the rate of oil absorption into the chips during the process. In this study, tortilla chips were processed under different conditions: (1) baking time, (2) frying oil temperature, (3) particle size distribution, and (4) oil
Rosana G. Moreira; Xiuzhi Sun; Youhong Chen
This report describes the preliminary study on plastic microfluidic chips with pre-loaded reagents for detecting homocysteine (Hcy). All reagents needed in an Hcy immunoassay were included in a microfluidic chip to remove tedious assay steps. A simple and cost-effective bonding method was developed to realize reagent-loaded microfluidic chips. This technique uses an intermediate layer between two plastic substrates by selectively patterning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the embossed surface of microchannels and fixing the substrates under pressure. Using this bonding method, the competitive immunoassay for SAH, a converted form of Hcy, was performed without any damage to reagents in chips, and the results showed that the fluorescent signal from antibody antigen binding decreased as the SAH concentration increased. Based on the SAH immunoassay, whole immunoassay steps for Hcy detection were carried out in plastic microfluidic chips with all necessary reagents. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of the Hcy immunoassay in microfluidic devices.
Suk, Ji Won; Jang, Jae-Young; Cho, Jun-Hyeong
The decapsulation of flip chips bonded to ceramic substrates is a challenging task in the packaging industry owing to the vulnerability of the chip surface during the process. In conventional methods, such as manual grinding and polishing, the solder bumps are easily damaged during the removal of underfill, and the thin chip may even be crushed due to mechanical stress. An efficient and reliable decapsulation method consisting of thermal and chemical processes was developed in this study. The surface quality of chips after solder removal is satisfactory for the existing solder rework procedure as well as for die-level failure analysis. The innovative processes included heat-sink and ceramic substrate removal, solder bump separation, and solder residue cleaning from the chip surface. In the last stage, particular temperatures were selected for the removal of eutectic Pb-Sn, high-lead, and lead-free solders considering their respective melting points.
Shih, T. I.; Duh, J. G.
A serious drawback of veneering porcelains is a pronounced susceptibility to chipping. Glass-infiltrated dense zirconia structures can now be produced with esthetic quality, making them an attractive alternative. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that such infiltrated structures are much more chip-resistant than conventional porcelains, and at least as chip-resistant as non-infiltrated zirconia. A sharp indenter was used to produce chips in flat and anatomically correct glass-infiltrated zirconia crown materials, and critical loads were measured as a function of distance from the specimen edge (flat) or side wall (crown). Control data were obtained on zirconia specimens without infiltration and on crowns veneered with porcelains. The results confirmed that the resistance to chipping in graded zirconia is more than 4 times higher than that of porcelain-veneered zirconia and is at least as high as that of non-veneered zirconia.
Zhang, Y.; Chai, H.; Lee, J.J.-W.; Lawn, B.R.
This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. The final module of MATEC's contamination curriculum develops your learners' skills in specific cleanroom protocols: wafer handling and transfer, area wipedowns, and area or equipment isolation. The instruction stresses that contaminants travel via many channels- air, people, process equipment, manufacturing process, wiping materials, wafer handling, electrostatic discharge, and chemicals. MATEC aims to make each learner acutely aware that minimizing contamination in the cleanroom requires his or her personal commitment. The module also discusses the automated systems used in modern and upcoming 300-mm fabs.
Electroporation is a high-efficiency and low-toxicity physical gene transfer method. Traditional electroporation is limited to only low volume cell samples. Here we present a continuous cell electroporation method based on commonly used microfluidic chip fabrication technology. Using easily fabricated PDMS microfluidic chip, syringe pumps, and pulse generator, we show efficient delivery of both DNA and siRNA into different cell lines. We describe the protocol of chip fabrication, apparatus setup, and cell electroporation assay. Typically, the fabrication of the devices takes 1 or 2 days and the continuous electroporation assay takes 1 h. PMID:24510815
Wei, Zewen; Li, Zhihong
Background Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term prognosis is extremely important, especially in young stroke patients with a life expectancy of decades. To date, detailed information on risk factors and the long-term prognosis in young stroke patients, and more specific risk of mortality or recurrent vascular events, remains scarce. Methods/Design The FUTURE study is a prospective cohort study on risk factors and prognosis of young ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among 1006 patients, aged 18-50 years, included in our study database between 1-1-1980 and 1-11-2010. Follow-up visits at our research centre take place from the end of 2009 until the end of 2011. Control subjects will be recruited among the patients' spouses, relatives or social environment. Information on mortality and incident vascular events will be retrieved via structured questionnaires. In addition, participants are invited to the research centre to undergo an extensive sub study including MRI. Discussion The FUTURE study has the potential to make an important contribution to increase the knowledge on risk factors and long-term prognosis in young stroke patients. Our study differs from previous studies by having a maximal follow-up of more than 30 years, including not only TIA and ischemic stroke but also hemorrhagic stroke, the addition of healthy controls and prospectively collect data during an extensive follow-up visit. Completion of the FUTURE study may provide better information for treating physicians and patients with respect to the prognosis of young stroke.
Background Clinically useful treatment moderators of