These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Protocol: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) methodology to investigate histone modifications in two model diatom species.  

PubMed

In this report we describe a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol for two fully sequenced model diatom species Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. This protocol allows the extraction of satisfactory amounts of chromatin and gives reproducible results. We coupled the ChIP assay with real time quantitative PCR. Our results reveal that the two major histone marks H3K4me2 and H3K9me2 exist in P. tricornutum and T. pseudonana. As in other eukaryotes, H3K4me2 marks active genes whereas H3K9me2 marks transcriptionally inactive transposable elements. Unexpectedly however, T. pseudonana housekeeping genes also show a relative enrichment of H3K9me2. We also discuss optimization of the procedure, including growth conditions, cross linking and sonication. Validation of the protocol provides a set of genes and transposable elements that can be used as controls for studies using ChIP in each diatom species. This protocol can be easily adapted to other diatoms and eukaryotic phytoplankton species for genetic and biochemical studies. PMID:23217141

Lin, Xin; Tirichine, Leïla; Bowler, Chris

2012-01-01

2

Space-Based Autonomous Reconfigurable Protocol Chip Clayton Okino, Clement Lee, Andrew Gray, Payman Arabshahi  

E-print Network

provides long-life space communications infrastructure, enables dynamic operation within space networks1 Space-Based Autonomous Reconfigurable Protocol Chip Clayton Okino, Clement Lee, Andrew Gray.Arabshahi}@jpl.nasa.gov Abstract--In this paper, we present an architecture for a reconfigurable protocol chip for space

Arabshahi, Payman

3

METHODOLOGY Open Access Protocol: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)  

E-print Network

species Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. This protocol allows the extraction. Keywords: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Histone modifications, Chromatin environments. Completed whole genome sequences from three species, the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Giant Unilamelar Vesicles preparation protocol -Nanion Chips Lipid stock solution  

E-print Network

. The liposomes stock (3-4ml) was placed into a small recipient closed with a 1nm extrusion filter. The liposome temperature with continuous stirring for about 6-10h. Note: The protocol was not extensively used. It worked

Movileanu, Liviu

5

IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

2013-03-01

6

Kitkahahki Chipped Stone Technologies: A Comparative Study  

E-print Network

................................................................................................. 5 3. SITE BACKGROUNDS AND HISTORY OF INVESTIGATIONS ..................................................... 10 Pawnee Indian Village Site (14RP1) Background .....................................................................10 History... ...............................................................................................................25 5. CHIPPED STONE ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ....................................................................30 14RP1 Chipped Stone ................................................................................................................30...

Asher, Brendon Patrick

2009-06-11

7

Using microfluidics chips for live imaging and study of injury responses in Drosophila larvae.  

PubMed

Live imaging is an important technique for studying cell biological processes, however this can be challenging in live animals. The translucent cuticle of the Drosophila larva makes it an attractive model organism for live imaging studies. However, an important challenge for live imaging techniques is to noninvasively immobilize and position an animal on the microscope. This protocol presents a simple and easy to use method for immobilizing and imaging Drosophila larvae on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device, which we call the 'larva chip'. The larva chip is comprised of a snug-fitting PDMS microchamber that is attached to a thin glass coverslip, which, upon application of a vacuum via a syringe, immobilizes the animal and brings ventral structures such as the nerve cord, segmental nerves, and body wall muscles, within close proximity to the coverslip. This allows for high-resolution imaging, and importantly, avoids the use of anesthetics and chemicals, which facilitates the study of a broad range of physiological processes. Since larvae recover easily from the immobilization, they can be readily subjected to multiple imaging sessions. This allows for longitudinal studies over time courses ranging from hours to days. This protocol describes step-by-step how to prepare the chip and how to utilize the chip for live imaging of neuronal events in 3(rd) instar larvae. These events include the rapid transport of organelles in axons, calcium responses to injury, and time-lapse studies of the trafficking of photo-convertible proteins over long distances and time scales. Another application of the chip is to study regenerative and degenerative responses to axonal injury, so the second part of this protocol describes a new and simple procedure for injuring axons within peripheral nerves by a segmental nerve crush. PMID:24562098

Mishra, Bibhudatta; Ghannad-Rezaie, Mostafa; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Xin; Hao, Yan; Ye, Bing; Chronis, Nikos; Collins, Catherine A

2014-01-01

8

Improvement of Electrical Stimulation Protocol for Simultaneous Measurement of Extracellular Potential with On-Chip Multi-Electrode Array System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiotoxicity testing with a multi-electrode array (MEA) system requires the stable beating of cardiomyocytes for the measurement of the field potential duration (FPD), because different spontaneous beating rates cause different responses of FPD prolongation induced by drugs, and the beating rate change effected by drugs complicates the FPD prolongation assessment. We have developed an on-chip MEA system with electrical stimulation for the measurement of the FPD during the stable beating of human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. Using a conventional bipolar stimulation protocol, we observed such large artifacts in electrical stimulation that we could not estimate the FPD quantitatively. Therefore, we improved the stimulation protocol by using sequential rectangular pulses in which the positive and negative stimulation voltages and number of pulses could be changed flexibly. The balanced voltages and number of pulses for sequential rectangular pulses enabled the recording of small negative artifacts only, which hardly affected the FPD measurement of human-ES-cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. These conditions of electrical stimulation are expected to find applications for the control of constant beating for cardiotoxicity testing.

Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Fumimasa; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

2012-06-01

9

A study of MAC protocols for WBANs.  

PubMed

The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2010-01-01

10

A Study of MAC Protocols for WBANs  

PubMed Central

The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S.M. Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2010-01-01

11

Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and  

E-print Network

Appendix E: Study Protocol Protocol for Biosampling Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) plus a Comparison Population in Sierra Vista, Arizona The protocol Assessment of Case Children with Leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic and Acute Myelocytic Leukemias) and a Reference

12

Lab-on-a-chip technologies for single-molecule studies  

PubMed Central

Recent developments on various lab-on-a-chip techniques allow miniaturized and integrated devices to perform on-chip single-molecule studies. Fluidic-based platforms that utilize the unique microscale fluidic behavior are capable of conducting single-molecule experiments with high sensitivities and throughputs, while biomolecular systems can be studied on-chip using techniques such as DNA curtains, magnetic tweezers, and solid-state nanopores. The advances of these on-chip single-molecule techniques lead to next-generation lab-on-a-chip devices such as DNA transistors, and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology for rapid and low-cost whole genome DNA sequencing. In this Focus article, we will discuss some recent successes on developing lab-on-a-chip techniques for single-molecule studies and expound our thoughts on the near future of on-chip single-molecule studies. PMID:23670195

Zhao, Yanhui; Chen, Danqi; Yue, Hongjun; French, Jarrod B.; Rufo, Joey; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Huang, Tony Jun

2014-01-01

13

Avian study protocols and wind energy development  

SciTech Connect

This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

Fisher, K. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-12-01

14

Doctoral Thesis A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags  

E-print Network

Doctoral Thesis RFID A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags ( Dang, Nguyen Duc 2010 #12;RFID A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags #12;A Study on Cryptographic Protocols for RFID Tags Advisor : Professor Kim, Kwangjo by Dang, Nguyen Duc Department of Information

Kim, Kwangjo

15

Improving medical protocols through formalisation: a case study  

E-print Network

for the management of jaundice in healthy newborns, developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. During the Asbru terms (e.g. "jaundiced" and "clini- cally jaundiced") that appear throughout the jaundice protocol common anomaly in the studied protocols. An example is the use in the jaundice protocol of the abstract

van Harmelen, Frank

16

Radiation Tolerance Studies of BTeV Pixel Readout Chip Prototypes  

SciTech Connect

We report on several irradiation studies performed on BTeV preFPIX2 pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The preFPIX2 pixel readout chip has been implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose of 26 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been measured.

Gabriele Chiodini et al.

2001-09-11

17

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP)  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population Abstract Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

A Study of Thinking Process on Troubleshooting of Single-Chip Microcomputer System  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were three purpose of this study;(1) exploring successful factors of trouble shooting diagnoses in single-chip microprocessor; (2) analyzing the thinking processes of sampling group possessing successful achievement;(3) designing the diagnoses processes of trouble shooting in single- chip microprocessor circuits. 16 students of Electrical Engineering were sampled to participate the experiments in three types of diagnoses processes of trouble shooting

Guo-Feng HUANG; Chang YU-MIN

19

Chip, Chip, Hooray!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

Kelly, Susan

2001-01-01

20

CZE study on adsorption processes of aliphatic and aromatic amines on PMMA chip.  

PubMed

Adsorption processes on a PMMA chip linked with CZE separations of a group of 13 aliphatic and aromatic mono- and di-amines were studied. Due to the lack of chromophores within aliphatic amines, contact conductivity detection implemented directly onto the chip was used for monitoring of cationic CZE separations. To prevent an adsorption of studied amines to the chip channels, the surface of PMMA chip was modified by dynamic coating. Different surface modifiers, such as aliphatic oligoamines (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine), were added to the BGE solutions filling the chip channels. The effect of various concentrations of surface modifiers on peak profiles and separation parameters of amines was monitored. Of these, mainly, aliphatic di-amines and aromatic mono-amines adversely affected the CZE resolution of a whole group of analytes by their strong adsorption to the chip channels. A propionate BGE with pH 3.2 containing 100 ?M triethylenetetramine and 25 mM 18-crown-6-ether was found suitable for CZE resolution of 12 from a total of 13 amines studied. Simple dynamic modification of the surface of PMMA chip enabled fast (analysis time lasted 9 min), sensitive (sub-?M LODs reached) and reproducible (1-3% RSD of the peak areas) CZE analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic amines. PMID:23151975

Masár, Marián; Kruk, Pavol; Luc, Milan; Bodor, Róbert; Dan?, Ladislav; Troška, Peter

2013-02-01

21

EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY OF TRANSIENT ELECTRONIC CHIP COOLING BY  

E-print Network

needed for heat removal is particularly important in a wide range of electronic systems and vice versa. 1. INTRODUCTION The semiconductor industry has seen a rapid pace of growth in its products management for electronic chips [6]. Two-phase flow pat- terns and the influence of boiling flow on heat

22

A study of factors involved in quality of homestyle potato chips  

E-print Network

of fzesh and stored crop potatoes and chips derived f zom those lots were studied foz factors involved in the finished quality. Potatoes were measured for specific gravity, moisture, starch, and amylose content, starch granule size distribution, starch..., as cell size increased textuze also increased for stored potatoes. Also. increased starch density or middle size granule percentage had an inverse effect on chip texture. Moisture content between 1. 9 to 3. 26 did have a corzelation to texture. When...

Schoelles, Dale Brian

1987-01-01

23

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Open versus laparoscopically-assisted  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Open versus laparoscopically-assisted oesophagectomy for cancer%, respectively, for both the abdominal and thoracic approaches. The worldwide popularity of laparoscopic to the reduced postoperative trauma. We hypothesise that the laparoscopic abdominal approach (laparoscopic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

Microfluidic heart on a chip for higher throughput pharmacological studies  

PubMed Central

We present the design of a higher throughput “heart on a chip” which utilizes a semi-automated fabrication technique to process sub millimeter sized thin film cantilevers of soft elastomers. Anisotropic cardiac microtissues which recapitulate the laminar architecture of the heart ventricle are engineered on these cantilevers. Deflection of these cantilevers, termed Muscular Thin Films (MTFs), during muscle contraction allows calculation of diastolic and systolic stresses generated by the engineered tissues. We also present the design of a reusable one channel fluidic microdevice completely built out of autoclavable materials which incorporates various features required for an optical cardiac contractility assay: metallic base which fits on a heating element for temperature control, transparent top for recording cantilever deformation and embedded electrodes for electrical field stimulation of the tissue. We employ the microdevice to test the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol on cardiac contractility at dosages ranging from 1 nM to 100 ?M. The higher throughput fluidic heart on a chip has applications in testing of cardiac tissues built from rare or expensive cell sources and for integration with other organ mimics. These advances will help alleviate translational barriers for commercial adoption of these technologies by improving the throughput and reproducibility of readout, standardization of the platform and scalability of manufacture. PMID:23807141

Agarwal, Ashutosh; Goss, Josue Adrian; Cho, Alexander; McCain, Megan Laura; Parker, Kevin Kit

2013-01-01

25

A propagation and apical dominance study of bench chip budding in roses  

E-print Network

A PROPAGATION AND APICAL DOMINANCE STUDy OF BENCH CHIP BUDDING IN ROSES A Thesis oy YUI-SING FANN Submitted to th= Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 19SI Maj or Subject: Horticulture A PROPAGATION AND APICAL DOMINANCE STUDY OF BENCH CHIP BUDDING IN ROSES A Thesis by YUI-SING FANN Approved as to style and content by: ~tJ ( ai an of Committee) (Member) . y~ "ri (Head 6 Department...

Fann, Yui-Sing

1981-01-01

26

The Gastric Emptying Study: Protocol Design Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the intrapatient correlation for gastric emp- tying times with instant oatmeal and scrambled egg meals. In addition, this study evaluated the degree of overlap between the stomach and the colon or jejunum in the anterior (AP) and left anterior oblique (LAO) projections in CT studies of the abdomen. Methods: Fifteen patients were studied twice, 1 d apart,

William C. Klingensmith; Steven P. Lawrence

2008-01-01

27

Studies on spectroscopy of glycerol in THz range using microfluidic chip-integrated micropump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a detection method of biological molecules with label-free, non-ionizing, non-intrusive, no pollution and real-time monitoring. But owing to the strong THz absorption by water, it is mainly used in the solid state detection of biological molecules. In this paper, we present a microfluidic chip technique for detecting biological liquid samples using the transmission type of THz-TDS system. The microfluidic channel of the microfluidic chip is fabricated in the quartz glass using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology and sealed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) diaphragm. The length, width and depth of the microfluidic channel are 25mm, 100?m and 50?m, respectively. The diameter of THz detection zone in the microfluidic channel is 4mm. The thicknesses of quartz glass and PDMS diaphragm are 1mm and 250?m, individually. Another one of the same quartz glass is used to bond with the PDMS for the rigidity and air tightness of the microfluidic chip. In order to realize the automation of sampling and improve the control precise of fluid, a micropump, which comprises PDMS diaphragm, pump chamber, diffuser and nozzle and flat vibration motor, is integrated on the microfluidic chip. The diffuser and nozzle are fabricated on both sides of the pump chamber, which is covered with PDMS diaphragm. The flat vibration motor is stuck on the PDMS diaphragm as the actuator. We study the terahertz absorption spectroscopy characteristics of glycerol with the concentration of 98% in the microfluidic chip by the aid of the THz-TDS system, and the feasibility of the microfluidic chip for the detection of liquid samples is proved.

Su, Bo; Han, Xue; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Cunlin

2014-11-01

28

Study on Cloud Security Based on Trust Spanning Tree Protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attacks executed on Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) expose the weakness of link layer protocols and put the higher layers in jeopardy. Although the problems have been studied for many years and various solutions have been proposed, many security issues remain. To enhance the security and credibility of layer-2 network, we propose a trust-based spanning tree protocol aiming at achieving a higher credibility of LAN switch with a simple and lightweight authentication mechanism. If correctly implemented in each trusted switch, the authentication of trust-based STP can guarantee the credibility of topology information that is announced to other switch in the LAN. To verify the enforcement of the trusted protocol, we present a new trust evaluation method of the STP using a specification-based state model. We implement a prototype of trust-based STP to investigate its practicality. Experiment shows that the trusted protocol can achieve security goals and effectively avoid STP attacks with a lower computation overhead and good convergence performance.

Lai, Yingxu; Liu, Zenghui; Pan, Qiuyue; Liu, Jing

2015-02-01

29

The Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS) Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The molecular basis for the genetic risk of ischemic stroke is likely to be multigenic and influenced by environmental factors. Several small case-control studies have suggested associations between ischemic stroke and polymorphisms of genes that code for coagulation cascade proteins and platelet receptors. Our aim is to investigate potential associations between hemostatic gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, with particular emphasis on detailed characterization of the phenotype. Methods/Design The Ischemic Stroke Genetic Study is a prospective, multicenter genetic association study in adults with recent first-ever ischemic stroke confirmed with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients are evaluated at academic medical centers in the United States and compared with sex- and age-matched controls. Stroke subtypes are determined by central blinded adjudication using standardized, validated mechanistic and syndromic classification systems. The panel of genes to be tested for polymorphisms includes ?-fibrinogen and platelet glycoprotein Ia, Iba, and IIb/IIIa. Immortalized cell lines are created to allow for time- and cost-efficient testing of additional candidate genes in the future. Discussion The study is designed to minimize survival bias and to allow for exploring associations between specific polymorphisms and individual subtypes of ischemic stroke. The data set will also permit the study of genetic determinants of stroke outcome. Having cell lines will permit testing of future candidate risk factor genes. PMID:12848902

Meschia, James F; Brott, Thomas G; Brown, Robert D; Crook, Richard JP; Frankel, Michael; Hardy, John; Merino, José G; Rich, Stephen S; Silliman, Scott; Worrall, Bradford Burke

2003-01-01

30

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EMPIRICUS micafungin versus placebo during  

E-print Network

risk of candidemia with recovery of the same Candida species or genotypes in the colonized sitesSTUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EMPIRICUS micafungin versus placebo during nosocomial sepsis in Candida of antifungal treatment of non-immunocompromized patients with sepsis, extra-digestive Candida colonization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Incidence and economical effects of pneumonia  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Incidence and economical effects of pneumonia in the older population are particularly relevant. In fact, the onset of pneumonias is associated with a significant worsening negative consequences of pneumonia may be particularly evident among the frailest groups of elders

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study 1 EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol Summary Few studies have examined in detail the nature of tomato handling policies and practices in food service establishments. The purpose of this study

33

An improved protocol to study the plant cell wall proteome  

PubMed Central

Cell wall proteins were extracted from alfalfa stems according to a three-steps extraction procedure using sequentially CaCl2, EGTA, and LiCl-complemented buffers. The efficiency of this protocol for extracting cell wall proteins was compared with the two previously published methods optimized for alfalfa stem cell wall protein analysis. Following LC-MS/MS analysis the three-steps extraction procedure resulted in the identification of the highest number of cell wall proteins (242 NCBInr identifiers) and gave the lowest percentage of non-cell wall proteins (about 30%). However, the three protocols are rather complementary than substitutive since 43% of the identified proteins were specific to one protocol. This three-step protocol was therefore selected for a more detailed proteomic characterization using 2D-gel electrophoresis. With this technique, 75% of the identified proteins were shown to be fraction-specific and 72.7% were predicted as belonging to the cell wall compartment. Although, being less sensitive than LC-MS/MS approaches in detecting and identifying low-abundant proteins, gel-based approaches are valuable tools for the differentiation and relative quantification of protein isoforms and/or modified proteins. In particular isoforms, having variations in their amino-acid sequence and/or carrying different N-linked glycan chains were detected and characterized. This study highlights how the extracting protocols as well as the analytical techniques devoted to the study of the plant cell wall proteome are complementary and how they may be combined to elucidate the dynamism of the plant cell wall proteome in biological studies. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001927.

Printz, Bruno; Dos Santos Morais, Raphaël; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Sergeant, Kjell; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Renaut, Jenny

2015-01-01

34

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--LIST OF STUDY DOCUMENTS: PROTOCOLS AND SOPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the NHEXAS Phase I Region 5 study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis, (3) RTI's trace metals facility, (4) General laboratory pr...

35

Formally modeling, analyzing, and designing network protocols : a case study on retransmission-based reliable multicast protocols  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we conduct an extensive case study on formally modeling, analyzing, and designing retransmission-based reliable multicast protocols. We first present an abstract model of the communication service that ...

Livadas, Carolos

2003-01-01

36

Epitope tagging of endogenous proteins for genome-wide ChIP-chip studies  

PubMed Central

We developed a strategy to introduce epitope tag–encoding DNA into endogenous loci by homologous recombination–mediated ‘knock-in’. The tagging method is straightforward, can be applied to many loci and several human somatic cell lines, and can facilitate many functional analyses including western blot, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and chromatin immunoprecipitation–microarray (ChIP-chip). The knock-in approach provides a general solution for the study of proteins to which antibodies are substandard or not available. PMID:18176569

Zhang, Xiaodong; Guo, Chunguang; Chen, Yueting; Shulha, Hennady P; Schnetz, Michael P; LaFramboise, Thomas; Bartels, Cynthia F; Markowitz, Sanford; Weng, Zhiping; Scacheri, Peter C; Wang, Zhenghe

2008-01-01

37

Atomic structure of machined semiconducting chips: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the atomic structure of chips of germanium that were produced by single point diamond machining. It is demonstrated that although the local (nearest neighbor) atomic structure is experimentally quite similar to that of single crystal specimens information from more distant atoms indicates the presence of considerable stress. An outline of the technique is given and the strength of XAS in studying the machining process is demonstrated.

Paesler, M.; Sayers, D.

1988-12-01

38

IGG: A tool to integrate GeneChips for genetic studies.  

PubMed

To facilitate genetic studies using high-throughput genotyping technologies, we have developed an open source tool to integrate genotype data across the Affymetrix and Illumina platforms. It can efficiently integrate a large amount of data from various GeneChips, add genotypes of the HapMap Project into a specific project, flexibly trim and export the integrated data with different formats of popular genetic analysis tools, and highly control the quality of genotype data. Furthermore, this tool has sufficiently simplified its usage through its user-friendly graphic interface and is independent of third-party databases. IGG has successfully been applied to a genome-wide linkage scan in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease pedigree by integrating three types of GeneChips and HapMap project genotypes. PMID:17872914

Li, M-X; Jiang, L; Ho, S-L; Song, Y-Q; Sham, P-C

2007-11-15

39

Boosting Bioluminescence Neuroimaging: An Optimized Protocol for Brain Studies  

PubMed Central

Bioluminescence imaging is widely used for optical cell tracking approaches. However, reliable and quantitative bioluminescence of transplanted cells in the brain is highly challenging. In this study we established a new bioluminescence imaging protocol dedicated for neuroimaging, which increases sensitivity especially for noninvasive tracking of brain cell grafts. Different D-Luciferin concentrations (15, 150, 300 and 750 mg/kg), injection routes (iv, ip, sc), types of anesthesia (Isoflurane, Ketamine/Xylazine, Pentobarbital) and timing of injection were compared using DCX-Luc transgenic mice for brain specific bioluminescence. Luciferase kinetics was quantitatively evaluated for maximal photon emission, total photon emission and time-to-peak. Photon emission followed a D-Luciferin dose-dependent relation without saturation, but with delay in time-to-peak increasing for increasing concentrations. The comparison of intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal substrate injection reflects expected pharmacokinetics with fastest and highest photon emission for intravenous administration. Ketamine/Xylazine and Pentobarbital anesthesia showed no significant beneficial effect on maximal photon emission. However, a strong difference in outcome was observed by injecting the substrate pre Isoflurane anesthesia. This protocol optimization for brain specific bioluminescence imaging comprises injection of 300 mg/kg D-Luciferin pre Isoflurane anesthesia as an efficient and stable method with a signal gain of approx. 200% (compared to 150 mg/kg post Isoflurane). Gain in sensitivity by the novel imaging protocol was quantitatively assessed by signal-to-noise calculations of luciferase-expressing neural stem cells grafted into mouse brains (transplantation of 3,000–300,000 cells). The optimized imaging protocol lowered the detection limit from 6,000 to 3,000 cells by a gain in signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:23405190

Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Hoehn, Mathias

2013-01-01

40

Analysis of DNA-chip and antigen-chip data: studies of cancer, stem cells and autoimmune diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biology has undergone a revolution during the past decade. Deciphering the human genome has opened new horizons, among which the advent of DNA microarrays has been perhaps the most significant. These miniature measuring devices report the levels at which tens of thousands of genes are expressed in a collection of cells of interest (such as tissue from a tumor). I describe here briefly this technology and present an example of how analysis of data obtained from such high throughput experiments provides insights of possible clinical and therapeutic relevance for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Next, I describe how gene expression data is used to deduce a new design principle, " Just In Case", used by stem cells. Finally I briefly review a different novel technology, of antigen chips, which provide a fingerprint of a subject's immune system and may become a predictive clinical tool. The work reviewed here was done in collaboration with numerous colleagues and students.

Domany, Eytan

2005-07-01

41

An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method, and was capable of removing virtually all S0 from the pyrite grains. As pyrite oxidation and dissolution processes are surface-dependent, and even the slightest coating by Fe2+ or sulfide oxidation products can sharply decrease pyrite reactivity, the improved removal of S0 prevents such decreases and allows clearer insights into pyrite reaction mechanisms to be gained from experimental studies. In addition to S0 removal, the suggested method was shown not to introduce any biases in the particle size distribution. The main difference observed between the two protocols is the removal of larger amounts of surface-attached fine particles in the proposed method along with S0. This also removes a potential bias, associated with the surface area of pyrite available for chemical reaction. The suggested pyrite pretreatment protocol is more efficient in removal of S0 contamination from pyrite grains and provides multiple advantages for both kinetic and isotopic investigations of pyrite transformations under various environmental conditions.

Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay

2014-05-01

42

Wood chipping almond brush to reduce air pollution and to study the effect of wood chips on harvest, soil nutrients, soil aggregation, and the microbial community  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wood chipping of almond prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips interfere with harvest or delete the soil of critical nutrients necessary ...

43

An Ethnographic Study of Collaborative Clinical Trial Protocol Writing John H. Gennari Ph.D.1  

E-print Network

Behavior, Group Processes, Collaborative Writing Introduction Protocol documents are essential for carryingAn Ethnographic Study of Collaborative Clinical Trial Protocol Writing John H. Gennari Ph.D.1 documents play an important role in clinical research. However, clinical protocol writing remains a complex

McDonald, David W.

44

A Performance Study of Context Transfer Protocol for QoS Support  

E-print Network

A Performance Study of Context Transfer Protocol for QoS Support Novella Bartolini1 , Paolo Protocol can improve the QoS perceived by mobile nodes that access context dependent services protocol run on top of IPv6 with fast handover mechanisms. 1 Introduction Nowadays internet services

Bartolini, Novella

45

Study on surface properties of PDMS microfluidic chips treated with albumin  

PubMed Central

Electrokinetic properties and morphology of PDMS microfluidic chips intended for bioassays are studied. The chips are fabricated by a casting method followed by polymerization bonding. Microchannels are coated with 1% solution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Tris buffer. Albumin passively adsorbs on the PDMS surface. Electrokinetic characteristics (electro-osmotic velocity, electro-osmotic mobility, and zeta potential) of the coated PDMS channels are experimentally determined as functions of the electric field strength and the characteristic electrolyte concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the surface reveals a “peak and ridge” structure of the protein layer and an imperfect substrate coating. On the basis of the AFM observation, several topologies of the BSA-PDMS surface are proposed. A nonslip mathematical model of the electro-osmotic flow is then numerically analyzed. It is found that the electrokinetic characteristics computed for a channel with the homogeneous distribution of a fixed electric charge do not fit the experimental data. Heterogeneous distribution of the fixed electric charge and the surface roughness is thus taken into account. When a flat PDMS surface with electric charge heterogeneities is considered, the numerical results are in very good agreement with our experimental data. An optimization analysis finally allowed the determination of the surface concentration of the electric charge and the degree of the PDMS surface coating. The obtained findings can be important for correct prediction and possibly for robust control of behavior of electrically driven PDMS microfluidic chips. The proposed method of the electro-osmotic flow analysis at surfaces with a heterogeneous distribution of the surface electric charge can also be exploited in the interpretation of experimental studies dealing with protein-solid phase interactions or substrate coatings. PMID:20216963

Schrott, Walter; Slouka, Zden?k; ?ervenka, Petr; Ston, Ji?í; Nebyla, Marek; P?ibyl, Michal; Šnita, Dalimil

2009-01-01

46

A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET  

E-print Network

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper concludes by a tabular comparison of the various routing protocols for VANET.

Kumar, Rakesh

2011-01-01

47

Critical Illness Outcome Study: An Observational Study on Protocols and Mortality in Intensive Care Units  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many individual Intensive Care Unit (ICU) characteristics have been associated with patient outcomes, including staffing, expertise, continuity and team structure. Separately, many aspects of clinical care in ICUs have been operationalized through the development of complex treatment protocols. The United State Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS) was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol availability and use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large cohort of United States ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS Steering Committee. Methods USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological multi-centered “cohort” study of mixed ICUs in the U.S. The data collected include organizational information for the ICU (e.g., protocol availability and utilization, multi-disciplinary staffing assessment) and patient level information (e.g. demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions). The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high and low protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize regression modeling to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. There are presently 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6,000 study subjects. Conclusions USCIITG-CIOS is a large multicentric study examining the effect of ICU protocol use on patient outcomes. The primary results of this study will inform our understanding of the relationship between protocol availability, use, and patient outcomes in the ICU. Moreover, given the shortage of intensivists worldwide, the results of USCIITG-CIOS can be used to promote more effective ICU and care team design and will impact the delivery of intensive care services beyond individual practitioners. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01109719 PMID:25429244

Ali, Naeem A.; Gutteridge, David; Shahul, Sajid; Checkley, William; Sevransky, Jonathan; Martin, Greg S.

2014-01-01

48

The shape of a bone scraper: an in vitro pilot study using porcine bone chips.  

PubMed

Bone scrapers are commonly used to harvest autologous bone in oral and implant surgery. The angle of the cutting blade is a variable that distinguishes bone scrapers. In the present study, the impact of the angle of the cutting blade on the in vitro characteristics of harvested bone was determined. Bone scrapers with blade angles of 15°, 25°, 35°, 45°, and 55° were used to harvest porcine cortical mandibular bone. The number and characteristics of the cells that grew out from the bone chips were examined. The data showed that, independent of the angle of the cutting blade, viable cells were barely detectable in fresh bone grafts. However, cells with a fibroblastic morphology appeared within 1 week in the culture dishes. After 21 days, the number of cells did not differ significantly between the five preparations. Moreover, cells responded to incubation with bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) with an increased alkaline phosphatase activity, irrespective of the preparation. The data suggest that bone scrapers with different cutting angles produce bone chips with comparable in vitro characteristics. PMID:24480720

Kuchler, U; Schmid, C; Buser, D; Gruber, R

2014-07-01

49

EHS-Net Cooling Study EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

EHS-Net Cooling Study 1 EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol 1. Title EHS-Net Cooling Study 2. Research of foodborne illness in foodservice establishments. Improper cooling significantly contributes to the overall temperature abuse opportunities. The purpose of this study is to collect descriptive data on cooling policies

50

Comparative study on 3D optical network-on-chip architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network-on-chip (NoC) has been proposed to overcome the bottlenecks that on-chip communication faced due to the increase of chip complexity. However, limitations such as long delay and high power consumption make traditional NoC using electronic interconnects be inefficient for future use. A new design concept based on optical interconnects, Optical NoC, which can provide low latency, high bandwidth and lower

Jun Zhang; Huaxi Gu

2010-01-01

51

A Study of Shared-Memory Mutual Exclusion Protocols Using CADP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual exclusion protocols are an essential building block of concurrent systems: indeed, such a protocol is required whenever a shared resource has to be protected against concurrent non-atomic accesses. Hence, many variants of mutual exclusion protocols exist in the shared-memory setting, such as Peterson's or Dekker's well-known protocols. Although the functional correctness of these protocols has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been paid to their non-functional aspects, such as their performance in the long run. In this paper, we report on experiments with the performance evaluation of mutual exclusion protocols using Interactive Markov Chains. Steady-state analysis provides an additional criterion for comparing protocols, which complements the verification of their functional properties. We also carefully re-examined the functional properties, whose accurate formulation as temporal logic formulas in the action-based setting turns out to be quite involved.

Mateescu, Radu; Serwe, Wendelin

52

Using research to establish protocols for practice: a statewide study of acute care agencies.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to examine research utilization practices relative to developing and revising practice protocols in acute care agencies in Delaware. Nurse leaders in 13 acute care agencies identified resource nurses most familiar with the development and revision of agency protocols. Thirty-two resource nurses from 11 agencies, representing critical care, emergency, general medical, general surgical, obstetric, and psychiatric nursing, were interviewed. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. Examples of research-based protocols, defined as those supported by research citations, were obtained. The authors found that the majority of protocols submitted, although referenced, were not research-based. Most institutions used textbooks and standards to support nursing practice protocols. The authors concluded that nurses who are responsible for developing and revising agency protocols were not familiar with the use of research findings to guide the development or revision of protocols and were unsure what constituted the "use of research." PMID:10382404

Morin, K H; Bucher, L; Plowfield, L; Hayes, E; Mahoney, P; Armiger, L

1999-03-01

53

The design of a gene chip for functional immunological studies on a high-quality control platform.  

PubMed

We have created an immunology-related microarray chip containing primarily known genes with well-studied functional properties. By looking at known genes rather than expressed sequence tags, we hope to gain a better understanding of immunological pathways and how they work. The immunology gene chip contains genes from the following functional categories: T cell genes; B cell genes; dendritic cell genes; chemokine and cytokine genes; apoptosis genes; cell cycle genes; cell interaction genes; general hematology and immunology genes; and adhesion genes. We have also developed a novel three-color cDNA array platform in which arrays are directly visualized before hybridization, which allows us to select only high-quality chips for our experiments. In an effort to provide quantitative quality control for each array element as well as the entire chip, we have developed Matarray, a software package for image processing and data acquisition. With Matarray, we have built a quantitative data filtering and normalization scheme that has proved to be more efficient than the existing methods. The list of immunology chip genes is available from the authors. PMID:14679077

Waukau, Jill; Jailwala, Parthav; Wang, Youmin; Khoo, Huoy-Jii; Ghosh, Soumitra; Wang, Xujing; Hessner, Martin J

2003-11-01

54

Study of interfacial crack propagation in flip chip assemblies with nano-filled underfill materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No-flow underfill materials that cure during the solder reflow process is a relatively new technology. Although there are several advantages in terms of cost, time and processing ease, there are several reliability challenges associated with no-flow underfill materials. When mum-sized filler particles are introduced in no-flow underfills to enhance the solder bump reliability, such filler particles could prevent the solder bumps making reliable electrical contacts with the substrate pads during solder reflow, and therefore, the assembly yield would be adversely affected. The use of nano-sized filler particles can potentially improve assembly yield while offering the advantages associated with filled underfill materials. The objective of this thesis is to study the thermo-mechanical reliability of nano-filled epoxy underfills (NFU) through experiments and theoretical modeling. In this work, the thermo-mechanical properties of NFU's with 20-nm filler particles have been measured. An innovative residual stress test method has been developed to measure the interfacial fracture toughness. Using the developed residual stress method and the single-leg bending test, the mode-mixity-dependent fracture toughness for NFU-SiN interface has been determined. In addition to such monotonic interfacial fracture characterization, the interface crack propagation under thermo-mechanical fatigue loading has been experimentally characterized, and a model for fatigue interface crack propagation has been developed. A test vehicle comprising of several flip chips was assembled using the NFU material and the reliability of the flip-chip assemblies was assessed under thermal shock cycles between -40°C and 125°C. The NFU-SiN interfacial delamination propagation and the solder bump reliability were monitored. In parallel, numerical models were developed to study the interfacial delamination propagation in the flip chip assembly using conventional interfacial fracture mechanics as well as cohesive zone modeling. Predictions for interfacial delamination propagation using the two approaches have been compared. Based on the theoretical models and the experimental data, guidelines for design of NFUs against interfacial delamination have been developed.

Mahalingam, Sakethraman

55

Study protocol: the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS)  

PubMed Central

Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion. Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence. The initial focus of CATS is on adrenarche, the first hormonal process in the pubertal cascade, which begins for most children at around 8 years of age. Methods/Design CATS is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. All Grade 3 students (8–9 years of age) from a stratified cluster sample of schools in Melbourne, Australia were invited to take part. In total, 1239 students and a parent/guardian were recruited to participate in the study. Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche. Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development. The cohort will provide rich detail of the development, lifestyle, external circumstances and health of children during the transition from childhood through to adolescence. Baseline associations between the hormonal measures and measures of mental health and behaviour will initially be examined cross-sectionally, and then in later waves longitudinally. CATS will make a unique contribution to the understanding of adrenarche and puberty in children’s health and development. PMID:24103080

2013-01-01

56

A new technique for studying the chip formation process in diamond turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique to examine the chip formation process has been developed. This experimental method involves cutting along the interface of two workpieces that have been joined, stopping the cut, retracting the tool and then separating the two halves of the workpiece. By viewing the cross section of the chip in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the angle of shear

Christopher Arcona; Thomas A. Dow

1996-01-01

57

Individual empowerment in overweight and obese patients: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem in Europe and it causes many diseases. Many weight-reducing methods are reported in medical literature, but none of them proved to be effective in maintaining the results achieved over time. Self-empowerment can be an important innovative method, but an effectiveness study is necessary. In order to standardise the procedures for a randomised controlled study, a pilot study will be run to observe, measure and evaluate the effects of a period of self-empowerment group treatment on overweight/obese patients. Methods and analysis Non-controlled, experimental, pilot study. A selected group of patients with body mass index >25, with no severe psychiatric disorders, with no aesthetic or therapeutic motivation will be included in the study. A set of quantitative and qualitative measures will be utilised to evaluate the effects of a self-empowerment course in a 12?month time. Group therapy and medical examinations will also complete this observational phase. At the end of this pilot study, a set of appropriate measures and procedures to determine the effectiveness of individual empowerment will be identified and agreed among the different professional figures. Results will be recorded and analysed to start a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Udine in March 2012. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events involving the local administrations of the towns where the trial participants are resident. Trial Registration http://www.clinicalstrials.gov identifier NCT01644708. PMID:23676799

Struzzo, Pierluigi; Fumato, Raffaella; Tillati, Silvia; Cacitti, Anita; Gangi, Fabrizio; Stefani, Alessia; Torcutti, Alessia; Crapesi, Lucia; Tubaro, Gianni; Balestrieri, Matteo

2013-01-01

58

Single event upset studies on the CMS tracker APV25 readout chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstrip tracker for the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be read out using APV25 chips. During high luminosity running the tracker will be exposed to particle fluxes up to 10 7 cm -2 s -1, which raises concerns that the APV25 could occasionally suffer Single Event Upsets (SEUs). The effect of SEU on the APV25 has been studied to investigate implications for CMS detector operation and from the viewpoint of detailed circuit operation, to improve the understanding of its origin and what factors affect its magnitude. Simulations were performed to reconstruct the effects created by highly ionising particles striking sensitive parts of the circuits, along with consideration of the underlying mechanisms of charge deposition, collection and the consequences. A model to predict the behaviour of the memory circuits in the APV25 has been developed and data collected from dedicated experiments using both heavy ions and hadrons have been shown to support it.

Noah, E.; Bauer, T.; Bisello, D.; Faccio, F.; Friedl, M.; Fulcher, J. R.; Hall, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Pernicka, M.; Raymond, M.; Wyss, J.

2002-10-01

59

Density Functional Theory Study of Boron- and Nitrogen-Atom-Doped Graphene Chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structures and electronic states of boron- and nitrogen-substituted graphene chips (B-, N-, and BN-doped graphene chips) have been investigated by means of the density functional theory (DFT) method in order to shed light on the mechanism of change in the electronic properties of graphene chips caused by heteroatoms. The atomic charge of nitrogen atoms in N-graphene was a negative value, whereas that of boron atoms in B-graphene was positive. In the case of the BN-doped graphene chip, a charge polarization such as B?+-N?- was found. It was also found that the B-N bond pair is preferentially formed because of the large heat of formation of the B-N bond. The BN-doped graphene chips showed a large red shift of the band gap compared with that of normal graphene. The electric states of BN-graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

Tachikawa, Hiroto; Iyama, Tetsuji; Azumi, Kazuhisa

2011-01-01

60

A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks  

SciTech Connect

We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2) Performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack need to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. The results suggest that in order to improve the performance of a communication network, it will be important to study the entire protocol stuck as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the 7 layer OSI stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point.

Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

2001-05-24

61

A Protocol for Conducting Rainfall Simulation to Study Soil Runoff  

PubMed Central

Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

Kibet, Leonard C.; Saporito, Louis S.; Allen, Arthur L.; May, Eric B.; Kleinman, Peter J. A.; Hashem, Fawzy M.; Bryant, Ray B.

2014-01-01

62

A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.  

PubMed

Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

2014-01-01

63

Income Eligibility Thresholds, Premium Contributions, and Children's Coverage Outcomes: A Study of CHIP Expansions  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the effects of Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) income eligibility thresholds and premium contribution requirements on health insurance coverage outcomes among children. Data Sources 2002–2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements of the Current Population Survey linked to data from multiple secondary data sources. Study Design We use a selection correction model to simultaneously estimate program eligibility and coverage outcomes conditional upon eligibility. We simulate the effects of three premium schedules representing a range of generosity levels and the effects of income eligibility thresholds ranging from 200 to 400 percent of the federal poverty line. Principal Findings Premium contribution requirements decrease enrollment in public coverage and increase enrollment in private coverage, with larger effects for greater contribution levels. Our simulation results suggest minimal changes in coverage outcomes from eligibility expansions to higher income families under premium schedules that require more than a modest contribution (medium or high schedules). Conclusions Our simulation results are useful counterpoints to previous research that has estimated the average effect of program expansions as they were implemented without disentangling the effects of premiums or other program features. The sensitivity to premiums observed suggests that although contribution requirements may be effective in reducing crowd-out, they also have the potential, depending on the level of contribution required, to nullify the effects of CHIP expansions entirely. The persistence of uninsurance among children under the range of simulated scenarios points to the importance of Affordable Care Act provisions designed to make the process of obtaining coverage transparent and navigable. PMID:23398477

Gresenz, Carole Roan; Edgington, Sarah E; Laugesen, Miriam J; Escarce, José J

2013-01-01

64

Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

2014-05-01

65

CHIP Utilization in South Texas: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of the Children's Health Insurance Program. JSRI Research Report No. 33  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) began as a federal stopgap measure to assist families whose incomes were too high to qualify for Medicaid, but too low to make health insurance for their children affordable. In 2002, efforts were launched around the United States to recruit eligible children into the program. This pilot study

Millard, Ann V.; Mier, Nelda; Gabriel, Olga; Flores, Soledad

2004-01-01

66

Simulation of the RPL Routing Protocol for IPv6 Sensor Networks: two cases studies Leila Ben Saad  

E-print Network

Simulation of the RPL Routing Protocol for IPv6 Sensor Networks: two cases studies Leila Ben Saad.Tourancheau@INRIA.fr Abstract--The routing protocol for low power and lossy networks (RPL) was recently designed in the ROLL power and Lossy networks (ROLL) designed a routing protocol named IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power

Boyer, Edmond

67

Study of high-throughput cell electrofusion in a microelectrode-array chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microfabricated high-throughput cell electrofusion chip with 1,368 pairs of high aspect ratio silicon microelectrodes is\\u000a presented. These microelectrodes, which were distributed in six individual microscale cell-fusion chambers, were covered with\\u000a titanium and gold thin film to improve their electric conductivity as well as surface hydrophobility. Six chambers having\\u000a different electrode distances make the chip highly suitable for fusing cells

Yi Cao; Jun Yang; Zheng Qin Yin; Hong Yan Luo; Mo Yang; Ning Hu; Jing Yang; Dan Qun Huo; Chang Jun Hou; Zhi Zhong Jiang; Rui Qiang Zhang; Rong Xu; Xiao Lin Zheng

2008-01-01

68

A Study on Copper Pillar Interconnect in Flip-Chip-On-Module Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demand for high-density flip-chip packaging and lead-free solder technology has led to the development of fine-pitch copper pillar and lead-free solder Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC). However, the challenges associated with the technology include controlling the of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and preventing copper migration during bonding and reliability testing. Because the reliability of a flip-chip-on-module (FCOM) joint is significantly affected by

Mark Huang; Ong Gee Yeow; Chia Yong Poo; Tom Jiang

2007-01-01

69

A study of Internet instant messaging and chat protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instant messaging (IM) and network chat communication have seen an enormous rise in popularity over the last several years. However, since many of these systems are proprietary, little has been described about the network technology behind them. This analysis helps bridge this gap by providing an overview of the available features, functions, system architectures, and protocol specifications of the three

Raymond B. Jennings III; Erich M. Nahum; David P. Olshefski; Debanjan Saha; Zon-yin Shae; Chris Waters

2006-01-01

70

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Effectiveness of two antifolate prophylactic  

E-print Network

that it has significant activity against malaria. As the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTSTUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Effectiveness of two antifolate prophylactic strategies against malaria , Lenaig Le-Fouler2 , Mirdad Kazanji1 and Muriel Vray2 Abstract Background: Co-infection with malaria

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

A Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution  

E-print Network

by physical constraints and per- formance criteria. Because safety of the aircraft is solely or mostlyA Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution Huan Xu1, Ufuk Topcu2, and Richard M. Murray3 Abstract-- We consider the problem of designing a control protocol for the aircraft

Xu, Huan

72

Rapid Microfluidic Perfusion Enabling Kinetic Studies of Lipid Ion Channels in a Bilayer Lipid Membrane Chip  

PubMed Central

There is growing recognition that lipids play key roles in ion channel physiology, both through the dynamic formation and dissolution of lipid ion channels and by indirect regulation of protein ion channels. Because existing technologies cannot rapidly modulate the local (bio)chemical conditions at artificial bilayer lipid membranes used in ion channel studies, the ability to elucidate the dynamics of these lipid–lipid and lipid–protein interactions has been limited. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic system supporting exceptionally rapid perfusion of reagents to an on-chip bilayer lipid membrane, enabling the responses of lipid ion channels to dynamic changes in membrane boundary conditions to be probed. The thermoplastic microfluidic system allows initial perfusion of reagents to the membrane in less than 1 s, and enables kinetic behaviors with time constants below 10 s to be directly measured. Application of the platform is demonstrated toward kinetic studies of ceramide, a biologically important lipid known to self-assemble into transmembrane ion channels, in response to dynamic treatments of small ions (La3+) and proteins (Bcl-xL mutant). The results reveal the broader potential of the technology for studies of membrane biophysics, including lipid ion channel dynamics, lipid–protein interactions, and the regulation of protein ion channels by lipid micro domains. PMID:21556947

Shao, Chenren; Sun, Bing; Colombini, Marco; DeVoe, Don L.

2012-01-01

73

STUDY ON THE PROTOCOL OF E-COMMERCE FOR CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains small-sum payments should have a high priority is second-best solution to China's conditions where business services and management systems are comparatively immature. Moreover, it demonstrates that mobile payment is to be promising in the development of China's small-sum payment services. The conclusion is that the SET protocol does not fit China's situation, though it has been the

GAO Cong; KAN Kaili

74

Three steps to writing adaptive study protocols in the early phase clinical development of new medicines  

PubMed Central

This article attempts to define terminology and to describe a process for writing adaptive, early phase study protocols which are transparent, self-intuitive and uniform. It provides a step by step guide, giving templates from projects which received regulatory authorisation and were successfully performed in the UK. During adaptive studies evolving data is used to modify the trial design and conduct within the protocol-defined remit. Adaptations within that remit are documented using non-substantial protocol amendments which do not require regulatory or ethical review. This concept is efficient in gathering relevant data in exploratory early phase studies, ethical and time- and cost-effective. PMID:24980283

2014-01-01

75

DNA Chips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students will conduct activities from a module called "DNA Chips: A Genetics Lab in the Palm of Your Hand." This module is part of the National Institutes of Health Snapshots series, which focuses on a single area of biomedical research to help students understand how science, people, ethics, and history all fit together. The module for this lesson is about the DNA microarray, also known as a DNA chip.

Science Netlinks

2003-02-23

76

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--LIST OF STUDY DOCUMENTS: PROTOCOLS AND SOPS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the NHEXAS Phase I Region 5 study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis, (3) RTI's trace metals facility, (4) General laboratory pr...

77

Study on a Real-Time BEAM System for Diagnosis Assistance Based on a System on Chips Design  

PubMed Central

As an innovative as well as an interdisciplinary research project, this study performed an analysis of brain signals so as to establish BrainIC as an auxiliary tool for physician diagnosis. Cognition behavior sciences, embedded technology, system on chips (SOC) design and physiological signal processing are integrated in this work. Moreover, a chip is built for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) processing purposes and a Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) system, and a knowledge database is constructed to diagnose psychosis and body challenges in learning various behaviors and signals antithesis by a fuzzy inference engine. This work is completed with a medical support system developed for the mentally disabled or the elderly abled. PMID:23681095

Sung, Wen-Tsai; Chen, Jui-Ho; Chang, Kung-Wei

2013-01-01

78

Study of educational reform on the course of single-chip microcomputer based on PBL model  

Microsoft Academic Search

is a kind of teaching method with the feature of self-regulated learning based on problems. This paper provides not only the organizational form of PBL model, but also the concrete measures and teaching effects by using PBL method on the course of Single Chip Microcomputer. Finally, the paper analyses the deficiencies and the improved ways by using PBL model.

Ke-ning Wang; Wei Dong; Xiong-xing Zhang; Wei Wang

2011-01-01

79

In vitro electrical-stimulated wound-healing chip for studying electric field-assisted wound-healing process  

PubMed Central

The wound-healing assay is an easy and economical way to quantify cell migration under diverse stimuli. Traditional assays such as scratch assays and barrier assays are widely and commonly used, but neither of them can represent the complicated condition when a wound occurs. It has been suggested that wound-healing is related to electric fields, which were found to regulate wound re-epithelialization. As a wound occurs, the disruption of epithelial barrier short-circuits the trans-epithelial potential and then a lateral endogenous electric field is created. This field has been proved invitro as an important cue for guiding the migration of fibroblasts, macrophages, and keratinocytes, a phenomenon termed electrotaxis or galvanotaxis. In this paper, we report a microfluidic electrical-stimulated wound-healing chip (ESWHC) integrating electric field with a modified barrier assay. This chip was used to study the migration of fibroblasts under different conditions such as serum, electric field, and wound-healing-promoting drugs. We successfully demonstrate the feasibility of ESWHC to effectively and quantitatively study cell migration during wound-healing process, and therefore this chip could be useful in drug discovery and drug safety tests. PMID:24009651

Sun, Yung-Shin; Peng, Shih-Wei; Cheng, Ji-Yen

2012-01-01

80

Package cooling designs for a dual-chip electronic package with one high power chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-chip microelectronic packages (DCP) with one high power chip are being increasingly encountered in computer and other electronic systems where a common chip carrier, whether a ceramic or an organic laminate, has a central processing unit (CPU) accompanied by a memory chip. In this study, package cooling designs are developed and presented for cooling two product applications of the DCP,

Amilcar Arvelo; Hilton Toy; K. Sikka; A. Tai; H. Longworth; Wei Zou; J. Coffin

2004-01-01

81

Implant Chips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A group of eight people, including all members of one Florida family, had an implant chip, roughly the size of a grain of rice, injected under their skin on Friday, May 10. Manufactured by Applied Digital Solutions (ADS), the chips store a special identification number that enables the retrieval of personal and medical information. In the event of a medical emergency, a special handheld scanner activates the dormant digital implant, which provides identification data with which medical personnel can query ADS's database, the location of the patient's medical records. Alzheimer's patients seem to be the most promising market for this technology, even though other people, like the Florida family, hope to benefit from it as well. Another product that ADS offers is called Digital Angel, a wearable global positioning system (GPS) device that, among other things, can track in real time the wearer's physical movements. In the future, ADS is planning to release a product that will utilize both of these technologies: an implanted GPS-enabled chip. Unlike VeriChip, though, the GPS-enabled implant would require Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, meaning the US market won't see its introduction until after FDA testing. Many organizations, ranging from privacy advocates to religious groups, have already denounced VeriChip and its eventually successors, associated them with "Big Brother" and the biblical "Mark of the Beast."To read about the eight people that received their implants, look at the first and second sites, articles from the Los Angeles Times and Miami Herald respectively. For a non-US perspective, view the news story posted by the British Broadcasting Company (BBC). The fourth site, an extensive analysis of the subject from ABC News, should give readers a broader understanding of implanted chips and their potential uses. Two sites from ADS are next -- VeriChip's product pages and the press release that details a FDA's decision regarding VeriChip in April, 2002. Finally, the last two sites give more information on Digital Angel and a sample of GPS technology already in use.

Schroeder, Ted.

2002-01-01

82

Risk factors for chronic allograft nephropathy after renal transplantation: A protocol biopsy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for chronic allograft nephropathy after renal transplantation: A protocol biopsy study.BackgroundChronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) leads to chronic allograft dysfunction and loss. Regular renal transplant biopsies may be useful to find risk factors for CAN.MethodsWe carried out 688 protocol biopsies in 258 patients at 6, 12, and 26 weeks after renal transplantation. Patients with signs of CAN in the

ANKE SCHWARZ; MICHAEL MENGEL; WILFRIED GWINNER; JOERG RADERMACHER; MARCUS HISS; HANS KREIPE; HERMANN HALLER

2005-01-01

83

Experimental and modeling studies of ultrasound-assisted release of phenolics from oak chips into model wine.  

PubMed

The enhancement of release of oak-related compounds from oak chips during wine aging with oak chips may interest the winemaking industry. In this study, the 25-kHz ultrasound waves were used to intensify the mass transfer of phenolics from oak chips into a model wine. The influences of acoustic energy density (6.3-25.8 W/L) and temperature (15-25 °C) on the release kinetics of total phenolics were investigated systematically. The results exhibited that the total phenolic yield released was not affected by acoustic energy density significantly whereas it increased with the increase of temperature during sonication. Furthermore, to describe the mechanism of mass transfer of phenolics in model wine under ultrasonic field, the release kinetics of total phenolics was simulated by both a second-order kinetic model and a diffusion model. The modeling results revealed that the equilibrium concentration of total phenolics in model wine, the initial release rate and effective diffusivity of total phenolics generally increased with acoustic energy density and temperature. In addition, temperature had a negative effect on the second-order release rate constant whereas acoustic energy density had an opposite effect. PMID:24726419

Tao, Yang; Zhang, Zhihang; Sun, Da-Wen

2014-09-01

84

oxBS-450K: A method for analysing hydroxymethylation using 450K BeadChips  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation analysis has become an integral part of biomedical research. For high-throughput applications such as epigenome-wide association studies, the Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K) BeadChip is currently the platform of choice. However, BeadChip processing relies on traditional bisulfite (BS) based protocols which cannot discriminate between 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we report the adaptation of the recently developed oxidative bisulfite (oxBS) chemistry to specifically detect both 5mC and 5hmC in a single workflow using 450K BeadChips, termed oxBS-450K. Supported by validation using mass spectrometry and pyrosequencing, we demonstrate reproducible (R2 > 0.99) detection of 5hmC in human brain tissue using the optimised oxBS-450K protocol described here. PMID:25175075

Stewart, Sabrina K.; Morris, Tiffany J.; Guilhamon, Paul; Bulstrode, Harry; Bachman, Martin; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Beck, Stephan

2015-01-01

85

oxBS-450K: a method for analysing hydroxymethylation using 450K BeadChips.  

PubMed

DNA methylation analysis has become an integral part of biomedical research. For high-throughput applications such as epigenome-wide association studies, the Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K) BeadChip is currently the platform of choice. However, BeadChip processing relies on traditional bisulfite (BS) based protocols which cannot discriminate between 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we report the adaptation of the recently developed oxidative bisulfite (oxBS) chemistry to specifically detect both 5mC and 5hmC in a single workflow using 450K BeadChips, termed oxBS-450K. Supported by validation using mass spectrometry and pyrosequencing, we demonstrate reproducible (R(2)>0.99) detection of 5hmC in human brain tissue using the optimised oxBS-450K protocol described here. PMID:25175075

Stewart, Sabrina K; Morris, Tiffany J; Guilhamon, Paul; Bulstrode, Harry; Bachman, Martin; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Beck, Stephan

2015-01-15

86

Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities), and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities). Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and different aspects of job satisfaction: satisfaction with leadership, which should be highly correlated with readiness, versus satisfaction with salary, which should be less correlated with readiness. Content validity will be assessed using an expert panel and modified Delphi technique. Discussion We propose a comprehensive protocol for validating a survey instrument for assessing organizational readiness to change that specifically addresses key threats of bias related to halo effect, method bias and questions of construct validity that often go unexplored in research using measures of organizational constructs. PMID:21777479

2011-01-01

87

Atom Chips  

E-print Network

Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

Ron Folman; Peter Krüger; Donatella Cassettari; Björn Hessmo; Thomas Maier; Jörg Schmiedmayer

1999-12-23

88

3D biomimetic chip integrated with microvascular system for studying the liver specific functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design and fabrication of 3D chip that enables the cell co-culture under continuous flow perfusion and repeated in situ observation by light microscopy. Thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was etched to create an array of through-holes, and sandwiched between two PDMS channels to form an upper chamber and lower chamber. In the upper chamber hepatocytes (HepG2) and fibroblasts

Kuo-Wei Chang; Chia-Tung Lee; Punde Tushar Harishchandra; Hung-Po Chen; Ting-Ru Yueh; Srinivasu Valagerahally Puttaswamy; Shilpa Sivashankar; Cheng-Hsien Liu

2012-01-01

89

Towards micropropulsion systems on-a-chip: initial results of component feasibility studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the development of several micropropulsion components for microspacecraft applications are reported. These include a vaporizing liquid micro-thruster, a micro ion engine, a micro-isolation valve, a micro-piezo valve, and a micro-solenoid valve. These components are envisioned to be integrated with chip-based driver and power conditioning electronics into highly integrated, compactly configured micropropulsion modules, reducing overall system weight and

Juergen Mueller; Indrani Chakraborty; Stephen Vargo; Colleen Marrese; Victor White; David Bame; Robert Reinicke; John Holzinger

2000-01-01

90

Under bump metallurgy study on copper\\/low-k dielectrics for fine pitch flip chip packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the semiconductor speed increases continuously, more usage of low-k dielectric materials to enhance the performance\\u000a in Cu chips has taken place over the past few years. The implementation of copper (Cu) as an interconnect, in conjunction\\u000a with the ultra-low-k materials as interlevel dielectrics or intermetal dielectrics in the fabrication of ultra-large-scale\\u000a integrated circuits, has been used in the semiconductor

Seung Wook Yoon; Vaidyanathan Kripesh; Su Young Ji Jeffery; Mahadevan K. Iyer

2004-01-01

91

Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.

Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

2009-01-01

92

PROTOCOLS: Chromatin Immunoprecipitation from Arabidopsis Tissues  

PubMed Central

The ability of proteins to associate with genomic DNA in the context of chromatin is critical for many nuclear processes including transcription, replication, recombination, and DNA repair. Chromatin immunoprecipication (ChIP) is a practical and useful technique for characterizing protein / DNA association in vivo. The procedure generally includes six steps: (1) crosslinking the protein to the DNA; (2) isolating the chromatin; (3) chromatin fragmentation; (4) imunoprecipitation with antibodies against the protein of interest; (5) DNA recovery; and (6) PCR identification of factor associated DNA sequences. In this protocol, we describe guidelines, experimental setup, and conditions for ChIP in intact Arabidopsis tissues. This protocol has been used to study association of histone modifications, of chromatin remodeling ATPases, as well as of sequence-specific transcription factors with the genomic DNA in various Arabidopsis thaliana tissues. The protocol described focuses on ChIP-qPCR, but can readily be adapted for use in ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq experiments. The entire procedure can be completed within 3 days. PMID:24653666

Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Winter, Cara M.; Wu, Miin-Feng; Kwon, Chang Seob; William, Dilusha A.; Wagner, Doris

2014-01-01

93

The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background With an ageing population and increasing demands on health and social care services, there is growing importance attached to the management of long-term conditions, including maximizing the cost-effectiveness of treatments. In line with this, there is increasing emphasis on the need to keep people both active and participating in daily life. Consequently, it is essential that well developed and validated instruments that can meaningfully assess levels of participation and activity are widely available. Current measures, however, are largely focused on disability and rehabilitation, and there is no measure of activity or participation for generic use that fully meets the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration. Here we detail a protocol for the development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for assessment of participation and activity in people experiencing a variety of health conditions, ie, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ). The stages incorporated in its development are entirely in line with current regulations and represent best practice in the development of PROMs. Methods Development of the Ox-PAQ is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The project incorporates a new strategy of engaging with stakeholders from the outset in an attempt to identify those characteristics of PROMs considered most important to a range of potential users. Items will be generated through interviews with patients from a range of conditions. Pretesting of the instrument will be via cognitive interviews and focus groups. A postal survey will be conducted, with data subject to factor and Rasch analysis in order to identify appropriate dimensions and redundant items. Reliability will be assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlations. A second, large-scale postal survey will follow, with the Ox-PAQ being administered in conjunction with generic measures of health status to further test the validity of the measure. The Ox-PAQ will again be administered at 2 weeks to assess test-retest reliability and at 3 months to assess responsiveness. Conclusion The development of the Ox-PAQ is a timely one. With increasing emphasis being placed on the importance of keeping people active and participating in daily life, the instrument has the potential for significant uptake. Its primary use is intended to be in clinical trials and for evaluation of interventions targeted at maintaining activity and participation. PMID:24399888

Morley, David; Dummett, Sarah; Kelly, Laura; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

2014-01-01

94

Studies on phytosterol oxides. I: Effect of storage on the content in potato chips prepared in different vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato chips fried in palm oil, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oil were studied for the content of different phytosterol\\u000a oxides during 0 to 25 weeks of storage in the dark. Oxidation products of sitosterol (24?-ethyl-5-cholesten-3?-ol) and campesterol\\u000a (24?-methyl-t-cholesten-3?-ol) were synthesized to help identify the phytosterol oxides. The oxides of phytosterols were analyzed\\u000a by preparative thin-layer chromatography, solid-phase extraction, capillary

Paresh Chandra Dutta; Lars-Åke Appelqvist

1997-01-01

95

High throughput fabrication of disposable nanofluidic lab-on-chip devices for single molecule studies.  

PubMed

An easy method is introduced allowing fast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replication of nanofluidic lab-on-chip devices using accurately fabricated molds featuring cross-sections down to 60?nm. A high quality master is obtained through proton beam writing and UV lithography. This master can be used more than 200 times to replicate nanofluidic devices capable of handling single DNA molecules. This method allows to fabricate nanofluidic devices through simple PDMS casting. The extensions of YOYO-1 stained bacteriophage T4 and ?-DNA inside these nanochannels have been investigated using fluorescence microscopy and follow the scaling prediction of a large, locally coiled polymer chain confined in nanochannels. PMID:23898358

van Kan, Jeroen A; Zhang, Ce; Perumal Malar, Piravi; van der Maarel, Johan R C

2012-09-01

96

Rapid manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore sensors by trans-chip illumination lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the concept of nanopore sensing has matured from a proof-of-principle method to a widespread, versatile technique for the study of biomolecular properties and interactions. While traditional nanopore devices based on a nanopore in a single layer membrane supported on a silicon chip can be rapidly fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, chips with additional insulating layers beyond the membrane region can provide significantly lower noise levels, but at the expense of requiring more costly and time-consuming fabrication steps. Here we present a novel fabrication protocol that overcomes this issue by enabling rapid and reproducible manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore experiments. The fabrication protocol, termed trans-chip illumination lithography, is based on illuminating a membrane-containing wafer from its backside such that a photoresist (applied on the wafer’s top side) is exposed exclusively in the membrane regions. Trans-chip illumination lithography permits the local modification of membrane regions and hence the fabrication of nanopore chips containing locally patterned insulating layers. This is achieved while maintaining a well-defined area containing a single thin membrane for nanopore drilling. The trans-chip illumination lithography method achieves this without relying on separate masks, thereby eliminating time-consuming alignment steps as well as the need for a mask aligner. Using the presented approach, we demonstrate rapid and reproducible fabrication of nanopore chips that contain small (12 ?m × 12 ?m) free-standing silicon nitride membranes surrounded by insulating layers. The electrical noise characteristics of these nanopore chips are shown to be superior to those of simpler designs without insulating layers and comparable in quality to more complex designs that are more challenging to fabricate.

Janssen, Xander J. A.; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Plesa, Calin; Soni, Gautam V.; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H.

2012-11-01

97

Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum  

PubMed Central

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants, which are difficult to transform. The pea early-browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. However, the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis. PMID:21156044

2010-01-01

98

A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large epidemiological studies. Following pilot work,

Harriet G. Williams; Karin A. Pfeiffer; Marsha Dowda; Chevy Jeter; Shaverra Jones; Russell R. Pate

2009-01-01

99

On chip synchronization for optical OPPM  

E-print Network

, called chips, and a single optical pulse is trans- mitted starting at a certain chip. Symbol detection is then achieved by maximizing a likelihood function that depends on the number of photons observed in every chip interval [2]. Therefore, knowing...ON CHIP SYNCHRONIZATION FOR OPTICAL OPPM A Thesis by KHALIL F. HAYEK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major...

Hayek, Khalil F.

1992-01-01

100

Long-term effectiveness of the community-based Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) lifestyle intervention: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the long-term (three or more years) effectiveness of the volunteer-delivered Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) intervention. Design Cohort study. Setting Hawera, New Zealand. Participants Of the total cohort of 284 individuals who self-selected to complete the CHIP lifestyle intervention between 2007 and 2009, 106 (37% of the original cohort, mean age=64.9±7.4?years, range 42–87?years; 35% males, 65% female) returned in 2012 for a complimentary follow-up health assessment (mean follow-up duration=49.2+10.4?months). Intervention 30-day lifestyle modification programme (diet, physical activity, substance use and stress management) delivered by volunteers in a community setting. Main outcome measures Changes in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG). Results After approximately 4?years, participants with elevated biometrics at programme entry maintained significantly lowered BMI (?3.2%; 34.8±5.4 vs 33.7±5.3?kg/m2, p=0.02), DBP (?9.4%; 89.1±4.1 vs 80.8±12.6?mm?Hg, p=0.005), TC (?5.5%; 6.1±0.7 vs 5.8±1.0?mmol/L, p=0.04) and TG (?27.5%; 2.4±0.8 vs 1.7±0.7?mmol/L, p=0.002). SBP, HDL, LDL and FPG were not significantly different from baseline. Participants with elevated baseline biometrics who reported being compliant to the lifestyle principles promoted in the intervention (N=71, 67% of follow-up participants) recorded further reductions in BMI (?4.2%; 34.8±4.5 vs 33.4±4.8?kg/m2, p=0.02), DBP (?13.3%; 88.3±3.2 vs 77.1±12.1?mm?Hg, p=0.005) and FPG (?10.4%; 7.0±1.5 vs 6.3±1.3?mmol/L, p=0.02). Conclusions Individuals who returned for follow-up assessment and entered the CHIP lifestyle intervention with elevated risk factors were able to maintain improvements in most biometrics for more than 3?years. The results suggest that the community-based CHIP lifestyle intervention can be effective in the longer term, even when delivered by volunteers. PMID:24259389

Kent, Lillian; Morton, Darren; Hurlow, Trevor; Rankin, Paul; Hanna, Althea; Diehl, Hans

2013-01-01

101

Auricular point acupressure for chronic pain: a feasibility study of a 4-week treatment protocol.  

PubMed

This 1-group, 4-week observational study aimed to (1) assess the feasibility of recruiting, retention, and completion of a 4-week auricular point acupressure (APA) treatment protocol for chronic pain in adult patients and (2) assess the effects of APA in pain reduction (pain severity and pain interference) among these patients. The participants received a 4-week APA treatment protocol in weekly cycles. Each weekly cycle included 5 days with APA seeds taped onto the ear and 2 days without. Each participant was called every day to monitor adherence to the treatment protocol (the actual times the participant pressed the seeds each day and the duration of applied pressure), to answer analgesic use, and to answer the pain intensity questionnaire. Thirty participants were initially enrolled in this study, but 5 did not continue. The retention rate was 83% (n = 25). Approximately 60% of the participants (n = 15) adhered to the 4-week APA and completed all data assessments. At baseline assessment, only 40% of all participants (n = 12 of 30) were confident that APA would reduce and eliminate pain; nonetheless, all participants reported fewer episodes of pain occurrences and pain intensity with the APA treatment. For the participants who completed the 4-week APA protocol (n = 15), 96% (n = 14) decreased analgesic medication intake and 88% (n = 13) felt "much better" after the APA treatment. Participants reported an average reduction of 63% in the worst pain intensity at day 7. By the end of the 4-week APA protocol, an even greater reduction in pain intensity was reported (66%, n = 10, at day 28). The participants who did not complete the treatment protocol reported an average pain reduction of 29%, which fluctuated to 22% before they dropped out. Auricular point acupressure is feasible for patients with chronic pain. The preliminary findings of this feasibility study show a reduction in pain intensity and improvement in physical function, which demonstrate the potential for APA as a treatment option for patients with chronic pain. PMID:24722613

Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chien, Lung-Chang; Huang, Li Chun; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

2014-01-01

102

Older Persons’ Transitions in Care (OPTIC): a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH) residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs). During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS), and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT) approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual) and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases). Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and researchers to participate equally in developing study goals, design, data collection, analysis and implications of findings. As preliminary and ongoing study findings are developed, their implications for practice and policy in study settings will be discussed by the research team and shared with study site administrators and staff. The study is designed to investigate the complexities of transitions and to enhance the potential for successful and sustained improvement of these transitions. PMID:23241360

2012-01-01

103

Sarcopenia and its determinants among Iranian elderly (SARIR): study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly populations increase in world because of improved health status in communities, so health and independency of seniors has become and will be one of the main priorities of public health systems. Ageing have been associated with changes in body composition, including loss of muscle mass, loss of bone mass and increase fat mass. Involuntary age related loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia,has been linked to functional impairment and physical disability. Several definitions for sarcopenia have been presented based on the method of measuring body composition, but an internationally accepted definition doesn’t presently exist yet. In 2010, the European working group on sarcopenia developed a new definition for sarcopenia according to measure muscle mass and muscle function. Several studies have been done about sarcopenia in world, but to our knowledge this study is the first in Iran which is one of the largest countries of the Middle East that faces a fast growing elderly population. The aim of this study is to evaluate sarcopenia and related risk factors in Iran according new definition of sarcopenia. Methods This study will be conducted in two phase among elderly men and women over 55 years in the 6th district of TehranThe first phase will be a population-based cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of sarcopenia in the study population, and to conduct case finding for the second phase. The second phase will be a case–control study to comparison the metabolic and inflammatory factors in sarcopenic and non sarcopenic groups. The association between sarcopenia and major dietary pattern will be evaluated using factor analysis. Conclusion This study is the first study that evaluates sarcopenia and its risk factor in Iranian elderlies. We discuss details of how we collect the data and appropriate instruments to measure muscle mass, muscle power and muscle strength, and suitable cut- off to define sarcopenia in Iranian elderlies. We believe the result of our study can be useful to health policy makers prepare the necessary infrastructure for elderly health improvements and increase the quality of life in geriatric. PMID:23497567

2012-01-01

104

Study Protocol: Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease in Pakistanis  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is the most frequent subtype of ischemic stroke globally. It is important to describe the determinants of early ICAD as a strategy to prevent strokes from clinically evident and progressive ICAD. Our objective is to report the determinants of asymptomatic ICAD by linking the presence or absence of ICAD on magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) with detailed risk assessment in asymptomatic adults. Methods This is an observational cross-sectional analytical study. We plan to recruit 200 adult participants from the radiology departments of two tertiary care centers of Karachi, Pakistan. The participants will first be screened for the absence of stroke symptoms via the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke Free Status (QVSFS). QVSFS negative will be participants will be eligible. After written informed consent, participants will undergo detailed medical, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric evaluation by a detailed interview. They will, in addition, undergo MRA to study the presence, degree, and distribution of asymptomatic ICAD. All MRA scans will be reviewed centrally by vascular neurologists blinded to clinical information. These images would be reviewed on DICOM Viewer 3.0 used for calculating the degree of stenosis using Warfarin–Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) study defined criteria employing electronic calipers. A sample size of 200 will achieve 80% power for detecting a minimum difference of 20% in the prevalence of exposure factors (medical and lifestyle) between asymptomatic ICAD positive and ICAD negative persons. This study will generate regional data on risks for ICAD development and prevention in a high-risk susceptible population. Study ID: NCT02072876

Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Majeed, Farzin; Pasha, Omrana; Islam, Muhammad; Azam, Iqbal; Ilyas, Muhammad Saleem; Hussain, Munawar; Masood, Kamran; Ahmed, Bilal; Nazir, Sumaira; Sajjad, Zafar; Kasner, Scott E.

2015-01-01

105

Converting Group Key Agreement Protocol into Password-Based Setting - Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Converting a secure group key agreement pro- tocol into password-based setting is not a trivial task. The security of a password-based scheme hinges on preventing dictionary attack that enables an adversary to take advan- tage of the low entropy of human memorable passwords. In this paper, we make a case study considering the constant round group key agreement protocol DB

Ratna Dutta

2007-01-01

106

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Use of biological mesh versus standard wound  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Use of biological mesh versus standard wound care in infected incisional, controlled trial comparing the use of a biological mesh versus traditional wound care in patients with an IVH. The primary end point is 6-month infectious and/or wound morbidity. Secondary end points are wound infection

Boyer, Edmond

107

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Comparison of usual podiatric care and early  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Comparison of usual podiatric care and early physical therapy therapy intervention are available to direct treatment but the timing and influence of physical therapy is to compare the outcomes and costs associated with early physical therapy intervention (ePT) following initial

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

108

Studying MRI acquisition protocols of sustained sounds with a multimodal acquisition system  

E-print Network

Studying MRI acquisition protocols of sustained sounds with a multimodal acquisition system Yves, France 2 ISEN, Brest, France Yves.Laprie@loria.fr Abstract The acquisition of dynamic articulatory data a multimodal acquisition system which uses electromagnetogra- phy sensors to locate the US probe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

109

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Evaluation of the Housing First program in  

E-print Network

01570712 Keywords: Housing first program, Homelessness, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorder, Mental illness housing, and possessing a `high' level of need: diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorderSTUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Evaluation of the Housing First program in patients with severe mental

Boyer, Edmond

110

A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

2009-01-01

111

HuMiChip: Development of a Functional Gene Array for the Study of Human Microbiomes  

SciTech Connect

Microbiomes play very important roles in terms of nutrition, health and disease by interacting with their hosts. Based on sequence data currently available in public domains, we have developed a functional gene array to monitor both organismal and functional gene profiles of normal microbiota in human and mouse hosts, and such an array is called human and mouse microbiota array, HMM-Chip. First, seed sequences were identified from KEGG databases, and used to construct a seed database (seedDB) containing 136 gene families in 19 metabolic pathways closely related to human and mouse microbiomes. Second, a mother database (motherDB) was constructed with 81 genomes of bacterial strains with 54 from gut and 27 from oral environments, and 16 metagenomes, and used for selection of genes and probe design. Gene prediction was performed by Glimmer3 for bacterial genomes, and by the Metagene program for metagenomes. In total, 228,240 and 801,599 genes were identified for bacterial genomes and metagenomes, respectively. Then the motherDB was searched against the seedDB using the HMMer program, and gene sequences in the motherDB that were highly homologous with seed sequences in the seedDB were used for probe design by the CommOligo software. Different degrees of specific probes, including gene-specific, inclusive and exclusive group-specific probes were selected. All candidate probes were checked against the motherDB and NCBI databases for specificity. Finally, 7,763 probes covering 91.2percent (12,601 out of 13,814) HMMer confirmed sequences from 75 bacterial genomes and 16 metagenomes were selected. This developed HMM-Chip is able to detect the diversity and abundance of functional genes, the gene expression of microbial communities, and potentially, the interactions of microorganisms and their hosts.

Tu, Q.; Deng, Ye; Lin, Lu; Hemme, Chris L.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-05-17

112

The CANadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry (CANPWR): Study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Over recent decades, the prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased markedly in developed and developing countries, and the impact of obesity on health throughout the lifespan has led to urgent calls for action. Family-based weight management interventions that emphasize healthy lifestyle changes can lead to modest improvements in weight status of children with obesity. However, these interventions are generally short in duration, reported in the context of randomized controlled trials and there are few reports of outcomes of these treatment approaches in the clinical setting. Answering these questions is critical for improving the care of children with obesity accessing outpatient health services for weight management. In response, the CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR) was designed with the following three primary aims: 1. Document changes in anthropometric, lifestyle, behavioural, and obesity-related co-morbidities in children enrolled in Canadian pediatric weight management programs over a three-year period; 2. Characterize the individual-, family-, and program-level determinants of change in anthropometric and obesity-related co-morbidities; 3. Examine the individual-, family-, and program-level determinants of program attrition. Methods/Design This prospective cohort, multi-centre study will include children (2–17 years old; body mass index ?85th percentile) enrolled in one of eight Canadian pediatric weight management centres. We will recruit 1,600 study participants over a three-year period. Data collection will occur at presentation and 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-months follow-up. The primary study outcomes are BMI z-score and change in BMI z-score over time. Secondary outcomes include anthropometric (e.g., height, waist circumference,), cardiometabolic (e.g., blood pressure, lipid profile, glycemia), lifestyle (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary activity), and psychosocial (e.g., health-related quality of life) variables. Potential determinants of change and program attrition will include individual-, family-, and program-level variables. Discussion This study will enable our interdisciplinary team of clinicians, researchers, and trainees to address foundational issues regarding the management of pediatric obesity in Canada. It will also serve as a harmonized, evidence-based registry and platform for conducting future intervention research, which will ultimately enhance the weight management care provided to children with obesity and their families. PMID:24957705

2014-01-01

113

Cheong et al., Verbal protocol study of biomimetic design In Press, AIEDAM-AIE-2012-008, p.1 of 26 Design problem solving with biological analogies: A verbal protocol study  

E-print Network

Cheong et al., Verbal protocol study of biomimetic design In Press, AIEDAM-AIE-2012-008, p.1 of 26 3028 shu@mie.utoronto.ca Short title: Verbal protocol study of biomimetic design Abstract Biomimetic solutions. However, when designers are asked to perform biomimetic design, they often have difficulty

Shu, Lily H.

114

[Economic study of dialysis using the cost-per-procedure method according to clinical protocols].  

PubMed

Studies analyzing the economic cost of dialysis therapy have raised a considerable interest in the nephrologic community, both inside and outside our country. The objective of the present study was to approach this question from a different point of view, by applying the cost-per-procedure method, according to clinical protocol, to all the routine clinical procedures in our dialysis unit (both Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis). We analyzed 68 routine protocols (42 for Hemodialysis and 26 for peritoneal Dialysis), carrying out a pormenorized study of all the components of the economic cost of each procedure (personnel, laboratory, surgical and sanitary material, drugs and other concepts). We calculated the final cost of all these procedures after individualizing the different components of the economic spends, with the informatic support of the management department of our center, and in coordination with the data bases of the Pharmacy and General Supplies units. Although the initial implementation of this method is tedious, it subsequently allows to analyze the global cost of therapy in the Unit, as also the cost of certain subsets, or even particular patients, in a simple and flexible way. Moreover, the system is easy to update, as clinical protocols undergo changes or the economic cost of individual components vary. Finally, this method is a useful tool at the time of comparing the cost of clinical procedures in different centres, according to their varying clinical protocols, economic spends and clinical results. PMID:17725456

Rodríguez-Carmona, A; Castro, A; Pérez Fontán, M; Mojón, M

2007-01-01

115

Improving post-stroke dysphagia outcomes through a standardized and multidisciplinary protocol: an exploratory cohort study.  

PubMed

Stroke is a major cause of dysphagia. Few studies to date have reported on standardized multidisciplinary protocolized approaches to the management of post-stroke dysphagia. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized multidisciplinary protocol on clinical outcomes in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. We performed retrospective chart reviews of patients with post-stroke dysphagia admitted to the neurological ward of Verona University Hospital from 2004 to 2008. Outcomes after usual treatment for dysphagia (T- group) were compared versus outcomes after treatment under a standardized diagnostic and rehabilitative multidisciplinary protocol (T+ group). Outcome measures were death, pneumonia on X-ray, need for respiratory support, and proportion of patients on tube feeding at discharge. Of the 378 patients admitted with stroke, 84 had dysphagia and were enrolled in the study. A significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio [OR] 0.20 [0.53-0.78]), pneumonia (OR 0.33 [0.10-1.03]), need for respiratory support (OR 0.48 [0.14-1.66]), and tube feeding at discharge (OR 0.30 [0.09-0.91]) was recorded for the T+ group (N = 39) as compared to the T- group (N = 45). The adjusted OR showed no difference between the two groups for in-hospital death and tube feeding at discharge. Use of a standardized multidisciplinary protocolized approach to the management of post-stroke dysphagia may significantly reduce rates of aspiration pneumonia, in-hospital mortality, and tube feeding in dysphagic stroke survivors. Consistent with the study's exploratory purposes, our findings suggest that the multidisciplinary protocol applied in this study offers an effective model of management of post-stroke dysphagia. PMID:25115857

Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Bisoffi, Giulia; Squaquara, Teresa; Zuccher, Paola; Mazzucco, Sara

2014-12-01

116

Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

2014-01-01

117

Study protocol: a systematic review of pediatric shared decision making  

PubMed Central

Background Shared decision making in pediatrics is unique because it often involves active participation of both the child or adolescent patient and his or her caregiver(s) in the decision making process with the clinician or care team, and the extent to which the patient is involved is commensurate with their developmental level. However, little is known about the nature of pediatric-specific shared decision making interventions and their impact. Methods/Design We will perform a systematic review with the objective of summarizing the nature of shared decision making practices, tools, techniques and technologies in the pediatric setting as well as their effects. A literature search will include Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus and Ovid PsycInfo databases in addition to consultation of a group of shared decision making experts to identify unpublished or in-progress works. We will include original research studies involving patients <18 years, their caregivers, or both, and summarize methods and approaches designed to engage participants in the health care decision making process with clinicians. Perinatal and research participation decisions will be excluded. Descriptions of participants involved, interventions used and the measured outcomes will be reported. Quality assessment will be performed according to the design of each study, where possible. Discussion We anticipate that the paucity of published quantitative data and the heterogeneous nature of the reported results will preclude quantitative analysis. In this event, a meta-narrative approach will be undertaken. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004761 PMID:23816266

2013-01-01

118

FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence): a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated) affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites) for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation), with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the start of the facilitation interventions. Detailed contextual and process data are collected throughout, using interviews with staff, residents and next of kin, observations, assessment of context using the Alberta Context Tool, and documentary evidence. A realistic evaluation framework is used to develop explanatory theory about what works for whom in what circumstances. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN11598502. PMID:22453077

2012-01-01

119

Pharmacoepidemiology of Immune Thrombocytopenia: protocols of FAITH and CARMEN studies.  

PubMed

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare condition. Its epidemiology is not well-known. First-line treatment is based on corticosteroids. ITP leads to persistency (lasting more than 3 months) in 70% of adult cases. Then, several second-line treatments (SLTs) are available, mainly splenectomy, rituximab (off-label) and thrombopoietin-receptor agonists. Their efficacy and safety have not been compared, particularly in the long-term. FAITH (French Adult primary Immune Thrombocytopenia: a pHarmacoepidemiological study) is dedicated to the building and follow-up of the cohort of all adults with primary ITP in France persistently treated (>3 months) through the database of French Health Insurance system (système national d'information interrégimes d'Assurance maladie, SNIIRAM), in order to assess the benefit-to-risk balance of SLTs in real-life practice. CARMEN (Cytopénies Auto-immunes : Registre Midi-PyrénéEN) is a clinical registry of all incident adult ITP patients in the Midi-Pyrénées region. It is aimed at describing ITP clinical features, assessing SLT benefit-to-risk balance and adherence to guidelines for ITP management. FAITH is registered n°ENCEPP/SDPP/4574. PMID:25285364

Moulis, Guillaume; Sailler, Laurent; Adoue, Daniel; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

2014-01-01

120

Discrete component bonding and thick film materials study. [of capacitor chips bonded with solders and conductive epoxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bonding reliability of discrete capacitor chips bonded with solders and conductive epoxies was examined along with the thick film resistor materials consisting of iron oxide phosphate and vanadium oxide phosphates. It was concluded from the bonding reliability studies that none of the wide range of types of solders examined is capable of resisting failure during thermal cycling while the conductive epoxy gives substantially lower failure rates. The thick film resistor studies proved the feasibility of iron oxide phosphate resistor systems although some environmental sensitivity problems remain. One of these resistor compositions has inadvertently proven to be a candidate for thermistor applications because of the excellent control achieved upon the temperature coefficient of resistance. One new and potentially damaging phenomenon observed was the degradation of thick film conductors during the course of thermal cycling.

Kinser, D. L.

1976-01-01

121

Edge chipping and flexural resistance of monolithic ceramics?  

PubMed Central

Objective Test the hypothesis that monolithic ceramics can be developed with combined esthetics and superior fracture resistance to circumvent processing and performance drawbacks of traditional all-ceramic crowns and fixed-dental-prostheses consisting of a hard and strong core with an esthetic porcelain veneer. Specifically, to demonstrate that monolithic prostheses can be produced with a much reduced susceptibility to fracture. Methods Protocols were applied for quantifying resistance to chipping as well as resistance to flexural failure in two classes of dental ceramic, microstructurally-modified zirconias and lithium disilicate glass–ceramics. A sharp indenter was used to induce chips near the edges of flat-layer specimens, and the results compared with predictions from a critical load equation. The critical loads required to produce cementation surface failure in monolithic specimens bonded to dentin were computed from established flexural strength relations and the predictions validated with experimental data. Results Monolithic zirconias have superior chipping and flexural fracture resistance relative to their veneered counterparts. While they have superior esthetics, glass–ceramics exhibit lower strength but higher chip fracture resistance relative to porcelain-veneered zirconias. Significance The study suggests a promising future for new and improved monolithic ceramic restorations, with combined durability and acceptable esthetics. PMID:24139756

Zhang, Yu; Lee, James J.-W.; Srikanth, Ramanathan; Lawn, Brian R.

2014-01-01

122

OrganonChip `Organ on Chip'  

E-print Network

are now brought together in the Institute for human organ and Disease Model Technologies (hDMT), a public of `Organ on Chip'. Preparation of induced human pluripotent stem cells from human bloodOrganonChip `Organ on Chip' Developing tools for new, better and personalized therapies #12;If

123

A Study of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks  

E-print Network

The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements.

Ullah, Sana; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.3390/s100100128

2010-01-01

124

Design and modeling of a novel lab-on-chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing efforts are being directed towards lab on chips these days. A novel lab on chip has been designed and modeled in this study. The lab on chip includes 3 parts which are, a pool in which the fluid is placed, a micropump and finally a single microneedle. The whole chip was designed on a 1.5 cm*1 cm silicon wafer

Azadeh Dinparast Djadid; Parisa Forutana; Reza Nadafib; Farshad Barazandeha; Arya Moobed Mahdiabadia

2011-01-01

125

Single dental implant retained mandibular complete dentures – influence of the loading protocol: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Over the years, there has been a strong consensus in dentistry that at least two implants are required to retain a complete mandibular denture. It has been shown in several clinical trials that one single median implant can retain a mandibular overdenture sufficiently well for up to 5 years without implant failures, when delayed loading was used. However, other trials have reported conflicting results with in part considerable failure rates when immediate loading was applied. Therefore it is the purpose of the current randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that immediate loading of a single mandibular midline implant with an overdenture will result in a comparable clinical outcome as using the standard protocol of delayed loading. Methods/design This prospective nine-center randomized controlled clinical trial is still ongoing. The final patient will complete the trial in 2016. In total, 180 edentulous patients between 60 and 89 years with sufficient complete dentures will receive one median implant in the edentulous mandible, which will retain the existing complete denture using a ball attachment. Loading of the median implant is either immediately after implant placement (experimental group) or delayed by 3 months of submerged healing at second-stage surgery (control group). Follow-up of patients will be performed for 24 months after implant loading. The primary outcome measure is non-inferiority of implant success rate of the experimental group compared to the control group. The secondary outcome measures encompass clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German research foundation, KE 477/8-1). Discussion This multi-center clinical trial will give information on the ability of a single median implant to retain a complete mandibular denture when immediately loaded. If viable, this treatment option will strongly improve everyday dental practice. Trial registration The trial has been registered at Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German register of clinical trials) under DRKS-ID: DRKS00003730 since 23 August 2012. (http://www.germanctr.de). PMID:24884848

2014-01-01

126

Creating a Community of Inquiry in Online Environments: An Exploratory Study on the Effect of a Protocol on Interactions within Asynchronous Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of our research was to examine the influence of an online protocol on asynchronous discussions. A mixed-methods study compared two online graduate classes: one that used a protocol and one that did not use a protocol for the same discussion about a complex reading. Analysis of the data revealed that the online protocol more evenly…

Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

2012-01-01

127

A chip-based Teflon^R AF coated liquid core waveguide on Si: microfabrication and analytical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here a chip based liquid core waveguide device fabricated on (100) Si substrate that shows excellent signal enhancement properties. Both straight and curved channels, 500 ?m wide and 180 ?m deep, are etched on Si substrate using standard photolithography and wet etching. Teflon^R AF 1601S (Dupont) having a refractive index of 1.30 is used to coat the channels. The wafer is finally bonded to similarly coated glass wafer to complete the device. A control device is also fabricated and bonded without Teflon coating. With water or aqueous solutions in coated channels, the channels exhibit much better light guiding ability than similar uncoated channels as observed from transmission measurement. The linearity and adherence to Beer's law was studied by measurements in a flow injection analysis (FIA) manifold. Fluorescence detection has been tested with fluorescein as the test solute, a blue LED as the excitation source and a photo multiplier tube.

Datta, Arindom; Eom, In-Yong; Kuban, Petr; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Temkin, Henryk; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

2003-03-01

128

Feasibility Study and Design of a Wearable System-on-a-Chip Pulse Radar for Contactless Cardiopulmonary Monitoring  

PubMed Central

A new system-on-a-chip radar sensor for next-generation wearable wireless interface applied to the human health care and safeguard is presented. The system overview is provided and the feasibility study of the radar sensor is presented. In detail, the overall system consists of a radar sensor for detecting the heart and breath rates and a low-power IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee radio interface, which provides a wireless data link with remote data acquisition and control units. In particular, the pulse radar exploits 3.1–10.6 GHz ultra-wideband signals which allow a significant reduction of the transceiver complexity and then of its power consumption. The operating principle of the radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is highlighted and the results of the system analysis are reported. Moreover, the results obtained from the building-blocks design, the channel measurement, and the ultra-wideband antenna realization are reported. PMID:18389068

Zito, Domenico; Pepe, Domenico; Neri, Bruno; Zito, Fabio; De Rossi, Danilo; Lanatà, Antonio

2008-01-01

129

Proving safety properties of an aircraft landing protocol using timed and untimed I/O automata: a case study  

E-print Network

Proving safety properties of an aircraft landing protocol using timed and untimed I/O automata by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Srinivas Devadas Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;Proving safety properties of an aircraft landing protocol using timed and untimed I/O automata: a case study by Shinya Umeno Submitted

Lynch, Nancy

130

Integrated on-chip lens applied to microfluidic chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical signal on microfluidic chip is hard to be collected. To improve the excitation power and collection efficiency, we introduced a simple, inexpensive fabrication method to increase the couple rate of optical fiber. This small element is a polymer and air integrated microlens that can improve the optical signal detection. Compared to other established protocols, this procedure allows a simple, miniaturizing and inexpensive microlens fabrication with high reproducibility. The air microlens was produced by using direct lithograph of SU-8 resist to reduce the beam divergence of optical fiber. Owing to its ability to achieve customized microlens for specific applications, this technique can be used in a variety of applications, such as a blood cell counting system based on microfluidic chip.

Zhao, Yingying; Li, Qin; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Dong-Fang

2012-12-01

131

Thomas Jefferson University study finds deviating from radiation protocols increases risk of treatment failure and death  

Cancer.gov

Implementing measures to ensure radiation therapy protocols are followed not only decreases deviations, but it can also improve overall survival in cancer patients, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital researchers suggest in a first-of-its kind study presented during a plenary session at the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 54th Annual Meeting in Boston. Thomas Jefferson University Hospital is home to the Kimmel Cancer Center.

132

Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such\\u000a as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through\\u000a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain\\u000a and functioning, children with low expectations

Laura B Allen; Jennie CI Tsao; Loran P Hayes; Lonnie K Zeltzer

2011-01-01

133

Neurological complications of breast cancer: study protocol of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The improvement in breast cancer survival rates, along with the expected overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with breast cancer screening, requires a comprehensive assessment of its burden. Neurological complications can have a devastating impact on these patients; neuropathic pain and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy are among the most frequently reported. This project aims to understand the burden of neurological complications of breast cancer treatment in Northern Portugal, and their role as mediator of the impact of the treatment in different dimensions of the patients’ quality of life. Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study was designed to include 500 patients with breast cancer, to be followed for 3?years. The patients were recruited at the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and evaluations were planned at different stages: pretreatment, after surgery, after chemotherapy (whenever applicable) and at 1 and 3?years after enrolment. Patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain or chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (subcohorts), were also evaluated at the moment of confirmation of clinical diagnosis of the neurological complication and 6?months later. In each of the follow-up periods, a neurological examination has been performed by a neurologist. Data were collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life, sleep quality, and anxiety and depression. Between January and December 2012, we recruited and conducted the baseline evaluation of 506 participants. The end of the follow-up period is scheduled for December 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and all patients provided written informed consent. All study procedures were developed in order to assure data protection and confidentiality. Results from this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented in relevant conferences. PMID:25351600

Pereira, Susana; Fontes, Filipa; Sonin, Teresa; Dias, Teresa; Fragoso, Maria; Castro-Lopes, José; Lunet, Nuno

2014-01-01

134

Development of implant loading device for animal study about various loading protocol: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aims of this pilot study were to introduce implant loading devices designed for animal study and to evaluate the validity of the load transmission ability of the loading devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implant loading devices were specially designed and fabricated with two implant abutments and cast metal bars, and orthodontic expansion screw. In six Beagles, all premolars were extracted and two implants were placed in each side of the mandibles. The loading device was inserted two weeks after the implant placement. According to the loading protocol, the load was applied to the implants with different time and method,simulating early, progressive, and delayed loading. The implants were clinically evaluated and the loading devices were removed and replaced to the master cast, followed by stress-strain analysis. Descriptive statistics of remained strain (µ?) was evaluated after repeating three cycles of the loading device activation. Statistic analysis was performed using nonparametric, independent t-test with 5% significance level and Friedman's test was also used for verification. RESULTS The loading devices were in good action. However, four implants in three Beagles showed loss of osseointegration. In stress-strain analysis, loading devices showed similar amount of increase in the remained strain after applying 1-unit load for three times. CONCLUSION Specialized design of the implant loading device was introduced. The loading device applied similar amount of loads near the implant after each 1-unit loading. However, the direction of the loads was not parallel to the long axis of the implants as predicted before the study. PMID:23236575

Yoon, Joon-Ho; Park, Young-Bum; Cho, Yuna; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Moon, Hong-Seok; Lee, Keun-Woo

2012-01-01

135

Driving Position Field Study, Differences with the Whiplash Protocol and Biomechanics Experimental Responses  

PubMed Central

Rear-impact collisions at low speed are a leading cause of economic costs among motor vehicle accidents. Recently, EuroNCAP has incorporated in its protocol the whiplash test, to reproduce a low-speed rear impact. This paper presents a field driving study to assess the potential differences between the EuroNCAP dummy tests and actual drivers in the field, focusing on occupant position and biomechanics experimental results. A total of 182 drivers were randomly selected in two geographical areas in Spain. The driving position of each driver was recorded with a focus on the most relevant measurements for rear impact. Statistical analysis was performed to obtain means, standard deviations and density functions to compare observational seating position with that of the EuroNCAP testing protocol. The observational data showed a similar seatback angle to that used in the EuroNCAP protocol (24° in front of 25° for the protocol), a greater distance between the head vertex and the top of the head restraint (53mm compared to 39.5mm), and less distance between the occipital bone of the head and the headrest (67.9 compared to 89.3mm). Based on these data, 4 dummy tests were conducted using the dummy BioRID IIg. The baseline test was designed to reproduce the dummy position according to EuroNCAP 3.0 whiplash protocol. Three different additional tests were defined to reproduce the actual observed driving position as well as to assess a “worst case” scenario in terms of reduced seatback angle. These variations in initial driver position, comparing the EuroNCAP protocol to the observational study results, were not observed to cause significant differences in the biomechanical values measured in the BioRID IIg, The T1 acceleration was reduced less than 8%, the NIC was increased about 8%, and the NKm presented a reduction of 20%. Reducing the seat angle was observed to be more harmful in terms of NIC. PMID:22105385

Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Pozo, Eduardo Del; Lessley, David; Barrios, Jose Manuel; Nombela, Mario; Cisneros, Oscar; de Miguel, Juan Luis; Seguí-Gómez, María

2011-01-01

136

Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. Methods/Design In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. Discussion This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013). PMID:24965551

2014-01-01

137

Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Shi, Chengli; Wu, Boda; Fan, Zunqiang; Wan, Shunguang; Geng, Chunyang

2012-12-01

138

Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

Huang Hu; Zhao Hongwei; Shi Chengli; Wu Boda; Fan Zunqiang; Wan Shunguang; Geng Chunyang [College of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Renmin Street 5988, Changchun, Jilin 130025 (China)

2012-12-15

139

On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols  

SciTech Connect

The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large number of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)

Byres, E. J. [Wurldtech Research Inc., 7178 Lancrest Tr., Lantzville, BC V0R 2H0 (Canada); Huffman, D. [Wurldtech Analytics Inc., 208-1040 Hamilton St., Vancouver, BC V6B 2R9 (Canada); Kube, N. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Computer Science, PO Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

2006-07-01

140

A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to Ellestad stress test protocol.  

PubMed

Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the critical stress state which disable rational decision making could be ascertained in a standardized procedure. This technique would serve to aid human resource management in times of critical events such as rescue, firefighting or even military, that would potentially prevent unnecessary sacrifice of human lives. In this pilot study with five healthy volunteers performing the Ellestad protocol treadmill, a measurement profile with physiologic and salivary based biomarker is obtained. It is found that the alpha amylase levels or the changes in it as workload changes from resting-walking-running at ease-exhaustive running, is relatively more significant in reflecting the stress state than heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it is strongly associated with mood state with correlation coefficient of 0.8 and significance of 0.01. PMID:19964239

Lee, Y K; Za'aba, A; Madzhi, N K; Ahmad, A

2009-01-01

141

Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients. PMID:24421977

Yildirim, Gülsün; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan

2010-01-01

142

Involving communities in the design of clinical trial protocols: The BAN Study in Lilongwe, Malawi  

PubMed Central

Objective To learn the attitudes and concerns of the local community on participating in research, infant feeding practices, and maternal nutrition in order to inform the design of a clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi on the safety and efficacy of antiretroviral and nutrition interventions to reduce postnatal transmission of HIV. Design Formative research methods were used, including semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, home observations, and taste trials. Data were collected, analyzed, and incorporated into the protocol within three months. Results Participants were supportive of the clinical trial, although their overall understanding of research was limited. Mothers agreed that infants’ blood could be drawn by venipuncture, yet concern was raised about the amount of blood proposed to be collected from both infants and mothers. Data demonstrated that rapid breastfeeding cessation would be difficult and malnutrition could be a risk if infants were weaned early. Mothers selected a maternal supplement suitable for use in the clinical trial. Conclusions The protocol was rapidly modified to achieve cultural acceptability while maintaining study objectives. Without the formative research, several significant areas would have been undetected and may have jeopardized the implementation of the trial. Additional research was carried out to develop a meaningful informed consent process, the amount of blood collected was reduced to acceptable levels, and the protocol was modified to reduce the risk of malnutrition. Researchers who conduct clinical trials are encouraged to incorporate formative research into their protocol design to ensure participant understanding of the research, to safeguard participants, and to increase feasibility and acceptance of the clinical research in the community. PMID:17000137

Corneli, Amy L.; Piwoz, Ellen; Bentley, Margaret E.; Moses, Agnes; Nkhoma, Jacqueline R.; Tohill, Beth Carlton; Adair, Linda; Mtimuni, Beatrice; Ahmed, Yusuf; Duerr, Ann; Kazembe, Peter; van der Horstfor, Charles

2009-01-01

143

Chip-off-the-old-rock: the study of reservoir-relevant geological processes with real-rock micromodels.  

PubMed

We present a real-rock micromodel approach whereby microfluidic channels are fabricated in a naturally occurring mineral substrate. The method is applied to quantify calcite dissolution which is relevant to oil/gas recovery, CO2 sequestration, and wastewater disposal in carbonate formations - ubiquitous worldwide. The key advantage of this method is the inclusion of both the relevant substrate chemistry (not possible with conventional microfluidics) and real-time pore-scale resolution (not possible with core samples). Here, microchannels are etched into a natural calcite crystal and sealed with a glass slide. The approach is applied to study acidified brine flow through a single channel and a two-dimensional micromodel. The single-channel case conforms roughly to a 1-D analytical description, with crystal orientation influencing the local dissolution rate an additional 25%. The two-dimensional experiments show highly flow-directed dissolution and associated positive feedback wherein acid preferentially invades high conductivity flow paths, resulting in higher dissolution rates ('wormholing'). These experiments demonstrate and validate the approach of microfabricating fluid structures within natural minerals for transport and geochemical studies. More broadly, real-rock microfluidics open the door to a vast array of lab-on-a-chip opportunities in geology, reservoir engineering, and earth sciences. PMID:25236399

Song, Wen; de Haas, Thomas W; Fadaei, Hossein; Sinton, David

2014-11-21

144

The Newcastle 85+ study: biological, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with healthy ageing: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The UK, like other developed countries, is experiencing a marked change in the age structure of its population characterised by increasing life expectancy and continuing growth in the older fraction of the population. There is remarkably little up-to-date information about the health of the oldest old (over 85 years), demographically the fastest growing section of the population. There is a need, from both a policy and scientific perspective, to describe in detail the health status of this population and the factors that influence individual health trajectories. For a very large proportion of medical conditions, age is the single largest risk factor. Gaining new knowledge about why aged cells and tissues are more vulnerable to pathology is likely to catalyse radical new insights and opportunities to intervene. The aims of the Newcastle 85+ Study are to expose the spectrum of health within an inception cohort of 800 85 year-olds; to examine health trajectories and outcomes as the cohort ages and their associations with underlying biological, medical and social factors; and to advance understanding of the biological nature of ageing. Methods A cohort of 800 85 year olds from Newcastle and North Tyneside will be recruited at baseline and followed until the last participant has died. Eligible individuals will be all those who turn 85 during the year 2006 (i.e. born in 1921) and who are registered with a Newcastle or North Tyneside general practice. Participants will be visited in their current residence (own home or institution) by a research nurse at baseline, 18 months and 36 months. The assessment protocol entails a detailed multi-dimensional health assessment together with review of general practice medical records. Participants will be flagged with the NHS Central Register to provide details of the date and cause of death. Discussion The Newcastle 85+ Study will address key questions about health and health-maintenance in the 85+ population, with a particular focus on quantitative assessment of factors underlying variability in health, and on the relationships between health, nutrition and biological markers of the fundamental processes of ageing. PMID:17594470

Collerton, Joanna; Barrass, Karen; Bond, John; Eccles, Martin; Jagger, Carol; James, Oliver; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Robinson, Louise; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Kirkwood, Tom

2007-01-01

145

Optimizing the swallow protocol of clinical high resolution esophageal manometry studies  

PubMed Central

Background The Chicago Classification of Esophageal Motility Disorders (CC) is based on 10 water swallows performed in the supine position. The aim of the study was to assess whether upright and provocative swallows provided important information beyond that obtained from the standard supine manometric protocol. Methods Two independent investigators reviewed high resolution manometry (HRM) studies of 148 patients with both supine and upright liquid swallows and additional studies from patients with provocative swallows (increased volume, viscosity, and a marshmallow) for a resultant change in CC diagnoses. Significant diagnostic changes were defined as a change from normal or borderline motor function to abnormal motor function, EGJ outflow obstruction or achalasia. Discordant diagnoses were reviewed and the Kappa test was used to evaluate the agreement between diagnoses in the different protocols. Key Results The overall agreement in diagnosis between the 5 supine swallows and the 5 upright swallows was good (k=0.583). Changing to the upright position elicited a significant diagnostic change in 10.1% (15/148) of cases. The provocative swallows suggested an alternative diagnosis from the supine position in 14 of 75 studies (18.7%); 11 of these changed to EGJ obstruction during viscous or solid bolus challenges. Conclusion Changing position in HRM elicited a significant change in diagnosis in about 10% of studies while provocative bolus challenges with viscous liquid and marshmallows increased the detection of EGJ outflow obstruction. Performing manometric evaluations in both positions with provocative swallows may increase the yield of standard HRM technique. PMID:22863083

Xiao, Yinglian; Nicodème, Frédéric; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Roman, Sabine; Lin, Zhiyue; Pandolfino, John E.

2013-01-01

146

Prospective Associations of Coronary Heart Disease Loci in African Americans Using the MetaboChip: The PAGE Study  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD, attempted to fine map these loci, and characterize novel variants influencing CHD risk in African Americans. Methods and Results Up to 8,201 African Americans (including 546 first CHD events) were genotyped using the MetaboChip array in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We tested associations using Cox proportional hazard models in sex- and study-stratified analyses and combined results using meta-analysis. Among 44 validated CHD loci available in the array, we replicated and fine-mapped the SORT1 locus, and showed same direction of effects as reported in studies of individuals of European ancestry for SNPs in 22 additional published loci. We also identified a SNP achieving array wide significance (MYC: rs2070583, allele frequency 0.02, P?=?8.1×10?8), but the association did not replicate in an additional 8,059 African Americans (577 events) from the WHI, HealthABC and GeneSTAR studies, and in a meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies of European ancestry (24,024 individuals including 1,570 cases of MI and 2,406 cases of CHD) from the CHARGE Consortium. Conclusions Our findings suggest that some CHD loci previously identified in individuals of European ancestry may be relevant to incident CHD in African Americans. PMID:25542012

Franceschini, Nora; Hu, Yijuan; Reiner, Alex P.; Buyske, Steven; Nalls, Mike; Yanek, Lisa R.; Li, Yun; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Cole, Shelley A.; Howard, Barbara V.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Carty, Cara L.; Sethupathy, Praveen; Martin, Lisa W.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Johnson, Karen C.; Becker, Lewis C.; North, Kari E.; Dehghan, Abbas; Bis, Joshua C.; Liu, Yongmei; Greenland, Philip; Manson, JoAnn E.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Garcia, Melissa; Harris, Tamara B.; Becker, Diane M.; O'Donnell, Christopher; Heiss, Gerardo; Kooperberg, Charles; Boerwinkle, Eric

2014-01-01

147

Study protocol. A prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women: the pregnancy outcome prediction study  

PubMed Central

Background There have been dramatic changes in the approach to screening for aneuploidy over the last 20 years. However, the approach to screening for other complications of pregnancy such as intra-uterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and stillbirth remains largely unchanged. Randomised controlled trials of routine application of high tech screening methods to the general population have generally failed to show improvement in outcome. We have previously reviewed this and concluded it was due, in large part, to poor performance of screening tests. Here, we report a study design where the primary aim is to generate clinically useful methods to screen women to assess their risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Methods/design We report the design of a prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women recruited at the time of their first ultrasound scan. Participation involves serial phlebotomy and obstetric ultrasound at the dating ultrasound scan (typically 10–14 weeks), 20 weeks, 28 weeks and 36 weeks gestation. In addition, maternal demographic details are obtained; maternal and paternal height are measured and maternal weight is serially measured during the pregnancy; maternal, paternal and offspring DNA are collected; and, samples of placenta and membranes are collected at birth. Data will be analysed as a prospective cohort study, a case-cohort study, and a nested case-control study. Discussion The study is expected to provide a resource for the identification of novel biomarkers for adverse pregnancy outcome and to evaluate the performance of biomarkers and serial ultrasonography in providing clinically useful prediction of risk. PMID:19019223

Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Dacey, Alison; Cook, Emma; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; White, Ian R; Smith, Gordon CS

2008-01-01

148

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF A PROTOCOL (NHX/SOP-100-003)  

EPA Science Inventory

This procedure describes the preparation of protocols as part of the quality assurance program for the Region 5 NHEXAS study. In general, protocols describe the objectives, methods, and procedures used to conduct a study or experiment. A protocol may include some detailed informa...

149

A Comparative Study of Routing Protocols of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Recently, heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) routing protocols have drawn more and more attention. Various HWSN routing protocols have been proposed to improve the performance of HWSNs. Among these protocols, hierarchical HWSN routing protocols can improve the performance of the network significantly. In this paper, we will evaluate three hierarchical HWSN protocols proposed recently—EDFCM, MCR, and EEPCA—together with two previous classical routing protocols—LEACH and SEP. We mainly focus on the round of the first node dies (also called the stable period) and the number of packets sent to sink, which is an important aspect to evaluate the monitoring ability of a protocol. We conduct a lot of experiments and simulations on Matlab to analyze the performance of the five routing protocols. PMID:25050393

Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Xu; Qian, Aihua; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Cheng, Long

2014-01-01

150

Metabolite extraction from adherently growing mammalian cells for metabolomics studies: optimization of harvesting and extraction protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypsin\\/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment and cell scraping in a buffer solution were compared for harvesting\\u000a adherently growing mammalian SW480 cells for metabolomics studies. In addition, direct scraping with a solvent was tested.\\u000a Trypsinated and scraped cell pellets were extracted using seven different extraction protocols including pure methanol, methanol\\/water,\\u000a pure acetone, acetone\\/water, methanol\\/chloroform\\/water, methanol\\/isopropanol\\/water, and acid–base methanol. The extracts were\\u000a analyzed

Katja Dettmer; Nadine Nürnberger; Hannelore Kaspar; Michael A. Gruber; Martin F. Almstetter; Peter J. Oefner

2011-01-01

151

Mechanics of formation of sawtooth chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of sawtooth chips was studied while machining case carburized 8620 steel (of varying degrees of hardness--upto Rc62), Titanium and Brass. Cutting forces were measured and an attempt was made to measure temperature during machining of case carburized 8620 steel. Conventional tool-chip thermocouple technique was modified to accommodate the effects due to design of Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) cutting inserts. The chips produced were examined under Optical Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope. A technique was developed for specimen preparation to study the microstructure of a non-etching white layer under a transmission electron microscope. All the experiments done during this study for an investigation into the root cause of a sawtooth chip formation suggest that a cyclic crack formation on the free surface side of the chip is responsible for the formation of the sawtooth chips; contrary to the widely accepted view of adiabatic shear being the root cause of the sawtooth chip formation. A Quick-Stop device was also used to determine the mechanism of the sawtooth chip formation. A new method of evaluating cutting ratio for the sawtooth chips is proposed and was verified experimentally.

Vyas, Amitabh

152

Exploring the state space of an application protocol: A case study of SMTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we explore the state space of a network application protocol by employing genetic programming techniques. To this end, we target Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which is a well-known and open protocol on the Internet. In order to achieve our goal, we aim to evolve the payload such that solution individuals result in an email being sent

Patrick LaRoche; A. Nur Zincir-Heywood; Malcolm I. Heywood

2011-01-01

153

Training and management of a multisite neuropsychological testing protocol for the Department of Veterans Affairs cooperative study evaluating on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass graft procedures.  

PubMed

Research study coordinators from 17 sites participating in a cardiac surgery study were trained to administer and score a brief neuropsychological test battery. Results were sent to the study's centralized laboratory for review and feedback. The average examiner errors on the first six protocols were compared with the average errors on the last six protocols over 12 months for each site. Overall, errors for the first six protocols were 4.42, and errors for the last six protocols were 1.83, representing a significant overall decline. Errors for instruction, administration, and recording showed a significant decrease over time. Despite ongoing feedback to examiners, scoring errors did not decline significantly overall; this suggests that a review of all protocols is necessary to achieve reliable scoring. However, when examiners' number of protocols completed was compared with number of scoring errors per protocol, there was a trend for examiners who had completed more protocols to show more improvement in scoring. PMID:17613983

Kozora, E; Kongs, S; Box, T; Schooley, L; Hampton, M; Berkowitz, S; Grover, F; Shroyer, A L

2007-07-01

154

Study protocol: The Adherence and Intensification of Medications (AIM) study - a cluster randomized controlled effectiveness study  

PubMed Central

Background Many patients with diabetes have poor blood pressure (BP) control. Pharmacological therapy is the cornerstone of effective BP treatment, yet there are high rates both of poor medication adherence and failure to intensify medications. Successful medication management requires an effective partnership between providers who initiate and increase doses of effective medications and patients who adhere to the regimen. Methods In this cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness study, primary care teams within sites were randomized to a program led by a clinical pharmacist trained in motivational interviewing-based behavioral counseling approaches and authorized to make BP medication changes or to usual care. This study involved the collection of data during a 14-month intervention period in three Department of Veterans Affairs facilities and two Kaiser Permanente Northern California facilities. The clinical pharmacist was supported by clinical information systems that enabled proactive identification of, and outreach to, eligible patients identified on the basis of poor BP control and either medication refill gaps or lack of recent medication intensification. The primary outcome is the relative change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements over time. Secondary outcomes are changes in Hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), medication adherence determined from pharmacy refill data, and medication intensification rates. Discussion Integration of the three intervention elements - proactive identification, adherence counseling and medication intensification - is essential to achieve optimal levels of control for high-risk patients. Testing the effectiveness of this intervention at the team level allows us to study the program as it would typically be implemented within a clinic setting, including how it integrates with other elements of care. Trial Registration The ClinicalTrials.gov registration number is NCT00495794. PMID:20939913

2010-01-01

155

Study protocol. A prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women: the pregnancy outcome prediction study.  

E-print Network

stillbirth, have remained largely unchanged over recent years [2]. The normal approach is to assess women for risk factors in their medical, gynaecological and obstet- ric history at the booking visit. This is followed by serial antenatal visits with a... their hand held notes contained in a plastic folder with the study logo to flag their participation. Moreover, a sticker is placed in the delivery unit section of the notes to flag the need for pla- cental collection and a sheet with instructions is included...

Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Dacey, Alison; Cook, Emma; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; White, Ian R; Smith, Gordon C S

2008-11-19

156

A study of admissions and inpatients over the Christmas period using the appropriateness evaluation protocol (AEP).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine appropriateness of admissions and inpatients over Christmas especially in the elderly. The study was a prospective audit of admissions and inpatients to the Whittington Hospital. The main outcome measures were appropriateness of admission or day of hospital residence using the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol. The protocol was applied to admissions and inpatients over Christmas and control periods. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the number of elderly admissions between the control period and Christmas period, 94 (34%) vs. 104 (43%) (P=0.02). However there was no corresponding change in appropriateness of elderly admissions, ten (10.6%) vs. six (5.8%), (P=0.2). The inappropriateness of day of hospital residence increased from 10% on the control day to 20% on the study day (P=0.02). In conclusion elderly patients are not admitted more inappropriately over Christmas but their discharge at this time appears to be delayed resulting in inappropriate bed use. PMID:10989166

Henshaw; Pollock; Rai; Gluck

2000-08-01

157

Computer Chips and Paper Clips. Technology and Women's Employment. Volume II. Case Studies and Policy Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 12 papers commissioned by the Panel on Technology and Women's Employment. "Technology, Women, and Work: Policy Perspectives" (Eli Ginzberg) is an overview that provides a context for the volume. The four case studies in Part II describe the impact of information technology in the insurance industry, among bookkeepers, among…

Hartmann, Heidi I., Ed.; And Others

158

Testing a Theory-Based Mobility Monitoring Protocol Using In-Home Sensors: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Mobility is a key factor in the performance of many everyday tasks required for independent living as a person grows older. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to test a theory-based mobility monitoring protocol by comparing sensor-based measures to self-report measures of mobility and assessing the acceptability of in-home sensors with older adults. Standardized instruments to measure physical, psychosocial and cognitive parameters were administered to 8 community-dwelling older adults at baseline, 3 month and 6 month visits (examples: FES, GDS-SF, Mini-cog). Semi-structured interviews to characterize acceptability of the technology were conducted at 3 month and 6 month visits. Technical issues prevented comparison of sensor-based measures with self-report measures. In-home sensor technology for monitoring mobility is acceptable to older adults. Implementing our theory-based mobility monitoring protocol in a field study in the homes of older adults is a feasible undertaking but requires more robust technology for sensor-based measure validation. PMID:23938159

Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Lazar, Amanda; Joe, Jonathan; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J.

2014-01-01

159

Pilot study of a robotic protocol to treat shoulder subluxation in patients with chronic stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Shoulder subluxation is a frequent complication of motor impairment after stroke, leading to soft tissue damage, stretching of the joint capsule, rotator cuff injury, and in some cases pain, thus limiting use of the affected extremity beyond weakness. In this pilot study, we determined whether robotic treatment of chronic shoulder subluxation can lead to functional improvement and whether any improvement was robust. Methods 18 patients with chronic stroke (3.9 ± 2.9 years from acute stroke), completed 6 weeks of robotic training using the linear shoulder robot. Training was performed 3 times per week on alternate days. Each session consisted of 3 sets of 320 repetitions of the affected arm, and the robotic protocol alternated between training vertical arm movements, shoulder flexion and extension, in an anti-gravity plane, and training horizontal arm movements, scapular protraction and retraction, in a gravity eliminated plane. Results Training with the linear robot improved shoulder stability, motor power, and resulted in improved functional outcomes that were robust 3 months after training. Conclusion In this uncontrolled pilot study, the robotic protocol effectively treated shoulder subluxation in chronic stroke patients. Treatment of subluxation can lead to improved functional use of the affected arm, likely by increasing motor power in the trained muscles. PMID:23914834

2013-01-01

160

A comparative study of the performance of seven- and 63-chip optical code-division multiple-access encoders and decoders based on superstructured fiber Bragg gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a range of elementary optical coding and decoding experiments employing superstructured fiber Bragg grating (SSFBG) components: first, we perform a comparative study of the relative merits of bipolar and unipolar coding: decoding schemes and show that the SSFBG approach allows high-quality unipolar and bipolar coding. A performance close to that-theoretically predicted for seven-chip, 160-Gchip\\/s M-sequence codes is obtained.

Peh Chiong Teh; Periklis Petropoulos; Morten Ibsen; David J. Richardson

2001-01-01

161

The HALO submaximal treadmill protocol to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in obese children and youth: a proof of principle study.  

PubMed

Many limitations exist with completing cardiorespiratory fitness testing in obese children. The aim of this study was to determine if the new Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group's (HALO's) submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness testing protocol for obese children and youth provides a comparable estimate of peak oxygen uptake to that measured using validated maximal and submaximal, equation-based protocols in the obese pediatric population. A group of obese children (n = 21; all ?95th body mass index percentile; aged 10-17 years) completed 3 exercise testing protocols. Testing was completed as part of an ongoing cohort study and 2 submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness tests were completed, in randomized order, during a second visit. Significant correlations were found between observed peak oxygen uptake (mL·min(-1)) and predicted peak oxygen uptake for both the HALO (r = 0.75, p = 0.001) and Nemeth (r = 0.66, p = 0.001) submaximal protocols. A similar correlation was found, after accounting for body mass, between measured and predicted HALO peak oxygen uptake (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) values (r = 0.54, p = 0.01). HALO predicted peak oxygen uptake values showed a significant correlation when plotted against the measured values (r = 0.99). A Bland-Altman analysis found agreement between the maximal and HALO submaximal protocols (mean bias = -201.75 mL·min(-1)). The significant relationships found between estimates of peak oxygen uptake from the HALO submaximal protocol and measures of peak oxygen uptake during maximal cardiorespiratory testing support the use of the HALO submaximal protocol as a valid measure to estimate maximal cardiorespiratory fitness within the obese pediatric population. Given the proof of principle goal of this study, future research in the obese, pediatric population is encouraged to confirm the generalizability of the protocol. PMID:22452609

Breithaupt, Peter; Adamo, Kristi B; Colley, Rachel C

2012-04-01

162

Concept and approach of human signal-molecular-profiling database: a pilot study on depression using Lab-on-chips.  

PubMed

Signal molecular profiling (SMP) in serum can reveal abundant medical information about the human body. The construction of a human signal-molecular-profiling database (HSMPD) will greatly prompt the research of medical science. However, some challenges hinder the construction of HSMPD. A promising strategy is proposed to provide a convenient way for the establishment of HSMPD. Firstly, a low-cost and high-throughput tool for measuring SMP should be developed and standardized. When the SMP-oriented tools were accepted by most hospitals worldwide, SMP information will be decoded by a cloud-based system and stored into the online database naturally. In the pilot study, an ultrasensitive Lab-on-chips (LOC) device was developed as a specific tool for SMP. Clinical serum samples from 10 women within 4 weeks of giving birth, including 2 patients with postpartum depression were studied by the LOC devices, since accumulating evidence has indicated that hormones and cytokines in patients with mood disorders are abnormal. HSMPD may be applied to diagnose depression in the future. Here, five kinds of signal molecules were quantified on the devices, namely, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and IL-8. The preliminary results showed that the concentrations of IL-2 and IL-8 in the depression group may be higher than those in the control group, whereas the other kinds of signal molecules did not change significantly. Although the correlations are not enough to induct any diagnostic criterion, the SMP-oriented tool was verified. The results also indicated that the strategy to establish HSMPD is conceivable. PMID:24110801

Dong, Tao; Zhao, Xinyan; Yang, Zhaochu

2013-01-01

163

Protocol for studying extinction of conditioned fear in naturally cycling female rats.  

PubMed

Extinction of conditioned fear has been extensively studied in male rodents. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies indicating that neural mechanisms for certain behavioral tasks and response behaviors are different in females and males. Using females in research studies can represent a challenge because of the variation of gonadal hormones during their estrous cycle. This protocol describes well-established procedures that are useful in investigating the role of estrogen in fear extinction memory consolidation in female rats. Phase of the estrous cycle and exogenous estrogen administration prior to extinction training can influence extinction recall 24 hr later. The vaginal swabbing technique for estrous phase identification described here aids the examination and manipulation of naturally cycling gonadal hormones. The use of this basic rodent model may further delineate the mechanisms by which estrogen can modulate fear extinction memory in females. PMID:25741747

Maeng, Lisa Y; Cover, Kara K; Landau, Aaron J; Milad, Mohammed R; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer

2015-01-01

164

Protocol for Studying Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Naturally Cycling Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Extinction of conditioned fear has been extensively studied in male rodents. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies indicating that neural mechanisms for certain behavioral tasks and response behaviors are different in females and males. Using females in research studies can represent a challenge because of the variation of gonadal hormones during their estrous cycle. This protocol describes well-established procedures that are useful in investigating the role of estrogen in fear extinction memory consolidation in female rats. Phase of the estrous cycle and exogenous estrogen administration prior to extinction training can influence extinction recall 24 hr later. The vaginal swabbing technique for estrous phase identification described here aids the examination and manipulation of naturally cycling gonadal hormones. The use of this basic rodent model may further delineate the mechanisms by which estrogen can modulate fear extinction memory in females. PMID:25741747

Maeng, Lisa Y.; Cover, Kara K.; Landau, Aaron J.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer

2015-01-01

165

Optimization of the scan protocols for CT-based material extraction in small animal PET/CT studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of scan protocols on CT-based material extraction to minimize radiation dose while maintaining sufficient image information in small animal studies. The phantom simulation experiments were performed with the high dose (HD), medium dose (MD) and low dose (LD) protocols at 50, 70 and 80 kVp with varying mA s. The reconstructed CT images were segmented based on Hounsfield unit (HU)-physical density (?) calibration curves and the dual-energy CT-based (DECT) method. Compared to the (HU;?) method performed on CT images acquired with the 80 kVp HD protocol, a 2-fold improvement in segmentation accuracy and a 7.5-fold reduction in radiation dose were observed when the DECT method was performed on CT images acquired with the 50/80 kVp LD protocol, showing the possibility to reduce radiation dose while achieving high segmentation accuracy.

Yang, Ching-Ching; Yu, Jhih-An; Yang, Bang-Hung; Wu, Tung-Hsin

2013-12-01

166

Protocol Development  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Protocol Development Protocol

167

Biology on a Chip: Microfabrication for Studying the Behavior of Cultured Cells  

PubMed Central

The ability to culture cells in vitro has revolutionized hypothesis testing in basic cell and molecular biology research and has become a standard methodology in drug screening and toxicology assays. However, the traditional cell culture methodology—consisting essentially of the immersion of a large population of cells in a homogeneous fluid medium—has become increasingly limiting, both from a fundamental point of view (cells in vivo are surrounded by complex spatiotemporal microenvironments) and from a practical perspective (scaling up the number of fluid handling steps and cell manipulations for high-throughput studies in vitro is prohibitively expensive). Micro fabrication technologies have enabled researchers to design, with micrometer control, the biochemical composition and topology of the substrate, the medium composition, as well as the type of neighboring cells surrounding the microenvironment of the cell. In addition, microtechnology is conceptually well suited for the development of fast, low-cost in vitro systems that allow for high-throughput culturing and analysis of cells under large numbers of conditions. Here we review a variety of applications of microfabrication in cell culture studies, with an emphasis on the biology of various cell types. PMID:15139302

Li, Nianzhen; Tourovskaia, Anna; Folch, Albert

2013-01-01

168

Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol utilising longitudinal outcome measurement, surveys, patient and family qualitative interviews and focus groups, staff qualitative interviews, health economics and document analysis. Aim 1) To describe the nature and scope of HIV care and support in two African countries, including the types of facilities available, clients seen, and availability of specific components of care [Study Phase 1]. Aim 2) To determine patient health outcomes over time and principle cost drivers [Study Phase 2]. The study objectives are as follows. 1) To undertake a cross-sectional survey of service configuration and activity by sampling 10% of the facilities being funded by PEPFAR to provide HIV care and support in Kenya and Uganda (Phase 1) in order to describe care currently provided, including pharmacy drug reviews to determine availability and supply of essential drugs in HIV management. 2) To conduct patient focus group discussions at each of these (Phase 1) to determine care received. 3) To undertake a longitudinal prospective study of 1200 patients who are newly diagnosed with HIV or patients with HIV who present with a new problem attending PEPFAR care and support services. Data collection includes self-reported quality of life, core palliative outcomes and components of care received (Phase 2). 4) To conduct qualitative interviews with staff, patients and carers in order to explore and understand service issues and care provision in more depth (Phase 2). 5) To undertake document analysis to appraise the clinical care procedures at each facility (Phase 2). 6) To determine principle cost drivers including staff, overhead and laboratory costs (Phase 2). Discussion This novel mixed methods protocol will permit transparent presentation of subsequent dataset results publication, and offers a substantive model of protocol design to measure and integrate key activities and outcomes that underpin a public health approach to disease management in a low-income setting. PMID:20920241

2010-01-01

169

DCP CONSORTIA CHEMOPREVENTION PROTOCOL TEMPLATE  

Cancer.gov

The protocol template is a tool to facilitate rapid protocol development. It is not intended to supersede the role of the Protocol Principal Investigator in the authoring and scientific development of the protocol. It contains the language required in protocols submitted to the NCI, Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). Please modify all sections as necessary to meet the scientific aims of the study and development of the protocol.

170

Lignin biodegradation and ligninolytic enzyme studies during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips by tropical white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more

C. Y. Liew; A. Husaini; H. Hussain; S. Muid; K. C. Liew; H. A. Roslan

2011-01-01

171

Radiation damage studies of XAA1.2 ASIC chip for the SuperAGILE experiment onboard AGILE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperAGILE is the X-ray instrument of the AGILE Mission. It is a set of silicon micro-strip detectors tiles coupled with a tungsten coded mask. The front end electronics of SuperAGILE is based on 48 ASIC XAA1.2 chips, each one collecting and conditioning the signals from 128 strips of the detector. Since this chip was not developed as a radiation resistant component for space applications and in order to predict and prevent the potential problems deriving from the space radiation environment, we irradiated two of such chips with ions of different chemical specie, ranging from 16O to 127I. At the 15 MV Tandem accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali INFN di Legnaro we measured the occurrence of latch-up and Single Event Upset and the effects due to the absorbed total dose on the supply currents and on the bias currents which control the performances of the chip. In this paper we discuss how the results can be scaled to the AGILE environment and the impact of these data on the experiment design and on the observing strategy.

Del Monte, Ettore; Costa, Enrico; Di Persio, Giuseppe; Feroci, Marco; Mastropietro, Marcello; Morelli, E.; Pacciani, Luigi; Porrovecchio, G.; Rapisarda, Massimo; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Bisello, D.; Candelori, Andrea; Kaminski, Alexander; Wyss, Jeff

2003-03-01

172

Simulation and experimental validation of micro polymerase chain reaction chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used finite element analysis to simulate the temperature characteristics of a micro polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip. The micro-PCR chip was fabricated on a silicon wafer and Pyrex glass using photolithography, wet etching, and anodic bonding methods. The main goal of this study was to analyze the temperature uniformity and distribution of the micro-PCR chip, the temperature distribution

Yu-Cheng Lin; Chung-Che Yang; Ming-Yuan Huang

2000-01-01

173

A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

2000-01-01

174

Study of the influence of micro-oxygenation and oak chip maceration on wine composition using an electronic tongue and chemical analysis.  

PubMed

The influence of micro-oxygenation (MOX) and maceration with oak chips treatments on wine was studied on wine samples from three vintages produced in the Yarra Valley, Australia. A full factorial design was employed where two factors (MOX and oak chips treatments) had two levels and one factor (vintage) had three levels. Three replicated treatments were run for each factor's setting. Wine samples were analysed using conventional laboratory methods with respect to the phenolic wine compounds and colour attributes since the phenolic fraction of wine is most affected by both MOX and oak maceration treatments. The same wine samples were measured with an electronic tongue based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The significance of treatments and vintage effects on wine phenolic compounds was assessed using ANOVA and ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Cross-validation was used for the ASCA sub-model optimisations and permutation test for evaluations of the significance of the factors. Main effects of vintage and maceration with oak chips were found to be significant for both physicochemical and the ET data. Main effect of MOX treatment was also found significant for the physicochemical parameters. The largest effect on the phenolic composition of wine was due to its vintage, which accounted for 70% and 33% of total variance in the physicochemical and ET data respectively. The ET was calibrated with respect to the total phenolic content, colour density and hue and chemical ages 1 and 2 and could predict these parameters of wine with good precision. PMID:19427482

Rudnitskaya, A; Schmidtke, L M; Delgadillo, I; Legin, A; Scollary, G

2009-05-29

175

Causes and consequences of cerebral small vessel disease. The RUN DMC study: a prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a frequent finding on CT and MRI scans of elderly people and is related to vascular risk factors and cognitive and motor impairment, ultimately leading to dementia or parkinsonism in some. In general, the relations are weak, and not all subjects with SVD become demented or get parkinsonism. This might be explained by the diversity of underlying pathology of both white matter lesions (WML) and the normal appearing white matter (NAWM). Both cannot be properly appreciated with conventional MRI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides alternative information on microstructural white matter integrity. The association between SVD, its microstructural integrity, and incident dementia and parkinsonism has never been investigated. Methods/Design The RUN DMC study is a prospective cohort study on the risk factors and cognitive and motor consequences of brain changes among 503 non-demented elderly, aged between 50-85 years, with cerebral SVD. First follow up is being prepared for July 2011. Participants alive will be included and invited to the research centre to undergo a structured questionnaire on demographics and vascular risk factors, and a cognitive, and motor, assessment, followed by a MRI protocol including conventional MRI, DTI and resting state fMRI. Discussion The follow up of the RUN DMC study has the potential to further unravel the causes and possibly better predict the consequences of changes in white matter integrity in elderly with SVD by using relatively new imaging techniques. When proven, these changes might function as a surrogate endpoint for cognitive and motor function in future therapeutic trials. Our data could furthermore provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive and motor disturbances in elderly with SVD. The execution and completion of the follow up of our study might ultimately unravel the role of SVD on the microstructural integrity of the white matter in the transition from "normal" aging to cognitive and motor decline and impairment and eventually to incident dementia and parkinsonism. PMID:21356112

2011-01-01

176

Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real experiences using advanced technologies (virtual reality, advanced sensors and smartphones) is a feasible way to address actual limitations of existing protocols for psychological stress. Trial registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01683617 PMID:23806013

2013-01-01

177

Lab-on a-Chip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helen Cole, the project manager for the Lab-on-a-Chip Applications Development program, and Lisa Monaco, the project scientist for the program, insert a lab on a chip into the Caliper 42 which is specialized equipment that controls processes on commercial chips to support development of lab-on-a-chip applications. The system has special microscopes and imaging systems, so scientists can process and study different types of fluid, chemical, and medical tests conducted on chips. For example, researchers have examined fluorescent bacteria as it flows through the chips' fluid channels or microfluidic capillaries. Researchers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have been studying how the lab-on-a-chip technology can be used for microbial detection, water quality monitoring, and detecting biosignatures of past or present life on Mars. The Marshall Center team is also collaborating with scientists at other NASA centers and at universities to develop custom chip designs for not only space applications, but for many Earth applications, such as for detecting deadly microbes in heating and air systems. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

2003-01-01

178

How to design in situ studies: an evaluation of experimental protocols  

PubMed Central

Objectives Designing in situ models for caries research is a demanding procedure, as both clinical and laboratory parameters need to be incorporated in a single study. This study aimed to construct an informative guideline for planning in situ models relevant to preexisting caries studies. Materials and Methods An electronic literature search of the PubMed database was performed. A total 191 of full articles written in English were included and data were extracted from materials and methods. Multiple variables were analyzed in relation to the publication types, participant characteristics, specimen and appliance factors, and other conditions. Frequencies and percentages were displayed to summarize the data and the Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess a statistical significance (p < 0.05). Results There were many parameters commonly included in the majority of in situ models such as inclusion criteria, sample sizes, sample allocation methods, tooth types, intraoral appliance types, sterilization methods, study periods, outcome measures, experimental interventions, etc. Interrelationships existed between the main research topics and some parameters (outcome measures and sample allocation methods) among the evaluated articles. Conclusions It will be possible to establish standardized in situ protocols according to the research topics. Furthermore, data collaboration from comparable studies would be enhanced by homogeneous study designs. PMID:25110639

Sung, Young-Hye; Kim, Hae-Young; Son, Ho-Hyun

2014-01-01

179

Assessment of flip chip assembly and reliability via reflowable underfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents process concerns of flip-chip assembly via reflowable underfill in terms of substrate prebake, underfill dispensing, chip placement and overmolding that is required in certain applications. Test vehicles with various chip configurations and substrate design have been used in this study. The effects of substrate thickness, bond pad design and solder mask thickness on assembly defects, where void

Tie Wang; T. H. Chew; Colin Lum; Y. X. Chew; P. Miao; L. Foo

2001-01-01

180

A chip-based Teflon^R AF coated liquid core waveguide on Si: microfabrication and analytical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here a chip based liquid core waveguide device fabricated on (100) Si substrate that shows excellent signal enhancement properties. Both straight and curved channels, 500 mum wide and 180 mum deep, are etched on Si substrate using standard photolithography and wet etching. Teflon^R AF 1601S (Dupont) having a refractive index of 1.30 is used to coat the channels.

Arindom Datta; In-Yong Eom; Petr Kuban; Purnendu K. Dasgupta; Henryk Temkin; Shubhra Gangopadhyay

2003-01-01

181

Protocol Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Protocol Online is a database of research protocols in a variety of life science fields. It contains protocols contributed by worldwide researchers as well as links to web protocols hosted by worldwide research labs, biotech companies, personal web sites. The data is stored in a MySql relational database. Protocol Online also hosts discipline specific discussion forums (BioForum), and provides a free PubMed search and alerting service (PubAlert).

Long-Cheng Li (Protocol Online)

2012-01-06

182

Parametrized Verification of Distributed Cyber-Physical Systems: An Aircraft Landing Protocol Case Study  

E-print Network

and automatically verify the key safety property of the protocol regardless of the number of aircraft in the systemParametrized Verification of Distributed Cyber-Physical Systems: An Aircraft Landing Protocol Case called the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). Each aircraft is modeled as a timed automaton

Liberzon, Daniel

183

A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to ellestad stress test protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the

Y. K. Lee; A. Za'aba; N. K. Madzhi; A. Ahmad

2009-01-01

184

Implantable RFID Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantable RFID chips are being seen as a potential security device for the very near future with the availability of these\\u000a chips already in the marketplace. The applications are presented in a broadly positive light in their use in contexts that\\u000a range from health monitoring to emergency solutions. But there is a darker side to RFID chips: with their implantation,

Vikas Kumar

185

Flip Chip Tutorial Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page covers flip chip assembly processes and applications. The first tutorial describes what a flip chip is and does, with some bumping and assembly methods. Subsequent tutorials cover each major element of flip chip processing, explaining the basics in more detail, updating and supplementing earlier tutorials, and presenting a growing range of micropackaging topics. Tutorials are added monthly. Keywords: Semiconductor, processing, packaging, handling

186

Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: protocol for a proof-of-principle study  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: protocol for a proof-of-principle study Laurence RJ Wood1, George M Peat1*, Ricky Mullis2, Elaine Thomas1, Nadine E Foster1 Abstract Background: Exercise... potential reason for this may be that many of these clinical trials have tended to adopt a one-size-fits-all approach, whereby * Correspondence: g.m.peat@cphc.keele.ac.uk 1Arthritis Research UK Primary Care Centre, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST7...

Wood, Laurence R J; Peat, George M; Mullis, Ricky; Thomas, Elaine; Foster, Nadine E

2011-01-07

187

Ex post facto assessment of diffusion tensor imaging metrics from different MRI protocols: Preparing for multicentre studies in ALS.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessing ALS-associated white matter alterations has still not reached the level of a neuroimaging biomarker. Since large-scale multicentre DTI studies in ALS may be hampered by differences in scanning protocols, an approach for pooling of DTI data acquired with different protocols was investigated. Three hundred and nine datasets from 170 ALS patients and 139 controls were collected ex post facto from a monocentric database reflecting different scanning protocols. A 3D correction algorithm was introduced for a combined analysis of DTI metrics despite different acquisition protocols, with the focus on the CST as the tract correlate of ALS neuropathological stage 1. A homogenous set of data was obtained by application of 3D correction matrices. Results showed that a fractional anisotropy (FA) threshold of 0.41 could be defined to discriminate ALS patients from controls (sensitivity/specificity, 74%/72%). For the remaining test sample, sensitivity/specificity values of 68%/74% were obtained. In conclusion, the objective was to merge data recorded with different DTI protocols with 3D correction matrices for analyses at group level. These post processing tools might facilitate analysis of large study samples in a multicentre setting for DTI analysis at group level to aid in establishing DTI as a non-invasive biomarker for ALS. PMID:25574564

Rosskopf, Johannes; Müller, Hans-Peter; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Gorges, Martin; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

2015-03-01

188

Comparative study of different centrifugation protocols for a density gradient separation media in isolation of osteoprogenitors from bone marrow aspirate  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human bone marrow contains osteoprogenitors capable of differentiating into osteoblasts. Density gradient centrifugation (DGC) is a commonly used method to isolate osteoprogenitors from bone marrow. Numerous studies used different dilution and centrifugation protocols, which might affect cell yields and quality. Moreover, the relative isolation efficiencies of the different separation protocols have not been investigated. This study compares the enrichment efficacy of the two different centrifugation protocols for a commonly used DGC media in isolation of osteoprogenitors. Material and method Bone marrow was aspirated from human anterior iliac crests. Osteoprogenitors are isolated with Ficoll DGC media. A centrifugal force of 400 g and 1:1 dilution was compared with the centrifugal force of 1000 g after three dilution times with a buffer. Results The average numbers of isolated cells were significantly higher when using lower centrifugal force with 1:1 dilution, however, there was no detectable difference between Colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU–F) forming capacity, STRO-1 positivity, osteogenic differentiation or mineralization abilities between protocols. Conclusion Both protocols could isolate competent and functional osteoprogenitors, while a lower centrifugal force (400 g) with 1:1 dilution produced recovery of more osteoprogenitors. PMID:25737938

Naung, Noel Ye; Suttapreyasri, Srisurang; Kamolmatyakul, Suttatip; Nuntanaranont, Thongchai

2014-01-01

189

Opto-electronic DNA chip-based integrated card for clinical diagnostics.  

PubMed

Clinical diagnostics is one of the most promising applications for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip or lab-on-card systems. DNA chips, which provide multiparametric data, are privileged tools for genomic analysis. However, automation of molecular biology protocol and use of these DNA chips in fully integrated systems remains a great challenge. Simplicity of chip and/or card/instrument interfaces is amongst the most critical issues to be addressed. Indeed, current detection systems for DNA chip reading are often complex, expensive, bulky and even limited in terms of sensitivity or accuracy. Furthermore, for liquid handling in the lab-on-cards, many devices use complex and bulky systems, either to directly manipulate fluids, or to ensure pneumatic or mechanical control of integrated valves. All these drawbacks prevent or limit the use of DNA-chip-based integrated systems, for point-of-care testing or as a routine diagnostics tool. We present here a DNA-chip-based protocol integration on a plastic card for clinical diagnostics applications including: (1) an opto-electronic DNA-chip, (2) fluid handling using electrically activated embedded pyrotechnic microvalves with closing/opening functions. We demonstrate both fluidic and electric packaging of the optoelectronic DNA chip without major alteration of its electronical and biological functionalities, and fluid control using novel electrically activable pyrotechnic microvalves. Finally, we suggest a complete design of a card dedicated to automation of a complex biological protocol with a fully electrical fluid handling and DNA chip reading. PMID:17636395

Marchand, Gilles; Broyer, Patrick; Lanet, Véronique; Delattre, Cyril; Foucault, Frédéric; Menou, Lionel; Calvas, Bernard; Roller, Denis; Ginot, Frédéric; Campagnolo, Raymond; Mallard, Frédéric

2008-02-01

190

UW VLSI chip tester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

McKenzie, Neil

1989-12-01

191

Color Chips-Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps the learner conceptualize the addition of signed numbers. The user clicks and drags red and black colored chips to a circle to represent a problem and then simplifies by placing a red negative chip on top of a positive black chip. The student actually sees the opposite pair disappear. Users may practice problems generated by the computer, themselves or free play with the chips. There are separate tabs to access information for the learner, the instructor and to seek help.

2005-01-01

192

Short and long-term effectiveness of couple counselling: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Healthy couple relationships are fundamental to a healthy society, whereas relationship breakdown and discord are linked to a wide range of negative health and wellbeing outcomes. Two types of relationship services (couple counselling and relationship education) have demonstrated efficacy in many controlled studies but evidence of the effectiveness of community-based relationship services has lagged behind. This study protocol describes an effectiveness evaluation of the two types of community-based relationship services. The aims of the Evaluation of Couple Counselling study are to: map the profiles of clients seeking agency-based couple counselling and relationship enhancement programs in terms of socio-demographic, relationship, health, and health service use indicators; to determine 3 and 12-month outcomes for relationship satisfaction, commitment, and depression; and determine relative contributions of client and therapy factors to outcomes. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental pre-post-post evaluation design is used to assess outcomes for couples presenting for the two types of community-based relationship services. The longitudinal design involves a pre-treatment survey and two follow-up surveys at 3- and 12-months post-intervention. The study is set in eight Relationships Australia Victoria centres, across metropolitan, outer suburbs, and regional/rural sites. Relationships Australia, a non-government organisation, is the largest provider of couple counselling and relationship services in Australia. The key outcomes are couple satisfaction, relationship commitment, and depression measured by the CESD-10. Multi-level modelling will be used to account for the dyadic nature of couple data. Discussion The study protocol describes the first large scale investigation of the effectiveness of two types of relationship services to be conducted in Australia. Its significance lies in providing more detailed profiles of couples who seek relationship services, in evaluating both 3 and 12-month relationship and health outcomes, and in determining factors that best predict improvements. It builds on prior research by using a naturalistic sample, an effectiveness research design, a more robust measure of relationship satisfaction, robust health indicators, a 12-month follow-up period, and a more rigorous statistical procedure suitable for dyadic data. Findings will provide a more precise description of those seeking relationship services and factors associated with improved relationship and health outcomes. PMID:22943742

2012-01-01

193

CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

194

The 2nd Berlin BedRest Study: protocol and implementation.  

PubMed

Long-term bed-rest is used to simulate the effect of spaceflight on the human body and test different kinds of countermeasures. The 2nd Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2) tested the efficacy of whole-body vibration in addition to high-load resisitance exercise in preventing bone loss during bed-rest. Here we present the protocol of the study and discuss its implementation. Twenty-four male subjects underwent 60-days of six-degree head down tilt bed-rest and were randomised to an inactive control group (CTR), a high-load resistive exercise group (RE) or a high-load resistive exercise with whole-body vibration group (RVE). Subsequent to events in the course of the study (e.g. subject withdrawal), 9 subjects participated in the CTR-group, 7 in the RVE-group and 8 (7 beyond bed-rest day-30) in the RE-group. Fluid intake, urine output and axiallary temperature increased during bed-rest (p < .0001), though similarly in all groups (p > or = .17). Body weight changes differed between groups (p < .0001) with decreases in the CTR-group, marginal decreases in the RE-group and the RVE-group displaying significant decreases in body-weight beyond bed-rest day-51 only. In light of events and experiences of the current study, recommendations on various aspects of bed-rest methodology are also discussed. PMID:20811145

Belavý, D L; Bock, O; Börst, H; Armbrecht, G; Gast, U; Degner, C; Beller, G; Soll, H; Salanova, M; Habazettl, H; Heer, M; de Haan, A; Stegeman, D F; Cerretelli, P; Blottner, D; Rittweger, J; Gelfi, C; Kornak, U; Felsenberg, D

2010-09-01

195

Remote ischemic preconditioning to reduce contrast-induced nephropathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increasing use of pre- and posthydration protocols and low-osmolar instead of high-osmolar iodine-containing contrast media, the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is still significant. There is evidence that contrast media cause ischemia-reperfusion injury of the medulla. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive, safe, and low-cost method to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The RIPCIN study is a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial in which 76 patients at risk of CIN will receive standard hydration combined with RIPC or hydration with sham preconditioning. RIPC will be applied by four cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion of the forearm by inflating a blood pressure cuff at 50 mmHg above the actual systolic pressure. The primary outcome measure will be the change in serum creatinine from baseline to 48 to 72 h after contrast administration. Discussion A recent pilot study reported that RIPC reduced the incidence of CIN after coronary angioplasty. The unusual high incidence of CIN in this study is of concern and limits its generalizability. Therefore, we propose a randomized controlled trial to study whether RIPC reduces contrast-induced kidney injury in patients at risk for CIN according to the Dutch guidelines. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76496973 PMID:24721127

2014-01-01

196

A pilot study of an acupuncture protocol to improve visual function in retinitis pigmentosa patients  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with retinitis pigmentosa are motivated to try complementary or integrative therapies to slow disease progression. Basic science, clinical research and retinitis pigmentosa patients' self-reports support the hypothesis that acupuncture may improve visual function. Methods A prospective, case series, pilot study enrolled 12 adult patients with RP treated at an academic medical centre with a standardised protocol that combined electroacupuncture to the forehead and below the eyes and acupuncture to the body, at 10 half-hour sessions over two weeks. Pre- and post-treatment tests included Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (VA), Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (CS), Goldmann visual fields, and dark-adapted full-field stimulus threshold (FST)(n = 9). Scotopic Sensitivity Tester-1 (SST-1) dark-adaptometry was performed on the last two subjects. Results Six of 12 subjects had measurable, significant visual function improvements after treatment. Three of nine subjects tested with the FST had a significant 10.3 to 17.5 dB (that is, 13- to 53-fold) improvement in both eyes at one week after acupuncture, maintained for at least 10 to 12 months, which was well outside typical test-retest variability (95% CI: 3–3.5 dB) previously found in retinitis pigmentosa. SST-1 dark-adaptation was shortened in both subjects tested on average by 48.5 per cent at one week (range 36 to 62 per cent across 10 to 30 dB), which was outside typical coefficients of variation of less than 30 per cent previously determined in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and normals. Four of the five subjects with psychophysically measured scotopic sensitivity improvements reported subjective improvements in vision at night or in dark environments. One subject had 0.2 logMAR improvement in VA; another had 0.55 logCS improvement. Another subject developed more than 20 per cent improvement in the area of the Goldmann visual fields. The acupuncture protocol was completed and well tolerated by all, without adverse events or visual loss. Conclusions Acupuncture entails minimal risk, if administered by a well-trained acupuncturist and may have significant, measurable benefits on residual visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, in particular scotopic sensitivity, which had not previously been studied. These preliminary findings support the need for future controlled studies of potential mechanisms. PMID:24773463

Bittner, Ava K; Gould, Jeffrey M; Rosenfarb, Andy; Rozanski, Collin; Dagnelie, Gislin

2014-01-01

197

Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.  

PubMed

Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria. PMID:23422471

Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

2013-01-01

198

A New Integrated Lab-on-a-Chip System for Fast Dynamic Study of Mammalian Cells under Physiological Conditions in Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

For the quantitative analysis of cellular metabolism and its dynamics it is essential to achieve rapid sampling, fast quenching of metabolism and the removal of extracellular metabolites. Common manual sample preparation methods and protocols for cells are time-consuming and often lead to the loss of physiological conditions. In this work, we present a microchip-bioreactor setup which provides an integrated and rapid sample preparation of mammalian cells. The lab-on-a-chip system consists of five connected units that allow sample treatment, mixing and incubation of the cells, followed by cell separation and simultaneous exchange of media within seconds. This microsystem is directly integrated into a bioreactor for mammalian cell cultivation. By applying overpressure (2 bar) onto the bioreactor, this setup allows pulsation free, defined, fast, and continuous sampling. Experiments evince that Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO-K1) can be separated from the culture broth and transferred into a new medium efficiently. Furthermore, this setup permits the treatment of cells for a defined time (9 s or 18 s) which can be utilized for pulse experiments, quenching of cell metabolism, and/or another defined chemical treatment. Proof of concept experiments were performed using glutamine containing medium for pulse experiments. Continuous sampling of cells showed a high reproducibility over a period of 18 h. PMID:24709705

Bahnemann, Janina; Rajabi, Negar; Fuge, Grischa; Platas Barradas, Oscar; Müller, Jörg; Pörtner, Ralf; Zeng, An-Ping

2013-01-01

199

Subgroup analyses in randomised controlled trials: cohort study on trial protocols and journal publications  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the planning of subgroup analyses in protocols of randomised controlled trials and the agreement with corresponding full journal publications. Design Cohort of protocols of randomised controlled trial and subsequent full journal publications. Setting Six research ethics committees in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada. Data sources 894 protocols of randomised controlled trial involving patients approved by participating research ethics committees between 2000 and 2003 and 515 subsequent full journal publications. Results Of 894 protocols of randomised controlled trials, 252 (28.2%) included one or more planned subgroup analyses. Of those, 17 (6.7%) provided a clear hypothesis for at least one subgroup analysis, 10 (4.0%) anticipated the direction of a subgroup effect, and 87 (34.5%) planned a statistical test for interaction. Industry sponsored trials more often planned subgroup analyses compared with investigator sponsored trials (195/551 (35.4%) v 57/343 (16.6%), P<0.001). Of 515 identified journal publications, 246 (47.8%) reported at least one subgroup analysis. In 81 (32.9%) of the 246 publications reporting subgroup analyses, authors stated that subgroup analyses were prespecified, but this was not supported by 28 (34.6%) corresponding protocols. In 86 publications, authors claimed a subgroup effect, but only 36 (41.9%) corresponding protocols reported a planned subgroup analysis. Conclusions Subgroup analyses are insufficiently described in the protocols of randomised controlled trials submitted to research ethics committees, and investigators rarely specify the anticipated direction of subgroup effects. More than one third of statements in publications of randomised controlled trials about subgroup prespecification had no documentation in the corresponding protocols. Definitive judgments regarding credibility of claimed subgroup effects are not possible without access to protocols and analysis plans of randomised controlled trials. PMID:25030633

2014-01-01

200

The heart healthy lenoir project-an intervention to reduce disparities in hypertension control: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Racial disparities in blood pressure control are well established; however the impact of low health literacy (LHL) on blood pressure has garnered less attention. Office based interventions that are created with iterative patient, practice and community stakeholder input and are rolled out incrementally, may help address these disparities in hypertension control. This paper describes our study protocol. Methods/design Using a community based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we designed and implemented a cohort study that includes both a practice level and patient level intervention to enhance the care and support of patients with hypertension in primary care practices in a rural region of eastern North Carolina. The study is divided into a formative phase and an ongoing 2.5 year implementation phase. Our main care enhancement activities include the integration of a community health coach, using home blood pressure monitoring in clinical decision making, standardizing care delivery processes, and working to improve medication adherence. Main outcomes include overall blood pressure change, the differential change in blood pressure by race (African American vs. White) and health literacy level (low vs. higher health literacy). Discussion Using a community based participatory approach in primary care practice settings has helped to engage patients and practice staff and providers in the research effort and in making practice changes to support hypertension care. Practices have engaged at varying levels, but progress has been made in implementing and iteratively improving upon the interventions to date. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01425515. PMID:24156629

2013-01-01

201

Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy augmentation in major depression treatment (ECAM study): study protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Major depression is a serious mental disorder that causes substantial distress and impairment in individuals and places an enormous burden on society. Although antidepressant treatment is the most common therapy provided in routine practice, there is little evidence to guide second-line therapy for patients who have failed to respond to antidepressants. The aim of this paper is to describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial that measures the clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as an augmentation strategy to treat patients with non-psychotic major depression identified as suboptimal responders to usual depression care. Methods and analysis The current study is a 16-week assessor-blinded randomised, parallel-groups superiority trial with 12-month follow-up at an outpatient clinic as part of usual depression care. Patients aged 20–65?years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Major Depressive Disorder who have experienced at least one failed trial of antidepressants as part of usual depression care, will be randomly assigned to receive CBT plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone. The primary outcome is the change in clinician-rated 17-item GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (GRID-HAMD) score at 16?weeks, and secondary outcomes include severity and change in scores of subjective depression symptoms, proportion of responders and remitters, safety and quality of life. The primary population will be the intention-to-treat patients. Ethics and dissemination All protocols and the informed consent form comply with the Ethics Guideline for Clinical Research (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). Ethics review committees at the Keio University School of Medicine and the Sakuragaoka Memorial Hospital approved the study protocol. The results of the study will be disseminated at several research conferences and as published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The study will be implemented and reported in line with the CONSORT statement. Trial registration number UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000001218. PMID:25335963

Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Mitsuda, Dai; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Abe, Takayuki; Sato, Yuji; Iwashita, Satoru; Mimura, Masaru; Ono, Yutaka

2014-01-01

202

BLOOD-ON-A-CHIP  

PubMed Central

Accurate, fast, and affordable analysis of the cellular component of blood is of prime interest for medicine and research. Yet, most often sample preparation procedures for blood analysis involve handling steps prone to introducing artifacts, whereas analysis methods commonly require skilled technicians and well-equipped, expensive laboratories. Developing more gentle protocols and affordable instruments for specific blood analysis tasks is becoming possible through the recent progress in the area of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip-type devices. Precise control over the cell microenvironment during separation procedures and the ability to scale down the analysis to very small volumes of blood are among the most attractive capabilities of the new approaches. Here we review some of the emerging principles for manipulating blood cells at microscale and promising high-throughput approaches to blood cell separation using microdevices. Examples of specific single-purpose devices are described together with integration strategies for blood cell separation and analysis modules. PMID:16004567

Toner, Mehmet; Irimia, Daniel

2013-01-01

203

A study of routing protocols and a hybrid routing protocol based on Rapid Spanning Tree and Cluster Head Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of small nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communication capabilities. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue. The focus, however, has been given to the routing protocols which might differ depending on the application and network architecture. In this paper,

N. P. Karthickraja; V. Sumathy

2010-01-01

204

FLIP CHIP ENCAPSULATION RELIABILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of flip chip technology by the electronic industry dates back to the early sixties. The concept of interconnection arrays, in contrast to the peripheral, offers a very attractive packaging technology from numerous aspects, including thermal, electrical and mechanical performance and size reduction. Although a very reliable technology, (more than a billion controlled collapse chip connections, C4, have been

Horatio Quinones; Alec Babiarz; Alan Lewis

1998-01-01

205

Study protocol for the evaluation of an Infant Simulator based program delivered in schools: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school based program developed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program includes students taking care of an Infant Simulator; despite growing popularity and an increasing global presence of such programs, there is no published evidence of their long-term impact. The aim of

Sally A Brinkman; Sarah E Johnson; David Lawrence; James P Codde; Michael B Hart; Judith AY Straton; Sven Silburn

2010-01-01

206

An in vitro study of the accuracy of a new protocol for planning distraction osteogenesis of the mandible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro accuracy of a new protocol for distraction osteogenesis of the mandible that involves a planning process and a surgical technique. Materials and Methods: An experimental design was developed to simulate distraction osteogenesis on stereolithographic models of patients with craniofacial deformities. All patients had previously undergone 3-dimensional computerized scans

Jaime Gateno; Marc E. Allen; John F. Teichgraeber; Marion L. Messersmith

2000-01-01

207

Exploring the Effect of Video Used to Enhance the Retrospective Verbal Protocol Analysis: A Multiple Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore how the use of video in the cognitive task analysis (CTA) retrospective verbal protocol analysis (RVPA) during a job analysis affects: (a) the quality of performing the CTA, (b) the time to complete the CTA, and (c) the cost to execute the CTA. Research has shown when using the simultaneous VPA during a CTA…

Monroe, Steven D.

2012-01-01

208

Acupuncture Antiarrhythmic Effects on Drug Refractory Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Study Protocol for a Randomized, Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of arrhythmia. Several trials have suggested that acupuncture may prevent AF. However, the efficacy of acupuncture for AF prevention has not been well investigated. Therefore, we designed a prospective, two-parallel-armed, participant and assessor blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial to investigate acupuncture in persistent AF (ACU-AF). Methods. A total of 80 participants will be randomly assigned to active acupuncture or sham acupuncture groups in a 1?:?1 ratio. Both groups will take the same antiarrhythmic medication during the study period. Patients will receive 10 sessions of acupuncture treatment once a week for 10 weeks. The primary endpoint is AF recurrence rate. Secondary endpoints are left atrium (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA) changes in function and volume, and inflammatory biomarker changes. Ethics. This study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards (IRBs) of Kyung Hee University Hospital (number 1335-04). This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02110537.

Park, Jimin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Seung Min; Yoon, Kanghyun; Kim, Woo-shik; Woo, Jong Shin; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Weon

2015-01-01

209

Title of Protocol: __________________________________________ Site of Study: _______________________________ Date of the consent form version  

E-print Network

: _______________________________ Date of the consent form version TITLE OF PROTOCOL INFORMED CONSENT FORM MONTREAL NEUROLOGICAL · Heart/Vascular Clip · Prosthetic Valve · Metal Prosthesis · Pregnancy · Claustrophobia · Metal fragments

Shoubridge, Eric

210

Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

E-print Network

in evaluating a CBT-based intervention, in making our powerthat have evaluated CBT-based interventions and reported aintervention, based on a manualized protocol developed within a social learning model grounded in CBT

Allen, Laura B; Tsao, Jennie CI; Hayes, Loran P; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

2011-01-01

211

Nicotine patch preloading for smoking cessation (the preloading trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The use of nicotine replacement therapy before quitting smoking is called nicotine preloading. Standard smoking cessation protocols suggest commencing nicotine replacement therapy only on the first day of quitting smoking (quit day) aiming to reduce withdrawal symptoms and craving. However, other, more successful smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are used prior to the quit day as well as after. Nicotine preloading could improve quit rates by reducing satisfaction from smoking prior to quitting and breaking the association between smoking and reward. A systematic literature review suggests that evidence for the effectiveness of preloading is inconclusive and further trials are needed. Methods/Design This is a study protocol for a multicenter, non-blinded, randomized controlled trial based in the United Kingdom, enrolling 1786 smokers who want to quit, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment program, and sponsored by the University of Oxford. Participants will primarily be recruited through general practices and smoking cessation clinics, and randomized (1:1) either to use 21 mg nicotine patches, or not, for four weeks before quitting, whilst smoking as normal. All participants will be referred to receive standard smoking cessation service support. Follow-ups will take place at one week, four weeks, six months and 12 months after quit day. The primary outcome will be prolonged, biochemically verified six-month abstinence. Additional outcomes will include point prevalence abstinence and abstinence of four-week and 12-month duration, side effects, costs of treatment, and markers of potential mediators and moderators of the preloading effect. Discussion This large trial will add substantially to evidence on the effectiveness of nicotine preloading, but also on its cost effectiveness and potential mediators, which have not been investigated in detail previously. A range of recruitment strategies have been considered to try and compensate for any challenges encountered in recruiting the large sample, and the multicentre design means that knowledge can be shared between recruitment teams. The pragmatic study design means that results will give a realistic estimate of the success of the intervention if it were to be rolled out as part of standard smoking cessation service practice. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN33031001. Registered 27 April 2012. PMID:25052334

2014-01-01

212

Towards a standardised approach for evaluating guidelines and guidance documents on palliative sedation: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Sedation in palliative care has received growing attention in recent years; and so have guidelines, position statements, and related literature that provide recommendations for its practice. Yet little is known collectively about the content, scope and methodological quality of these materials. According to research, there are large variations in palliative sedation practice, depending on the definition and methodology used. However, a standardised approach to comparing and contrasting related documents, across countries, associations and governmental bodies is lacking. This paper reports on a protocol designed to enable thorough and systematic comparison of guidelines and guidance documents on palliative sedation. Methods and design A multidisciplinary and international group of palliative care researchers, identified themes and clinical issues on palliative sedation based on expert consultations and evidence drawn from the EAPC (European Association of Palliative Care) framework for palliative sedation and AGREE II (Appraisal Guideline Research and Evaluation) instrument for guideline assessment. The most relevant themes were selected and built into a comprehensive checklist. This was tested on people working closely with practitioners and patients, for user-friendliness and comprehensibility, and modified where necessary. Next, a systematic search was conducted for guidelines in English, Dutch, Flemish, or Italian. The search was performed in multiple databases (PubMed, CancerLit, CNAHL, Cochrane Library, NHS Evidence and Google Scholar), and via other Internet resources. Hereafter, the final version of the checklist will be used to extract data from selected literature, and the same will be compiled, entered into SPSS, cleaned and analysed systematically for publication. Discussion We have together developed a comprehensive checklist in a scientifically rigorous manner to allow standardised and systematic comparison. The protocol is applicable to all guidelines on palliative sedation, and the approach will contribute to rigorous and systematic comparison of international guidelines on any challenging topic such as this. Results from the study will provide valuable insights into common core elements and differences between the selected guidelines, and the extent to which recommendations are derived from, or match those in the EAPC framework. The outcomes of the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and directly to appropriate audiences. PMID:25028571

2014-01-01

213

Study of Intermetallic Growth and Kinetics in Fine-Pitch Lead-Free Solder Bumps for Next-Generation Flip-Chip Assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continued advances in microelectronics, it is anticipated that next-generation microelectronic assemblies will require a reduction of the flip-chip solder bump pitch to 100 ?m or less from the current industrial practice of 130 ?m to 150 ?m. With this reduction in pitch size, and thus in bump height and diameter, the interaction between die pad metallurgy and substrate pad metallurgy becomes more critical due to the shorter diffusion path and greater stress. Existing literature has not addressed such metallurgical interaction in actual fine-pitch flip-chip assemblies. This work studies intermetallic growth and kinetics in fine-pitch lead-free solder bumps through thermal aging of flip-chip assemblies. Based on this study, it is seen that Ni from the die pad diffuses to the substrate pad region and Cu from the substrate pad diffuses to the die pad region, thus the resulting intermetallic compounds at the die and substrate pad regions are influenced by the other pad as well. Such cross-pad interaction is much stronger in fine-pitch solder bumps with smaller standoff height. It is seen that the die pad region contains Ni3P and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 after thermal aging, while the substrate pad region contains Cu3Sn and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5. By digitally measuring the thickness of the interfacial phases, the kinetics parameters and the activation energy were calculated for the growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 on the substrate side. The Cu diffusion coefficient through the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was found to be 0.03370 ?m2/h, 0.1423 ?m2/h, and 0.4463 ?m2/h at 100°C, 125°C, and 150°C, respectively, and the apparent activation energy for the growth of compound layers was 67.89 kJ/mol.

Tian, Ye; Chow, Justin; Liu, Xi; Wu, Yi Ping; Sitaraman, Suresh K.

2013-02-01

214

Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants levels that are taken as exposure levels. PMID:16934138

Yunesian, Masud; Asghari, Fariba; Vash, Javad Homayoun; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Farhud, Dariush

2006-01-01

215

Protocol for a prospective, multicentre registry study of stenting for symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis in China  

PubMed Central

Introduction The SAMMPRIS trial suggested that aggressive treatment was superior to endovascular stenting in patients with severe symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) due to high complication rates in patients in the stenting group. Given that 12.2% patients failed aggressive medical therapy in the SAMMPRIS study, it is imperative to perform a multicentre prospective registry study of stenting for patients with ICAS in China. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular stenting for patients with symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis and poor collaterals in China and to identify the characteristics of the population that would benefit the most from endovascular stenting in Chinese patients. Methods and analysis This multicentre prospective registry study will involve 20 stroke centres in China, and plans to recruit 300 patients into the registry. Patients with ?70% stenosis and symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease caused by hypoperfusion combined with poor collaterals who met the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria would be enrolled for this study. The primary outcome is the target vessel stroke event (including haemorrhagic or ischaemic stroke) or death within 30?days after stenting. The secondary outcomes include the successful recanalisation rate, the incidence of recurrent ischaemic stroke in the territory of the stented artery between 30?days and 1?year postoperatively, the restenosis rate and health-related quality of life. Ethics and dissemination The protocol is approved by the ethics committee at the coordinating centre and by the local institutional review board at each participating centre. Findings will be shared with participating hospitals, policymakers and the academic community to promote quality monitoring, quality improvement and the efficient allocation and use of cerebral catheterisation and intracranial artery stenting in China. Trial registration number http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01968122). PMID:25107437

Wang, Yilong; Miao, Zhongrong; Wang, Yongjun; Zhao, Xingquan; Gao, Peiyi; Liu, Liping; Wang, Feng; Liu, Yajie; Ma, Ning; Xu, Ziqi; Mo,, Dapeng; Gao, Feng

2014-01-01

216

Efficacy of family mediation and the role of family violence: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Family law reforms in Australia require separated parents in dispute to attempt mandatory family dispute resolution (FDR) in community-based family services before court attendance. However, there are concerns about such services when clients present with a history of high conflict and family violence. This study protocol describes a longitudinal study of couples presenting for family mediation services. The study aims to describe the profile of family mediation clients, including type of family violence, and determine the impact of violence profiles on FDR processes and outcomes, such as the type and durability of shared parenting arrangements and clients’ satisfaction with mediated agreements. Methods A mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal design is used. The sampling frame is clients presenting at nine family mediation centres across metropolitan, outer suburban, and regional/rural sites in Victoria, Australia. Data are collected at pre-test, completion of mediation, and six months later. Self-administered surveys are administered at the three time points, and a telephone interview at the final post-test. The key study variable is family violence. Key outcome measures are changes in the type and level of acrimony and violent behaviours, the relationship between violence and mediated agreements, the durability of agreements over six months, and client satisfaction with mediation. Discussion Family violence is a major risk to the physical and mental health of women and children. This study will inform debates about the role of family violence and how to manage it in the family mediation context. It will also inform decision-making about mediation practices by better understanding how mediation impacts on parenting agreements, and the implications for children, especially in the context of family violence. PMID:24443936

2014-01-01

217

Integrating addiction treatment into primary care using mobile health technology: protocol for an implementation research study  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare reform in the United States is encouraging Federally Qualified Health Centers and other primary-care practices to integrate treatment for addiction and other behavioral health conditions into their practices. The potential of mobile health technologies to manage addiction and comorbidities such as HIV in these settings is substantial but largely untested. This paper describes a protocol to evaluate the implementation of an E-Health integrated communication technology delivered via mobile phones, called Seva, into primary-care settings. Seva is an evidence-based system of addiction treatment and recovery support for patients and real-time caseload monitoring for clinicians. Methods/Design Our implementation strategy uses three models of organizational change: the Program Planning Model to promote acceptance and sustainability, the NIATx quality improvement model to create a welcoming environment for change, and Rogers’s diffusion of innovations research, which facilitates adaptations of innovations to maximize their adoption potential. We will implement Seva and conduct an intensive, mixed-methods assessment at three diverse Federally Qualified Healthcare Centers in the United States. Our non-concurrent multiple-baseline design includes three periods — pretest (ending in four months of implementation preparation), active Seva implementation, and maintenance — with implementation staggered at six-month intervals across sites. The first site will serve as a pilot clinic. We will track the timing of intervention elements and assess study outcomes within each dimension of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework, including effects on clinicians, patients, and practices. Our mixed-methods approach will include quantitative (e.g., interrupted time-series analysis of treatment attendance, with clinics as the unit of analysis) and qualitative (e.g., staff interviews regarding adaptations to implementation protocol) methods, and assessment of implementation costs. Discussion If implementation is successful, the field will have a proven technology that helps Federally Qualified Health Centers and affiliated organizations provide addiction treatment and recovery support, as well as a proven strategy for implementing the technology. Seva also has the potential to improve core elements of addiction treatment, such as referral and treatment processes. A mobile technology for addiction treatment and accompanying implementation model could provide a cost-effective means to improve the lives of patients with drug and alcohol problems. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01963234). PMID:24884976

2014-01-01

218

Acupuncture for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background We report on the design and implementation of a study protocol entitled Acupuncture randomised trial for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain - a pilot study (ACUARP) designed to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy performed in the perioperative period on post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomised controlled pilot trial with three arms and partial double blinding. We will compare (a) press needle acupuncture, (b) no treatment and (c) press plaster acupressure in a standardised anaesthetic setting. Seventy-five patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery to the uterus or ovaries will be allocated randomly to one of the three trial arms. The total observation period will begin one day before surgery and end on the second postoperative day. Twelve press needles and press plasters are to be administered preoperatively at seven acupuncture points. The primary outcome measure will be time from extubation to ‘ready for discharge’ from the post anaesthesia care unit (in minutes). The ‘ready for discharge’ end point will be assessed using three different scores: the Aldrete score, the Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System and an In-House score. Secondary outcome measures will comprise pre-, intra- and postoperative variables (which are anxiety, pain, nausea and vomiting, concomitant medication). Discussion The results of this study will provide information on whether acupuncture may improve patient post anaesthetic recovery. Comparing acupuncture with acupressure will provide insight into potential therapeutic differences between invasive and non-invasive acupuncture techniques. Trial registration NCT01816386 (First received: 28 October 2012) PMID:25047046

2014-01-01

219

Functional MRI-guided microsurgery of intracranial arteriovenous malformations: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Modern microsurgery has improved the results of surgical treatment of AVMs; however, the treatment of AVMs, particularly eloquently located AVMs, still carries a high risk. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been reported to be used for the preoperative evaluation of AVMs in small case series. The purpose is to identify the utility and efficacy of fMRI-guided microsurgery of AVMs in a large randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis The study is a prospective, randomised controlled clinical trial. This study will enrol a total of 600 eligible patients. These eligible patients will be randomised to the standard microsurgery group and the fMRI-guided microsurgery group in a 1:1 ratio. Patient baseline characteristics and AVM architecture and characteristics will be described. In the fMRI-guided group, fMRI mapping of an eloquent cortex in all AVMs will be identified. Surgical complications and outcomes at pretreatment, post-treatment, at discharge and at 1-month, 3-month and 6-month follow-up intervals will be analysed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). This trial will determine whether fMRI-guided microsurgery could improve outcomes in patients with AVMs and also identify the safety and efficacy of fMRI-guided microsurgery. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol and written informed consent were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (ky2012-016-02). Study findings will be disseminated in the printed media. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01758211. PMID:25341453

Zhao, Bing; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Yuanli; Wu, Jun; Wang, Shuo

2014-01-01

220

Cross-cultural adaptation, evaluation and validation of the Spouse Response Inventory: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Since the response of spouses has been proven to be an important reinforcement of pain behaviour and disability it has been addressed in research and therapy. Fordyce suggested pain behaviour and well behaviour be considered in explaining suffering in chronic pain patients. Among existing instruments concerning spouse's responses the aspect of well behaviour has not been examined so far. The SRI (Spouse Response Inventory) tries to consider pain behaviour and well behaviour and appears to be acceptable because of its brevity and close proximity to daily language. The aim of the study is the translation into German, followed by evaluation and validation, of the SRI on a German sample of patients with chronic pain. Methods and analyses The study is comprehensively designed: initially, the focus will lie on the translation of the instrument following the guidelines for cross-cultural translation and adaptation and evaluation of the German version according to the source study. Subsequently, a validation referring to predictive, incremental and construct validation will be conducted using instruments based on similar or close but different constructs. Evaluation of the resulting SRI-G (SRI-German) will be conducted on a sample of at least 30 patients with chronic pain attending a comprehensive pain centre. For validation at least 120 patients with chronic headache, back pain, cancer related pain and somatoform pain disorder shall be included, for a total of 480 patients. Separate analyses according to specific pain diagnoses will be performed to ensure psychometric property, interpretability and control of diagnosis of specific limitations. Analyses will include comprehensive investigation of psychometric property of the scale by hierarchical regression analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate analysis of variance and exploratory factor analyses (SPSS). Ethics The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Dresden (EK 335 122008) based on the Helsinki declaration.

Kaiser, Ulrike; Steinmetz, Dorit; Scharnagel, Rüdiger; Jensen, Mark P; Balck, Friedrich; Sabatowski, Rainer

2014-01-01

221

Decompressive hemicraniectomy in a new cat model. Methodological description of the PET study protocol.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used to quantify regional hemodynamic and metabolic changes in different animal models. Most of these (multitracer) studies provided important early data on already functionally altered brain tissue, indicating selective vulnerability by a large variability in the functional blood flow threshold of individual neurons. To fill the gap between experimental studies at early time points and rather late clinical studies at well-defined but singular time points, we repeatedly measured cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction rate and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in three cats before and up to 28 h after decompressive hemicraniectomy on normal brain tissue. Decompressive hemicraniectomy in the cat decreased CBF, and to a lesser extent CMRO2 and CMRglc 2 h after surgical intervention in normal brain tissue that last for at least 1 day. CBF significantly decreased (p < 0.01) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) (p < 0.05) significantly increased. CMRO2 and CMRglc decreased only in regions with most severe CBF reduction. These effects remained for at least a day irrespective of corrective sustaining cranioplasty. The method and data analysis is decreased and discussed in detail in the presented protocol. In conclusion, serial positron emission tomography studies are best suited to repeatedly and non-invasively demonstrate circulatory and biochemical changes by surgical interventions in normal brain tissue for at least one day. The transition of normal brain tissue into misery-perfused or non-viable regions can be followed over time. Such state-of-the-art imaging modalities as sequential high-resolution positron emission tomography provide insight into the dynamic of regional pathophysiology and may thus further justify the development of rational therapeutic strategies for decompressive hemicraniectomy, especially for disease with focal disturbances in cerebral blood flow. PMID:15013462

Schaller, B; Graf, R; Sanada, Y; Wienhard, K; Heiss, W-D

2004-02-01

222

Health Concerns of Iranian Adolescents: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Adolescents have particular health and developmental needs that suggest they should neither be treated as older children nor younger adults. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to report the protocol for a mixed methods study that set out to investigate the health concerns of Iranian adolescents and their sources of health information with the goal of identifying suitable strategies to address their health concerns. Materials and Methods: This mixed methods study consists of an explanatory sequential design to be conducted in two phases. The first phase was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 915, 14-18 year old adolescents who were selected by stratified cluster random sampling method from the 22 main municipal sectors of Tehran, Iran. They completed a series of self-administered questionnaires which were analyzed using quantitative approaches. The second phase was a qualitative study in which adolescents were selected using purposeful sampling for individual in-depth semi-structured interviews on the basis of the quantitative findings from the first phase. These data, together with a literature review and data obtained through nominal group technique, would then be used to in the development of strategies to reduce adolescents’ health concerns. Results: The findings of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study are expected to provide unique information about the health concerns of Iranian adolescents and their sources of information, which to date have received little attention. Conclusions: These data will provide a rich source of information that can be used by intervention programs, health professionals and policy makers in addressing the health concerns of adolescents, with the goal of facilitating a successful passage to adult life. PMID:25068061

Baheiraei, Azam; Khoori, Elham; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah

2014-01-01

223

Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural) and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in the longer term, more effective and culturally-appropriate interventions to improve health. PMID:22236166

2012-01-01

224

How does capacity building of health managers work? A realist evaluation study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction There has been a lot of attention on the role of human resource management interventions to improve delivery of health services in low- and middle-income countries. However, studies on this subject are few due to limited research on implementation of programmes and methodological difficulties in conducting experimental studies on human resource interventions. The authors present the protocol of an evaluation of a district-level capacity-building intervention to identify the determinants of performance of health workers in managerial positions and to understand how changes (if any) are brought about. Methods and analysis The aim of this study is to understand how capacity building works. The authors will use realist evaluation to evaluate an intervention in Karnataka, India. The intervention is a capacity-building programme that seeks to improve management capacities of health managers at district and subdistrict levels through periodic classroom-based teaching and mentoring support at the workplace. The authors conducted interviews and reviewed literature on capacity building in health to draw out the programme theory of the intervention. Based on this, the authors formulated hypothetical pathways connecting the expected outcomes of the intervention (planning and supervision) to the inputs (contact classes and mentoring). The authors prepared a questionnaire to assess elements of the programme theory—organisational culture, self-efficacy and supervision. The authors shall conduct a survey among health managers as well as collect qualitative data through interviews with participants and non-participants selected purposively based on their planning and supervision performance. The authors will construct explanations in the form of context–mechanism–outcome configurations from the results. This will be iterative and the authors will use a realist evaluation framework to refine the explanatory theories that are based on the findings to explain and validate an improved theory on ‘what works for whom and under what conditions’. Discussion The scope for applying realist evaluation to study human resource management interventions in health are discussed. PMID:22466036

Marchal, Bruno; Hoeree, Tom; Devadasan, Narayanan; Macq, Jean; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

2012-01-01

225

Panax ginseng therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical trial protocol and pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Panax ginseng (Ren shen) has been used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article aims to present a study protocol and pilot trial comparing P. ginseng with placebo for treating moderate to very severe COPD. Methods COPD was diagnosed spirometrically, with participants having a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of between 20% and 79% and FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of less than 70%. Outcome measures included exacerbation rate, St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test and Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Other outcome measures included the six-minute walk test, FEV1, FVC, relief medication use, use of COPD-specific medical resources, and adverse events. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. The method of this pilot trial was based on a planned full-scale trial except that participants were enrolled for ten weeks compared to 52 weeks. In the pilot trial, 14 participants (57–73 years old) with moderate to very severe COPD were recruited from a community health program at a public Chinese medicine hospital in Guangdong Province, China. After a 2-week run-in period, 10 participants were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either P. ginseng group (n?=?5) (200 mg twice daily for four weeks) or placebo group (n?=?5), and then followed-up for an additional 4 weeks for a total of 10 weeks. Results Nine participants completed the trial and one dropped out. The exacerbation rate could not be evaluated because there were no exacerbations. One participant in P. ginseng group reported events of sore throat, cough and fever. Trial investigators did not consider these events as COPD exacerbations or adverse events. Conclusions Participant recruitment, study design, data collection and outcome measurement have been tested in a pilot trial. A full-scale trial is warranted. PMID:25161696

2014-01-01

226

A low-energy chip-set for wireless intercom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low power wireless intercom system is designed and implemented. Two fully-operational ASICs, integrating custom and commercial IP, implement the entire digital portion of the protocol stack. Combined, the chips consume 13 mW on average when three nodes are connected to the network. A high-level design methodology was used to define the protocol stack and communication algorithms, select architectures, and

M. Josie Ammer; Michael Sheets; Tufan C. Karalar; Mika Kuulusa; Jan M. Rabaey

2003-01-01

227

Acupuncture for patients with functional dyspepsia: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Whether acupuncture is efficacious for patients with functional dyspepsia is still controversial. So we designed a randomised controlled trial to settle the problem. Methods and analysis We designed a multicentre, two-arm, sham-controlled clinical trial. 200 participants with functional dyspepsia will be randomly assigned to the true acupuncture (TA) group and sham acupuncture (SA) group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the TA group will receive acupuncture at points selected according to syndrome differentiation. Participants in the sham acupuncture group will receive penetrations at sham points. Participants in both groups will receive 20 sessions of electroacupuncture in 4?weeks, five times continuously with a 2?day rest in a week. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients reporting the absence of dyspeptic symptoms at 16?weeks after inclusion. The secondary outcome includes a Short-Form Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire, the Chinese version of the 36-Item Short Form Survey, the Chinese version of the Nepean dyspepsia index, etc. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the institutional review boards and ethics committees of the first affiliated hospital of Chengdu University of TCM, the first affiliated hospital of Hunan University of TCM and Chongqing Medical University, respectively (from April to August 2012). The results of this trial will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671670. PMID:23901030

Zheng, Hui; Xu, Jing; Li, Juan; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Ling; Chang, Xiaorong; Liu, Mi; Gong, Biao; Li, Xuezhi; Liang, Fanrong

2013-01-01

228

Integrating evidence on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions: protocol of the patient-VIP study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a strong movement towards active patient involvement in healthcare policy decisions, systematic and explicit consideration of evidence of this research on patient preferences seems limited. Furthermore, little is known about the opinions of several stakeholders towards consideration of research evidence on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions. This paper describes the protocol for an explorative study on the integration of research on patient preferences in healthcare policy decisions. The study questions: to what extent research evidence on patient preferences is considered in current procedures for healthcare policy decisions; opinions of stakeholders regarding the integration of this type of evidence in healthcare policy decisions; and what could be a decision framework for the integration of such research evidence in healthcare policy decisions. Methods/design The study is divided in three sub-studies, predominantly using qualitative methods. The first sub-study is a scoping review in five European countries to investigate whether and how results of research on patient preferences are considered in current procedures for coverage decisions and clinical practice guideline development. The second sub-study is a qualitative study to explore the opinions of stakeholders with regard to the possibilities for integrating evidence on patient preferences in the process of healthcare decision-making in the Netherlands. The third sub-study is the development of a decision framework for research on patient preferences. The framework will consist of: a process description regarding the place of evidence on patient preferences in the decision-making process; and a taxonomy describing different terminologies and conceptualisations of ‘preferences’ and an overview of existing methodologies for investigating preferences. The concept framework will be presented to and discussed with experts. Discussion This study will create awareness regarding the existence and potential value of research evidence on patient preferences for healthcare policy decision-making and provides insight in the methods for investigating patient preferences and the barriers and facilitators for integration of such research in healthcare policy decisions. Results of the study will be useful for researchers, clinical practice guideline developers, healthcare policy makers, and patient representatives. PMID:23758977

2013-01-01

229

Isonatric dialysis biofeedback in hemodiafiltration with online regeneration of ultrafiltrate (HFR): rationale and study protocol for a randomized controlled study.  

PubMed

Dialysate sodium prescription has major implications for hemodialysis tolerance but also for dialyzed patients' cardiovascular morbidity as a determinant factor of blood pressure. Biofeedback systems have been developed to drive dialysate conductivity in order to reach a prescribed serum sodium concentration, indirectly evaluated by a dialysate or an ultrafiltrate conductivity measurement. A biofeedback system using hemodiafiltration with online regeneration of ultrafiltrate (HFR) has been specially developed with an isonatric mode maintaining an equal serum sodium concentration between start and end of the dialysis session, combined with ultrafiltration and conductivity profiles. We hypothesized that using this biofeedback in an isonatric mode would have a beneficial effect on blood pressure and dialysis tolerance. The study protocol has been approved by our ethics committee and is presented herein. PMID:22322821

Mercadal, Lucile; Piékarski, Céline; Renaux, Jean-Louis; Petitclerc, Thierry; Deray, Gilbert

2012-01-01

230

Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics  

PubMed Central

To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points A research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics was designed and its feasibility evaluated. The definition of sexual abuse, ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and means for athlete-level data collection were in requirements analyses identified as particularly complex design issues. The feasibility evaluation showed a high non-participation rate (61%), but also that the large majority of participants found the study important and that questions were answered truthfully. Responding that partaking in the study was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours. When implementing cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics, it is necessary to promote and facilitate athlete participation. PMID:25729306

Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G.

2015-01-01

231

Protocol design for large-scale cross-sectional studies of sexual abuse and associated factors in individual sports: feasibility study in Swedish athletics.  

PubMed

To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key pointsA research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics was designed and its feasibility evaluated.The definition of sexual abuse, ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and means for athlete-level data collection were in requirements analyses identified as particularly complex design issues.The feasibility evaluation showed a high non-participation rate (61%), but also that the large majority of participants found the study important and that questions were answered truthfully.Responding that partaking in the study was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours.When implementing cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics, it is necessary to promote and facilitate athlete participation. PMID:25729306

Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G

2015-03-01

232

The Korean urban rural elderly cohort study: study design and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Korea is one of the fastest aging countries and is expected to become a super-aged society within 12 years. The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study was developed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and establish the prevention and management of major disorders of the elderly in Korea. Methods/Design The KURE study is a community-based prospective cohort study on health, aging, and common geriatric disorders of Korean elderly persons aged at least 65 years. To construct a cohort reflecting both urban and rural areas, we selected 2 representative communities in the country. To establish multidisciplinary approaches to geriatric health, this study was performed by researchers in the divisions of geriatrics, preventive medicine, endocrinology, and sociology. The baseline examinations began in 2012; the study will follow more than 4,000 elderly Koreans over 10 years. The first and second follow-up health examinations will be performed every 4 years. Every 2 years after each health examination, inter-assessment interview will be conducted to improve participant retention. Discussion The KURE study will provide longitudinal epidemiologic data on health, aging, and common geriatric disorders of the elderly in Korea. This is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study of the elderly with respect to biological, physical, socio-economic, and environmental factors. The results of this study will contribute to improve public health and welfare policies for the aging society in Korea. PMID:24641351

2014-01-01

233

Association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2; a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent conditions throughout the world and have significant impact on health outcomes. It has been estimated that diabetes mellitus type 2 affects about 246 million people in the world; nevertheless, incidence varies among countries. There is evidence that depression is associated with a poor metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that present other health problems (such as hypertension and obesity). The aim of this study protocol is to determine if obesity increases the risk for depression in patient with diabetes type 2. Methods: The analysis will be reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).The studies suitable for inclusion will be assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) to determine their methodological quality. To identify the studies of interest, we will search on PubMed and EBSCO databases. We will use the following keyword combinations: "Diabetes Mellitus type 2 AND obesity AND depression", "depression AND Diabetes Mellitus type 2", "Diabetes Mellitus type 2 AND body mass index cross sectional study", "depression AND obesity cross-sectional study". Causes for exclusion will be publications that studied patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1; articles that focused on the treatment and complications of diabetes mellitus type 2; publications that have studied other clinical or psychiatric conditions (for instance, seizure disorder or history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic symptoms or dementia). Conclusion: The results of this study will form the basis for a better understanding of the association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, and will allow development of prediction tools and better interventions. It is evident that several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes among population. Currently, evidence for the deleterious effects of diabetes mellitus type 2 are based on cross-sectional or other observational designs. Therefore, this study will have important implications for future research and public health guidance. PMID:25789160

De la Cruz-Cano, Eduardo; Tovilla-Zarate, Carlos Alfonso; Reyes-Ramos, Emilio; Gonzalez-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Juarez-Castro, Isela; López-Narváez, Maria Lilia; Fresan, Ana

2015-01-01

234

Cancer survivor rehabilitation and recovery: Protocol for the Veterans Cancer Rehabilitation Study (Vet-CaRes)  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer survivors are a rapidly growing and aging population in the U.S., but there are many challenges associated with the survivorship experience such as functional disabilities and psychosocial distress. When viewed next to the general population, Veterans are especially at risk for these challenges as they are older and have a high incidence of co-morbid conditions. While the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has called for further cancer survivorship research to address these challenges, we still know little about this experience from the perspective of aging Veterans. Methods/design We conducted a longitudinal, mixed-methods study over the course of three and a half years at the Boston and Houston VA Medical Centers. We recruited 170 Veterans diagnosed with head and neck, colorectal and esophageal/gastric cancers that were identified from the VA tumor registry. Veterans completed three in-depth interviews, conducted at 6, 12 and 18?months after pathology confirmation, measuring the physical, social and psychological factors related to cancer survivorship. The longitudinal design allowed us to assess any changes in cancer related disability and distress over time. Discussion Weekly teleconference study team meetings were a key aspect to the research process. Issues related to recruitment, data management and analysis, and the dissemination of research results was discussed. Interviewers presented detailed case reports of completed interviews that allowed us to refine our interview protocols. We also discussed issues relevant to the Veteran population of which we were previously unaware and some of the challenges of the research process itself. This novel study produced a robust data set that documents the functional and psychosocial cancer survivorship experiences of aging Veterans. The longitudinal design will help us more fully understand the recovery patterns for this specific population, and identify the unique needs and gaps in health services. PMID:23497430

2013-01-01

235

Endometriosis Cost Assessment (the EndoCost Study): A Cost-of-Illness Study Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The EndoCost study aims to calculate the costs of endometriosis from a societal perspective. Methods: This multicentre, prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis aggregates data on endometriosis costs and quality of life from a prospective hospital questionnaire and from both retrospective and prospective patient questionnaires. The EndoCost study comprises 12 representative tertiary care centres involved in the care of women with endometriosis

Steven Simoens; Lone Hummelshoj; Gerard Dunselman; Iris Brandes; Carmen Dirksen; Thomas D’Hooghe

2011-01-01

236

Application of the Putting Women First protocol in a study on violence against immigrant women in Spain.  

PubMed

In this paper, we describe our experience of using the Putting Women First protocol in the design and implementation of a cross-sectional study on violence against women (VAW) among 1607 immigrant women from Morocco, Ecuador and Romania living in Spain in 2011. The Putting Women First protocol is an ethical guideline for VAW research, which includes recommendations to ensure the safety of the women involved in studies on this subject. The response rate in this study was 59.3%. The prevalence of VAW cases last year was 11.7%, of which 15.6% corresponded to Ecuadorian women, 10.9% to Moroccan women and 8.6% to Romanian women. We consider that the most important goal for future research is the use of VAW scales validated in different languages, which would help to overcome the language barriers encountered in this study. PMID:23537853

Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi; Vives-Cases, Carmen

2013-01-01

237

Ensuring Retention in Longitudinal Studies: A Practical Evaluation of an Intensive Follow-up Protocol and Suggested Adaptations.  

PubMed

Ensuring retention in longitudinal studies of individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) is a continual challenge for researchers. This study made several modifications to a highly intensive follow-up protocol (Scott, 2004), originally designed for adults with SUD, in order to adapt it to a group of adolescents in low-intensity outpatient SUD treatment (N = 127, M age 16.7 yrs) and to accommodate limitations in the financial resources available for study staffing and transportation. In the present sample, adolescent participants generally found it unreasonable for study staff to request to contact people outside their immediate family in order to locate them and to attempt to schedule interviews 3-6 months in advance, as specified in the original protocol. Changes were made to accommodate these concerns and follow-up rates remained high (85-91%). Even though this study is limited by its non-experimental nature, it provides a replicable example of a scaled-down, less costly version of a highly intensive follow-up protocol that can be used to achieve high follow-up rates in studies of adolescents with SUD. We hope this will be encouraging for researchers and program evaluators who have limited resources or who work with participants who express concerns about privacy or study burden. PMID:24260012

Yeterian, Julie D; Dow, Sarah J; Kelly, John F

2012-09-01

238

Long Working Hours and Subsequent Use of Psychotropic Medicine: A Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only “very much overtime”, but also “moderate overtime” (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. Objective The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. Methods People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. Results The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015. Conclusions The proposed project will be free from hindsight bias, since all hypotheses and statistical models are completely defined, peer-reviewed, and published before we link the exposure data to the outcome data. The results of the project will indicate to what extent and in what direction the national burden of mental ill health in Denmark has been influenced by long working hours. PMID:25239125

Albertsen, Karen

2014-01-01

239

Vitamin D supplementation in the management of knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health issue worldwide in the aging population who are also commonly deficient in vitamin D. Our previous study suggested that higher serum 25-(OH)D levels were associated with reduced knee cartilage loss, implying that vitamin D supplementation may prevent the progression of knee OA. The aim of the VItamin D Effects on OA (VIDEO) study is to compare, over a 2- year period, the effects of vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on knee structural changes, knee pain, and lower limb muscle strength in patients with symptomatic knee OA. Methods/design Randomised, placebo-controlled, and double-blind clinical trial aiming to recruit 400 subjects (200 from Tasmania and 200 from Victoria) with both symptomatic knee OA and vitamin D deficiency (serum [25-(OH)D] level of >12.5?nmol/liter and <60?nmol/liter). Participants will be randomly allocated to vitamin D supplementation (50,000?IU compounded vitamin D3 capsule monthly) or identical inert placebo group for 2?years. The primary endpoint is loss of knee cartilage volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of OA (WOMAC) knee pain score. The secondary endpoints will be other knee structural changes, and lower limb muscle strength. Several other outcome measures including core muscle images and central blood pressure will be recorded. Linear and logistic regression will be used to compare changes between groups using univariable and multivariable modeling analyses. Both intention to treat and per protocol analyses will be utilized. Discussion The trial is designed to test if vitamin D supplementation will reduce loss of knee cartilage volume, prevent the progression of other knee structural abnormalities, reduce knee pain and strengthen lower limb muscle strength, thus modify disease progression in knee OA. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176344; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000495022 PMID:22867111

2012-01-01

240

A bibliometric analysis of cancer research in South Africa: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cancer is an important and growing public health burden in South Africa (SA). Over the past few decades, there has been considerable scientific activity in cancer in SA. However, there has been limited analysis of cancer scientific publications. In this paper, we present a protocol for bibliometric analysis of cancer research conducted in SA. Methods and analysis A comprehensive search of the journal databases PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science and EBSCO will be conducted to identify and retrieve data from primary peer-reviewed cancer research articles using a set of consensus search words. Articles that involve cancer research conducted in SA or using biological or clinical data from South African participants and published between 2004 and 2014 will be included in the study. Two independent researchers will screen the articles for eligibility. Bibliometric indicators and study characteristics will be extracted, entered into a database and analysed. The cancer disease site will be recorded and research will be classified using the Common Scientific Outline system. Data obtained will be analysed to determine SA's publication productivity index in cancer research. Annual trends in bibliometric indicators and the type of cancer research will be determined. The degree of collaboration in research conducted in SA will be analysed using co-authorship matrix software. A publication to disease type ratio will be used to assess scientific production relative to disease burden. Ethics and dissemination As this analysis will draw on publicly available data and does not directly involve human participants, ethical review is not required. We anticipate that the bibliometric analysis will identify the trends in cancer research productivity and the extent to which cancer research is aligned to the local burden of disease. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented in a user-friendly format to relevant policymakers and funders. PMID:25678542

Moodley, Jennifer; Singh, Vedantha; Kagina, Benjamin M; Abdullahi, Leila; Hussey, Gregory D

2015-01-01

241

Review of recent studies and issues regarding the P300-based complex trial protocol for detection of concealed information.  

PubMed

In this review, the evolution of new P300-based protocols for detection of concealed information is summarized. The P300-based complex trial protocol (CTP) is described as one such countermeasure (CM)-resistant protocol. Recent lapses in diagnostic accuracy (from 90% to 75%) with CTPs applied to mock crime protocols are summarized, as well as recent enhancements to the CTP which have restored accuracy. These enhancements include 1) use of performance feedback during testing, 2) use of other ERP components such as N200 in diagnosis, 3) use of auxiliary tests, including the autobiographical implicit association test, as leading to restored diagnostic accuracy, and 4) a study of the mechanisms underlying CMs. A novel, doubly efficient version of the CTP involving presentation of two probes in one trial is described as a new way to improve accuracy to levels above 90% in mock crime situations. Finally, a thorough analysis of the legal issues surrounding use of the CTP in U.S. is given. PMID:24012907

Rosenfeld, J Peter; Hu, Xiaoqing; Labkovsky, Elena; Meixner, John; Winograd, Michael R

2013-11-01

242

Shock in the First 24 h of Intensive Care Unit Stay: Observational Study of Protocol-Based Fluid Management.  

PubMed

Precision in fluid management for shock could lead to better clinical outcomes. We evaluated the association of protocol-based fluid management with intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality. We performed an observational study of mechanically ventilated patients admitted directly from our emergency department to the ICU from August 2011 to December 2013, who had circulatory shock in the first 24 h of ICU stay (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg at ICU admission or lactate >4 mmol/L). Patients with onset of shock beyond 24 h of ICU stay were excluded. Protocol-based fluid management required close physician-nurse cooperation and computerized documentation, checking for fluid response (?10% arterial pulse pressure or stroke volume increase after two consecutive 250-mL crystalloid boluses), and fluid loading with repeated 500-mL boluses until fluid response became negative. Six hundred twelve mechanically ventilated patients with shock (mean [±SD] age, 63.0 years [16.5]; 252 or 41.2% females; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 30.2 [8.8]) were studied. The fluid management protocol was used 455 times for 242 patients (39.5% of 612 patients) within the first 24 h of ICU stay, with 244 (53.6% of 455) positive responses. Adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, comorbidity, and admission year, protocol use was associated with reduced ICU mortality (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.94; P = 0.025) but not hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.23; P = 0.369). Among mechanically ventilated patients with shock within the first 24 h of ICU stay, about half had positive fluid responses. Adherence to protocol-based fluid management was associated with improved ICU survival. PMID:25608139

See, Kay Choong; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Lau, Samuel Chuan-Xian; Tan, Sandra Ming-Yien; Lim, Tow Keang; Phua, Jason

2015-05-01

243

EHS-Net Chicken Handling Study EHS-Net Chicken Handling Study Protocol  

E-print Network

). Studies have also indicated that most chicken produced in commercial plants is contaminated in restaurants. Specifically, we will collect data on: opportunities for cross contamination from raw chicken of chicken immediately after cooking (kill step), and opportunities for cross contamination from

244

Study protocol: The registrar clinical encounters in training (ReCEnT) study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient encounters are the core learning activity of Australian general practice (family practice) training. Exposure to patient demographics and presentations may vary from one general practice registrar (vocational trainee) to another. This can affect comprehensiveness of training. Currently, there is no mechanism to systematically capture the content of GP registrar consultations. The aim of the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) study is to document longitudinally the nature and associations of consultation-based clinical and educational experiences of general practice registrars. Methods/design This is an ongoing prospective multi-site cohort study of general practice registrars’ consultations, entailing paper-based recording of consultation data. The study setting is general practices affiliated with three geographically-based Australian general practice regional training providers. Registrars record details of 60 consecutive consultations. Data collected includes registrar demographics, details of the consultation, patient demographics, reasons for encounter and problems managed. Problems managed are coded with the International Classification of Primary Care (second edition) classification system. Additionally, registrars record educational factors related to the encounter. The study will follow the clinical exposure of each registrar six-monthly over the 18 months to two years (full-time equivalent) of their general practice training program. Conclusions The study will provide data on a range of factors (patient, registrar and consultation factors). This data will be used to inform a range of educational decisions as well as being used to answer educational research questions. We plan to use ReCEnT as a formative assessment tool for registrars and help identify and address educational needs. The study will facilitate program evaluation by the participating training providers and thus improve articulation of educational programs with practice experience. From the research point of view it will address an evidence gap – the in-practice clinical and educational experience of general practice trainees, determinants of these experiences, and the determinants of registrars’ patterns of practice (for example, prescribing practice) over the course of their training. PMID:22672139

2012-01-01

245

Packaging a free-space intra-chip optical interconnect module: Monte Carlo tolerance study and assembly results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we give an overview of the fabrication and assembly induced performance degradation of an intra-multi-chip-module free-space optical interconnect, integrating micro-lenses and a deflection prism above a dense opto-electronic chip. The proposed component is used to demonstrate the capabilities of an accurate micro-optical rapid prototype technique, namely the Deep Proton Writing (DPW). To evaluate the accuracy of DPW and to assess whether our assembly scheme will provide us with a reasonable process yield, we have built a simulation framework combining mechanical Monte Carlo analysis with optical simulations. Both the technological requirements to ensure a high process yield, and the specifications of our in-house DPW technology are discussed. Therefore, we first conduct a sensitivity analysis and we subsequently simulate the effect of combined errors using a Monte Carlo simulation. We are able to investigate the effect of a technology accuracy enhancement on the fabrication and assembly yield by scaling the standard deviation of the errors proportionally to each sensitivity interval. We estimate that 40% of the systems fabricated with DPW will show an optical transmission efficiency above -4.32 dB, which is -3 dB below the theoretical obtainable value. We also discuss our efforts to implement an opto-mechanical Monte Carlo simulator. It enables us to address specific issues not directly related with the micro-optical or DPW components, such as the influence of glueing layers and structures that allow for self-alignment, by combining mechanical tolerancing algorithms with optical simulation software. More in particular we determined that DPW provides ample accuracy to meet the requirements to obtain a high manufacturing yield. Finally, we shortly highlight the basic layout of a completed demonstrator. The adhesive bonding of opto-electronic devices in their package is subject to further improvement to enhance the tilt accuracy of the devices with respect to the optical interconnect modules.

Vervaeke, Michael; Lahti, Markku; Karpinnen, Mikko; Debaes, Christof; Volckaerts, Bart; Karioja, Pentti; Thienpont, Hugo

2006-04-01

246

A biomimetic microfluidic chip to study the circulation and mechanical retention of red blood cells in the spleen.  

PubMed

Red blood cells (RBCs) are deformable and flow through vessels narrower than their own size. Their deformability is most stringently challenged when they cross micrometer-wide slits in the spleen. In several inherited or acquired RBC disorders, blockade of small vessels by stiff RBCs can trigger organ damage, but a functional spleen is expected to clear these abnormal RBCs from the circulation before they induce such complications. We analyzed flow behavior of RBCs in a microfluidic chip that replicates the mechanical constraints imposed on RBCs as they cross the human spleen. Polymer microchannels obtained by soft lithography with a hydraulic diameter of 25 ?m drove flow into mechanical filtering units where RBCs flew either slowly through 5- to 2-?m-wide slits or rapidly along 10-?m-wide channels, these parallel paths mimicking the splenic microcirculation. Stiff heated RBCs accumulated in narrow slits seven times more frequently than normal RBCs infused simultaneously. Stage-dependent retention of Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs was also observed in these slits. We also analyzed RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and observed retention for those having the most altered mechanical properties as determined by ektacytometry. Thus, in keeping with previous observations in vivo and ex vivo, the chip successfully discriminated poorly deformable RBCs based on their distinct mechanical properties and on the intensity of the cell alteration. Applications to the exploration of the pathogenesis of malaria, hereditary spherocytosis, sickle cell disease and other RBC disorders are envisioned.Am. J. Hematol. 90:339-345, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641515

Picot, Julien; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Lefevre, Sophie D; El Nemer, Wassim; Tawfik, Harvey; Galimand, Julie; Da Costa, Lydie; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; de Montalembert, Mariane; Brousse, Valentine; Le Pioufle, Bruno; Buffet, Pierre; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Français, Olivier

2015-04-01

247

Fundamental Study of the Intermixing of 95Pb-5Sn High-Lead Solder Bumps and 37Pb-63Sn Pre-Solder on Chip-Carrier Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the intermixing of 95Pb-5Sn solder bumps and 37Pb-63Sn pre-solder in flip-chip solder joints. The reaction conditions included multiple reflows (up to ten) at 240°C, whereby previously solder-coated parts are joined by heating without using additional solder. We found that the molten pre-solder had an irregular shape similar to a calyx (i.e., a cup-like structure) wrapped around a high-lead solder bump. The height to which the molten pre-solder ascended along the solid high-lead solder bump increased with the number of reflows. The molten pre-solder was able to reach the under bump metallurgy (UBM)/95Pb-5Sn interface after three to five reflows. The molten pre-solder at the UBM/95Pb-5Sn interface generated two important phenomena: (1) the molten solder dewetted (i.e., flowed away from the soldered surface) along the UBM/95Pb-5Sn interface, particularly when the number of reflows was high, and (2) the molten pre-solder transported Cu?atoms to the UBM/95Pb-5Sn interface, which in turn caused the Ni-Sn compounds at the chip-side interface to change into (Cu0.6Ni0.4)6Sn5.

Chang, C. C.; Lin, Y. W.; Lai, Y. S.; Kao, C. R.

2009-11-01

248

A cost-effective RNA sequencing protocol for large-scale gene expression studies  

PubMed Central

RNA sequencing has increasingly become an indispensable tool for biological research. While sequencing costs have fallen dramatically in recent years, the current cost of RNA sequencing, nonetheless, remains a barrier to even more widespread adoption. Here, we present a simple RNA sequencing protocol with substantially reduced costs. This protocol uses as little as 10?ng of total RNA, allows multiplex sequencing of up to 96 samples per lane, and is strand specific. Extensive validation using human embryonic stem cells showed high consistency between technical replicates at various multiplexing levels. PMID:25831155

Hou, Zhonggang; Jiang, Peng; Swanson, Scott A.; Elwell, Angela L.; Nguyen, Bao Kim S.; Bolin, Jennifer M.; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James A.

2015-01-01

249

Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN Study): Study Protocol.  

PubMed

Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by progressive stenosis or by occlusion at the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. The unusual vascular network (moyamoya vessels) at the base of the brain with this disease as collateral channels is developed in this disease. Social independence because of cognitive impairment has recently been recognized as an important unsolved social issue with adult moyamoya disease. The patients with cognitive impairment have difficulty in proving their status because the standard neuroradiological and neuropsychological methods to define cognitive impairment with moyamoya disease are not determined. These patients with cognitive impairment should be supported by social welfare as psychologically handicapped persons. Thus Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN study) is planned. In this study, we want to establish a standard finding of the cognitive impairment in patients with moyamoya disease. PMID:25739435

Takagi, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Susumu

2015-03-15

250

Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP???5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date. PMID:23497211

2013-01-01

251

Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods/Design The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ? 5 servings/day to ? 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ? 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B) selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet). Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. Discussion This study will provide information on midlife women’s bone health and how a dietary intervention increasing fruit and vegetable/herb intake affects bone, inflammatory and metabolic markers and urinary electrolyte excretion. It assesses changes in nutrient intake, estimated dietary acid load and sodium: potassium ratios. The study also explores whether specific fruit/vegetables and herbs with bone resorbing properties has an effect on bone markers. Trial registration ACTRN 12611000763943 PMID:23305630

2013-01-01

252

Zinc supplementation in pre-diabetes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The number of people with diabetes is increasing worldwide, especially in developing South Asian countries. Therefore, preventing diabetes at the early stages has become an important issue. Recent clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis have shown that zinc has beneficial effects on glycemic and metabolic control in those with diabetes. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on glycemic control and other metabolic parameters in those with pre-diabetes. Methods/design The study will be conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial for a period of 12 months at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. The study has been approved by the Ethics Review Committee of Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo (EC/11/189). A total of 200 adults (age 18–60 years) with pre-diabetes will be recruited for the study. They will be stratified according to age, gender, and body mass index and randomly assigned into the test and placebo groups on a 1:1 ratio. The zinc capsules, each weighing 456 mg, will contain the following ingredients:zinc sulfate monohydrate 55.096 mg (elemental zinc 20 mg), lactose monohydrate 399.504 mg, and stearic acid 1.400 mg. The placebo capsule with the same weight will be comprised of lactose monohydrate 454.600 mg and stearic acid 1.400 mg. The subjects will receive either zinc 20 mg capsules or placebo daily for a period of 12 months. The study drugs will be double blinded to both investigators and subjects. The visits and the evaluations will be done as follows: screening (visit 0), 1 month (visit 1), 3 month (visit 2), 6 month (visit 3), and 12 month (visit 4). The following primary outcome measures will be evaluated:fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), serum insulin, HbA1c, total/low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, serum zinc, and appetite using a visual analog scale. Secondary outcome measures include: blood pressure, anthropometry, and dietary assessment using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Data will be analyzed using SPSS v16. Discussion The present protocol will aim to establish the beneficial effects of zinc supplementation on disease progression in those with pre-diabetes and also establish its effectiveness in the prevention of diabetes mellitus. Trial registration Sri Lanka Clinical Trial Registry: SLCTR/2012/010 PMID:23421759

2013-01-01

253

Femoral Component Rotation in Patellofemoral Joint Replacement: A Study Protocol for a Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Patellofemoral joint replacement is a successful treatment option for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. The short and mid-term outcomes are related to malposition and unexplained pain. Whether external rotation of the femoral component in isolated patellofemoral joint replacement is required is unclear. The primary aim of this study is to determine the CT-measured femoral component rotation of patellofemoral joint replacement relative to the transepicondylar axis. The secondary aim is to correlate the CT-measured femoral component rotation with the clinical outcomes at 1-year follow-up as assessed with the KOOS questionnaire. We designed a prospective observational study with medical research ethics committee and institutional review board approval. A total of 40 patients who will be treated with patellofemoral joint replacement for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis will be included. Intra-operatively, rotation of the femoral component will be assessed using anatomical landmarks including the epicondylar axis, Whiteside’s line, and lower leg axis. The aim is to insert the femoral component between 3 and 6 degrees external rotation relative to the transepicondylar axis. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists will measure the angle between the transepicondylar axis and the femoral component, two to three days after surgery. The primary outcome is the CT-based femoral component rotation of the prosthesis relative to the transepicondylar axis. The secondary outcome is the patient reported KOOS questionnaire at 1-year follow-up. Successful completion of this study will provide data on the actual amount of femoral component rotation in patellofemoral joint replacement, and its relationship with clinical results. (Netherlands Trial Register NTR4175).

Westerbeek, Robin E; Derks, Rosalie P.H; Zonneveld, Bas J.G.L; van Jonbergen, Hans-Peter W.

2015-01-01

254

Accelerator on a Chip  

SciTech Connect

SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

England, Joel

2014-06-30

255

Cryogenics on a Chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-temperature techniques often bring to mind cryogenic liquids, gas compressors, and massive installations. But researchers are now building refrigerators and sensors that work by controlling electrons on a silicon chip.

Pekola, Jukka; Schoelkopf, Robert; Ullom, Joel

2004-05-01

256

Accelerator on a Chip  

ScienceCinema

SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

England, Joel

2014-07-16

257

On Kill Curves and Sampling Protocols: Studying the Relationships between Impact and Extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pioneering efforts of Raup (1990) have suggested that a relationship exists between crater diameter and percentage of organisms killed as a result of meteor or comet impact with the Earth. The new data (coming from study of the Manson and Chicxulub craters) suggest that the nature of target rock may be a factor nearly as important as impacter size, and that other aspects of the target, including its latitude, the atmospheric and climate conditions characterizing the Earth, as well as the stage of biological evolution and community development at the time of impact are factors which all must be factored into any new kill curve. It may be that no single 'curve' is appropriate, but that a family of curves may be necessary to model the biological effects of large impacts. We propose that a new protocol be developed to better constrain and understand the relationship between impact and extinction. Rather than searching known mass extinction boundaries for evidence of impact (an exercise which up to now has demonstrated that only the Chicxulub crater can be unambiguously related to a mass extinction of planetary scale), we propose that four known craters be investigated to see if they are temporally correlated with extinction at any detectable level. We suggest that Kara, Popigai, Manson, and Manicouagan Craters be investigated in the following way. First, what is their age? The Manson lesson is that the first step in understanding the relationship between impact and extinction is through reliable age dating. Second, can distal components of the impact ejecta (spherules, shocked quartz, and mineral signatures) be located from sedimentary record? Third, once identified, do these signatures coincide with paleontological or geochemical markers of extinction in either the synoptic literature, or from actual outcrops (or deep sea cores).

Ward, Peter D.

1997-05-01

258

Sentinel node in ovarian cancer: study protocol for a phase 1 study  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of sentinel lymph node surgery is to determine whether the cancer has spread to the very first lymph node or sentinel node. If the sentinel node does not contain cancer, then there is a high likelihood that the cancer has not spread to other lymph nodes. The sentinel node technique has been proven to be effective in different types of cancer. In this study we want to determine whether a sentinel node procedure in patients with ovarian cancer is feasible when the tracers are injected into the ovarian ligaments. Methods/Design Patients with a high likelihood of having an ovarian malignancy in whom a median laparotomy and a frozen section analysis is planned and patients with endometrial cancer in whom a staging laparotomy is planned will be included. Before starting the surgical staging procedure, blue dye and radioactive colloid will be injected into the ligamentum ovarii proprium and the ligamentum infundibulo-pelvicum. In the analysis we calculate the percentage of patients in whom it is feasible to identify sentinel nodes. Other study parameters are the anatomical localization of the sentinel node(s) and the incidence of false negative lymph nodes. Trial registration Approval number: NL40323.068.12 Name: Medical Ethical Committee Maastricht University Hospital, University of Maastricht Affiliation: Maastricht University Hospital Board Chair Name: Medisch Ethische Commissie azM/UM PMID:23414057

2013-01-01

259

The Torus Routing Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

The torus routing chip (TRC) is a selftimed chip that performs deadlock-freecut-through routing ink-aryn-cube multiprocessor interconnection networks using a new method of deadlock avoidance calledvirtual channels. A prototype TRC with byte wide self-timed communication channels achieved on first silicon a throughput of 64 Mbits\\/s in each dimension, about an order of magnitude better performance than the communication networks used by

William J. Dally; Charles L. Seitz

1986-01-01

260

Charting the progression of disability in parkinson disease: study protocol for a prospective longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background People with Parkinson disease (PD), even in the presence of symptomatic relief from medical, surgical, and rehabilitative interventions, face a persistent worsening of disability. This disability is characterized by diminished quality of life, reduced functional mobility, declining performance in activities of daily living and worsening neurological impairments. While evidence has emerged supporting the clinically meaningful benefits of short-term exercise programs on these underlying factors, assertions regarding the effects of sustained programs of exercise and physical activity on the trajectory of disablement in PD are made in the absence of direct evidence. Indeed, the natural decline in quality of life and functional mobility in people diagnosed with PD is poorly understood. Moreover, outcome measures commonly used in clinical exercise trials typically do not capture the full spectrum of disability as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods/Design The objective of this multicenter prospective study will be to examine the 2-year trajectory of disablement in a cohort of persons with PD. Two hundred sixty participants will be recruited to produce an expected final sample size of 150 individuals. Participants will be included if they are greater than 40 years of age, have a neurologist confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic PD, and are at Hoehn and Yahr stages 1 through 4. Data will be collected every 6 months during the study period. Primary outcome measures reflecting a broad spectrum of disablement will include, but will not be limited to, MDS-UPDRS, Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Test, Nine Hole Peg Test, PDQ-39, and directly monitored ambulatory activity. Self-reported exercise and physical activity data also will be recorded. Statistical analyses will be used to characterize the trajectory of disablement and examine the influence of its underlying contributing factors. Discussion Tertiary prevention is an important component of contemporary healthcare for individuals living with degenerative disease. For individuals with PD, there is growing recognition that exercise and/or physical activity efforts to slow the rate of functional mobility decline, in particular, may be critical for optimizing quality of life. By describing the natural trajectory of disablement, exercise habits, and physical activity in a cohort of persons with PD, this investigation will establish an important foundation for future intervention research. Specifically, through the evaluation of the influence of sustained exercise and physical activity on disablement, the study will serve as a preliminary step toward developing a randomized controlled trial of long-term exercise in persons with PD. PMID:21047426

2010-01-01

261

Study protocol: safety correction of high dose antipsychotic polypharmacy in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background In Japan, combination therapy with high doses of antipsychotic drugs is common, but as a consequence, many patients with schizophrenia report extrapyramidal and autonomic nervous system side effects. To resolve this, we proposed a method of safety correction of high dose antipsychotic polypharmacy (the SCAP method), in which the initial total dose of all antipsychotic drugs is calculated and converted to a chlorpromazine equivalent (expressed as milligrams of chlorpromazine, mg CP). The doses of low-potency antipsychotic drugs are then reduced by???25 mg CP/week, and the doses of high-potency antipsychotics are decreased at a rate of ?50 mg CP/week. Although a randomized, case-controlled comparative study has demonstrated the safety of this method, the number of participants was relatively small and its results required further validation. In this study of the SCAP method, we aimed to substantially increase the number of participants. Methods/design The participants were in- or outpatients treated with two or more antipsychotics at doses of 500–1,500 mg CP/day. Consenting participants were randomized into control and dose reduction groups. In the control group, patients continued with their normal regimen for 3 months without a dose change before undergoing the SCAP protocol. The dose reduction group followed the SCAP strategy over 3–6 months with a subsequent 3-month follow-up period. Outcome measures were measured at baseline and then at 3-month intervals, and included clinical symptoms measured on the Manchester scale, the extent of extrapyramidal and autonomic side effects, and quality of life using the Euro QOL scale. We also measured blood drug concentrations and drug efficacy-associated biochemical parameters. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese version, was also undertaken in centers where it was available. Discussion The safety and efficacy of the SCAP method required further validation in a large randomized trial. The design of this study aimed to address some of the limitations of the previous case-controlled study, to build a more robust evidence base to assist clinicians in their efforts to reduce potentially harmful polypharmacy in this vulnerable group of patients. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000004511. PMID:24708857

2014-01-01

262

Brief intervention to reduce risky drinking in pregnancy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Risky drinking in pregnancy by UK women is likely to result in many alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Studies from the USA suggest that brief intervention has promise for alcohol risk reduction in antenatal care. However, further research is needed to establish whether this evidence from the USA is applicable to the UK.?This pilot study aims to investigate whether pregnant women can be recruited and retained in a randomized controlled trial of brief intervention aimed at reducing risky drinking in women receiving antenatal care. Methods The trial will rehearse the parallel-group, non-blinded design and procedures of a subsequent definitive trial. Over 8 months, women aged 18 years and over (target number 2,742) attending their booking appointment with a community midwife (n?=?31) in north-east England will be screened for alcohol consumption using the consumption questions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Those screening positive, without a history of substance use or alcohol dependence, with no pregnancy complication, and able to give informed consent, will be invited to participate in the trial (target number 120). Midwives will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to deliver either treatment as usual (control) or structured brief advice and referral for a 20-minute motivational interviewing session with an alcohol health worker (intervention). As well as demographic and health information, baseline measures will include two 7-day time line follow-back questionnaires and the EuroQoL EQ-5D-3 L questionnaire. Measures will be repeated in telephone follow-ups in the third trimester and at 6 months post-partum, when a questionnaire on use of National Health Service and social care resources will also be completed. Information on pregnancy outcomes and stillbirths will be accessed from central health service records before the follow-ups. Primary outcomes will be rates of eligibility, recruitment, intervention delivery, and retention in the study population, to inform power calculations for a definitive trial. The health-economics component will establish how cost-effectiveness will be assessed, and examine which data on health service resource use should be collected in a main trial. Participants’ views on instruments and procedures will be sought to confirm their acceptability. Discussion The study will produce a full trial protocol with robust sample-size calculations to extend evidence on effectiveness of screening and brief intervention. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43218782 PMID:23006975

2012-01-01

263

Executive functioning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: protocol for a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Early brain injury, as found in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP), may cause deficits in higher-order cognitive tasks known as executive functions (EF). EF has been conceptualised as comprised of four distinct yet inter-related components: (1) attentional control, (2) cognitive flexibility, (3) goal setting and (4) information processing. The aim of this study was to examine EF in children with unilateral CP and compare their performance with a typically developing reference group (TDC). The potential laterality effects of unilateral CP on EF will be explored, as will the relationship between the cognitive measures of EF, behavioural manifestations of EF, psychological functioning and clinical features of unilateral CP. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional study aims to recruit a total of 42 children with unilateral CP (21 right unilateral CP and 21 left unilateral CP) and 21 TDC aged between 8 and 16?years. Clinical severity will be described for gross motor function and manual ability. Outcomes for cognitive EF measureswill include subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Rey Complex Figure Test and the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. Behavioural manifestations of EF will be assessed using the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Parent and Teacher versions. Psychological functioning will be examined using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Between-groups differences will be examined in a series of one-way analyses of covariance and followed up using linear comparisons. An overall composite of cognitive EF measures will be created. Bivariate correlations between the EF composite and psychological measures will be calculated. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that, to our knowledge, is the first to examine multiple components of EF using a cohort of children with unilateral CP. Exploration of potential laterality effects of EF among children with a congenital, unilateral brain injury is also novel. Possible relationships between EF and psychological functioning will also be investigated. Ethics have been obtained through the University of Queensland School of Psychology Ethics Committee and the Queensland Children's Health Services Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be disseminated in peer reviewed publications and presentations at national and international conferences. This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000263998). PMID:23558736

Bodimeade, Harriet L; Whittingham, Koa; Lloyd, Owen; Boyd, Roslyn N

2013-01-01

264

Campath, calcineurin inhibitor reduction and chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) study: background, rationale, and study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for patients with end-stage renal failure, but uncertainty remains about the best immunosuppression strategy. Long-term graft survival has not improved substantially, and one possible explanation is calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity. CNI exposure could be minimized by using more potent induction therapy or alternative maintenance therapy to remove CNIs completely. However, the safety and efficacy of such strategies are unknown. Methods/Design The Campath, Calcineurin inhibitor reduction and Chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) Study is a multicentre, open-label, randomized controlled trial with 852 participants which is addressing two important questions in kidney transplantation. The first question is whether a Campath (alemtuzumab)-based induction therapy strategy is superior to basiliximab-based therapy, and the second is whether, from 6 months after transplantation, a sirolimus-based maintenance therapy strategy is superior to tacrolimus-based therapy. Recruitment is complete, and follow-up will continue for around 5 years post-transplant. The primary endpoint for the induction therapy comparison is biopsy-proven acute rejection by 6 months, and the primary endpoint for the maintenance therapy comparison is change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 2 years after transplantation. The study is sponsored by the University of Oxford and endorsed by the British Transplantation Society, and 18 centers for adult kidney transplant are participating. Discussion Late graft failure is a major issue for kidney-transplant recipients. If our hypothesis that minimizing CNI exposure with Campath-based induction therapy and/or an elective conversion to sirolimus-based maintenance therapy can improve long-term graft function and survival is correct, then patients should experience better graft function for longer. A positive outcome could change clinical practice in kidney transplantation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01120028 and ISRCTN88894088 PMID:23641902

2013-01-01

265

The Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite recent advances in acute stroke treatment, basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is associated with a death or disability rate of close to 70%. Randomised trials have shown the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) given within 4.5 h and have shown promising results of intra-arterial thrombolysis given within 6 h of symptom onset of acute ischaemic stroke, but these results do not directly apply to patients with an acute BAO because only few, if any, of these patients were included in randomised acute stroke trials. Recently the results of the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS), a prospective registry of patients with acute symptomatic BAO challenged the often-held assumption that intra-arterial treatment (IAT) is superior to IVT. Our observations in the BASICS registry underscore that we continue to lack a proven treatment modality for patients with an acute BAO and that current clinical practice varies widely. Design BASICS is a randomised controlled, multicentre, open label, phase III intervention trial with blinded outcome assessment, investigating the efficacy and safety of additional IAT after IVT in patients with BAO. The trial targets to include 750 patients, aged 18 to 85 years, with CT angiography or MR angiography confirmed BAO treated with IVT. Patients will be randomised between additional IAT followed by optimal medical care versus optimal medical care alone. IVT has to be initiated within 4.5 h from estimated time of BAO and IAT within 6 h. The primary outcome parameter will be favourable outcome at day 90 defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0–3. Discussion The BASICS registry was observational and has all the limitations of a non-randomised study. As the IAT approach becomes increasingly available and frequently utilised an adequately powered randomised controlled phase III trial investigating the added value of this therapy in patients with an acute symptomatic BAO is needed (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01717755). PMID:23835026

2013-01-01

266

Study protocol: Imaging brain development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (iCATS)  

PubMed Central

Background Puberty is a critical developmental phase in physical, reproductive and socio-emotional maturation that is associated with the period of peak onset for psychopathology. Puberty also drives significant changes in brain development and function. Research to date has focused on gonadarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and yet increasing evidence suggests that the earlier pubertal stage of adrenarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, may play a critical role in both brain development and increased risk for disorder. We have established a unique cohort of children who differ in their exposure to adrenarcheal hormones. This presents a unique opportunity to examine the influence of adrenarcheal timing on brain structural and functional development, and subsequent health outcomes. The primary objective of the study is to explore the hypothesis that patterns of structural and functional brain development will mediate the relationship between adrenarcheal timing and indices of affect, self-regulation, and mental health symptoms collected across time (and therefore years of development). Methods/Design Children were recruited based upon earlier or later timing of adrenarche, from a larger cohort, with 128 children (68 female; M age 9.51 years) and one of their parents taking part. Children completed brain MRI structural and functional sequences, provided saliva samples for adrenarcheal hormones and immune biomarkers, hair for long-term cortisol levels, and completed questionnaires, anthropometric measures and an IQ test. Parents completed questionnaires reporting on child behaviour, development, health, traumatic events, and parental report of family environment and parenting style. Discussion This study, by examining the neurobiological and behavioural consequences of relatively early and late exposure to adrenarche, has the potential to significantly impact our understanding of pubertal risk processes. PMID:24779869

2014-01-01

267

Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood: Study Protocol and Profiles of Participants  

PubMed Central

Background The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. Methods J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25–50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants’ spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Results Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Conclusions Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization’s Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan’s Healthy Japan 21. PMID:24814507

Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki

2014-01-01

268

DESIGN AND MEASUREMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR EXERCISE PROTOCOLS IN HUMAN AIR POLLUTION INHALATION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact on pulmonary functions of exercising at different intensities during pollutant exposures was evaluated. It was apparent that there was considerable variation in exercise protocols. These variations occurred in the magnitude of the exercise load, the duration of the exe...

269

Cryotherapy for acute ankle sprains: a randomised controlled study of two different icing protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The use of cryotherapy in the management of acute soft tissue injury is largely based on anecdotal evidence. Preliminary evidence suggests that intermittent cryotherapy applications are most effective at reducing tissue temperature to optimal therapeutic levels. However, its efficacy in treating injured human subjects is not yet known.Objective: : To compare the efficacy of an intermittent cryotherapy treatment protocol

C M Bleakley; S M McDonough; D C MacAuley

2006-01-01

270

A simulation study of TaMAC protocol using network simulator 2.  

PubMed

A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is expected to play a significant role in future healthcare system. It interconnects low-cost and intelligent sensor nodes in, on, or around a human body to serve a variety of medical applications. It can be used to diagnose and treat patients with chronic diseases such as hypertensions, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The lightweight sensor nodes integrated in WBAN require low-power operation, which can be achieved using different optimization techniques. We introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) for WBAN that supports dual wakeup mechanisms for normal, emergency, and on-demand traffic. In this letter, the TaMAC protocol is simulated using a well-known Network Simulator 2 (NS-2). The problem of multiple emergency nodes is solved using both wakeup radio and CSMA/CA protocol. The power consumption, delay, and throughput performance are closely compared with beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol using extensive simulations. PMID:21863319

Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2012-10-01

271

The market for tradable GHG permits under the Kyoto Protocol: a survey of model studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gathers results from 25 models of the market for tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol. Due to diverging projections of emissions growth and different modeling approaches, the model results differ substantially. The average market volume is approximately 17 and 33 billion USD under global trading and Annex B trading, respectively. Including non-carbon GHG lowers

Urs Springer

2003-01-01

272

BReast Ecology Assessment in the STudy of local MicroFlora - Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent articles have described an endogenous breast flora, particularly in the nipple ducts, with potential implications in the outcome of aesthetic breast surgery. To characterize the ecology of the breast, we designed a study to assess the microbial species identified on the breast skin and parenchyma in patients undergoing breast surgical interventions. Methods After obtaining informed consent and background data on concurrent diseases, previous contact with the hospital system and prior use of antibiotics, samples are collected preoperatively from three areas of the breast skin, bilaterally: the inframammary fold, the areola and the axilla, prior to decontamination. These samples will serve as positive controls and will aid in characterizing the normal breast skin flora. After preoperative decontamination, samples are again collected, to check for any residual bacterial flora and the nipple is sealed with Tegaderm (3M, USA) and betadine ointment, to reduce any putative bacterial load. Intraoperatively, samples are collected from: a) the incision line (dermal level): 1. superficially, 2. medium depth in the breast parenchyma, 3. deep parenchyma, and b) axillary parenchyma (where possible), together with a bioptic fragment. Postoperatively, a second nipple sample is collected. For secondary breast augmentation surgeries, capsular biopsy is also performed (where relevant), and the implants undergo sonication, to allow biofilm identification. In the laboratory, all samples are cultured on blood agar incubated with CO2, cystine lactose electrolyte deficient medium and Sabouraud gentamicin-chloramphenicol agar. For positive culture samples, the number of colonies and their morphologic characteristics are reported. Identification will be carried out with MALDI-TOF and VITEK (bioMérieux, France), yielding automated antibiotic sensitivity profiles. For all germs with sensitivity profiles differing from the wild-type strain, E-tests will be performed. Follow-up information on the postoperative evolution will be collected and analyzed for potential factors predictive of good evolution. Discussion This study will provide important information about the microflora of the breast skin, its sensitivity profile, and the degree of contamination of the nipple ducts and parenchyma, if any, addressing a scientific hypothesis insufficiently explored so far. PMID:24432281

Jianu, Dana Mihaela; Streinu-Cercel, Anca; Blidaru, Alexandru; Filipescu, Maria; Florescu, Ioan Petre; Berciu, Ioana; Cobani, Oltjon; Dorob??, Olga; Jianu, ?tefan Adrian; Streinu-Cercel, Oana; St?niceanu, Floria; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian

2013-01-01

273

The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevalence has more than doubled over two decades. In Australia, diabetes is the second highest contributor to the burden of disease. Lifestyle modification programs comprising diet changes, weight loss and moderate physical activity, have been proven to reduce the incidence of T2DM in high risk individuals. As part of the Council of Australia Governments, the State of Victoria committed to develop and support the diabetes prevention program ‘Life! Taking action on diabetes’ (Life!) which has direct lineage from effective clinical and implementation trials from Finland and Australia. The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS) has been set up to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specific version of the Life! program. Methods/design We intend to recruit 796 participants for this open randomized clinical trial; 398 will be allocated to the intervention arm and 398 to the usual care arm. Several methods of recruitment will be used in order to maximize the number of participants. Individuals aged 50 to 75 years will be screened with a risk tool (AUSDRISK) to detect those at high risk of developing T2DM. Those with existing diabetes will be excluded. Intervention participants will undergo anthropometric and laboratory tests, and comprehensive surveys at baseline, following the fourth group session (approximately three months after the commencement of the intervention) and 12 months after commencement of the intervention, while control participants will undergo testing at baseline and 12 months only. The intervention consists of an initial individual session followed by a series of five structured-group sessions. The first four group sessions will be carried out at two week intervals and the fifth session will occur eight months after the first group session. The intervention is based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model and sessions will empower and enable the participants to follow the five goals of the Life! program. Discussion This study will determine whether the effect of this intervention is larger than the effect of usual care in reducing central obesity and cardiovascular risk factors and thus the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Also it will evaluate how these two options compare economically. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000507280 PMID:23369724

2013-01-01

274

The Use of the NICHD Protocol to Enhance the Quantity of Details Obtained from Children with Low Verbal Abilities in Investigative Interviews: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the impact of the NICHD protocol to enhance the quantity and content of details reported by children with low verbal abilities. Thirty-four children aged from 6 to 14 were interviewed following their experience of sexual abuse. Half the interviews were conducted using the NICHD protocol. Results indicate that NICHD interviews…

Dion, Jacinthe; Cyr, Mireille

2008-01-01

275

Evaluating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients. The administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of surgical site infections . The optimal timing of this procedure is still a matter of debate. While most studies suggest that it should be given as close to the incision time as possible, others conclude that this may be too late for optimal prevention of surgical site infections. A large observational study suggests that surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered 74 to 30 minutes before surgery. The aim of this article is to report the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Methods/Design In this bi-center randomized controlled trial conducted at two tertiary referral centers in Switzerland, we plan to include 5,000 patients undergoing general, oncologic, vascular and orthopedic trauma procedures. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio into two groups: one receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (75 to 30 minutes before incision) and the other receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room (less than 30 minutes before incision). We expect a significantly lower rate of surgical site infections with surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis administered more than 30 minutes before the scheduled incision. The primary outcome is the occurrence of surgical site infections during a 30-day follow-up period (one year with an implant in place). When assuming a 5% surgical site infection risk with administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room, the planned sample size has an 80% power to detect a relative risk reduction for surgical site infections of 33% when administering surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (with a two-sided type I error of 5%). We expect the study to be completed within three years. Discussion The results of this randomized controlled trial will have an important impact on current international guidelines for infection control strategies in the hospital. Moreover, the results of this randomized controlled trial are of significant interest for patient safety and healthcare economics. Trial registration This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT01790529. PMID:24885132

2014-01-01

276

Improving adherence to web-based cessation programs: a randomized controlled trial study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing smoking prevalence is a public health priority that can save more lives and money than almost any other known preventive intervention. Internet interventions have the potential for enormous public health impact given their broad reach and effectiveness. However, most users engage only minimally with even the best designed websites, diminishing their impact due to an insufficient ‘dose’. Two approaches to improve adherence to Internet cessation programs are integrating smokers into an online social network and providing free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Active participation in online communities is associated with higher rates of cessation. Integrating smokers into an online social network can increase support and may also increase utilization of cessation tools and NRT. Removing barriers to NRT may increase uptake and adherence, and may also increase use of online cessation tools as smokers look for information and support while quitting. The combination of both strategies may exert the most powerful effects on adherence compared to either strategy alone. Methods/Design This study compares the efficacy of a smoking cessation website (WEB) alone and in conjunction with free NRT and a social network (SN) protocol designed to integrate participants into the online community. Using a 2 (SN, no SN) x 2 (NRT, no NRT) randomized, controlled factorial design with repeated measures at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months, this study will recruit N = 4,000 new members of an internet cessation program and randomize them to: 1) WEB, 2) WEB + SN, 3) WEB + NRT, or 4) WEB + SN + NRT. Hypotheses are that all interventions will outperform WEB and that WEB + SN + NRT will outperform WEB + NRT and WEB + SN on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 9 months. Exploratory analyses will examine theory-driven hypotheses about the mediators and moderators of outcome. Discussion Addressing adherence in internet cessation programs is critical and timely to leverage their potential public health impact. This study is innovative in its use of a social network approach to improve behavioral and pharmacological treatment utilization to improve cessation. This approach is significant for reducing tobacco’s devastating disease burden and for optimizing behavior change in other arenas where adherence is just as critical. Trial registration ISRCTN:ISRCTN45127327 PMID:23414086

2013-01-01

277

Regorafenib assessment in refractory advanced colorectal cancer: RegARd-C study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Regorafenib was recently approved for patients with pretreated advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC), despite a moderate improvement of the patients’ outcome, and significant toxicities. Based on previous studies showing that early fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)-based metabolic response assessment (MRA) might adequately select patients unlikely to benefit from treatment, the RegARd-C trial uses early MRA to identify likely non-responders to regorafenib in a population of patients with aCRC and guide a comprehensive evaluation of genomic and epigenetic determinants of resistance to treatment. Methods and analysis RegARd-C is a multicentric prospective study. Its primary objective is to identify non-benefitters from regorafenib given at 160?mg/day, 3?weeks out of 4 in a population of patients with pretreated aCRC. Baseline PET is repeated at day 14 of the first treatment course. MRA is blinded for the investigators. Overall survival (OS) is the primary end point and will be correlated with metabolic parameters and (epi)genetic alterations assessed from tumour and serial blood samples. A target sample size of 105 evaluable patients (70 as derivation set and 35 as validation set), is considered as sufficient to validate an expected HR for OS of metabolic responders compared to metabolic non-responders significantly <1 (with 80% power and 1-sided 5% ? in case of a true HR?0.59 and a responders rate of 47%). Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Institut Jules Bordet's competent ethics committee and complies with the Helsinki declaration or the Belgian laws and regulations, whichever provides the greatest protection for the patient, and follows the International Conference on Harmonisation E 6 (R1) Guideline for Good Clinical Practice, reference number CPMP/ICH/135/95. The protocol and the trials results, even inconclusive, will be presented at international oncology congresses, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Genomic and epigenetic data will be made available in public open data sets. Trial registration numbers EudraCT number: 2012-005655-16; ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01929616. PMID:25753361

Hendlisz, Alain; Deleporte, Amélie; Vandeputte, Caroline; Charette, Nicolas; Paesmans, Marianne; Guiot, Thomas; Garcia, Camilo; Flamen, Patrick

2015-01-01

278

IC chip stress during plastic package molding  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 95% of the world`s integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metalization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study the authors developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over the surface of an integrated circuit during the molding process. A CMOS test chip with 25 diffused resistor stress sensors was applied to a commercial lead frame. Both compression and shear stresses were measured at all 25 locations on the surface of the chip every 50 milliseconds during molding. These measurements have a fine time and stress resolution which should allow comparison with computer simulation of the molding process, thus allowing optimization of both the manufacturing process and mold geometry.

Palmer, D.W.; Benson, D.A.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.

1998-02-01

279

Design and study protocol of the maternal smoking cessation during pregnancy study, (M-SCOPE)  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal smoking is the most significant cause of preventable complications during pregnancy, with smoking cessation during pregnancy shown to increase birth weight and reduce preterm birth among pregnant women who quit smoking. Taking into account the fact that the number of women who smoke in Greece has increased steadily throughout the previous decade and that the prevalence of smoking among Greek females is one of the highest in the world, smoking cessation should be a top priority among Greek health care professionals. Methods/Design The Maternal Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy Study (M-SCOPE), is a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) that aims to test whether offering Greek pregnant smokers a high intensity intervention increases smoking cessation during the third trimester of pregnancy, when compared to a low intensity intervention. Prospective participants will be pregnant smokers of more than 5 cigarettes per week, recruited up to the second trimester of pregnancy. Urine samples for biomarker analysis of cotinine will be collected at three time points: at baseline, at around the 32nd week of gestation and at six months post partum. The control group/low intensity intervention will include: brief advice for 5 minutes and a short leaflet, while the experimental group/intensive intervention will include: 30 minutes of individualized cognitive-behavioural intervention provided by a trained health professional and a self-help manual especially tailored for smoking cessation during pregnancy, while counselling will be based on the ''5 As.'' After childbirth, the infants' birth weight, gestational age and any other health related complications during pregnancy will be recorded. A six months post-partum a follow up will be performed in order to re-assess the quitters smoking status. Discussion If offering pregnant smokers a high intensity intervention for smoking cessation increases the rate of smoking cessation in comparison to a usual care low intensity intervention in Greek pregnant smokers, such a scheme if beneficial could be implemented successfully within clinical practice in Greece. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01210118 PMID:22145828

2011-01-01

280

Effect of Gen2 Protocol Parameters on RFID Tag Performance  

E-print Network

Effect of Gen2 Protocol Parameters on RFID Tag Performance Pavel V. Nikitin and K. V. S. Rao.rao@intermec.com Abstract-- In this paper, we analyze the effect of Gen2 protocol parameters on RFID tag performance (tag. INTRODUCTION Today, the dependence of UHF RFID tag performance on various tag parameters (chip sensitivity, tag

Hochberg, Michael

281

Monitoring activities of teenagers to comprehend their habits: study protocol for a mixed-methods cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Efforts to increase physical activity in youth need to consider which activities are most likely to be sustained over time in order to promote lifelong participation in physical activity. The Monitoring Activities of Teenagers to Comprehend their Habits (MATCH) study is a prospective cohort study that uses quantitative and qualitative methods to develop new knowledge on the sustainability of specific physical activities. Methods/design Eight hundred and forty-three grade 5 and 6 students recruited from 17 elementary schools in New Brunswick, Canada, are followed-up three times per year. At each survey cycle, participants complete self-report questionnaires in their classroom under the supervision of trained data collectors. A sub-sample of 24 physically active students is interviewed annually using a semi-structured interview protocol. Parents (or guardians) complete telephone administered questionnaires every two years, and a health and wellness school audit is completed for each school. Discussion MATCH will provide a description of the patterns of participation in specific physical activities in youth, and enable identification of the determinants of maintenance, decline, and uptake of participation in each activity. These data will inform the development of interventions that take into account which activities are the most likely to be maintained and why activities are maintained or dropped. PMID:23849265

2013-01-01

282

Longitudinal Evaluation of Transition Services (“LETS Study”): Protocol for outcome evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Because of advances in medical treatment, most children with physical disabilities can expect to achieve near normal life spans. Typically, coordinated teams of health care providers in specialized pediatric settings care for these children. As these children reach adulthood, however, the availability of services and expertise changes because the adult health care system has different processes designed to meet their specialized needs. Gaps in continuity of care during the transition from pediatric to adult services, and associated poor health outcomes are well documented. In response, new models of care are being introduced to address the complex process of health care transition. This paper describes a study protocol of a client-centred, prospective, longitudinal, mixed-method evaluation of linked model of health care across the lifespan (the LIFEspan Model), offered by a pediatric rehabilitation centre and an adult rehabilitation centre. Method This project will include a process and an outcome evaluation of the LIFEspan Model. The process evaluation will detail the specific service delivery that occurs with respect to preparation for transition and transfer of care through chart audits of pediatric medical records and qualitative interviews with LIFEspan staff. The outcome evaluation will measure the effect of the model on: 1) maintaining continuity within the health care system from pediatric to adult care; and 2) secondary outcomes related to health, well-being, social participation, transition readiness, and health care utilization of youth with cerebral palsy and acquired brain injury. Standardized instruments will include Health Utilities Inventory, Assessment of Life Habits, Arc’s Self-Determination, Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life, Partners in Health Questionnaire, Social Support Questionnaire, and Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease. Discussion The LETS study will be original in its undertaking of a prospective examination of outcomes 1-year post-transition, use of multiple comparison groups, and absence of disability-related exclusion criteria ensuring that the transition experiences of varied populations of young people and their families will be represented. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT00975338 PMID:22587415

2012-01-01

283

Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation  

PubMed Central

Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]) are electrically powered devices generally similar in appearance to a cigarette that deliver a propylene glycol and/or glycerol mist to the airway of users when drawing on the mouthpiece. Nicotine and other substances such as flavourings may be included in the fluid vaporised by the device. People report using e-cigarettes to help quit smoking and studies of their effects on tobacco withdrawal and craving suggest good potential as smoking cessation aids. However, to date there have been no adequately powered randomised trials investigating their cessation efficacy or safety. This paper outlines the protocol for this study. Methods/design Design: Parallel group, 3-arm, randomised controlled trial. Participants: People aged ?18?years resident in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) who want to quit smoking. Intervention: Stratified blocked randomisation to allocate participants to either Elusion™ e-cigarettes with nicotine cartridges (16?mg) or with placebo cartridges (i.e. no nicotine), or to nicotine patch (21?mg) alone. Participants randomised to the e-cigarette groups will be told to use them ad libitum for one week before and 12?weeks after quit day, while participants randomised to patches will be told to use them daily for the same period. All participants will be offered behavioural support to quit from the NZ Quitline. Primary outcome: Biochemically verified (exhaled carbon monoxide) continuous abstinence at six months after quit day. Sample size: 657 people (292 in both the nicotine e-cigarette and nicotine patch groups and 73 in the placebo e-cigarettes group) will provide 80% power at p?=?0.05 to detect an absolute difference of 10% in abstinence between the nicotine e-cigarette and nicotine patch groups, and 15% between the nicotine and placebo e-cigarette groups. Discussion This trial will inform international debate and policy on the regulation and availability of e-cigarettes. If shown to be efficacious and safe, these devices could help many smokers as an alternative smoking cessation aid to standard nicotine products. Trial registration Australian NZ Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000866000). PMID:23496861

2013-01-01

284

Birth cohort study on the effects of desert dust exposure on children's health: protocol of an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. Methods and analysis This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. Trial Registration number UMIN000010826. PMID:24958210

Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo

2014-01-01

285

Salivary cortisol protocol adherence and reliability by socio-demographic features: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Collection of salivary cortisol has become increasingly popular in large population-based studies. However, the impact of protocol compliance on day-to-day reliabilities of measures, and the extent to which reliabilities differ systematically according to socio-demographic characteristics, has not been well characterized in large-scale population-based studies to date. Using data on 935 men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated whether sampling protocol compliance differs systematically according to socio-demographic factors and whether compliance was associated with cortisol estimates, as well as whether associations of cortisol with both compliance and socio-demographic characteristics were robust to adjustments for one another. We further assessed the day-to-day reliability for cortisol features and the extent to which reliabilities vary according to socio-demographic factors and sampling protocol compliance. Overall, we found higher compliance among persons with higher levels of income and education. Lower compliance was significantly associated with a less pronounced cortisol awakening response (CAR) but was not associated with any other cortisol features, and adjustment for compliance did not affect associations of socio-demographic characteristics with cortisol. Reliability was higher for area under the curve (AUC) and wake up values than for other features, but generally did not vary according to socio-demographic characteristics, with few exceptions. Our findings regarding intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) support prior research indicating that multiple day collection is preferable to single day collection, particularly for CAR and slopes, more so than wakeup and AUC. There were few differences in reliability by socio-demographic characteristics. Thus, it is unlikely that group-specific sampling protocols are warranted. PMID:24703168

Hill Golden, Sherita; Sánchez, Brisa N; Desantis, Amy S; Wu, Meihua; Castro, Cecilia; Seeman, Teresa E; Tadros, Sameh; Shrager, Sandi; Diez Roux, Ana V

2014-05-01

286

Chip packaging technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

287

Study of Ni as a barrier metal in AuSn soldering application for laser chip/submount assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of replacing Pt in the Ti/Pt/Au base and traditionally used metallurgical structure by Ni, while bonding InP laser chip to a submount with AuSn (80% Au) solder, has been investigated. Various Ni-based metal alloys have been prepared by evaporation. Reflow experiments were conducted in a chamber under forming gas-controlled ambient. The Ti/Ni/AuSn system provided much longer surface local freezing duration compared to the Ti/Pt/AuSn system. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed a smoother surface morphology for the Ti/Ni/AuSn system after the metal refroze. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles indicated the formation of a Ni-Sn-Au interacted layer. The interaction took place in two steps: the first stage was the dissolution of Ni into the Au-Sn liquid followed by precipitation of a Ni-Sn-Au intermetallic compound; the second stage was a solid-state interdiffusion of Sn, Au, and Ni which occured in the interacted layer and in the original Ni layer. The latter step was a diffusion-controlled process, resulting in a very slow growth rate. Both Au and Sn reacted to form Ni alloy layers of almost equal thickness, regardless of the reaction duration (up to about 5 min). This intensive reaction, however, did not lead to full consumption of the Ti interfacial layer, which provided an excellent adhesion layer between the submount and the metallurgical structure.

Lee, C. H.; Wong, Y. M.; Doherty, C.; Tai, K. L.; Lane, E.; Bacon, D. D.; Baiocchi, F.; Katz, A.

1992-10-01

288

Cryogenic on-chip multiplexer for the study of quantum transport in 256 split-gate devices  

SciTech Connect

We present a multiplexing scheme for the measurement of large numbers of mesoscopic devices in cryogenic systems. The multiplexer is used to contact an array of 256 split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, in which each split gate can be measured individually. The low-temperature conductance of split-gate devices is governed by quantum mechanics, leading to the appearance of conductance plateaux at intervals of 2e{sup 2}/h. A fabrication-limited yield of 94% is achieved for the array, and a “quantum yield” is also defined, to account for disorder affecting the quantum behaviour of the devices. The quantum yield rose from 55% to 86% after illuminating the sample, explained by the corresponding increase in carrier density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. The multiplexer is a scalable architecture, and can be extended to other forms of mesoscopic devices. It overcomes previous limits on the number of devices that can be fabricated on a single chip due to the number of electrical contacts available, without the need to alter existing experimental set ups.

Al-Taie, H., E-mail: ha322@cam.ac.uk; Kelly, M. J. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom) [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Smith, L. W.; Xu, B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); See, P. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)] [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

2013-06-17

289

Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols  

SciTech Connect

This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

2002-05-07

290

Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health  

PubMed Central

Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. Methods/Design The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a) Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care); (b) Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction); and (c) Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability). Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. Discussion This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how; what benefits have been realised and for whom; the level of community satisfaction with the service; and the impact of a health service on community viability. While the need to reduce the rural-urban health service disparity in Australia is pressing, the evidence regarding how to move forward is inadequate. This comprehensive evaluation will add significant new knowledge regarding the characteristics associated with a sustainable rural primary health care service. PMID:21356123

2011-01-01

291

MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning Services (MOTIF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Providing women with contraceptive methods following abortion is important to reduce repeat abortion rates, yet evidence for effective post-abortion family planning interventions are limited. This protocol outlines the evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial of 500 participants. Clients aged 18 or over, attending for abortion at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia, owning a mobile phone and not wishing to have a child at the current time are randomised to the mobile phone-based intervention or control (standard care) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention comprises a series of six automated voice messages to remind clients about available family planning methods and provide a conduit for additional support. Clients can respond to message prompts to request a phone call from a counsellor, or alternatively to state they have no problems. Clients requesting to talk to a counsellor, or who do not respond to the message prompts, receive a call from a Marie Stopes International Cambodia counsellor who provides individualised advice and support regarding family planning. The duration of the intervention is 3 months. The control group receive existing standard of care without the additional mobile phone-based support. We hypothesise that the intervention will remind clients about contraceptive methods available, identify problems with side effects early and provide support, and therefore increase use of post-abortion family planning, while reducing discontinuation and unsafe method switching. Participants are assessed at baseline and at 4 months. The primary outcome measure is use of an effective modern contraceptive method at 4 months post abortion. Secondary outcome measures include contraception use, pregnancy and repeat abortion over the 4-month post-abortion period. Risk ratios will be used as the measure of effect of the intervention on the outcomes, and these will be estimated with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses will be based on the ‘intention to treat’ principle. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support contraception use in a population with limited literacy. Findings could be generalisable to similar populations in different settings. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01823861 PMID:24330763

2013-01-01

292

The stages of implementation completion for evidence-based practice: protocol for a mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background This protocol describes the ‘development of outcome measures and suitable methodologies for dissemination and implementation approaches,’ a priority for implementation research. Although many evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been developed, large knowledge gaps remain regarding how to routinely move EBPs into usual care. The lack of understanding of ‘what it takes’ to install EBPs has costly public health consequences, including a lack of availability of the most beneficial services, wasted efforts and resources on failed implementation attempts, and the potential for engendering reluctance to try implementing new EBPs after failed attempts. The Stages of Implementation Completion (SIC) is an eight-stage tool of implementation process and milestones, with stages spanning three implementation phases (pre-implementation, implementation, sustainability). Items delineate the date that a site completes implementation activities, yielding an assessment of duration (time to complete a stage), proportion (of stage activities completed), and a general measure of how far a site moved in the implementation process. Methods/Design We propose to extend the SIC to EBPs operating in child service sectors (juvenile justice, schools, substance use, child welfare). Both successful and failed implementation attempts will be scrutinized using a mixed methods design. Stage costs will be measured and examined. Both retrospective data (from previous site implementation efforts) and prospective data (from newly adopting sites) will be analyzed. The influence of pre-implementation on implementation and sustainability outcomes will be examined (Aim 1). Mixed methods procedures will focus on increasing understanding of the process of implementation failure in an effort to determine if the SIC can provide early detection of sites that are unlikely to succeed (Aim 2). Study activities will include cost mapping of SIC stages and an examination of the relationship between implementation costs and implementation performance (Aim 3). Discussion This project fills a gap in the field of implementation science by addressing the measurement gap between the implementation process and the associated costs. The goal of this project is to provide tools that will help increase the uptake of EBPs, thereby increasing the availability of services to youth and decreasing wasted resources from failed implementation efforts. PMID:24708893

2014-01-01

293

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxious children and adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety disorders affect approximately 10% to 20% of young people, can be enduring if left untreated, and have been associated with psychopathology in later life. Despite this, there is a paucity of empirical research to assist clinicians in determining appropriate treatment options. We describe a protocol for a randomized controlled trial in which we will examine the effectiveness of a group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy program for children and adolescents with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder. For the adolescent participants we will also evaluate the elements of the intervention that act as mechanisms for change. Methods/design We will recruit 150 young people (90 children and 60 adolescents) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and their parent or caregiver. After completion of baseline assessment, participants will be randomized to one of three conditions (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy or waitlist control). Those in the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy groups will receive 10 × 1.5 hour weekly group-therapy sessions using a manualized treatment program, in accordance with the relevant therapy, to be delivered by psychologists. Controls will receive the Cognitive Behavior Therapy program after 10 weeks waitlisted. Repeated measures will be taken immediately post-therapy and at three months after therapy cessation. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this study will be the largest trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the treatment of children and young people to date. It will provide comprehensive data on the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxiety disorders and will offer evidence for mechanisms involved in the process of change. Furthermore, additional data will be obtained for the use of Cognitive Behavior Therapy in this population and this research will illustrate the comparative effectiveness of these two interventions, which are currently implemented widely in contemporary clinical practice. Anticipated difficulties for the trial are the recruitment and retention of participants, particularly adolescents. To avert these concerns and maximize recruitment, several strategies will be adopted to optimize referral rates as well as reduce participant drop-outs. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, registration number: ACTRN12611001280998 PMID:23672442

2013-01-01

294

The Combating Obesity in M?ori and Pasifika Adolescent School-Children Study: COMPASS Methodology and Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: Lifestyle modifications including, physical activity can reduce obesity-related morbidity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in youth. This study will investigate the efficacy of a culturally-sensitive, non-contact, boxing-orientated training program on obesity and related cardio-metabolic conditions in M?ori and Pasifika adolescents. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, cultural sensitivity, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation, and statistical analyses are described. Methods: This study will be a community based, New Zealand, randomized control trial (RCT). Male and female obese (body mass index >95th percentile) M?ori and Pasifika adolescents aged 14-16 years will be recruited and the sample size will be confirmed through a feasibility study. Combating Obesity in M?ori and Pasifika Adolescent School-children Study (COMPASS) is a 6-month, theory-based program, conducted 3-times/week in a culturally appropriate setting. Each session includes 40 min boxing-orientated training and 30 min resistance training. Assessments will be made at baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and 24-months. Main outcomes include abdominal obesity, endothelial function, and insulin resistance. Other outcomes include arterial stiffness, lipid profile, inflammatory biomarkers, well-being, and aerobic fitness. Control measures include physical activity, sleep behavior, and dietary intake. Results: As a protocol paper there are no specific results to present, our purpose is to share our RCT design with the scientific community. Conclusions: COMPASS will be used to provide direction for exercise prescription policy in at-risk M?ori and Pasifika adolescents. PMID:23930168

Stoner, Lee; Shultz, Sarah P.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Krebs, Jeremy; Weatherall, Mark; Palmer, Barry R.; Lane, Andrew M.; Kira, Geoff; Witter, Trevor; Williams, Michelle A.

2013-01-01

295

A Comparative Study of Wireless Protocols: Bluetooth, UWB, ZigBee, and Wi-Fi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bluetooth (over IEEE 802.15.1), ultra-wideband (UWB, over IEEE 802.15.3), ZigBee (over IEEE 802.15.4), and Wi-Fi (over IEEE 802.11) are four protocol standards for short- range wireless communications with low power consumption. From an application point of view, bluetooth is intended for a cordless mouse, keyboard, and hands-free headset, UWB is oriented to high-bandwidth multimedia links, ZigBee is designed for reliable

Jin-Shyan Lee; Yu-Wei Su; Chung-Chou Shen

2007-01-01

296

Industrial communication protocol engineering using UML 2.0: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of Unified Modeling Language version 2.0 (UML 2.0) along with its UML testing profile in the recent years, promises to be a major break through in the field of formal description techniques. Thus in this paper we evaluate the suitability of UML 2.0 combined with its Testing profile for the engineering of industrial communication protocols using a case

Barath Kumar; Juergen Jasperneite

2008-01-01

297

Study and Analysis of the Internet Protocol Security and Its Impact on Interactive Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is the defacto standard, which offers secured Internet communications, providing traffic\\u000a integrity, confidentiality and authentication. Besides this, it is assumed that IPSec is not suitable for the protection of\\u000a realtime audio transmissions as the IPSec related enlargement of packets and the usage of the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)\\u000a mode contradict stringent requirements. IPSec overhead of at

Arshi Khan; Seema Ansari

2008-01-01

298

Communications protocol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

299

Biostability of an implantable glucose sensor chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface materials of an implantable microelectronic chip intended for medical applications were evaluated with respect to their long-term stability in bio-environments. The sensor chip shall apply in a glucose monitor by operating as a microviscosimeter according to the principle of affinity viscosimetry. A monolithic integration of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) into the sensor chip was successfully performed in a combined 0.25 ?m CMOS/BiCMOS technology. In order to study material durability and biostability of the surfaces, sensor chips were exposed to various in vitro and in vivo tests. Corrosional damage of SiON, SiO2 and TiN surfaces was investigated by optical microscopy, ellipsometry and AFM. The results served for optimizing the Back-end-of-Line (BEoL) stack, from which the MEMS was prepared. Corrosion of metal lines could significantly be reduced by improving the topmost passivation layer. The experiments revealed no visible damage of the actuator or other functionally important MEMS elements. Sensor chips were also exposed to human body fluid for three month by implantation into the abdomen of a volunteer. Only small effects were observed for layer thickness and Ra roughness after explantation. In particular, TiN as used for the actuator beam showed no degradation by biocorrosion. The highest degradation rate of about 50 nm per month was revealed for the SiON passivation layer. These results suggest that the sensor chip may safely operate in subcutaneous tissue for a period of several months.

Fröhlich, M.; Birkholz, M.; Ehwald, K. E.; Kulse, P.; Fursenko, O.; Katzer, J.

2012-12-01

300

Combined chips for atom optics  

SciTech Connect

We present experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates on a combined atom chip. The combined structure consists of a large-scale 'carrier chip' and smaller 'atom-optics chips', containing micron-sized elements. This allows us to work with condensates very close to chip surfaces without suffering from fragmentation or losses due to thermally driven spin flips. Precise three-dimensional positioning and transport with constant trap frequencies are described. Bose-Einstein condensates were manipulated with submicron accuracy above atom-optics chips. As an application of atom chips, a direction sensitive magnetic-field microscope is demonstrated.

Guenther, A.; Kemmler, M.; Kraft, S.; Zimmermann, C.; Fortagh, J. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Vale, C.J. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

2005-06-15

301

Chipping citrus wood for gasifiction  

SciTech Connect

Both green and dead citrus trees were used for chipping. Chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying time, and data on fuel/tonne of chips were obtained. The average moisture contents of green and dead trees when chipped were 25% and 16% (wet basis) respectively. Chips were sized to a minimum of 0.32 squared cm x 0.32 cm thick to a maximum of 5.0 cm squared x 0.32 cm thick and normally required 4 weeks to air dry to 14% (wet basis) moisture content before use. Approximately 50% of the total tree by weight could be made into usable chips. 9 references.

Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

1984-01-01

302

Examining the impact of genetic testing for type 2 diabetes on health behaviors: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background We describe the study design, procedures, and development of the risk counseling protocol used in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of genetic testing for diabetes mellitus (DM) on psychological, health behavior, and clinical outcomes. Methods/Design Eligible patients are aged 21 to 65 years with body mass index (BMI) ?27 kg/m2 and no prior diagnosis of DM. At baseline, conventional DM risk factors are assessed, and blood is drawn for possible genetic testing. Participants are randomized to receive conventional risk counseling for DM with eye disease counseling or with genetic test results. The counseling protocol was pilot tested to identify an acceptable graphical format for conveying risk estimates and match the length of the eye disease to genetic counseling. Risk estimates are presented with a vertical bar graph denoting risk level with colors and descriptors. After receiving either genetic counseling regarding risk for DM or control counseling on eye disease, brief lifestyle counseling for prevention of DM is provided to all participants. Discussion A standardized risk counseling protocol is being used in a randomized trial of 600 participants. Results of this trial will inform policy about whether risk counseling should include genetic counseling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01060540 PMID:22852560

2012-01-01

303

An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987-1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998-2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. DISCUSSION: The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population. PMID:12659639

Sayers, Susan M; Mackerras, Dorothy; Singh, Gurmeet; Bucens, Ingrid; Flynn, Kathryn; Reid, Alison

2003-03-01

304

Interaction between reinforcing geosynthetics and soil-tire chip mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of tire chips and soil-tire chip mixtures relevant to geosynthetic-reinforced earthworks. Tests were conducted to evaluate shear strength and pull-out capacity with a woven geotextile and two geogrids. Soil-tire chip mixtures made with clean sand and sandy silt were tested. These properties were then used to assess the

Nilay Tatlisoz; Tuncer B. Edil; Craig H. Benson

1998-01-01

305

Chip connectivity verification program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for testing electrical connectivity between conductive structures on a chip that is preferably layered with conductive and nonconductive layers. The method includes determining the layer on which each structure is located and defining the perimeter of each structure. Conductive layer connections between each of the layers are determined, and, for each structure, the points of intersection between the perimeter of that structure and the perimeter of each other structure on the chip are also determined. Finally, electrical connections between the structures are determined using the points of intersection and the conductive layer connections.

Riley, Josh (Inventor); Patterson, George (Inventor)

1999-01-01

306

Color Chips - Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides students with practice adding positive and negative integers. Students are given an addition problem, and using one-to-one correspondence, the student is able to see what happens when adding negative integers. The addition problems can be computer generated or teacher generated and there is a free play mode which allows the student to practice with the chips and become familiar with the process of moving the chips around the page, and creating a visual representation of an addition problem with integers.

Utah State University

2011-06-28

307

Microfluidic Chips for Immunoassays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of microfluidic chips for immunoassays has been extensively explored in recent years. The combination of immunoassays and microfluidics affords a promising platform for multiple, sensitive, and automatic point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. In this review, we focus on the description of recent achievements in microfluidic chips for immunoassays categorized by their detection method. Following a brief introduction to the basic principles of each detection method, we examine current microfluidic immunosensor detection systems in detail. We also highlight interesting strategies for sensitive immunosensing configurations, multiplexed analysis, and POC diagnostics in microfluidic immunosensors.

Han, Kwi Nam; Li, Cheng Ai; Seong, Gi Hun

2013-06-01

308

Chip scale package versus direct chip attach (CSP vs. DCA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a systems designer is making choices related to what type of packaging is going to be used with the various integrated circuits used on the boards he now has the choice between Chip Scale packaging (CSP) or Direct Chip Attach (DCA). The technologies related to Chip Scale packaging have taken off at an astronomical rate during the last two

Richard Arnold; Texas Instruments

2000-01-01

309

Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC)  

E-print Network

Life Marker Chip consortium The Life Marker Chip (LMC) experiment on ExoMars 7th Appleton Space Chip (LMC) · Key other features ­ Drill (to ~ 2m depth) ­ Analytical drawer (ALD) ALD #12;Life Marker, Cranfield University #12;How to detect evidence of Life in on Mars? Photo: Karl Johaentges #12;ESA's Exo

310

Agilent Bioanalyzer Protocol Updated 7/2004 Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

Agilent Bioanalyzer Protocol Updated 7/2004 Page 1 of 2 Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer Protocol RNA 6000 temperature for 30 min before starting. 2. Dispense enough RNA 6000 ladder (Ambion, stored at ­70 o C) for use to the 1-mL mark. Open the chip priming station. #12;Agilent Bioanalyzer Protocol Updated 7/2004 Page 2

California at Santa Cruz, University of

311

A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system) analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes) and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims). Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that future research, policy and practice need to address the sociology of improvement in equal measure to the science and technique of improvement, or at least expand the discipline of improvement to include these critical organisational and cultural processes. We define the 'organisational and cultural characteristics associated with better quality of care' in a broad sense that encompasses all the features of a hospital that might be hypothesised to impact upon clinical effectiveness, patient safety and/or patient experience. PMID:22029712

2011-01-01

312

Atom chip based generation of entanglement for quantum metrology  

E-print Network

Atom chips provide a versatile `quantum laboratory on a microchip' for experiments with ultracold atomic gases. They have been used in experiments on diverse topics such as low-dimensional quantum gases, cavity quantum electrodynamics, atom-surface interactions, and chip-based atomic clocks and interferometers. A severe limitation of atom chips, however, is that techniques to control atomic interactions and to generate entanglement have not been experimentally available so far. Such techniques enable chip-based studies of entangled many-body systems and are a key prerequisite for atom chip applications in quantum simulations, quantum information processing, and quantum metrology. Here we report experiments where we generate multi-particle entanglement on an atom chip by controlling elastic collisional interactions with a state-dependent potential. We employ this technique to generate spin-squeezed states of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate and show that they are useful for quantum metrology. The obser...

Riedel, Max F; Li, Yun; Hänsch, Theodor W; Sinatra, Alice; Treutlein, Philipp

2010-01-01

313

Non-planar and flexible chip technology for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

We report a novel non-planar flexible silicon chip technology by means of patterning thin films of high residual stress on top of shaped thin silicon substrate. High residual stresses of thin films make thin chip deform into designed three-dimensional shapes. In this study, a series of patterned stress films and "petal-like" chips were fabricated and analyzed. Large curvatures can also be formed and maintained by the packaging process bonding the chips to constraining elements such as thin-film polymer ring structures. As a demonstration, a CMOS image-sensing retina chip is made into a contact-lens shape conforming to a human eyeball 12.5 m in radius. This non-planar and flexible chip technology provides a desirable device surface interface to soft or non-planar bio surfaces and opens up possibilities for many biomedical applications. PMID:24111312

Liu, Ching-Yu; Lin, Hsiao-Chen; Teng, Chih-Chiao; Fan, Long-Sheng

2013-01-01

314

Cytometer on a Chip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (.50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the various species in a sample of cells is spatially encoded in the chip by the pattern of capture spots. The number of cells of a particular species is determined from the magnitude of the GCSPRI signal from that spot. GCSPRI as used here can be summarized as follows: The cytometer chip is fabricated with a diffraction grating on its front surface. The chip is illuminated with a light emitting diode (LED) from the front. By proper choice of grating parameters and of the wavelength and the angle of incidence of a laser beam, laser light can be made to be coupled into an electromagnetic mode that resonates with surface plasmons and thus couples light into surface plasmons. Coupling of light into a surface plasmon at a given location reduces the amount of incident light reflected from that location. A change in the index of refraction at the surface of a capture spot gives rise to a change in the resonance condition. Depending on the specific design, the change in the index of refraction could manifest itself as a brightening or darkening, a change in the wavelength needed to excite the plasmon at a given angle of incidence, or a change in the angle of incidence needed to excite the plasmon at a given wavelength. Whereas a multiwavelength laser system with multichannel detection would be needed to detect multiple species in conventional flow cytometry, it suffices to use an LED and a single detector channel in the GCSPRI approach: this contributes significantly to reductions in cost, complexity, size, mass, and power. GCSPRI cytometer chips could be made of plastic and could be mass-produced cheaply by use of molding and other methods adopted from the manufacture of digital video disks. These methods are amenable to a high degree of miniaturization: such additional features as fluidic channels, reaction chambers, and fluid-coupling ports could readily be incorporated into the chips, without incurring substantial additional costs.

Fernandez, Salvador M.

2011-01-01

315

Cytometer on a Chip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the various species in a sample of cells is spatially encoded in the chip by the pattern of capture spots. The number of cells of a particular species is determined from the magnitude of the GCSPRI signal from that spot. GCSPRI as used here can be summarized as follows: The cytometer chip is fabricated with a diffraction grating on its front surface. The chip is illuminated with a light emitting diode (LED) from the front. By proper choice of grating parameters and of the wavelength and the angle of incidence of a laser beam, laser light can be made to be coupled into an electromagnetic mode that resonates with surface plasmons and thus couples light into surface plasmons. Coupling of light into a surface plasmon at a given location reduces the amount of incident light reflected from that location. A change in the index of refraction at the surface of a capture spot gives rise to a change in the resonance condition. Depending on the specific design, the change in the index of refraction could manifest itself as a brightening or darkening, a change in the wavelength needed to excite the plasmon at a given angle of incidence, or a change in the angle of incidence needed to excite the plasmon at a given wavelength. Whereas a multiwavelength laser system with multichannel detection would be needed to detect multiple species in conventional flow cytometry, it suffices to use an LED and a single detector channel in the GCSPRI approach: this contributes significantly to reductions in cost, complexity, size, mass, and power. GCSPRI cytometer chips could be made of plastic and could be mass-produced cheaply by use of molding and other methods adopted from the manufacture of digital video disks. These methods are amenable to a high degree of miniaturization: such additional features as fluidic channels, reaction chambers, and fluid-coupling ports could readily be incorporated into the chips, without incurring substantial additional costs.

Fernandez, Salvador M.

2011-01-01

316

The ENHANCES study—Enhancing Head and Neck Cancer patients’ Experiences of Survivorship: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Few cancers pose greater challenges than head and neck (H&N) cancer. Residual effects following treatment include body image changes, pain, fatigue and difficulties with appetite, swallowing and speech. Depression is a common comorbidity. There is limited evidence about ways to assist patients to achieve optimal adjustment after completion of treatment. In this study, we aim to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of a model of survivorship care to improve the quality of life of patients who have completed treatment for H&N cancer. Methods/Design This is a preliminary study in which 120 patients will be recruited. A prospective randomised controlled trial of the H&N Cancer Survivor Self-management Care Plan (HNCP) involving pre- and post-intervention assessments will be used. Consecutive patients who have completed a defined treatment protocol for H&N cancer will be recruited from two large cancer services and randomly allocated to one of three study arms: (1) usual care, (2) information in the form of a written resource or (3) the HNCP delivered by an oncology nurse who has participated in manual-based training and skill development in patient self-management support. The trained nurses will meet patients in a face-to-face interview lasting up to 60 minutes to develop an individualised HNCP, based on principles of chronic disease self-management. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure is quality of life. The secondary outcome measures include mood, self-efficacy and health-care utilisation. The feasibility of implementing this intervention in routine clinical care will be assessed through semistructured interviews with participating nurses, managers and administrators. Interviews with patients who received the HNCP will explore their perceptions of the HNCP, including factors that assisted them in achieving behavioural change. Discussion In this study, we aim to improve the quality of life of a patient population with unique needs by means of a tailored self-management care plan developed upon completion of treatment. Delivery of the intervention by trained oncology nurses is likely to be acceptable to patients and, if successful, will be a model of care that can be implemented for diverse patient populations. Trial registration ACTRN12613000542796 (registered on 15 May 2013) PMID:24885486

2014-01-01

317

A Field-Based Cleaning Protocol for Sampling Devices Used in Life-Detection Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical approaches to extant and extinct life detection involve molecular detection often at trace levels. Thus, removal of biological materials and other organic molecules from the surfaces of devices used for sampling is essential for ascertaining meaningful results. Organic decontamination to levels consistent with null values on life-detection instruments is particularly challenging at remote field locations where Mars analog field investigations are carried out. Here, we present a seven-step, multi-reagent decontamination method that can be applied to sampling devices while in the field. In situ lipopolysaccharide detection via low-level endotoxin assays and molecular detection via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to test the effectiveness of the decontamination protocol for sampling of glacial ice with a coring device and for sampling of sediments with a rover scoop during deployment at Arctic Mars-analog sites in Svalbard, Norway. Our results indicate that the protocols and detection technique sufficiently remove and detect low levels of molecular constituents necessary for life-detection tests.

Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Benning, Liane G.; Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Amundsen, Hans E. F.

2009-06-01

318

A field-based cleaning protocol for sampling devices used in life-detection studies.  

PubMed

Analytical approaches to extant and extinct life detection involve molecular detection often at trace levels. Thus, removal of biological materials and other organic molecules from the surfaces of devices used for sampling is essential for ascertaining meaningful results. Organic decontamination to levels consistent with null values on life-detection instruments is particularly challenging at remote field locations where Mars analog field investigations are carried out. Here, we present a seven-step, multi-reagent decontamination method that can be applied to sampling devices while in the field. In situ lipopolysaccharide detection via low-level endotoxin assays and molecular detection via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to test the effectiveness of the decontamination protocol for sampling of glacial ice with a coring device and for sampling of sediments with a rover scoop during deployment at Arctic Mars-analog sites in Svalbard, Norway. Our results indicate that the protocols and detection technique sufficiently remove and detect low levels of molecular constituents necessary for life-detection tests. PMID:19496672

Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Benning, Liane G; Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Amundsen, Hans E F

2009-06-01

319

Evaluation of metatranscriptomic protocols and application to the study of freshwater microbial communities.  

PubMed

Metatranscriptomics of environmental samples enables the identification of community activities without a priori knowledge of taxonomic or functional composition. However, several technical challenges associated with the RNA preparation protocols can affect the relative representation of transcripts and data interpretation. Here, seven replicate metatranscriptomes from planktonic freshwater samples (Lake Lanier, USA) were sequenced to evaluate technical and biological reproducibility of different RNA extraction protocols. Organic versus bead-beating extraction showed significant enrichment for low versus high G?+?C% mRNA populations respectively. The sequencing data were best modelled by a negative binomial distribution to account for the large technical and biological variation observed. Despite the variation, the transcriptional activities of populations that persisted in year-round metagenomes from the same site consistently showed distinct expression patterns, reflecting different ecologic strategies and allowing us to test prevailing models on the contribution of both rare biosphere and abundant members to community activity. For instance, abundant members of the Verrucomicrobia phylum systematically showed low transcriptional activity compared with other abundant taxa. Our results provide a practical guide to the analysis of metatranscriptomes and advance understanding of the activity and ecology of abundant and rare members of temperate freshwater microbial communities. PMID:25756118

Tsementzi, Despina; Poretsky, Rachel; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Luo, Chengwei; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

2014-12-01

320

Boron neutron capture therapy applied to advanced breast cancers: Engineering simulation and feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes a novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) application for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers. The original contribution of the dissertation is the development of the engineering simulation and the feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol for this novel combination of BNCT and HER2+ breast cancer treatment. This new concept of BNCT, representing a radiation binary targeted treatment, consists of the combination of two approaches never used in a synergism before. This combination may offer realistic hope for relapsed and/or metastasized breast cancers. This treatment assumes that the boronated anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are administrated to the patient and accumulate preferentially in the tumor. Then the tumor is destroyed when is exposed to neutron irradiation. Since the use of anti-HER2 MABs yields good and promising results, the proposed concept is expected to amplify the known effect and be considered as a possible additional treatment approach to the most severe breast cancers for patients with metastasized cancer for which the current protocol is not successful and for patients refusing to have the standard treatment protocol. This dissertation makes an original contribution with an integral numerical approach and proves feasible the combination of the aforementioned therapy and disease. With these goals, the dissertation describes the theoretical analysis of the proposed concept providing an integral engineering simulation study of the treatment protocol. An extensive analysis of the potential limitations, capabilities and optimization factors are well studied using simplified models, models based on real CT patients' images, cellular models, and Monte Carlo (MCNP5/X) transport codes. One of the outcomes of the integral dosimetry assessment originally developed for the proposed treatment of advanced breast cancers is the implementation of BNCT for HER2+ breast cancers for deep seated tumors using MITRII-FCB facility with an 8 cm diameter beam (port closest-to-tumor position), with boron concentrations in the tumor higher than 32 mug/g, and for a tumor-to-healthy tissue boron concentration ratio of 8:1. The therapeutic ratios for the proposed treatment would be higher than five for skin and adipose tissue and higher than three for tumor surrounding fibroglandular tissue. The microdosimetry study shows potential improvements in the therapeutic ratios based on the expected sub-cellular boron biodistributions. The engineering simulation study of clinical cases shows the advantages of using BNCT for HER+ breast cancers. Assuming an assured high efficiency of the boron agent delivery, the proposed concept can be considered for stage IV HER2+ breast cancers in treating the metastasized tumors in brain, head and neck, and lungs.

Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, Manuel Leonardo

321

Hardwood chips as an alternative medium for container plant production  

SciTech Connect

Chips of Quercus stellata and Ulmus pumila were used as components of container growth media for Pyracantha X Mojave and Liquidambar formosana. Both species grew at least as well in the wood chip media as in conventional pine bark medium. Micronutrients were of little benefit to plants in the oak chip medium but did increase plant growth in the elm chip medium. Drainable pore space decreased markedly during the growing season, indicating decomposition; however, roots appeared normal when the study ended. Adding N above the level generally used with a pine bark medium did not improve growth. 17 references.

Kenna, S.W.; Whitcomb, C.E.

1985-01-01

322

Benefits of Chipping Almond Brush  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wood chipping of almond (Prunus dulcis) prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips deplete the soil of critical nutrients necessary for tree g...

323

Benefits of Chipping Almond Brush  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wood chipping of almond (Prunus dulcis) prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and would add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips interfere with harvest or deplete the soil of critica...

324

DNA Chip Technology Benedikt Brors  

E-print Network

and hybridized to the array `active' genes will light up on the array #12;DNA Chip Technology 2 #12;DNA ChipDNA Chip Technology Benedikt Brors Dept. Intelligent Bioinformatics Systems German Cancer Research in human cells (± 50,000) · We only have sound information on 12,000 genes · All cells have the same

Spang, Rainer

325

Chipping citrus wood for gasification  

SciTech Connect

Non-productive citrus trees were chipped with a portable fly-wheel-type chipper powered by a 45 kW engine. Chips were air dried under an open shed to 14% (w.b.) moisture content. By weight, approximately 50% of the total tree could be made into usable chips. The root system averaged 36% of the total tree weight.

Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

1985-01-01

326

EVALUATING NURSES’ IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INFANT-FEEDING COUNSELING PROTOCOL FOR HIV-INFECTED MOTHERS: THE BAN STUDY IN LILONGWE, MALAWI  

PubMed Central

A process evaluation of nurses’ implementation of an infant-feeding counseling protocol was conducted for the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral and Nutrition (BAN) Study, a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinical trial in Lilongwe, Malawi. Six trained nurses counseled HIV-infected mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 24 weeks postpartum and to stop breastfeeding within an additional four weeks. Implementation data were collected via direct observations of 123 infant feeding counseling sessions (30 antenatal and 93 postnatal) and interviews with each nurse. Analysis included calculating a percent adherence to checklists and conducting a content analysis for the observation and interview data. Nurses were implementing the protocol at an average adherence level of 90% or above. Although not detailed in the protocol, nurses appropriately counseled mothers on their actual or intended formula milk usage after weaning. Results indicate that nurses implemented the protocol as designed. Results will help to interpret the BAN Study’s outcomes. PMID:19397436

Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Eng, Eugenia; Bentley, Margaret; Sandelowski, Margarete; Steckler, Allan; Randall-David, Elizabeth; Piwoz, Ellen G.; Zulu, Cynthia; Chasela, Charles; Soko, Alice; Tembo, Martin; Martinson, Francis; Tohill, Beth Carlton; Ahmed, Yusuf; Kazembe, Peter; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles

2010-01-01

327

Radiometer on a Chip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.

Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.

2009-01-01

328

Bee venom acupuncture, NSAIDs or combined treatment for chronic neck pain: study protocol for a randomized, assessor-blind trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a common painful medical condition with a significant socioeconomic impact. In spite of widespread usage, the effectiveness and safety of combined treatments between conventional and complementary alternative medical treatment modalities has not been fully established in a rigorous randomized clinical trial (RCT). This pilot study will provide the clinical evidence to evaluate the feasibility and refine the protocol for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with CNP. Methods/Design This is a randomized, single-blind clinical trial with three parallel arms. Sixty patients between 18 and 65 years of age with non-specific, uncomplicated neck pain lasting for at least three months will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly allocated into the BVA, NSAIDs or combined treatment group. Assessors and statisticians will be blinded to the random allocation. All researchers will receive training to ensure their strict adherence to the study protocol. Patients from the BVA and combined treatment group will be treated with a bee venom increment protocol into predefined acupoints for six sessions over a three week period. BVA intervention is developed through a comprehensive discussion among interdisciplinary spine disorder experts, according to the guidelines of Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA). Patients from the NSAIDs and combined treatment groups will be prescribed loxoprofen (one tablet to be taken orally, three times a day for three weeks). Bothersomeness from CNP measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) will be the primary outcome assessed at screening, visit two (baseline), four, six, eight (4th week assessment) and nine (8th week assessment) follow-up session. VAS for pain intensity, neck disability index (NDI), quality of life, depressive status and adverse experiences will also be analyzed. Discussion Our study results will contribute to feasibility evaluation and to relevant RCT protocol development for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of BVA and NSAIDs for CNP patients. Trial registration This study is registered with the United States (US) National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry: NCT01922466. PMID:24746224

2014-01-01

329

Atlas-based analysis of cardiac shape and function: correction of regional shape bias due to imaging protocol for population studies  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular imaging studies generate a wealth of data which is typically used only for individual study endpoints. By pooling data from multiple sources, quantitative comparisons can be made of regional wall motion abnormalities between different cohorts, enabling reuse of valuable data. Atlas-based analysis provides precise quantification of shape and motion differences between disease groups and normal subjects. However, subtle shape differences may arise due to differences in imaging protocol between studies. Methods A mathematical model describing regional wall motion and shape was used to establish a coordinate system registered to the cardiac anatomy. The atlas was applied to data contributed to the Cardiac Atlas Project from two independent studies which used different imaging protocols: steady state free precession (SSFP) and gradient recalled echo (GRE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Shape bias due to imaging protocol was corrected using an atlas-based transformation which was generated from a set of 46 volunteers who were imaged with both protocols. Results Shape bias between GRE and SSFP was regionally variable, and was effectively removed using the atlas-based transformation. Global mass and volume bias was also corrected by this method. Regional shape differences between cohorts were more statistically significant after removing regional artifacts due to imaging protocol bias. Conclusions Bias arising from imaging protocol can be both global and regional in nature, and is effectively corrected using an atlas-based transformation, enabling direct comparison of regional wall motion abnormalities between cohorts acquired in separate studies. PMID:24033990

2013-01-01

330

The effect of location and facility demand on the marginal cost of delivered wood chips from energy crops: A case study of the state of Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-supply curves for delivered wood chips from short rotation woody crops were calculated for 21 regularly spaced locations spanning the state of Tennessee. These curves were used to systematically evaluate the combined effects of location and facility demand on wood chip feedstock costs in Tennessee. The cost-supply curves were developed using BRAVO, a GIS-based decision support system which calculates marginal

R. L. Graham; W. Liu; M. Downing; C. E. Noon; M. Daly; A. Moore

1997-01-01

331

Survey of Robustness Enhancement Techniques for Wireless Systems-on-a-Chip and Study of Temperature as Observable for Process Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Built-in test and on-chip calibration features are becoming essential for reliable wireless connectivity of next generation\\u000a devices suffering from increasing process variations in CMOS technologies. This paper contains an overview of contemporary\\u000a self-test and performance enhancement strategies for single-chip transceivers. In general, a trend has emerged to combine\\u000a several techniques involving process variability monitoring, digital calibration, and tuning of analog

Marvin Onabajo; Didac Gómez; Eduardo Aldrete-Vidrio; Josep Altet; Diego Mateo; Jose Silva-Martinez

2011-01-01

332

Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers’ sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study  

PubMed Central

Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with the inclusion of parental involvement. The application of the Intervention Mapping Protocol may lead to the development of more effective interventions. The detailed intervention matrices that were developed as part of the ToyBox-study can be used by other researchers as an aid in order to avoid repetitive work for the design of similar interventions. PMID:24552138

2014-01-01

333

NEST CARD PROTOCOL Nest-searching is a quintessential part of this study. Data from nests are used to estimate  

E-print Network

Gillivray's Warbler Oporornis tolmiei MGWA Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata OCWA Western Tanager Piranga ludoviciana WETA Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina CHSP Green-tailed Towhee Pipilo chlorurus GTTO Gray

Martin, Thomas E.

334

A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

2014-05-01

335

Microfluidic chips with reversed-phase monoliths for solid phase extraction and on-chip labeling  

PubMed Central

The integration of sample preparation methods into microfluidic devices provides automation necessary for achieving complete micro total analysis systems. We have developed a technique that combines on-chip sample enrichment with fluorescence labeling and purification. Polymer monoliths made from butyl methacrylate were fabricated in cyclic olefin copolymer microdevices and used for solid phase extraction. We studied the retention of fluorophores, amino acids and proteins on these columns. The retained samples were subsequently labeled with both Alexa Fluor 488 and Chromeo P503, and unreacted dye was rinsed off the column before sample elution. Additional purification was obtained from the differential retention of proteins and fluorescent labels. A linear relation between the eluted peak areas and concentrations of on-chip labeled heat shock protein 90 samples demonstrated the utility of this method for on-chip quantitation. Our fast and simple method of simultaneously concentrating and labeling samples on-chip is compatible with miniaturization and desirable for automated analysis. PMID:22995197

Nge, Pamela N.; Pagaduan, Jayson V.; Yu, Ming; Woolley, Adam T.

2012-01-01

336

FISH in chips: turning microfluidic fluorescence in situ hybridization into a quantitative and clinically reliable molecular diagnosis tool.  

PubMed

Microfluidic systems bear promise to provide new powerful tools for the molecular characterization of cancer cells, in particular for the routine detection of multiple cancer biomarkers using a minute amount of the sample. However, taking miniaturized cell-based assays into the clinics requires the implementation and validation of complex biological protocols on chip, as well as the development of disposable microdevices produced at a low cost. Based on a recently developed microfluidic chip made of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer for cell immobilization with minimal dead volume and controlled shear stress, we developed a protocol performed entirely in the liquid phase, allowing the immobilization and fixation of cells and their quantitative characterization by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We demonstrated first in cell lines and then in two clinical case studies the potential of this method to perform quantitative copy number measurement and clinical scoring of the amplification of the ERBB2 gene, a decisive biomarker for the prescription of HER2+ related targeted therapies. This validation was performed in a blind protocol in two clinical case studies, in reference to the gold standard and clinically used method based on glass slides. We obtained a comparable reproducibility and a minor difference in apparent amplification, which can be corrected by internal calibration. The method thus reaches the standard of robustness needed for clinical use. The protocol can be fully automated, and its consumption of samples and DNA probes is reduced as compared to glass slide protocols by a factor of at least 10. The total duration of the assay is divided by two. PMID:25474258

Perez-Toralla, Karla; Mottet, Guillaume; Guneri, Ezgi Tulukcuoglu; Champ, Jérôme; Bidard, François-Clément; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Klijanienko, Jerzy; Draskovic, Irena; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Descroix, Stéphanie

2015-02-01

337

Freshwater Macroinvertebrates Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guides students through sampling, identification and counting of macroinvertebrates sampled in a GLOBE hydrology study site, and understand how the taxa composition found in the sample can be an indicator of water quality and ecosystem health. The resource includes 8 field and laboratory protocols. This resource is a protocol within the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

2012-08-03

338

Outcomes After a Prone Lumbar Traction Protocol for Patients With Activity-Limiting Low Back Pain: A Prospective Case Series Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beattie PF, Nelson RM, Michener LA, Cammarata J, Donley J. Outcomes after a prone lumbar traction protocol for patients with activity-limiting low back pain: a prospective, case series study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 89:269-74. Objective: To determine outcomes after administration of a prone lumbar traction protocol. Design: Prospective, longitudinal, case series. Setting: Suburban, chiropractic practice. Participants: A total of

Paul F. Beattie; Roger M. Nelson; Lori A. Michener; Joseph Cammarata; Jonathan Donley

339

Prevalence of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis in children and adolescents: study protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is some debate as to what extent epidemiological data for the prevalence of childhood tinnitus can be relied on. While indications are that the prevalence is relatively high, referral numbers for children with tinnitus are reported to be low and many of the studies have a number of methodological difficulties. We describe the protocol of a systematic review aimed at assessing the prevalence of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis in children and young people. Methods and analysis We will include studies of any design (except case reports or case series) comparing the prevalence of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis in children and young people with and without hearing loss, any known external exposure and psychological disorders. We will search the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus. No restrictions of language will be applied in the search strategy but during the article selection language is limited to English, German and Scandinavian languages. Primary and additional outcomes will be the prevalence of tinnitus/hyperacusis and the severity, respectively. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences of audiology and paediatrics. Trail registration number This review protocol is registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, registration number CRD42014013456. PMID:25564147

Nemholt, Susanne Steen; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wedderkopp, Niels; Baguley, David M

2015-01-01

340

A novel protocol for gastric lavage in patients with aluminum phosphide poisoning: a double-blind study.  

PubMed

Aluminum phosphide poisoning (ALPP) still has no efficient and approved antidote. Supportive care and hemodynamic monitoring are the only choices of treatment. We proposed a new lavage formulation in addition to evaluation of its efficacy and defining the impact of clinical characteristics of patients on their prognosis. During eight months period of time, 120 patients were enrolled to the study and randomly received two different gastric lavage protocols. Our new lavage protocol had positive impact on patients' survival and the P-value in comparison with the classic gastric lavage method was close to significant level (P=0.054). On hospital arrival indication for intubation-ventilation as well as sense of thirst, sore throat and absence of nausea indicate worse outcome. Using our novel approach, indication for intubation-ventilation as well as sense of thirst, sore throat and absence of nausea can be considered as applicable prognostic factors in survival of ALPP patients. Further studies are required to set this approach as preferred treatment. PMID:23109024

Mostafazadeh, Babak; Farzaneh, Esmaeil

2012-01-01

341

Extrusion pretreatment of pine wood chips.  

PubMed

Pretreatment is the first step to open up lignocellulose structure in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Extrusion can be a viable pretreatment method due to its ability to simultaneously expose biomass to a range of disruptive conditions in a continuous flow process. Extruder screw speed, barrel temperature, and feedstock moisture content are important factors that can influence sugar recovery from biomass. Hence, the current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of these parameters on extrusion pretreatment of pine wood chips. Pine wood chip at 25, 35, and 45 % wb moisture content were pretreated at various barrel temperatures (100, 140, and 180 °C) and screw speeds (100, 150, and 200 rpm) using a screw with compression ratios of 3:1. The pretreated pine wood chips were subjected to standard enzymatic hydrolysis followed by sugar and byproducts quantification. Statistical analyses revealed the existence of significant differences in sugar recovery due to independent variables based on comparing the mean of main effects and interaction effects. Pine wood chips pretreated at a screw speed of 150 rpm and a barrel temperature of 180 °C with a moisture content of 25 % resulted in a maximum cellulose, hemicellulose, and total sugar recoveries of 65.8, 65.6, and 66.1 %, respectively, which was about 6.7, 7.9, and 6.8 fold higher than the control (unpretreated pine chips). Furthermore, potential fermentation inhibitors such as furfural, hydroxyl methyl furfural, and acetic acid were not found in any of the treatment combinations. PMID:22528654

Karunanithy, C; Muthukumarappan, K; Gibbons, W R

2012-05-01

342

To support legacy software, large CMPs often provide cache coherence via an on-chip directory rather than snooping. In those designs, a key challenge is maximizing the effectiveness  

E-print Network

-chip directory rather than snooping. In those designs, a key challenge is maximizing the effectiveness of precious on-chip directory state. Most current directory protocols miss an opportunity by organizing all state in per-block records. To increase the "reach" of on-chip directory state, we apply ideas from

Hill, Mark D.

343

A methodology for memory chip stress levels prediction  

E-print Network

. This variation leads to variation in chip temperature, which can be made evident from thermal profiles of these chips. In this thesis, effort was made to study two different kind of stress existing in the electronic board, namely signal stress based on variation...

Sharma, Kartik

2006-10-30

344

Mathematical Formalisms for Performance Evaluation of Networks-on-Chip  

E-print Network

, more recently, have been adopted for the study of System-on-Chip (SoC). In modern SoCs, the on--and how they have been applied to the analysis of on-chip communication performance in Systems Descriptors: C.4 [Computer Systems Organization]: Performance of Systems-- Modeling techniques General Terms

Jantsch, Axel

345

Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip  

PubMed Central

Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral filtering or post-selection. After splitting the twin-photons immediately after they emerge from the chip, we perform a variety of correlation tests on the photon pairs and show non-classical behaviour in their polarization. Combined with the BRW's versatile architecture our results signify the BRW design as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices. PMID:23896982

Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng; Abolghasem, Payam; Scarcella, Carmelo; Frera, Adriano Della; Tosi, Alberto; Helt, Lukas G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Sipe, J. E.; Weihs, Gregor; Helmy, Amr S.; Jennewein, Thomas

2013-01-01

346

Risk factors and prognosis of young stroke. The FUTURE study: A prospective cohort study. Study rationale and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Young stroke can have devastating consequences with respect to quality of life, the ability to work, plan or run a family, and participate in social life. Better insight into risk factors and the long-term prognosis is extremely important, especially in young stroke patients with a life expectancy of decades. To date, detailed information on risk factors and the long-term prognosis in young stroke patients, and more specific risk of mortality or recurrent vascular events, remains scarce. Methods/Design The FUTURE study is a prospective cohort study on risk factors and prognosis of young ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among 1006 patients, aged 18-50 years, included in our study database between 1-1-1980 and 1-11-2010. Follow-up visits at our research centre take place from the end of 2009 until the end of 2011. Control subjects will be recruited among the patients' spouses, relatives or social environment. Information on mortality and incident vascular events will be retrieved via structured questionnaires. In addition, participants are invited to the research centre to undergo an extensive sub study including MRI. Discussion The FUTURE study has the potential to make an important contribution to increase the knowledge on risk factors and long-term prognosis in young stroke patients. Our study differs from previous studies by having a maximal follow-up of more than 30 years, including not only TIA and ischemic stroke but also hemorrhagic stroke, the addition of healthy controls and prospectively collect data during an extensive follow-up visit. Completion of the FUTURE study may provide better information for treating physicians and patients with respect to the prognosis of young stroke. PMID:21933424

2011-01-01

347

Potato Chip Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces the structure and function of a dichotomous key, in preparation for student identification of plant and animal specimens. It also reinforces the idea that there are many possible answers in science. Students will be able to classify specimens (in this case, potato chips) according to observable characteristics, prepare a key showing their classification system, use their key to identify a specimen, and recognize the validity of classmates' classification systems.

1998-01-01

348

A study of topologies and protocols for fiber optic local area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of new applications requiring high data traffic necessitates the development of high speed local area networks. Optical fiber is selected as the transmission medium due to its inherent advantages over other possible media and the dual optical bus architecture is shown to be the most suitable topology. Asynchronous access protocols, including token, random, hybrid random/token, and virtual token schemes, are developed and analyzed. Exact expressions for insertion delay and utilization at light and heavy load are derived, and intermediate load behavior is investigated by simulation. A new tokenless adaptive scheme whose control depends only on the detection of activity on the channel is shown to outperform round-robin schemes under uneven loads and multipacket traffic and to perform optimally at light load. An approximate solution to the queueing delay for an oscillating polling scheme under chaining is obtained and results are compared with simulation. Solutions to the problem of building systems with a large number of stations are presented, including maximization of the number of optical couplers, and the use of passive star/bus topologies, bridges and gateways.

Yeh, C.; Gerla, M.; Rodrigues, P.

1985-01-01

349

University of Heidelberg: Atom Chip Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Atom Chip Group at the University of Heidelberg details research in "the study of the interaction between light and atoms, both for understanding the system itself and for investigating its possible uses for Quantum Information Processing and Control." The project and examples of the group's experiments are described on this website, along with a section overviewing the theory grounding its work. Their research has potential applications for highly sensitive sensors and quantum-information processing. The News section includes a link to a journal article, "Microscopic Atom Optics: From Wires to an Atom Chip," which details the group's work.

350

A Genome Wide Association Study on Age at First Calving Using High Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae).  

PubMed

Age at first calving is an important trait for achieving earlier reproductive performance. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive traits, a genome wide association study was conducted on the 96 Hanwoo cows that were born between 2008 and 2010 from 13 sires in a local farm (Juk-Am Hanwoo farm, Suncheon, Korea) and genotyped with the Illumina 50K bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model after the effects of birth-year-month and polygenes were considered. A forward regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs for age at first calving. A total of 15 QTL were detected at the comparison-wise 0.001 level. Two QTL with strong statistical evidence were found at 128.9 Mb and 111.1 Mb on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 2 and 7, respectively, each of which accounted for 22% of the phenotypic variance. Also, five significant SNPs were detected on BTAs 10, 16, 20, 26, and 29. Multiple QTL were found on BTAs 1, 2, 7, and 14. The significant QTLs may be applied via marker assisted selection to increase rate of genetic gain for the trait, after validation tests in other Hanwoo cow populations. PMID:25178291

Hyeong, K-E; Iqbal, A; Kim, J-J

2014-10-01

351

Studies on energy response of newly developed LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL chips with additional PbO doping.  

PubMed

One of the most important characteristics of thermoluminescent detectors, if they are intended to be used in a wide range of energies, is their energy response. A comparison of the energy characteristics of the newly developed LiF:Mg,Cu,P chips with additional PbO doping (GR-200E) against GR-200A LiF:Mg,Cu,P was attempted to improve further the accuracy of personal dosimetry. Hp(10) energy response of GR-200E is quite different from that of GR-200A. For GR-200E, the anomalous energy response can be eliminated and the over-response to low-energy photons should be filtered properly. The GR-200E under the copper filter provided results within 4 % with respect to the conventional quantity value over the energy range from 65 to 1250 keV. The ratio of the Hp(10) response of the Cu-covered filters for GR-200A to that of those covered with plastic for GR-200E is a very good tool for identifying the radiation quality in the range studied. The accuracy in the dose evaluated from TLD measurements can be greatly increased. PMID:24962516

Tang, K; Fan, H; Cui, H; Zhu, H; Liu, Z

2015-02-01

352

On-chip surface acoustic wave lysis and ion-exchange nanomembrane detection of exosomal RNA for pancreatic cancer study and diagnosis.  

PubMed

There has been increasing evidence that micro and messenger RNA derived from exosomes play important roles in pancreatic and other cancers. In this work, a microfluidics-based approach to the analysis of exosomal RNA is presented based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) exosome lysis and ion-exchange nanomembrane RNA sensing performed in conjunction on two separate chips. Using microRNA hsa-miR-550 as a model target and raw cell media from pancreatic cancer cell lines as a biological sample, SAW-based exosome lysis is shown to have a lysis rate of 38%, and an ion-exchange nanomembrane sensor is shown to have a limit of detection of 2 pM, with two decades of linear dynamic range. A universal calibration curve was derived for the membrane sensor and used to detect the target at a concentration of 13 pM in a SAW-lysed sample, which translates to 14 target miRNA per exosome from the raw cell media. At a total analysis time of ~1.5 h, this approach is a significant improvement over existing methods that require two overnight steps and 13 h of processing time. The platform also requires much smaller sample volumes than existing technology (~100 ?L as opposed to ~mL) and operates with minimal sample loss, a distinct advantage for studies involving mouse models or other situations where the working fluid is scarce. PMID:25690152

Taller, Daniel; Richards, Katherine; Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Hill, Reginald; Go, David B; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

2015-04-01

353

A Genome Wide Association Study on Age at First Calving Using High Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae)  

PubMed Central

Age at first calving is an important trait for achieving earlier reproductive performance. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive traits, a genome wide association study was conducted on the 96 Hanwoo cows that were born between 2008 and 2010 from 13 sires in a local farm (Juk-Am Hanwoo farm, Suncheon, Korea) and genotyped with the Illumina 50K bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model after the effects of birth-year-month and polygenes were considered. A forward regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs for age at first calving. A total of 15 QTL were detected at the comparison-wise 0.001 level. Two QTL with strong statistical evidence were found at 128.9 Mb and 111.1 Mb on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 2 and 7, respectively, each of which accounted for 22% of the phenotypic variance. Also, five significant SNPs were detected on BTAs 10, 16, 20, 26, and 29. Multiple QTL were found on BTAs 1, 2, 7, and 14. The significant QTLs may be applied via marker assisted selection to increase rate of genetic gain for the trait, after validation tests in other Hanwoo cow populations. PMID:25178291

Hyeong, K.-E.; Iqbal, A.; Kim, J.-J.

2014-01-01

354

Lab-on a-Chip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labs on chips are manufactured in many shapes and sizes and can be used for numerous applications, from medical tests to water quality monitoring to detecting the signatures of life on other planets. The eight holes on this chip are actually ports that can be filled with fluids or chemicals. Tiny valves control the chemical processes by mixing fluids that move in the tiny channels that look like lines, connecting the ports. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama designed this chip to grow biological crystals on the International Space Station (ISS). Through this research, they discovered that this technology is ideally suited for solving the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. For example, thousands of chips the size of dimes could be loaded on a Martian rover looking for biosignatures of past or present life. Other types of chips could be placed in handheld devices used to monitor microbes in water or to quickly conduct medical tests on astronauts. The portable, handheld Lab-on-a Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) made its debut flight aboard Discovery during the STS-116 mission launched December 9, 2006. The system allowed crew members to monitor their environment for problematic contaminants such as yeast, mold, and even E.coli, and salmonella. Once LOCAD-PTS reached the ISS, the Marshall team continued to manage the experiment, monitoring the study from a console in the Payload Operations Center at MSFC. The results of these studies will help NASA researchers refine the technology for future Moon and Mars missions. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

1999-01-01

355

International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D), a randomized clinical trial: rationale and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Clinically useful treatment moderators of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have not yet been identified, though some baseline predictors of treatment outcome have been proposed. The aim of iSPOT-D is to identify pretreatment measures that predict or moderate MDD treatment response or remission to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine; and develop a model that incorporates multiple predictors and moderators. Methods/Design The International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) is a multi-centre, international, randomized, prospective, open-label trial. It is enrolling 2016 MDD outpatients (ages 18-65) from primary or specialty care practices (672 per treatment arm; 672 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls). Study-eligible patients are antidepressant medication (ADM) naïve or willing to undergo a one-week wash-out of any non-protocol ADM, and cannot have had an inadequate response to protocol ADM. Baseline assessments include symptoms; distress; daily function; cognitive performance; electroencephalogram and event-related potentials; heart rate and genetic measures. A subset of these baseline assessments are repeated after eight weeks of treatment. Outcomes include the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (primary) and self-reported depressive symptoms, social functioning, quality of life, emotional regulation, and side-effect burden (secondary). Participants may then enter a naturalistic telephone follow-up at weeks 12, 16, 24 and 52. The first half of the sample will be used to identify potential predictors and moderators, and the second half to replicate and confirm. Discussion First enrolment was in December 2008, and is ongoing. iSPOT-D evaluates clinical and biological predictors of treatment response in the largest known sample of MDD collected worldwide. Trial registration International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00693849 URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00693849?term=International+Study+to+Predict+Optimized+Treatment+for+Depression&rank=1 PMID:21208417

2011-01-01

356

Effectiveness of phototherapy incorporated into an exercise program for osteoarthritis of the knee: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease with a multifactor etiology involving changes in bone alignment, cartilage, and other structures necessary to joint stability. There is a need to investigate therapeutic resources that combine different wavelengths as well as different light sources (low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) in the same apparatus for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of the proposed study is to analyze the effect of the incorporation of phototherapy into a therapeutic exercise program for individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods/Design A double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trial will be conducted involving patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Evaluations will be performed using functional questionnaires before and after the treatment protocols, in a reserved room with only the evaluator and participant present, and no time constraints placed on the answers or evaluations. The following functional tests will also be performed: stabilometry (balance assessment), dynamometry (muscle strength of gluteus medius and quadriceps), algometry (pain threshold), fleximeter (range of motion), timed up-and-go test (functional mobility), and the functional reach test. The participants will then be allocated to three groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: exercise program, exercise program?+?phototherapy, or exercise program?+?placebo phototherapy, all of which will last for eight weeks. Discussion The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to analyze the effect of the incorporation of phototherapy into a therapeutic exercise program for osteoarthritis of the knee. The study will support the practice based on evidence to the use of phototherapy in individuals with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee. Data will be published after the study is completed. Trial registration The protocol for this study has been submitted to Clinical Trials, registration number NCT02102347, on 29 March 2014. PMID:24919587

2014-01-01

357

An Implantable SOC Chip for Micro-stimulating and Neural Signal Recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

An implantable SOC chip for micro-stimulation and neural signal recording is presented. This work possesses a multi-parameter control protocol to provide different stim- ulation waveforms, for various pain treatments of muscles and stimulating applications. Additionally, the proposed SOC chip supports several transmission rates of RS232, which in turn provides a flexibility to be integrated in a variety of different applications.

Chua-chin Wang; Chi-chun Huang; Tzung-je Lee; Cheng-mu Wu; Gang-neng Sung; Kuan-wen Fang; Sheng-lun Tseng; Jia-jin Chen

2006-01-01

358

Study protocol. The Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark (The CHAMPS-study DK)  

PubMed Central

Background An increasingly passive life-style in the Western World has led to a rise in life-style related disorders. This is a major concern for all segments of society. The county council of the municipality of Svendborg in Denmark, created six Sport Schools with increased levels of suitable physical activities, which made it possible to study the health outcomes in these children whilst comparing them to children who attended the ‘normal’ schools of the region using the design of a “natural experiment”. Methods Children from the age of 6 till the age of 10, who accepted to be included in the monitoring process, were surveyed at baseline with questionnaires, physical examinations and physical and biological testing, including DXA scans. The physical examination and testing was repeated during the early stage of the study. Every week over the whole study period, the children will be followed with an automated mobile phone text message (SMS-Track) asking questions on their leisure time sports activities and the presence of any musculoskeletal problems. Children who report any such problems are monitored individually by health care personnel. Data are collected on demography, health habits and attitudes, physical characteristics, physical activity using accelerometers, motor performance, fitness, bone health, life-style disorders, injuries and musculoskeletal problems. Data collection will continue at least once a year until the children reach grade 9. Discussion This project is embedded in a local community, which set up the intervention (The Sport Schools) and thereafter invited researchers to provide documentation and evaluation. Sport schools are well matched with the ‘normal’ schools, making comparisons between these suitable. However, subgroups that would be specifically targeted in lifestyle intervention studies (such as the definitely obese) could be relatively small. Therefore, results specific to minority groups may be diluted. Nonetheless, the many rigorously collected data will make it possible to study, for example, the general effect that different levels of physical activity may have on various health conditions and on proxy measures of life-style conditions. Specifically, it will help answer the question on whether increased physical activity in school has a positive effect on health in children. PMID:22906115

2012-01-01

359

Use acupuncture to relieve perimenopausal syndrome: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Whether acupuncture is effective for relieving perimenopausal syndrome has been controversial recently. In this article, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial using acupuncture to treat perimenopausal syndrome, aiming to answer this controversy. Design A multicenter randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms is underway in China. Two hundred and six women with perimenopausal syndrome will be randomly assigned to a treatment group using acupuncture plus auricular acupressure (AA group) and a control group using Climen® (Bayer Healthcare Company Limited, Guangzhou, China), a 28-day sequential hormone replacement therapy, in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the AA group will receive three acupuncture sessions per week in the first 4 weeks and two sessions per week in the following 8 weeks, for a total of 28 sessions over 12 weeks. Auricular points will be plastered by Semen Vaccariae twice per week for a consecutive 12 weeks, with both ears used alternately. The Climen® control group is prescribed a tablet containing estradiol valerate 2 mg/day for the first 11 days, and a tablet containing estradiol valerate 2 mg/day plus cyroterone acetate 1 mg/day for the following 10 days. The total treatment period of the control group is three cycles. The post-treatment follow-up period will last 24 weeks. The primary outcome is the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) assessed at baseline and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 36 weeks after randomization. The secondary outcomes are Menopause-Specific Quality of Life, average hot flash score during 24 hours, serum estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone level. The first two secondary outcomes are measured at the same point as the MRS. Other secondary outcomes are measured at baseline and 12, 24 weeks after randomization. Discussion The results of this trial, which will be available in 2015, will clarify whether acupuncture is effective to relieve perimenopausal syndrome. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01933204 (registered 9 August 2013) PMID:24886348

2014-01-01

360

Prevention of abdominal wound infection (PROUD trial, DRKS00000390): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Wound infection affects a considerable portion of patients after abdominal operations, increasing health care costs and postoperative morbidity and affecting quality of life. Antibacterial coating has been suggested as an effective measure to decrease postoperative wound infections after laparotomies. The INLINE metaanalysis has recently shown the superiority of a slowly absorbable continuous suture for abdominal closure; with PDS plus® such a suture has now been made available with triclosan antibacterial coating. Methods/Design The PROUD trial is designed as a randomised, controlled, observer, surgeon and patient blinded multicenter superiority trial with two parallel groups and a primary endpoint of wound infection during 30 days after surgery. The intervention group will receive triclosan coated polydioxanone sutures, whereas the control group will receive the standard polydioxanone sutures; abdominal closure will otherwise be standardized in both groups. Statistical analysis is based on intention-to-treat population via binary logistic regression analysis, the total sample size of n = 750 is sufficient to ensure alpha = 5% and power = 80%, an interim analysis will be carried out after data of 375 patients are available. Discussion The PROUD trial will yield robust data to determine the effectiveness of antibacterial coating in one of the standard sutures for abdominal closure and potentially lead to amendment of current guidelines. The exploration of clinically objective parameters as well as quality of life holds immediate relevance for clinical management and the pragmatic trial design ensures high external validity. Trial Registration The trial protocol has been registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00000390). PMID:22103965

2011-01-01

361

Chronic hand eczema - self-management and prognosis: a study protocol for a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hand eczema has a one-year prevalence of approximately 10 % in the general Danish population. Often the disease becomes chronic with numerous implications for the individual’s daily life, occupation and quality of life. However, no guidelines of self-management recommendations beyond the acute stage are given. Self-management of the disease is pivotal and involves self-monitoring of the condition, medication adherence, and preventive behaviour. Interventions best to support the individual in this ongoing process need to be developed. Methods/design This paper describes the design of a randomised clinical trial to test a newly developed intervention of individual counselling versus conventional information. 300 patients consecutively referred to dermatologic treatment at two different settings are individually randomised to either the intervention programme, named ‘The Healthy Skin Clinic’ or to the control group. Block-wise randomisation according to setting and gender is carried out. The intervention offers a tool for self-monitoring; basic and specific individual counselling; the possibility of asynchronous communication with the intervention team; and an electronic patient dialogue forum. Primary outcome variable is objective assessment of the hand eczema severity performed at baseline prior to randomisation, and repeated at six months follow-up. Secondary outcome variables are dermatology related life quality and perceived global burden of disease. Discussion The trial aims at evaluating a newly developed guidance programme which is expected to support self-management of patients referred to dermatology treatment due to chronic hand eczema. The design of the protocol is pragmatic with blinding of neither participants nor the investigator. Thus, in the interpretation of the results, the investigator takes into account effects that may be attributed to actors of the interventions rather than the intervention per se as well of potential observer bias. Inclusion criterions are wide in order to increase transferability of the results. Trial registration The trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.Gov with registration number NCT01482663. PMID:22691871

2012-01-01

362

A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled ‘Fun without Smokes’. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils’ smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Discussion The present study protocol describes the purpose, intervention design and study protocol of ‘Fun without Smokes’. Expectations are that pupils receiving tailored advice will be less likely to smoke after 24 months in contrast to pupils in the control condition. Furthermore, tailored feedback letters and prompting is expected to be more effective than providing tailored feedback letters only. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3116 PMID:22490110

2012-01-01

363

Performance evaluation for passive-type Optical network-on-chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical networks-on-chip (ONoCs) represent an emerging technology for use as a communication platform for systems-on-chip (SoC). It is a novel on-chip communication system where information is transmitted in the form of light, as opposed to the conventional electrical network-on-chip (ENoC). This work studies the performance of a class of ONoCs that employ a single central passive-type optical router using wavelength

Atef Allam; Ian O'Connor; Wim Heirman

2010-01-01

364

Effect of Vacuum-Microwave Predrying on Quality of Vacuum-Fried Potato Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vacuum microwave predrying on the quality of vacuum-fried potato chips were studied. The results showed that vacuum microwave predrying had a significant effect on moisture and oil contents, as well as color parameters and structure of potato chips. Vacuum microwave predrying significantly decreased the oil and moisture contents of vacuum-fried potato chips. The rates of both mass

Xian-ju Song; Min Zhang; Arun S. Mujumdar

2007-01-01

365

Wood chip mulch thickness effects on soil water, soil temperature, weed growth, and landscape plant growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wood chip mulches are used in landscapes to reduce soil water evaporation and competition from weeds. A study was conducted over a three-year period to determine soil water content at various depths under four wood chip mulch treatments and to evaluate the effects of wood chip thickness on growth of...

366

Identifying Professional Competencies of the Flip-Chip Packaging Engineer in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed a literature review, expert interviews, and a questionnaire survey to construct a set of two-tier competencies for a flip-chip packaging engineer. The fuzzy Delphi questionnaire was sent to 12 flip-chip engineering experts to identify professional competencies that a flip-chip packaging engineer must have. Four competencies,…

Guu, Y. H.; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Lee, Lung-Sheng

2014-01-01

367

On-Chip Biomedical Imaging  

PubMed Central

Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and micro electromechanical systems achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lensfree holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lensfree optical tomography. PMID:23558399

Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

2012-01-01

368

Ultrafast Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: A Comparative Study of Imaging Protocols during Image-Guided Therapy Procedure  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate two ultrafast cone-beam CT (UF-CBCT) imaging protocols with different acquisition and injection parameters regarding image quality and required contrast media during image-guided hepatic transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods. In 80 patients (male: 46, female: 34; mean age: 56.8 years; range: 33–83) UF-CBCT was performed during TACE for intraprocedural guidance. Imaging was performed using two ultrafast CBCT acquisition protocols with different acquisition and injection parameters (imaging protocol 1: acquisition time 2.54?s, and contrast 6?mL with 3?s delay; imaging protocol 2: acquisition time 2.72?s, and contrast 7?mL with 6?s delay). Image evaluation was performed with both qualitative and quantitative methods. Contrast injection volume and dose parameters were compared using values from the literature. Results. Imaging protocol 2 provided significantly better (P < 0.05) image quality than protocol 1 at the cost of slightly higher contrast load and patient dose. Imaging protocol 1 provided good contrast perfusion but it mostly failed to delineate the tumors (P < 0.05). On the contrary, imaging protocol 2 showed excellent enhancement of hepatic parenchyma, tumor, and feeding vessels. Conclusion. Tumor delineation, visualization of hepatic parenchyma, and feeding vessels are clearly possible using imaging protocol 2 with ultrafast CBCT imaging. A reduction of required contrast volume and patient dose were achieved due to the ultrafast CBCT imaging.

Chacko, Annamma; Farhang, Mohammad; Kamali, Shahram; Tavanania, Mohsen; Vogl, Thomas; Panahi, Bita

2015-01-01

369

MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS Study Group  

PubMed Central

MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11), funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR. Background Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort) and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented. Methods/Design Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford). Women with circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477) or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477). Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH)-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years. Discussion As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform public health policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. It will also provide a valuable resource in which to study the influence of maternal vitamin D status on other childhood outcomes such as glucose tolerance, blood pressure, cardiovascular function, IQ and immunology. PMID:22314083

2012-01-01

370

A Distributed Stream Multiplexing Architecture for Multi-Chip Configuration beyond HDTV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a distributed stream multiplexing architecture for video codec LSIs with multi-chip configuration. This distributed architecture utilizes a built-in media multiplexing unit with an external stream input and inter-chip communication interfaces. Parallel protocol processing, with an autonomous inter-chip control mechanism to mix and concatenate packets through daisy-chained transfer paths, provides a complete multi-chip stream output at the end of the chain. Dispensing with external post-processing devices contributes to both high throughput and downsizing of high-end video codec systems. It is configurable for parallel encoding of super high-resolution video, multi-view/-angled HDTV vision and multiple HDTV programs. The architecture was successfully implemented in a fabricated single-chip MPEG-2 422P@HL codec LSI and utilized for the development of a super high-resolution video codec system.

Onishi, Takayuki; Nakamura, Ken; Yoshitome, Takeshi; Naganuma, Jiro

371

Gene expression in the rat brain during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep: an Affymetrix GeneChip® study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that macromolecular synthesis in the brain is modulated in association with the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness. Similarly, the spectral composition of electroencephalographic activity that occurs during sleep is dependent on the duration of prior wakefulness. Since this homeostatic relationship between wake and sleep is highly conserved across mammalian species, genes that are truly involved in

A. Terao; J. P. Wisor; C. Peyron; A. Apte-Deshpande; S. W. Wurts; D. M. Edgar; T. S. Kilduff

2006-01-01

372

Protocol Development — Protocol Templates and Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Protocol Development Protocol

373

Phase I study protocol for ex vivo lentiviral gene therapy for the inherited skin disease, Netherton syndrome.  

PubMed

Netherton syndrome (NS) is a serious inherited skin disorder caused by mutations in the serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 5 gene (SPINK5), which encodes for a serine protease inhibitor lymphoepithelial Kazal type-related inhibitor (LEKTI). Patients with NS have defective keratinization, hair shaft defects, recurrent infections, atopy, and a predisposition to skin malignancies. Historically, 1 in 10 infants has died before their first birthday. Currently, there are no proven treatments to cure this condition. A SIN-lentiviral vector encoding the codon-optimized SPINK5 gene under the control of a 572 bp element derived from the human involucrin promoter can confer compartment-specific LEKTI expression in NS keratinocytes with restoration of normal skin architecture. Here we detail a study protocol for a phase I trial for feasibility and safety evaluations of autologous epidermal sheets generated from ex vivo gene-corrected keratinocyte stem cells, which will be grafted onto patients with mutation-proven NS. PMID:24329107

Di, Wei-Li; Mellerio, Jemima E; Bernadis, Catina; Harper, John; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; Ghani, Sumera; Chan, Lucas; Martinez-Queipo, Magdalena; Hara, Havinder; McNicol, Anne-Marie; Farzaneh, Farzin; McGrath, John; Thrasher, Adrian; Qasim, Waseem

2013-12-01

374

Enhanced Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines in Hong Kong: A Study Protocol for Three Common Diseases  

PubMed Central

We presented a study protocol of developing Chinese medicine clinical practice guidelines for three common diseases in Hong Kong, including insomnia, chronic gastritis, and cerebral infarction. This research project will be conducted in three phases. First phase is the preparation stage which consists of the establishment of steering committee and panel. Second phase involves 6 steps, which are searching and identifying evidence, text mining process, Delphi survey, synthesizing of data, consensus conference, and drafting guidelines. In this phase, text mining technique, evidence-based method, and formal consensus method are combined to get consolidated supporting data as the source of CM CPGs. The final phase comprised external reviews, dissemination, and updating. The outputs from this project will provide three CM CPGs for insomnia, chronic gastritis, and cerebral infarction for Hong Kong local use.

Shi, Nannan; Zhong, Linda L. D.; Han, XueJie; Ng, Bacon; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Aiping

2015-01-01

375

Using tire chips as a leachate drainage layer  

SciTech Connect

Old tires represent a potentially cost-effective construction material that can be used in the installation of leachate drainage and collection systems. In fact, recent studies show that using shredded tires in conjunction with granular soil materials can even enhance the long-term performance of these systems. A typical design using shredded tire chips involves the placement of a minimum 1-foot-thick layer of chips on a granular soil layer overlaying the composite liner system. However, implementation of this design is not as simple as it looks. Protecting the liner from wire protruding from the tire chips derived from belted tires is essential. Because tire chips tend to clump together, placement and spreading also must be in relatively thick lifts and performed by low-ground-pressure equipment. In addition, a significant volume reduction in the tire chip layer can be anticipated as a result of normal loadings from the overlying waste. Equivalent internal friction angles and cohesiveness for the tire chips should be estimated for factors of safety against side-slope failure. Despite theses concerns, however,the advantages of constructing a tire-chip drainage layer often can outweigh the disadvantages, as long as the chips` long-term permeability characteristics and resistance to clogging -- a result of biological activity -- are at least equal to that of typical granular soil materials commonly used in leachate drainage and collection systems.

Duffy, D.P. [RMT, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-09-01

376

HEART: heart exercise and remote technologies: A randomized controlled trial study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is aimed at improving health behaviors to slow or reverse the progression of CVD disease. Exercise is a central element of CR. Technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet (mHealth) offer potential to overcome many of the psychological, physical, and geographical barriers that have been associated with lack of participation in exercise-based CR. We aim to trial the effectiveness of a mobile phone delivered exercise-based CR program to increase exercise capacity and functional outcomes compared with usual CR care in adults with CVD. This paper outlines the rationale and methods of the trial. Methods A single-blinded parallel two-arm randomized controlled trial is being conducted. A total of 170 people will be randomized at 1:1 ratio either to receive a mHealth CR program or usual care. Participants are identified by CR nurses from two metropolitan hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand through outpatient clinics and existing databases. Consenting participants are contacted to attend a baseline assessment. The intervention consists of a theory-based, personalized, automated package of text and video message components via participants' mobile phones and the Internet to increase exercise behavior, delivered over six months. The control group will continue with usual CR. Data collection occurs at baseline and 24 weeks (post-intervention). The primary outcome is change in maximal oxygen uptake from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include post-intervention measures on self-reported physical activity (IPAQ), cardiovascular risk factors (systolic blood pressure, weight, and waist to hip ratio), health related quality of life (SF-36), and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a mHealth exercise-based CR program. Results of this trial will provide much needed information about physical and psychological well-being, and cost-effectiveness of an automated telecommunication intervention. If effective, this intervention has enormous potential to improve the delivery of CR and could easily be scaled up to be delivered nationally (and internationally) in a very short time, enhancing the translational aspect of this research. It also has potential to extend to comprehensive CR (nutrition advice, smoking cessation, medication adherence). Trial Registration ACTRN12611000117910 PMID:21624142

2011-01-01

377

The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP): Protocols and Pilot Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is a major international effort linking the climate, crop, and economic modeling communities with cutting-edge information technology to produce improved crop and economic models and the next generation of climate impact projections for the agricultural sector. The goals of AgMIP are to improve substantially the characterization of world food security due to climate change and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. Analyses of the agricultural impacts of climate variability and change require a transdisciplinary effort to consistently link state-of-the-art climate scenarios to crop and economic models. Crop model outputs are aggregated as inputs to regional and global economic models to determine regional vulnerabilities, changes in comparative advantage, price effects, and potential adaptation strategies in the agricultural sector. Climate, Crop Modeling, Economics, and Information Technology Team Protocols are presented to guide coordinated climate, crop modeling, economics, and information technology research activities around the world, along with AgMIP Cross-Cutting Themes that address uncertainty, aggregation and scaling, and the development of Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) to enable testing of climate change adaptations in the context of other regional and global trends. The organization of research activities by geographic region and specific crops is described, along with project milestones. Pilot results demonstrate AgMIP's role in assessing climate impacts with explicit representation of uncertainties in climate scenarios and simulations using crop and economic models. An intercomparison of wheat model simulations near Obregón, Mexico reveals inter-model differences in yield sensitivity to [CO2] with model uncertainty holding approximately steady as concentrations rise, while uncertainty related to choice of crop model increases with rising temperatures. Wheat model simulations with midcentury climate scenarios project a slight decline in absolute yields that is more sensitive to selection of crop model than to global climate model, emissions scenario, or climate scenario downscaling method. A comparison of regional and national-scale economic simulations finds a large sensitivity of projected yield changes to the simulations' resolved scales. Finally, a global economic model intercomparison example demonstrates that improvements in the understanding of agriculture futures arise from integration of the range of uncertainty in crop, climate, and economic modeling results in multi-model assessments.

Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Ruane, A. C.; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, P.; Antle, J. M.; Nelson, G. C.; Porter, C.; Janssen, S.; Asseng, S.; Basso, B.; Ewert, F.; Wallach, D.; Baigorria, G.; Winter, J. M.

2012-01-01

378

Efficacy of composite versus ceramic inlays and onlays: study protocol for the CECOIA randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries is a common disease and affects many adults worldwide. Inlay or onlay restoration is widely used to treat the resulting tooth substance loss. Two esthetic materials can be used to manufacture an inlay/onlay restoration of the tooth: ceramic or composite. Here, we present the protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the clinical efficacy of both materials for tooth restoration. Other objectives are analysis of overall quality, wear, restoration survival and prognosis. Methods The CEramic and COmposite Inlays Assessment (CECOIA) trial is an open-label, parallel-group, multicenter RCT involving two hospitals and five private practices. In all, 400 patients will be included. Inclusion criteria are adults who need an inlay/onlay restoration for one tooth (that can be isolated with use of a dental dam and has at least one intact cusp), can tolerate restorative procedures and do not have severe bruxism, periodontal or carious disease or poor oral hygiene. The decayed tissue will be evicted, the cavity will be prepared for receiving an inlay/onlay and the patient will be randomized by use of a centralized web-based interface to receive: 1) a ceramic or 2) composite inlay or onlay. Treatment allocation will be balanced (1:1). The inlay/onlay will be adhesively luted. Follow-up will be for 2 years and may be extended; two independent examiners will perform the evaluations. The primary outcome measure will be the score obtained with use of the consensus instrument of the Fédération Dentaire Internationale (FDI) World Dental Federation. Secondary outcomes include this instrument’s items, inlay/onlay wear, overall quality and survival of the inlay/onlay. Data will be analyzed by a statistician blinded to treatments and an adjusted ordinal logistic regression model will be used to compare the efficacy of both materials. Discussion For clinicians, the CECOIA trial results may help with evidence-based recommendations concerning the choice of materials for inlay/onlay restoration. For patients, the results may lead to improvement in long-term restoration. For researchers, the results may provide ideas for further research concerning inlay/onlay materials and prognosis. This trial is funded by a grant from the French Ministry of Health. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01724827 PMID:24004961

2013-01-01

379

Chipping Resistance of Graded Zirconia Ceramics for Dental Crowns  

PubMed Central

A serious drawback of veneering porcelains is a pronounced susceptibility to chipping. Glass-infiltrated dense zirconia structures can now be produced with esthetic quality, making them an attractive alternative. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that such infiltrated structures are much more chip-resistant than conventional porcelains, and at least as chip-resistant as non-infiltrated zirconia. A sharp indenter was used to produce chips in flat and anatomically correct glass-infiltrated zirconia crown materials, and critical loads were measured as a function of distance from the specimen edge (flat) or side wall (crown). Control data were obtained on zirconia specimens without infiltration and on crowns veneered with porcelains. The results confirmed that the resistance to chipping in graded zirconia is more than 4 times higher than that of porcelain-veneered zirconia and is at least as high as that of non-veneered zirconia. PMID:22232142

Zhang, Y.; Chai, H.; Lee, J.J.-W.; Lawn, B.R.

2012-01-01

380

An efficient on-chip NI offering guaranteed services, shared-memory abstraction, and flexible network configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a network interface (NI) for an on-chip network. Our NI decouples computation from com- munication by offering a shared-memory abstraction, which is in- dependent of the network implementation. We use a transaction- based protocol to achieve backward compatibility with existing bus protocols such as AXI, OCP, and DTL. Our NI has a modular architecture, which

Andrei Radulescu; John Dielissen; Santiago González Pestana; Om Prakash Gangwal; Edwin Rijpkema; Paul Wielage; Kees G. W. Goossens

2005-01-01

381

Combining motivational and volitional strategies to promote unsupervised walking in patients with fibromyalgia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia patients are often advised to engage in regular low- to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The need of fibromyalgia patients to walk has been stressed in previous research. Behavioral self-regulation theories suggest that a combination of motivational aspects (to develop or strengthen a behavioral intention: Theory of Planned Behavior) and volitional aspects (engagement of intention in behavior: implementation intentions) is more effective than a single intervention. In this paper, we describe a protocol for identifying the motivational processes (using the Theory of Planned Behavior) involved in the practice of walking (phase I) and for studying the efficacy of an intervention that combines motivational and volitional contents to enhance the acquisition and continuation of this exercise behavior (phase II). The paper also shows the characteristics of eligible individuals (women who do not walk) and ineligible populations (women who walk or do not walk because of comorbidity without medical recommendation to walk). Both groups consist of members of any of four patients’ associations in Spain who are between 18 and 70 years of age and meet the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire criteria for fibromyalgia. Furthermore, using this study protocol, we will explore the characteristics of participants (eligible women who agreed to participate in the study) and nonparticipants (eligible women who refused to participate). Methods/design Two studies will be conducted: Phase I will be a cross-sectional study, and phase II will be a triple-blind, randomized longitudinal study with two treatment groups and one active control group. The questionnaires were sent to a total of 2,227 members of four patients’ associations in Spain. A total of 920 participants with fibromyalgia returned the questionnaires, and 582 were ultimately selected to participate. Discussion The first data gathered have allowed us to identify the characteristics of the study population and they support the appropriateness of the inclusion criteria.. When the study is complete, the results will enable us to establish whether this kind of intervention can be used as a self-regulation tool for increasing and maintaining walking as unsupervised physical exercise of low to moderate intensity in fibromyalgia patients. Trial registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN68584893 PMID:24721143

2014-01-01

382

A study protocol to investigate the management of depression and challenging behaviors associated with dementia in aged care settings  

PubMed Central

Background The high occurrence and under-treatment of clinical depression and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) within aged care settings is concerning, yet training programs aimed at improving the detection and management of these problems have generally been ineffective. This article presents a study protocol to evaluate a training intervention for facility managers/registered nurses working in aged care facilities that focuses on organisational processes and culture as well as knowledge, skills and self-efficacy. Methods A Randomised Control Trial (RCT) will be implemented across 18 aged care facilities (divided into three conditions). Participants will be senior registered nurses and personal care attendants employed in the aged care facility. The first condition will receive the training program (Staff as Change Agents – Enhancing and Sustaining Mental Health in Aged Care), the second condition will receive the training program and clinical support, and the third condition will receive no intervention. Results Pre-, post-, 6-month and 12-month follow-up measures of staff and residents will be used to demonstrate how upskilling clinical leaders using our transformational training approach, as well as the use of a structured screening, referral and monitoring protocol, can address the mental health needs of older people in residential care. Conclusions The expected outcome of this study is the validation of an evidence-based training program to improve the management of depression and BPSD among older people in residential care settings by establishing routine practices related to mental health. This relatively brief but highly focussed training package will be readily rolled out to a larger number of residential care facilities at a relatively low cost. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): The Universal Trial Number (UTN) is U1111-1141-0109. PMID:24047236

2013-01-01

383

Heavy Lifting at Work and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: Protocol for a Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background There are theoretical grounds to suspect that heavy lifting at work is an important risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However the relationship has not been sufficiently acknowledged by empirical studies. Positive and statistically significant associations have been found in studies that utilize self-reported exposure data. Such studies are, however, prone to reporting bias. All else equal, people with a poor cardiovascular fitness/health may have a higher propensity to perceive their work environment as heavy. Objective The study described in the present protocol aims to investigate the relationship between heavy lifting at work and IHD by use of material and methods that are free from reporting bias. Methods This is a register-based prospective cohort study. Male blue-collar workers in Denmark will be identified and followed through national registers, from 2001-2010, for hospital treatment or death due to IHD. Relative rates of IHD between “workers in occupations likely to involve heavy lifting” and “other blue-collar workers” will be estimated through Poisson regression. Results Results are expected to be ready in mid-2015. Conclusions Since this is not a randomized study, it cannot confirm etiological hypotheses. It may, however, confirm that employment in occupations that involve heavy lifting is a predictor for IHD and thereby lend support to the hypothesis of a causal relationship. PMID:25164612

2014-01-01

384

X-ray Transparent Microfluidic Chip for Mesophase-Based Crystallization of Membrane Proteins and On-Chip Structure Determination.  

PubMed

Crystallization from lipidic mesophase matrices is a promising route to diffraction-quality crystals and structures of membrane proteins. The microfluidic approach reported here eliminates two bottlenecks of the standard mesophase-based crystallization protocols: (i) manual preparation of viscous mesophases and (ii) manual harvesting of often small and fragile protein crystals. In the approach reported here, protein-loaded mesophases are formulated in an X-ray transparent microfluidic chip using only 60 nL of the protein solution per crystallization trial. The X-ray transparency of the chip enables diffraction data collection from multiple crystals residing in microfluidic wells, eliminating the normally required manual harvesting and mounting of individual crystals. We validated our approach by on-chip crystallization of photosynthetic reaction center, a membrane protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, followed by solving its structure to a resolution of 2.5 Å using X-ray diffraction data collected on-chip under ambient conditions. A moderate conformational change in hydrophilic chains of the protein was observed when comparing the on-chip, room temperature structure with known structures for which data were acquired under cryogenic conditions. PMID:25285049

Khvostichenko, Daria S; Schieferstein, Jeremy M; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S; Laible, Philip D; Kenis, Paul J A

2014-10-01

385

Chip-to-chip optical interconnections between stacked self-aligned SOI photonic chips.  

PubMed

Photonic silicon devices are key enabling technologies for next generation High Performance Computers. In this paper, we report the possibility to stack and optically interconnect SOI based photonic chips for future System-In-Package photonic architecture. Combining vertical grating couplers and state-of-the-art flip-chip technology, we demonstrated low loss penalties and wide spectral range optical interconnections between stacked photonic chips. PMID:22453462

Bernabé, Stéphane; Kopp, Christophe; Volpert, Marion; Harduin, Julie; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Ribot, Hervé

2012-03-26

386

EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR THE NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: CASE STUDY AT THE TWIN CITIES ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

At the request of staff in the EPA Regions, EPA?s Office of Research and Development carried out an independent evaluation of the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA/600/R-98/128). The Protocol was developed around c...

387

EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: CASE STUDY AT THE TWIN CITIES ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

At the request of staff in the EPA Regions, EPA's Office of Research and Development carried out an independent evaluation of the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA/600/R-98/128). The Protocol was developed around...

388

Implementation of a population-based epidemiological rare disease registry: study protocol of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - registry Swabia  

PubMed Central

Background The social and medical impact of rare diseases is increasingly recognized. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most prevalent of the motor neuron diseases. It is characterized by rapidly progressive damage to the motor neurons with a survival of 2–5 years for the majority of patients. The objective of this work is to describe the study protocol and the implementation steps of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) registry Swabia, located in the South of Germany. Methods/Design The ALS registry Swabia started in October 2010 with both, the retrospective (01.10.2008-30.09.2010) and prospective (from 01.10.2010) collection of ALS cases, in a target population of 8.6 million persons in Southern Germany. In addition, a population based case–control study was implemented based on the registry that also included the collection of various biological materials. Retrospectively, 420 patients (222 men and 198 women) were identified. Prospectively data of ALS patients were collected, of which about 70% agreed to participate in the population-based case–control study. All participants in the case–control study provided also a blood sample. The prospective part of the study is ongoing. Discussion The ALS registry Swabia has been implemented successfully. In rare diseases such as ALS, the collaboration of registries, the comparison with external samples and biorepositories will facilitate to identify risk factors and to further explore the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:23414001

2013-01-01

389

A multimethod research investigation of consumer involvement in Australian health service accreditation programmes: the ACCREDIT-SCI study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health service accreditation programmes are a regulatory mechanism adopted to drive improvements inpatient safety and quality. Research investigating the benefits or limitations, of consumer involvement in accreditation programmes is negligible. To develop our knowledge in this area the ACCREDIT collaboration (Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork) has developed a research plan, known as the ACCREDIT-SCI (Standards of Consumer Involvement) study protocol. Two complementary studies have been designed: one, to examine the effectiveness of a standard for consumer participation and two, to explore how patient experiences vary across a range of settings with differing accreditation results. Methods and design The research setting is the Australian healthcare system, and the two studies focus on three accreditation programmes in the primary, acute and aged care domains. The studies will use multimethods: document analysis; interviews and surveys. Participants will be stakeholders across the three domains including: policy officers; frontline healthcare professionals; accreditation agency personnel, including surveyors and healthcare consumers. Drawing on previous experience, the research team has developed purpose-designed tools. Data will be analysed using thematic, narrative and statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the two studies (HREC 10274). Findings will be disseminated through seminars, conference presentations, academic publications and research partner websites. The findings will be formulated to facilitate uptake by policy and accreditation agency professionals, researchers and academics, and consumers, nationally and internationally. PMID:23059848

Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Mumford, Virginia; Pawsey, Marjorie; Irene Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

390

Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality  

SciTech Connect

We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

2009-06-01

391

Assessment of the ability of wheelchair subjects with spinal cord injury to perform a specific protocol of shoulder training: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: a regular program of exercises in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) can contribute to reduce the risk of upper extremities injuries. Methods: in this prospective laboratory study we tested the hypothesis that a training machine developed for able-body users is suitable for a shoulder training protocol in 11 paraplegic subjects with SCI. Overall subjects were assessed with the SCIM III, CS, DASH and standard shoulder examination. We set a protocol of shoulder exercises performed with a training machine. Overall subjects were able to perform the protocol but 2 did not complete the exercises n° 6 and 7. The position of the wheelchair during each exercise was recorded. Wheelchair position/loading level were significantly correlated with the protocol n° 2, 3 and 5 as well as BMI/loading level for the exercises n° 5 and 9 and age/loading level for the exercise n° 7. Clinical scores were neither correlated with loading nor with anthropometric data. Results/Conclusions: from the analysis of data collected in this study arised that: 1) the training machine needs some adjustments for paraplegic subjects, 2) the training protocol was appropriate except for the exercises needing a torso-rotation and 3) the template for wheelchair position may be a valid guide for an optimal paraplegic shoulder training. PMID:25332931

Merolla, Giovanni; Dellabiancia, Fabio; Filippi, Maria Vittoria; De Santis, Elisa; Alpi, Daniele; Magrini, Paola; Porcellini, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

392

Wavefront image sensor chip  

PubMed Central

We report the implementation of an image sensor chip, termed wavefront image sensor chip (WIS), that can measure both intensity/amplitude and phase front variations of a light wave separately and quantitatively. By monitoring the tightly confined transmitted light spots through a circular aperture grid in a high Fresnel number regime, we can measure both intensity and phase front variations with a high sampling density (11 µm) and high sensitivity (the sensitivity of normalized phase gradient measurement is 0.1 mrad under the typical working condition). By using WIS in a standard microscope, we can collect both bright-field (transmitted light intensity) and normalized phase gradient images. Our experiments further demonstrate that the normalized phase gradient images of polystyrene microspheres, unstained and stained starfish embryos, and strongly birefringent potato starch granules are improved versions of their corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope images in that they are artifact-free and quantitative. Besides phase microscopy, WIS can benefit machine recognition, object ranging, and texture assessment for a variety of applications. PMID:20721059

Cui, Xiquan; Ren, Jian; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Changhuei

2010-01-01

393

The Acute Asthma Severity Assessment Protocol (AASAP) Study: Objectives and Methods of a Study to Develop an Acute Asthma Clinical Prediction Rule  

PubMed Central

Acute asthma exacerbations are one of the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department (PED) visits and hospitalizations, and relapse frequently necessitates repeat urgent care. While care plans exist, there are no acute asthma prediction rules (APR)to assess severity and predict outcome. The primary objective of the Acute Asthma Severity Assessment Protocol (AASAP) study is to develop a multivariable APR for acute asthma exacerbations in the pediatric patient. We are enrolling a prospective, convenience sample aged 5 to 17 years with acute asthma exacerbations who present to an urban, academic, tertiary PED. The study protocol and data analysis plan conform to accepted biostatistical and clinical standards for clinical prediction rule development. Modeling of the APR will be performed once the entire sample size of 1,500 has accrued. We anticipate that the APR will improve resource utilization in the emergency department, aid in standardization of disease assessment, and allow physician and non-physician providers to participate in earlier objective decision making. The objective of this report is to describe the study objectives and detailed methodology of the AASAP study. PMID:21586757

Arnold, Donald H; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Abramo, Thomas J; Sheller, James R; Resha, Donald J; Hartert, Tina V

2013-01-01

394

Network Simulation of Group Key Management Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for rapidly configurable, secure communica- tion among groups of participants has resulted in the study of group key agreement protocols. The study of these protocols has been primarily theoretical. In this paper, we present the results of simu- lation studies of the methods provided by four group-key agreement protocols, EGK, TGDH, STR and CCEGK. The results of the

David Manz; Jim Alves-Foss; Shanyu Zheng