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Sample records for chip study protocol

  1. Novel sequential ChIP and simplified basic ChIP protocols for promoter co-occupancy and target gene identification in human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Ricardo B; Papenfuss, Kate J; Hoium, Brian; Coley, Kristen; Jadrich, Joy; Goh, Saik-Kia; Elayaperumal, Anuratha; Herrera, Julio E; Resnik, Ernesto; Ni, Hsiao-Tzu

    2009-01-01

    Background The investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation, particularly in embryonic stem cells, has received increasing attention and involves the systematic identification of target genes and the analysis of promoter co-occupancy. High-throughput approaches based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) have been widely used for this purpose. However, these approaches remain time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, involve multiple steps, and require complex statistical analysis. Advances in this field will greatly benefit from the development and use of simple, fast, sensitive and straightforward ChIP assay and analysis methodologies. Results We initially developed a simplified, basic ChIP protocol that combines simplicity, speed and sensitivity. ChIP analysis by real-time PCR was compared to analysis by densitometry with the ImageJ software. This protocol allowed the rapid identification of known target genes for SOX2, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX17, KLF4, RUNX2, OLIG2, SMAD2/3, BMI-1, and c-MYC in a human embryonic stem cell line. We then developed a novel Sequential ChIP protocol to investigate in vivo promoter co-occupancy, which is basically characterized by the absence of antibody-antigen disruption during the assay. It combines centrifugation of agarose beads and magnetic separation. Using this Sequential ChIP protocol we found that c-MYC associates with the SOX2/NANOG/OCT3/4 complex and identified a novel RUNX2/BMI-1/SMAD2/3 complex in BG01V cells. These two TF complexes associate with two distinct sets of target genes. The RUNX2/BMI-1/SMAD2/3 complex is associated predominantly with genes not expressed in undifferentiated BG01V cells, consistent with the reported role of those TFs as transcriptional repressors. Conclusion These simplified basic ChIP and novel Sequential ChIP protocols were successfully tested with a variety of antibodies with human embryonic stem cells, generated a number of novel observations for future studies and might be useful for high-throughput ChIP-based assays. PMID:19563662

  2. IFSA: a microfluidic chip-platform for frit-based immunoassay protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlawatsch, Nadine; Bangert, Michael; Miethe, Peter; Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics (POC) is one of the key application fields for lab-on-a-chip devices. While in recent years much of the work has concentrated on integrating complex molecular diagnostic assays onto a microfluidic device, there is a need to also put comparatively simple immunoassay-type protocols on a microfluidic platform. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic cartridge using an immunofiltration approach. In this method, the sandwich immunoassay takes place in a porous frit on which the antibodies have immobilized. The device is designed to be able to handle three samples in parallel and up to four analytical targets per sample. In order to meet the critical cost targets for the diagnostic market, the microfluidic chip has been designed and manufactured using high-volume manufacturing technologies in mind. Validation experiments show comparable sensitivities in comparison with conventional immunofiltration kits.

  3. Adaptive Code Division Multiple Access Protocol for Wireless Network-on-Chip Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumaran, Vineeth

    Massive levels of integration following Moore's Law ushered in a paradigm shift in the way on-chip interconnections were designed. With higher and higher number of cores on the same die traditional bus based interconnections are no longer a scalable communication infrastructure. On-chip networks were proposed enabled a scalable plug-and-play mechanism for interconnecting hundreds of cores on the same chip. Wired interconnects between the cores in a traditional Network-on-Chip (NoC) system, becomes a bottleneck with increase in the number of cores thereby increasing the latency and energy to transmit signals over them. Hence, there has been many alternative emerging interconnect technologies proposed, namely, 3D, photonic and multi-band RF interconnects. Although they provide better connectivity, higher speed and higher bandwidth compared to wired interconnects; they also face challenges with heat dissipation and manufacturing difficulties. On-chip wireless interconnects is one other alternative proposed which doesn't need physical interconnection layout as data travels over the wireless medium. They are integrated into a hybrid NOC architecture consisting of both wired and wireless links, which provides higher bandwidth, lower latency, lesser area overhead and reduced energy dissipation in communication. However, as the bandwidth of the wireless channels is limited, an efficient media access control (MAC) scheme is required to enhance the utilization of the available bandwidth. This thesis proposes using a multiple access mechanism such as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to enable multiple transmitter-receiver pairs to send data over the wireless channel simultaneously. It will be shown that such a hybrid wireless NoC with an efficient CDMA based MAC protocol can significantly increase the performance of the system while lowering the energy dissipation in data transfer. In this work it is shown that the wireless NoC with the proposed CDMA based MAC protocol outperformed the wired counterparts and several other wireless architectures proposed in literature in terms of bandwidth and packet energy dissipation. Significant gains were observed in packet energy dissipation and bandwidth even with scaling the system to higher number of cores. Non-uniform traffic simulations showed that the proposed CDMA-WiNoC was consistent in bandwidth across all traffic patterns. It is also shown that the CDMA based MAC scheme does not introduce additional reliability concerns in data transfer over the on-chip wireless interconnects.

  4. Design study of floating point systolic VLSI chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, J. G.; Nudd, G. R.

    1984-03-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of building a floating point processor (24-bit mantissa and 8-bit exponent) on a single ship based on the Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL) present 28-bit fixed point chip (Multiplication Oriented Processor or MOP chip). The plan was to generate any necessary cell logic, layout, or simulations in order to estimate the size of the chip and predict its performance. Since division and square root were not included in the HRL MOP chip, arithmetic algorithms for performing these operations were to be studied.

  5. Improvement of Electrical Stimulation Protocol for Simultaneous Measurement of Extracellular Potential with On-Chip Multi-Electrode Array System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Fumimasa; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Cardiotoxicity testing with a multi-electrode array (MEA) system requires the stable beating of cardiomyocytes for the measurement of the field potential duration (FPD), because different spontaneous beating rates cause different responses of FPD prolongation induced by drugs, and the beating rate change effected by drugs complicates the FPD prolongation assessment. We have developed an on-chip MEA system with electrical stimulation for the measurement of the FPD during the stable beating of human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. Using a conventional bipolar stimulation protocol, we observed such large artifacts in electrical stimulation that we could not estimate the FPD quantitatively. Therefore, we improved the stimulation protocol by using sequential rectangular pulses in which the positive and negative stimulation voltages and number of pulses could be changed flexibly. The balanced voltages and number of pulses for sequential rectangular pulses enabled the recording of small negative artifacts only, which hardly affected the FPD measurement of human-ES-cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. These conditions of electrical stimulation are expected to find applications for the control of constant beating for cardiotoxicity testing.

  6. Evaluating Computer-Tutors: A Protocol Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James

    A protocol study investigated whether computer tutors (programs that interactively guide writers while they freewrite with a word processing program) promote or hinder a richer understanding of the composing process. The analysis focused on writers' attitudes toward computer tutors in the invention process. Data were collected by tape recording a…

  7. High precision thermal stress study on flip chips by synchrotron polychromatic x-ray microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tang, Wei; Kunz, Martin; Chou, Yi-Chia; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2010-01-01

    The bending and residual stress of flip chips caused by the mismatch of thermal expansion between the chip and the substrate have been measured by polychromatic microfocused synchrotron x-ray beam. Precise orientation information as a function of position on the chip was obtained from Laue diffraction patterns, so that the bending angle with respect to a reference position at the center of the chip can be calculated at each position. This in turn allows deducing the local curvature of the entire flip chip. Local stress distribution was then mapped by applying a modified Stoney's stress-strain equation to the measured curvature. Our study shows that thermal stress on the circuits and the solder joints in a flip chip strongly depend on temperature and the distance from the center of the chip, indicating that interconnects at the corner and edge of a flip chip are of reliability concerns.

  8. Lab-on-a-chip technologies for single-molecule studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanhui; Chen, Danqi; Yue, Hongjun; French, Jarrod B.; Rufo, Joey; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments on various lab-on-a-chip techniques allow miniaturized and integrated devices to perform on-chip single-molecule studies. Fluidic-based platforms that utilize the unique microscale fluidic behavior are capable of conducting single-molecule experiments with high sensitivities and throughputs, while biomolecular systems can be studied on-chip using techniques such as DNA curtains, magnetic tweezers, and solid-state nanopores. The advances of these on-chip single-molecule techniques lead to next-generation lab-on-a-chip devices such as DNA transistors, and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology for rapid and low-cost whole genome DNA sequencing. In this Focus article, we will discuss some recent successes on developing lab-on-a-chip techniques for single-molecule studies and expound our thoughts on the near future of on-chip single-molecule studies. PMID:23670195

  9. Avian study protocols and wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

  10. Lab-on-a-chip for studying growing pollen tubes.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Carlos G; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Geitmann, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A major limitation in the study of pollen tube growth has been the difficulty in providing an in vitro testing microenvironment that physically resembles the in vivo conditions. Here we describe the development of a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) for the manipulation and experimental testing of individual pollen tubes. The design was specifically tailored to pollen tubes from Camellia japonica, but it can be easily adapted for any other species. The platform is fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a silicon/SU-8 mold and makes use of microfluidics to distribute pollen grains to serially arranged microchannels. The tubes are guided into these channels where they can be tested individually. The microfluidic platform allows for specific testing of a variety of growth behavioral features as demonstrated with a simple mechanical obstacle test, and it permits the straightforward integration of further single-cell test assays. PMID:24132434

  11. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  12. Radiation Tolerance Studies of BTeV Pixel Readout Chip Prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2001-09-11

    We report on several irradiation studies performed on BTeV preFPIX2 pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The preFPIX2 pixel readout chip has been implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose of 26 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been measured.

  13. Alpha radiation detection using silicon memory chips--preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Pace, R; Paix, D; Haskard, M

    1993-06-01

    Alpha radiation dosage is an important occupational health factor in the mining of uranium and mineral sands. Alpha radiation induced errors in the data of silicon based memory chips provide the foundation for a new type of sensor, with the potential for affordable and prompt measurement of personal alpha doses. With particular reference to Dynamic Random Access Memories (DRAM) this paper introduces the operating principle of a memory based radiation sensor, which is the error mechanism in silicon integrated circuits. PMID:8357309

  14. Optimizing the high-resolution manometry (HRM) study protocol

    PubMed Central

    PATEL, A.; DING, A.; MIRZA, F.; GYAWALI, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intolerance of the esophageal manometry catheter may prolong high-resolution manometry (HRM) studies and increase patient distress. We assessed the impact of obtaining the landmark phase at the end of the study when the patient has acclimatized to the HRM catheter. Methods 366 patients (mean age 55.4 ± 0.8 years, 62.0% female) undergoing esophageal HRM over a 1-year period were studied. The standard protocol consisted of the landmark phase, 10 5 mL water swallows 20–30 s apart, and multiple rapid swallows where 4–6 2 mL swallows were administered in rapid succession. The modified protocol consisted of the landmark phase at the end of the study after test swallows. Study duration, technical characteristics, indications, and motor findings were compared between standard and modified protocols. Key Results Of the 366 patients, 89.6% underwent the standard protocol (study duration 12.9 ± 0.3 min). In 10.4% with poor catheter tolerance undergoing the modified protocol, study duration was significantly longer (15.6 ± 1.0 min, p = 0.004) despite similar duration of study maneuvers. Only elevated upper esophageal sphincter basal pressures at the beginning of the study segregated modified protocol patients. The 95th percentile time to landmark phase in the standard protocol patients was 6.1 min; as many as 31.4% of modified protocol patients could not obtain their first study maneuver within this period (p = 0.0003). Interpretation was not impacted by shifting the landmark phase to the end of the study. Conclusions & Inferences Modification of the HRM study protocol with the landmark phase obtained at the end of the study optimizes study duration without compromising quality. PMID:25557304

  15. Microfluidic heart on a chip for higher throughput pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Goss, Josue Adrian; Cho, Alexander; McCain, Megan Laura; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a higher throughput “heart on a chip” which utilizes a semi-automated fabrication technique to process sub millimeter sized thin film cantilevers of soft elastomers. Anisotropic cardiac microtissues which recapitulate the laminar architecture of the heart ventricle are engineered on these cantilevers. Deflection of these cantilevers, termed Muscular Thin Films (MTFs), during muscle contraction allows calculation of diastolic and systolic stresses generated by the engineered tissues. We also present the design of a reusable one channel fluidic microdevice completely built out of autoclavable materials which incorporates various features required for an optical cardiac contractility assay: metallic base which fits on a heating element for temperature control, transparent top for recording cantilever deformation and embedded electrodes for electrical field stimulation of the tissue. We employ the microdevice to test the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol on cardiac contractility at dosages ranging from 1 nM to 100 ?M. The higher throughput fluidic heart on a chip has applications in testing of cardiac tissues built from rare or expensive cell sources and for integration with other organ mimics. These advances will help alleviate translational barriers for commercial adoption of these technologies by improving the throughput and reproducibility of readout, standardization of the platform and scalability of manufacture. PMID:23807141

  16. Consumption study and identification of methyl salicylate in spicy cassava chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirjana, Marlene; Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-01

    Spicy cassava chips is a popular snack. However, some news in electronic media reported addition of balsam which is a banned food additives in that product to give extra spicy flavor. This study aimed to determine ITB students' pattern of consumption, health problems caused by spicy chips consumption, and knowledge about illicit use of food additives in that product, and identify the main content of balsam namely methyl salicylate in 10 samples of spicy cassava chips taken from inside and outside about ITB campus. A total of 300 questionnaires distributed to ITB students then data processing was performed. Spicy cassava chips sample macerated in 50 mL of methanol for 24 hours at room temperature, filtered and analyzed using gas chromatography capillary column with OV-1, nitrogen carrier gas and flame ionization detector. Based on questionnaires, 292 (97%) of 300 respondents had consumed spicy chips. A total of 247 (85%) from 292 respondents spicy chips consumed less than 3 times a week. A total of 195 respondents (67%) had experienced health problems after eating spicy chips. There were 137 (47%) of the 292 respondents who knew about the illicit addition of food additives into spicy chips; only 35 respondents (12%) who knew about balsam's addition. There were 126 respondents (43%) who did not pay attention to their health because they will keep eating spicy chips despite the addition of banned food additives. Through the verification of the standard addition method in gas chromatography system with a hydrogen pressure of 1.5 bar, injector temperature 200 °C, detector temperature 230 °C, oven temperature 60 °C for 2 minutes and then increased to 230 °C with rate 6 °C/menit; linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, and specificity parameters met the acceptance limits. From 10 spicy cassava chips samples which were analyzed, they did not reveal any content of methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate contained in the positive control was 1.273 mg/mL.

  17. Electrotaxis Studies of Lung Cancer Cells using a Multichannel Dual-electric-field Microfluidic Chip.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hsien-San; Chang, Hui-Fang; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of directional cell migration under a direct current electric-field (dcEF) is referred to as electrotaxis. The significant role of physiological dcEF in guiding cell movement during embryo development, cell differentiation, and wound healing has been demonstrated in many studies. By applying microfluidic chips to an electrotaxis assay, the investigation process is shortened and experimental errors are minimized. In recent years, microfluidic devices made of polymeric substances (e.g., polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA, or acrylic) or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have been widely used in studying the responses of cells to electrical stimulation. However, unlike the numerous steps required to fabricate a PDMS device, the simple and rapid construction of the acrylic micro?uidic chip makes it suitable for both device prototyping and production. Yet none of the reported devices facilitate the efficient study of the simultaneous chemical and dcEF effects on cells. In this report, we describe our design and fabrication of an acrylic-based multichannel dual-electric-field (MDF) chip to investigate the concurrent effect of chemical and electrical stimulation on lung cancer cells. The MDF chip provides eight combinations of electrical/chemical stimulations in a single test. The chip not only greatly shortens the required experimental time but also increases accuracy in electrotaxis studies. PMID:26780080

  18. Study protocol: the Whitehall II imaging sub-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Whitehall II (WHII) study of British civil servants provides a unique source of longitudinal data to investigate key factors hypothesized to affect brain health and cognitive ageing. This paper introduces the multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and cognitive assessment designed to investigate brain health in a random sample of 800 members of the WHII study. Methods/design A total of 6035 civil servants participated in the WHII Phase 11 clinical examination in 2012–2013. A random sample of these participants was included in a sub-study comprising an MRI brain scan, a detailed clinical and cognitive assessment, and collection of blood and buccal mucosal samples for the characterisation of immune function and associated measures. Data collection for this sub-study started in 2012 and will be completed by 2016. The participants, for whom social and health records have been collected since 1985, were between 60–85 years of age at the time the MRI study started. Here, we describe the pre-specified clinical and cognitive assessment protocols, the state-of-the-art MRI sequences and latest pipelines for analyses of this sub-study. Discussion The integration of cutting-edge MRI techniques, clinical and cognitive tests in combination with retrospective data on social, behavioural and biological variables during the preceding 25 years from a well-established longitudinal epidemiological study (WHII cohort) will provide a unique opportunity to examine brain structure and function in relation to age-related diseases and the modifiable and non-modifiable factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse brain changes. PMID:24885374

  19. A Study of Health Maintenance Protocols in Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.; Moore, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    A series of color-coded health maintenance protocols for four age groupings were introduced into a community health centre. In a pilot study of the 16-49 year age range, levels of recording before introduction of the protocols were below 50% in all categories, except “blood pressure” “coping skills” and “sexuality/contraception”. After one year, it was not possible to assess changes in recording of screening maneuvers reliably due to the short study period and major changes in staffing that coincidentally occurred during the study period. Further studies should use stable solo practices and a much longer follow up period. PMID:21279143

  20. Studies on spectroscopy of glycerol in THz range using microfluidic chip-integrated micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bo; Han, Xue; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Cunlin

    2014-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a detection method of biological molecules with label-free, non-ionizing, non-intrusive, no pollution and real-time monitoring. But owing to the strong THz absorption by water, it is mainly used in the solid state detection of biological molecules. In this paper, we present a microfluidic chip technique for detecting biological liquid samples using the transmission type of THz-TDS system. The microfluidic channel of the microfluidic chip is fabricated in the quartz glass using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology and sealed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) diaphragm. The length, width and depth of the microfluidic channel are 25mm, 100?m and 50?m, respectively. The diameter of THz detection zone in the microfluidic channel is 4mm. The thicknesses of quartz glass and PDMS diaphragm are 1mm and 250?m, individually. Another one of the same quartz glass is used to bond with the PDMS for the rigidity and air tightness of the microfluidic chip. In order to realize the automation of sampling and improve the control precise of fluid, a micropump, which comprises PDMS diaphragm, pump chamber, diffuser and nozzle and flat vibration motor, is integrated on the microfluidic chip. The diffuser and nozzle are fabricated on both sides of the pump chamber, which is covered with PDMS diaphragm. The flat vibration motor is stuck on the PDMS diaphragm as the actuator. We study the terahertz absorption spectroscopy characteristics of glycerol with the concentration of 98% in the microfluidic chip by the aid of the THz-TDS system, and the feasibility of the microfluidic chip for the detection of liquid samples is proved.

  1. The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Joseph P; Sauerbeck, Laura R; Foroud, Tatiana; Huston, John; Pankratz, Nathan; Meissner, Irene; Brown, Robert D

    2005-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) occurs in about 20,000 people per year in the U.S. annually and nearly half of the affected persons are dead within the first 30 days. Survivors of ruptured IAs are often left with substantial disability. Thus, primary prevention of aneurysm formation and rupture is of paramount importance. Prior studies indicate that genetic factors are important in the formation and rupture of IAs. The long-term goal of the Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) Study is to identify genes that underlie the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IA). Methods/Design The FIA Study includes 26 clinical centers which have extensive experience in the clinical management and imaging of intracerebral aneurysms. 475 families with affected sib pairs or with multiple affected relatives will be enrolled through retrospective and prospective screening of potential subjects with an IA. After giving informed consent, the proband or their spokesperson invites other family members to participate. Each participant is interviewed using a standardized questionnaire which covers medical history, social history and demographic information. In addition blood is drawn from each participant for DNA isolation and immortalization of lymphocytes. High- risk family members without a previously diagnosed IA undergo magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to identify asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms. A 10 cM genome screen will be performed to identify FIA susceptibility loci. Due to the significant mortality of affected individuals, novel approaches are employed to reconstruct the genotype of critical deceased individuals. These include the intensive recruitment of the spouse and children of deceased, affected individuals. Discussion A successful, adequately-powered genetic linkage study of IA is challenging given the very high, early mortality of ruptured IA. Design features in the FIA Study that address this challenge include recruitment at a large number of highly active clinical centers, comprehensive screening and recruitment techniques, non-invasive vascular imaging of high-risk subjects, genome reconstruction of dead affected individuals using marker data from closely related family members, and inclusion of environmental covariates in the statistical analysis. PMID:15854227

  2. Fundamental study of microelectronic chip response under laser ultrasonic-interferometric inspection using C-scan method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Gong, Jie; Ume, I. Charles

    2014-02-01

    In modern surface mount packaging technologies, such as flip chips, chip scale packages, and ball grid arrays(BGA), chips are attached to the substrates/printed wiring board (PWB) using solder bump interconnections. The quality of solder bumps between the chips and the substrate/board is difficult to inspect. Laser ultrasonic-interferometric technique was proved to be a promising approach for solder bump inspection because of its noncontact and nondestructive characteristics. Different indicators extracted from received signals have been used to predict the potential defects, such as correlation coefficient, error ratio, frequency shifting, etc. However, the fundamental understanding of the chip behavior under laser ultrasonic inspection is still missing. Specifically, it is not sure whether the laser interferometer detected out-of-plane displacements were due to wave propagation or structural vibration when the chip was excited by pulsed laser. Plus, it is found that the received signals are chip dependent. Both challenges impede the interpretation of acquired signals. In this paper, a C-scan method was proposed to study the underlying phenomenon during laser ultrasonic inspection. The full chip was inspected. The response of the chip under laser excitation was visualized in a movie resulted from acquired signals. Specifically, a BGA chip was investigated to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. By characterizing signals using discrete wavelet transform(DWT), both ultrasonic wave propagation and vibration were observed. Separation of them was successfully achieved using ideal band-pass filter and visualized in resultant movies, too. The observed ultrasonic waves were characterized and their respective speeds were measured by applying 2-D FFT. The C-scan method, combined with different digital signal processing techniques, was proved to be an very effective methodology to learn the behavior of chips under laser excitation. This general procedure can be applied to any unknown chip before inspection. A wealth of information can be provided by this learning procedure, which greatly benefits the interpretation of inspection signals afterwards.

  3. Study on Cloud Security Based on Trust Spanning Tree Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yingxu; Liu, Zenghui; Pan, Qiuyue; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Attacks executed on Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) expose the weakness of link layer protocols and put the higher layers in jeopardy. Although the problems have been studied for many years and various solutions have been proposed, many security issues remain. To enhance the security and credibility of layer-2 network, we propose a trust-based spanning tree protocol aiming at achieving a higher credibility of LAN switch with a simple and lightweight authentication mechanism. If correctly implemented in each trusted switch, the authentication of trust-based STP can guarantee the credibility of topology information that is announced to other switch in the LAN. To verify the enforcement of the trusted protocol, we present a new trust evaluation method of the STP using a specification-based state model. We implement a prototype of trust-based STP to investigate its practicality. Experiment shows that the trusted protocol can achieve security goals and effectively avoid STP attacks with a lower computation overhead and good convergence performance.

  4. Experimental Study of Novel Materials and Module for Cryogenic (4K) Superconducting Multi-Chip Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Ranjith Samuel E.

    Niobium based superconducting electronics (SCE) are the fastest known digital logic which operate at 100GHz and greater. Nevertheless, the performance of the SCE device depends on the temperature of the SCE integrated circuits being maintained between 4.2 -- 4.25 K. Additionally, as semiconductors are slowly approaching their performance limitations the SCE devices are viewed as a viable alternative for high end computing and commercial wireless applications. However, the successful commercialization of SCE's requires the demonstration of these devices in multichip module (MCM) architecture. Thus the stringent thermal constraint and the complex MCM architecture require an innovative method for thermal management. This research addressed the above challenges by using a nano-engineered polymer adhesive, namely, single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) integrated epoxy as underfill for the packaging of SCE in MCM architecture. The current research distinguished itself by (1) examining the thermal management issues across a single chip SCE-MCM and developing a thermal model based on literature and experimental analysis, (2) developing a new material, namely SWCNT-integrated epoxy whose thermal and electrical performance were analyzed as a function of SWCNT loading and (3) demonstrating the thermal and electrical performance of single chip SCE-MCM test structure and 2D SCE-MCM test structure with SWCNT-epoxy as underfill. The thermal analysis of the single chip SCE-MCM was studied by modeling, which illustrated that cryogenic underfill with thermal conductivity of 0.04 W/mK plays a vital role in thermal management of SCE-MCMs. A SWCNT-epoxy underfill material which was thermally conductive but electrically insulating was developed and the experimental verification of the thermal model was completed by studying the thermal performance of single chip SCE MCMs with and without SWCNT-epoxy as underfill. It was determined that the heat transport between the SCE chip and SCE carrier chip in MCM architecture was enhanced by the use of SWCNT underfill. Current-Voltage characteristics of Josephson Junctions of SCE chip and carrier bonded using SWCNT underfill were measured at 4.2 K, demonstrating the electrical performance of SCE devices bonded using SWCNT underfill. Finally, 2D SC-MCM was fabricated, and the transition to superconducting state was demonstrated at 4 K with and without SWCNT underfill.

  5. Computer-Tutors and a Freshman Writer: A Protocol Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James

    Although there are many retrospective accounts from teachers and professional writers concerning the effect of computers on their writing, there are few real-time accounts of students struggling to simultaneously develop as writers and cope with computers. To fill this void in "testimonial data," a study examining talking-aloud protocols from a…

  6. An improved protocol to study the plant cell wall proteome

    PubMed Central

    Printz, Bruno; Dos Santos Morais, Raphaël; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Sergeant, Kjell; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Renaut, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cell wall proteins were extracted from alfalfa stems according to a three-steps extraction procedure using sequentially CaCl2, EGTA, and LiCl-complemented buffers. The efficiency of this protocol for extracting cell wall proteins was compared with the two previously published methods optimized for alfalfa stem cell wall protein analysis. Following LC-MS/MS analysis the three-steps extraction procedure resulted in the identification of the highest number of cell wall proteins (242 NCBInr identifiers) and gave the lowest percentage of non-cell wall proteins (about 30%). However, the three protocols are rather complementary than substitutive since 43% of the identified proteins were specific to one protocol. This three-step protocol was therefore selected for a more detailed proteomic characterization using 2D-gel electrophoresis. With this technique, 75% of the identified proteins were shown to be fraction-specific and 72.7% were predicted as belonging to the cell wall compartment. Although, being less sensitive than LC-MS/MS approaches in detecting and identifying low-abundant proteins, gel-based approaches are valuable tools for the differentiation and relative quantification of protein isoforms and/or modified proteins. In particular isoforms, having variations in their amino-acid sequence and/or carrying different N-linked glycan chains were detected and characterized. This study highlights how the extracting protocols as well as the analytical techniques devoted to the study of the plant cell wall proteome are complementary and how they may be combined to elucidate the dynamism of the plant cell wall proteome in biological studies. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001927. PMID:25914713

  7. Study of chip-breaking mechanisms in orthogonal cutting. Technical report, April 1, 1990--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Strenkowski, J.S.

    1991-07-15

    This report summarizes the activities of the research project entitled {open_quotes}Study of Chip Breaking Mechanisms in Orthogonal Cutting{close_quotes}. The research effort took place from April 1990 to June 1991. The overall objective of the project was to develop a systematic procedure for gaining a more fundamental understanding of chip breaking mechanics. Central to this objective is a computer model that can simulate chip formation in orthogonal cutting. This model has been under development for the past seven years at NCSU. The model is based on an Eulerian formulation of the finite element technique. The model simulates the cutting process for various tool geometries over a wide range of cutting conditions. The model can be used to predict chip geometry, cutting forces, plastic strains, strain rates, and temperatures in the workpiece and chip, as well as temperatures in the tool itself. Of particular significance is that specific tool geometries can be simulated. Therefore, the model can be used to systematically evaluate the strains, strain rates, temperature, and geometry of the chip as a function of a specific chip-breaker tool design. These results can provide the crucial information necessary to formulate a fundamental understanding of the chip breaking mechanism over a wide range of operating conditions and workpiece materials.

  8. Organ-on-a-Chip Platforms for Studying Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Nupura S.; Ribas, JoĂŁo; Manoharan, Vijayan; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Polini, Alessandro; Massa, Solange; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Novel microfluidic tools allow new ways to manufacture and test drug delivery systems. Organ-on-a-chip systems – microscale recapitulations of complex organ functions – promise to improve the drug development pipeline. This review highlights the importance of integrating microfluidic networks with 3D tissue engineered models to create organ-on-a-chip platforms, able to meet the demand of creating robust preclinical screening models. Specific examples are cited to demonstrate the use of these systems for studying the performance of drug delivery vectors and thereby reduce the discrepancies between their performance at preclinical and clinical trials. We also highlight the future directions that need to be pursued by the research community for these proof-of-concept studies to achieve the goal of accelerating clinical translation of drug delivery nanoparticles. PMID:24818770

  9. Atomic structure of machined semiconducting chips: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Paesler, M.; Sayers, D.

    1988-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the atomic structure of chips of germanium that were produced by single point diamond machining. It is demonstrated that although the local (nearest neighbor) atomic structure is experimentally quite similar to that of single crystal specimens information from more distant atoms indicates the presence of considerable stress. An outline of the technique is given and the strength of XAS in studying the machining process is demonstrated.

  10. IGG: A tool to integrate GeneChips for genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Li, M-X; Jiang, L; Ho, S-L; Song, Y-Q; Sham, P-C

    2007-11-15

    To facilitate genetic studies using high-throughput genotyping technologies, we have developed an open source tool to integrate genotype data across the Affymetrix and Illumina platforms. It can efficiently integrate a large amount of data from various GeneChips, add genotypes of the HapMap Project into a specific project, flexibly trim and export the integrated data with different formats of popular genetic analysis tools, and highly control the quality of genotype data. Furthermore, this tool has sufficiently simplified its usage through its user-friendly graphic interface and is independent of third-party databases. IGG has successfully been applied to a genome-wide linkage scan in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease pedigree by integrating three types of GeneChips and HapMap project genotypes. PMID:17872914

  11. Hybridization of Environmental Microbial Community Nucleic Acids by GeoChip.

    PubMed

    Van Nostrand, Joy D; Yin, Huaqin; Wu, Liyou; Yuan, Tong; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Functional gene arrays, like the GeoChip, allow for the study of tens of thousands of genes in a single assay. The GeoChip array (5.0) contains probes for genes involved in geochemical cycling (N, C, S, and P), metal homeostasis, stress response, organic contaminant degradation, antibiotic resistance, secondary metabolism, and virulence factors as well as genes specific for fungi, protists, and viruses. Here, we briefly describe GeoChip design strategies (gene selection and probe design) and discuss minimum quantity and quality requirements for nucleic acids. We then provide detailed protocols for amplification, labeling, and hybridization of samples to the GeoChip. PMID:26791504

  12. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled to detection by quantitative real-time PCR to study transcription factor binding to DNA in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Arnab; Deplancke, Bart; Walhout, Albertha J M; Tissenbaum, Heidi A

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine how signaling pathways differentially regulate gene expression, it is necessary to identify the interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their cognate cis-regulatory DNA elements. Here, we have outlined a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol for use in whole Caenorhabditis elegans extracts. We discuss optimization of the procedure, including growth and harvesting of the worms, formaldehyde fixation, TF immunoprecipitation and analysis of bound sequences through real-time PCR. It takes ?10–12 d to obtain the worm culture for ChIP; the ChIP procedure is spaced out over a period of 2.5 d with two overnight incubations. PMID:18388953

  13. Wood chipping almond brush to reduce air pollution and to study the effect of wood chips on harvest, soil nutrients, soil aggregation, and the microbial community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wood chipping of almond prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips interfere with harvest or delete the soil of critical nutrients necessary ...

  14. An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay

    2014-05-01

    An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method, and was capable of removing virtually all S0 from the pyrite grains. As pyrite oxidation and dissolution processes are surface-dependent, and even the slightest coating by Fe2+ or sulfide oxidation products can sharply decrease pyrite reactivity, the improved removal of S0 prevents such decreases and allows clearer insights into pyrite reaction mechanisms to be gained from experimental studies. In addition to S0 removal, the suggested method was shown not to introduce any biases in the particle size distribution. The main difference observed between the two protocols is the removal of larger amounts of surface-attached fine particles in the proposed method along with S0. This also removes a potential bias, associated with the surface area of pyrite available for chemical reaction. The suggested pyrite pretreatment protocol is more efficient in removal of S0 contamination from pyrite grains and provides multiple advantages for both kinetic and isotopic investigations of pyrite transformations under various environmental conditions.

  15. Soil-on-a-Chip: microfluidic platforms for environmental organismal studies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Claire E; Grossmann, Guido; Casadevall I Solvas, Xavier; deMello, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Soil is the habitat of countless organisms and encompasses an enormous variety of dynamic environmental conditions. While it is evident that a thorough understanding of how organisms interact with the soil environment may have substantial ecological and economical impact, current laboratory-based methods depend on reductionist approaches that are incapable of simulating natural diversity. The application of Lab-on-a-Chip or microfluidic technologies to organismal studies is an emerging field, where the unique benefits afforded by system miniaturisation offer new opportunities for the experimentalist. Indeed, precise spatiotemporal control over the microenvironments of soil organisms in combination with high-resolution imaging has the potential to provide an unprecedented view of biological events at the single-organism or single-cell level, which in turn opens up new avenues for environmental and organismal studies. Herein we review some of the most recent and interesting developments in microfluidic technologies for the study of soil organisms and their interactions with the environment. We discuss how so-called "Soil-on-a-Chip" technology has already contributed significantly to the study of bacteria, nematodes, fungi and plants, as well as inter-organismal interactions, by advancing experimental access and environmental control. Most crucially, we highlight where distinct advantages over traditional approaches exist and where novel biological insights will ensue. PMID:26645910

  16. On-chip dynamic stress control for cancer cell evolution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert

    2010-03-01

    The growth and spreading of cancer in host organisms is an evolutionary process. Cells accumulate mutations that help them adapt to changing environments and to obtain survival fitness. However, all cancer--promoting mutations do not occur at once. Cancer cells face selective environmental pressures that drive their evolution in stages. In traditional cancer studies, environmental stress is usually homogenous in space and difficult to change in time. Here, we propose a microfluidic chip employing embedded dynamic traps to generate dynamic heterogeneous microenvironments for cancer cells in evolution studies. Based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible diaphragms, these traps are able to enclose and shield cancer cells or expose them to external environmental stress. Digital controls for each trap determine the nutrition, antibiotics, CO2/O2 conditions, and temperatures to which trapped cells are subjected. Thus, the stress applied to cells can be varied in intensity and duration in each trap independently. The chip can also output cells from specific traps for sequencing and other biological analysis. Hence our design simultaneously monitors and analyzes cell evolution behaviors under dynamic stresses.

  17. Analytical study on a MEMS microcooling system for cooling flip chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Andrew A. O.; Tay, Francis E.; Li, Wenjie

    1999-10-01

    A MEMS micro-cooling system which comprises microchannel, micropump and pin-fin fan-sink technologies is proposed to meet the need of innovative and advanced IC cooling techniques for the microelectronics industry. An analytical study is conducted by employing a self-developed computer code. This study shows that the closed-loop MEMS micro- cooling system under the steady-state condition with water as the coolant has a capacity to remove heated flux as high as 100 W/cm2 from the flip chip into the ambient. This can be done while maintaining the maximum temperature on the surface of the flip chip below 100 degrees C. Simulation and analysis of flow and heat transfer performance on this single-phase forced convection MEMS micro-cooling system are performed in both laminar and turbulent flows. The design parameters which include the coolant inlet pressure, the geometry of the silicon microchannel, the ambient temperature as well as the variety of the aluminum pin-fin fan-sink coolers show that these variables all have significant effect on the working performance of the system. The simulation results validated this new compact and highly efficient MEMS micro-cooling system.

  18. Characterizing Rat PNS Electrophysiological Response to Electrical Stimulation Using in vitro Chip-Based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Khani, Joshua; Prescod, Lindsay; Enright, Heather; Felix, Sarah; Osburn, Joanne; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Kulp, Kris

    2015-08-18

    Ex vivo systems and organ-on-a-chip technology offer an unprecedented approach to modeling the inner workings of the human body. The ultimate goal of LLNL’s in vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP) is to integrate multiple organ tissue cultures using microfluidic channels, multi-electrode arrays (MEA), and other biosensors in order to effectively simulate and study the responses and interactions of the major organs to chemical and physical stimulation. In this study, we focused on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) component of the iCHIP system. Specifically we sought to expound on prior research investigating the electrophysiological response of rat dorsal root ganglion cells (rDRGs) to chemical exposures, such as capsaicin. Our aim was to establish a protocol for electrical stimulation using the iCHIP device that would reliably elicit a characteristic response in rDRGs. By varying the parameters for both the stimulation properties – amplitude, phase width, phase shape, and stimulation/ return configuration – and the culture conditions – day in vitro and neural cell types - we were able to make several key observations and uncover a potential convention with a minimal number of devices tested. Future work will seek to establish a standard protocol for human DRGs in the iCHIP which will afford a portable, rapid method for determining the effects of toxins and novel therapeutics on the PNS.

  19. Study on thermally reworkable underfills for flip chip, BGA, and CSP applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lejun

    Underfill is a polymeric material used in the flip-chip devices that fills the gap between an integrated circuit (IC) chip and an organic printed wiring board (PWB), and encapsulates the solder interconnects. This underfill material dramatically enhances the reliability of the flip-chip devices as compared to the non-underfilled devices. Current underfills are mainly epoxy-based materials that are not reworkable after curing, which places an obstacle in Flip-Chip on Board (FCOB) technology developments. Thermally reworkable underfill is not only the key material to address the non-reworkability of the FCOB packages, but it can also be used to enhance the board-level reliability of ball grid array (BGA) and chip scale package (CSP) devices without losing their good reworkability feature. In this work, three approaches for developing thermally reworkable underfills including syntheses of thermally degradable epoxies, incorporation of special additives into standard epoxy matrix, and utilization of thermoplastic-thermoset copolymers/blends are studied. Based on these studies, reworkable underfills are then developed. Reworkable underfills developed in-house and from commercial sources are then evaluated for their reworkability and reliability to the encapsulation of FCOB, BGA, and CSP. To begin with, various thermal degradable epoxies containing carbonate or carbamate linkdage are synthesized and characterized. Among them, two diepoxides that decompose around solder reflow temperature and have good overall properties are selected and formulated into reworkable underfills for conventional capillary-flow underfilling process. A group of additives named chemical blowing agents are identified to have the capability to make the epoxy removable under certain conditions when they are incorporated into a standard epoxy matrix. Interactions between the additives and the typical epoxy formulation are thoroughly studied for the purpose of identifying good additives that provide reworkability to the epoxy without adversely affecting its overall good properties. One additive is then selected and incorporated into a commercial nonreworkable underfill to make it a reworkable formulation for the capillary-flow underfilling process. Thermoplastic-thermoset blends are attractive material candidates for reworkable underfills as they have the potential of combining reworkability of thermoplastics with good reliability performance of thermosets. Thermoplastic-epoxy blends and diepoxide-monoepoxide copolymers are studied and reworkable underfills are developed based on the selected blends. Reworkable underfills developed in-house and from commercial sources are then evaluated for their reworkability and reliability to the encapsulation of FCOB, BGA, and CSP. For comparison, commercial non-reworkable underfills are also included in the evaluation as baseline underfills. The evaluation process includes rework process development, rework test, and reliability assessment. Based on the evaluation, reworkable underfills with good reworkability and reliability are identified. It is found that some reworkable underfills have comparable reliability performance as to the baseline underfills. Particularly, the incorporation of the selected additive into a non-reworkable underfill provides the reworkability without adversely affecting its reliability performance. Feasibility of a no-flow reworkable underfill is demonstrated through the development of reworkable underfills for no-flow underfilling process by modifying a no-flow underfill formulation using a thermally degradable epoxy and incorporation of a special additive. Feasibility of a package-level reworkable underfill is demonstrated through the development of a reworkable underfill by incorporating a high temperature additive and an activator into a commercial underfill.

  20. Analytical study of a microfludic DNA amplification chip using water cooling effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh Jian; Shen, Chia Ming; Ko, Yu Wei

    2013-04-01

    A novel continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chip has been analyzed in our work. Two temperature zones are controlled by two external controllers and the other temperature zone at the chip center is controlled by the flow rate of the fluid inside a channel under the glass chip. By employing a water cooling channel at the chip center, the sequence of denaturation, annealing, and extension can be created due to the forced convection effect. The required annealing temperature of PCR less than 313 K can also be demonstrated in this chip. The Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cooling channel with the thin aluminum cover is utilized to enhance the temperature uniformity. The size of this chip is 76 mm Ś 26 mm Ś 3 mm. This device represents the first demonstration of water cooling thermocycling within continuous-flow PCR microfluidics. The commercial software CFD-ACE+(TM) is utilized to determine the distances between the heating assemblies within the chip. We investigate the influences of various chip materials, operational parameters of the cooling channel and geometric parameters of the chip on the temperature uniformity on the chip surface. Concerning the temperature uniformity of the working zones and the lowest temperature at the annealing zone, the air gap spacing of 1 mm and the cooling channel thicknesses of 1 mm of the PMMA channel with an aluminum cover are recommended in our design. The hydrophobic surface of the PDMS channel was modified by filling it with 20 % Tween 20 solution and then adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution to the PCR mixture. DNA fragments with different lengths (372 bp and 478 bp) are successfully amplified with the device. PMID:23179465

  1. Study & Analysis of various Protocols in popular Web Browsers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bharat; Baghel, Harish Singh; Patil, Manoj; Singh, Pramod

    2012-08-01

    The web browsers are the application software that are used to access information from the World Wide Web. With the increasing popularity of the web browsers, the modern web browsers are designed to contain more features as compared to the existing web browsers. For the transferring of information through these browsers, various protocols have been implemented on these modern web browsers to make these browsers more efficient. Different protocols used in different layers have different functions and by increasing the efficiency of these protocols we can make the working of browsers more efficient.

  2. An on-chip small intestine-liver model for pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Takashi; Nakayama, Hidenari; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Teruo

    2015-06-01

    Testing of drug effects and cytotoxicity by using cultured cells has been widely performed as an alternative to animal testing. However, the estimation of pharmacokinetics by conventional cell-based assay methods is difficult because of the inability to evaluate multiorgan effects. An important challenge in the field is to mimic the organ-to-organ network in the human body by using a microfluidic network connecting small-scale tissues based on recently emerging MicroTAS (Micro Total Analysis Systems) technology for prediction of pharmacokinetics. Here, we describe an on-chip small intestine-liver coupled model for pharmacokinetic studies. To construct an in vitro pharmacokinetic model that appropriately models in vivo conditions, physiological parameters such as the structure of internal circulation, volume ratios of each organ, and blood flow ratio of the portal vein to the hepatic artery were mimicked using microfluidic networks. To demonstrate interactions between organs in vitro in pharmacokinetic studies, Caco-2, HepG2, and A549 cell cultures were used as organ models of the small intestine, liver, and lung, respectively, and connected to each other through a microporous membrane and microchannels to prepare a simple model of a physiological organ-to-organ network. The on-chip organ model assay using three types of substrate-epirubicine (EPI), irinotecan (CPT-11), and cyclophosphamide (CPA)-were conducted to model the effects of orally administered or biologically active anticancer drugs. The result suggested that the device can replicate physiological phenomena such as activity of the anticancer drugs on the target cells. This microfluidic device can thus be used as an in vitro organ model to predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the human body and may thus provide not only an alternative to animal testing but also a method of obtaining parameters for in silico models of physiologically based pharmacokinetics. PMID:25385717

  3. Study on the network protocol of the IP-based storage area network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xianglin; Liu, ZhaoBin; Cao, Qiang; Xie, Changsheng

    2003-04-01

    Both the requirement of the application and the development of the technology have promoted the research of the new network protocols in network storage, and currently IP-based SAN has become new focus of study. The main network protocols used in IP-based SAN are: iSCSI, FCIP, iFCP and mFCP. They all implement the transmitting of block level storage data over TCP/IP. To understand and master the protocols deeply, this paper elaborates the latest development of these protocols, and analyzes and compares them intensively in regards of protocol stack, implementation model, naming, addressing, discovery and routing etc.

  4. Critical Illness Outcome Study: An Observational Study on Protocols and Mortality in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Naeem A.; Gutteridge, David; Shahul, Sajid; Checkley, William; Sevransky, Jonathan; Martin, Greg S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many individual Intensive Care Unit (ICU) characteristics have been associated with patient outcomes, including staffing, expertise, continuity and team structure. Separately, many aspects of clinical care in ICUs have been operationalized through the development of complex treatment protocols. The United State Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS) was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol availability and use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large cohort of United States ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS Steering Committee. Methods USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological multi-centered “cohort” study of mixed ICUs in the U.S. The data collected include organizational information for the ICU (e.g., protocol availability and utilization, multi-disciplinary staffing assessment) and patient level information (e.g. demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions). The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high and low protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize regression modeling to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. There are presently 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6,000 study subjects. Conclusions USCIITG-CIOS is a large multicentric study examining the effect of ICU protocol use on patient outcomes. The primary results of this study will inform our understanding of the relationship between protocol availability, use, and patient outcomes in the ICU. Moreover, given the shortage of intensivists worldwide, the results of USCIITG-CIOS can be used to promote more effective ICU and care team design and will impact the delivery of intensive care services beyond individual practitioners. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01109719 PMID:25429244

  5. Study protocol: the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion. Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence. The initial focus of CATS is on adrenarche, the first hormonal process in the pubertal cascade, which begins for most children at around 8 years of age. Methods/Design CATS is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. All Grade 3 students (8–9 years of age) from a stratified cluster sample of schools in Melbourne, Australia were invited to take part. In total, 1239 students and a parent/guardian were recruited to participate in the study. Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche. Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development. The cohort will provide rich detail of the development, lifestyle, external circumstances and health of children during the transition from childhood through to adolescence. Baseline associations between the hormonal measures and measures of mental health and behaviour will initially be examined cross-sectionally, and then in later waves longitudinally. CATS will make a unique contribution to the understanding of adrenarche and puberty in children’s health and development. PMID:24103080

  6. The effects of a regional telepathology project: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists. PMID:22420301

  7. Protocol matters: which methylome are you actually studying?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark D; Statham, Aaron L; Speed, Terence P; Clark, Susan J

    2011-01-01

    The field of epigenetics is now capitalizing on the vast number of emerging technologies, largely based on second-generation sequencing, which interrogate DNA methylation status and histone modifications genome-wide. However, getting an exhaustive and unbiased view of a methylome at a reasonable cost is proving to be a significant challenge. In this article, we take a closer look at the impact of the DNA sequence and bias effects introduced to datasets by genome-wide DNA methylation technologies and where possible, explore the bioinformatics tools that deconvolve them. There remains much to be learned about the performance of genome-wide technologies, the data we mine from these assays and how it reflects the actual biology. While there are several methods to interrogate the DNA methylation status genome-wide, our opinion is that no single technique suitably covers the minimum criteria of high coverage and, high resolution at a reasonable cost. In fact, the fraction of the methylome that is studied currently depends entirely on the inherent biases of the protocol employed. There is promise for this to change, as the third generation of sequencing technologies is expected to again ‘revolutionize’ the way that we study genomes and epigenomes. PMID:21566704

  8. Laboratory study of opposition surge of rock chips and particle layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, T.; Nakamura, A. M..; Mukai, T.

    Surfaces of small bodies such as asteroids are covered with regolith particles The intensity of the scattered light from such surface nonlinearly increases at small solar phase angles the angle between the light source and the detector as seen from the target The degree and the sharpness of the phenomena opposition surge are considered to depend on the physical state of the surface It was shown the opposition surge appears on scattered light from surface of rocks Shepard and Arvidson 1999 However it remains to be incompletely understood how the opposition surge varies with the structure and optical characteristics of the scattering target First we performed measurements of scattered light from rock chips and particle layers at low phase angles Measurements were performed using a multi phase angle near infrared spectrometer at Kobe University with the incident angle fixed at 2 degree and the phase angle varied within 0-25 degrees A clear differences were found between the phase curves of dunite chip and particles whereas there were no apparent difference between the chips and the powders for a meteorite and mortar We then performed new measurements to focus on clarifying whether or not 1 bulk chips consisting of uniform composition also show opposition surge 2 difference in size of the constituent grains of bulk chips affects the opposition surge and 3 difference in surface roughness of bulk chips has dominant effect We will show the results of several types of bulk chips and sintered powders and will discuss on the possible

  9. Individual empowerment in overweight and obese patients: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Struzzo, Pierluigi; Fumato, Raffaella; Tillati, Silvia; Cacitti, Anita; Gangi, Fabrizio; Stefani, Alessia; Torcutti, Alessia; Crapesi, Lucia; Tubaro, Gianni; Balestrieri, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem in Europe and it causes many diseases. Many weight-reducing methods are reported in medical literature, but none of them proved to be effective in maintaining the results achieved over time. Self-empowerment can be an important innovative method, but an effectiveness study is necessary. In order to standardise the procedures for a randomised controlled study, a pilot study will be run to observe, measure and evaluate the effects of a period of self-empowerment group treatment on overweight/obese patients. Methods and analysis Non-controlled, experimental, pilot study. A selected group of patients with body mass index >25, with no severe psychiatric disorders, with no aesthetic or therapeutic motivation will be included in the study. A set of quantitative and qualitative measures will be utilised to evaluate the effects of a self-empowerment course in a 12?month time. Group therapy and medical examinations will also complete this observational phase. At the end of this pilot study, a set of appropriate measures and procedures to determine the effectiveness of individual empowerment will be identified and agreed among the different professional figures. Results will be recorded and analysed to start a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Udine in March 2012. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events involving the local administrations of the towns where the trial participants are resident. Trial Registration http://www.clinicalstrials.gov identifier NCT01644708. PMID:23676799

  10. Chip-on-Board Technology 1996 Year-end Report (Design, Manufacturing, and Reliability Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Binh Q.; Nhan, Elbert; Maurer, Richard H.; Lew, Ark L.; Lander, Juan R.

    1996-01-01

    The major impetus for flight qualifying Chip-On-Board (COB) packaging technology is the shift in emphasis for space missions to smaller, better, and cheaper spacecraft and satellites resulting from the NASA New Millenium initiative and similar requirements in DoD-sponsored programs. The most important benefit that can potentially be derived from miniaturizing spacecraft and satellites is the significant cost saving realizable if a smaller launch vehicle may be employed. Besides the program cost saving, there are several other advantages to building COB-based space hardware. First, once a well-controlled process is established, COB can be low cost compared to standard Multi-Chip Module (MCM) technology. This cost competitiveness is regarded as a result of the generally greater availability and lower cost of Known Good Die (KGD). Coupled with the elimination of the first level of packaging (chip package), compact, high-density circuit boards can be realized with Printed Wiring Boards (PWB) that can now be made with ever-decreasing feature size in line width and via hole. Since the COB packaging technique in this study is based mainly on populating bare dice on a suitable multi-layer laminate substrate which is not hermetically sealed, die coating for protection from the environment is required. In recent years, significant improvements have been made in die coating materials which further enhance the appeal of COB. Hysol epoxies, silicone, parylene and silicon nitride are desirable because of their compatible Thermal Coefficient of Expansion (TCE) and good moisture resistant capability. These die coating materials have all been used in the space and other industries with varying degrees of success. COB technology, specifically siliconnitride coated hardware, has been flown by Lockheed on the Polar satellite. In addition, DARPA has invested a substantial amount of resources on MCM and COB-related activities recently. With COB on the verge of becoming a dominant player in DoD programs, DARPA is increasing its support of the availability of KGDs which will help decrease their cost. Aside from the various major developments and trends in the space and defense industries that are favorable to the acceptance and widespread use of'COB packaging technology, implementing COB can be appealing in other aspects. Since the interconnection interface is usually the weak link in a system, the overall circuit or system reliability may actually be improved because of the elimination of a level of interconnect/packaging at the chip. With COB, mixing packaging technologies is possible. Because some devices are only available in commercial plastic packages, populating a multi-layer laminate substrate with both bare dice and plastic-package parts is inevitable. Another attractive feature of COB is that re-workability is possible if die coating is applied only on the die top. This method allows local replacement of individual dice that were found to be defective instead of replacing an entire board. In terms of thermal management, unpackaged devices offer a shorter thermal resistance path than their packaged counterparts thereby improving thermal sinking and heat removal from the parts.

  11. A Protocol for Conducting Rainfall Simulation to Study Soil Runoff

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Leonard C.; Saporito, Louis S.; Allen, Arthur L.; May, Eric B.; Kleinman, Peter J. A.; Hashem, Fawzy M.; Bryant, Ray B.

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

  12. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

  13. CHIP Utilization in South Texas: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of the Children's Health Insurance Program. JSRI Research Report No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Ann V.; Mier, Nelda; Gabriel, Olga; Flores, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) began as a federal stopgap measure to assist families whose incomes were too high to qualify for Medicaid, but too low to make health insurance for their children affordable. In 2002, efforts were launched around the United States to recruit eligible children into the program. This pilot study…

  14. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  15. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswari, S. Raja; Seenivasagam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  16. Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

  17. Comprehensive Study of Microgel Electrode for On-Chip Electrophoretic Cell Sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akihiro Hattori,; Kenji Yasuda,

    2010-06-01

    We have developed an on-chip cell sorting system and microgel electrode for applying electrostatic force in microfluidic pathways in the chip. The advantages of agarose electrodes are 1) current-driven electrostatic force generation, 2) stability against pH change and chemicals, and 3) no bubble formation caused by electrolysis. We examined the carrier ion type and concentration dependence of microgel electrode impedance, and found that CoCl2 has less than 1/10 of the impedance from NaCl, and the reduction of the impedance of NaCl gel electrode was plateaued at 0.5 M. The structure control of the microgel electrode exploiting the surface tension of sol-state agarose was also introduced. The addition of 1% (w/v) trehalose into the microgel electrode allowed the frozen storage of the microgel electrode chip. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of our system and microgel electrode for practical applications in microfluidic chips.

  18. A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.

    2001-05-24

    We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2) Performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack need to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. The results suggest that in order to improve the performance of a communication network, it will be important to study the entire protocol stuck as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the 7 layer OSI stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point.

  19. Single-copy gene based 50?K SNP chip for genetic studies and molecular breeding in rice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Jayaswal, Pawan Kumar; Panda, Kabita; Mandal, Paritra; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Balwant; Mishra, Shefali; Singh, Yashi; Singh, Renu; Rai, Vandna; Gupta, Anita; Raj Sharma, Tilak; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the most abundant DNA sequence variation present in plant genomes. Here, we report the design and validation of a unique genic-SNP genotyping chip for genetic and evolutionary studies as well as molecular breeding applications in rice. The chip incorporates 50,051 SNPs from 18,980 different genes spanning 12 rice chromosomes, including 3,710 single-copy (SC) genes conserved between wheat and rice, 14,959 SC genes unique to rice, 194 agronomically important cloned rice genes and 117 multi-copy rice genes. Assays with this chip showed high success rate and reproducibility because of the SC gene based array with no sequence redundancy and cross-hybridisation problems. The usefulness of the chip in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of cultivated and wild rice germplasm was demonstrated. Furthermore, its efficacy was validated for analysing background recovery in improved mega rice varieties with submergence tolerance developed through marker-assisted backcross breeding. PMID:26111882

  20. Single-copy gene based 50 K SNP chip for genetic studies and molecular breeding in rice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Jayaswal, Pawan Kumar; Panda, Kabita; Mandal, Paritra; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Balwant; Mishra, Shefali; Singh, Yashi; Singh, Renu; Rai, Vandna; Gupta, Anita; Raj Sharma, Tilak; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the most abundant DNA sequence variation present in plant genomes. Here, we report the design and validation of a unique genic-SNP genotyping chip for genetic and evolutionary studies as well as molecular breeding applications in rice. The chip incorporates 50,051 SNPs from 18,980 different genes spanning 12 rice chromosomes, including 3,710 single-copy (SC) genes conserved between wheat and rice, 14,959 SC genes unique to rice, 194 agronomically important cloned rice genes and 117 multi-copy rice genes. Assays with this chip showed high success rate and reproducibility because of the SC gene based array with no sequence redundancy and cross-hybridisation problems. The usefulness of the chip in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of cultivated and wild rice germplasm was demonstrated. Furthermore, its efficacy was validated for analysing background recovery in improved mega rice varieties with submergence tolerance developed through marker-assisted backcross breeding. PMID:26111882

  1. Rapid Microfluidic Perfusion Enabling Kinetic Studies of Lipid Ion Channels in a Bilayer Lipid Membrane Chip

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chenren; Sun, Bing; Colombini, Marco; DeVoe, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that lipids play key roles in ion channel physiology, both through the dynamic formation and dissolution of lipid ion channels and by indirect regulation of protein ion channels. Because existing technologies cannot rapidly modulate the local (bio)chemical conditions at artificial bilayer lipid membranes used in ion channel studies, the ability to elucidate the dynamics of these lipid–lipid and lipid–protein interactions has been limited. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic system supporting exceptionally rapid perfusion of reagents to an on-chip bilayer lipid membrane, enabling the responses of lipid ion channels to dynamic changes in membrane boundary conditions to be probed. The thermoplastic microfluidic system allows initial perfusion of reagents to the membrane in less than 1 s, and enables kinetic behaviors with time constants below 10 s to be directly measured. Application of the platform is demonstrated toward kinetic studies of ceramide, a biologically important lipid known to self-assemble into transmembrane ion channels, in response to dynamic treatments of small ions (La3+) and proteins (Bcl-xL mutant). The results reveal the broader potential of the technology for studies of membrane biophysics, including lipid ion channel dynamics, lipid–protein interactions, and the regulation of protein ion channels by lipid micro domains. PMID:21556947

  2. A custom 148 gene-based resequencing chip and the SNP explorer software: new tools to study antibody deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Ying; Gopalan, Vivek; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Yeager, Meredith; Ma, Chi Adrian; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Quinones, Mariam; Matthews, Casey; Boland, Joseph; Niemela, Julie E; Torgerson, Troy R; Giliani, Silvia; Uzel, Gulbu; Orange, Jordan S; Shapiro, Ralph; Notarangelo, Luigi; Ochs, Hans D; Fleisher, Thomas; Kastner, Daniel; Chanock, Stephen J; Jain, Ashish

    2010-09-01

    Hyper-IgM syndrome and Common Variable Immunodeficiency are heterogeneous disorders characterized by a predisposition to serious infection and impaired or absent neutralizing antibody responses. Although a number of single gene defects have been associated with these immune deficiency disorders, the genetic basis of many cases is not known. To facilitate mutation screening in patients with these syndromes, we have developed a custom 300-kb resequencing array, the Hyper-IgM/CVID chip, which interrogates 1,576 coding exons and intron-exon junction regions from 148 genes implicated in B-cell development and immunoglobulin isotype switching. Genomic DNAs extracted from patients were hybridized to the array using a high-throughput protocol for target sequence amplification, pooling, and hybridization. A Web-based application, SNP Explorer, was developed to directly analyze and visualize the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) annotation and for quality filtering. Several mutations in known disease-susceptibility genes such as CD40LG, TNFRSF13B, IKBKG, AICDA, as well as rare nucleotide changes in other genes such as TRAF3IP2, were identified in patient DNA samples and validated by direct sequencing. We conclude that the Hyper-IgM/CVID chip combined with SNP Explorer may provide a cost-effective tool for high-throughput discovery of novel mutations among hundreds of disease-relevant genes in patients with inherited antibody deficiency. PMID:20652909

  3. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--LIST OF AVAILABLE DOCUMENTS: PROTOCOLS AND SOPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document lists available protocols and SOPs for the NHEXAS Phase I Maryland study. It identifies protocols and SOPs for the following study components: (1) Sample collection and field operations, (2) Sample analysis and general laboratory procedures, (3) Data Analysis Proced...

  4. Isothermal crystallization kinetics of Poly (lactic acid) studied by ultrafast chip calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jing; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Zijie; Zhou, Dongshan; Xue, Gi

    2012-02-01

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable polymer which has attracted much attention. The crystallization ability, as one of the most factors influencing the physical properties of the biomaterials such as thermal, mechanical, and biodegradable properties, has been widely studied mainly by differential scanning calorimeters. However, although the crystallization of PLA is relatively slow, it's difficult to avoid the crystallization from the nuclei or the structure reorganization of the metastable crystalline formed during the annealing process when we use the normal DSC with the heating rate on the level of tens of K/min. With the chip calorimeter whose scanning rate can go up to 1000 K/s, we can avoid the structure reorganization of metastable crystalline during the heating. In this case we annealed the PLA sample in the 80-120^oC temperature range and found the relationship between the onset the melting temperature Tm and crystallization temperature Tc is Tm= 0.53Tc+ 213.5 and the equilibrium melting temperature is Tm,f =179.6^oC.

  5. Protocol for the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Study (UKUFF)

    PubMed Central

    Carr, A. J.; Rees, J. L.; Ramsay, C. R.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Gray, A.; Moser, J.; Dawson, J.; Bruhn, H.; Cooper, C. D.; Beard, D. J.; Campbell, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of arthroscopic and open surgery in the management of rotator cuff tears. This trial began in 2007 and was modified in 2010, with the removal of a non-operative arm due to high rates of early crossover to surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:155–60. PMID:24845913

  6. Cost of whole-tree chips for energy - Louisiana case study

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, J.G.; McCollum, M.P.; Anderson, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A computer simulation model (FSCAT) was used to examine the economics of different combinations of equipment, viz. feller/bunchers, skidders, chippers and chip vans. For each number of skidders there was an optimum number of vans; this number depended on the productivity of the rest of the system and the distance to the mill. Congestion had a significant effect on the economics of the operation. In Louisiana, whole-tree harvesting of chips for energy was marginally feasible, becoming economial only when optimum combinations of equipment were used and downtime was very low.

  7. An ImmunoChip study of multiple sclerosis risk in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Noriko; Madireddy, Lohith; Khankhanian, Pouya; Matsushita, Takuya; Caillier, Stacy J; Moré, Jayaji M; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; McCauley, Jacob L; Beecham, Ashley H; Piccio, Laura; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stone, Lael; Santaniello, Adam; Cree, Bruce A C; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S; Hauser, Stephen L; Sawcer, Stephen; Oksenberg, Jorge R

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to determine to what degree multiple sclerosis-associated loci discovered in European populations also influence susceptibility in African Americans; (ii) to assess the extent to which the unique linkage disequilibrium patterns in African Americans can contribute to localizing the functionally relevant regions or genes; and (iii) to search for novel African American multiple sclerosis-associated loci. Using the ImmunoChip custom array we genotyped 803 African American cases with multiple sclerosis and 1516 African American control subjects at 130 135 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms. We conducted association analysis with rigorous adjustments for population stratification and admixture. Of the 110 non-major histocompatibility complex multiple sclerosis-associated variants identified in Europeans, 96 passed stringent quality control in our African American data set and of these, >70% (69) showed over-representation of the same allele amongst cases, including 21 with nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P < 0.05). At a further eight loci we found nominally significant association with an alternate correlated risk-tagging single nucleotide polymorphism from the same region. Outside the regions known to be associated in Europeans, we found seven potentially associated novel candidate multiple sclerosis variants (P < 10(-4)), one of which (rs2702180) also showed nominally significant evidence for association (one-tailed test P = 0.034) in an independent second cohort of 620 African American cases and 1565 control subjects. However, none of these novel associations reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 6.3 Ś 10(-5)). Our data demonstrate substantial overlap between African American and European multiple sclerosis variants, indicating common genetic contributions to multiple sclerosis risk. PMID:25818868

  8. Study on a real-time BEAM system for diagnosis assistance based on a system on chips design.

    PubMed

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Chen, Jui-Ho; Chang, Kung-Wei

    2013-01-01

    As an innovative as well as an interdisciplinary research project, this study performed an analysis of brain signals so as to establish BrainIC as an auxiliary tool for physician diagnosis. Cognition behavior sciences, embedded technology, system on chips (SOC) design and physiological signal processing are integrated in this work. Moreover, a chip is built for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) processing purposes and a Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) system, and a knowledge database is constructed to diagnose psychosis and body challenges in learning various behaviors and signals antithesis by a fuzzy inference engine. This work is completed with a medical support system developed for the mentally disabled or the elderly abled. PMID:23681095

  9. Study on a Real-Time BEAM System for Diagnosis Assistance Based on a System on Chips Design

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Chen, Jui-Ho; Chang, Kung-Wei

    2013-01-01

    As an innovative as well as an interdisciplinary research project, this study performed an analysis of brain signals so as to establish BrainIC as an auxiliary tool for physician diagnosis. Cognition behavior sciences, embedded technology, system on chips (SOC) design and physiological signal processing are integrated in this work. Moreover, a chip is built for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) processing purposes and a Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) system, and a knowledge database is constructed to diagnose psychosis and body challenges in learning various behaviors and signals antithesis by a fuzzy inference engine. This work is completed with a medical support system developed for the mentally disabled or the elderly abled. PMID:23681095

  10. A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

  11. [Study on expression of genes in Tamarix androssowii under NaHCO3 stress using gene chip technology].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuan-Ping; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Gui-Feng; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Guo-Dong

    2005-03-01

    Gene chip technology was employed to study gene expression in Tamarix androssowii under NaHCO3 stress. cDNAs from T. androssowii treated with NaHCO3 solution and that from control group were labeled with fluorescent dye CyS and Cy3 respectively. The two fluorescent cDNA probes were mixed and hybridized to gene chips containing T. androssowii genes, and the chips were scanned using biochip scanning system. Differential expression of genes was analyzed through calculation of the ratio of Cy5 to Cy3 signal intensities. Total of 89 genes differentially expressed were identified, among them, 27 showed down regulated expression and 62 showed up regulated expression. Blastx analysis showed that the function of the differentially expressed genes could be grouped into some categorizations such as photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species eliminated, regulation of osmotic potential, regulation of gene expression and signal transduction, metabolism, development, ribosomal protein, protein breakdown and recycling, transporter, water channel proteins and so on. Based on this research, some function-unknown or novel unreported genes that respond to salt stress were also identified, and these genes may have important functions in salt resistance of T. androssowii. Some important pathways of salt resistance in T. androssowii are revealed, and the gene expression profiling of T. androssowii under salt stress and without stress is obtained in this study. PMID:16013479

  12. Preclinical experimental stress studies: protocols, assessment and comparison.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis during which a variety of adaptive processes are activated to produce physiological and behavioral changes. Preclinical models are pivotal for understanding these physiological or pathophysiological changes in the body in response to stress. Furthermore, these models are also important for the development of novel pharmacological agents for stress management. The well described preclinical stress models include immobilization, restraint, electric foot shock and social isolation stress. Stress assessment in animals is done at the behavioral level using open field, social interaction, hole board test; at the biochemical level by measuring plasma corticosterone and ACTH; at the physiological level by measuring food intake, body weight, adrenal gland weight and gastric ulceration. Furthermore the comparison between different stressors including electric foot shock, immobilization and cold stressor is described in terms of intensity, hormonal release, protein changes in brain, adaptation and sleep pattern. This present review describes these preclinical stress protocols, and stress assessment at different levels. PMID:25446911

  13. A preliminary study on the identification of vehicle paint chip based on optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Li, Zhihui; Xu, Xiaojing; Huang, Wei; Xu, Lei; Guo, Jingjing; Xie, Lanchi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle paint chip is a common evidence that plays a significant role in many criminal cases. This paper introduced a novel imaging technology - optical coherence tomography (OCT), which can realize non-invasive, rapid, high-resolution and cross-sectional imaging for the identification of vehicle paint chips. In this paper, a 1310nm swept-source OCT system was adopted to implement the paint imaging. The results show that, compared with conventional spectroscopy and SEM methods, OCT technology can directly obtain the tomographic images of the paints without slicing. In addition, the optical attenuation properties were analyzed to provide a new feature for separating different paint samples. The OCT technology and traditional methods can be combined to further narrow the scope of investigation, providing a comprehensive means to determine or rule out the suspect vehicles.

  14. Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities), and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities). Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and different aspects of job satisfaction: satisfaction with leadership, which should be highly correlated with readiness, versus satisfaction with salary, which should be less correlated with readiness. Content validity will be assessed using an expert panel and modified Delphi technique. Discussion We propose a comprehensive protocol for validating a survey instrument for assessing organizational readiness to change that specifically addresses key threats of bias related to halo effect, method bias and questions of construct validity that often go unexplored in research using measures of organizational constructs. PMID:21777479

  15. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The <2-mm fraction of each sample was analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.

  16. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas. PMID:20487532

  17. Implementation of Mass Transfusion Protocol in the Outpatient Operating Room Setting: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Robins, Holly-May; Warner, Brenda

    2015-06-01

    The current definition of massive transfusion is replacement of 5 U of packed red blood cells in 3 hours because of uncontrolled hemorrhage or replacement of the entire blood volume within a 24-hour period. The prompt activation of a transfusion protocol can quickly restore hemodynamic stability. Effective teamwork and communication is critical for a favorable patient outcome. This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of using a massive transfusion protocol in an outpatient setting. PMID:26137761

  18. Adjunctive Effects of A Piscean Collagen-Based Controlled-Release Chlorhexidine Chip in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    PubMed Central

    John, Priya; Lazarus, Flemingson; Selvam, Arul; Prabhuji, Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiah Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction PerioChip a bovine origin gelatine based CHX chip has shown beneficial effects in the management of Chronic Periodontitis. A new fish collagen based CHX chip similar to PerioChip is currently available; however this product has not been thoroughly researched. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new Piscean collagen-based controlled-release chlorhexidine chip (CHX chip) as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP). Settings and Design The study was conducted as a randomised, split-mouth, controlled clinical trial at Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods In a split–mouth study involving 20 sites in 10 patients with chronic periodontitis, control sites received scaling and root planing and test sites received scaling and root planing (SRP) and the intrapocket CHX chip placement as an adjunct. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from both control and test sites at baseline, 11 days and 11 weeks and the anaerobic colony count were assessed. Clinical parameters that were recorded at baseline and 11 weeks were gingival index, Plaque index, Probing pocket depth (PPD), and Clinical attachment level (CAL). Plaque index was recorded additionally at 11 days. Results In the test group there was a statistically significant reduction in the total anaerobic colony count, gingival index and plaque scores from baseline as compared to control sites at all time intervals. An additional 0.8mm reduction in mean probing pocket depth was noted in the test group. Gain in Clinical attachment level was comparable in both groups. Conclusion The adjunctive use of the new collagen-based CHX chip yielded significant antimicrobial benefit accompanied by a reduction in probing depth and a clinical attachment level gain as compared to SRP alone. This suggests that it may be a useful treatment option of nonsurgical periodontal treatment of chronic periodontitis. PMID:26155567

  19. oxBS-450K: A method for analysing hydroxymethylation using 450K BeadChips

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sabrina K.; Morris, Tiffany J.; Guilhamon, Paul; Bulstrode, Harry; Bachman, Martin; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Beck, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation analysis has become an integral part of biomedical research. For high-throughput applications such as epigenome-wide association studies, the Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K) BeadChip is currently the platform of choice. However, BeadChip processing relies on traditional bisulfite (BS) based protocols which cannot discriminate between 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we report the adaptation of the recently developed oxidative bisulfite (oxBS) chemistry to specifically detect both 5mC and 5hmC in a single workflow using 450K BeadChips, termed oxBS-450K. Supported by validation using mass spectrometry and pyrosequencing, we demonstrate reproducible (R2 > 0.99) detection of 5hmC in human brain tissue using the optimised oxBS-450K protocol described here. PMID:25175075

  20. oxBS-450K: a method for analysing hydroxymethylation using 450K BeadChips.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sabrina K; Morris, Tiffany J; Guilhamon, Paul; Bulstrode, Harry; Bachman, Martin; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Beck, Stephan

    2015-01-15

    DNA methylation analysis has become an integral part of biomedical research. For high-throughput applications such as epigenome-wide association studies, the Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K) BeadChip is currently the platform of choice. However, BeadChip processing relies on traditional bisulfite (BS) based protocols which cannot discriminate between 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we report the adaptation of the recently developed oxidative bisulfite (oxBS) chemistry to specifically detect both 5mC and 5hmC in a single workflow using 450K BeadChips, termed oxBS-450K. Supported by validation using mass spectrometry and pyrosequencing, we demonstrate reproducible (R(2)>0.99) detection of 5hmC in human brain tissue using the optimised oxBS-450K protocol described here. PMID:25175075

  1. Chip-based protein-protein interaction studied by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kao, Feng-Sheng; Ger, Waylon; Pan, Yun-Ru; Yu, Hui-Chen; Hsu, Ray-Quen; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2012-10-01

    In this article, a technique for accurate direct measurement of protein-to-protein interactions before and after the introduction of a drug candidate is developed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The method is applied to known immunosuppressant drug candidate Echinacea purpurea derived cynarin. T-cell/CD28 is on-chip immobilized and B-cell/CD80 is immobilized on an AFM tip. The difference in unbinding force between these two proteins before and after the introduction of cynarin is measured. The method is described in detail including determination of the loading rates, maximum probability of bindings, and average unbinding forces. At an AFM loading rate of 1.44 Ś 10(4) pN/s, binding events were largely reduced from 61 ± 5% to 47 ± 6% after cynarin introduction. Similarly, maximum probability of bindings reduced from 70% to 35% with a blocking effect of about 35% for a fixed contact time of 0.5 s or greater. Furthermore, average unbinding forces were reduced from 61.4 to 38.9 pN with a blocking effect of ? 37% as compared with ? 9% by SPR. AFM, which can provide accurate quantitative measures, is shown to be a good method for drug screening. The method could be applied to a wider variety of drug candidates with advances in bio-chip technology and a more comprehensive AFM database of protein-to-protein interactions. PMID:22511236

  2. ?Organo: A Legoź-Like Plug & Play System for Modular Multi-Organ-Chips

    PubMed Central

    Loskill, Peter; Marcus, Sivan G.; Mathur, Anurag; Reese, Willie Mae; Healy, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Human organ-on-a-chip systems for drug screening have evolved as feasible alternatives to animal models, which are unreliable, expensive, and at times erroneous. While chips featuring single organs can be of great use for both pharmaceutical testing and basic organ-level studies, the huge potential of the organ-on-a-chip technology is revealed by connecting multiple organs on one chip to create a single integrated system for sophisticated fundamental biological studies and devising therapies for disease. Furthermore, since most organ-on-a-chip systems require special protocols with organ-specific media for the differentiation and maturation of the tissues, multi-organ systems will need to be temporally customizable and flexible in terms of the time point of connection of the individual organ units. We present a customizable Legoź-like plug & play system, ?Organo, which enables initial individual culture of single organ-on-a-chip systems and subsequent connection to create integrated multi-organ microphysiological systems. As a proof of concept, the ?Organo system was used to connect multiple heart chips in series with excellent cell viability and spontaneously physiological beat rates. PMID:26440672

  3. ?Organo: A Legoź-Like Plug & Play System for Modular Multi-Organ-Chips.

    PubMed

    Loskill, Peter; Marcus, Sivan G; Mathur, Anurag; Reese, Willie Mae; Healy, Kevin E

    2015-01-01

    Human organ-on-a-chip systems for drug screening have evolved as feasible alternatives to animal models, which are unreliable, expensive, and at times erroneous. While chips featuring single organs can be of great use for both pharmaceutical testing and basic organ-level studies, the huge potential of the organ-on-a-chip technology is revealed by connecting multiple organs on one chip to create a single integrated system for sophisticated fundamental biological studies and devising therapies for disease. Furthermore, since most organ-on-a-chip systems require special protocols with organ-specific media for the differentiation and maturation of the tissues, multi-organ systems will need to be temporally customizable and flexible in terms of the time point of connection of the individual organ units. We present a customizable Legoź-like plug & play system, ?Organo, which enables initial individual culture of single organ-on-a-chip systems and subsequent connection to create integrated multi-organ microphysiological systems. As a proof of concept, the ?Organo system was used to connect multiple heart chips in series with excellent cell viability and spontaneously physiological beat rates. PMID:26440672

  4. Electromigration and thermomigration studies in composite high lead and eutectic tin-lead flip chip solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Annie Tzuyu

    The effect of thermomigration and the combination effect of thermomigration and electromigration have been studied in composite SnPb flip chip solder joints. Because Al line on the silicon chip side is the major heat source exerted on flip chip solder joint, temperature gradient across the joint is induced when a long Al line is stressed with high current density. Under a estimated temperature gradient of 1000°C/cm, Sn-rich and Pb-rich phase separation is found to occur. Experimental results have shown that Sn-rich phase accumulates at the hot side and Pb-rich phase accumulates at the cold side after thermomigration. When solder bumps are current high current density, thermomigration was found to accompany electromigration. Not only Pb-rich phase migrated toward the anode side and Sn-rich phase migrated toward the cathode side due to electromigration, Sn-rich phase was found to migrate along the top of solder joint due to thermomigration. It was found that as void propagates along the top of the solder joint, current crowding region shifts with the tip of the void. This created a local hot spot and thus a lateral temperature gradient was induced for thermomigration to occur. To isolate the thermal effect from the current effect, ac stressing at 60 Hz was also utilized. Interestingly, ac seems to have an effect other than thermal effect due to the difference in microstructure evolution between pure thermomigration and ac case after stressing. Further investigation at different frequency is needed to fully understand the effect of ac. Furthermore, analysis was performed to explain the phenomena of phase separation and phase reversal in the solder joint considering a constraint volume within underfill. Both Kirkendall effect and back stress were considered. Finally, detail morphological change after thermomigration and electromigration were investigated. Grain refinement was found to occur at a certain stressing condition. Production of entropy and morphological instability were utilized to explain the phenomenon.

  5. Situated Protocols: Studying a College Student's Writing in Classroom Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Lucille

    A study examined the writing experiences of three college students during their freshman and sophomore years to determine how students in a classroom setting determine the writing requirements of that discipline and for that teacher, and how they go about producing their writing assignments. The study used ethnographic observation and interviews,…

  6. Study of individual erythrocyte deformability susceptibility to INFeD and ethanol using a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Huang, Sha; Xu, Xiaoying; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    Human red blood cells (RBCs) deformability in vitro was assessed during iron dextran (INFeD) loading and/or ethanol co-administration using microfluidic deformability screening. The results showed donor-specific variations in dose dependent deformability shift were revealed below 500 Όg/mL iron dextran. Two out of nine blood samples exhibited significant cell stiffening at 500 Όg/mL iron dextran loading concentration (p < 0.05, Tukey test). More interestingly, co-administration of moderate amount of ethanol was identified to have significant protective effects on RBC deformability. We also noted that ethanol can reverse the deformability of impaired RBCs. Meanwhile obvious donor dependent response to ethanol administration on RBC deformability was noted using our biomimetic microfluidic chip. PMID:26964754

  7. Study of individual erythrocyte deformability susceptibility to INFeD and ethanol using a microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lihong; Huang, Sha; Xu, Xiaoying; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    Human red blood cells (RBCs) deformability in vitro was assessed during iron dextran (INFeD) loading and/or ethanol co-administration using microfluidic deformability screening. The results showed donor-specific variations in dose dependent deformability shift were revealed below 500 Όg/mL iron dextran. Two out of nine blood samples exhibited significant cell stiffening at 500 Όg/mL iron dextran loading concentration (p < 0.05, Tukey test). More interestingly, co-administration of moderate amount of ethanol was identified to have significant protective effects on RBC deformability. We also noted that ethanol can reverse the deformability of impaired RBCs. Meanwhile obvious donor dependent response to ethanol administration on RBC deformability was noted using our biomimetic microfluidic chip. PMID:26964754

  8. Silicon-Chip-Based Dielectric Spectroscopy for Conductivity and Molecular Dynamics Studies of Organic Films.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pragya; Gonzalo-Ruiz, Javier; Mitsari, Efstratia; Zachariah, Manesh; Romanini, Michela; Tamarit, Josep Lluis; Muńoz, F Xavier; Macovez, Roberto

    2014-08-21

    Interdigital electrodes fabricated by standard lithography on silicon chips are employed to probe the dipolar molecular dynamics and electric conduction properties of thin rhodamine films grown with two different methods. The conductivity is due to electronic charge carriers, and at around room-temperature, it is higher by 1 order of magnitude in solution-deposited films than in thermally evaporated ones. The organic material exhibits two intrinsic dynamic processes, of which the one at higher temperature is due to the orientational motion of the dipole moment of the rhodamine units, while the one at lower temperature is due to the motion of a local dipole associated with the chlorine counterions and is absent in thermally evaporated films. Our results show that thin-film dielectric spectroscopy is an easily implementable and versatile tool to extract valuable information on thin organic films. PMID:26278081

  9. ImmunoChip Study Implicates Antigen Presentation to T Cells in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Kenny, Eimear E.; Trynka, Gosia; Einen, Mali; Rico, Tom J.; Lichtner, Peter; Dauvilliers, Yves; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lecendreux, Michel; Javidi, Sirous; Geisler, Peter; Mayer, Geert; Pizza, Fabio; Poli, Francesca; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert Jan; Kemlink, David; Sonka, Karel; Nevsimalova, Sona; Rouleau, Guy; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Frauscher, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Högl, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Bourgin, Patrice; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Iranzo, Alex; Bassetti, Claudio; Chen, Wei-Min; Concannon, Patrick; Thompson, Susan D.; Damotte, Vincent; Fontaine, Bertrand; Breban, Maxime; Gieger, Christian; Klopp, Norman; Deloukas, Panos; Wijmenga, Cisca; Hallmayer, Joachim; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rich, Stephen S.; Winkelmann, Juliane; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures provide broad support for a post-infectious autoimmune basis for narcolepsy/hypocretin (orexin) deficiency. We genotyped loci associated with other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in 1,886 individuals with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy and 10,421 controls, all of European ancestry, using a custom genotyping array (ImmunoChip). Three loci located outside the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 were significantly associated with disease risk. In addition to a strong signal in the T cell receptor alpha (TRA@), variants in two additional narcolepsy loci, Cathepsin H (CTSH) and Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4, also called OX40L), attained genome-wide significance. These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this autoimmune disease. PMID:23459209

  10. HuMiChip: Development of a Functional Gene Array for the Study of Human Microbiomes

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Q.; Deng, Ye; Lin, Lu; Hemme, Chris L.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Microbiomes play very important roles in terms of nutrition, health and disease by interacting with their hosts. Based on sequence data currently available in public domains, we have developed a functional gene array to monitor both organismal and functional gene profiles of normal microbiota in human and mouse hosts, and such an array is called human and mouse microbiota array, HMM-Chip. First, seed sequences were identified from KEGG databases, and used to construct a seed database (seedDB) containing 136 gene families in 19 metabolic pathways closely related to human and mouse microbiomes. Second, a mother database (motherDB) was constructed with 81 genomes of bacterial strains with 54 from gut and 27 from oral environments, and 16 metagenomes, and used for selection of genes and probe design. Gene prediction was performed by Glimmer3 for bacterial genomes, and by the Metagene program for metagenomes. In total, 228,240 and 801,599 genes were identified for bacterial genomes and metagenomes, respectively. Then the motherDB was searched against the seedDB using the HMMer program, and gene sequences in the motherDB that were highly homologous with seed sequences in the seedDB were used for probe design by the CommOligo software. Different degrees of specific probes, including gene-specific, inclusive and exclusive group-specific probes were selected. All candidate probes were checked against the motherDB and NCBI databases for specificity. Finally, 7,763 probes covering 91.2percent (12,601 out of 13,814) HMMer confirmed sequences from 75 bacterial genomes and 16 metagenomes were selected. This developed HMM-Chip is able to detect the diversity and abundance of functional genes, the gene expression of microbial communities, and potentially, the interactions of microorganisms and their hosts.

  11. Case-control study on analgesics and nephropathy (SAN): protocol

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lothar AJ; Garbe, Edeltraut; Lewis, Michael; van der Woude, Fokko; Graf, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Background The association between intake of non-phenacetin-containing analgesics and the occurrence of chronic renal failure is still controversially discussed. A new epidemiologic study was planned and conducted in Germany and Austria. Methods/design The objective of the international, multicenter case-control study was to evaluate the association between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and use of non-phenacetin-containing analgesics with particular emphasis on combined formulations. A targeted sample of 1000 new (incident) dialysis patients, aged less than 50 years, was planned to recruit between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2004. The age limit was chosen to avoid contamination of the study population with phenacetin-containing analgesics to the extent possible. Four control subjects per ESRD case, matched by age, sex, and region were selected from the population living in the region the case came from. Lifetime exposure to analgesics and potential renal risk factors were recorded in a single face-to-face interview. A set of aids was introduced to reinforce the memory of study participants. A standardized, pre-tested interview questionnaire (participants), a medical documentation sheet (physicians in dialysis centres), a logbook for all activities (dialysis centres) were used to collect the necessary data. Quality management consisted of the standardized procedures, (re-) training and supervision of interviewers, regular checks of all incoming data for completeness and plausibility. The study is scientifically independent and governed by a international Scientific Advisory Committee that bridged the gap between the sponsoring companies and the investigators. Also other advisory groups assisted the managing committee of the study. All relevant German and Austrian nephrological associations supported the study, and the study design was carefully reviewed and approved by the Kidney Foundation of Germany. Discussion The study is expected to answer the main research question by end 2005. There is however a high potential for various biases that we tried to address with adequate measure. One limitation however cannot be overcome: The methodologically needed age-limitation of the study will make it not easy to generalize the results to age groups over 50 years. It might be suggested to repeat the study for persons over 50 years in 10 years when contamination with phenacetin use early in life is likely to be outgrown. PMID:16086834

  12. Older Persons’ Transitions in Care (OPTIC): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH) residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs). During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS), and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT) approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual) and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases). Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and researchers to participate equally in developing study goals, design, data collection, analysis and implications of findings. As preliminary and ongoing study findings are developed, their implications for practice and policy in study settings will be discussed by the research team and shared with study site administrators and staff. The study is designed to investigate the complexities of transitions and to enhance the potential for successful and sustained improvement of these transitions. PMID:23241360

  13. Study Protocol: insulin and its role in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harish, K; Dharmalingam, M; Himanshu, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that metabolic syndrome and its consequent biochemical derangements in the various phases of diabetes may contribute to carcinogenesis. A part of this carcinogenic effect could be attributed to hyperinsulinism. High levels of insulin decrease the production of IGF-1 binding proteins and hence increase levels of free IGF-1. It is well established that bioactivity of free insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) increases tumor turnover rate. The objective is to investigate the role of insulin resistance/sensitivity in carcinogenesis by studying the relation between insulin resistance/sensitivity and IGF-1 levels in cancer patients. We postulate that hyperinsulinaemia which prevails during initial phases of insulin resistance (condition prior to overt diabetes) increases bioactivity of free IGF-1, which may contribute to process of carcinogenesis. Methods/Design Based on our pilot study results and power analysis of the same, we have designed a two group case-control study. 800 proven untreated cancer patients (solid epithelial cell tumors) under age of 50 shall be recruited with 200 healthy subjects serving as controls. Insulin resistance/sensitivity and free IGF-1 levels shall be determined in all subjects. Association between the two parameters shall be tested using suitable statistical methods. Discussion Well controlled studies in humans are essential to study the link between insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, IGF-1 and carcinogenesis. This study could provide insights to the role of insulin, insulin resistance, IGF-1 in carcinogenesis although a precise role and the extent of influence cannot be determined. In future, cancer prevention and treatment strategies could revolve around insulin and insulin resistance. PMID:17953765

  14. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Meschia, James F; Brown, Robert D; Brott, Thomas G; Chukwudelunzu, Felix E; Hardy, John; Rich, Stephen S

    2002-01-01

    Background Family history and twins studies suggest an inherited component to ischemic stroke risk. Candidate gene association studies have been performed but have limited capacity to identify novel risk factor genes. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) aims to conduct a genome-wide scan in sibling pairs concordant or discordant for ischemic stroke to identify novel genetic risk factors through linkage analysis. Methods Screening at multiple clinical centers identifies patients (probands) with radiographically confirmed ischemic stroke and a family history of at least 1 living full sibling with stroke. After giving informed consent, without violating privacy among other family members, the proband invites siblings concordant and discordant for stroke to participate. Siblings then contact the study coordinating center. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke in potentially concordant siblings is confirmed by systematic centralized review of medical records. The stroke-free status of potentially discordant siblings is confirmed by validated structured telephone interview. Blood samples for DNA analysis are taken from concordant sibling pairs and, if applicable, from 1 discordant sibling. Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines are created, and a scan of the human genome is planned. Discussion Conducting adequately powered genomics studies of stroke in humans is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the stroke phenotype and the difficulty of obtaining DNA samples from clinically well-characterized members of a cohort of stroke pedigrees. The multicentered design of this study is intended to efficiently assemble a cohort of ischemic stroke pedigrees without invoking community consent or using cold-calling of pedigree members. PMID:11882254

  15. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial ur...

  16. Patient safety in Dutch primary care: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insight into the frequency and seriousness of potentially unsafe situations may be the first step towards improving patient safety. Most patient safety attention has been paid to patient safety in hospitals. However, in many countries, patients receive most of their healthcare in primary care settings. There is little concrete information about patient safety in primary care in the Netherlands. The overall aim of this study was to provide insight into the current patient safety issues in Dutch general practices, out-of-hours primary care centres, general dental practices, midwifery practices, and allied healthcare practices. The objectives of this study are: to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients; to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals; and to provide insight into patient safety management in primary care practices. Design and methods The study consists of three parts: a retrospective patient record study of 1,000 records per practice type was conducted to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients (objective one); a prospective component concerns an incident-reporting study in each of the participating practices, during two successive weeks, to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals (objective two); to provide insight into patient safety management in Dutch primary care practices (objective three), we surveyed organizational and cultural items relating to patient safety. We analysed the incidents found in the retrospective patient record study and the prospective incident-reporting study by type of incident, causes (Eindhoven Classification Model), actual harm (severity-of-outcome domain of the International Taxonomy of Medical Errors in Primary Care), and probability of severe harm or death. Discussion To estimate the frequency of incidents was difficult. Much depended on the accuracy of the patient records and the professionals' consensus about which types of adverse events have to be recognized as incidents. PMID:20584268

  17. Study Protocol: Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease in Pakistanis

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Majeed, Farzin; Pasha, Omrana; Islam, Muhammad; Azam, Iqbal; Ilyas, Muhammad Saleem; Hussain, Munawar; Masood, Kamran; Ahmed, Bilal; Nazir, Sumaira; Sajjad, Zafar; Kasner, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is the most frequent subtype of ischemic stroke globally. It is important to describe the determinants of early ICAD as a strategy to prevent strokes from clinically evident and progressive ICAD. Our objective is to report the determinants of asymptomatic ICAD by linking the presence or absence of ICAD on magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) with detailed risk assessment in asymptomatic adults. Methods This is an observational cross-sectional analytical study. We plan to recruit 200 adult participants from the radiology departments of two tertiary care centers of Karachi, Pakistan. The participants will first be screened for the absence of stroke symptoms via the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke Free Status (QVSFS). QVSFS negative will be participants will be eligible. After written informed consent, participants will undergo detailed medical, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric evaluation by a detailed interview. They will, in addition, undergo MRA to study the presence, degree, and distribution of asymptomatic ICAD. All MRA scans will be reviewed centrally by vascular neurologists blinded to clinical information. These images would be reviewed on DICOM Viewer 3.0 used for calculating the degree of stenosis using Warfarin–Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) study defined criteria employing electronic calipers. A sample size of 200 will achieve 80% power for detecting a minimum difference of 20% in the prevalence of exposure factors (medical and lifestyle) between asymptomatic ICAD positive and ICAD negative persons. This study will generate regional data on risks for ICAD development and prevention in a high-risk susceptible population. Study ID: NCT02072876 PMID:25825629

  18. Radiation Doses of Various CT Protocols: a Multicenter Longitudinal Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Emerging concerns regarding the hazard from medical radiation including CT examinations has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to observe the longitudinal changes of CT radiation doses of various CT protocols and to estimate the long-term efforts of supervising radiologists to reduce medical radiation. Radiation dose data from 11 representative CT protocols were collected from 12 hospitals. Attending radiologists had collected CT radiation dose data in two time points, 2007 and 2010. They collected the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) of each phase, number of phases, dose length product (DLP) of each phase, and types of scanned CT machines. From the collected data, total DLP and effective dose (ED) were calculated. CTDIvol, total DLP, and ED of 2007 and 2010 were compared according to CT protocols, CT machine type, and hospital. During the three years, CTDIvol had significantly decreased, except for dynamic CT of the liver. Total DLP and ED were significantly decreased in all 11 protocols. The decrement was more evident in newer CT scanners. However, there was substantial variability of changes of ED during the three years according to hospitals. Although there was variability according to protocols, machines, and hospital, CT radiation doses were decreased during the 3 years. This study showed the effects of decreased CT radiation dose by efforts of radiologists and medical society. PMID:26908984

  19. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. Methods/Design During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing risk survival analysis methods will be applied to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer and to identify variables associated to its occurrence. Discussion Information about cancer incidence in kidney transplant patients could be useful to adapt the guidelines on post-kidney transplant follow-up on tumour screening, and evaluate the impact of intervention measures for the prevention of cancer in these patients. PMID:19698143

  20. Study Protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    Background The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. Conclusions The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long-term large-scale epidemiologic study is expected to provide valuable data in the investigation of the health effects of low-dose radiation and disaster-related stress. PMID:22955043

  1. FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated) affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites) for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation), with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the start of the facilitation interventions. Detailed contextual and process data are collected throughout, using interviews with staff, residents and next of kin, observations, assessment of context using the Alberta Context Tool, and documentary evidence. A realistic evaluation framework is used to develop explanatory theory about what works for whom in what circumstances. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN11598502. PMID:22453077

  2. Pharmacoepidemiology of Immune Thrombocytopenia: protocols of FAITH and CARMEN studies.

    PubMed

    Moulis, Guillaume; Sailler, Laurent; Adoue, Daniel; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2014-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare condition. Its epidemiology is not well-known. First-line treatment is based on corticosteroids. ITP leads to persistency (lasting more than 3 months) in 70% of adult cases. Then, several second-line treatments (SLTs) are available, mainly splenectomy, rituximab (off-label) and thrombopoietin-receptor agonists. Their efficacy and safety have not been compared, particularly in the long-term. FAITH (French Adult primary Immune Thrombocytopenia: a pHarmacoepidemiological study) is dedicated to the building and follow-up of the cohort of all adults with primary ITP in France persistently treated (>3 months) through the database of French Health Insurance system (système national d'information interrégimes d'Assurance maladie, SNIIRAM), in order to assess the benefit-to-risk balance of SLTs in real-life practice. CARMEN (Cytopénies Auto-immunes : Registre Midi-PyrénéEN) is a clinical registry of all incident adult ITP patients in the Midi-Pyrénées region. It is aimed at describing ITP clinical features, assessing SLT benefit-to-risk balance and adherence to guidelines for ITP management. FAITH is registered n°ENCEPP/SDPP/4574. PMID:25285364

  3. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants’ context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. Methods and analysis We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical recommendations at policy and industry meetings and healthcare professionals’ forums. This research was approved by relevant local ethics committees. PMID:24486678

  4. Discrete component bonding and thick film materials study. [of capacitor chips bonded with solders and conductive epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinser, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The bonding reliability of discrete capacitor chips bonded with solders and conductive epoxies was examined along with the thick film resistor materials consisting of iron oxide phosphate and vanadium oxide phosphates. It was concluded from the bonding reliability studies that none of the wide range of types of solders examined is capable of resisting failure during thermal cycling while the conductive epoxy gives substantially lower failure rates. The thick film resistor studies proved the feasibility of iron oxide phosphate resistor systems although some environmental sensitivity problems remain. One of these resistor compositions has inadvertently proven to be a candidate for thermistor applications because of the excellent control achieved upon the temperature coefficient of resistance. One new and potentially damaging phenomenon observed was the degradation of thick film conductors during the course of thermal cycling.

  5. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  6. Single dental implant retained mandibular complete dentures – influence of the loading protocol: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the years, there has been a strong consensus in dentistry that at least two implants are required to retain a complete mandibular denture. It has been shown in several clinical trials that one single median implant can retain a mandibular overdenture sufficiently well for up to 5 years without implant failures, when delayed loading was used. However, other trials have reported conflicting results with in part considerable failure rates when immediate loading was applied. Therefore it is the purpose of the current randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that immediate loading of a single mandibular midline implant with an overdenture will result in a comparable clinical outcome as using the standard protocol of delayed loading. Methods/design This prospective nine-center randomized controlled clinical trial is still ongoing. The final patient will complete the trial in 2016. In total, 180 edentulous patients between 60 and 89 years with sufficient complete dentures will receive one median implant in the edentulous mandible, which will retain the existing complete denture using a ball attachment. Loading of the median implant is either immediately after implant placement (experimental group) or delayed by 3 months of submerged healing at second-stage surgery (control group). Follow-up of patients will be performed for 24 months after implant loading. The primary outcome measure is non-inferiority of implant success rate of the experimental group compared to the control group. The secondary outcome measures encompass clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German research foundation, KE 477/8-1). Discussion This multi-center clinical trial will give information on the ability of a single median implant to retain a complete mandibular denture when immediately loaded. If viable, this treatment option will strongly improve everyday dental practice. Trial registration The trial has been registered at Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German register of clinical trials) under DRKS-ID: DRKS00003730 since 23 August 2012. (http://www.germanctr.de). PMID:24884848

  7. Variable reproducibility in genome-scale public data: A case study using ENCODE ChIP sequencing resource.

    PubMed

    Devailly, Guillaume; Mantsoki, Anna; Michoel, Tom; Joshi, Anagha

    2015-12-21

    Genome-wide data is accumulating in an unprecedented way in the public domain. Re-mining this data shows great potential to generate novel hypotheses. However this approach is dependent on the quality (technical and biological) of the underlying data. Here we performed a systematic analysis of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing data of transcription and epigenetic factors from the encyclopaedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) resource to demonstrate that about one third of conditions with replicates show low concordance between replicate peak lists. This serves as a case study to demonstrate a caveat concerning genome-wide analyses and highlights a need to validate the quality of each sample before performing further associative analyses. PMID:26619763

  8. Variable reproducibility in genome-scale public data: A case study using ENCODE ChIP sequencing resource

    PubMed Central

    Devailly, Guillaume; Mantsoki, Anna; Michoel, Tom; Joshi, Anagha

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide data is accumulating in an unprecedented way in the public domain. Re-mining this data shows great potential to generate novel hypotheses. However this approach is dependent on the quality (technical and biological) of the underlying data. Here we performed a systematic analysis of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing data of transcription and epigenetic factors from the encyclopaedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) resource to demonstrate that about one third of conditions with replicates show low concordance between replicate peak lists. This serves as a case study to demonstrate a caveat concerning genome-wide analyses and highlights a need to validate the quality of each sample before performing further associative analyses. PMID:26619763

  9. Feasibility Study and Design of a Wearable System-on-a-Chip Pulse Radar for Contactless Cardiopulmonary Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zito, Domenico; Pepe, Domenico; Neri, Bruno; Zito, Fabio; De Rossi, Danilo; LanatĂ , Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A new system-on-a-chip radar sensor for next-generation wearable wireless interface applied to the human health care and safeguard is presented. The system overview is provided and the feasibility study of the radar sensor is presented. In detail, the overall system consists of a radar sensor for detecting the heart and breath rates and a low-power IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee radio interface, which provides a wireless data link with remote data acquisition and control units. In particular, the pulse radar exploits 3.1-10.6 GHz ultra-wideband signals which allow a significant reduction of the transceiver complexity and then of its power consumption. The operating principle of the radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is highlighted and the results of the system analysis are reported. Moreover, the results obtained from the building-blocks design, the channel measurement, and the ultra-wideband antenna realization are reported. PMID:18389068

  10. A chip-based Teflon^R AF coated liquid core waveguide on Si: microfabrication and analytical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Arindom; Eom, In-Yong; Kuban, Petr; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Temkin, Henryk; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2003-03-01

    We report here a chip based liquid core waveguide device fabricated on (100) Si substrate that shows excellent signal enhancement properties. Both straight and curved channels, 500 ÎŒm wide and 180 ÎŒm deep, are etched on Si substrate using standard photolithography and wet etching. Teflon^R AF 1601S (Dupont) having a refractive index of 1.30 is used to coat the channels. The wafer is finally bonded to similarly coated glass wafer to complete the device. A control device is also fabricated and bonded without Teflon coating. With water or aqueous solutions in coated channels, the channels exhibit much better light guiding ability than similar uncoated channels as observed from transmission measurement. The linearity and adherence to Beer's law was studied by measurements in a flow injection analysis (FIA) manifold. Fluorescence detection has been tested with fluorescein as the test solute, a blue LED as the excitation source and a photo multiplier tube.

  11. Edge chipping and flexural resistance of monolithic ceramics☆

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Lee, James J.-W.; Srikanth, Ramanathan; Lawn, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that monolithic ceramics can be developed with combined esthetics and superior fracture resistance to circumvent processing and performance drawbacks of traditional all-ceramic crowns and fixed-dental-prostheses consisting of a hard and strong core with an esthetic porcelain veneer. Specifically, to demonstrate that monolithic prostheses can be produced with a much reduced susceptibility to fracture. Methods Protocols were applied for quantifying resistance to chipping as well as resistance to flexural failure in two classes of dental ceramic, microstructurally-modified zirconias and lithium disilicate glass–ceramics. A sharp indenter was used to induce chips near the edges of flat-layer specimens, and the results compared with predictions from a critical load equation. The critical loads required to produce cementation surface failure in monolithic specimens bonded to dentin were computed from established flexural strength relations and the predictions validated with experimental data. Results Monolithic zirconias have superior chipping and flexural fracture resistance relative to their veneered counterparts. While they have superior esthetics, glass–ceramics exhibit lower strength but higher chip fracture resistance relative to porcelain-veneered zirconias. Significance The study suggests a promising future for new and improved monolithic ceramic restorations, with combined durability and acceptable esthetics. PMID:24139756

  12. Combined dielectrophoretic and impedance system for on-chip controlled bacteria concentration: Application to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Del Moral-Zamora, Beatriz; Punter-Villagrassa, Jaime; Oliva-Brańas, Ana M; Álvarez-Azpeitia, Juan Manuel; Colomer-Farrarons, Jordi; Samitier, Josep; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; Miribel-Català, Pere Ll

    2015-05-01

    The present paper reports a bacteria autonomous controlled concentrator prototype with a user-friendly interface for bench-top applications. It is based on a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip and its associated custom instrumentation, which consists of a dielectrophoretic actuator, to preconcentrate the sample, and an impedance analyzer, to measure concentrated bacteria levels. The system is composed of a single microfluidic chamber with interdigitated electrodes and an instrumentation with custom electronics. The prototype is supported by a real-time platform connected to a remote computer, which automatically controls the system and displays impedance data used to monitor the status of bacteria accumulation on-chip. The system automates the whole concentrating operation. Performance has been studied for controlled volumes of Escherichia coli samples injected into the microfluidic chip at constant flow rate of 10 ?L/min. A media conductivity correcting protocol has been developed, as the preliminary results showed distortion of the impedance analyzer measurement produced by bacterial media conductivity variations through time. With the correcting protocol, the measured impedance values were related to the quantity of bacteria concentrated with a correlation of 0.988 and a coefficient of variation of 3.1%. Feasibility of E. coli on-chip automated concentration, using the miniaturized system, has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the impedance monitoring protocol had been adjusted and optimized, to handle changes in the electrical properties of the bacteria media over time. PMID:25752513

  13. A molecular dynamic study of cholesterol rich lipid membranes: comparison of electroporation protocols.

    PubMed

    Casciola, M; Bonhenry, D; Liberti, M; Apollonio, F; Tarek, M

    2014-12-01

    We report on a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of the electroporation of lipid bilayers at different cholesterol contents using protocols mimicking "traditional" electroporation, i.e. low intensity millisecond pulses (msEP), and high intensity nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP). The results show that addition of cholesterol in concentrations of lipid:sterol ranging from 20 to 50 mol% enhances substantially the membrane cohesion, which is manifested by an increase of the electroporation threshold (U(thr)). This increase is steady in the case of the nsEP protocol, reaching roughly a factor 2 in the 50 mol% samples. In contrast, for the msEP protocol, U(thr) increases by 50% upon addition of 30 mol% cholesterol then levels off. Furthermore, pores formed under msEP are found to possess morphologies much different from the usually reported hydrophilic "electropores" encountered under the nsEP protocol, which may have profound consequences on the transport properties of "electroporated" membranes. Hence, this study reveals that cell membrane models containing the ubiquitous cholesterol component respond quite differently to the two electroporation techniques, in contrast to what has been found for simple zwitterionic bilayers. PMID:24731593

  14. [A novel biologic electricity signal measurement based on neuron chip].

    PubMed

    Lei, Yinsheng; Wang, Mingshi; Sun, Tongjing; Zhu, Qiang; Qin, Ran

    2006-06-01

    Neuron chip is a multiprocessor with three pipeline CPU; its communication protocol and control processor are integrated in effect to carry out the function of communication, control, attemper, I/O, etc. A novel biologic electronic signal measurement network system is composed of intelligent measurement nodes with neuron chip at the core. In this study, the electronic signals such as ECG, EEG, EMG and BOS can be synthetically measured by those intelligent nodes, and some valuable diagnostic messages are found. Wavelet transform is employed in this system to analyze various biologic electronic signals due to its strong time-frequency ability of decomposing signal local character. Better effect is gained. This paper introduces the hardware structure of network and intelligent measurement node, the measurement theory and the signal figure of data acquisition and processing. PMID:16856371

  15. Smart-pixel-based network interface chip.

    PubMed

    Pinkston, T M; Kuznia, C

    1997-07-10

    We present the design and experimental setup of an optically interconnected smart-pixel network interface chip designed to implement a collisionless multichannel-access control protocol. The design demonstrates the cointegration of optoelectronic pixel modules of various levels of complexity for dense, high-speed interconnection of highly functional digital logic components typical of multiprocessor network routers. PMID:18259291

  16. Tetrameric assembly of CHIP28 water channels in liposomes and cell membranes: a freeze-fracture study.

    PubMed

    Verbavatz, J M; Brown, D; Saboli?, I; Valenti, G; Ausiello, D A; Van Hoek, A N; Ma, T; Verkman, A S

    1993-11-01

    Channel forming integral protein of 28 kD (CHIP28) functions as a water channel in erythrocytes, kidney proximal tubule and thin descending limb of Henle. CHIP28 morphology was examined by freeze-fracture EM in proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified CHIP28, CHO cells stably transfected with CHIP28k cDNA, and rat kidney tubules. Liposomes reconstituted with HPLC-purified CHIP28 from human erythrocytes had a high osmotic water permeability (Pf0.04 cm/s) that was inhibited by HgCl2. Freeze-fracture replicas showed a fairly uniform set of intramembrane particles (IMPs); no IMPs were observed in liposomes without incorporated protein. By rotary shadowing, the IMPs had a diameter of 8.5 +/- 1.3 nm (mean +/- SD); many IMPs consisted of a distinct arrangement of four smaller subunits surrounding a central depression. IMPs of similar size and appearance were seen on the P-face of plasma membranes from CHIP28k-transfected (but not mock-transfected) CHO cells, rat thin descending limb (TDL) of Henle, and S3 segment of proximal straight tubules. A distinctive network of complementary IMP imprints was observed on the E-face of CHIP28-containing plasma membranes. The densities of IMPs in the size range of CHIP28 IMPs, determined by non-linear regression, were (in IMPs/microns 2): 2,494 in CHO cells, 5,785 in TDL, and 1,928 in proximal straight tubules; predicted Pf, based on the CHIP28 single channel water permeability of 3.6 x 10(-14) cm3/S (10 degrees C), was in good agreement with measured Pf of 0.027 cm/S, 0.075 cm/S, and 0.031 cm/S, respectively, in these cell types. Assuming that each CHIP28 monomer is a right cylindrical pore of length 5 nm and density 1.3 g/cm3, the monomer diameter would be 3.2 nm; a symmetrical arrangement of four cylinders would have a greatest diameter of 7.2 nm, which after correction for the thickness of platinum deposit, is similar to the measured IMP diameter of approximately 8.5 nm. These results provide a morphological signature for CHIP28 water channels and evidence for a tetrameric assembly of CHIP28 monomers in reconstituted proteoliposomes and cell membranes. PMID:7693713

  17. Comparative efficiency study of fresh and vitrified oocytes in egg donation programs for different controlled ovarian stimulation protocols.

    PubMed

    Kalugina, Alla Stanislavovna; Gabaraeva, Victoria Vladimirovna; Shlykova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna; Tatishcheva, Yulia Alexandrovna; Bystrova, Olga Vladimirovna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy when using vitrified and fresh eggs depending on the applied controlled ovarian stimulation protocols in egg donation programs. Study results showed that the controlled ovarian stimulation protocol does not affect the outcome of IVF/ICSI. Vitrification provided survival and pregnancy rates similar to the fresh donor oocyte ones. PMID:25200827

  18. A biologically inspired lung-on-a-chip device for the study of protein-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Punde, Tushar H; Wu, Wen-Hao; Lien, Pei-Chun; Chang, Ya-Ling; Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr; Lee, Kang-Yun; Huang, Chien-Da; Kuo, Han-Pin; Chan, Yao-Fei; Shih, Po-Chen; Liu, Cheng-Hsien

    2015-02-01

    This study reports a biomimetic microsystem that reconstitutes the lung microenvironment for monitoring the role of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in lung inflammation. ECP induces the airway epithelial cell expression of CXCL-12, which in turn stimulates the migration of fibrocytes towards the epithelium. This two-layered microfluidic system provides a feasible platform for perfusion culture, and was used in this study to reveal that the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis mediates ECP induced fibrocyte extravasation in lung inflammation. This 'lung-on-a-chip' microdevice serves as a dynamic transwell system by introducing a flow that can reconstitute the blood vessel-tissue interface for in vitro assays, enhancing pre-clinical studies. We made an attempt to develop a new microfluidic model which could not only simulate the transwell for studying cell migration, but could also study the migration in the presence of a flow mimicking the physiological conditions in the body. As blood vessels are the integral part of our body, this model gives an opportunity to study more realistic in vitro models of organs where the blood vessel i.e. flow based migration is involved. PMID:25486073

  19. On-Chip Networks for Multicore Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peh, Li-Shiuan; Keckler, Stephen W.; Vangal, Sriram

    With Moore’s law supplying billions of transistors, and uniprocessor architectures delivering diminishing performance, multicore chips are emerging as the prevailing architecture in both general-purpose and application-specific markets. As the core count increases, the need for a scalable on-chip communication fabric that can deliver high bandwidth is gaining in importance, leading to recent multicore chips interconnected with sophisticated on-chip networks. In this chapter, we first present a tutorial on on-chip network architecture fundamentals including on-chip network interfaces, topologies, routing, flow control, and router microarchitectures. Next, we detail case studies on two recent prototypes of on-chip networks: the UT-Austin TRIPS operand network and the Intel TeraFLOPS on-chip network. This chapter organization seeks to provide the foundations of on-chip networks so that readers can appreciate the different design choices faced in the two case studies. Finally, this chapter concludes with an outline of the challenges facing research into on-chip network architectures.

  20. Fate of Clinical Research Studies after Ethical Approval – Follow-Up of Study Protocols until Publication

    PubMed Central

    BlĂŒmle, Anette; Meerpohl, Joerg J.; Schumacher, Martin; von Elm, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Many clinical studies are ultimately not fully published in peer-reviewed journals. Underreporting of clinical research is wasteful and can result in biased estimates of treatment effect or harm, leading to recommendations that are inappropriate or even dangerous. Methods We assembled a cohort of clinical studies approved 2000–2002 by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Freiburg, Germany. Published full articles were searched in electronic databases and investigators contacted. Data on study characteristics were extracted from protocols and corresponding publications. We characterized the cohort, quantified its publication outcome and compared protocols and publications for selected aspects. Results Of 917 approved studies, 807 were started and 110 were not, either locally or as a whole. Of the started studies, 576 (71%) were completed according to protocol, 128 (16%) discontinued and 42 (5%) are still ongoing; for 61 (8%) there was no information about their course. We identified 782 full publications corresponding to 419 of the 807 initiated studies; the publication proportion was 52% (95% CI: 0.48–0.55). Study design was not significantly associated with subsequent publication. Multicentre status, international collaboration, large sample size and commercial or non-commercial funding were positively associated with subsequent publication. Commercial funding was mentioned in 203 (48%) protocols and in 205 (49%) of the publications. In most published studies (339; 81%) this information corresponded between protocol and publication. Most studies were published in English (367; 88%); some in German (25; 6%) or both languages (27; 6%). The local investigators were listed as (co-)authors in the publications corresponding to 259 (62%) studies. Conclusion Half of the clinical research conducted at a large German university medical centre remains unpublished; future research is built on an incomplete database. Research resources are likely wasted as neither health care professionals nor patients nor policy makers can use the results when making decisions. PMID:24586265

  1. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Shi, Chengli; Wu, Boda; Fan, Zunqiang; Wan, Shunguang; Geng, Chunyang

    2012-12-01

    Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

  2. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Hu; Zhao Hongwei; Shi Chengli; Wu Boda; Fan Zunqiang; Wan Shunguang; Geng Chunyang

    2012-12-15

    Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

  3. Driving Position Field Study, Differences with the Whiplash Protocol and Biomechanics Experimental Responses

    PubMed Central

    Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Pozo, Eduardo Del; Lessley, David; Barrios, Jose Manuel; Nombela, Mario; Cisneros, Oscar; de Miguel, Juan Luis; Seguí-Gómez, María

    2011-01-01

    Rear-impact collisions at low speed are a leading cause of economic costs among motor vehicle accidents. Recently, EuroNCAP has incorporated in its protocol the whiplash test, to reproduce a low-speed rear impact. This paper presents a field driving study to assess the potential differences between the EuroNCAP dummy tests and actual drivers in the field, focusing on occupant position and biomechanics experimental results. A total of 182 drivers were randomly selected in two geographical areas in Spain. The driving position of each driver was recorded with a focus on the most relevant measurements for rear impact. Statistical analysis was performed to obtain means, standard deviations and density functions to compare observational seating position with that of the EuroNCAP testing protocol. The observational data showed a similar seatback angle to that used in the EuroNCAP protocol (24° in front of 25° for the protocol), a greater distance between the head vertex and the top of the head restraint (53mm compared to 39.5mm), and less distance between the occipital bone of the head and the headrest (67.9 compared to 89.3mm). Based on these data, 4 dummy tests were conducted using the dummy BioRID IIg. The baseline test was designed to reproduce the dummy position according to EuroNCAP 3.0 whiplash protocol. Three different additional tests were defined to reproduce the actual observed driving position as well as to assess a “worst case” scenario in terms of reduced seatback angle. These variations in initial driver position, comparing the EuroNCAP protocol to the observational study results, were not observed to cause significant differences in the biomechanical values measured in the BioRID IIg, The T1 acceleration was reduced less than 8%, the NIC was increased about 8%, and the NKm presented a reduction of 20%. Reducing the seat angle was observed to be more harmful in terms of NIC. PMID:22105385

  4. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP): Revisiting the Efficacy of Sample Preparation, Sonication, Quantification of Sheared DNA, and Analysis via PCR

    PubMed Central

    Schoppee Bortz, Pamela D.; Wamhoff, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    The “quantitative” ChIP, a tool commonly used to study protein-DNA interactions in cells and tissue, is a difficult assay often plagued with technical error. We present, herein, the process required to merge multiple protocols into a quick, reliable and easy method and an approach to accurately quantify ChIP DNA prior to performing PCR. We demonstrate that high intensity sonication for at least 30 min is required for full cellular disruption and maximum DNA recovery because ChIP lysis buffers fail to lyse formaldehyde-fixed cells. In addition, extracting ChIP DNA with chelex-100 yields samples that are too dilute for evaluation of shearing efficiency or quantification via nanospectrophotometry. However, DNA extracted from the Mock-ChIP supernatant via the phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCIA) method can be used to evaluate DNA shearing efficiency and used as the standard in a fluorescence-based microplate assay. This enabled accurate quantification of DNA in chelex-extracted ChIP samples and normalization to total DNA concentration prior to performing real-time PCR (rtPCR). Thus, a quick ChIP assay that can be completed in nine bench hours over two days has been validated along with a rapid, accurate and repeatable way to quantify ChIP DNA. The resulting rtPCR data more accurately depicts treatment effects on protein-DNA interactions of interest. PMID:22046253

  5. Energy dissipation effects on imaging of soft materials by dynamic atomic force microscopy: a DNA-chip study.

    PubMed

    Phaner-Goutorbe, M; Iazykov, M; Villey, R; Sicard, D; Robach, Y

    2013-05-01

    Using amplitude-mode AFM (AM-AFM), we have obtained valuable information during these recent years through the study of amplitude and phase shift dependence on tip-sample separation, leading to a comprehensive understanding of the interaction processes. Two imaging regimes, attractive and repulsive, have been identified and a relationship between phase and dissipative energy was established, providing information on observed material properties. Most of the previous studies have concerned model systems: either hard or soft materials. In this paper, we present the analysis of a mixed system of soft structures on a hard substrate. This is a DNA chip for biological applications consisting of oligonucleotides covalently linked by a layer of silane to a silicon substrate. A detailed study of amplitude-phase curves as a function of the tip-sample separation allowed us to define the best experimental conditions to obtain specific information: we got reliable conditions to minimize noise during topographic imaging and an understanding of the processes of energy dissipation involved in the DNA breaking for DNA arrays. By calculating the energy dissipated as a function of the amplitude of oscillation, we have demonstrated a transition from an energy dissipation process governed by localized viscoelastic interactions (due to the soft layer) to a process governed by extended irreversible deformations (due to the hard substrate). PMID:23498263

  6. Creating a Community of Inquiry in Online Environments: An Exploratory Study on the Effect of a Protocol on Interactions within Asynchronous Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to examine the influence of an online protocol on asynchronous discussions. A mixed-methods study compared two online graduate classes: one that used a protocol and one that did not use a protocol for the same discussion about a complex reading. Analysis of the data revealed that the online protocol more evenly


  7. Creating a Community of Inquiry in Online Environments: An Exploratory Study on the Effect of a Protocol on Interactions within Asynchronous Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to examine the influence of an online protocol on asynchronous discussions. A mixed-methods study compared two online graduate classes: one that used a protocol and one that did not use a protocol for the same discussion about a complex reading. Analysis of the data revealed that the online protocol more evenly…

  8. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS): study protocol and participation in the first decade

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1) Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2) Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3) Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4) Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5) Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs) were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60?years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n?=?3,326 (48?%) agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline) and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1). In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation). In 2009/2010 n?=?1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation) resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2) and 2009/2010 (wave 3) are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS shows that a cohort study of older persons is feasible and can maintain a good participation rate over ten years, even when extensive self-reported health data are collected repeatedly through self-filled questionnaires. Evidently individual health developments of elderly persons can be tracked quantifying simultaneously behaviour, co-morbidity, functional competence and their changes. In future, we expect to generate results of significance about the five study aims listed above. PMID:22776679

  9. Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. Methods/Design In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. Discussion This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013). PMID:24965551

  10. Study of effective dose of various protocols in equipment cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    Soares, Maria Rosangela; Batista, Wilson Otto; Antonio, Patricia de Lara; Caldas, Linda V E; Maia, Ana F

    2015-06-01

    This study has the purpose of assessing the radiation absorbed dose in organs/tissues and estimating the effective dose using five different models of Cone Beam Computed Tomography equipment using protocols with similar purpose. For this purpose, 26 thermoluminescent dosimeters were inserted in the position of the organs/tissues of a female anthropomorphic phantom. From the measurements the contribution of wTŚHT in the organs and tissues the effective dose were calculated. The measurements have shown the effective dose values within the range 9.3-111.5”Sv. The effective dose values by field of view (FOV) size are within the following ranges: 9.3-51.2”Sv, 17.6-52.0”Sv, and 43.1-111.5”Sv for small/located, medium and large FOV respectively. Protocols with same purpose, carried out with different models of equipment, presented significant differences in the values of the equivalent and effective doses. From the point of view of radiological protection, it is not enough to have knowledge about the dimensions of the FOV and the purpose of the examination. It is necessary to assess the dose using the different models of the equipment and protocols available. In this context, this study provides useful information for this assessment. PMID:25665897

  11. Gene Expression in the Rat Brain during Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep: An Affymetrix GeneChipÂź Study

    PubMed Central

    Terao, A.; Wisor, J.P.; Peyron, C.; Apte-Deshpande, A.; Wurts, S.W.; Edgar, D.M.; Kilduff, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that macromolecular synthesis in the brain is modulated in association with the occurrence of sleep and wakefulness. Similarly, the spectral composition of electroencephalographic activity that occurs during sleep is dependent on the duration of prior wakefulness. Since this homeostatic relationship between wake and sleep is highly conserved across mammalian species, genes that are truly involved in the electroencephalographic response to sleep deprivation (SD) might be expected to be conserved across mammalian species. Therefore, in the rat cerebral cortex, we have studied the effects of SD on the expression of immediate early gene (IEG) and heat shock protein (HSP) mRNAs previously shown to be upregulated in the mouse brain in SD and in recovery sleep (RS) after SD. We find that the molecular response to SD and RS in the brain is highly conserved between these two mammalian species, at least in terms of expression of IEG and HSP family members. Using Affymetrix Neurobiology U34 GeneChipsÂź, we also screened the rat cerebral cortex, basal forebrain, and hypothalamus for other genes whose expression may be modulated by SD or RS. We find that the response of the basal forebrain to SD is more similar to that of the cerebral cortex than to the hypothalamus. Together, these results suggest that sleep-dependent changes in gene expression in the cerebral cortex are similar across rodent species and therefore may underlie sleep history-dependent changes in sleep electroencephalographic activity. PMID:16257491

  12. The clinical performance evaluation of novel protein chips for eleven biomarkers detection and the diagnostic model study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuan; Zhu, Xu; Zhang, Pengjun; Shen, Qian; Wang, Zi; Wen, Xinyu; Wang, Ling; Gao, Jing; Dong, Jin; Yang, Caie; Wu, Tangming; Zhu, Zheng; Tian, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to develop and validate two novel protein chips, which are based on microarray chemiluminescence immunoassay and can simultaneously detected 11 biomarkers, and then to evaluate their clinical diagnostic value by comparing with the traditional methods. Protein chips were evaluated for limit of detection, specificity, common interferences, linearity, precision and accuracy. 11 biomarkers were simultaneously detected by traditional methods and protein chips in 3683 samples, which included 1723 cancer patients, 1798 benign diseases patients and 162 healthy controls. After assay validation, protein chips demonstrated high sensitivity, high specificity, good linearity, low imprecision and were free of common interferences. Compared with the traditional methods, protein chips have good correlation in the detection of all the 13 kinds of biomarkers (r?0.935, P<0.001). For specific cancer detection, there were no statistically significant differences between the traditional method and novel protein chips, except that male protein chip showed significantly better diagnostic value on NSE detection (P=0.004) but significantly worse value on pro-GRP detection (P=0.012), female chip showed significantly better diagnostic value on pro-GRP detection (P=0.005). Furthermore, both male and female multivariate diagnostic models had significantly better diagnostic value than single detection of PGI, PG II, pro-GRP, NSE and CA125 (P<0.05). In addition, male models had significantly better diagnostic value than single CA199 and free-PSA (P<0.05), while female models observed significantly better diagnostic value than single CA724 and ?-HCG (P<0.05). For total disease or cancer detection, the AUC of multivariate logistic regression for the male and female disease detection was 0.981 (95% CI: 0.975-0.987) and 0.836 (95% CI: 0.798-0.874), respectively. While, that for total cancer detection was 0.691 (95% CI: 0.666-0.717) and 0.753 (95% CI: 0.731-0.775), respectively. The new designed protein chips are simple, multiplex and reliable clinical assays and the multi-parameter diagnostic models based on them could significantly improve their clinical performance.

  13. A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to Ellestad stress test protocol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Za'aba, A; Madzhi, N K; Ahmad, A

    2009-01-01

    Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the critical stress state which disable rational decision making could be ascertained in a standardized procedure. This technique would serve to aid human resource management in times of critical events such as rescue, firefighting or even military, that would potentially prevent unnecessary sacrifice of human lives. In this pilot study with five healthy volunteers performing the Ellestad protocol treadmill, a measurement profile with physiologic and salivary based biomarker is obtained. It is found that the alpha amylase levels or the changes in it as workload changes from resting-walking-running at ease-exhaustive running, is relatively more significant in reflecting the stress state than heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it is strongly associated with mood state with correlation coefficient of 0.8 and significance of 0.01. PMID:19964239

  14. On shaky ground - A study of security vulnerabilities in control protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Byres, E. J.; Huffman, D.; Kube, N.

    2006-07-01

    The recent introduction of information technologies such as Ethernet R into nuclear industry control devices has resulted in significantly less isolation from the outside world. This raises the question of whether these systems could be attacked by malware, network hackers or professional criminals to cause disruption to critical operations in a manner similar to the impacts now felt in the business world. To help answer this question, a study was undertaken to test a representative control protocol to determine if it had vulnerabilities that could be exploited. A framework was created in which a test could express a large number of test cases in very compact formal language. This in turn, allowed for the economical automation of both the generation of selectively malformed protocol traffic and the measurement of device under test's (DUT) behavior in response to this traffic. Approximately 5000 protocol conformance tests were run against two major brands of industrial controller. More than 60 categories of errors were discovered, the majority of which were in the form of incorrect error responses to malformed traffic. Several malformed packets however, caused the device to respond or communicate in inappropriate ways. These would be relatively simple for an attacker to inject into a system and could result in the plant operator losing complete view or control of the control device. Based on this relatively small set of devices, we believe that the nuclear industry urgently needs to adopt better security robustness testing of control devices as standard practice. (authors)

  15. Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Gülsün; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients. PMID:24421977

  16. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    SigiliĂŁo, Lara Carvalho Freitas; Marquezan, Mariana; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ruellas, AntĂŽnio Carlos; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding. Methods: A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L), 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H), 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L), DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU), Renew System (GR) and Diagloss polisher (GD). Mean roughness (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz) were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05) was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz); Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01). Conclusion: All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness. PMID:26560825

  17. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral; Carvalho, Bettina; Filho, Jorge Massaaki Ido; Filho, Evaldo Dacheux de Macedo; Pinto, José Simăo de Paula; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Stahlke, Henrique Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective:?To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patients undergoing laryngoscopic microsurgery of the larynx. Method:?We created a database of ENT diseases through a literature review of textbooks and scientific articles. Next, we computerized the data and incorporated it into the SINPE©, creating a master protocol (ENT diseases) and a specific protocol (laryngeal diseases). Data were collected prospectively from patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery in the ENT Hospital of Paraná. The collected data were analyzed with graphs through the SINPE© Analyzer module. Results:?We evaluated 245 patients aged 9–79 years, and determined that 36.61% (93 patients) underwent surgery for the presence of polyps on the vocal folds, 12.6% (32) underwent surgery for papillomatosis, and 11.83% (29) underwent surgery for intracordal cysts. Conclusions:?The creation of an electronic database of clinical ENT diseases was feasible. We were also able to implement and validate the protocol. The database may be released to physicians involved in clinical data collection and retrieval of information to conduct scientific research in an organized manner. The most common laryngeal disorders identified were polyps, papilloma, and intracordal cysts. PMID:25991956

  18. Feasibility Study and Design of a Wearable System-on-a-Chip Pulse Radar for Contactless Cardiopulmonary Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Domenico; Pepe, Domenico; Neri, Bruno; Zito, Fabio; De Rossi, Danilo; LanatĂ , Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A new system-on-a-chip radar sensor for next-generation wearable wireless interface applied to the human health care and safeguard is presented. The system overview is provided and the feasibility study of the radar sensor is presented. In detail, the overall system consists of a radar sensor for detecting the heart and breath rates and a low-power IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee radio interface, which provides a wireless data link with remote data acquisition and control units. In particular, the pulse radar exploits 3.1–10.6 GHz ultra-wideband signals which allow a significant reduction of the transceiver complexity and then of its power consumption. The operating principle of the radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is highlighted and the results of the system analysis are reported. Moreover, the results obtained from the building-blocks design, the channel measurement, and the ultra-wideband antenna realization are reported. PMID:18389068

  19. Prospective Associations of Coronary Heart Disease Loci in African Americans Using the MetaboChip: The PAGE Study

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, Nora; Hu, Yijuan; Reiner, Alex P.; Buyske, Steven; Nalls, Mike; Yanek, Lisa R.; Li, Yun; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Cole, Shelley A.; Howard, Barbara V.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Carty, Cara L.; Sethupathy, Praveen; Martin, Lisa W.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Johnson, Karen C.; Becker, Lewis C.; North, Kari E.; Dehghan, Abbas; Bis, Joshua C.; Liu, Yongmei; Greenland, Philip; Manson, JoAnn E.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Garcia, Melissa; Harris, Tamara B.; Becker, Diane M.; O'Donnell, Christopher; Heiss, Gerardo; Kooperberg, Charles; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD, attempted to fine map these loci, and characterize novel variants influencing CHD risk in African Americans. Methods and Results Up to 8,201 African Americans (including 546 first CHD events) were genotyped using the MetaboChip array in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We tested associations using Cox proportional hazard models in sex- and study-stratified analyses and combined results using meta-analysis. Among 44 validated CHD loci available in the array, we replicated and fine-mapped the SORT1 locus, and showed same direction of effects as reported in studies of individuals of European ancestry for SNPs in 22 additional published loci. We also identified a SNP achieving array wide significance (MYC: rs2070583, allele frequency 0.02, P?=?8.1Ś10?8), but the association did not replicate in an additional 8,059 African Americans (577 events) from the WHI, HealthABC and GeneSTAR studies, and in a meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies of European ancestry (24,024 individuals including 1,570 cases of MI and 2,406 cases of CHD) from the CHARGE Consortium. Conclusions Our findings suggest that some CHD loci previously identified in individuals of European ancestry may be relevant to incident CHD in African Americans. PMID:25542012

  20. Weight Status Measures Collected in the Healthy Communities Study: Protocols and Analyses.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Christopher J; McIver, Kerry L; Sagatov, Robyn D F; Arteaga, S Sonia; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is one of the largest studies to assess the relationship between characteristics of community programs and policies to prevent childhood obesity and obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol that was developed for collecting the anthropometric data for the study and the procedures for analyzing the data. Data were collected from 2013 to 2015 and analyses will be completed by mid-2016. During in-home visits, Healthy Communities Study staff collected height, weight, and waist circumference measurements from child participants and height and weight measurements from adult participants. The protocol for obtaining these measurements was adapted from the protocol used by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with modifications to accommodate assessments conducted in homes rather than in a Mobile Examination Center. In addition to anthropometric data from in-home visits, the Healthy Communities Study collected retrospective height and weight measurements from the medical records of child participants. These data were used to calculate trajectories of BMI and BMI z-scores. The study implemented procedures for ensuring the accuracy of the in-home measurements and abstracted medical data. These procedures included automatically checking the ranges on entered data, reviewing data for end-digit patterns, and abstracting selected medical records using two independent abstractors to assess agreement. The collection of longitudinal height and weight measures will allow researchers to address several pressing questions related to how characteristics of community programs and policies are associated with obesity-related outcomes among children. PMID:26384935

  1. Transmission electron microscopy sample preparation protocols for the ultrastructural study of cysts of free-living protozoa.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Ellen; Baré, Julie; Claeys, Myriam; Chavatte, Natascha; Bert, Wim; Sabbe, Koen; Houf, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    Cysts of free-living protozoa have an impact on the ecology and epidemiology of bacteria because they may act as a transmission vector or shelter the bacteria against hash environmental conditions. Detection and localization of intracystic bacteria and examination of the en- and excystment dynamics is a major challenge because no detailed protocols for ultrastructural analysis of cysts are currently available. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is ideally suited for those analyses; however, conventional TEM protocols are not satisfactory for cysts of free-living protozoa. Here we report on the design and testing of four protocols for TEM sample preparation of cysts. Two protocols, one based on chemical fixation in coated well plates and one on high-pressure freezing, were selected as the most effective for TEM-based ultrastructural studies of cysts. Our protocols will enable improved analysis of cyst structure and a better understanding of bacterial survival mechanisms in cysts. PMID:25861930

  2. Protocol Development

    Cancer.gov

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  3. A Comparative Study of Routing Protocols of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Xu; Qian, Aihua; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Cheng, Long

    2014-01-01

    Recently, heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) routing protocols have drawn more and more attention. Various HWSN routing protocols have been proposed to improve the performance of HWSNs. Among these protocols, hierarchical HWSN routing protocols can improve the performance of the network significantly. In this paper, we will evaluate three hierarchical HWSN protocols proposed recently—EDFCM, MCR, and EEPCA—together with two previous classical routing protocols—LEACH and SEP. We mainly focus on the round of the first node dies (also called the stable period) and the number of packets sent to sink, which is an important aspect to evaluate the monitoring ability of a protocol. We conduct a lot of experiments and simulations on Matlab to analyze the performance of the five routing protocols. PMID:25050393

  4. Optimizing the swallow protocol of clinical high resolution esophageal manometry studies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yinglian; Nicodème, Frédéric; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Roman, Sabine; Lin, Zhiyue; Pandolfino, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chicago Classification of Esophageal Motility Disorders (CC) is based on 10 water swallows performed in the supine position. The aim of the study was to assess whether upright and provocative swallows provided important information beyond that obtained from the standard supine manometric protocol. Methods Two independent investigators reviewed high resolution manometry (HRM) studies of 148 patients with both supine and upright liquid swallows and additional studies from patients with provocative swallows (increased volume, viscosity, and a marshmallow) for a resultant change in CC diagnoses. Significant diagnostic changes were defined as a change from normal or borderline motor function to abnormal motor function, EGJ outflow obstruction or achalasia. Discordant diagnoses were reviewed and the Kappa test was used to evaluate the agreement between diagnoses in the different protocols. Key Results The overall agreement in diagnosis between the 5 supine swallows and the 5 upright swallows was good (k=0.583). Changing to the upright position elicited a significant diagnostic change in 10.1% (15/148) of cases. The provocative swallows suggested an alternative diagnosis from the supine position in 14 of 75 studies (18.7%); 11 of these changed to EGJ obstruction during viscous or solid bolus challenges. Conclusion Changing position in HRM elicited a significant change in diagnosis in about 10% of studies while provocative bolus challenges with viscous liquid and marshmallows increased the detection of EGJ outflow obstruction. Performing manometric evaluations in both positions with provocative swallows may increase the yield of standard HRM technique. PMID:22863083

  5. Biology on a Chip: Microfabrication for Studying the Behavior of Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nianzhen; Tourovskaia, Anna; Folch, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The ability to culture cells in vitro has revolutionized hypothesis testing in basic cell and molecular biology research and has become a standard methodology in drug screening and toxicology assays. However, the traditional cell culture methodology—consisting essentially of the immersion of a large population of cells in a homogeneous fluid medium—has become increasingly limiting, both from a fundamental point of view (cells in vivo are surrounded by complex spatiotemporal microenvironments) and from a practical perspective (scaling up the number of fluid handling steps and cell manipulations for high-throughput studies in vitro is prohibitively expensive). Micro fabrication technologies have enabled researchers to design, with micrometer control, the biochemical composition and topology of the substrate, the medium composition, as well as the type of neighboring cells surrounding the microenvironment of the cell. In addition, microtechnology is conceptually well suited for the development of fast, low-cost in vitro systems that allow for high-throughput culturing and analysis of cells under large numbers of conditions. Here we review a variety of applications of microfabrication in cell culture studies, with an emphasis on the biology of various cell types. PMID:15139302

  6. Retina-on-a-chip: a microfluidic platform for point access signaling studies.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Kirsten H; Echevarria, Franklin D; Li, Deyu; Sappington, Rebecca M; Edd, Jon F

    2015-12-01

    We report on a microfluidic platform for culture of whole organs or tissue slices with the capability of point access reagent delivery to probe the transport of signaling events. Whole mice retina were maintained for multiple days with negative pressure applied to tightly but gently bind the bottom of the retina to a thin poly-(dimethylsiloxane) membrane, through which twelve 100 ?m diameter through-holes served as fluidic access points. Staining with toluidine blue, transport of locally applied cholera toxin beta, and transient response to lipopolysaccharide in the retina demonstrated the capability of the microfluidic platform. The point access fluidic delivery capability could enable new assays in the study of various kinds of excised tissues, including retina. PMID:26559199

  7. Retina-on-a-chip: a microfluidic platform for point access signaling studies

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Kirsten H.; Echevarria, Franklin D.; Li, Deyu; Sappington, Rebecca M.; Edd, Jon F.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a microfluidic platform for culture of whole organs or tissue slices with the capability of point access reagent delivery to probe the transport of signaling events. Whole mice retina were maintained for multiple days with negative pressure applied to tightly but gently bind the bottom of the retina to a thin poly-(dimethylsiloxane) membrane, through which twelve 100 ÎŒm diameter through-holes served as fluidic access points. Staining with toluidine blue, transport of locally applied cholera toxin beta, and transient response to lipopolysaccharide in the retina demonstrated the capability of the microfluidic platform. The point access fluidic delivery capability could enable new assays in the study of various kinds of excised tissues, including retina. PMID:26559199

  8. High-throughput on-chip in vivo neural regeneration studies using femtosecond laser nano-surgery and microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Christopher B.; Zeng, Fei; Gilleland, Cody; Samara, Chrysanthi; Yanik, Mehmet F.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, the advantages of using small invertebrate animals as model systems for human disease have become increasingly apparent and have resulted in three Nobel Prizes in medicine or chemistry during the last six years for studies conducted on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The availability of a wide array of species-specific genetic techniques, along with the transparency of the worm and its ability to grow in minute volumes make C. elegans an extremely powerful model organism. We present a suite of technologies for complex high-throughput whole-animal genetic and drug screens. We demonstrate a high-speed microfluidic sorter that can isolate and immobilize C. elegans in a well-defined geometry, an integrated chip containing individually addressable screening chambers for incubation and exposure of individual animals to biochemical compounds, and a device for delivery of compound libraries in standard multiwell plates to microfluidic devices. The immobilization stability obtained by these devices is comparable to that of chemical anesthesia and the immobilization process does not affect lifespan, progeny production, or other aspects of animal health. The high-stability enables the use of a variety of key optical techniques. We use this to demonstrate femtosecond-laser nanosurgery and three-dimensional multiphoton microscopy. Used alone or in various combinations these devices facilitate a variety of high-throughput assays using whole animals, including mutagenesis and RNAi and drug screens at subcellular resolution, as well as high-throughput high-precision manipulations such as femtosecond-laser nanosurgery for large-scale in vivo neural degeneration and regeneration studies.

  9. Calibration and data collection protocols for reliable lattice parameter values in electron pair distribution function (ePDF) studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Hu, Hefei; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-02-01

    We explore and describe different protocols for calibrating electron pair distribution function (ePDF) measurements for quantitative studies on nano-materials. We find the most accurate approach to determine the camera-length is to use a standard calibration sample of Au nanoparticles from National Institute of Standards and Technology. Different protocols for data collection are also explored, as are possible operational errors, to find the best approaches for accurate data collection for quantitative ePDF studies.

  10. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of SĂŁo Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field. PMID:26248094

  11. Radiation Behavior of Analog Neural Network Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langenbacher, H.; Zee, F.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A.

    1996-01-01

    A neural network experiment conducted for the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) 1-b launched in June 1994. Identical sets of analog feed-forward neural network chips was used to study and compare the effects of space and ground radiation on the chips. Three failure mechanisms are noted.

  12. CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

  13. [Evaluation of a linear TEOAE protocol in hearing screening of neonates: feasibility study].

    PubMed

    Pelosi, G; Hatzopoulos, S; Chierici, R; Vigi, V; Martini, A

    1998-08-01

    The audiological screening of newborns based on recording TEOAEs--the expression of anatomical-functional integrity of the cochlea--has unanimously gained importance. The prevalence of severe of genetic or congenital hearing loss in the healthy infant population and in the population at risk for audiological disorders, as well as the consequent psycholinguist and socialization problems such children have to deal with, have led the authors to set up a preliminary protocol for the audiological screening of neonates. The purpose of this protocol is to improve the feasibility of applying such a program. To this purpose, the preliminary protocol called for the recording of the TEOAE in both non linear (NL) and linear (L) modes. Examination was performed in 347 newborns (30% of all the children born during 1997) the second day of life and during spontaneous sleep. The ILO 92 was used for the screening. The results obtained with the two methods were statistically compared using the 9 parameters considered response indicators. Using the linear method of a function-window and improving the signal-to-noise ratio, the study showed a significant difference in the quality of the TEOAE using the linear method as compared with the non linear method, although this did not modify response reliability. This lead to the definition, through free distribution statistical analysis, of broader than normal criteria by which to evaluate the responses evoked with the L method. All this is aimed at increasing system specificity and reducing the number of false positives which feeds family anxiety. PMID:10205919

  14. UW VLSI chip tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  15. A Structured Rehabilitation Protocol for Improved Multifunctional Prosthetic Control: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Roche, Aidan Dominic; Vujaklija, Ivan; AmsĂŒss, Sebastian; Sturma, Agnes; Göbel, Peter; Farina, Dario; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2015-01-01

    Advances in robotic systems have resulted in prostheses for the upper limb that can produce multifunctional movements. However, these sophisticated systems require upper limb amputees to learn complex control schemes. Humans have the ability to learn new movements through imitation and other learning strategies. This protocol describes a structured rehabilitation method, which includes imitation, repetition, and reinforcement learning, and aims to assess if this method can improve multifunctional prosthetic control. A left below elbow amputee, with 4 years of experience in prosthetic use, took part in this case study. The prosthesis used was a Michelangelo hand with wrist rotation, and the added features of wrist flexion and extension, which allowed more combinations of hand movements. The participant's Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure score improved from 58 to 71 following structured training. This suggests that a structured training protocol of imitation, repetition and reinforcement may have a role in learning to control a new prosthetic hand. A larger clinical study is however required to support these findings. PMID:26575620

  16. Synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-fluorescence: Protocol to study mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Karla Mayra; Bönecker, Marcelo; Perez, Carlos Alberto; Mantesso, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The micro-X-ray fluorescence by synchrotron radiation (?-XRF) is a method to determine the composition of tissues without destroying the samples. However, this technique has never been used for the analysis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). This study compared different protocols for fixing, storing, preserving, and establishing the correct numbers of dental derived MSC submitted to ?-XRF analysis. Stem cells were obtained from human dental tissue. After cell expansion, and MACS isolation, the samples were fixed and the following quantities of cells 1 Ś 10(4) to 1 Ś 10(7) were divided in two groups: G1: fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted in phosphate-buffered saline solution, and G2: fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted in MilliQ water. The G1 cells showed precipitation of chemical components from the solution resulting in the formation of salt crystals while G2 cells were clear and almost transparent in the sample holder. With regards to cells concentration, the best results occurred when four droplets of 1 Ś 10(7) cells were analyzed. This work shows that to identify and study the distribution of trace elements in MSC by ?-XRF, the best protocol is fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde diluted with MilliQ water at 4°C and a concentration of four incremental droplets of 1 Ś 10(7) cells. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:149-154, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26749077

  17. Testing a Theory-Based Mobility Monitoring Protocol Using In-Home Sensors: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Lazar, Amanda; Joe, Jonathan; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J.

    2014-01-01

    Mobility is a key factor in the performance of many everyday tasks required for independent living as a person grows older. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to test a theory-based mobility monitoring protocol by comparing sensor-based measures to self-report measures of mobility and assessing the acceptability of in-home sensors with older adults. Standardized instruments to measure physical, psychosocial and cognitive parameters were administered to 8 community-dwelling older adults at baseline, 3 month and 6 month visits (examples: FES, GDS-SF, Mini-cog). Semi-structured interviews to characterize acceptability of the technology were conducted at 3 month and 6 month visits. Technical issues prevented comparison of sensor-based measures with self-report measures. In-home sensor technology for monitoring mobility is acceptable to older adults. Implementing our theory-based mobility monitoring protocol in a field study in the homes of older adults is a feasible undertaking but requires more robust technology for sensor-based measure validation. PMID:23938159

  18. Factors influencing ambulance nurses’ adherence to a national protocol ambulance care: an implementation study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Vloet, Lilian C.M.; van Grunsven, Pierre M.; Breeman, Wim; Goosselink, Ben; Lichtveld, Rob A.; Mintjes-De Groot, Joke A.J.; van Achterberg, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adherence to prehospital guidelines and protocols is suboptimal. Insight into influencing factors is necessary to improve adherence. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence ambulance nurses’ adherence to a National Protocol Ambulance Care (NPAC). Methods A questionnaire was developed using the literature, a questionnaire and expert opinion. Ambulance nurses (n=452) from four geographically spread emergency medical services (EMSs) in the Netherlands were invited to fill out the questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on influencing factors and self-reported adherence. Results Questionnaires were returned by 248 (55%) of the ambulance nurses. These ambulance nurses’ adherence to the NPAC was 83.4% (95% confidence interval 81.9–85.0). Bivariate correlations showed 23 influencing factors that could be related to the individual professional, organization, protocol characteristics and social context. Multilevel regression analysis showed that 21% of the variation in adherence (R2=0.208) was explained by protocol characteristics and social influences. Conclusion Ambulance nurses’ self-reported adherence to the NPAC seems high. To improve adherence, protocol characteristics (complexity, the degree of support for diagnosis and treatment, the relationship of the protocol with patient outcomes) and social influences (expectance of colleagues to work with the national protocol) should be addressed. PMID:24595355

  19. Rigorous anaesthesia management protocol for patients with intracranial arterial stenosis: a prospective controlled-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Laiwalla, Azim N; Ooi, Yinn Cher; Van De Wiele, Barbara; Ziv, Keren; Brown, Adam; Liou, Raymond; Saver, Jeffrey L; Gonzalez, Nestor R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Reducing variability is integral in quality management. As part of the ongoing Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis Revascularisation for Symptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis (ERSIAS) trial, we developed a strict anaesthesia protocol to minimise fluctuations in patient parameters affecting cerebral perfusion. We hypothesise that this protocol reduces the intraoperative variability of targeted monitored parameters compared to standard management. Design Prospective cohort study of patients undergoing encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis surgery versus standard neurovascular interventions. Patients with ERSIAS had strict perioperative management that included normocapnia and intentional hypertension. Control patients received regular anaesthetic standard of care. Minute-by-minute intraoperative vitals were electronically collected. Heterogeneity of variance tests were used to compare variance across groups. Mixed-model regression analysis was performed to establish the effects of treatment group on the monitored parameters. Setting Tertiary care centre. Participants 24 participants: 12 cases (53.8 years±16.7 years; 10 females) and 12 controls (51.3 years±15.2 years; 10 females). Adults aged 30–80 years, with transient ischaemic attack or non-disabling stroke (modified Rankin Scale <3) attributed to 70–99% intracranial stenosis of the carotid or middle cerebral artery, were considered for enrolment. Controls were matched according to age, gender and history of neurovascular intervention. Main outcome measures Variability of heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure and end tidal CO2 (ETCO2) throughout surgical duration. Results There were significant reductions in the intraoperative MAP SD (4.26 vs 10.23 mm Hg; p=0.007) and ETCO2 SD (0.94 vs 1.26 mm Hg; p=0.05) between the ERSIAS and control groups. Median MAP and ETCO2 in the ERSIAS group were higher (98 mm Hg, IQR 23 vs 75 mm Hg, IQR 15; p<0.001, and 38 mm Hg, IQR 4 vs 32 mm Hg, IQR 3; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions The ERSIAS anaesthesia protocol successfully reduced intraoperative fluctuations of MAP and ETCO2. The protocol also achieved normocarbia and the intended hypertension. Trial registration number NCT01819597; Pre-results. PMID:26787251

  20. Detection and Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Specimens with the HPV Direct Flow CHIP System

    PubMed Central

    Herraez-Hernandez, Elsa; Preda, Ovidiu; Alonso, Sonia; Pardo, Rosario Serrano; Olmo, Asuncion

    2013-01-01

    The novel HPV Direct Flow CHIP commercial system for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping is based on rapid PCR and automatic reverse dot blot hybridization to genotype-specific probes, allowing the detection of 36 HPV genotypes. This study examined the performance of HPV Direct Flow CHIP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples (n= 99). Each sample was analyzed both by Direct PCR, using crude cell extracts without DNA purification, and by conventional PCR, using purified DNA. Pair-wise analysis of the results demonstrated strong concordance between the results obtained with the two protocols, although a slightly higher rate of multiple infections was detected by conventional PCR. In summary, HPV Direct Flow CHIP achieves effective HPV detection from FFPE samples with both Direct PCR and Conventional PCR protocols. PMID:24222806

  1. Protocol for Studying Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Naturally Cycling Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Lisa Y.; Cover, Kara K.; Landau, Aaron J.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer

    2015-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear has been extensively studied in male rodents. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies indicating that neural mechanisms for certain behavioral tasks and response behaviors are different in females and males. Using females in research studies can represent a challenge because of the variation of gonadal hormones during their estrous cycle. This protocol describes well-established procedures that are useful in investigating the role of estrogen in fear extinction memory consolidation in female rats. Phase of the estrous cycle and exogenous estrogen administration prior to extinction training can influence extinction recall 24 hr later. The vaginal swabbing technique for estrous phase identification described here aids the examination and manipulation of naturally cycling gonadal hormones. The use of this basic rodent model may further delineate the mechanisms by which estrogen can modulate fear extinction memory in females. PMID:25741747

  2. Lab-on a-Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Helen Cole, the project manager for the Lab-on-a-Chip Applications Development program, and Lisa Monaco, the project scientist for the program, insert a lab on a chip into the Caliper 42 which is specialized equipment that controls processes on commercial chips to support development of lab-on-a-chip applications. The system has special microscopes and imaging systems, so scientists can process and study different types of fluid, chemical, and medical tests conducted on chips. For example, researchers have examined fluorescent bacteria as it flows through the chips' fluid channels or microfluidic capillaries. Researchers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have been studying how the lab-on-a-chip technology can be used for microbial detection, water quality monitoring, and detecting biosignatures of past or present life on Mars. The Marshall Center team is also collaborating with scientists at other NASA centers and at universities to develop custom chip designs for not only space applications, but for many Earth applications, such as for detecting deadly microbes in heating and air systems. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

  3. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol. PMID:26364639

  4. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol. PMID:26364639

  5. Multi-centred mixed-methods PEPFAR HIV care & support public health evaluation: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A public health response is essential to meet the multidimensional needs of patients and families affected by HIV disease in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to appraise curret provision of HIV care and support in East Africa, and to provide evidence-based direction to future care programming, and Public Health Evaluation was commissioned by the PEPFAR programme of the US Government. Methods/Design This paper described the 2-Phase international mixed methods study protocol utilising longitudinal outcome measurement, surveys, patient and family qualitative interviews and focus groups, staff qualitative interviews, health economics and document analysis. Aim 1) To describe the nature and scope of HIV care and support in two African countries, including the types of facilities available, clients seen, and availability of specific components of care [Study Phase 1]. Aim 2) To determine patient health outcomes over time and principle cost drivers [Study Phase 2]. The study objectives are as follows. 1) To undertake a cross-sectional survey of service configuration and activity by sampling 10% of the facilities being funded by PEPFAR to provide HIV care and support in Kenya and Uganda (Phase 1) in order to describe care currently provided, including pharmacy drug reviews to determine availability and supply of essential drugs in HIV management. 2) To conduct patient focus group discussions at each of these (Phase 1) to determine care received. 3) To undertake a longitudinal prospective study of 1200 patients who are newly diagnosed with HIV or patients with HIV who present with a new problem attending PEPFAR care and support services. Data collection includes self-reported quality of life, core palliative outcomes and components of care received (Phase 2). 4) To conduct qualitative interviews with staff, patients and carers in order to explore and understand service issues and care provision in more depth (Phase 2). 5) To undertake document analysis to appraise the clinical care procedures at each facility (Phase 2). 6) To determine principle cost drivers including staff, overhead and laboratory costs (Phase 2). Discussion This novel mixed methods protocol will permit transparent presentation of subsequent dataset results publication, and offers a substantive model of protocol design to measure and integrate key activities and outcomes that underpin a public health approach to disease management in a low-income setting. PMID:20920241

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping using BeadChip microarrays.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Gilliam; Tsinajinnie, Darwin; Duggan, David

    2013-07-01

    The genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has successfully contributed to the study of complex diseases more than any other technology to date. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using 10,000s to >1,000,000 SNPs have identified 1000s of statistically significant SNPs pertaining to 17 different human disease and trait categories. Post-GWAS fine-mapping studies using 10,000s to 100,000s SNPs on a microarray have narrowed the region of interest for many of these GWAS findings; in addition, independent signals within the original GWAS region have been identified. Focused content, SNP-based microarrays such as the human exome, for example, have too been used successfully to identify novel disease associations. Success has come to studies where 100s to 10,000s (mostly) to >100,000 samples were genotyped. For the time being, SNP-based microarrays remain cost-effective especially when studying large numbers of samples compared to other "genotyping" technologies including next generation sequencing. In this unit, protocols for manual (LIMS-free), semi-manual, and automated processing of BeadChip microarrays are presented. Lower throughput studies will find value in the manual and semi-manual protocols, while all types of studies--low-, medium-, and high-throughput--will find value in the semi-manual and automated protocols. PMID:23853082

  7. Gas Sensor Test Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Ryan, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new test chip is being developed to characterize conducting polymers used in gas sensors. The chip, a seven-layer cofired alumina substrate with gold electrodes, contains 11 comb and U- bend test structures. These structures are designed to measure the sheet resistance, conduction anisotropy, and peripheral conduction of spin-coated films that are not subsequently patterned.

  8. The study of energy metabolism in bladder cancer cells in co-culture conditions using a microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Dong; Shao, Shi-Xiu; Cao, Yan-Wei; Yang, Xue-Cheng; Shi, Hao-Qing; Wang, You-Lin; Xue, Sen-Yao; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Niu, Hai-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to systematically analyze changes in mitochondrial-related protein expression in bladder cancer cells and tumor-associated fibroblasts and to investigate the characteristics of bladder cancer cell energy metabolism. Methods: In this study, we utilized the following techniques to achieve the objectives: (1) a co-culture system of bladder tumor cells and fibroblasts was built using a microfluidic chip as a three-dimensional culture system; (2) the concentration of lactic acid in the medium from the different groups was determined using an automatic micro-plate reader; (3) a qualitative analysis of mitochondria-related protein expression was performed by immunofluorescent staining; and (4) a quantitative analysis of mitochondrial-associated protein expression was conducted via Western blot. SPSS software was utilized to analyze the data. Results: (1) Determination of lactic acid concentration: The lactic acid concentration was determined to be highest in the experimental group, followed by the T24 cell control group and then the fibroblast control group. (2) Qualitative results: In the control group, the mitochondrial-related protein fluorescence intensity was higher in the fibroblasts compared with the cancer cells, and the fluorescence intensity of the fibroblasts was reduced compared with the experimental group. The mitochondrial-related protein fluorescence intensity of the cancer cells was higher in the experimental group compared with the control group, and the opposite results were obtained with the fibroblasts. (3) Quantitative results: The expression of mitochondria-related proteins was higher in fibroblasts compared with cancer cells in the control group, and the opposite results were obtained in the experimental group (P<0.05). The expression of mitochondria-related proteins was increased in cancer cells in the experimental group compared with the control group; the opposite results were observed for the fibroblasts (P<0.05). Conclusions: The energy metabolism of bladder tumor cells does not parallel the “Warburg effect” because even under sufficient oxygen conditions, cancer cells still undergo glycolysis. Bladder cancer cells also have an efficient oxidative phosphorylation process wherein cancer cells promote glycolysis in adjacent interstitial cells, thereby causing increased formation of nutritional precursors. These high-energy metabolites are transferred to adjacent tumor cells in a specified direction and enter the Krebs Cycle. Ultimately, oxidative phosphorylation increases, and sufficient ATP is produced. PMID:26550142

  9. A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

  10. DCP CONSORTIA CHEMOPREVENTION PROTOCOL TEMPLATE

    Cancer.gov

    The protocol template is a tool to facilitate rapid protocol development. It is not intended to supersede the role of the Protocol Principal Investigator in the authoring and scientific development of the protocol. It contains the language required in protocols submitted to the NCI, Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). Please modify all sections as necessary to meet the scientific aims of the study and development of the protocol.

  11. The Fangshan/Family-based Ischemic Stroke Study In China (FISSIC) protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xun; Hu, Yonghua; Chen, Dafang; Zhan, Siyan; Zhang, Zongxin; Dou, Huidong

    2007-01-01

    Background The exact etiology of ischemic stroke remains unclear, because multiple genetic predispositions and environmental risk factors may be involved, and their interactions dictate the complexity. Family-based studies provide unique features in design, while they are currently underrepresented for studies of ischemic stroke in developing countries. The Fangshan/Family-based Ischemic Stroke Study In China (FISSIC) program aims to conduct a genetic pedigree study of ischemic stroke in rural communities of China. Methods/Design The pedigrees of ischemic stroke with clear documentation are recruited by using the proband-initiated contact method, based on the stroke registry in hospital and communities. Blood samples and detailed information of pedigrees are collected through the health care network in the rural area, and prospective follow-up of the pedigrees cohort is scheduled. Complementary strategies of both family-based design and matched case-spousal control design are used, and comprehensive statistical methods will be implemented to ascertain potential complex genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well. Discussion This study is complementary to other genetic pedigree studies of ischemic stroke, such as the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS), which are established in developed countries. We describe the protocol of this family-based genetic epidemiological study that may be used as a new practical guideline and research paradigm in developing countries and facilitate initiatives of stroke study for international collaborations. PMID:17825112

  12. Optimal protocol for teleconsultation with a cellular phone for dentoalveolar trauma: an in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wonse; Lee, Hae-Na; Jeong, Jin-Sun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Grace H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. Materials and Methods We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. Results The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 ?B and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Conclusion Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones. PMID:22783474

  13. Centrifugation protocol for the NASA Artificial Gravity-Bed Rest Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Arya, Maneesh; Paloski, William H; Young, Laurence R

    2007-07-01

    We have implemented a 41-day ground-based study to investigate the effects of daily artificial gravity loading on bed rest deconditioned human subjects. Each subject underwent 21 days of 6 degree head-down bed rest. Treatment subjects received 60 min daily doses of inertial mechanical loading (2.5 G at the feet decreasing to 1 G at the heart) produced by a short radius centrifuge. During rotation, the subject's cardiovascular responses were monitored via ECG, blood pressure and pulse oximetry, and subjective assessment of motion sickness and overall health were periodically requested. The subject's weight distribution at the feet was measured using a force plate, and lower leg muscle activity was monitored via surface electromyography. Control subjects were instrumented but did not receive any centrifugation. This paper provides details on the centrifuge protocol development and efficacy. PMID:18372684

  14. Characterization of the Context of Drug Concepts in Research Protocols: An Empiric Study to Guide Ontology Development

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Huser, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    We examined a large body of research study documents (protocols) to identify mentions of drug concepts and established base concepts and roles needed to characterize the semantics of these instances. We found these concepts in three general situations: background knowledge about the drug, study procedures involving the drug, and other roles of the drug in the study. We identified 18 more specific contexts (e.g., adverse event information, administration and dosing of the drug, and interactions between the study drug and other drugs). The ontology was validated against a test set of protocol documents from NIH and ClinicalTrial.gov. The goal is to support the automated extraction of drug information from protocol documents to support functions such as study retrieval, determination of subject eligibility, generation of order sets, and creation of logic for decision support alerts and reminders. Further work is needed to formally extend existing ontologies of clinical research. PMID:26958176

  15. BLOOD-ON-A-CHIP

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Mehmet; Irimia, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, fast, and affordable analysis of the cellular component of blood is of prime interest for medicine and research. Yet, most often sample preparation procedures for blood analysis involve handling steps prone to introducing artifacts, whereas analysis methods commonly require skilled technicians and well-equipped, expensive laboratories. Developing more gentle protocols and affordable instruments for specific blood analysis tasks is becoming possible through the recent progress in the area of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip-type devices. Precise control over the cell microenvironment during separation procedures and the ability to scale down the analysis to very small volumes of blood are among the most attractive capabilities of the new approaches. Here we review some of the emerging principles for manipulating blood cells at microscale and promising high-throughput approaches to blood cell separation using microdevices. Examples of specific single-purpose devices are described together with integration strategies for blood cell separation and analysis modules. PMID:16004567

  16. Efficacy of smoking prevention program 'Smoke-free Kids': study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A strong increase in smoking is noted especially among adolescents. In the Netherlands, about 5% of all 10-year olds, 25% of all 13-year olds and 62% of all 17-year olds report ever smoking. In the U.S., an intervention program called 'Smoke-free Kids' was developed to prevent children from smoking. The present study aims to assess the effects of this home-based smoking prevention program in the Netherlands. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial is conducted among 9 to 11-year old children of primary schools. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention program consists of five printed activity modules designed to improve parenting skills specific to smoking prevention and parent-child communication regarding smoking. These modules will include additional sheets with communication tips. The modules for the control condition will include solely information on smoking and tobacco use. Initiation of cigarette smoking (first instance of puffing on a lighted cigarette), susceptibility to cigarette smoking, smoking-related cognitions, and anti-smoking socialization will be the outcome measures. To collect the data, telephone interviews with mothers as well as with their child will be conducted at baseline. Only the children will be examined at post-intervention follow-ups (6, 12, 24, and 36 months after the baseline). Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based smoking prevention program. We expect that a significantly lower number of children will start smoking in the intervention condition compared to control condition as a direct result of this intervention. If the program is effective, it is applicable in daily live, which will facilitate implementation of the prevention protocol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR1465 PMID:20025727

  17. Wraparound care for youth injured by violence: study protocol for a pilot randomised control trial

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Carolyn; Jiang, Depeng; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Strome, Trevor; Klassen, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Injury by violence is the fourth cause of death and the leading reason for a youth to visit an emergency department (ED) in Canada. In Winnipeg, 20% of youth who visit an ED with an injury due to violence have a second visit for a subsequent violent injury within 1 year. Youth injured by violence are in a reflective and receptive state of mind, rendering the ED setting appropriate for intervention. Methods and analysis This protocol describes a wraparound care model delivered by a support worker with lived experience with violence, supported by social workers and links to multiple community partners. Support workers will be on call 24 h a day, 7 days a week in order to start the intervention in the ED and take advantage of the ‘teachable moment’. The protocol is of a pilot randomised control trial to assess the feasibility of a randomised control trial designed to assess efficacy. For the pilot trial, we will assess recruitment, treatment fidelity, participant adherence and safety. The intervention arm will receive wraparound care initiated at the time of their visit for injury due to violence. The control arm will receive standard care. We will use an adapted preconsent randomisation methodology. This intervention has been developed using an integrated knowledge translation approach. Discussion Interventions delivered in the ED for youth injured by violence require an approach that is appropriate for the unique situation the youth are in. Ethics The University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board (HS 16445 (Cohort study) and HS 16444 (WrapAround Care study) granted ethical approval. Trial registration number NCT01895738. PMID:25991461

  18. Interreality for the management and training of psychological stress: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress occurs when an individual perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. Its association with severe health and emotional diseases, points out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Moreover, psychological stress is a very personal problem and requires training focused on the specific needs of individuals. To overcome the above limitations, the INTERSTRESS project suggests the adoption of a new paradigm for e-health - Interreality - that integrates contextualized assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, bridging the physical and the virtual worlds. According to this premise, the aim of this study is to investigate the advantages of using advanced technologies, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on a protocol for reducing psychological stress. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial. It includes three groups of approximately 50 subjects each who suffer from psychological stress: (1) the experimental group, (2) the control group, (3) the waiting list group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive a treatment based on cognitive behavioral techniques combined with virtual reality, biofeedback and mobile phone, while the control group will receive traditional stress management CBT-based training, without the use of new technologies. The wait-list group will be reassessed and compared with the two other groups five weeks after the initial evaluation. After the reassessment, the wait-list patients will randomly receive one of the two other treatments. Psychometric and physiological outcomes will serve as quantitative dependent variables, while subjective reports of participants will be used as the qualitative dependent variable. Discussion What we would like to show with the present trial is that bridging virtual experiences, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation, with real experiences using advanced technologies (virtual reality, advanced sensors and smartphones) is a feasible way to address actual limitations of existing protocols for psychological stress. Trial registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01683617 PMID:23806013

  19. Work Smarter, Not Harder: Structured Reflection Protocol. Listening to Student Voices Self-Study Toolkit. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    This 19-minute VHS videotape introduces the structured reflection protocol, a tool designed to help teachers learn by working together and by using student work as a beginning point for their learning together. The videotape shows scenes of the structured reflection protocol being used in diverse school settings (elementary, secondary, rural,…

  20. How to design in situ studies: an evaluation of experimental protocols

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hye; Kim, Hae-Young; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Designing in situ models for caries research is a demanding procedure, as both clinical and laboratory parameters need to be incorporated in a single study. This study aimed to construct an informative guideline for planning in situ models relevant to preexisting caries studies. Materials and Methods An electronic literature search of the PubMed database was performed. A total 191 of full articles written in English were included and data were extracted from materials and methods. Multiple variables were analyzed in relation to the publication types, participant characteristics, specimen and appliance factors, and other conditions. Frequencies and percentages were displayed to summarize the data and the Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess a statistical significance (p < 0.05). Results There were many parameters commonly included in the majority of in situ models such as inclusion criteria, sample sizes, sample allocation methods, tooth types, intraoral appliance types, sterilization methods, study periods, outcome measures, experimental interventions, etc. Interrelationships existed between the main research topics and some parameters (outcome measures and sample allocation methods) among the evaluated articles. Conclusions It will be possible to establish standardized in situ protocols according to the research topics. Furthermore, data collaboration from comparable studies would be enhanced by homogeneous study designs. PMID:25110639

  1. Think-Aloud Protocols in Research on Essay Rating: An Empirical Study of Their Veridicality and Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Think-aloud protocols (TAPs) are frequently used in research on essay rating processes. However, there are very few empirical studies of the completeness of TAP data and the effects of this technique on rater performance (i.e., rating processes and outcomes). This study aims to start to address this research gap. As part of a larger study on rater


  2. Causes of stem end chip defect in chipping potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem-end chip defect (SECD) is a serious tuber quality concern that affects chipping potatoes. This defect is characterized by dark-colored vascular tissues and adjacent cortical tissues at the tuber stem-end of potato chips after frying. Chips with SECD are unappealing to consumers and raw product ...

  3. Change to costs and lengths of stay in the emergency department and the Brisbane protocol: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qinglu; Greenslade, Jaimi H; Parsonage, William A; Barnett, Adrian G; Merollini, Katharina; Graves, Nicholas; Peacock, W Frank; Cullen, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare health service cost and length of stay between a traditional and an accelerated diagnostic approach to assess acute coronary syndromes (ACS) among patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) of a large tertiary hospital in Australia. Design, setting and participants This historically controlled study analysed data collected from two independent patient cohorts presenting to the ED with potential ACS. The first cohort of 938 patients was recruited in 2008–2010, and these patients were assessed using the traditional diagnostic approach detailed in the national guideline. The second cohort of 921 patients was recruited in 2011–2013 and was assessed with the accelerated diagnostic approach named the Brisbane protocol. The Brisbane protocol applied early serial troponin testing for patients at 0 and 2 h after presentation to ED, in comparison with 0 and 6 h testing in traditional assessment process. The Brisbane protocol also defined a low-risk group of patients in whom no objective testing was performed. A decision tree model was used to compare the expected cost and length of stay in hospital between two approaches. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to account for model uncertainty. Results Compared with the traditional diagnostic approach, the Brisbane protocol was associated with reduced expected cost of $1229 (95% CI −$1266 to $5122) and reduced expected length of stay of 26 h (95% CI −14 to 136 h). The Brisbane protocol allowed physicians to discharge a higher proportion of low-risk and intermediate-risk patients from ED within 4 h (72% vs 51%). Results from sensitivity analysis suggested the Brisbane protocol had a high chance of being cost-saving and time-saving. Conclusions This study provides some evidence of cost savings from a decision to adopt the Brisbane protocol. Benefits would arise for the hospital and for patients and their families. PMID:26916691

  4. TABADO: "Evaluation of a smoking cessation program among Adolescents in Vocational Training Centers": Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Most of the efforts to reduce teenagers' tobacco addiction have focused on smoking prevention and little on smoking cessation. A smoking cessation program (TABADO study), associating pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioural strategy, on a particularly vulnerable population (vocational trainees), was developed. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the program which was offered to all smokers in a population aged 15 to 20 years in Vocational Training Centers (VTC). This paper presents the TABADO study protocol. Methods The study is quasi-experimental, prospective, evaluative and comparative and takes place during the 2 years of vocational training. The final population will be composed of 2000 trainees entering a VTC in Lorraine, France, during the 2008-2009 period. The intervention group (1000 trainees) benefited from the TABADO program while no specific intervention took place in the "control" group (1000 trainees) other than the treatment and education services usually available. Our primary outcome will be the tobacco abstinence rate at 12 months. Discussion If the program proves effective, it will be a new tool in the action against smoking in populations that have been seldom targeted until now. In addition, the approach could be expanded to other young subjects from socially disadvantaged backgrounds in the context of a public health policy against smoking among adolescents. Trial registration Clinical trial identification number is NTC00973570. PMID:19912627

  5. Remote ischemic preconditioning to reduce contrast-induced nephropathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing use of pre- and posthydration protocols and low-osmolar instead of high-osmolar iodine-containing contrast media, the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is still significant. There is evidence that contrast media cause ischemia-reperfusion injury of the medulla. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive, safe, and low-cost method to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The RIPCIN study is a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial in which 76 patients at risk of CIN will receive standard hydration combined with RIPC or hydration with sham preconditioning. RIPC will be applied by four cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion of the forearm by inflating a blood pressure cuff at 50 mmHg above the actual systolic pressure. The primary outcome measure will be the change in serum creatinine from baseline to 48 to 72 h after contrast administration. Discussion A recent pilot study reported that RIPC reduced the incidence of CIN after coronary angioplasty. The unusual high incidence of CIN in this study is of concern and limits its generalizability. Therefore, we propose a randomized controlled trial to study whether RIPC reduces contrast-induced kidney injury in patients at risk for CIN according to the Dutch guidelines. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76496973 PMID:24721127

  6. Peer mentorship to promote effective pain management in adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominal pain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain and functioning, children with low expectations of skill-building programs may lack motivation to comply with therapists' recommendations. This study will develop and test a new manualized peer-mentorship program which will provide modeling and reinforcement by peers to other adolescents with chronic pain (the mentored participants). The mentorship program will encourage mentored participants to engage in therapies that promote the learning of pain self-management skills and to support the mentored participants' practice of these skills. The study will examine the feasibility of this intervention for both mentors and mentored participants, and will assess the preliminary effectiveness of this program on mentored participants' pain and functional disability. Methods This protocol will recruit adolescents ages 12-17 with chronic pain and randomly assign them to either peer mentorship or a treatment-as-usual control group. Mentored participants will be matched with peer mentors of similar age (ages 14-18) who have actively participated in various treatment modalities through the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and have learned to function successfully with a chronic pain disorder. The mentors will present information to mentored participants in a supervised and monitored telephone interaction for 2 months to encourage participation in skill-building programs. The control group will receive usual care but without the mentorship intervention. Mentored and control subjects' pain and functioning will be assessed at 2 months (end of intervention for mentored participants) and at 4 month follow-up to see if improvements persist. Measures of treatment adherence, pain, disability, and anxiety and depression will be assessed throughout study participation. Qualitative interviews for mentors, mentored participants, and control subjects will also be administered. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01118988. PMID:21600053

  7. A pilot study of an acupuncture protocol to improve visual function in retinitis pigmentosa patients

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Ava K; Gould, Jeffrey M; Rosenfarb, Andy; Rozanski, Collin; Dagnelie, Gislin

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with retinitis pigmentosa are motivated to try complementary or integrative therapies to slow disease progression. Basic science, clinical research and retinitis pigmentosa patients' self-reports support the hypothesis that acupuncture may improve visual function. Methods A prospective, case series, pilot study enrolled 12 adult patients with RP treated at an academic medical centre with a standardised protocol that combined electroacupuncture to the forehead and below the eyes and acupuncture to the body, at 10 half-hour sessions over two weeks. Pre- and post-treatment tests included Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (VA), Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (CS), Goldmann visual fields, and dark-adapted full-field stimulus threshold (FST)(n = 9). Scotopic Sensitivity Tester-1 (SST-1) dark-adaptometry was performed on the last two subjects. Results Six of 12 subjects had measurable, significant visual function improvements after treatment. Three of nine subjects tested with the FST had a significant 10.3 to 17.5 dB (that is, 13- to 53-fold) improvement in both eyes at one week after acupuncture, maintained for at least 10 to 12 months, which was well outside typical test-retest variability (95% CI: 3–3.5 dB) previously found in retinitis pigmentosa. SST-1 dark-adaptation was shortened in both subjects tested on average by 48.5 per cent at one week (range 36 to 62 per cent across 10 to 30 dB), which was outside typical coefficients of variation of less than 30 per cent previously determined in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and normals. Four of the five subjects with psychophysically measured scotopic sensitivity improvements reported subjective improvements in vision at night or in dark environments. One subject had 0.2 logMAR improvement in VA; another had 0.55 logCS improvement. Another subject developed more than 20 per cent improvement in the area of the Goldmann visual fields. The acupuncture protocol was completed and well tolerated by all, without adverse events or visual loss. Conclusions Acupuncture entails minimal risk, if administered by a well-trained acupuncturist and may have significant, measurable benefits on residual visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, in particular scotopic sensitivity, which had not previously been studied. These preliminary findings support the need for future controlled studies of potential mechanisms. PMID:24773463

  8. Ex post facto assessment of diffusion tensor imaging metrics from different MRI protocols: preparing for multicentre studies in ALS.

    PubMed

    Rosskopf, Johannes; Müller, Hans-Peter; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Gorges, Martin; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessing ALS-associated white matter alterations has still not reached the level of a neuroimaging biomarker. Since large-scale multicentre DTI studies in ALS may be hampered by differences in scanning protocols, an approach for pooling of DTI data acquired with different protocols was investigated. Three hundred and nine datasets from 170 ALS patients and 139 controls were collected ex post facto from a monocentric database reflecting different scanning protocols. A 3D correction algorithm was introduced for a combined analysis of DTI metrics despite different acquisition protocols, with the focus on the CST as the tract correlate of ALS neuropathological stage 1. A homogenous set of data was obtained by application of 3D correction matrices. Results showed that a fractional anisotropy (FA) threshold of 0.41 could be defined to discriminate ALS patients from controls (sensitivity/specificity, 74%/72%). For the remaining test sample, sensitivity/specificity values of 68%/74% were obtained. In conclusion, the objective was to merge data recorded with different DTI protocols with 3D correction matrices for analyses at group level. These post processing tools might facilitate analysis of large study samples in a multicentre setting for DTI analysis at group level to aid in establishing DTI as a non-invasive biomarker for ALS. PMID:25574564

  9. Comparative study of different centrifugation protocols for a density gradient separation media in isolation of osteoprogenitors from bone marrow aspirate

    PubMed Central

    Naung, Noel Ye; Suttapreyasri, Srisurang; Kamolmatyakul, Suttatip; Nuntanaranont, Thongchai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human bone marrow contains osteoprogenitors capable of differentiating into osteoblasts. Density gradient centrifugation (DGC) is a commonly used method to isolate osteoprogenitors from bone marrow. Numerous studies used different dilution and centrifugation protocols, which might affect cell yields and quality. Moreover, the relative isolation efficiencies of the different separation protocols have not been investigated. This study compares the enrichment efficacy of the two different centrifugation protocols for a commonly used DGC media in isolation of osteoprogenitors. Material and method Bone marrow was aspirated from human anterior iliac crests. Osteoprogenitors are isolated with Ficoll DGC media. A centrifugal force of 400 g and 1:1 dilution was compared with the centrifugal force of 1000 g after three dilution times with a buffer. Results The average numbers of isolated cells were significantly higher when using lower centrifugal force with 1:1 dilution, however, there was no detectable difference between Colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU–F) forming capacity, STRO-1 positivity, osteogenic differentiation or mineralization abilities between protocols. Conclusion Both protocols could isolate competent and functional osteoprogenitors, while a lower centrifugal force (400 g) with 1:1 dilution produced recovery of more osteoprogenitors. PMID:25737938

  10. Accelerator on a Chip

    SciTech Connect

    England, Joel

    2014-06-30

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  11. Accelerator on a Chip

    ScienceCinema

    England, Joel

    2014-07-16

    SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

  12. The heart healthy lenoir project-an intervention to reduce disparities in hypertension control: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Racial disparities in blood pressure control are well established; however the impact of low health literacy (LHL) on blood pressure has garnered less attention. Office based interventions that are created with iterative patient, practice and community stakeholder input and are rolled out incrementally, may help address these disparities in hypertension control. This paper describes our study protocol. Methods/design Using a community based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we designed and implemented a cohort study that includes both a practice level and patient level intervention to enhance the care and support of patients with hypertension in primary care practices in a rural region of eastern North Carolina. The study is divided into a formative phase and an ongoing 2.5 year implementation phase. Our main care enhancement activities include the integration of a community health coach, using home blood pressure monitoring in clinical decision making, standardizing care delivery processes, and working to improve medication adherence. Main outcomes include overall blood pressure change, the differential change in blood pressure by race (African American vs. White) and health literacy level (low vs. higher health literacy). Discussion Using a community based participatory approach in primary care practice settings has helped to engage patients and practice staff and providers in the research effort and in making practice changes to support hypertension care. Practices have engaged at varying levels, but progress has been made in implementing and iteratively improving upon the interventions to date. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01425515. PMID:24156629

  13. Cardiovascular Risk and Its Associated Factors in Health Care Workers in Colombia: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, for this reason, they are a public health problem. In Colombia, cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality, having a death rate of 152 deaths per 100,000 population. There are 80% of these cardiovascular events that are considered avoidable. Objective The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk and its associated factors among the institution’s workers in order to design and implement interventions in the work environment which may achieve a decrease in such risk. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study was designed to determine the cardiovascular risk and its associated factors among workers of a high complexity health care institution. A self-applied survey will be conducted considering sociodemographic aspects, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, smoking, level of perceived stress, and personal and family history. In a second appointment, a physical examination will be made, as well as anthropometric measurements and blood pressure determination. Also, blood samples for evaluating total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood sugar will be taken. A ten-year global risk for cardiovascular disease will be determined using the Framingham score. A descriptive analysis of the population’s characteristics and a stratified analysis by sex, age, and occupation will be made. Bivariate and multivariate analysis will be made using logistic regression models to evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk and the independent variables. The research protocol was approved by the Scientific and Technical Committee and the Ethics Committee on Research of the Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Results The protocol has already received funding and the enrollment phase will begin in the coming months. Conclusions The results of this study will give the foundation for the design, implementation, and evaluation of a program based on promoting healthy lifestyles, such as performing regular physical activity and healthy food intake in order to avoid and/or control the cardiovascular risk in the workers of a high complexity health care institution. PMID:26228375

  14. Validity and responsiveness of the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). A methodological study

    PubMed Central

    Andriesse, Hanneke; Roos, Ewa M; HĂ€gglund, Gunnar; Jarnlo, Gun-Britt

    2006-01-01

    Background The Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP) is a multi dimensional instrument designed for longitudinal follow up of the clubfoot deformity during growth. Item reliability has shown to be sufficient. In this article the CAP's validity and responsiveness is studied using the Dimeglio classification scoring as a gold standard. Methods Thirty-two children with 45 congenital clubfeet were assessed prospectively and consecutively at ages of new-born, one, two, four months and two years of age. For convergent/divergent construct validity the Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated. Discriminate validity was evaluated by studying the scores in bilateral clubfeet. The floor-ceiling effects at baseline (untreated clubfeet) and at two years of age (treated clubfeet) were evaluated. Responsiveness was evaluated by using effect sizes (ES) and by calculating if significant changes (Wilcoxons signed test) had occurred between the different measurement occasions. Results High to moderate significant correlation were found between CAP mobility I and morphology and the Dimeglio scores (rs = 0.77 and 0.44 respectively). Low correlation was found between CAP muscle function, mobility II and motion quality and the Dimeglio scoring system (rs = 0.20, 0.09 and 0.06 respectively). Of 13 children with bilateral clubfeet, 11 showed different CAP mobility I scores between right and left foot at baseline (untreated) compared with 5 with the Dimeglio score. At the other assessment occasions the CAP mobility I continued to show higher discrimination ability than the Dimeglio. No floor effects and low ceiling effects were found in the untreated clubfeet for both instruments. High ceiling effects were found in the CAP for the treated children and low for the Dimeglio. Responsiveness was good. ES from untreated to treated ranged from 0.80 to 4.35 for the CAP subgroups and was 4.68 for the Dimeglio. The first four treatment months, the CAP mobility I had generally higher ES compared with the Dimeglio. Conclusion The Clubfoot Assessment Protocol shows in this study good validity and responsiveness. The CAP is more responsive when severity ranges between mild – moderate to severe, while the Dimeglio focuses more on the extremes. The ability to discriminate between different mobility status of the right and left foot in bilaterally affected children in this population was higher compared with the Dimeglio score implicating a better sensitivity for the CAP. PMID:16539716

  15. Imaging Cold Molecules on a Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, S.; Adu Smith, D.; Abel, M. J.; Zehentbauer, T.; Meijer, G.; Santambrogio, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present the integrated imaging of cold molecules in a microchip environment. The on-chip detection is based on resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, which is quantum state selective and generally applicable. We demonstrate and characterize time-resolved spatial imaging and subsequently use it to analyze the effect of a phase-space manipulation sequence aimed at compressing the velocity distribution of a molecular ensemble with a view to future high-resolution spectroscopic studies. The realization of such on-chip measurements adds the final fundamental component to the molecule chip, offering a new and promising route for investigating cold molecules.

  16. Assessing the Power of Exome Chips

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christian Magnus; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Mevik, BjĂžrn-Helge; Bos, Steffan Daniel; Harbo, Hanne F.; Andreassen, Bettina Kulle

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping chips for rare and low-frequent variants have recently gained popularity with the introduction of exome chips, but the utility of these chips remains unclear. These chips were designed using exome sequencing data from mainly American-European individuals, enriched for a narrow set of common diseases. In addition, it is well-known that the statistical power of detecting associations with rare and low-frequent variants is much lower compared to studies exclusively involving common variants. We developed a simulation program adaptable to any exome chip design to empirically evaluate the power of the exome chips. We implemented the main properties of the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip array. The simulated data sets were used to assess the power of exome chip based studies for varying effect sizes and causal variant scenarios. We applied two widely-used statistical approaches for rare and low-frequency variants, which collapse the variants into genetic regions or genes. Under optimal conditions, we found that a sample size between 20,000 to 30,000 individuals were needed in order to detect modest effect sizes (0.5% < PAR > 1%) with 80% power. For small effect sizes (PAR <0.5%), 60,000–100,000 individuals were needed in the presence of non-causal variants. In conclusion, we found that at least tens of thousands of individuals are necessary to detect modest effects under optimal conditions. In addition, when using rare variant chips on cohorts or diseases they were not originally designed for, the identification of associated variants or genes will be even more challenging. PMID:26437075

  17. A versatile snap chip for high-density sub-nanoliter chip-to-chip reagent transfer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiyan; Munzar, Jeffrey D.; Ng, Andy; Juncker, David

    2015-01-01

    The coordinated delivery of minute amounts of different reagents is important for microfluidics and microarrays, but is dependent on advanced equipment such as microarrayers. Previously, we developed the snap chip for the direct transfer of reagents, thus realizing fluidic operations by only manipulating microscope slides. However, owing to the misalignment between arrays spotted on different slides, millimeter spacing was needed between spots and the array density was limited. In this work, we have developed a novel double transfer method and have transferred 625 spots cm−2, corresponding to >10000 spots for a standard microscope slide. A user-friendly snapping system was manufactured to make liquid handling straightforward. Misalignment, which for direct transfer ranged from 150–250 Όm, was reduced to <40 Όm for double transfer. The snap chip was used to quantify 50 proteins in 16 samples simultaneously, yielding limits of detection in the pg/mL range for 35 proteins. The versatility of the snap chip is illustrated with a 4-plex homogenous enzyme inhibition assay analyzing 128 conditions with precise timing. The versatility and high density of the snap chip with double transfer allows for the development of high throughput reagent transfer protocols compatible with a variety of applications. PMID:26148566

  18. A versatile snap chip for high-density sub-nanoliter chip-to-chip reagent transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiyan; Munzar, Jeffrey D.; Ng, Andy; Juncker, David

    2015-07-01

    The coordinated delivery of minute amounts of different reagents is important for microfluidics and microarrays, but is dependent on advanced equipment such as microarrayers. Previously, we developed the snap chip for the direct transfer of reagents, thus realizing fluidic operations by only manipulating microscope slides. However, owing to the misalignment between arrays spotted on different slides, millimeter spacing was needed between spots and the array density was limited. In this work, we have developed a novel double transfer method and have transferred 625 spots cm-2, corresponding to >10000 spots for a standard microscope slide. A user-friendly snapping system was manufactured to make liquid handling straightforward. Misalignment, which for direct transfer ranged from 150-250 Όm, was reduced to <40 Όm for double transfer. The snap chip was used to quantify 50 proteins in 16 samples simultaneously, yielding limits of detection in the pg/mL range for 35 proteins. The versatility of the snap chip is illustrated with a 4-plex homogenous enzyme inhibition assay analyzing 128 conditions with precise timing. The versatility and high density of the snap chip with double transfer allows for the development of high throughput reagent transfer protocols compatible with a variety of applications.

  19. Nicotine patch preloading for smoking cessation (the preloading trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of nicotine replacement therapy before quitting smoking is called nicotine preloading. Standard smoking cessation protocols suggest commencing nicotine replacement therapy only on the first day of quitting smoking (quit day) aiming to reduce withdrawal symptoms and craving. However, other, more successful smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are used prior to the quit day as well as after. Nicotine preloading could improve quit rates by reducing satisfaction from smoking prior to quitting and breaking the association between smoking and reward. A systematic literature review suggests that evidence for the effectiveness of preloading is inconclusive and further trials are needed. Methods/Design This is a study protocol for a multicenter, non-blinded, randomized controlled trial based in the United Kingdom, enrolling 1786 smokers who want to quit, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment program, and sponsored by the University of Oxford. Participants will primarily be recruited through general practices and smoking cessation clinics, and randomized (1:1) either to use 21 mg nicotine patches, or not, for four weeks before quitting, whilst smoking as normal. All participants will be referred to receive standard smoking cessation service support. Follow-ups will take place at one week, four weeks, six months and 12 months after quit day. The primary outcome will be prolonged, biochemically verified six-month abstinence. Additional outcomes will include point prevalence abstinence and abstinence of four-week and 12-month duration, side effects, costs of treatment, and markers of potential mediators and moderators of the preloading effect. Discussion This large trial will add substantially to evidence on the effectiveness of nicotine preloading, but also on its cost effectiveness and potential mediators, which have not been investigated in detail previously. A range of recruitment strategies have been considered to try and compensate for any challenges encountered in recruiting the large sample, and the multicentre design means that knowledge can be shared between recruitment teams. The pragmatic study design means that results will give a realistic estimate of the success of the intervention if it were to be rolled out as part of standard smoking cessation service practice. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN33031001. Registered 27 April 2012. PMID:25052334

  20. Towards a standardised approach for evaluating guidelines and guidance documents on palliative sedation: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedation in palliative care has received growing attention in recent years; and so have guidelines, position statements, and related literature that provide recommendations for its practice. Yet little is known collectively about the content, scope and methodological quality of these materials. According to research, there are large variations in palliative sedation practice, depending on the definition and methodology used. However, a standardised approach to comparing and contrasting related documents, across countries, associations and governmental bodies is lacking. This paper reports on a protocol designed to enable thorough and systematic comparison of guidelines and guidance documents on palliative sedation. Methods and design A multidisciplinary and international group of palliative care researchers, identified themes and clinical issues on palliative sedation based on expert consultations and evidence drawn from the EAPC (European Association of Palliative Care) framework for palliative sedation and AGREE II (Appraisal Guideline Research and Evaluation) instrument for guideline assessment. The most relevant themes were selected and built into a comprehensive checklist. This was tested on people working closely with practitioners and patients, for user-friendliness and comprehensibility, and modified where necessary. Next, a systematic search was conducted for guidelines in English, Dutch, Flemish, or Italian. The search was performed in multiple databases (PubMed, CancerLit, CNAHL, Cochrane Library, NHS Evidence and Google Scholar), and via other Internet resources. Hereafter, the final version of the checklist will be used to extract data from selected literature, and the same will be compiled, entered into SPSS, cleaned and analysed systematically for publication. Discussion We have together developed a comprehensive checklist in a scientifically rigorous manner to allow standardised and systematic comparison. The protocol is applicable to all guidelines on palliative sedation, and the approach will contribute to rigorous and systematic comparison of international guidelines on any challenging topic such as this. Results from the study will provide valuable insights into common core elements and differences between the selected guidelines, and the extent to which recommendations are derived from, or match those in the EAPC framework. The outcomes of the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and directly to appropriate audiences. PMID:25028571

  1. Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria. PMID:23422471

  2. Bio-repository of DNA in stroke: a study protocol of three ancestral populations

    PubMed Central

    Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Maheshwari, Ankita; Yadav, Sunaina; Khan, Fahmi Yousif; Al-Hail, H; de Silva, Ranil; Gorthi, S P; Gupta, Salil; Sharma, Shri Ram; Sylaja, P N; Prasad, Kameshwar; Sharma, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the world. Identifying the genes underlying stroke risk may help us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that cause stroke and also identify novel therapeutic targets. To have sufficient power to disentangle the genetic component of stroke, large-scale highly phenotyped DNA repositories are necessary. The BRAINS (Bio-repository of DNA in stroke) study aims to recruit subjects with all subtypes of stroke as well as controls from UK, India, Sri Lanka and Qatar. BRAINS-UK will include 1500 stroke patients of European ancestry as well as British South Asians. BRAINS-South Asia aims to recruit 3000 stroke subjects and 3000 controls from across India and Sri Lanka. BRAINS-Middle East aims to enrol 1500 stroke patients from Qatar. The controls for BRAINS-Middle East will be recruited from a population-based Qatari Biobank. With the addition of new recruitment centres in India and Qatar, we present an updated version of the BRAINS study protocol. This is the first international DNA biobank for stroke patients and controls from the Middle East. By investigating the influence of genetic factors on stroke risk in European, South Asian and Middle Eastern populations, BRAINS has the potential to improve our understanding of genetic differences between these groups and may lead to new population-specific therapeutic targets. PMID:24175068

  3. A transdisciplinary approach to protocol development for tobacco control research: a case study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Melissa A; Rogers, Michelle L; Boergers, Julie; Kahler, Christopher W; Ramsey, Susan; Saadeh, Frances M; Abrams, David B; Buka, Stephen L; Niaura, Raymond; Colby, Suzanne M

    2012-12-01

    The increasing complexity of scientific problems related to lifestyle risk factors has prompted substantial investments in transdisciplinary or team science initiatives at the biological, psychosocial, and population levels of analysis. To date, the actual process of conducting team science from the perspectives of investigators engaged in it has not been well documented. We describe the experience of developing and implementing data collection protocols using the principles of transdisciplinary science. The New England Family Study Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center was a 10-year collaboration involving more than 85 investigators and consultants from more than 20 disciplines as well as more than 50 research staff. We used a two-phase process in which all the study personnel participated in the developing and testing of 160 instruments. These instruments were used in 4,378 assessments with 3,501 participants. With substantial effort, it is possible to build a team of scientists from diverse backgrounds that can develop a set of instruments using a shared conceptual approach, despite limited or no experience working together previously. PMID:24073144

  4. Protocol for the production of concentrated extracts of food folate for use in human bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    McKillop, Derek J; Pentieva, Kristina D; Scott, John M; Strain, J J; McCreedy, Richard; Alexander, Joy; Patterson, Karen; Hughes, Joan; McNulty, Helene

    2003-07-16

    To provide a tool to study folate bioavailability under controlled conditions, a methodology was developed to produce extracts representative of natural food folates but removed from their matrix and sufficiently concentrated so as to elicit a response in biomarkers of folate status without distorting usual dietary intake patterns. Egg, spinach, and yeast were selected to represent the wide range in extent of folate conjugation found in foods (0, 60, and 100% polyglutamyl folate, respectively). The protocol, which was based on extracting food folates using only reagents safe for human consumption, was optimized in the laboratory (thermal extraction for 10 min in a 2% ascorbate solution at pH 5) and then adapted for industrial scale production in a food-processing facility. Results showed that the extracts were 2.3-12 times more concentrated in folate compared with their corresponding food sources. Neither the mono- to polyglutamate ratio nor the distribution of the main folate derivatives was altered during processing, making these extracts suitable for use in human bioavailability studies. PMID:12848514

  5. Oxfordshire Women and Their Children's Health (OxWATCH): protocol for a prospective cohort feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S; Petrovic, G; Chevassut, A; Brook, L; Higgins, N; Kenworthy, Y; Selwood, M; Snelgar, T; Arnold, L; Boardman, H; Heneghan, C; Leeson, P; Redman, C; Granne, I

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Some specific pregnancy disorders are known to be associated with increased incidence of long-term maternal ill health (eg, gestational diabetes with late onset type 2 diabetes; pre-eclampsia with arterial disease). To what degree these later health conditions are a consequence of the woman's constitution prior to pregnancy rather than pregnancy itself triggering changes in a woman's health is unknown. Additionally, there is little prospective evidence for the impact of pre-pregnancy risk factors on the outcome of pregnancy. To understand the importance of pre-pregnancy health requires the recruitment of women into a long-term cohort study before their first successful pregnancy. The aim of this feasibility study is to test recruitment procedures and acceptability of participation to inform the planning of a future large-scale cohort study. Methods The prospective cohort feasibility study will recruit nulliparous women aged 18–40 years. Women will be asked to complete a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of our recruitment and data collection procedures. Baseline biophysical, genetic, socioeconomic, behavioural and psychological assessments will be conducted and samples of blood, urine, saliva and DNA will be collected. Recruitment feasibility and retention rates will be assessed. Women who become pregnant will be recalled for pregnancy and postpregnancy assessments. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by South Central Portsmouth REC (Ref: 12/SC/0492). The findings from the study will be disseminated through peer reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events. Trial registration number http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02419898. PMID:26553837

  6. A study protocol to evaluate the relationship between outdoor air pollution and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study protocol is designed to assess the relationship between outdoor air pollution and low birth weight and preterm births outcomes performing a semi-ecological analysis. Semi-ecological design studies are widely used to assess effects of air pollution in humans. In this type of analysis, health outcomes and covariates are measured in individuals and exposure assignments are usually based on air quality monitor stations. Therefore, estimating individual exposures are one of the major challenges when investigating these relationships with a semi-ecologic design. Methods/Design Semi-ecologic study consisting of a retrospective cohort study with ecologic assignment of exposure is applied. Health outcomes and covariates are collected at Primary Health Care Center. Data from pregnant registry, clinical record and specific questionnaire administered orally to the mothers of children born in period 2007-2010 in Portuguese Alentejo Litoral region, are collected by the research team. Outdoor air pollution data are collected with a lichen diversity biomonitoring program, and individual pregnancy exposures are assessed with spatial geostatistical simulation, which provides the basis for uncertainty analysis of individual exposures. Awareness of outdoor air pollution uncertainty will improve validity of individual exposures assignments for further statistical analysis with multivariate regression models. Discussion Exposure misclassification is an issue of concern in semi-ecological design. In this study, personal exposures are assigned to each pregnant using geocoded addresses data. A stochastic simulation method is applied to lichen diversity values index measured at biomonitoring survey locations, in order to assess spatial uncertainty of lichen diversity value index at each geocoded address. These methods assume a model for spatial autocorrelation of exposure and provide a distribution of exposures in each study location. We believe that variability of simulated exposure values at geocoded addresses will improve knowledge on variability of exposures, improving therefore validity of individual exposures to input in posterior statistical analysis. PMID:20950449

  7. Experimental performance study of wireless ad hoc system utilizing 802.11a standard base on different routing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiao F.; Wang, You-Zheng; Mei, Shunliang; Wang, Jing

    2002-08-01

    The wireless ad hoc network technology provides a flexible infrastructure for next generation mobile telecommunication. In this paper, the performances of the networks based on IEEE802.11a standard, including packets successful delivery rate, average end-to-end delay and system throughput, have been studied with different routing protocols (AODV, WRP, and FISHEYE) using GloMoSim to evaluate the effects of various factors, such as node mobility, node density, and node radio transmission range. The simulation results show that adaptive routing protocol will be more suitable for the variation ad hoc network and the results are helpful for the optimum design and deployment of an actual network.

  8. Developments of optimum flip-chip bonding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Dong H.; Kang, Sa Y.; Lee, Y. M.; Oh, S. Y.

    1997-08-01

    Flip-chip soldering is the critical technology for solving the current issues of electronic packaging industries that require the high I/O's. In order to increase the manufacturing ability of flip-chip technology, however, yield and reliability tissues should overcome. In this study, optimum flip-chip bonding process has been developed by using the test chips that had the electroplated solder bumps. Test chips are composed of three different types that are i) peripheral array pad chip, ii) peripheral array pad chip, and iii) area array pad chip. Each test chip has the daisy chain to consider the effect of reliability test. The electrical resistance was measured before and after reliability test. Based on these measurement, failure mode resulted from the moisture absorption was studied using scanning acoustic microscope. To achieve an optimum reflow profile of solder bump, correct temperature profile was set up with respect to the resin base flux. Different bonding forces were tested. Four underfill encapsulants were evaluated for minimum voids that caused the severe defects after reliability test. Also, the gap heights were measured with respect to applied bonding force after underfill was performed. Results from the moisture absorption and thermal cycling were discussed for flip-chip bonding on BT-resin substrates. The test vehicles using flip-chip technology have passed moisture preconditioning and temperature cycling tests.

  9. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. Methods/Design The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS) group (n = 206) with that of a control (WHS) group (n = 206). The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. Discussion This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the preventive actions undertaken by them within the scope of a job-specific WHS. Trial registration NTR3012 PMID:21958019

  10. Learning from positively deviant wards to improve patient safety: an observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ruth; Taylor, Natalie; Kellar, Ian; Lawton, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Positive deviance is an asset-based approach to improvement which has recently been adopted to improve quality and safety within healthcare. The approach assumes that solutions to problems already exist within communities. Certain groups or individuals identify these solutions and succeed despite having the same resources as others. Within healthcare, positive deviance has previously been applied at individual or organisational levels to improve specific clinical outcomes or processes of care. This study explores whether the positive deviance approach can be applied to multidisciplinary ward teams to address the broad issue of patient safety among elderly patients. Methods and analysis Preliminary work analysed National Health Service (NHS) Safety Thermometer data from 34 elderly medical wards to identify 5 ‘positively deviant’ and 5 matched ‘comparison’ wards. Researchers are blinded to ward status. This protocol describes a multimethod, observational study which will (1) assess the concurrent validity of identifying positively deviant elderly medical wards using NHS Safety Thermometer data and (2) generate hypotheses about how positively deviant wards succeed. Patient and staff perceptions of safety will be assessed on each ward using validated surveys. Correlation and ranking analyses will explore whether this survey data aligns with the routinely collected NHS Safety Thermometer data. Staff focus groups and researcher fieldwork diaries will be completed and qualitative thematic content analysis will be used to generate hypotheses about the strategies, behaviours, team cultures and dynamics that facilitate the delivery of safe patient care. The acceptability and sustainability of strategies identified will also be explored. Ethics and dissemination The South East Scotland Research Ethics Committee 01 approved this study (reference: 14/SS/1085) and NHS Permissions were granted from all trusts. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed, scientific journals, and presented at academic conferences. Trial registration number This study is registered on the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio (reference number—18050). PMID:26656985

  11. Protocol for a prospective, multicentre registry study of stenting for symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yilong; Miao, Zhongrong; Wang, Yongjun; Zhao, Xingquan; Gao, Peiyi; Liu, Liping; Wang, Feng; Liu, Yajie; Ma, Ning; Xu, Ziqi; Mo,, Dapeng; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The SAMMPRIS trial suggested that aggressive treatment was superior to endovascular stenting in patients with severe symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) due to high complication rates in patients in the stenting group. Given that 12.2% patients failed aggressive medical therapy in the SAMMPRIS study, it is imperative to perform a multicentre prospective registry study of stenting for patients with ICAS in China. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular stenting for patients with symptomatic intracranial artery stenosis and poor collaterals in China and to identify the characteristics of the population that would benefit the most from endovascular stenting in Chinese patients. Methods and analysis This multicentre prospective registry study will involve 20 stroke centres in China, and plans to recruit 300 patients into the registry. Patients with ?70% stenosis and symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease caused by hypoperfusion combined with poor collaterals who met the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria would be enrolled for this study. The primary outcome is the target vessel stroke event (including haemorrhagic or ischaemic stroke) or death within 30?days after stenting. The secondary outcomes include the successful recanalisation rate, the incidence of recurrent ischaemic stroke in the territory of the stented artery between 30?days and 1?year postoperatively, the restenosis rate and health-related quality of life. Ethics and dissemination The protocol is approved by the ethics committee at the coordinating centre and by the local institutional review board at each participating centre. Findings will be shared with participating hospitals, policymakers and the academic community to promote quality monitoring, quality improvement and the efficient allocation and use of cerebral catheterisation and intracranial artery stenting in China. Trial registration number http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01968122). PMID:25107437

  12. Efficacy of family mediation and the role of family violence: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Family law reforms in Australia require separated parents in dispute to attempt mandatory family dispute resolution (FDR) in community-based family services before court attendance. However, there are concerns about such services when clients present with a history of high conflict and family violence. This study protocol describes a longitudinal study of couples presenting for family mediation services. The study aims to describe the profile of family mediation clients, including type of family violence, and determine the impact of violence profiles on FDR processes and outcomes, such as the type and durability of shared parenting arrangements and clients’ satisfaction with mediated agreements. Methods A mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal design is used. The sampling frame is clients presenting at nine family mediation centres across metropolitan, outer suburban, and regional/rural sites in Victoria, Australia. Data are collected at pre-test, completion of mediation, and six months later. Self-administered surveys are administered at the three time points, and a telephone interview at the final post-test. The key study variable is family violence. Key outcome measures are changes in the type and level of acrimony and violent behaviours, the relationship between violence and mediated agreements, the durability of agreements over six months, and client satisfaction with mediation. Discussion Family violence is a major risk to the physical and mental health of women and children. This study will inform debates about the role of family violence and how to manage it in the family mediation context. It will also inform decision-making about mediation practices by better understanding how mediation impacts on parenting agreements, and the implications for children, especially in the context of family violence. PMID:24443936

  13. Integrating addiction treatment into primary care using mobile health technology: protocol for an implementation research study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare reform in the United States is encouraging Federally Qualified Health Centers and other primary-care practices to integrate treatment for addiction and other behavioral health conditions into their practices. The potential of mobile health technologies to manage addiction and comorbidities such as HIV in these settings is substantial but largely untested. This paper describes a protocol to evaluate the implementation of an E-Health integrated communication technology delivered via mobile phones, called Seva, into primary-care settings. Seva is an evidence-based system of addiction treatment and recovery support for patients and real-time caseload monitoring for clinicians. Methods/Design Our implementation strategy uses three models of organizational change: the Program Planning Model to promote acceptance and sustainability, the NIATx quality improvement model to create a welcoming environment for change, and Rogers’s diffusion of innovations research, which facilitates adaptations of innovations to maximize their adoption potential. We will implement Seva and conduct an intensive, mixed-methods assessment at three diverse Federally Qualified Healthcare Centers in the United States. Our non-concurrent multiple-baseline design includes three periods — pretest (ending in four months of implementation preparation), active Seva implementation, and maintenance — with implementation staggered at six-month intervals across sites. The first site will serve as a pilot clinic. We will track the timing of intervention elements and assess study outcomes within each dimension of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework, including effects on clinicians, patients, and practices. Our mixed-methods approach will include quantitative (e.g., interrupted time-series analysis of treatment attendance, with clinics as the unit of analysis) and qualitative (e.g., staff interviews regarding adaptations to implementation protocol) methods, and assessment of implementation costs. Discussion If implementation is successful, the field will have a proven technology that helps Federally Qualified Health Centers and affiliated organizations provide addiction treatment and recovery support, as well as a proven strategy for implementing the technology. Seva also has the potential to improve core elements of addiction treatment, such as referral and treatment processes. A mobile technology for addiction treatment and accompanying implementation model could provide a cost-effective means to improve the lives of patients with drug and alcohol problems. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01963234). PMID:24884976

  14. Acupuncture, Counseling, and Usual care for Depression (ACUDep): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evidence on the effect of acupuncture or counseling for depression is not conclusive yet is sufficient to warrant further research. Our aim is to conduct a full-scale RCT to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of acupuncture and counseling compared to usual care alone. We will explore the experiences and perspectives of patients and practitioners. Methods/Design Randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms: acupuncture plus usual care, counseling plus usual care, and usual care alone, in conjunction with a nested qualitative study using in-depth interviews with purposive samples of trial participants. Participants: Patients aged over 18 years diagnosed with depression or mood disorder by their GP and with a score of 20 or above on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Randomization: Computer randomization by York Trials Unit to acupuncture, counseling, and usual care alone in proportions of 2:2:1, respectively, with secure allocation concealment. Interventions: Patients allocated to acupuncture and counseling groups receive the offer of up to 12 weekly sessions. Both interventions allow flexibility to address patient variation, yet are constrained within defined protocols. Acupuncture is based on traditional Chinese medicine and counseling is non-directive within the humanistic tradition. Outcome: The PHQ-9 is the primary outcome measure, collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Also measured is BDI-II, SF-36 Bodily pain subscale, and EQ-5D. Texted mood scores are collected weekly over the first 15 weeks. Health-related resource use is collected over 12 months. Analysis: The sample size target was for 640 participants, calculated for an effect size of 0.32 on the PHQ-9 when comparing acupuncture with counseling given 90% power, 5% significance, and 20% loss to follow-up. Analysis of covariance will be used on an intention-to-treat basis. Thematic analysis will be used for qualitative data. We will compare incremental cost-effectiveness of the three treatment options at 12 months. Discussion Ethical approval was obtained in October 2009. There were six subsequent protocol amendments, the last of which was approved in January 2012. Recruitment of 755 participants took place over 18 months. Data collection will be completed by June 2012. No interim analyses have been conducted. Trial registration ISRCTN63787732 PMID:23151156

  15. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy augmentation in major depression treatment (ECAM study): study protocol for a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Atsuo; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Mitsuda, Dai; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Abe, Takayuki; Sato, Yuji; Iwashita, Satoru; Mimura, Masaru; Ono, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Major depression is a serious mental disorder that causes substantial distress and impairment in individuals and places an enormous burden on society. Although antidepressant treatment is the most common therapy provided in routine practice, there is little evidence to guide second-line therapy for patients who have failed to respond to antidepressants. The aim of this paper is to describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial that measures the clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as an augmentation strategy to treat patients with non-psychotic major depression identified as suboptimal responders to usual depression care. Methods and analysis The current study is a 16-week assessor-blinded randomised, parallel-groups superiority trial with 12-month follow-up at an outpatient clinic as part of usual depression care. Patients aged 20–65?years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Major Depressive Disorder who have experienced at least one failed trial of antidepressants as part of usual depression care, will be randomly assigned to receive CBT plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone. The primary outcome is the change in clinician-rated 17-item GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (GRID-HAMD) score at 16?weeks, and secondary outcomes include severity and change in scores of subjective depression symptoms, proportion of responders and remitters, safety and quality of life. The primary population will be the intention-to-treat patients. Ethics and dissemination All protocols and the informed consent form comply with the Ethics Guideline for Clinical Research (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). Ethics review committees at the Keio University School of Medicine and the Sakuragaoka Memorial Hospital approved the study protocol. The results of the study will be disseminated at several research conferences and as published articles in peer-reviewed journals. The study will be implemented and reported in line with the CONSORT statement. Trial registration number UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000001218. PMID:25335963

  16. Chromosome conformation capture on chip in single Drosophila melanogaster tissues.

    PubMed

    Tolhuis, Bas; Blom, Marleen; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2012-11-01

    Chromosomes are protein-DNA complexes that encode life. In a cell nucleus, chromosomes are folded in a highly specific manner, which connects strongly to some of their paramount functions, such as DNA replication and gene transcription. Chromosome conformation capture methodologies allow researchers to detect chromosome folding, by quantitatively measuring which genomic sequences are in close proximity in nuclear space. Here, we describe a modified chromosome conformation capture on chip (4C) protocol, which is specifically designed for detection of chromosome folding in a single Drosophila melanogaster tissue. Our protocol enables 4C analyses on a limited number of cells, which is crucial for fly tissues, because these contain relatively low numbers of cells. We used this protocol to demonstrate that target genes of Polycomb group proteins interact with each other in nuclear space of third instar larval brain cells. Major benefits of using D. melanogaster in 4C studies are: (1) powerful and tractable genetic approaches can be incorporated; (2) short generation time allows use of complex genotypes; and (3) compact and well annotated genome. We anticipate that our sensitized 4C method will be generally applicable to detect chromosome folding in other fly tissues. PMID:22525789

  17. Optimal Scanning Protocols for Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Stents: An in Vitro Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Abdulrahman; Sun, Zhonghua; Al Safran, Zakariya; Poovathumkadavi, Abduljaleel; Albader, Suha; Ifdailat, Husam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the optimal dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scanning protocol for peripheral arterial stents while achieving a low radiation dose, while still maintaining diagnostic image quality, as determined by an in vitro phantom study. Methods: Dual-energy scans in monochromatic spectral imaging mode were performed on a peripheral arterial phantom with use of three gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) protocols, three pitch values, and four kiloelectron volts (keV) ranges. A total of 15 stents of different sizes, materials, and designs were deployed in the phantom. Image noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and the four levels of monochromatic energy for DECT imaging of peripheral arterial stents were measured and compared to determine the optimal protocols. Results: A total of 36 scans with 180 datasets were reconstructed from a combination of different protocols. There was a significant reduction of image noise with a higher SNR from monochromatic energy images between 65 and 70 keV in all investigated preset GSI protocols (p < 0.05). In addition, significant effects were found from the main effect analysis for these factors: GSI, pitch, and keV (p = 0.001). In contrast, there was significant interaction on the unstented area between GSI and ASIR (p = 0.015) and a very high significant difference between keV and ASIR (p < 0.001). A radiation dose reduction of 50% was achieved. Conclusions: The optimal scanning protocol and energy level in the phantom study were GSI-48, pitch value 0.984, and 65 keV, which resulted in lower image noise and a lower radiation dose, but with acceptable diagnostic images. PMID:26006234

  18. Packaging a free-space intra-chip optical interconnect module: Monte Carlo tolerance study and assembly results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervaeke, Michael; Lahti, Markku; Karpinnen, Mikko; Debaes, Christof; Volckaerts, Bart; Karioja, Pentti; Thienpont, Hugo

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the fabrication and assembly induced performance degradation of an intra-multi-chip-module free-space optical interconnect, integrating micro-lenses and a deflection prism above a dense opto-electronic chip. The proposed component is used to demonstrate the capabilities of an accurate micro-optical rapid prototype technique, namely the Deep Proton Writing (DPW). To evaluate the accuracy of DPW and to assess whether our assembly scheme will provide us with a reasonable process yield, we have built a simulation framework combining mechanical Monte Carlo analysis with optical simulations. Both the technological requirements to ensure a high process yield, and the specifications of our in-house DPW technology are discussed. Therefore, we first conduct a sensitivity analysis and we subsequently simulate the effect of combined errors using a Monte Carlo simulation. We are able to investigate the effect of a technology accuracy enhancement on the fabrication and assembly yield by scaling the standard deviation of the errors proportionally to each sensitivity interval. We estimate that 40% of the systems fabricated with DPW will show an optical transmission efficiency above -4.32 dB, which is -3 dB below the theoretical obtainable value. We also discuss our efforts to implement an opto-mechanical Monte Carlo simulator. It enables us to address specific issues not directly related with the micro-optical or DPW components, such as the influence of glueing layers and structures that allow for self-alignment, by combining mechanical tolerancing algorithms with optical simulation software. More in particular we determined that DPW provides ample accuracy to meet the requirements to obtain a high manufacturing yield. Finally, we shortly highlight the basic layout of a completed demonstrator. The adhesive bonding of opto-electronic devices in their package is subject to further improvement to enhance the tilt accuracy of the devices with respect to the optical interconnect modules.

  19. Fluoxetine in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (FLUOX-PMS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently available disease-modifying treatments acting by modifying the immune response are ineffective in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), which is caused by a widespread axonal degeneration. Mechanisms suspected to be involved in this widespread axonal degeneration are reduced axonal energy metabolism, axonal glutamate toxicity, and reduced cerebral blood flow. Fluoxetine might theoretically reduce axonal degeneration in MS because it stimulates energy metabolism through enhancing glycogenolysis, stimulates the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and dilates cerebral arterioles. The current document presents the protocol of a clinical trial to test the hypothesis that fluoxetine slows down the progressive phase of MS. Methods/Design The FLUOX-PMS trial is a multi-center, randomized, controlled and double-blind clinical study. A total of 120 patients with the diagnosis of either secondary or primary progressive MS will be treated either by fluoxetine (40 mg daily) or placebo for a total period of 108 weeks. The primary endpoint is the time to confirmed disease progression defined as either at least a 20% increase in the timed 25-Foot Walk or at least a 20% increase in the 9-Hole Peg Test. Secondary endpoints include the Hauser ambulation index, cognitive changes, fatigue, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and in a small subgroup optical coherence tomography. Discussion The FLUOX-PMS trial will gives us information as to whether fluoxetine has neuroprotective effects in patients with progressive MS. Trial Registration Eudra-CT: 2011-003775-11 PMID:24460863

  20. Acupuncture for acute stroke: study protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture has been widely used as a treatment for stroke in China for more than 3,000 years. However, previous research has not yet shown that acupuncture is effective as a stroke treatment. We report a protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled, and outcome assessor-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture on acute ischemic stroke. Methods/Design In a prospective trial involving three hospitals in the Zhejiang Province (China) 250 patients with a recent (less than 1 week previous) episode of ischemic stroke will be included. Patients will be randomized into two groups: an acupuncture group given scalp acupuncture and electroacupuncture, and a control group given no acupuncture. Eighteen treatment sessions will be performed over a three-week period. The primary outcome will be measured by changes in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at the one, three, and four-week follow-up. Secondary outcome measures will be: 1) the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale for motor function; 2) the mini-mental state examination and Montreal cognitive assessment for cognitive function; 3) the video-fluoroscopic swallowing study for swallowing ability; and 4) the incidence of adverse events. Discussion This trial is expected to clarify whether or not acupuncture is effective for acute stroke. It will also show if acupuncture can improve motor, cognitive, or swallowing function. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12001971. PMID:24908241

  1. A simple, economical and reproducible protein extraction protocol for proteomics studies of soybean roots

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elisete Pains; Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; da Silva Batista, Jesiane StefĂąnia; Huergo, Luciano; Hungria, Mariangela

    2012-01-01

    Sample preparation is a critical step in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of plant tissues. Here we describe a phenol/SDS procedure that, although greatly simplified, produced well-resolved and reproducible 2-DE profiles of protein extracts from soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merril] roots. Extractions were made in three replicates using both the original and simplified procedure. To evaluate the quality of the extracted proteins, ten spots were randomly selected and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). The 2-DE gels were equally well resolved, with no streaks or smears, and no significant differences were observed in protein yield, reproducibility, resolution or number of spots. Mass spectra of the ten selected spots were compared with database entries and allowed high-quality identification of proteins. The simplified protocol described here presents considerable savings of time and reagents without compromising the quality of 2-DE protein profiles and compatibility with MS analysis, and may facilitate the progress of proteomics studies of legume-rhizobia interactions. PMID:22802720

  2. Bio-Repository of DNA in stroke (BRAINS): A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stroke is one of the commonest causes of mortality in the world and anticipated to be an increasing burden to the developing world. Stroke has a genetic basis and identifying those genes may not only help us define the mechanisms that cause stroke but also identify novel therapeutic targets. However, large scale highly phenotyped DNA repositories are required in order for this to be achieved. Methods The proposed Bio-Repository of DNA in Stroke (BRAINS) will recruit all subtypes of stroke as well as controls from two different continents, Europe and Asia. Subjects recruited from the UK will include stroke patients of European ancestry as well as British South Asians. Stroke subjects from South Asia will be recruited from India and Sri Lanka. South Asian cases will also have control subjects recruited. Discussion We describe a study protocol to establish a large and highly characterized stroke biobank in those of European and South Asian descent. With different ethnic populations being recruited, BRAINS has the ability to compare and contrast genetic risk factors between those of differing ancestral descent as well as those who migrate into different environments. PMID:21366918

  3. Chip packaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

  4. Hand, hip and knee osteoarthritis in a Norwegian population-based study - The MUST protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the prevalence and consequences of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Norwegian population is limited. This study has been designed to gain a greater understanding of musculoskeletal pain in the general population with a focus on clinically and radiologically confirmed OA, as well as risk factors, consequences, and management of OA. Methods/Design The Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker STudy (MUST) has been designed as an observational study comprising a population-based postal survey and a comprehensive clinical examination of a sub-sample with self-reported OA (MUST OA cohort). All inhabitants in Ullensaker municipality, Norway, aged 40 to 79 years receive the initial population-based postal survey questionnaire with questions about life style, general health, musculoskeletal pain, self-reported OA, comorbidities, health care utilisation, medication use, and functional ability. Participants who self-report OA in their hip, knee and/or hand joints are asked to attend a comprehensive clinical examination at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, including a comprehensive medical examination, performance-based functional tests, different imaging modalities, cardiovascular assessment, blood and urine samples, and a number of patient-reported questionnaires including five OA disease specific instruments. Data will be merged with six national data registries. A subsample of those who receive the questionnaire has previously participated in postal surveys conducted in 1990, 1994, and 2004 with data on musculoskeletal pain and functional ability in addition to demographic characteristics and a number of health related factors. This subsample constitutes a population based cohort with 20 years follow-up. Discussion This protocol describes the design of an observational population-based study that will involve the collection of data from a postal survey on musculoskeletal pain, and a comprehensive clinical examination on those with self-reported hand, hip and/or knee OA. These data, in addition to data from national registries, will provide unique insights into clinically and radiologically confirmed OA with respect to risk factors, consequences, and management. PMID:23826721

  5. The Malaysian Breast Cancer Survivorship Cohort (MyBCC): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Tania; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Su, Tin Tin; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Nahar, Azmi Mohd; Ng, Chong Guan; Dahlui, Maznah; Hussain, Samsinah; Cantwell, Marie; Murray, Liam; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over recent decades, the burden of breast cancer has been increasing at an alarming rate in Asia. Prognostic research findings from Western countries may not readily be adapted to Asia, as the outcome of breast cancer depends on a multitude of factors ranging from genetic, clinical and histological predictors, to lifestyle and social predictors. The primary aim of this study is to determine the impact of lifestyle (eg, nutrition, physical activity), mental and sociocultural condition, on the overall survival and quality of life (QoL) among multiethnic Malaysian women following diagnosis of breast cancer. This study aims to advance the evidence on prognostic factors of breast cancer within the Asian setting. The findings may guide management of patients with breast cancer not only during active treatment but also during the survivorship period. Methods This hospital-based prospective cohort study will comprise patients with breast cancer (18 years and above), managed in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). We aim to recruit 1000 cancer survivors over a 6-year period. Data collection will occur at baseline (within 3 months of diagnosis), 6 months, and 1, 3 and 5 years following diagnosis. The primary outcomes are disease-free survival and overall survival, and secondary outcome is QoL. Factors measured are demographic and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle factors (eg, dietary intake, physical activity), anthropometry measurements (eg, height, weight, waist, hip circumference, body fat analysis), psychosocial aspects, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the UMMC Ethical Committee in January 2012. All participants are required to provide written informed consent. The findings from our cohort study will be disseminated via scientific publication as well as presentation to stakeholders including the patients, clinicians, the public and policymakers, via appropriate avenues. PMID:26503386

  6. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients’ eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients’ perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families’ and doctors’ perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. Methods and analysis This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and divergences of these perspectives and how to address the needs of all three groups. PMID:26163035

  7. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural) and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in the longer term, more effective and culturally-appropriate interventions to improve health. PMID:22236166

  8. Acupuncture for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We report on the design and implementation of a study protocol entitled Acupuncture randomised trial for post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain - a pilot study (ACUARP) designed to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy performed in the perioperative period on post anaesthetic recovery and postoperative pain. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomised controlled pilot trial with three arms and partial double blinding. We will compare (a) press needle acupuncture, (b) no treatment and (c) press plaster acupressure in a standardised anaesthetic setting. Seventy-five patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery to the uterus or ovaries will be allocated randomly to one of the three trial arms. The total observation period will begin one day before surgery and end on the second postoperative day. Twelve press needles and press plasters are to be administered preoperatively at seven acupuncture points. The primary outcome measure will be time from extubation to ‘ready for discharge’ from the post anaesthesia care unit (in minutes). The ‘ready for discharge’ end point will be assessed using three different scores: the Aldrete score, the Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System and an In-House score. Secondary outcome measures will comprise pre-, intra- and postoperative variables (which are anxiety, pain, nausea and vomiting, concomitant medication). Discussion The results of this study will provide information on whether acupuncture may improve patient post anaesthetic recovery. Comparing acupuncture with acupressure will provide insight into potential therapeutic differences between invasive and non-invasive acupuncture techniques. Trial registration NCT01816386 (First received: 28 October 2012) PMID:25047046

  9. Multimorbidity in primary care: protocol of a national cross-sectional study in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    DĂ©ruaz-Luyet, Anouk; N'Goran, A Alexandra; Tandjung, Ryan; Frey, Peter; Zeller, Andreas; Haller, Dagmar M; Rosemann, Thomas; Burnand, Bernard; Bodenmann, Patrick; Senn, Nicolas; Widmer, Daniel; Herzig, Lilli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With the ageing of the population and the general improvement of care, an increasing number of people are living with multiple chronic health conditions or ‘multimorbidity’. Multimorbidity often implies multiple medical treatments. As a consequence, the risk of adverse events and the time spent by patients for their treatments increase exponentially. In many cases, treatment guidelines traditionally defined for single conditions are not easily applicable. Primary care for individuals with multimorbidity requires complex patient-centred care and good communication between the patient and the general practitioner (GP). This often includes prioritising among the different chronic conditions. Methods and analysis The main objectives of this study are to describe the burden related to multimorbidity (disease-related burden and burden of treatment) in primary care and to identify the factors influencing it. Other objectives include evaluating patients’ perception of treatment burden and quality of life, assessing factors influencing that perception, and investigating prioritisation in the management of multimorbidity from the perspectives of GPs and patients. For this cross-sectional study, patient enrolment will take place in GP's private practices across Switzerland. A convenient sample of 100 GPs will participate; overall, 1000 patients with at least three chronic health conditions will be enrolled. Data will be collected as paper-based questionnaires for GPs and delayed telephone interview questionnaires for patients. GPs will provide demographic and practice-related data. In addition, each GP will complete a paper-based questionnaire for each patient that they enrol. Each patient will complete a telephone interview questionnaire. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the research ethics committee of Canton Vaud, Switzerland (Protocol 315/14). The results of the study will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26510730

  10. Panax ginseng therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical trial protocol and pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng (Ren shen) has been used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article aims to present a study protocol and pilot trial comparing P. ginseng with placebo for treating moderate to very severe COPD. Methods COPD was diagnosed spirometrically, with participants having a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of between 20% and 79% and FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of less than 70%. Outcome measures included exacerbation rate, St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test and Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Other outcome measures included the six-minute walk test, FEV1, FVC, relief medication use, use of COPD-specific medical resources, and adverse events. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. The method of this pilot trial was based on a planned full-scale trial except that participants were enrolled for ten weeks compared to 52 weeks. In the pilot trial, 14 participants (57–73 years old) with moderate to very severe COPD were recruited from a community health program at a public Chinese medicine hospital in Guangdong Province, China. After a 2-week run-in period, 10 participants were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either P. ginseng group (n?=?5) (200 mg twice daily for four weeks) or placebo group (n?=?5), and then followed-up for an additional 4 weeks for a total of 10 weeks. Results Nine participants completed the trial and one dropped out. The exacerbation rate could not be evaluated because there were no exacerbations. One participant in P. ginseng group reported events of sore throat, cough and fever. Trial investigators did not consider these events as COPD exacerbations or adverse events. Conclusions Participant recruitment, study design, data collection and outcome measurement have been tested in a pilot trial. A full-scale trial is warranted. PMID:25161696

  11. Exploring the Effect of Video Used to Enhance the Retrospective Verbal Protocol Analysis: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the use of video in the cognitive task analysis (CTA) retrospective verbal protocol analysis (RVPA) during a job analysis affects: (a) the quality of performing the CTA, (b) the time to complete the CTA, and (c) the cost to execute the CTA. Research has shown when using the simultaneous VPA during a CTA…

  12. Teacher's Perceptions of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol for Teaching Young English Language Learners: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Moux, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the use of sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) instructional practices to promote the language development and learning of elementary English language learners (ELLs) in an immersion setting in 1st and 2nd grades. The SIOP model was developed for middle school ELLs, and there is scant information…

  13. Investigation of formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, W.

    2012-08-01

    This work investigates the formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting of mild steel and the transformation conditions between various morphology chips. It is supposed that the modeling material follows the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. In orthogonal cutting process, both the plastic flow and the instability behaviors of chip materials are caused by the plane strain loadings. Therefore, the general instability behaviors of materials in plane strain state are first analyzed with linear perturbation method and a universal instability criterion is established. Based on the analytical results, the formation mechanisms of chips and the transformation conditions between continuous and serrated chips are further studied by instability phase diagram method. The results show that the chip formation strongly depends on the intensity ratios between shear and normal stresses. The ratios of dissipative rates of plastic work done by compression and shear stresses govern the transformation from continuous to serrated chips. These results are verified by the numerical simulations on the orthogonal cutting process.

  14. The RootChip: An Integrated Microfluidic Chip for Plant Science[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Guido; Guo, Woei-Jiun; Ehrhardt, David W.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Sit, Rene V.; Quake, Stephen R.; Meier, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Studying development and physiology of growing roots is challenging due to limitations regarding cellular and subcellular analysis under controlled environmental conditions. We describe a microfluidic chip platform, called RootChip, that integrates live-cell imaging of growth and metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana roots with rapid modulation of environmental conditions. The RootChip has separate chambers for individual regulation of the microenvironment of multiple roots from multiple seedlings in parallel. We demonstrate the utility of The RootChip by monitoring time-resolved growth and cytosolic sugar levels at subcellular resolution in plants by a genetically encoded fluorescence sensor for glucose and galactose. The RootChip can be modified for use with roots from other plant species by adapting the chamber geometry and facilitates the systematic analysis of root growth and metabolism from multiple seedlings, paving the way for large-scale phenotyping of root metabolism and signaling. PMID:22186371

  15. Friction analysis between tool and chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Xu, Binshi; Zhang, Jiaying; Dong, Shiyun

    2010-12-01

    The elastic-plasticity mechanics are applied to analyze the friction between tool and chip. According to the slip-line field theory, a series of theoretical formula and the friction coefficient is derived between the tool and chip. So the cutting process can be investigated. Based on the Orthogonal Cutting Model and the Mohr's circle stress, the cutting mechanism of the cladding and the surface integrity of machining can be studied.

  16. A Study on Energy Efficient MAC Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Chul; Lee, Ji-Woong; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Yoe, Hyun

    Various technologies are used in the agricultural sites now. Especially, the recent application of sensor network related technology is quite notable. Considering the efficiency of MAC protocol of WSN is being researched in various aspects, it is believed that a research on how to apply the MAC protocol to agriculture would be also required. This research is based on the sensor node developed by Sunchon University ITRC. Once the sensor nodes are effectively located in the farm, they operate for a long time and they are rarely relocated once installed. The concentration of multiple sensor nodes in a narrow area is another characteristic the sensor node. The purpose of this research is to select a sensor network MAC protocol, which would be most proper to agricultural site with good energy efficiency and excellent transmission delay performance. The applicable protocols such as S-MAC and X-MAC were set up for the installation environment. They were compared and a methodology to select the most optimum protocol to agricultural site is suggested.

  17. Factors dominating adhesion of NaCl onto potato chips.

    PubMed

    Buck, V E; Barringer, S A

    2007-10-01

    In this study, the adhesion factors examined were time between frying and coating, surface oil content, chip temperature, oil composition, NaCl size, NaCl shape, and electrostatic coating. Three different surface oil content potato chips, high, low, and no, were produced. Oils used were soybean, olive, corn, peanut, and coconut. After frying, chips were coated immediately, after 1 d, and after 1 mo. NaCl crystals of 5 different particle sizes (24.7, 123, 259, 291, and 388 microm) were coated both electrostatically and nonelectrostatically. Adhesion of cubic, dendritic, and flake crystals was examined. Chips were coated at different temperatures. Chips with high surface oil had the highest adhesion of salt, making surface oil content the most important factor. Decreasing chip temperature decreased surface oil and adhesion. Increasing time between frying and coating reduced adhesion for low surface oil chips, but did not affect high and no surface oil chips. Changing oil composition did not affect adhesion. Increasing salt size decreased adhesion. Salt size had a greater effect on chips with lower surface oil content. When there were significant differences, cubic crystals gave the best adhesion followed by flake crystals then dendritic crystals. For high and low surface oil chips, electrostatic coating did not change adhesion of small size crystals but decreased adhesion of large salts. For no surface oil content chips, electrostatic coating improved adhesion for small salt sizes but did not affect adhesion of large crystals. PMID:17995602

  18. Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease Study in Tehran: Research Design and Lung Spirometry Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Hooman; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Habib; Ghanei, Mostafa; Buist, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are planned to rank fifth in burden of disease and third with respect to mortality by 2020. Carrying out research regarding different aspects of COPD is mentioned as important health priorities by academic institutions and governments. The burden of lung disease (BOLD) Initiative was designed a decade ago to develop robust models that can be used to estimate the prevalence and current and future economic burden of COPD. The goal of the present project is to describe the prevalence and determining the causes and risk factors of COPD in the population of Tehran city. Methods: This cross-sectional study follows a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The target population is all noninstitutionalized inhabitants, aged 18-40 in one group and over 40 in another, who inhabit in Tehran city. The stratification of the sample according to the 22 municipal districts of Tehran is incorporated in the sampling process. Proportional to the number of households in the 22 districts, the appropriate number of clusters is weighted according to each district. For each cluster, a team of three members approaches the index household, which is specified through the aforementioned random selection of clusters, and continues the enumeration in 10 neighbor households in a systematic manner. Results: As a study protocol, there are no specific results to present; our purpose is to share our design with the scientific body. Conclusions: We expect that findings from the BOLD study in Tehran will show the status of COPD and its causes in the community. PMID:25538840

  19. Patients who discontinued statin treatment: a protocol for cohort study using primary care data

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradova, Yana; Coupland, Carol; Brindle, Peter; Hippisley-Cox, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Risk thresholds for using statins to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) have recently been lowered, so an increasing number of patients are now prescribed these drugs. Although the safety of long-term statin use has been generally established, concerns about the balance of risks and benefits of statins still exist for some medical professionals and patients, and issues concerning their side effects are occasionally widely publicised. This study will report the rates of stopping for statins and also identify any patient groups more likely to stop using statins, so possibly increasing their risk of cardiovascular events. Methods and analysis A prospective open cohort study between 1 January 2002 and 30 September 2014 will be based on the general population of people prescribed statins, using records from UK general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Database (CPRD). Participants aged 25–84?years will enter the cohort on the date of their first prescription for a statin and leave on the earliest date of: a cardiovascular event; death; leaving the practice; the last practice upload date or the study end date. If there are no prescriptions within 90?days after the expected finishing date of a prescription, a patient will be defined as a stopper with the discontinuation outcome date as the expected finishing date. Rates of statin discontinuation will be calculated by calendar year, type and dose of statin, age, and morbidities. Cox proportional regression analyses will be run to identify the most important factors associated with discontinuation. Analyses will be run separately for patients without CVD (primary prevention) and with diagnosed CVD (secondary prevention). Ethics and dissemination The protocol has been reviewed and approved by Independent Scientific Advisory Committee for MHRA Database Research. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:26493458

  20. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Keatley, David A; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been little research investigating the level of support for the public interest case of minimum pricing in Australia. Objective This article describes protocol for a study exploring Western Australian (WA) public knowledge, understanding, and reaction to a proposed minimum price policy per standard drink. Methods The study will employ a qualitative methodological design. Participants will be recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds, including ethnic minorities, blue and white collar workers, unemployed, students, and elderly/retired populations to participate in focus groups. Focus group participants will be asked about their knowledge of, and initial reactions to, the proposed policy and encouraged to discuss how such a proposal may affect their own alcohol use and alcohol consumption at the population level. Participants will also be asked to discuss potential avenues for increasing acceptability of the policy. The focus groups will adopt a semi-structured, open-ended approach guided by a question schedule. The schedule will be based on feedback from pilot samples, previous research, and a steering group comprising experts in alcohol policy and pricing. Results The study is expected to take approximately 14 months to complete. Conclusions The findings will be of considerable interest and relevance to government officials, policy makers, researchers, advocacy groups, alcohol retail and licensed establishments and organizations, city and town planners, police, and other stakeholder organizations. PMID:26582408

  1. Parenting roles and knowledge in neonatal intensive care units: protocol of a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Elisabete; Amorim, Mariana; Fraga, SĂ­lvia; Barros, Henrique; Silva, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is a strong focus on the translation of scientific knowledge into evidence-based practice when dealing with very preterm births. The aim is to standardise and rationalise healthcare. The incorporation of parents’ perspectives with respect to the organisation of care and technical interventions in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is needed. This study aims to analyse the repertoire of meanings, knowledge and emotions actualised by the parents of very preterm infants hospitalised in NICUs in the decision process regarding parental care, treatment options and uses of information sources. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods, observational study. The methodological strategy will rely on: (1) Ethnographic observation, carried out in a level III NICU located in the North of Portugal, during 6 months; (2) NICU-based surveys of mothers and fathers of very preterm infants born between July 2013 and June 2014 and admitted at the seven public level III NICUs of the Northern Health Region of Portugal; (3) Single and couple semistructured interviews to a subsample of mothers and fathers of very preterm infants, 4 months after birth. Inferential statistics will be used to analyse the quantitative data and content analysis, with an iterative and reflexive process and will be implemented to assess qualitative data. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the National Data Protection Commission and the Ethics Committee of all the hospitals involved. The current project will contribute to develop resources for enriched good medical practices in the context of neonatal services through integrating insights from social sciences, public health, epidemiology and ethics. The expected dissemination actions are effective tools in designing strategies that aim to develop family-centred care and to improve medical practices in the context of neonatal services. PMID:25011994

  2. Comprehensive protocol to simultaneously study protein phosphorylation, acetylation, and N-linked sialylated glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Melo-Braga, Marcella Nunes; Ibáńez-Vea, María; Larsen, Martin Rűssel; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and glycosylation are an essential regulatory mechanism of protein function and they are associated with a range of biological processes. Since most PTMs alter the molecular mass of a protein, mass spectrometry (MS) is the ideal analytical tool for studying various PTMs. However, PTMs are generally present in substoichiometric levels and therefore their unmodified counterpart often suppresses their signal in MS. Consequently, PTM analysis by MS is a challenging task requiring highly specialized and sensitive enrichment methods. Currently, several methods have been implemented for PTM enrichment and each of them has its drawbacks and advantages as they differ in selectivity and specificity toward specific protein modifications. Unfortunately, for most of the more than 300 known modifications we have none or poor tools for selective enrichment.Here, we describe a comprehensive workflow to simultaneously study phosphorylation, acetylation, and N-linked sialylated glycosylation from the same biological sample. The protocol involves an initial titanium dioxide (TiO2) step to enrich for phosphopeptides and sialylated N-linked glycopeptides followed by glycan release and post-fractionation using sequential elution from immobilized metal affinity chromatography (SIMAC) to separate mono-phosphorylated and deglycosylated peptides from multi-phosphorylated ones. The IMAC flow-through and acidic elution is subsequently subjected to a next round of TiO2 enrichment for further separation of mono-phosphopeptides from deglycosylated peptides. In addition, the acetylated peptides present in the first TiO2 flow-through are enriched by immunoprecipitation (IP). Finally, the samples are fractionated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) to reduce sample complexity and increase the coverage during LC-MS/MS analysis. This allows the analysis of multiple types of modifications from the same highly complex biological sample without decreasing the quality of each individual PTM study. PMID:25820729

  3. A preliminary study about the influence of high hydrostatic pressure processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Sun, Da-Wen; Górecki, Adrian; BƂaszczak, Wioletta; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Fornal, Józef; JeliƄski, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine was investigated preliminarily. Wines were treated by HHP at 250, 450 and 650MPa for up to 45min and French oak chips (5g/L) were added. HHP enhanced the extraction of phenolics from oak chips. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the wine increased after HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Meanwhile, the anthocyanin content and wine color intensity decreased in the first 5min of pressure treatment and then increased gradually. The multivariate analysis revealed that "pressure holding time" was the key factor affecting wine physicochemical characteristics during HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Furthermore, oak chip maceration with and without HHP processing weakened the intensities of several sensory attributes and provided the wine with an artificial taste. PMID:26471591

  4. Association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2; a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    De la Cruz-Cano, Eduardo; Tovilla-Zarate, Carlos Alfonso; Reyes-Ramos, Emilio; Gonzalez-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Juarez-Castro, Isela; López-Narváez, Maria Lilia; Fresan, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent conditions throughout the world and have significant impact on health outcomes. It has been estimated that diabetes mellitus type 2 affects about 246 million people in the world; nevertheless, incidence varies among countries. There is evidence that depression is associated with a poor metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that present other health problems (such as hypertension and obesity). The aim of this study protocol is to determine if obesity increases the risk for depression in patient with diabetes type 2. Methods: The analysis will be reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).The studies suitable for inclusion will be assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) to determine their methodological quality. To identify the studies of interest, we will search on PubMed and EBSCO databases. We will use the following keyword combinations: "Diabetes Mellitus type 2 AND obesity AND depression", "depression AND Diabetes Mellitus type 2", "Diabetes Mellitus type 2 AND body mass index cross sectional study", "depression AND obesity cross-sectional study". Causes for exclusion will be publications that studied patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1; articles that focused on the treatment and complications of diabetes mellitus type 2; publications that have studied other clinical or psychiatric conditions (for instance, seizure disorder or history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic symptoms or dementia). Conclusion: The results of this study will form the basis for a better understanding of the association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, and will allow development of prediction tools and better interventions. It is evident that several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes among population. Currently, evidence for the deleterious effects of diabetes mellitus type 2 are based on cross-sectional or other observational designs. Therefore, this study will have important implications for future research and public health guidance. PMID:25789160

  5. Sydney epilepsy incidence study to measure illness consequences: the SESIMIC observational epilepsy study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects an estimated 50 million people and accounts for approximately 1% of days lost to ill health globally, making it one of the most common, serious neurological disorders. While there are abundant global data on epilepsy incidence, prevalence and treatment, there is a paucity of Australian incidence data. There is also a general lack of information on the psychosocial impact and socioeconomic consequences of a new diagnosis of epilepsy on an individual, their family, household, and community which are often specific to the health and social system of each country. Methods/Design The Sydney Epilepsy Incidence Study to Measure Illness Consequences (SEISMIC) is an Australian population-based epilepsy incidence and outcome study that will recruit every newly diagnosed case of epilepsy in the Sydney South West Area Health Service to an epilepsy register. Multiple and overlapping sources of notification will be used to identify all new cases of epilepsy over a 24 month period in the Eastern Zone of the Sydney South West Area Health Service (SSWAHS) and follow up will occur over 12 months. SEISMIC will use the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definitions and classifications for epidemiologic studies of epilepsy. The study will examine outcomes including mood, quality of life, employment, education performance, driving status, marital and social problems, medication use, health care usage, costs and stigma. Discussion This study is designed to examine how clinical, psychological factors, socioeconomic circumstances, and healthcare delivery influence the experience of epilepsy for individuals and families allowing better targeting of specific services and informing policy makers and practitioners. In addition, the study will provide the basis for a longitudinal population-based cohort study and potentially inform qualitative sub-studies and randomised controlled trials of intervention strategies. The study has been registered on the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration database with ANZCTRN12609000059268. PMID:21214957

  6. IC chip stress during plastic package molding

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.W.; Benson, D.A.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.

    1998-02-01

    Approximately 95% of the world`s integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metalization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study the authors developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over the surface of an integrated circuit during the molding process. A CMOS test chip with 25 diffused resistor stress sensors was applied to a commercial lead frame. Both compression and shear stresses were measured at all 25 locations on the surface of the chip every 50 milliseconds during molding. These measurements have a fine time and stress resolution which should allow comparison with computer simulation of the molding process, thus allowing optimization of both the manufacturing process and mold geometry.

  7. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Assay in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sreyoshi; Rai, Laxmi Shanker; Chatterjee, Gautam; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely used technique which can determine the in vivo association of a specific protein on a particular DNA locus in the genome. In this method cross-linked chromatin is sheared and immunoprecipitated with antibodies raised against a target protein of interest. The end result of this process is the enrichment of DNA fragments associated with the desired protein. Thus, interactions between proteins and genomic loci in cellular context can be determined by this technique. Here, we are describing a ChIP protocol that is optimized for Candida albicans. The protocol requires 4-5 days for completion of the assay and has been used to produce robust ChIP results for diverse proteins in this organism and its related species including Candida dubliniensis and Candida tropicalis. PMID:26519064

  8. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  9. World with Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Although we are well advised to look at the future 1 day at a time, we have seen in the chapters of this book, and they necessarily could cover only a selection on the features and applications of those tiny chips, that their potential continues to grow at the exceptional rates of the past. However, the new commitment has to be towards Sustainable Nanoelectronics, guided by creating sensing, computing, memory, and communication functions, which move just a few electrons per operation, each operation consuming energy less than one or a few femtojoule, less than any of the 1014 synapses in our brains. At these energy levels, chips can serve everywhere, making them ubiquitous, pervasive, certainly wireless, and often energy-autonomous. The expected six Billion users of these chips in 2020, through their mobile, intelligent companions, will benefit from global and largely equal access to information, education, knowledge, skills, and care.

  10. Controlling pain after total hip and knee arthroplasty using a multimodal protocol with local periarticular injections: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Parvataneni, Hari K; Shah, Vineet P; Howard, Holly; Cole, Naida; Ranawat, Amar S; Ranawat, Chitranjan S

    2007-09-01

    In this prospective randomized study, patients undergoing total hip (THA) or knee arthroplasty (TKA) were randomized to either a study group receiving periarticular injections or a control group receiving patient-controlled analgesia with or without femoral nerve block (TKA patients). All patients received a comprehensive multimodal perioperative protocol. Pain, recovery of functional milestones, and overall satisfaction were assessed. The THA study group demonstrated significantly lower average pain scores and higher overall satisfaction than the control group. There was no significant difference in pain scores between the study and control groups in the TKA cohort. Both study groups demonstrated lower narcotic usage and side effects as well as improved early functional recovery. Periarticular injection with a multimodal protocol was shown to safely provide excellent pain control and functional recovery and can be substituted for conventional pain control modalities. PMID:17823012

  11. Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN Study): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by progressive stenosis or by occlusion at the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. The unusual vascular network (moyamoya vessels) at the base of the brain with this disease as collateral channels is developed in this disease. Social independence because of cognitive impairment has recently been recognized as an important unsolved social issue with adult moyamoya disease. The patients with cognitive impairment have difficulty in proving their status because the standard neuroradiological and neuropsychological methods to define cognitive impairment with moyamoya disease are not determined. These patients with cognitive impairment should be supported by social welfare as psychologically handicapped persons. Thus Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN study) is planned. In this study, we want to establish a standard finding of the cognitive impairment in patients with moyamoya disease. PMID:25739435

  12. Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN Study): Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    TAKAGI, Yasushi; MIYAMOTO, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by progressive stenosis or by occlusion at the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. The unusual vascular network (moyamoya vessels) at the base of the brain with this disease as collateral channels is developed in this disease. Social independence because of cognitive impairment has recently been recognized as an important unsolved social issue with adult moyamoya disease. The patients with cognitive impairment have difficulty in proving their status because the standard neuroradiological and neuropsychological methods to define cognitive impairment with moyamoya disease are not determined. These patients with cognitive impairment should be supported by social welfare as psychologically handicapped persons. Thus Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN study) is planned. In this study, we want to establish a standard finding of the cognitive impairment in patients with moyamoya disease. PMID:25739435

  13. Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP???5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date. PMID:23497211

  14. Chipping citrus wood for gasifiction

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Both green and dead citrus trees were used for chipping. Chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying time, and data on fuel/tonne of chips were obtained. The average moisture contents of green and dead trees when chipped were 25% and 16% (wet basis) respectively. Chips were sized to a minimum of 0.32 squared cm x 0.32 cm thick to a maximum of 5.0 cm squared x 0.32 cm thick and normally required 4 weeks to air dry to 14% (wet basis) moisture content before use. Approximately 50% of the total tree by weight could be made into usable chips. 9 references.

  15. Risk of intracranial hemorrhage in users of oral antithrombotic drugs: Study protocol for a nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sasha; Solheim, Ole; Carlsen, Sven M.; Øie, Lise R.; Jensberg, Heidi; Gulati, Agnete M.; Giannadakis, Charalampis; Jakola, Asgeir S.; Salvesen, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Background A wide range of antithrombotic medications can be used in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. Among hemorrhagic complications of antithrombotic drugs, intracranial hemorrhage may have particularly devastating consequences with high morbidity, disability and mortality rates. The incidence and risks of intracranial hemorrhage in patients on antithrombotic treatments from regular clinical practice outside clinical trials remain largely unknown. It is not known if results from clinical trials can be extrapolated to everyday clinical practice. We will conduct a nationwide study to investigate the risks and incidence rates of intracranial hemorrhage in users oral antithrombotic drugs in Norway from 2008 through 2014.   Methods and design The aim of this nationwide study is to investigate the incidence rates of intracranial hemorrhage requiring hospitalization in users of oral antithrombotic drugs. The study will be conducted within the approximately 4.7 million inhabitants of Norway from January 1 st, 2008, to December 31 st, 2014. Treatment and outcome data are obtained from the Norwegian patient registry and the Norwegian prescription database.   Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02481011) PMID:26918124

  16. The Study to Understand Mortality and Morbidity in COPD (SUMMIT) study protocol.

    PubMed

    Vestbo, Jűrgen; Anderson, Julie; Brook, Robert D; Calverley, Peter M A; Celli, Bartolome R; Crim, Courtney; Haumann, Brett; Martinez, Fernando J; Yates, Julie; Newby, David E

    2013-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often coexists with other chronic diseases and comorbidities that can markedly influence patients' health status and prognosis. This is particularly true for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there have been no trials assessing the effect of COPD medications on CVD in patients with both diseases. The "Study to Understand Mortality and Morbidity in COPD" (SUMMIT) aims at determining the impact of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination and the individual components on the survival of patients with moderate COPD and either a history of CVD or at increased risk for CVD. SUMMIT is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of 16 000 patients with moderate COPD randomly assigned to once daily treatment with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (100/25 ?g), fluticasone furoate (100 ?g), vilanterol (25 ?g) or matched placebo; mortality is the primary end-point. The study is an event-driven trial powered by the comparison of furoate/vilanterol versus placebo. Secondary end-points are decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and effect on a composite cardiovascular end-point. This article describes the design of the SUMMIT study. PMID:23018908

  17. Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods/Design The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ≀ 5 servings/day to ≄ 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ≄ 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B) selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet). Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. Discussion This study will provide information on midlife women’s bone health and how a dietary intervention increasing fruit and vegetable/herb intake affects bone, inflammatory and metabolic markers and urinary electrolyte excretion. It assesses changes in nutrient intake, estimated dietary acid load and sodium: potassium ratios. The study also explores whether specific fruit/vegetables and herbs with bone resorbing properties has an effect on bone markers. Trial registration ACTRN 12611000763943 PMID:23305630

  18. Femoral Component Rotation in Patellofemoral Joint Replacement: A Study Protocol for a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Westerbeek, Robin E; Derks, Rosalie P.H; Zonneveld, Bas J.G.L; van Jonbergen, Hans-Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Patellofemoral joint replacement is a successful treatment option for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. The short and mid-term outcomes are related to malposition and unexplained pain. Whether external rotation of the femoral component in isolated patellofemoral joint replacement is required is unclear. The primary aim of this study is to determine the CT-measured femoral component rotation of patellofemoral joint replacement relative to the transepicondylar axis. The secondary aim is to correlate the CT-measured femoral component rotation with the clinical outcomes at 1-year follow-up as assessed with the KOOS questionnaire. We designed a prospective observational study with medical research ethics committee and institutional review board approval. A total of 40 patients who will be treated with patellofemoral joint replacement for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis will be included. Intra-operatively, rotation of the femoral component will be assessed using anatomical landmarks including the epicondylar axis, Whiteside’s line, and lower leg axis. The aim is to insert the femoral component between 3 and 6 degrees external rotation relative to the transepicondylar axis. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists will measure the angle between the transepicondylar axis and the femoral component, two to three days after surgery. The primary outcome is the CT-based femoral component rotation of the prosthesis relative to the transepicondylar axis. The secondary outcome is the patient reported KOOS questionnaire at 1-year follow-up. Successful completion of this study will provide data on the actual amount of femoral component rotation in patellofemoral joint replacement, and its relationship with clinical results. (Netherlands Trial Register NTR4175). PMID:25861405

  19. The developmental origins of ageing: study protocol for the Dutch famine birth cohort study on ageing

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evidence from animal studies suggest that the rate of ageing may be influenced not only by genetic and lifestyle factors, but also by the prenatal environment. We have previously shown that people who were exposed to famine during early gestation performed worse on a selective attention task, which may be a first sign of cognitive decline, and were on average 3 years younger at the time of coronary artery disease diagnosis. Women in this group seem to die at a younger age. We hypothesise that an accelerated ageing process, set in motion by the poor prenatal environment, underlies these findings. Methods and analysis The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort consists of 2414 men and women born in Amsterdam as term singletons around the time of the Dutch famine. In a subsample of 150 cohort members, who now are about 68 years of age, we are currently measuring cognitive decline and the incidence of white matter hyperintensities and cerebral microbleeds (through MRI), incidence of fractures, grip strength and physical performance, visual acuity and incidence of cataract operations. In this same subgroup, we will assess telomere length, oxidative stress and inflammatory status as potential underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, in the entire cohort, we will assess mortality as well as hospital admissions for age-related diseases up to the age of 68 years. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the local medical ethics committee (Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam) and is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants give written informed consent. Study findings will be widely disseminated to the scientific public as well as to the medical society and general public. PMID:23794570

  20. Chip connectivity verification program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Josh (Inventor); Patterson, George (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for testing electrical connectivity between conductive structures on a chip that is preferably layered with conductive and nonconductive layers. The method includes determining the layer on which each structure is located and defining the perimeter of each structure. Conductive layer connections between each of the layers are determined, and, for each structure, the points of intersection between the perimeter of that structure and the perimeter of each other structure on the chip are also determined. Finally, electrical connections between the structures are determined using the points of intersection and the conductive layer connections.

  1. Staged transthoracic approach to persistent atrial fibrillation (TOP-AF): study protocol for a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Persistent atrial fibrillation frequently shows multiple different electrophysiological mechanisms of induction. This heterogeneity causes a low success rate of single procedures of ablation and a high incidence of recurrence. Surgical ablation through bilateral thoracotomy demonstrates better results after a single procedure. Prospective observational studies in inhomogeneous populations without control groups report a remarkable 90% of success with hybrid or staged procedures of surgical ablation coupled with catheter ablation. In this trial, we will examine the hypothesis that a staged approach involving initial minimally invasive surgical ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation, followed by a second percutaneous procedure in case of recurrence, has a higher success rate than repeated percutaneous procedures. Methods/Design This is a controlled (2:1) randomized trial comparing use of a percutaneous catheter with minimally invasive transthoracic surgical ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation. The inclusion and exclusion criteria, definitions, and treatment protocols are those reported by the 2012 Expert Consensus Statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. Patients will be randomized to either percutaneous catheter (n?=?100) or surgical (n?=?50) ablation as the first procedure. After 3 months, they are re-evaluated, according to the same guidelines, and receive a second procedure if necessary. Crossover will be allowed and data analyzed on an “intention-to-treat” basis. Primary outcomes are the incidence of sinus rhythm at 6 and 12 months and the proportions of patients requiring a second procedure. Discussion The use of a staged strategy combining surgical and percutaneous approaches might be more favorable in treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation than the controversial single percutaneous ablation. Trial registration ISRCTN08035058 Reg 06.20.2013 PMID:24885377

  2. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR EXERCISE PROTOCOLS IN HUMAN AIR POLLUTION INHALATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact on pulmonary functions of exercising at different intensities during pollutant exposures was evaluated. It was apparent that there was considerable variation in exercise protocols. These variations occurred in the magnitude of the exercise load, the duration of the exe...

  3. Protocols for Online Teaching of Thucydides: The "Final Word" Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravani, ?vangelia

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets out to describe and analyze issues relating to the role of new literacies and technologies in the teaching process. More specifically, the article deals with how the educational design process of Ancient Greek changes through the implementation of technology by using online discussion protocols. These were utilized as a tool for…

  4. Protocol for Bone Augmentation with Simultaneous Early Implant Placement: A Retrospective Multicenter Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To present a novel protocol for alveolar bone regeneration in parallel to early implant placement. Methods. 497 patients in need of extraction and early implant placement with simultaneous bone augmentation were treated in a period of 10 years. In all patients the same specific method was followed and grafting was performed utilizing in situ hardening fully resorbable alloplastic grafting materials consisting of ÎČ-tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulfate. The protocol involved atraumatic extraction, implant placement after 4 weeks with simultaneous bone augmentation, and loading of the implant 12 weeks after placement and grafting. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean of 4 years). Results. A total of 601 postextraction sites were rehabilitated in 497 patients utilizing the novel protocol. Three implants failed before loading and three implants failed one year after loading, leaving an overall survival rate of 99.0%. Conclusions. This standardized protocol allows successful long-term functional results regarding alveolar bone regeneration and implant rehabilitation. The concept of placing the implant 4 weeks after extraction, augmenting the bone around the implant utilizing fully resorbable, biomechanically stable, alloplastic materials, and loading the implant at 12 weeks seems to offer advantages when compared with traditional treatment modalities. PMID:26858757

  5. Protocol for Bone Augmentation with Simultaneous Early Implant Placement: A Retrospective Multicenter Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Peter; Leventis, Minas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To present a novel protocol for alveolar bone regeneration in parallel to early implant placement. Methods. 497 patients in need of extraction and early implant placement with simultaneous bone augmentation were treated in a period of 10 years. In all patients the same specific method was followed and grafting was performed utilizing in situ hardening fully resorbable alloplastic grafting materials consisting of ÎČ-tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulfate. The protocol involved atraumatic extraction, implant placement after 4 weeks with simultaneous bone augmentation, and loading of the implant 12 weeks after placement and grafting. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean of 4 years). Results. A total of 601 postextraction sites were rehabilitated in 497 patients utilizing the novel protocol. Three implants failed before loading and three implants failed one year after loading, leaving an overall survival rate of 99.0%. Conclusions. This standardized protocol allows successful long-term functional results regarding alveolar bone regeneration and implant rehabilitation. The concept of placing the implant 4 weeks after extraction, augmenting the bone around the implant utilizing fully resorbable, biomechanically stable, alloplastic materials, and loading the implant at 12 weeks seems to offer advantages when compared with traditional treatment modalities. PMID:26858757

  6. Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood: Study Protocol and Profiles of Participants

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Misato; Kondo, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations. Methods J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25–50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants’ spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013. Results Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements. Conclusions Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization’s Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan’s Healthy Japan 21. PMID:24814507

  7. Study protocol: Imaging brain development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (iCATS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Puberty is a critical developmental phase in physical, reproductive and socio-emotional maturation that is associated with the period of peak onset for psychopathology. Puberty also drives significant changes in brain development and function. Research to date has focused on gonadarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and yet increasing evidence suggests that the earlier pubertal stage of adrenarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, may play a critical role in both brain development and increased risk for disorder. We have established a unique cohort of children who differ in their exposure to adrenarcheal hormones. This presents a unique opportunity to examine the influence of adrenarcheal timing on brain structural and functional development, and subsequent health outcomes. The primary objective of the study is to explore the hypothesis that patterns of structural and functional brain development will mediate the relationship between adrenarcheal timing and indices of affect, self-regulation, and mental health symptoms collected across time (and therefore years of development). Methods/Design Children were recruited based upon earlier or later timing of adrenarche, from a larger cohort, with 128 children (68 female; M age 9.51 years) and one of their parents taking part. Children completed brain MRI structural and functional sequences, provided saliva samples for adrenarcheal hormones and immune biomarkers, hair for long-term cortisol levels, and completed questionnaires, anthropometric measures and an IQ test. Parents completed questionnaires reporting on child behaviour, development, health, traumatic events, and parental report of family environment and parenting style. Discussion This study, by examining the neurobiological and behavioural consequences of relatively early and late exposure to adrenarche, has the potential to significantly impact our understanding of pubertal risk processes. PMID:24779869

  8. The Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite recent advances in acute stroke treatment, basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is associated with a death or disability rate of close to 70%. Randomised trials have shown the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) given within 4.5 h and have shown promising results of intra-arterial thrombolysis given within 6 h of symptom onset of acute ischaemic stroke, but these results do not directly apply to patients with an acute BAO because only few, if any, of these patients were included in randomised acute stroke trials. Recently the results of the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS), a prospective registry of patients with acute symptomatic BAO challenged the often-held assumption that intra-arterial treatment (IAT) is superior to IVT. Our observations in the BASICS registry underscore that we continue to lack a proven treatment modality for patients with an acute BAO and that current clinical practice varies widely. Design BASICS is a randomised controlled, multicentre, open label, phase III intervention trial with blinded outcome assessment, investigating the efficacy and safety of additional IAT after IVT in patients with BAO. The trial targets to include 750 patients, aged 18 to 85 years, with CT angiography or MR angiography confirmed BAO treated with IVT. Patients will be randomised between additional IAT followed by optimal medical care versus optimal medical care alone. IVT has to be initiated within 4.5 h from estimated time of BAO and IAT within 6 h. The primary outcome parameter will be favourable outcome at day 90 defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0–3. Discussion The BASICS registry was observational and has all the limitations of a non-randomised study. As the IAT approach becomes increasingly available and frequently utilised an adequately powered randomised controlled phase III trial investigating the added value of this therapy in patients with an acute symptomatic BAO is needed (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01717755). PMID:23835026

  9. Application of the Putting Women First protocol in a study on violence against immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torrubiano-DomĂ­nguez, Jordi; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience of using the Putting Women First protocol in the design and implementation of a cross-sectional study on violence against women (VAW) among 1607 immigrant women from Morocco, Ecuador and Romania living in Spain in 2011. The Putting Women First protocol is an ethical guideline for VAW research, which includes recommendations to ensure the safety of the women involved in studies on this subject. The response rate in this study was 59.3%. The prevalence of VAW cases last year was 11.7%, of which 15.6% corresponded to Ecuadorian women, 10.9% to Moroccan women and 8.6% to Romanian women. We consider that the most important goal for future research is the use of VAW scales validated in different languages, which would help to overcome the language barriers encountered in this study. PMID:23537853

  10. A Method to Study the Epigenetic Chromatin States of Rare Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells; MiniChIP–Chip

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic chromatin structure is a fundamental property of gene transcriptional regulation, and has emerged as a critical modulator of physiological processes during cellular differentiation and development. Analysis of chromatin structure using molecular biology and biochemical assays in rare somatic stem and progenitor cells is key for understanding these processes but poses a great challenge because of their reliance on millions of cells. Through the development of a miniaturized genome-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation method (miniChIP–chip), we have documented the genome-wide chromatin states of low abundant populations that comprise hematopoietic stem cells and immediate progeny residing in murine bone marrow. In this report, we describe the miniChIP methodology that can be used for increasing an understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function. Application of this method will reveal the contribution of dynamic chromatin structure in regulating the function of other somatic stem cell populations, and how this process becomes perturbed in pathological conditions. PMID:21406121

  11. Cryogenic on-chip multiplexer for the study of quantum transport in 256 split-gate devices

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Taie, H. Kelly, M. J.; Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE ; Smith, L. W.; Xu, B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; See, P.

    2013-06-17

    We present a multiplexing scheme for the measurement of large numbers of mesoscopic devices in cryogenic systems. The multiplexer is used to contact an array of 256 split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, in which each split gate can be measured individually. The low-temperature conductance of split-gate devices is governed by quantum mechanics, leading to the appearance of conductance plateaux at intervals of 2e{sup 2}/h. A fabrication-limited yield of 94% is achieved for the array, and a “quantum yield” is also defined, to account for disorder affecting the quantum behaviour of the devices. The quantum yield rose from 55% to 86% after illuminating the sample, explained by the corresponding increase in carrier density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. The multiplexer is a scalable architecture, and can be extended to other forms of mesoscopic devices. It overcomes previous limits on the number of devices that can be fabricated on a single chip due to the number of electrical contacts available, without the need to alter existing experimental set ups.

  12. Executive functioning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bodimeade, Harriet L; Whittingham, Koa; Lloyd, Owen; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Early brain injury, as found in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP), may cause deficits in higher-order cognitive tasks known as executive functions (EF). EF has been conceptualised as comprised of four distinct yet inter-related components: (1) attentional control, (2) cognitive flexibility, (3) goal setting and (4) information processing. The aim of this study was to examine EF in children with unilateral CP and compare their performance with a typically developing reference group (TDC). The potential laterality effects of unilateral CP on EF will be explored, as will the relationship between the cognitive measures of EF, behavioural manifestations of EF, psychological functioning and clinical features of unilateral CP. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional study aims to recruit a total of 42 children with unilateral CP (21 right unilateral CP and 21 left unilateral CP) and 21 TDC aged between 8 and 16?years. Clinical severity will be described for gross motor function and manual ability. Outcomes for cognitive EF measureswill include subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Rey Complex Figure Test and the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. Behavioural manifestations of EF will be assessed using the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Parent and Teacher versions. Psychological functioning will be examined using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Between-groups differences will be examined in a series of one-way analyses of covariance and followed up using linear comparisons. An overall composite of cognitive EF measures will be created. Bivariate correlations between the EF composite and psychological measures will be calculated. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that, to our knowledge, is the first to examine multiple components of EF using a cohort of children with unilateral CP. Exploration of potential laterality effects of EF among children with a congenital, unilateral brain injury is also novel. Possible relationships between EF and psychological functioning will also be investigated. Ethics have been obtained through the University of Queensland School of Psychology Ethics Committee and the Queensland Children's Health Services Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be disseminated in peer reviewed publications and presentations at national and international conferences. This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000263998). PMID:23558736

  13. Transversus abdominis plane block following abdominally based breast reconstruction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast reconstruction using the free muscle-sparing transversus abdominus myocutaneous or deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps are common methods for restoring mastectomy defects for breast cancer patients. Despite its increasing popularity and safety, the abdominal donor site remains a major source of postoperative pain. Conventional postoperative pain relief protocol consists primarily of a patient-controlled anesthesia device delivering intravenous opioids. Opioids can cause numerous side effects such as sedation, headache, nausea, vomiting, breathing difficulties and bladder and bowel dysfunction. A promising approach to provide postoperative pain control of the abdominal incision is the newly developed transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block. Methods/Design This study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial designed to rigorously test the effectiveness of a transversus abdominis plane catheter delivering intermittent local anesthetic in reducing postoperative abdominal pain following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction. The primary objective of this study is compare the mean total opioid consumption in the first postoperative 48 hours between the control and study groups including the patient-controlled anesthesia amounts and oral narcotic doses converted to intravenous morphine equivalent units. The secondary outcome measures include the following parameters: total in-hospital cumulative opioid consumption; daily patient-reported pain scores; total in-hospital cumulative anti-nausea consumption; nausea and sedation scores; and Quality of Recovery score; time to first bowel movement, ambulation, and duration of hospital stay. Discussion Autologous breast reconstruction using abdominal tissue is rapidly becoming the reconstructive option of choice for postmastectomy patients across North America. A substantial component of the pain experienced by patients after this abdominally based procedure is derived from the abdominal wall incision. By potentially decreasing the need for systemic opioids and their associated side effects, this transversus abdominis plane block study will utilize the most scientifically rigorous double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial methodology to potentially improve both clinical care and health outcomes in breast cancer surgery patients. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01398982 PMID:24325953

  14. Shock in the first 24 h of intensive care unit stay: observational study of protocol-based fluid management.

    PubMed

    See, Kay Choong; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Lau, Samuel Chuan-Xian; Tan, Sandra Ming-Yien; Lim, Tow Keang; Phua, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Precision in fluid management for shock could lead to better clinical outcomes. We evaluated the association of protocol-based fluid management with intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality. We performed an observational study of mechanically ventilated patients admitted directly from our emergency department to the ICU from August 2011 to December 2013, who had circulatory shock in the first 24 h of ICU stay (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg at ICU admission or lactate >4 mmol/L). Patients with onset of shock beyond 24 h of ICU stay were excluded. Protocol-based fluid management required close physician-nurse cooperation and computerized documentation, checking for fluid response (≄10% arterial pulse pressure or stroke volume increase after two consecutive 250-mL crystalloid boluses), and fluid loading with repeated 500-mL boluses until fluid response became negative. Six hundred twelve mechanically ventilated patients with shock (mean [±SD] age, 63.0 years [16.5]; 252 or 41.2% females; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 30.2 [8.8]) were studied. The fluid management protocol was used 455 times for 242 patients (39.5% of 612 patients) within the first 24 h of ICU stay, with 244 (53.6% of 455) positive responses. Adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, comorbidity, and admission year, protocol use was associated with reduced ICU mortality (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.94; P = 0.025) but not hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.23; P = 0.369). Among mechanically ventilated patients with shock within the first 24 h of ICU stay, about half had positive fluid responses. Adherence to protocol-based fluid management was associated with improved ICU survival. PMID:25608139

  15. Simple and inexpensive DNA extraction protocol for studying the bacterial composition of sludges used in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Canto-Canché, B; Tzec-Simá, M; Vázquez-Loría, J I; Espadas-Álvarez, H; Chí-Manzanero, B H; Rojas-Herrera, R; Valdez-Ojeda, R; Alzate-Gaviria, L

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria oxidize organic matter and nutrients to produce electric energy in microbial fuel cells (MFC) - a technology of increasing importance because of its sustainability. To improve the performance of MFCs, it is necessary not only to gain a better understanding of MFC engineering designs, but also to improve the understanding of the composition of the microbial communities in MFCs. Fast and efficient DNA extraction protocols that are suitable for extracting diverse bacterial genomes are necessary to identify the bacterial diversity present in MFCs and to further monitor the dynamic changes of microbial communities. This study focused on testing different direct cell lysis protocols to extract DNA from a microbial sludge harvested from an MFC. The protocol that achieved the best results was based on a previous study, but was modified by eliminating a chaotropic salt and the special columns used for nucleic acid purification. The efficiency of this less expensive and more straightforward protocol was confirmed by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, which confirmed the extraction of multiple genomes. The sequences of 10 clones revealed the presence of phyla, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, comprising both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Some of these bacteria were identified at the genus level, e.g., Clostridium, Pseudoxanthomonas, Tistrella, and Enterobacter; these genera have been described in active sludges from wastewater treatment, supporting the congruency of our results. Therefore, this protocol is a useful tool for analysis of the bacteria responsible for energy production in MFCs. PMID:23408415

  16. Cytometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (.50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the various species in a sample of cells is spatially encoded in the chip by the pattern of capture spots. The number of cells of a particular species is determined from the magnitude of the GCSPRI signal from that spot. GCSPRI as used here can be summarized as follows: The cytometer chip is fabricated with a diffraction grating on its front surface. The chip is illuminated with a light emitting diode (LED) from the front. By proper choice of grating parameters and of the wavelength and the angle of incidence of a laser beam, laser light can be made to be coupled into an electromagnetic mode that resonates with surface plasmons and thus couples light into surface plasmons. Coupling of light into a surface plasmon at a given location reduces the amount of incident light reflected from that location. A change in the index of refraction at the surface of a capture spot gives rise to a change in the resonance condition. Depending on the specific design, the change in the index of refraction could manifest itself as a brightening or darkening, a change in the wavelength needed to excite the plasmon at a given angle of incidence, or a change in the angle of incidence needed to excite the plasmon at a given wavelength. Whereas a multiwavelength laser system with multichannel detection would be needed to detect multiple species in conventional flow cytometry, it suffices to use an LED and a single detector channel in the GCSPRI approach: this contributes significantly to reductions in cost, complexity, size, mass, and power. GCSPRI cytometer chips could be made of plastic and could be mass-produced cheaply by use of molding and other methods adopted from the manufacture of digital video disks. These methods are amenable to a high degree of miniaturization: such additional features as fluidic channels, reaction chambers, and fluid-coupling ports could readily be incorporated into the chips, without incurring substantial additional costs.

  17. Cytometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the various species in a sample of cells is spatially encoded in the chip by the pattern of capture spots. The number of cells of a particular species is determined from the magnitude of the GCSPRI signal from that spot. GCSPRI as used here can be summarized as follows: The cytometer chip is fabricated with a diffraction grating on its front surface. The chip is illuminated with a light emitting diode (LED) from the front. By proper choice of grating parameters and of the wavelength and the angle of incidence of a laser beam, laser light can be made to be coupled into an electromagnetic mode that resonates with surface plasmons and thus couples light into surface plasmons. Coupling of light into a surface plasmon at a given location reduces the amount of incident light reflected from that location. A change in the index of refraction at the surface of a capture spot gives rise to a change in the resonance condition. Depending on the specific design, the change in the index of refraction could manifest itself as a brightening or darkening, a change in the wavelength needed to excite the plasmon at a given angle of incidence, or a change in the angle of incidence needed to excite the plasmon at a given wavelength. Whereas a multiwavelength laser system with multichannel detection would be needed to detect multiple species in conventional flow cytometry, it suffices to use an LED and a single detector channel in the GCSPRI approach: this contributes significantly to reductions in cost, complexity, size, mass, and power. GCSPRI cytometer chips could be made of plastic and could be mass-produced cheaply by use of molding and other methods adopted from the manufacture of digital video disks. These methods are amenable to a high degree of miniaturization: such additional features as fluidic channels, reaction chambers, and fluid-coupling ports could readily be incorporated into the chips, without incurring substantial additional costs.

  18. The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevalence has more than doubled over two decades. In Australia, diabetes is the second highest contributor to the burden of disease. Lifestyle modification programs comprising diet changes, weight loss and moderate physical activity, have been proven to reduce the incidence of T2DM in high risk individuals. As part of the Council of Australia Governments, the State of Victoria committed to develop and support the diabetes prevention program ‘Life! Taking action on diabetes’ (Life!) which has direct lineage from effective clinical and implementation trials from Finland and Australia. The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS) has been set up to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specific version of the Life! program. Methods/design We intend to recruit 796 participants for this open randomized clinical trial; 398 will be allocated to the intervention arm and 398 to the usual care arm. Several methods of recruitment will be used in order to maximize the number of participants. Individuals aged 50 to 75 years will be screened with a risk tool (AUSDRISK) to detect those at high risk of developing T2DM. Those with existing diabetes will be excluded. Intervention participants will undergo anthropometric and laboratory tests, and comprehensive surveys at baseline, following the fourth group session (approximately three months after the commencement of the intervention) and 12 months after commencement of the intervention, while control participants will undergo testing at baseline and 12 months only. The intervention consists of an initial individual session followed by a series of five structured-group sessions. The first four group sessions will be carried out at two week intervals and the fifth session will occur eight months after the first group session. The intervention is based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model and sessions will empower and enable the participants to follow the five goals of the Life! program. Discussion This study will determine whether the effect of this intervention is larger than the effect of usual care in reducing central obesity and cardiovascular risk factors and thus the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Also it will evaluate how these two options compare economically. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000507280 PMID:23369724

  19. Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points A research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics was designed and its feasibility evaluated. The definition of sexual abuse, ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and means for athlete-level data collection were in requirements analyses identified as particularly complex design issues. The feasibility evaluation showed a high non-participation rate (61%), but also that the large majority of participants found the study important and that questions were answered truthfully. Responding that partaking in the study was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours. When implementing cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics, it is necessary to promote and facilitate athlete participation. PMID:25729306

  20. Regorafenib assessment in refractory advanced colorectal cancer: RegARd-C study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hendlisz, Alain; Deleporte, Amélie; Vandeputte, Caroline; Charette, Nicolas; Paesmans, Marianne; Guiot, Thomas; Garcia, Camilo; Flamen, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Regorafenib was recently approved for patients with pretreated advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC), despite a moderate improvement of the patients’ outcome, and significant toxicities. Based on previous studies showing that early fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)-based metabolic response assessment (MRA) might adequately select patients unlikely to benefit from treatment, the RegARd-C trial uses early MRA to identify likely non-responders to regorafenib in a population of patients with aCRC and guide a comprehensive evaluation of genomic and epigenetic determinants of resistance to treatment. Methods and analysis RegARd-C is a multicentric prospective study. Its primary objective is to identify non-benefitters from regorafenib given at 160 mg/day, 3 weeks out of 4 in a population of patients with pretreated aCRC. Baseline PET is repeated at day 14 of the first treatment course. MRA is blinded for the investigators. Overall survival (OS) is the primary end point and will be correlated with metabolic parameters and (epi)genetic alterations assessed from tumour and serial blood samples. A target sample size of 105 evaluable patients (70 as derivation set and 35 as validation set), is considered as sufficient to validate an expected HR for OS of metabolic responders compared to metabolic non-responders significantly <1 (with 80% power and 1-sided 5% α in case of a true HR≀0.59 and a responders rate of 47%). Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Institut Jules Bordet's competent ethics committee and complies with the Helsinki declaration or the Belgian laws and regulations, whichever provides the greatest protection for the patient, and follows the International Conference on Harmonisation E 6 (R1) Guideline for Good Clinical Practice, reference number CPMP/ICH/135/95. The protocol and the trials results, even inconclusive, will be presented at international oncology congresses, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Genomic and epigenetic data will be made available in public open data sets. Trial registration numbers EudraCT number: 2012-005655-16; ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01929616. PMID:25753361

  1. NeOProM: Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis Collaboration study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The appropriate level of oxygenation for extremely preterm neonates (<28 weeks' gestation) to maximise the greatest chance of survival, without incurring significant morbidity, remains unknown. Infants exposed to lower levels of oxygen (targeting oxygen saturations of <90%) in the first weeks of life are at increased risk of death, cerebral palsy, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary vascular resistance and apnoea, whilst those maintained in higher levels of oxygen (targeting oxygen saturations of >90%) have been reported to have greater rates of morbidity including retinopathy of prematurity and chronic lung disease. In order to answer this clinical dilemma reliably, large scale trial evidence is needed. Methods/Design To detect a small but important 4% increase in death or severe disability in survivors, over 5000 neonates would need to be recruited. As extreme prematurity affects 1% of births, such a project undertaken by one trial group would be prohibitively lengthy and expensive. Hence, the Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis (NeOProM) Collaboration has been formed. A prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is one where studies are identified, evaluated, and determined to be eligible before the results of any included studies are known or published, thereby avoiding some of the potential biases inherent in standard, retrospective meta-analyses. This methodology provides the same strengths as a single large-scale multicentre randomised study whilst allowing greater pragmatic flexibility. The NeOProM Collaboration protocol (NCT01124331) has been agreed prior to the results of individual trials being available. This includes pre-specifying the hypotheses, inclusion criteria and outcome measures to be used. Each trial will first publish their respective results as they become available and the combined meta-analytic results, using individual patient data, will be published when all trials are complete. The primary outcome to be assessed is a composite outcome of death or major disability at 18 months - 2 years corrected age. Secondary outcomes include several measures of neonatal morbidity. The size of the combined dataset will allow the effect of the interventions to be explored more reliably with respect to pre-specified patient- and intervention-level characteristics. Discussion Results should be available by 2014. PMID:21235822

  2. Evaluating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients. The administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of surgical site infections . The optimal timing of this procedure is still a matter of debate. While most studies suggest that it should be given as close to the incision time as possible, others conclude that this may be too late for optimal prevention of surgical site infections. A large observational study suggests that surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered 74 to 30 minutes before surgery. The aim of this article is to report the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Methods/Design In this bi-center randomized controlled trial conducted at two tertiary referral centers in Switzerland, we plan to include 5,000 patients undergoing general, oncologic, vascular and orthopedic trauma procedures. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio into two groups: one receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (75 to 30 minutes before incision) and the other receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room (less than 30 minutes before incision). We expect a significantly lower rate of surgical site infections with surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis administered more than 30 minutes before the scheduled incision. The primary outcome is the occurrence of surgical site infections during a 30-day follow-up period (one year with an implant in place). When assuming a 5% surgical site infection risk with administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room, the planned sample size has an 80% power to detect a relative risk reduction for surgical site infections of 33% when administering surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (with a two-sided type I error of 5%). We expect the study to be completed within three years. Discussion The results of this randomized controlled trial will have an important impact on current international guidelines for infection control strategies in the hospital. Moreover, the results of this randomized controlled trial are of significant interest for patient safety and healthcare economics. Trial registration This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT01790529. PMID:24885132

  3. Improving adherence to web-based cessation programs: a randomized controlled trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reducing smoking prevalence is a public health priority that can save more lives and money than almost any other known preventive intervention. Internet interventions have the potential for enormous public health impact given their broad reach and effectiveness. However, most users engage only minimally with even the best designed websites, diminishing their impact due to an insufficient ‘dose’. Two approaches to improve adherence to Internet cessation programs are integrating smokers into an online social network and providing free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Active participation in online communities is associated with higher rates of cessation. Integrating smokers into an online social network can increase support and may also increase utilization of cessation tools and NRT. Removing barriers to NRT may increase uptake and adherence, and may also increase use of online cessation tools as smokers look for information and support while quitting. The combination of both strategies may exert the most powerful effects on adherence compared to either strategy alone. Methods/Design This study compares the efficacy of a smoking cessation website (WEB) alone and in conjunction with free NRT and a social network (SN) protocol designed to integrate participants into the online community. Using a 2 (SN, no SN) x 2 (NRT, no NRT) randomized, controlled factorial design with repeated measures at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months, this study will recruit N = 4,000 new members of an internet cessation program and randomize them to: 1) WEB, 2) WEB + SN, 3) WEB + NRT, or 4) WEB + SN + NRT. Hypotheses are that all interventions will outperform WEB and that WEB + SN + NRT will outperform WEB + NRT and WEB + SN on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 9 months. Exploratory analyses will examine theory-driven hypotheses about the mediators and moderators of outcome. Discussion Addressing adherence in internet cessation programs is critical and timely to leverage their potential public health impact. This study is innovative in its use of a social network approach to improve behavioral and pharmacological treatment utilization to improve cessation. This approach is significant for reducing tobacco’s devastating disease burden and for optimizing behavior change in other arenas where adherence is just as critical. Trial registration ISRCTN:ISRCTN45127327 PMID:23414086

  4. Characterizing Diversity of Lactobacilli Associated with Severe Early Childhood Caries: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Argimón, Silvia; Schön, Catherine N.; Saraithong, Prakaimuk; Caufield, Page W.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been consistently associated with dental caries for decades; however, knowledge of this group of bacteria in the etiology of the disease is limited to quantitative elucidation. Nowadays, explicit identification of oral Lactobacillus species is possible, despite their taxonomic complexity. Here we describe a combined approach involving both cultivation and genetic methods to ascertain and characterize the diversity and abundance of the Lactobacillus population in the oral cavities of children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). Eighty 3- to 6-year-old children (40 S-ECC and 40 caries free) who were seeking dental care at the Pediatric Dental Clinic of Bellevue Hospital in New York City were invited to participate in this study. Clinical data on socio-demographic information and oral health behavior were obtained from the primary caregiver. The data included a detailed dental examination, children’s medical history, and a questionnaire survey. Combined non-stimulated saliva and supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from each child and cultivated on selective media for quantitative measures of lactobacilli levels. The procedure for Lactobacillus species screening will include the random selection of 50 colonies per plate, extraction of DNA from each colony, and genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Each unique Lactobacillus AP-PCR genotype will be selected for taxonomic assessment by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Lactobacillus species will be identified by comparing the 16S rRNA sequences with the Ribosomal Database and the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Meanwhile, the same set of clinical samples will be independently subjected to genomic DNA isolation, 16S rRNA amplification with Lactobacillus genus-specific primers, sequencing, and taxonomic identification, both at genus and species levels with a customized pipeline. The distribution and phylogenetic differences of these Lactobacillus species will be compared between children with or without S-ECC. One of the main objectives of this study is to establish a study protocol for the identification and characterization of lactobacilli in the oral cavity. Future caries risk assessments can include lactobacilli counts (quantitative) and the presence/absence of specific cariogenic genetic signatures of a Lactobacillus species (qualitative) associated with S-ECC. PMID:26413427

  5. Radiometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2009-01-01

    The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.

  6. A coherent approach for analysis of the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip improves data quality and performance in epigenome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Lehne, Benjamin; Drong, Alexander W; Loh, Marie; Zhang, Weihua; Scott, William R; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Afzal, Uzma; Scott, James; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Elliott, Paul; McCarthy, Mark I; Kooner, Jaspal S; Chambers, John C

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the genome, but the optimal strategy for analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation data remains to be determined. We developed a comprehensive analysis pipeline for epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, based on 2,687 individuals, with 36 samples measured in duplicate. We propose new approaches to quality control, data normalisation and batch correction through control-probe adjustment and establish a null hypothesis for EWAS using permutation testing. Our analysis pipeline outperforms existing approaches, enabling accurate identification of methylation quantitative trait loci for hypothesis driven follow-up experiments. PMID:25853392

  7. Computational Protocol for Modeling Thermochromic Molecular Crystals: Salicylidene Aniline As a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Presti, Davide; Labat, Fréderic; Pedone, Alfonso; Frisch, Michael J; Hratchian, Hrant P; Ciofini, Ilaria; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Adamo, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    A computational protocol that combines periodic and QM/QM' calculations has been applied to investigate the structural (geometrical and electronic) and photophysical absorption properties of the salicylidene aniline (SA) thermochromic molecular crystal. The protocol consists of three different steps, namely (i) the description of the molecular crystal using a periodic approach taking into account dispersion interactions, (ii) the identification of reliable finite models (clusters), and (iii) the calculation of vertical transition energies including environmental effects through the use of an electronic embedding model (QM/QM' ONIOM approach). The encouraging results obtained in this work for the ÎČ polymorph of SA, both in terms of accuracy and computational cost, open the way to the simulation and the prediction of the photophysical behavior of other molecular crystals, especially those much less well characterized experimentally. PMID:26583240

  8. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

    2002-05-07

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

  9. Chipping citrus wood for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Non-productive citrus trees were chipped with a portable fly-wheel-type chipper powered by a 45 kW engine. Chips were air dried under an open shed to 14% (w.b.) moisture content. By weight, approximately 50% of the total tree could be made into usable chips. The root system averaged 36% of the total tree weight.

  10. Benefits of Chipping Almond Brush

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wood chipping of almond (Prunus dulcis) prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips deplete the soil of critical nutrients necessary for tree g...

  11. Benefits of Chipping Almond Brush

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wood chipping of almond (Prunus dulcis) prunings could provide an alternative to burning that would not contribute to air pollution and would add valuable organic matter to soils. The success of wood chipping depends on whether the wood chips interfere with harvest or deplete the soil of critica...

  12. Smart vision chips: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Christof

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.

  13. A Tribolium castaneum whole-embryo culture protocol for studying the molecular mechanisms and morphogenetic movements involved in insect development.

    PubMed

    Macaya, Constanza C; Saavedra, Patricio E; Cepeda, Rodrigo E; Nuńez, Viviana A; Sarrazin, Andres F

    2016-01-01

    The development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is more representative of arthropods than the evolutionarily derived fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Thus, Tribolium is becoming an emerging organism model for studying the evolution of the mechanisms that control embryonic development in arthropods. In this regard, diverse genetic and molecular tools are currently available for Tribolium, as well as imaging and embryonic techniques. Recently, we developed a method for culturing embryos in order to study specific stages during Tribolium development. In this report, we present a detailed and "easy-to-follow" protocol for embryo handling and dissection, extending the use of whole-embryo culture to functional analysis by performing in vivo pharmacological manipulations. This experimental accessibility allowed us to study the relevance of microtubules in axis elongation, using nocodazole and taxol drugs to interfere with microtubule networks, followed by length measurement analysis. Additionally, we demonstrated that embryo handling had no effect on the development of Tribolium embryos, and we checked viability after dissection and bisection and during incubation using propidium iodide. The embryo culture protocol we describe here can be applied to study diverse developmental processes in Tribolium. We expect that this protocol can be adapted and applied to other arthropods. PMID:26739999

  14. The effects of a mobile stress management protocol on nurses working with cancer patients: a preliminary controlled study.

    PubMed

    Villani, Daniela; Grassi, Alessandra; Cognetta, Chiara; Cipresso, Pietro; Toniolo, Davide; Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Oncology nurses face extraordinary stresses that may lead to emotional exhaustion, a feeling of emotional distance from patients and burnout. The presentation describes the preliminary results of a study to test the effects of an innovative 4-week 8-session self-help stress management training for oncology nurses supported by mobile tools (Nokia N70 smarthphone). The sample included 16 female oncology nurses with permanent status employed in different oncology hospitals in Milan, Italy. The study used a between-subjects design, comparing the experimental condition (mobile phone stress management protocol) with a control group (neutral videos through mobile phones). In addition to a significant reduction in anxiety state at the end of each session, the experimental group demonstrated a significant improvement in affective change in terms of anxiety trait reduction and coping skills acquisition at the end of the protocol. PMID:22357050

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxious children and adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders affect approximately 10% to 20% of young people, can be enduring if left untreated, and have been associated with psychopathology in later life. Despite this, there is a paucity of empirical research to assist clinicians in determining appropriate treatment options. We describe a protocol for a randomized controlled trial in which we will examine the effectiveness of a group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy program for children and adolescents with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder. For the adolescent participants we will also evaluate the elements of the intervention that act as mechanisms for change. Methods/design We will recruit 150 young people (90 children and 60 adolescents) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and their parent or caregiver. After completion of baseline assessment, participants will be randomized to one of three conditions (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy or waitlist control). Those in the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy groups will receive 10 Ś 1.5 hour weekly group-therapy sessions using a manualized treatment program, in accordance with the relevant therapy, to be delivered by psychologists. Controls will receive the Cognitive Behavior Therapy program after 10 weeks waitlisted. Repeated measures will be taken immediately post-therapy and at three months after therapy cessation. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this study will be the largest trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the treatment of children and young people to date. It will provide comprehensive data on the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxiety disorders and will offer evidence for mechanisms involved in the process of change. Furthermore, additional data will be obtained for the use of Cognitive Behavior Therapy in this population and this research will illustrate the comparative effectiveness of these two interventions, which are currently implemented widely in contemporary clinical practice. Anticipated difficulties for the trial are the recruitment and retention of participants, particularly adolescents. To avert these concerns and maximize recruitment, several strategies will be adopted to optimize referral rates as well as reduce participant drop-outs. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, registration number: ACTRN12611001280998 PMID:23672442

  16. MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning Services (MOTIF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Providing women with contraceptive methods following abortion is important to reduce repeat abortion rates, yet evidence for effective post-abortion family planning interventions are limited. This protocol outlines the evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial of 500 participants. Clients aged 18 or over, attending for abortion at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia, owning a mobile phone and not wishing to have a child at the current time are randomised to the mobile phone-based intervention or control (standard care) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention comprises a series of six automated voice messages to remind clients about available family planning methods and provide a conduit for additional support. Clients can respond to message prompts to request a phone call from a counsellor, or alternatively to state they have no problems. Clients requesting to talk to a counsellor, or who do not respond to the message prompts, receive a call from a Marie Stopes International Cambodia counsellor who provides individualised advice and support regarding family planning. The duration of the intervention is 3 months. The control group receive existing standard of care without the additional mobile phone-based support. We hypothesise that the intervention will remind clients about contraceptive methods available, identify problems with side effects early and provide support, and therefore increase use of post-abortion family planning, while reducing discontinuation and unsafe method switching. Participants are assessed at baseline and at 4 months. The primary outcome measure is use of an effective modern contraceptive method at 4 months post abortion. Secondary outcome measures include contraception use, pregnancy and repeat abortion over the 4-month post-abortion period. Risk ratios will be used as the measure of effect of the intervention on the outcomes, and these will be estimated with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses will be based on the ‘intention to treat’ principle. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support contraception use in a population with limited literacy. Findings could be generalisable to similar populations in different settings. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01823861 PMID:24330763

  17. Advanced Flip Chips in Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2010-01-01

    The use of underfill materials is necessary with flip-chip interconnect technology to redistribute stresses due to mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between dissimilar materials in the overall assembly. Underfills are formulated using organic polymers and possibly inorganic filler materials. There are a few ways to apply the underfills with flip-chip technology. Traditional capillary-flow underfill materials now possess high flow speed and reduced time to cure, but they still require additional processing steps beyond the typical surface-mount technology (SMT) assembly process. Studies were conducted using underfills in a temperature range of -190 to 85 C, which resulted in an increase of reliability by one to two orders of magnitude. Thermal shock of the flip-chip test articles was designed to induce failures at the interconnect sites (-40 to 100 C). The study on the reliability of flip chips using underfills in the extreme temperature region is of significant value for space applications. This technology is considered as an enabling technology for future space missions. Flip-chip interconnect technology is an advanced electrical interconnection approach where the silicon die or chip is electrically connected, face down, to the substrate by reflowing solder bumps on area-array metallized terminals on the die to matching footprints of solder-wettable pads on the chosen substrate. This advanced flip-chip interconnect technology will significantly improve the performance of high-speed systems, productivity enhancement over manual wire bonding, self-alignment during die joining, low lead inductances, and reduced need for attachment of precious metals. The use of commercially developed no-flow fluxing underfills provides a means of reducing the processing steps employed in the traditional capillary flow methods to enhance SMT compatibility. Reliability of flip chips may be significantly increased by matching/tailoring the CTEs of the substrate material and the silicon die or chip, and also the underfill materials. Advanced packaging interconnects technology such as flip-chip interconnect test boards have been subjected to various extreme temperature ranges that cover military specifications and extreme Mars and asteroid environments. The eventual goal of each process step and the entire process is to produce components with 100 percent interconnect and satisfy the reliability requirements. Underfill materials, in general, may possibly meet demanding end use requirements such as low warpage, low stress, fine pitch, high reliability, and high adhesion.

  18. A recall-by-genotype study of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype, cotinine and smoking topography: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between several loci in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster CHRNA5-A3-B4 and daily cigarette consumption. Recent studies have sought to refine this phenotype, and have shown that a locus within this cluster, marked primarily by rs1051730 and rs16969968, is also associated with levels of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine. This association remains after adjustment for self-reported smoking, which suggests that even amongst people who smoke the same number of cigarettes there is still genetically-influenced variation in nicotine consumption. This is likely to be due to differences in smoking topography, that is, how a cigarette is smoked (e.g., volume of smoke inhaled per puff, number of puffs taken per cigarette). The aim of this study is to determine potential mediation of the relationship between the rs1051730 locus and cotinine levels by smoking topography. Methods/Design Adopting a recall-by-genotype design, we will recruit 200 adults from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children on the basis of minor or major homozygote status at rs1051730 (100 in each genotype group). All participants will be current, daily smokers. Our primary study outcome measures will be measures of smoking topography: total volume of smoke (ml) inhaled per cigarette, total volume of smoke (ml) inhaled over of the course of one day, and salivary cotinine level (ng/ml). Discussion This study will extend our understanding of the biological basis of inter-individual variability in heaviness of smoking, and therefore in exposure to smoking-related toxins. The novel recall-by-genotype approach we will use is efficient, maximising statistical power, and enables the collection of extremely precise phenotypic data that are impractical to collect in a larger sample. The methods described within this protocol also hold the potential for wider application in the field of molecular genetics. PMID:24451018

  19. Salivary cortisol protocol adherence and reliability by socio-demographic features: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hill Golden, Sherita; Sánchez, Brisa N; Desantis, Amy S; Wu, Meihua; Castro, Cecilia; Seeman, Teresa E; Tadros, Sameh; Shrager, Sandi; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2014-05-01

    Collection of salivary cortisol has become increasingly popular in large population-based studies. However, the impact of protocol compliance on day-to-day reliabilities of measures, and the extent to which reliabilities differ systematically according to socio-demographic characteristics, has not been well characterized in large-scale population-based studies to date. Using data on 935 men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated whether sampling protocol compliance differs systematically according to socio-demographic factors and whether compliance was associated with cortisol estimates, as well as whether associations of cortisol with both compliance and socio-demographic characteristics were robust to adjustments for one another. We further assessed the day-to-day reliability for cortisol features and the extent to which reliabilities vary according to socio-demographic factors and sampling protocol compliance. Overall, we found higher compliance among persons with higher levels of income and education. Lower compliance was significantly associated with a less pronounced cortisol awakening response (CAR) but was not associated with any other cortisol features, and adjustment for compliance did not affect associations of socio-demographic characteristics with cortisol. Reliability was higher for area under the curve (AUC) and wake up values than for other features, but generally did not vary according to socio-demographic characteristics, with few exceptions. Our findings regarding intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) support prior research indicating that multiple day collection is preferable to single day collection, particularly for CAR and slopes, more so than wakeup and AUC. There were few differences in reliability by socio-demographic characteristics. Thus, it is unlikely that group-specific sampling protocols are warranted. PMID:24703168

  20. Benefit of using muscle relaxants in the routine treatment protocol of oral submucosal fibrosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nichlani, Sunil Srichand; Jagade, Mohan V; Ganeshan, Arunprabhu

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this present work is to describe the nature and extent of fibrosis within muscle and to correlate this with the mouth opening (MO) in OSE patients and to prove our results in improvement of mouth opening in patients with OSMF with use of "muscle relaxants" along with other modalities of treatment . The study was conducted on 40 patients who visited our outpatient department with grade 3 (<19 mm) mouth opening. 20 of these patients underwent the routine treatment protocol of weekly injection of hyaluronidase with hydrocortisone and antioxidant capsules with added lycopene for 1 month. The remaining test subjects in addition to the routine injections and antioxidants were given skeletal muscle relaxants like thiocolchicoside or chlorzoxazone. The mouth opening (interincisal distance of maxillary and mandibular incisors at maximum possible mouth opening) was measured and graded as follows: grade 1 (>40 mm), grade 2 (20-39 mm) and grade 3 (<19 mm) with the help of vernier callipers after the study period of 1 month. 17 out of the 20 test patients who received muscle relaxants in addition to the routine protocol showed marked improvement with shift from grade 3 (<19 mm) to grade 1 (>40 mm) i.e. a greater than 20 mm improvement in mouth opening. Using muscle relaxants as a adjuvant therapy in the routine protocol of treatment of oral submucosal fibrosis will not only cater and halt the problem of fibrosis but also will take care of the muscle spasm and inflammation which also inadvertently contribute to the restricted mouth opening. We found excellent improvement on adding muscle relaxants to the routine protocol which was not just an objective but also a subjective success. PMID:23024934

  1. The Combating Obesity in Māori and Pasifika Adolescent School-Children Study: COMPASS Methodology and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Lee; Shultz, Sarah P.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Krebs, Jeremy; Weatherall, Mark; Palmer, Barry R.; Lane, Andrew M.; Kira, Geoff; Witter, Trevor; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modifications including, physical activity can reduce obesity-related morbidity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in youth. This study will investigate the efficacy of a culturally-sensitive, non-contact, boxing-orientated training program on obesity and related cardio-metabolic conditions in Māori and Pasifika adolescents. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, cultural sensitivity, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation, and statistical analyses are described. Methods: This study will be a community based, New Zealand, randomized control trial (RCT). Male and female obese (body mass index >95th percentile) Māori and Pasifika adolescents aged 14-16 years will be recruited and the sample size will be confirmed through a feasibility study. Combating Obesity in Māori and Pasifika Adolescent School-children Study (COMPASS) is a 6-month, theory-based program, conducted 3-times/week in a culturally appropriate setting. Each session includes 40 min boxing-orientated training and 30 min resistance training. Assessments will be made at baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and 24-months. Main outcomes include abdominal obesity, endothelial function, and insulin resistance. Other outcomes include arterial stiffness, lipid profile, inflammatory biomarkers, well-being, and aerobic fitness. Control measures include physical activity, sleep behavior, and dietary intake. Results: As a protocol paper there are no specific results to present, our purpose is to share our RCT design with the scientific community. Conclusions: COMPASS will be used to provide direction for exercise prescription policy in at-risk Māori and Pasifika adolescents. PMID:23930168

  2. Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

    The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

  3. Chip-based silica microspheres for cavity optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; Kuzyk, Mark C; Oo, Thein; Long, Gui-Lu; Wang, Hailin

    2015-10-19

    We have experimentally realized on-chip silica microspheres that feature excellent thermal coupling to the silicon wafer. The chip-based microspheres significantly reduce laser-induced heating and correspondingly exhibit much lower threshold optical power for heating-induced optical bistability. We also show that the chip-based microspheres have optical and especially optomechanical properties that are similar to those of traditional fiber-stem-attached silica microspheres, making the chip-based microspheres suitable for optomechanical studies in a vacuum environment. PMID:26480386

  4. Design of steady-state positron emission tomography protocols for neurobehavioral studies: CO15O and 19Ne.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, K J; Rottenberg, D A; Volpe, B T

    1983-02-01

    Although the [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomographic technique for measuring regional glucose metabolic rate has been successfully employed for neurobehavioral studies, the long (greater than 30 min) equilibration time required may complicate the interpretation of experimental results. Positron emission tomography neurobehavioral protocols employing the continuous inhalation of CO15O and 19Ne were developed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow during multiple control and stimulation periods. Timing, lung absorbed dose, statistical accuracy, and resolution were considered. Studies with 19Ne require shorter equilibration and stimulation times than do CO15O studies but entail higher absorbed doses and yield poorer imaging statistics. PMID:6600756

  5. A minimally invasive technique for decompression of Chiari malformation type I (DECMI study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Liu, Jiagang; Chen, Haifeng; Jiang, Shu; Li, Qiang; Fang, Yuan; Gong, Shuhui; Wang, Yuelong; Huang, Siqing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is a congenital hindbrain anomaly that requires surgical decompression in symptomatic patients. Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) has been widely practiced in Chiari decompression, but dural opening carries a high risk of surgical complications. A minimally invasive technique, dural splitting decompression (DSD), preserves the inner layer of the dura without dural opening and duraplasty, potentially reducing surgical complications, length of operative time and hospital stay, and cost. If DSD is non-inferior to PFDD in terms of clinical improvement, DSD could be an alternative treatment modality for CM-I. So far, no randomised study of surgical treatment of CM-I has been reported. This study aims to evaluate if DSD is an effective, safe and cost-saving treatment modality for adult CM-I patients, and may provide evidence for using the minimally invasive procedure extensively. Methods and analysis DECMI is a randomised controlled, single-masked, non-inferiority, single centre clinical trial. Participants meeting the criteria will be randomised to the DSD group and the PFDD group in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome is the rate of clinical improvement, which is defined as the complete resolution or partial improvement of the presenting symptoms/signs. The secondary outcomes consist of the incidence of syrinx reduction, postoperative morbidity rates, reoperation rate, quality of life (QoL) and healthcare resource utilisation. A total of 160 patients will be included and followed up at 3 and 12?months postoperatively. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Biological and Medical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital. The findings of this trial will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and presented at scientific conferences. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-14004099. PMID:25926152

  6. Examining the impact of genetic testing for type 2 diabetes on health behaviors: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We describe the study design, procedures, and development of the risk counseling protocol used in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of genetic testing for diabetes mellitus (DM) on psychological, health behavior, and clinical outcomes. Methods/Design Eligible patients are aged 21 to 65 years with body mass index (BMI) ?27 kg/m2 and no prior diagnosis of DM. At baseline, conventional DM risk factors are assessed, and blood is drawn for possible genetic testing. Participants are randomized to receive conventional risk counseling for DM with eye disease counseling or with genetic test results. The counseling protocol was pilot tested to identify an acceptable graphical format for conveying risk estimates and match the length of the eye disease to genetic counseling. Risk estimates are presented with a vertical bar graph denoting risk level with colors and descriptors. After receiving either genetic counseling regarding risk for DM or control counseling on eye disease, brief lifestyle counseling for prevention of DM is provided to all participants. Discussion A standardized risk counseling protocol is being used in a randomized trial of 600 participants. Results of this trial will inform policy about whether risk counseling should include genetic counseling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01060540 PMID:22852560

  7. Study protocol - Indigenous Australian social networks and the impact on smoking policy and programs in Australia: protocol for a mixed-method prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia. Comprehensive tobacco control has reduced smoking rates in Australia from approximately 34 per cent in 1980 to 15 per cent in 2010. However, 46 per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (Indigenous Australians) smoke on a daily basis, more than double the rate of non-Indigenous Australians. The evidence of effective tobacco control strategies for Indigenous Australians is relatively scarce. The aim of this study is to (i) explore the influences of smoking in Indigenous Australian people and to (ii) help inform and evaluate a multi-component tobacco control strategy. The study aims to answer the following questions: - do individuals' social networks influence smoking behaviours; - is there an association between various social and cultural factors and being a smoker or non-smoker; and - does a multi-component tobacco control program impact positively on tobacco behaviours, attitudes and beliefs in Indigenous Australians. Methods and design Our prospective study will use a mixed-method approach (qualitative and quantitative), including a pre- and post-test evaluation of a tobacco control initiative. The study will explore the social and cultural context underlying Indigenous Australian tobacco use and associated factors which influence smoking behaviour. Primary data will be collected via a panel survey, interviews and focus groups. Secondary data will include de-identified PBS items related to smoking and also data collected from the Quitlines call service. Network analysis will be used to assess whether social networks influence smoking behaviours. For the survey, baseline differences will be tested using chi2 statistics for the categorical and dichotomous variables and t-tests for the continuous variables, where appropriate. Grounded theory will be used to analyse the interviews and focus groups. Local Aboriginal community controlled organisations will partner in the study. Discussion Our study will explore the key factors, including the influence of social networks, that impact on tobacco use and the extent to which smoking behaviours transcend networks within the Indigenous Australian community in the ACT. This will add to the evidence-base, identifying influential factors to tobacco use and the effectiveness and influence of a multi-component tobacco control strategy. PMID:24060337

  8. A field-based cleaning protocol for sampling devices used in life-detection studies.

    PubMed

    Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Benning, Liane G; Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Amundsen, Hans E F

    2009-06-01

    Analytical approaches to extant and extinct life detection involve molecular detection often at trace levels. Thus, removal of biological materials and other organic molecules from the surfaces of devices used for sampling is essential for ascertaining meaningful results. Organic decontamination to levels consistent with null values on life-detection instruments is particularly challenging at remote field locations where Mars analog field investigations are carried out. Here, we present a seven-step, multi-reagent decontamination method that can be applied to sampling devices while in the field. In situ lipopolysaccharide detection via low-level endotoxin assays and molecular detection via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to test the effectiveness of the decontamination protocol for sampling of glacial ice with a coring device and for sampling of sediments with a rover scoop during deployment at Arctic Mars-analog sites in Svalbard, Norway. Our results indicate that the protocols and detection technique sufficiently remove and detect low levels of molecular constituents necessary for life-detection tests. PMID:19496672

  9. A study of the effectiveness of particulate cleaning protocols on intentionally contaminated niobium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Ciancio, Elizabeth J.; Keyes, Katharine A.; Yang, Dian

    2009-11-01

    Particulate contamination on the surface of SRF cavities limits their performance via the enhanced generation of field-emitted electrons. Considerable efforts are expended to actively clean and avoid such contamination on niobium surfaces. The protocols in active use have been developed via feedback from cavity testing. This approach has the risk of over-conservatively ratcheting an ever increasing complexity of methods tied to particular circumstances. A complementary and perhaps helpful approach is to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of candidate methods at removing intentional representative particulate contamination. Toward this end, we developed a standardized contamination protocol using water suspensions of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SS 316 powders applied to BCP’d surfaces of standardized niobium samples yielding particle densities of order 200 particles/mm{sup 2}. From these starting conditions, controlled application of high pressure water rinse, ultrasonic cleaning, or CO{sub 2} snow jet cleaning was applied and the resulting surfaces examined via SEM/scanning EDS with particle recognition software. Results of initial parametric variations of each will be reported.

  10. Birth cohort study on the effects of desert dust exposure on children's health: protocol of an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. Methods and analysis This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. Trial Registration number UMIN000010826. PMID:24958210

  11. Microfluidic chips with reversed-phase monoliths for solid phase extraction and on-chip labeling

    PubMed Central

    Nge, Pamela N.; Pagaduan, Jayson V.; Yu, Ming; Woolley, Adam T.

    2012-01-01

    The integration of sample preparation methods into microfluidic devices provides automation necessary for achieving complete micro total analysis systems. We have developed a technique that combines on-chip sample enrichment with fluorescence labeling and purification. Polymer monoliths made from butyl methacrylate were fabricated in cyclic olefin copolymer microdevices and used for solid phase extraction. We studied the retention of fluorophores, amino acids and proteins on these columns. The retained samples were subsequently labeled with both Alexa Fluor 488 and Chromeo P503, and unreacted dye was rinsed off the column before sample elution. Additional purification was obtained from the differential retention of proteins and fluorescent labels. A linear relation between the eluted peak areas and concentrations of on-chip labeled heat shock protein 90 samples demonstrated the utility of this method for on-chip quantitation. Our fast and simple method of simultaneously concentrating and labeling samples on-chip is compatible with miniaturization and desirable for automated analysis. PMID:22995197

  12. Interaction between reinforcing geosynthetics and soil-tire chip mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tatlisoz, N.; Edil, T.B.; Benson, C.H.

    1998-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of tire chips and soil-tire chip mixtures relevant to geosynthetic-reinforced earthworks. Tests were conducted to evaluate shear strength and pull-out capacity with a woven geotextile and two geogrids. Soil-tire chip mixtures made with clean sand and sandy silt were tested. These properties were then used to assess the potential advantages of using soil-tire chip backfills for geosynthetic-reinforced retaining walls and embankments. The test results show that the geosynthetic pull-out force in tire chip and soil-tire chip backfills increases with displacement--i.e., no peak pull-out force is generally obtained, at least for displacements {le}100 mm. Pull-out interaction coefficients for the chip backfills are typically greater than 1, whereas for soil-tire chip backfills are typically greater than 1, whereas for soil-tire chip backfills they typically range between 0.2 and 0.7, even though the pull-out capacity for soil-tire chip backfills is generally similar to or greater than the pull-out capacity in a soil backfill. The higher strength, lower unit weight and good backfill-geosynthetic interaction obtained with soil-tire chip backfills can result in walls requiring less geosynthetic reinforcement than walls backfilled with soil. In addition, embankments can potentially be constructed with steeper slopes and a smaller volume of material when soil-tire chip fill is used, while providing greater resistance against lateral sliding and foundation settlement.

  13. 21 CFR 58.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Protocol for and Conduct of a Nonclinical Laboratory Study § 58.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an approved written protocol that clearly indicates the objectives and all methods for the conduct of the study. The protocol shall contain, as applicable, the...

  14. Extrusion pretreatment of pine wood chips.

    PubMed

    Karunanithy, C; Muthukumarappan, K; Gibbons, W R

    2012-05-01

    Pretreatment is the first step to open up lignocellulose structure in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Extrusion can be a viable pretreatment method due to its ability to simultaneously expose biomass to a range of disruptive conditions in a continuous flow process. Extruder screw speed, barrel temperature, and feedstock moisture content are important factors that can influence sugar recovery from biomass. Hence, the current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of these parameters on extrusion pretreatment of pine wood chips. Pine wood chip at 25, 35, and 45 % wb moisture content were pretreated at various barrel temperatures (100, 140, and 180 °C) and screw speeds (100, 150, and 200 rpm) using a screw with compression ratios of 3:1. The pretreated pine wood chips were subjected to standard enzymatic hydrolysis followed by sugar and byproducts quantification. Statistical analyses revealed the existence of significant differences in sugar recovery due to independent variables based on comparing the mean of main effects and interaction effects. Pine wood chips pretreated at a screw speed of 150 rpm and a barrel temperature of 180 °C with a moisture content of 25 % resulted in a maximum cellulose, hemicellulose, and total sugar recoveries of 65.8, 65.6, and 66.1 %, respectively, which was about 6.7, 7.9, and 6.8 fold higher than the control (unpretreated pine chips). Furthermore, potential fermentation inhibitors such as furfural, hydroxyl methyl furfural, and acetic acid were not found in any of the treatment combinations. PMID:22528654

  15. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system) analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: ‱ a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience ‱ a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment ‱ an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes) and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims). Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that future research, policy and practice need to address the sociology of improvement in equal measure to the science and technique of improvement, or at least expand the discipline of improvement to include these critical organisational and cultural processes. We define the 'organisational and cultural characteristics associated with better quality of care' in a broad sense that encompasses all the features of a hospital that might be hypothesised to impact upon clinical effectiveness, patient safety and/or patient experience. PMID:22029712

  16. Design and measurement considerations for exercise protocols in human air-pollution inhalation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The impact on pulmonary functions of exercising at different intensities during pollutant exposures was evaluated. It was apparent that there was considerable variation in exercise protocols. These variations occurred in the magnitude of the exercise load, the duration of the exercise period, and the timing of the exercise during exposure. It was also apparent that ventilation during rest and exercise was not always determined; in many instances ventilation was estimated based on other criteria, such as heart rate. The influence of ambient temperature conditions was frequently not considered. Determinations of pulmonary functions were also made at various time intervals following exercise or subsequent rest periods. All of these factors could result in some degree of misinterpretation of the consequences of pollutant exposure.

  17. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing the efficiency of two provider-endorsed manual paediatric fluid resuscitation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Evan T; Harvey, Greg; Foster, Gary; Thabane, Lehana; Parker, Melissa J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric shock is a life-threatening condition with many possible causes and a global impact. Current resuscitation guidelines require rapid fluid administration as a cornerstone of paediatric shock management. However, little evidence is available to inform clinicians how to most effectively perform rapid fluid administration where this is clinically required, resulting in suboptimal knowledge translation of current resuscitation guidelines into clinical practice. Objectives This study aims to determine which of the two commonly used techniques for paediatric fluid resuscitation (disconnect–reconnect technique and push–pull technique) yields a higher fluid administration rate in a simulated clinical scenario. Secondary objectives include determination of catheter dislodgement rates, subjective and objective measures of provider fatiguability and descriptive information regarding any technical issues encountered with performance of each method under the study. Methods and analysis This study will utilise a randomised crossover trial design. Participants will include consenting healthcare providers from McMaster Children's Hospital. Each participant will administer 900 ml (60 ml/kg) of normal saline to a simulated 15 kg infant as quickly as possible on two separate occasions using the manual fluid administration techniques under the study. The primary outcome, rate of fluid administration, will be evaluated using a paired two-tailed Student t test. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Hamilton Health Sciences Research Ethics Board. Results These will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and presented at one or more scientific conferences. Protocol Registration Protocol Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01774214 PMID:23524045

  18. The ENHANCES study—Enhancing Head and Neck Cancer patients’ Experiences of Survivorship: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few cancers pose greater challenges than head and neck (H&N) cancer. Residual effects following treatment include body image changes, pain, fatigue and difficulties with appetite, swallowing and speech. Depression is a common comorbidity. There is limited evidence about ways to assist patients to achieve optimal adjustment after completion of treatment. In this study, we aim to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of a model of survivorship care to improve the quality of life of patients who have completed treatment for H&N cancer. Methods/Design This is a preliminary study in which 120 patients will be recruited. A prospective randomised controlled trial of the H&N Cancer Survivor Self-management Care Plan (HNCP) involving pre- and post-intervention assessments will be used. Consecutive patients who have completed a defined treatment protocol for H&N cancer will be recruited from two large cancer services and randomly allocated to one of three study arms: (1) usual care, (2) information in the form of a written resource or (3) the HNCP delivered by an oncology nurse who has participated in manual-based training and skill development in patient self-management support. The trained nurses will meet patients in a face-to-face interview lasting up to 60 minutes to develop an individualised HNCP, based on principles of chronic disease self-management. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome measure is quality of life. The secondary outcome measures include mood, self-efficacy and health-care utilisation. The feasibility of implementing this intervention in routine clinical care will be assessed through semistructured interviews with participating nurses, managers and administrators. Interviews with patients who received the HNCP will explore their perceptions of the HNCP, including factors that assisted them in achieving behavioural change. Discussion In this study, we aim to improve the quality of life of a patient population with unique needs by means of a tailored self-management care plan developed upon completion of treatment. Delivery of the intervention by trained oncology nurses is likely to be acceptable to patients and, if successful, will be a model of care that can be implemented for diverse patient populations. Trial registration ACTRN12613000542796 (registered on 15 May 2013) PMID:24885486

  19. Design of highway embankments using tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Bosscher, P.J.; Edil, T.B.; Kuraoka, S.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes research undertaken to develop design procedures for using shredded scrap tires as a lightweight fill material in highway construction. The benefits of using scrap tires are particularly enhanced if they can be used to replace virgin construction materials made from nonrenewable resources. This paper addresses the use of tire chips as a highway embankment material. Design parameters for embankments constructed using discarded shredded tires are presented based on laboratory model studies, numerical analyses, and field performance of test fills. The conclusions of this report support the use of tire chips as an environmentally acceptable lightweight fill in highway applications if properly confined. Recommendations for design procedures and construction specifications for the use of tire chips in highway fills are provided.

  20. Boron neutron capture therapy applied to advanced breast cancers: Engineering simulation and feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztejnberg Goncalves-Carralves, Manuel Leonardo

    This dissertation describes a novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) application for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers. The original contribution of the dissertation is the development of the engineering simulation and the feasibility study of the radiation treatment protocol for this novel combination of BNCT and HER2+ breast cancer treatment. This new concept of BNCT, representing a radiation binary targeted treatment, consists of the combination of two approaches never used in a synergism before. This combination may offer realistic hope for relapsed and/or metastasized breast cancers. This treatment assumes that the boronated anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are administrated to the patient and accumulate preferentially in the tumor. Then the tumor is destroyed when is exposed to neutron irradiation. Since the use of anti-HER2 MABs yields good and promising results, the proposed concept is expected to amplify the known effect and be considered as a possible additional treatment approach to the most severe breast cancers for patients with metastasized cancer for which the current protocol is not successful and for patients refusing to have the standard treatment protocol. This dissertation makes an original contribution with an integral numerical approach and proves feasible the combination of the aforementioned therapy and disease. With these goals, the dissertation describes the theoretical analysis of the proposed concept providing an integral engineering simulation study of the treatment protocol. An extensive analysis of the potential limitations, capabilities and optimization factors are well studied using simplified models, models based on real CT patients' images, cellular models, and Monte Carlo (MCNP5/X) transport codes. One of the outcomes of the integral dosimetry assessment originally developed for the proposed treatment of advanced breast cancers is the implementation of BNCT for HER2+ breast cancers for deep seated tumors using MITRII-FCB facility with an 8 cm diameter beam (port closest-to-tumor position), with boron concentrations in the tumor higher than 32 mug/g, and for a tumor-to-healthy tissue boron concentration ratio of 8:1. The therapeutic ratios for the proposed treatment would be higher than five for skin and adipose tissue and higher than three for tumor surrounding fibroglandular tissue. The microdosimetry study shows potential improvements in the therapeutic ratios based on the expected sub-cellular boron biodistributions. The engineering simulation study of clinical cases shows the advantages of using BNCT for HER+ breast cancers. Assuming an assured high efficiency of the boron agent delivery, the proposed concept can be considered for stage IV HER2+ breast cancers in treating the metastasized tumors in brain, head and neck, and lungs.

  1. On-Chip Biomedical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and micro electromechanical systems achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lensfree holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lensfree optical tomography. PMID:23558399

  2. Comparative evaluation of bone in mandibular implant retained overdentures using delayed and immediate loading protocol: an in-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Lahori, Manesh; Kaul, A S; Chandra, Sidhartha; Nagrath, Rahul; Gupta, Himanshu

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in periimplant bone quality, crestal bone level and the implant stability (periotest) for mandibular implant retained overdentures with ball attachments using delayed and immediate loading protocols. Ten completely edentulous patients had two alpha bio dental implants placed in the anterior part of the mandible. The loading protocols for the patients was chosen randomly by drawing lots. Five patients were loaded under immediate loading protocols and other five following delayed. Crestal bone loss and bone quality were assessed around each implant. Periotest values were recorded for each implant at 3, 6 and 12 months after loading. Two implants were lost and were excluded from the study. However mean crestal bone loss around implants was 0.81 mm from the time of prosthetic loading to 12 months after prosthetic loading was seen and no significant result was found between the two groups for the crestal bone loss and the periotest values. Though the periotest value decreased (indicates increased stability) over the time period. The bone density changes were significant for both the groups at coronal level at all time intervals but at middle level significant only after 12 months of prosthetic loading, although individual variation was high. This study concluded that the changes in crestal bone level and periotest values were insignificant for the two groups. But the implant stability increased over the time and the crestal bone loss was evident with decreased rate over the period of time. There was wide individual variation for the bone density changes but overall increase in the density was seen. PMID:24431720

  3. Bee venom acupuncture, NSAIDs or combined treatment for chronic neck pain: study protocol for a randomized, assessor-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a common painful medical condition with a significant socioeconomic impact. In spite of widespread usage, the effectiveness and safety of combined treatments between conventional and complementary alternative medical treatment modalities has not been fully established in a rigorous randomized clinical trial (RCT). This pilot study will provide the clinical evidence to evaluate the feasibility and refine the protocol for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with CNP. Methods/Design This is a randomized, single-blind clinical trial with three parallel arms. Sixty patients between 18 and 65 years of age with non-specific, uncomplicated neck pain lasting for at least three months will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly allocated into the BVA, NSAIDs or combined treatment group. Assessors and statisticians will be blinded to the random allocation. All researchers will receive training to ensure their strict adherence to the study protocol. Patients from the BVA and combined treatment group will be treated with a bee venom increment protocol into predefined acupoints for six sessions over a three week period. BVA intervention is developed through a comprehensive discussion among interdisciplinary spine disorder experts, according to the guidelines of Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA). Patients from the NSAIDs and combined treatment groups will be prescribed loxoprofen (one tablet to be taken orally, three times a day for three weeks). Bothersomeness from CNP measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) will be the primary outcome assessed at screening, visit two (baseline), four, six, eight (4th week assessment) and nine (8th week assessment) follow-up session. VAS for pain intensity, neck disability index (NDI), quality of life, depressive status and adverse experiences will also be analyzed. Discussion Our study results will contribute to feasibility evaluation and to relevant RCT protocol development for a full-scale RCT on combined treatment of BVA and NSAIDs for CNP patients. Trial registration This study is registered with the United States (US) National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry: NCT01922466. PMID:24746224

  4. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  5. Mathematik im Chip-Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, Jürgen; Korte, Bernhard; Vygen, Jens

    Chips sind die wohl komplexesten Strukturen, die vom Menschen entworfen und gefertigt wurden. Auf einem kleinen Silizium-Chip von der Größe eines Fingernagels werden heute Milliarden von Transistoren untergebracht, die mit vielen Millionen Verbindungen untereinander verknüpft sind, wobei die Gesamtlänge dieser Netze mehrere Kilometer betragen kann. Abb. 1 zeigt einen kleinen Ausschnitt (˜ 1 Milliardstel) eines Chips mit zweilagiger Verdrahtung im Raster-Tunnel-Mikroskop.

  6. A multi-level system quality improvement intervention to reduce racial disparities in hypertension care and control: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Racial disparities in blood pressure control have been well documented in the United States. Research suggests that many factors contribute to this disparity, including barriers to care at patient, clinician, healthcare system, and community levels. To date, few interventions aimed at reducing hypertension disparities have addressed factors at all of these levels. This paper describes the design of Project ReD CHiP (Reducing Disparities and Controlling Hypertension in Primary Care), a multi-level system quality improvement project. By intervening on multiple levels, this project aims to reduce disparities in blood pressure control and improve guideline concordant hypertension care. Methods Using a pragmatic trial design, we are implementing three complementary multi-level interventions designed to improve blood pressure measurement, provide patient care management services and offer expanded provider education resources in six primary care clinics in Baltimore, Maryland. We are staggering the introduction of the interventions and will use Statistical Process Control (SPC) charting to determine if there are changes in outcomes at each clinic after implementation of each intervention. The main hypothesis is that each intervention will have an additive effect on improvements in guideline concordant care and reductions in hypertension disparities, but the combination of all three interventions will result in the greatest impact, followed by blood pressure measurement with care management support, blood pressure measurement with provider education, and blood pressure measurement only. This study also examines how organizational functioning and cultural competence affect the success of the interventions. Discussion As a quality improvement project, Project ReD CHiP employs a novel study design that specifically targets multi-level factors known to contribute to hypertension disparities. To facilitate its implementation and improve its sustainability, we have incorporated stakeholder input and tailored components of the interventions to meet the specific needs of the involved clinics and communities. Results from this study will provide knowledge about how integrated multi-level interventions can improve hypertension care and reduce disparities. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01566864 PMID:23734703

  7. Active microfluidic mixer chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xize; Liu, Liyu; Wen, Weijia; Sheng, Ping

    2006-04-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a chaotic mixer based on the electrorheological (ER) fluid-controlled valves. The flow in the main channel is perturbed by liquid flow in orthogonal side channels, driven by hydrodynamic pulsating pumps. Each pulsating pump consists of a chamber with diaphragm plus two out-of-phase ER valves operating in a push-pull mode. All the valves, pumps, and mixing channels are integrated in one polydimethylsioxane chip. Mixing characteristics in the main channel are controlled by the strength and frequency of external electric fields applied on the ER fluid.

  8. Lab-on a-Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Labs on chips are manufactured in many shapes and sizes and can be used for numerous applications, from medical tests to water quality monitoring to detecting the signatures of life on other planets. The eight holes on this chip are actually ports that can be filled with fluids or chemicals. Tiny valves control the chemical processes by mixing fluids that move in the tiny channels that look like lines, connecting the ports. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama designed this chip to grow biological crystals on the International Space Station (ISS). Through this research, they discovered that this technology is ideally suited for solving the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. For example, thousands of chips the size of dimes could be loaded on a Martian rover looking for biosignatures of past or present life. Other types of chips could be placed in handheld devices used to monitor microbes in water or to quickly conduct medical tests on astronauts. The portable, handheld Lab-on-a Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) made its debut flight aboard Discovery during the STS-116 mission launched December 9, 2006. The system allowed crew members to monitor their environment for problematic contaminants such as yeast, mold, and even E.coli, and salmonella. Once LOCAD-PTS reached the ISS, the Marshall team continued to manage the experiment, monitoring the study from a console in the Payload Operations Center at MSFC. The results of these studies will help NASA researchers refine the technology for future Moon and Mars missions. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

  9. Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

    1998-08-01

    It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

  10. Sample processing for DNA chip array-based analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)

    PubMed Central

    Basselet, Pascal; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Enfors, Sven-Olof; Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Background Exploitation of DNA-based analyses of microbial pathogens, and especially simultaneous typing of several virulence-related genes in bacteria is becoming an important objective of public health these days. Results A procedure for sample processing for a confirmative analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) on a single colony with DNA chip array was developed and is reported here. The protocol includes application of fragmented genomic DNA from ultrasonicated colonies. The sample processing comprises first 2.5 min of ultrasonic treatment, DNA extraction (2Ś), and afterwards additional 5 min ultrasonication. Thus, the total sample preparation time for a confirmative analysis of EHEC is nearly 10 min. Additionally, bioinformatic revisions were performed in order to design PCR primers and array probes specific to most conservative regions of the EHEC-associated genes. Six strains with distinct pathogenic properties were selected for this study. At last, the EHEC chip array for a parallel and simultaneous detection of genes etpC-stx1-stx2-eae was designed and examined. This should permit to sense all currently accessible variants of the selected sequences in EHEC types and subtypes. Conclusion In order to implement the DNA chip array-based analysis for direct EHEC detection the sample processing was established in course of this work. However, this sample preparation mode may also be applied to other types of EHEC DNA-based sensing systems. PMID:18851736

  11. Atom chips for quantum sensing with cold thermal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S.; Ammar, M.; Dupont-Nivet, M.; Huet, L.; Pocholle, J.-P.; Guerlin, C.; Reichel, J.; Rosenbusch, P.; Bouchoule, I.; Westbrook, C.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss the possibility of building a matter wave interferometer using thermal (i.e. non condensed) cold atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip for quantum sensing of acceleration and gravity fields with reduced mean-field effects. To maintain a satisfactory level of coherence, a high degree of symmetry is required between the two arms of such an interferometer. We discuss this point quantitatively, and describe the experimental protocol we are developing for this purpose, based on internal state labeling and on the use of two parallel coplanar waveguides deposited on top of the atom chip to selectively address the potential of each internal state through microwave dressing. We also report our recent experimental work demonstrating the possibility of achieving a magneto-optical trap with some of the beams passing through the chip.

  12. Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng; Abolghasem, Payam; Scarcella, Carmelo; Frera, Adriano Della; Tosi, Alberto; Helt, Lukas G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Sipe, J. E.; Weihs, Gregor; Helmy, Amr S.; Jennewein, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral filtering or post-selection. After splitting the twin-photons immediately after they emerge from the chip, we perform a variety of correlation tests on the photon pairs and show non-classical behaviour in their polarization. Combined with the BRW's versatile architecture our results signify the BRW design as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices. PMID:23896982

  13. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers’ sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with the inclusion of parental involvement. The application of the Intervention Mapping Protocol may lead to the development of more effective interventions. The detailed intervention matrices that were developed as part of the ToyBox-study can be used by other researchers as an aid in order to avoid repetitive work for the design of similar interventions. PMID:24552138

  14. Bortezomib in late antibody-mediated kidney transplant rejection (BORTEJECT Study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite major advances in transplant medicine, improvements in long-term kidney allograft survival have not been commensurate with those observed shortly after transplantation. The formation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and ongoing antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) processes may critically contribute to late graft loss. However, appropriate treatment for late AMR has not yet been defined. There is accumulating evidence that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib may substantially affect the function and integrity of alloantibody-secreting plasma cells. The impact of this agent on the course of late AMR has not so far been systematically investigated. Methods/design The BORTEJECT Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to clarify the impact of intravenous bortezomib on the course of late AMR. In this single-center study (nephrological outpatient service, Medical University Vienna) we plan an initial cross-sectional DSA screening of 1,000 kidney transplant recipients (functioning graft at ≄180 days; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >20 ml/minute/1.73 m2). DSA-positive recipients will be subjected to kidney allograft biopsy to detect morphological features consistent with AMR. Forty-four patients with biopsy-proven AMR will then be included in a double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial (1:1 randomization stratified for eGFR and the presence of T-cell-mediated rejection). Patients in the active group will receive two cycles of bortezomib (4 × 1.3 mg/m2 over 2 weeks; 3-month interval between cycles). The primary end point will be the course of eGFR over 24 months (intention-to-treat analysis). The sample size was calculated according to the assumption of a 5 ml/minute/1.73 m2 difference in eGFR slope (per year) between the two groups (alpha: 0.05; power: 0.8). Secondary endpoints will be DSA levels, protein excretion, measured glomerular filtration rate, transplant and patient survival, and the development of acute and chronic morphological lesions in 24-month protocol biopsies. Discussion The impact of anti-humoral treatment on the course of late AMR has not yet been systematically investigated. Based on the hypothesis that proteasome inhibition improves the outcome of DSA-positive late AMR, we suggest that our trial has the potential to provide solid evidence towards the treatment of this type of rejection. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01873157. PMID:24708575

  15. Home and health in people ageing with Parkinson’s disease: study protocol for a prospective longitudinal cohort survey study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With an increased life expectancy for the general population as well as for those ageing with chronic diseases, there are major challenges to the affected individuals and their families, but also to health care and societal planning. Most important, an increasing proportion of older people remain living in their ordinary homes despite health decline and disability. However, little is known about the home and health situation of people ageing with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and older people are often excluded from PD-research. Methods/design The overall aim of the present project is to generate knowledge on home and health dynamics in people with PD, with an explicit attention to PD-specific symptomatology. We will concentrate on aspects of home and health captured by state-of-the-art methodology from gerontology as well as PD-research, health science and rehabilitation. This study protocol describes a longitudinal cohort survey study that includes a baseline data collection and a 3-year follow-up. Both data collection waves include self-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, clinical assessments and observations during home visits effectuated by research staff with project-specific training. In order to arrive at a follow-up sample of N=160, 250 participants identified by PD specialist nurses are being recruited from three hospitals in southern Sweden. With no lower or upper age limit, only those diagnosed with PD since at least one year were included. The exclusion criteria were: difficulties in understanding or speaking Swedish and/or cognitive difficulties/other reasons making the individual unable to give informed consent or to take part in the majority of the data collection. The data collection targets environmental factors such as assistive devices, social support, physical environmental barriers, accessibility problems and perceived aspects of home. A broad variety of instruments tap PD-specific problems (e.g. freezing of gait, fear of falling) and health-related issues such as general self-efficacy, body functions, activities and participation. Discussion This project will produce knowledge to the benefit of the development of health care and societal planning that targets people ageing with PD, ultimately promoting activity and participation and an increase of the number of healthy life years for this sub-group of the population. PMID:24107116

  16. A next-generation tissue microarray (ngTMA) protocol for biomarker studies.

    PubMed

    Zlobec, Inti; Suter, Guido; Perren, Aurel; Lugli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker research relies on tissue microarrays (TMA). TMAs are produced by repeated transfer of small tissue cores from a 'donor' block into a 'recipient' block and then used for a variety of biomarker applications. The construction of conventional TMAs is labor intensive, imprecise, and time-consuming. Here, a protocol using next-generation Tissue Microarrays (ngTMA) is outlined. ngTMA is based on TMA planning and design, digital pathology, and automated tissue microarraying. The protocol is illustrated using an example of 134 metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Histological, statistical and logistical aspects are considered, such as the tissue type, specific histological regions, and cell types for inclusion in the TMA, the number of tissue spots, sample size, statistical analysis, and number of TMA copies. Histological slides for each patient are scanned and uploaded onto a web-based digital platform. There, they are viewed and annotated (marked) using a 0.6-2.0 mm diameter tool, multiple times using various colors to distinguish tissue areas. Donor blocks and 12 'recipient' blocks are loaded into the instrument. Digital slides are retrieved and matched to donor block images. Repeated arraying of annotated regions is automatically performed resulting in an ngTMA. In this example, six ngTMAs are planned containing six different tissue types/histological zones. Two copies of the ngTMAs are desired. Three to four slides for each patient are scanned; 3 scan runs are necessary and performed overnight. All slides are annotated; different colors are used to represent the different tissues/zones, namely tumor center, invasion front, tumor/stroma, lymph node metastases, liver metastases, and normal tissue. 17 annotations/case are made; time for annotation is 2-3 min/case. 12 ngTMAs are produced containing 4,556 spots. Arraying time is 15-20 hr. Due to its precision, flexibility and speed, ngTMA is a powerful tool to further improve the quality of TMAs used in clinical and translational research. PMID:25285857

  17. Phenome-wide Association Study Relating Pretreatment Laboratory Parameters With Human Genetic Variants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carrie B.; Verma, Anurag; Pendergrass, Sarah; Verma, Shefali S.; Johnson, Daniel H.; Daar, Eric S.; Gulick, Roy M.; Haubrich, Richard; Robbins, Gregory K.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Haas, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Phenome-Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) identify genetic associations across multiple phenotypes. Clinical trials offer opportunities for PheWAS to identify pharmacogenomic associations. We describe the first PheWAS to use genome-wide genotypic data and to utilize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical trials data. As proof-of-concept, we focused on baseline laboratory phenotypes from antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals. Methods. Data from 4 AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) studies were split into 2 datasets: Dataset I (1181 individuals from protocol A5202) and Dataset II (1366 from protocols A5095, ACTG 384, and A5142). Final analyses involved 2547 individuals and 5 954 294 imputed polymorphisms. We calculated comprehensive associations between these polymorphisms and 27 baseline laboratory phenotypes. Results. A total of 10 584 (0.17%) polymorphisms had associations with P < .01 in both datasets and with the same direction of association. Twenty polymorphisms replicated associations with identical or related phenotypes reported in the Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies, including several not previously reported in HIV-positive cohorts. We also identified several possibly novel associations. Conclusions. These analyses define PheWAS properties and principles with baseline laboratory data from HIV clinical trials. This approach may be useful for evaluating on-treatment HIV clinical trials data for associations with various clinical phenotypes. PMID:25884002

  18. A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

  19. The effect of location and facility demand on the marginal cost of delivered wood chips from energy crops: A case study of the state of Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; Downing, M.; Noon, C.; Daly, M.; Moore, A.

    1995-12-31

    Cost-supply curves for delivered wood chips from short rotation woody crops were calculated for 21 regularly-spaced locations spanning the state of Tennessee. These curves were used to systematically evaluate the combined effects of location and facility demand on wood chip feedstock costs in Tennessee. The cost-supply curves were developed using BRAVO, a GIS-based decision support system which calculates marginal cost of delivering wood chips to a specific location given road network maps and maps of farmgate prices and supplies of woody chips from short rotation energy crops. Marginal costs of delivered chips varied by both facility location in the state and facility demand. Marginal costs were lowest in central Tennessee unless the facility demand was greater than 2.7 million dry Mg per year (3 million dry tons per year) in which case west Tennessee was the lowest cost region. Marginal costs rose rapidly with increasing facility demand in the mountainous eastern portion of the state. Transportation costs accounted for 18 to 29% of the delivered cost and ranged between $8 and $18/dry Mg ($7 and $16/dry ton). Reducing the expected farmer participation rate from 100% to 50% or 25% dramatically raised the marginal costs of feedstock supply in the east and central regions of the state. The analysis demonstrates the need to use geographically-specific information when projecting the potential costs and supplies of biomass feedstock.

  20. Biostability of an implantable glucose sensor chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, M.; Birkholz, M.; Ehwald, K. E.; Kulse, P.; Fursenko, O.; Katzer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Surface materials of an implantable microelectronic chip intended for medical applications were evaluated with respect to their long-term stability in bio-environments. The sensor chip shall apply in a glucose monitor by operating as a microviscosimeter according to the principle of affinity viscosimetry. A monolithic integration of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) into the sensor chip was successfully performed in a combined 0.25 ÎŒm CMOS/BiCMOS technology. In order to study material durability and biostability of the surfaces, sensor chips were exposed to various in vitro and in vivo tests. Corrosional damage of SiON, SiO2 and TiN surfaces was investigated by optical microscopy, ellipsometry and AFM. The results served for optimizing the Back-end-of-Line (BEoL) stack, from which the MEMS was prepared. Corrosion of metal lines could significantly be reduced by improving the topmost passivation layer. The experiments revealed no visible damage of the actuator or other functionally important MEMS elements. Sensor chips were also exposed to human body fluid for three month by implantation into the abdomen of a volunteer. Only small effects were observed for layer thickness and Ra roughness after explantation. In particular, TiN as used for the actuator beam showed no degradation by biocorrosion. The highest degradation rate of about 50 nm per month was revealed for the SiON passivation layer. These results suggest that the sensor chip may safely operate in subcutaneous tissue for a period of several months.

  1. COGNITIVE-HD study: protocol of an observational study of neurocognitive functioning and association with clinical outcomes in adults with end-stage kidney disease treated with haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Ruospo, Marinella; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Iurillo, Annalisa; Saglimbene, Valeria; Natale, Patrizia; Gargano, Letizia; Murgo, Angelo M; Loy, Clement; van Zwieten, Anita; Wong, Germaine; Tortelli, Rosanna; Craig, Jonathan C; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Strippoli, G F M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of cognitive impairment may be increased in adults with end-stage kidney disease compared with the general population. However, the specific patterns of cognitive impairment and association of cognitive dysfunction with activities of daily living and clinical outcomes (including withdrawal from treatment) among haemodialysis patients remain incompletely understood. The COGNITIVE impairment in adults with end-stage kidney disease treated with HemoDialysis (COGNITIVE-HD) study aims to characterise the age-adjusted and education-adjusted patterns of cognitive impairment (using comprehensive testing for executive function, perceptual-motor function, language, learning and memory, and complex attention) in patients on haemodialysis and association with clinical outcomes. Methods and analysis A prospective, longitudinal, cohort study of 750 adults with end-stage kidney disease treated with long-term haemodialysis has been recruited within haemodialysis centres in Italy (July 2013 to April 2014). Testing for neurocognitive function was carried out by a trained psychologist at baseline to assess cognitive functioning. The primary study factor is cognitive impairment and secondary study factors will be specific domains of cognitive function. The primary outcome will be total mortality. Secondary outcomes will be cause-specific mortality, major cardiovascular events, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke, institutionalisation, and withdrawal from treatment at 12 months. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved before study conduct by the following responsible ethics committees: Catania (approval reference 186/BE; 26/09/2013), Agrigento (protocol numbers 61–62; 28/6/2013), USL Roma C (CE 39217; 24/6/2013), USL Roma F (protocol number 0041708; 23/7/2013), USL Latina (protocol number 20090/A001/2011; 12/7/2013), Trapani (protocol number 3413; 16/7/2013) and Brindisi (protocol number 40259; 6/6/2013). All participants have provided written and informed consent and can withdraw from the study at any time. The findings of the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and national and international conference presentations and to the participants through communication within the dialysis network in which this study is conducted. PMID:26656022

  2. Integrated Blood Barcode Chips

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Vermesh, Ophir; Srivastava, Alok; Yen, Brian K.H.; Qin, Lidong; Ahmad, Habib; Kwong, Gabriel A.; Liu, Chao-Chao; Gould, Juliane; Hood, Leroy; Heath, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Blood comprises the largest version of the human proteome1. Changes of plasma protein profiles can reflect physiological or pathological conditions associated with many human diseases, making blood the most important fluid for clinical diagnostics2-4. Nevertheless, only a handful of plasma proteins are utilized in routine clinical tests. This is due to a host of reasons, including the intrinsic complexity of the plasma proteome1, the heterogeneity of human diseases and the fast kinetics associated with protein degradation in sampled blood5. Simple technologies that can sensitively sample large numbers of proteins over broad concentration ranges, from small amounts of blood, and within minutes of sample collection, would assist in solving these problems. Herein, we report on an integrated microfluidic system, called the Integrated Blood Barcode Chip (IBBC). It enables on-chip blood separation and the rapid measurement of a panel of plasma proteins from small quantities of blood samples including a fingerprick of whole blood. This platform holds potential for inexpensive, non-invasive, and informative clinical diagnoses, particularly, for point-of-care. PMID:19029914

  3. [DNA chip data mining].

    PubMed

    Lee, H S

    2001-04-21

    DNA chip data routinely contain gene expression levels of thousands of genes and the analysis should be supported by various computational tools. To be brief, the analysis procedure consists of four steps including image scanning, image processing, mathematical interpretation and biological interpretation. In image processing step, we should detect the spots and measure the signals of the spots and the background. In mathematical interpretation step, first of all we should massage the measured signals to make them appropriate for further mathematical analysis. The massaged data could be analyzed by various computational methods especially when the data were generated for multiple samples comparisons. The clustering techniques including hierarchical clustering, k-means clustering, SOTA, SOM are the most popular methods in this step. Various other multivariate statistics and related machine learning techniques are being introduced and applied to DNA chip data analysis recently. And finally the most important step we should tackle is the biological interpretation task. Although the depth of the domain knowledge about the biological situation under which the data were generated is the most important factor to elucidate the biological context, it could be supported by various bioinformatics tools including MEDLINE abstract processing by NLP techniques or genetic network models constructed by Boolean networks algorithms. PMID:11708322

  4. A study of topologies and protocols for fiber optic local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, C.; Gerla, M.; Rodrigues, P.

    1985-01-01

    The emergence of new applications requiring high data traffic necessitates the development of high speed local area networks. Optical fiber is selected as the transmission medium due to its inherent advantages over other possible media and the dual optical bus architecture is shown to be the most suitable topology. Asynchronous access protocols, including token, random, hybrid random/token, and virtual token schemes, are developed and analyzed. Exact expressions for insertion delay and utilization at light and heavy load are derived, and intermediate load behavior is investigated by simulation. A new tokenless adaptive scheme whose control depends only on the detection of activity on the channel is shown to outperform round-robin schemes under uneven loads and multipacket traffic and to perform optimally at light load. An approximate solution to the queueing delay for an oscillating polling scheme under chaining is obtained and results are compared with simulation. Solutions to the problem of building systems with a large number of stations are presented, including maximization of the number of optical couplers, and the use of passive star/bus topologies, bridges and gateways.

  5. Polydimethylsiloxane SlipChip for mammalian cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Wen; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SlipChip for in vitro cell culture applications, multiple-treatment assays, cell co-cultures, and cytokine detection assays. The PDMS SlipChip is composed of two PDMS layers with microfluidic channels on each surface that are separated by a thin silicone fluid (Si-fluid) layer. The integration of Si-fluid enables the two PDMS layers to be slid to different positions; therefore, the channel patterns can be re-arranged for various applications. The SlipChip design significantly reduces the complexity of sample handling, transportation, and treatment processes. To apply the developed SlipChip for cell culture applications, human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were cultured to examine the biocompatibility of the developed PDMS SlipChip. Moreover, embryonic pluripotent stem cells (ES-D3) were also cultured in the device to evaluate the retention of their stemness in the device. The experimental results show that cell morphology, viability and proliferation are not affected when the cells are cultured in the SlipChip, indicating that the device is highly compatible with mammalian cell culture. In addition, the stemness of the ES-D3 cells was highly retained after they were cultured in the device, suggesting the feasibility of using the SlipChip for stem cell research. Various cell experiments, such as simultaneous triple staining of cells and co-culture of MRC-5 with A549 cells, were also performed to demonstrate the functionalities of the PDMS SlipChip. Furthermore, we used a cytokine detection assay to evaluate the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) treatment on the cytokine secretion of A549 cells using the SlipChip. The developed PDMS SlipChip provides a straightforward and effective platform for various on-chip in vitro cell cultures and consequent analysis, which is promising for a number of cell biology studies and biomedical applications. PMID:26381390

  6. A Genome Wide Association Study on Age at First Calving Using High Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae)

    PubMed Central

    Hyeong, K.-E.; Iqbal, A.; Kim, J.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Age at first calving is an important trait for achieving earlier reproductive performance. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive traits, a genome wide association study was conducted on the 96 Hanwoo cows that were born between 2008 and 2010 from 13 sires in a local farm (Juk-Am Hanwoo farm, Suncheon, Korea) and genotyped with the Illumina 50K bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model after the effects of birth-year-month and polygenes were considered. A forward regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs for age at first calving. A total of 15 QTL were detected at the comparison-wise 0.001 level. Two QTL with strong statistical evidence were found at 128.9 Mb and 111.1 Mb on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 2 and 7, respectively, each of which accounted for 22% of the phenotypic variance. Also, five significant SNPs were detected on BTAs 10, 16, 20, 26, and 29. Multiple QTL were found on BTAs 1, 2, 7, and 14. The significant QTLs may be applied via marker assisted selection to increase rate of genetic gain for the trait, after validation tests in other Hanwoo cow populations. PMID:25178291

  7. On-chip surface acoustic wave lysis and ion-exchange nanomembrane detection of exosomal RNA for pancreatic cancer study and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Taller, Daniel; Richards, Katherine; Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Hill, Reginald; Go, David B; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2015-04-01

    There has been increasing evidence that micro and messenger RNA derived from exosomes play important roles in pancreatic and other cancers. In this work, a microfluidics-based approach to the analysis of exosomal RNA is presented based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) exosome lysis and ion-exchange nanomembrane RNA sensing performed in conjunction on two separate chips. Using microRNA hsa-miR-550 as a model target and raw cell media from pancreatic cancer cell lines as a biological sample, SAW-based exosome lysis is shown to have a lysis rate of 38%, and an ion-exchange nanomembrane sensor is shown to have a limit of detection of 2 pM, with two decades of linear dynamic range. A universal calibration curve was derived for the membrane sensor and used to detect the target at a concentration of 13 pM in a SAW-lysed sample, which translates to 14 target miRNA per exosome from the raw cell media. At a total analysis time of ~1.5 h, this approach is a significant improvement over existing methods that require two overnight steps and 13 h of processing time. The platform also requires much smaller sample volumes than existing technology (~100 ?L as opposed to ~mL) and operates with minimal sample loss, a distinct advantage for studies involving mouse models or other situations where the working fluid is scarce. PMID:25690152

  8. A Genome Wide Association Study on Age at First Calving Using High Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Hyeong, K-E; Iqbal, A; Kim, J-J

    2014-10-01

    Age at first calving is an important trait for achieving earlier reproductive performance. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for reproductive traits, a genome wide association study was conducted on the 96 Hanwoo cows that were born between 2008 and 2010 from 13 sires in a local farm (Juk-Am Hanwoo farm, Suncheon, Korea) and genotyped with the Illumina 50K bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model after the effects of birth-year-month and polygenes were considered. A forward regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs for age at first calving. A total of 15 QTL were detected at the comparison-wise 0.001 level. Two QTL with strong statistical evidence were found at 128.9 Mb and 111.1 Mb on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 2 and 7, respectively, each of which accounted for 22% of the phenotypic variance. Also, five significant SNPs were detected on BTAs 10, 16, 20, 26, and 29. Multiple QTL were found on BTAs 1, 2, 7, and 14. The significant QTLs may be applied via marker assisted selection to increase rate of genetic gain for the trait, after validation tests in other Hanwoo cow populations. PMID:25178291

  9. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Protocol for the Screening and Phenotyping of Individuals with Tourette Syndrome for Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Crystelle; Marakovitz, Susan; O’Rourke, Julia; Osiecki, Lisa; Illmann, Cornelia; Barton, Lauren; McLaughlin, Elizabeth; Proujansky, Rachel; Royal, Justin; Cowley, Heather; Rangel-Lugo, Martha; Pauls, David; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and other emerging technologies offer great promise for the identification of genetic risk factors for complex psychiatric disorders, yet such studies are constrained by the need for large sample sizes. Web-based collection offers a relatively untapped resource for increasing participant recruitment. Therefore, we developed and implemented a novel web-based screening and phenotyping protocol for genetic studies of Tourette Syndrome (TS), a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Participants were recruited over a 13 month period through the membership of the Tourette Syndrome Association (TSA) (n=28,878). Of the TSA members contacted, 4.3% (1,242) initiated the questionnaire, and 79.5% (987) of these were enrollment eligible. 63.9% (631) of enrolled participants completed the study by submitting phenotypic data and blood specimens. Age was the only variable that predicted study completion; children and young adults were significantly less likely to be study completers than adults 26 and older. Compared to a clinic-based study conducted over the same time period, the web-based method yielded a 60% larger sample. Web-based participants were older and more often female; otherwise, the sample characteristics did not differ significantly. TS diagnoses based on the web-screen demonstrated 100% accuracy compared to those derived from in-depth clinical interviews. Our results suggest that a web-based approach is effective for increasing the sample size for genetic studies of a relatively rare disorder and that our web-based screen is valid for diagnosing TS. Findings from this study should aid in the development of web-based protocols for other disorders. PMID:23090870

  10. Prevalence of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis in children and adolescents: study protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nemholt, Susanne Steen; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wedderkopp, Niels; Baguley, David M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is some debate as to what extent epidemiological data for the prevalence of childhood tinnitus can be relied on. While indications are that the prevalence is relatively high, referral numbers for children with tinnitus are reported to be low and many of the studies have a number of methodological difficulties. We describe the protocol of a systematic review aimed at assessing the prevalence of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis in children and young people. Methods and analysis We will include studies of any design (except case reports or case series) comparing the prevalence of tinnitus and/or hyperacusis in children and young people with and without hearing loss, any known external exposure and psychological disorders. We will search the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus. No restrictions of language will be applied in the search strategy but during the article selection language is limited to English, German and Scandinavian languages. Primary and additional outcomes will be the prevalence of tinnitus/hyperacusis and the severity, respectively. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences of audiology and paediatrics. Trail registration number This review protocol is registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, registration number CRD42014013456. PMID:25564147

  11. A Study of Applicability of SNP Chips Developed for Bovine and Ovine Species to Whole-Genome Analysis of Reindeer Rangifer tarandus.

    PubMed

    Kharzinova, Veronika R; Sermyagin, Alexander A; Gladyr, Elena A; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M; Brem, Gottfried; Zinovieva, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of commercially available single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for cattle (BovineSNP50 BeadChip) and sheep (OvineSNP50 BeadChip) have been trialed for whole-genome analysis of 4 female samples of Rangifer tarandus inhabiting Russia. We found out that 43.0% of bovine and 47.0% of Ovine SNPs could be genotyped, while only 5.3% and 2.03% of them were respectively polymorphic. The scored and the polymorphic SNPs were identified on each bovine and each ovine chromosome, but their distribution was not unique. The maximal value of runs of homozygosity (ROH) was 30.93Mb (for SNPs corresponding to bovine chromosome 8) and 80.32Mb (for SNPs corresponding to ovine chromosome 7). Thus, the SNP chips developed for bovine and ovine species can be used as a powerful tool for genome analysis in reindeer R. tarandus. PMID:26447215

  12. Use acupuncture to relieve perimenopausal syndrome: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether acupuncture is effective for relieving perimenopausal syndrome has been controversial recently. In this article, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial using acupuncture to treat perimenopausal syndrome, aiming to answer this controversy. Design A multicenter randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms is underway in China. Two hundred and six women with perimenopausal syndrome will be randomly assigned to a treatment group using acupuncture plus auricular acupressure (AA group) and a control group using Climenź (Bayer Healthcare Company Limited, Guangzhou, China), a 28-day sequential hormone replacement therapy, in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the AA group will receive three acupuncture sessions per week in the first 4 weeks and two sessions per week in the following 8 weeks, for a total of 28 sessions over 12 weeks. Auricular points will be plastered by Semen Vaccariae twice per week for a consecutive 12 weeks, with both ears used alternately. The Climenź control group is prescribed a tablet containing estradiol valerate 2 mg/day for the first 11 days, and a tablet containing estradiol valerate 2 mg/day plus cyroterone acetate 1 mg/day for the following 10 days. The total treatment period of the control group is three cycles. The post-treatment follow-up period will last 24 weeks. The primary outcome is the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) assessed at baseline and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 36 weeks after randomization. The secondary outcomes are Menopause-Specific Quality of Life, average hot flash score during 24 hours, serum estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone level. The first two secondary outcomes are measured at the same point as the MRS. Other secondary outcomes are measured at baseline and 12, 24 weeks after randomization. Discussion The results of this trial, which will be available in 2015, will clarify whether acupuncture is effective to relieve perimenopausal syndrome. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01933204 (registered 9 August 2013) PMID:24886348

  13. Hearing the voices of children: self-reported information on children's experiences during research procedures: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Staphorst, Mira S; Hunfeld, Joke A M; Timman, Reinier; Passchier, Jan; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In paediatric research, there is a tension between what you can ask from a child and what is needed for the development of evidence-based treatments. To find an optimal balance in conducting clinical research and protecting the child, it is necessary to have empirical data on children's experiences. Until now, there are scarce empirical data on the experiences from the perspective of the child. In this manuscript, we describe the protocol of a two-phase study measuring children's self-reported experiences during research procedures. Methods and analysis In the first phase of our study, we aim to interview approximately 40 children (6–18?years) about their self-reported experiences during research procedures. In the second phase, we will develop a questionnaire to measure children's experiences during research procedures in a quantitative way. We will use the interview outcomes for the development of this questionnaire. Next, we will measure the experiences of children during seven research procedures with this questionnaire. A one-month follow-up is conducted to investigate the emotional impact of the research procedures on the children. Children will be recruited from different research studies in three academic children's hospitals in the Netherlands. Ethics and dissemination The ethics committee of the VU University medical center evaluated both studies and indicated that there was no risk/discomfort associated, stating that both phases are exempt from getting approval under the Dutch Law. Dissemination of results will occur by conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. The findings of our project can help Institutional Review Boards and paediatric researchers when evaluating the discomforts of research procedures described in study protocols or when designing a study. Information on experiences of children involved in previous studies may also help children and parents in future research with their decision-making about participation in clinical research, or parts thereof. PMID:26474942

  14. FISH in chips: turning microfluidic fluorescence in situ hybridization into a quantitative and clinically reliable molecular diagnosis tool.

    PubMed

    Perez-Toralla, Karla; Mottet, Guillaume; Guneri, Ezgi Tulukcuoglu; Champ, Jérôme; Bidard, François-Clément; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Klijanienko, Jerzy; Draskovic, Irena; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Descroix, Stéphanie

    2015-02-01

    Microfluidic systems bear promise to provide new powerful tools for the molecular characterization of cancer cells, in particular for the routine detection of multiple cancer biomarkers using a minute amount of the sample. However, taking miniaturized cell-based assays into the clinics requires the implementation and validation of complex biological protocols on chip, as well as the development of disposable microdevices produced at a low cost. Based on a recently developed microfluidic chip made of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer for cell immobilization with minimal dead volume and controlled shear stress, we developed a protocol performed entirely in the liquid phase, allowing the immobilization and fixation of cells and their quantitative characterization by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We demonstrated first in cell lines and then in two clinical case studies the potential of this method to perform quantitative copy number measurement and clinical scoring of the amplification of the ERBB2 gene, a decisive biomarker for the prescription of HER2+ related targeted therapies. This validation was performed in a blind protocol in two clinical case studies, in reference to the gold standard and clinically used method based on glass slides. We obtained a comparable reproducibility and a minor difference in apparent amplification, which can be corrected by internal calibration. The method thus reaches the standard of robustness needed for clinical use. The protocol can be fully automated, and its consumption of samples and DNA probes is reduced as compared to glass slide protocols by a factor of at least 10. The total duration of the assay is divided by two. PMID:25474258

  15. Using tire chips as a leachate drainage layer

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    Old tires represent a potentially cost-effective construction material that can be used in the installation of leachate drainage and collection systems. In fact, recent studies show that using shredded tires in conjunction with granular soil materials can even enhance the long-term performance of these systems. A typical design using shredded tire chips involves the placement of a minimum 1-foot-thick layer of chips on a granular soil layer overlaying the composite liner system. However, implementation of this design is not as simple as it looks. Protecting the liner from wire protruding from the tire chips derived from belted tires is essential. Because tire chips tend to clump together, placement and spreading also must be in relatively thick lifts and performed by low-ground-pressure equipment. In addition, a significant volume reduction in the tire chip layer can be anticipated as a result of normal loadings from the overlying waste. Equivalent internal friction angles and cohesiveness for the tire chips should be estimated for factors of safety against side-slope failure. Despite theses concerns, however,the advantages of constructing a tire-chip drainage layer often can outweigh the disadvantages, as long as the chips` long-term permeability characteristics and resistance to clogging -- a result of biological activity -- are at least equal to that of typical granular soil materials commonly used in leachate drainage and collection systems.

  16. Using microfluidic chip to form brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration gradient for studying neuron axon guidance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Jiang, Lili; Li, Shu; Deng, Jun; Li, Yan; Yao, Jie; Li, Biyuan; Zheng, Junsong

    2014-01-01

    Molecular gradients play a significant role in regulating biological and pathological processes. Although conventional gradient-generators have been used for studying chemotaxis and axon guidance, there are still many limitations, including the inability to maintain stable tempo-spatial gradients and the lack of the cell monitoring in a real-time manner. To overcome these shortcomings, microfluidic devices have been developed. In this study, we developed a microfluidic gradient device for regulating neuron axon guidance. A microfluidic device enables the generation of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gradient profiles in a temporal and spatial manner. We test the effect of the gradient profiles on axon guidance, in the BDNF concentration gradient axon towards the high concentration gradient. This microfluidic gradient device could be used as a powerful tool for cell biology research. PMID:24660043

  17. A fast and simple differentiation protocol to study the pro-neurogenic activity of soluble factors in neurospheres.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Jasmine; Schulte, Dorothea

    2014-03-01

    Sphere-forming assays are widely used for the propagation, characterization and manipulation of adult brain-derived stem- and progenitor cells. However despite the broad application of this cell culture system in neural stem cell- and brain tumor research, no standardized protocols exist. Variations in experimental procedures not only concern the use of media components but also cell density, the number of passages the cells are propagated before analysis and, in cases where the neurogenic or gliogenic potential of the cells is investigated, the duration that the cells are allowed to differentiate. The latter deserves consideration because the proportion of differentiated cells obtained at the endpoint of the experiment depends not only on the absolute number of cells that differentiate at a given time, but also on the number of cell divisions prior to differentiation and the rate of cell death in the cultures. In the present study we describe a fast and simple differentiation protocol to investigate the pro-neurogenic potential of soluble factors added to subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neurospheres. The assay relies on the use of primary neurospheres and very short differentiation times, thereby largely excluding the contribution of cell proliferation and cell death to the results. We use this modified assay to test the consequence of pharmacological inhibition of the EGF receptor-, Erk1/2-, Protein Kinase B/AKT-, and Sonic Hedgehog-pathways on neuronal differentiation of SVZ-neurosphere cultures. PMID:24412130

  18. A study on the development of the protocol of leisure activity program for the elderly's deviant prevention.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chan-Woo; Yi, Eun-Surk; Park, Dong-Kyun; Lee, Hi-Wan; Lee, Kwang-Uk; Min, Byeong-Seok; Cho, Gun-Sang; Chang, Ik-Young

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide planning methods for leisure activity program to prevent the elderly's deviance, using the program components and protocol factors. This section discusses the results obtained through document analysis and Delphi technique. First, the components of leisure activity program were classified into five stages such as definition, condition analysis, program composition, application and evaluation. Second, the protocol factors in each stage of leisure activity program for the elderly's deviant prevention were 19 main themes and 75 sub-themes respectively. In the stage of condition analysis, five main themes such as deviant prediction, individual, socio-demographic, social and cultural factors and 25 sub-themes were found. Program composition included three main themes, facilities, instructor and program and 16 sub-themes and in the application stage, there were three key themes, facilities, instructor and program and 14 sub-themes. Lastly, the evaluation found four main themes such as deviant prevention, participation in leisure activities, management and wellbeing and 16 sub-themes. PMID:24877046

  19. Development of an Optimized Protocol for NMR Metabolomics Studies of Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines and First Insight from Testing of the Protocol Using DNA G-Quadruplex Ligands as Novel Anti-Cancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Ilaria; Savorani, Francesco; Iaccarino, Nunzia; Zizza, Pasquale; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Novellino, Ettore; Engelsen, Sűren Balling; Randazzo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The study of cell lines by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics represents a powerful tool to understand how the local metabolism and biochemical pathways are influenced by external or internal stimuli. In particular, the use of adherent mammalian cells is emerging in the metabolomics field in order to understand the molecular mechanism of disease progression or, for example, the cellular response to drug treatments. Hereto metabolomics investigations for this kind of cells have generally been limited to mass spectrometry studies. This study proposes an optimized protocol for the analysis of the endo-metabolome of human colon cancer cells (HCT116) by NMR. The protocol includes experimental conditions such as washing, quenching and extraction. In order to test the proposed protocol, it was applied to an exploratory study of cancer cells with and without treatment by anti-cancer drugs, such as DNA G-quadruplex binders and Adriamycin (a traditional anti-cancer drug). The exploratory NMR metabolomics analysis resulted in NMR assignment of all endo-metabolites that could be detected and provided preliminary insights about the biological behavior of the drugs tested. PMID:26784246

  20. Universal Fingerprinting Chip Server

    PubMed Central

    Casique-Almazán, Janet; Larios-Serrato, Violeta; Olguín-Ruíz, Gabriela Edith; Sánchez-Vallejo, Carlos Javier; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Rogelio; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    The Virtual Hybridization approach predicts the most probable hybridization sites across a target nucleic acid of known sequence, including both perfect and mismatched pairings. Potential hybridization sites, having a user-defined minimum number of bases that are paired with the oligonucleotide probe, are first identified. Then free energy values are evaluated for each potential hybridization site, and if it has a calculated free energy of equal or higher negative value than a user-defined free energy cut-off value, it is considered as a site of high probability of hybridization. The Universal Fingerprinting Chip Applications Server contains the software for visualizing predicted hybridization patterns, which yields a simulated hybridization fingerprint that can be compared with experimentally derived fingerprints or with a virtual fingerprint arising from a different sample. Availability http://bioinformatica.homelinux.org/UFCVH/ PMID:22829736

  1. Wood chip mulch thickness effects on soil water, soil temperature, weed growth, and landscape plant growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood chip mulches are used in landscapes to reduce soil water evaporation and competition from weeds. A study was conducted over a three-year period to determine soil water content at various depths under four wood chip mulch treatments and to evaluate the effects of wood chip thickness on growth of...

  2. Identifying Professional Competencies of the Flip-Chip Packaging Engineer in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guu, Y. H.; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a literature review, expert interviews, and a questionnaire survey to construct a set of two-tier competencies for a flip-chip packaging engineer. The fuzzy Delphi questionnaire was sent to 12 flip-chip engineering experts to identify professional competencies that a flip-chip packaging engineer must have. Four competencies,


  3. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP): Protocols and Pilot Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Ruane, A. C.; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, P.; Antle, J. M.; Nelson, G. C.; Porter, C.; Janssen, S.; Asseng, S.; Basso, B.; Ewert, F.; Wallach, D.; Baigorria, G.; Winter, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is a major international effort linking the climate, crop, and economic modeling communities with cutting-edge information technology to produce improved crop and economic models and the next generation of climate impact projections for the agricultural sector. The goals of AgMIP are to improve substantially the characterization of world food security due to climate change and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. Analyses of the agricultural impacts of climate variability and change require a transdisciplinary effort to consistently link state-of-the-art climate scenarios to crop and economic models. Crop model outputs are aggregated as inputs to regional and global economic models to determine regional vulnerabilities, changes in comparative advantage, price effects, and potential adaptation strategies in the agricultural sector. Climate, Crop Modeling, Economics, and Information Technology Team Protocols are presented to guide coordinated climate, crop modeling, economics, and information technology research activities around the world, along with AgMIP Cross-Cutting Themes that address uncertainty, aggregation and scaling, and the development of Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) to enable testing of climate change adaptations in the context of other regional and global trends. The organization of research activities by geographic region and specific crops is described, along with project milestones. Pilot results demonstrate AgMIP's role in assessing climate impacts with explicit representation of uncertainties in climate scenarios and simulations using crop and economic models. An intercomparison of wheat model simulations near ObregĂłn, Mexico reveals inter-model differences in yield sensitivity to [CO2] with model uncertainty holding approximately steady as concentrations rise, while uncertainty related to choice of crop model increases with rising temperatures. Wheat model simulations with midcentury climate scenarios project a slight decline in absolute yields that is more sensitive to selection of crop model than to global climate model, emissions scenario, or climate scenario downscaling method. A comparison of regional and national-scale economic simulations finds a large sensitivity of projected yield changes to the simulations' resolved scales. Finally, a global economic model intercomparison example demonstrates that improvements in the understanding of agriculture futures arise from integration of the range of uncertainty in crop, climate, and economic modeling results in multi-model assessments.

  4. Efficacy of composite versus ceramic inlays and onlays: study protocol for the CECOIA randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a common disease and affects many adults worldwide. Inlay or onlay restoration is widely used to treat the resulting tooth substance loss. Two esthetic materials can be used to manufacture an inlay/onlay restoration of the tooth: ceramic or composite. Here, we present the protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the clinical efficacy of both materials for tooth restoration. Other objectives are analysis of overall quality, wear, restoration survival and prognosis. Methods The CEramic and COmposite Inlays Assessment (CECOIA) trial is an open-label, parallel-group, multicenter RCT involving two hospitals and five private practices. In all, 400 patients will be included. Inclusion criteria are adults who need an inlay/onlay restoration for one tooth (that can be isolated with use of a dental dam and has at least one intact cusp), can tolerate restorative procedures and do not have severe bruxism, periodontal or carious disease or poor oral hygiene. The decayed tissue will be evicted, the cavity will be prepared for receiving an inlay/onlay and the patient will be randomized by use of a centralized web-based interface to receive: 1) a ceramic or 2) composite inlay or onlay. Treatment allocation will be balanced (1:1). The inlay/onlay will be adhesively luted. Follow-up will be for 2 years and may be extended; two independent examiners will perform the evaluations. The primary outcome measure will be the score obtained with use of the consensus instrument of the FĂ©dĂ©ration Dentaire Internationale (FDI) World Dental Federation. Secondary outcomes include this instrument’s items, inlay/onlay wear, overall quality and survival of the inlay/onlay. Data will be analyzed by a statistician blinded to treatments and an adjusted ordinal logistic regression model will be used to compare the efficacy of both materials. Discussion For clinicians, the CECOIA trial results may help with evidence-based recommendations concerning the choice of materials for inlay/onlay restoration. For patients, the results may lead to improvement in long-term restoration. For researchers, the results may provide ideas for further research concerning inlay/onlay materials and prognosis. This trial is funded by a grant from the French Ministry of Health. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01724827 PMID:24004961

  5. SlipChip†

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenbin; Li, Liang; Nichols, Kevin P.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2009-01-01

    The SlipChip is a microfluidic device designed to perform multiplexed microfluidic reactions without pumps or valves. The device has two plates in close contact. The bottom plate contains wells preloaded with many reagents; in this paper plates with 48 reagents were used. These wells are covered by the top plate that acts as a lid for the wells with reagents. The device also has a fluidic path, composed of ducts in the bottom plate and wells in the top plate, which is connected only when the top and bottom plate are aligned in a specific configuration. Sample can be added into the fluidic path, filling both wells and ducts. Then, the top plate is “slipped”, or moved, relative to the bottom plate so the complementary patterns of wells in both plates overlap, exposing the sample-containing wells of the top plate to the reagent-containing wells of the bottom plate, and enabling diffusion and reactions. Between the two plates, a lubricating layer of fluorocarbon was used to facilitate relative motion of the plates. This paper implements this approach on a nanoliter scale using devices fabricated in glass. Stability of preloaded solutions, control of loading, and lack of cross-contamination were tested using fluorescent dyes. Functionality of the device was illustrated via crystallization of a model membrane protein. Fabrication of this device is simple and does not require a bonding step. This device requires no pumps or valves and is applicable to resource-poor settings. Overall, this device should be valuable for multiplexed applications that require exposing one sample to many reagents in small volumes. One may think of the SlipChip as an easy-to-use analogue of a preloaded multi-well plate, or a preloaded liquid-phase microarray. PMID:19636458

  6. Perception of Pain Self-efficacy and Fatigue in Greek Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Theofilou, Paraskevi; Giannouli, Vaitsa; Kolias, Stergios; Tsolaki, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The examination of the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with various health problems has received increased research attention in recent years. The aim of the present study protocol is to examine levels of pain self-efficacy and fatigue in a sample of Greek patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. The association of years and severity of diagnosis with the perception of pain self-efficacy and fatigue will be also investigated. Forty patients from the 3nd Neurological Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece) will participate in this study. The measurement tools include i) the Fatigue Assessment Scale, ii) the Pain Self Efficacy Questionnaire and iii) the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Test-retest reliability of the first two questionnaires will be assessed with the same patients rating their situation in a 10 days interval from the first examination in order to examine consistency over time. PMID:26973955

  7. Development of a Plastic-Based Microfluidic Immunosensor Chip for Detection of H1N1 Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung G.; Lee, Tae Jae; Jeong, Soon Woo; Choi, Ho Woon; Heo, Nam Su; Park, Jung Youn; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Seok Jae

    2012-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip can provide convenient and accurate diagnosis tools. In this paper, a plastic-based microfluidic immunosensor chip for the diagnosis of swine flu (H1N1) was developed by immobilizing hemagglutinin antigen on a gold surface using a genetically engineered polypeptide. A fluorescent dye-labeled antibody (Ab) was used for quantifying the concentration of Ab in the immunosensor chip using a fluorescent technique. For increasing the detection efficiency and reducing the errors, three chambers and three microchannels were designed in one microfluidic chip. This protocol could be applied to the diagnosis of other infectious diseases in a microfluidic device. PMID:23112630

  8. Study of failure mechanisms for InGaN light-emitting diode chips with patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chia-Hung; Huang, Man-Fang; Yang, Hsu-Han; Chen, Fang-Ming; Chen, Tzung-Te

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigated the failure mechanisms of blue InGaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates and demonstrated the influence of patterned sapphire substrates on the reliability of GaN LED by comparing with conventional LEDs grown on planar sapphire substrates. From experimental results, we found that InGaN LEDs grown on patterned substrates had a higher turn-on voltage but a smaller series resistance compared with conventional LEDs owing to rough inner patterns and small threading dislocation density. Both samples were then acceleratedly aged under a high DC current for two hours. Failure modes were studied with various measurements taken before and after aging. From the power evolution performance, we found that output power of LEDs with patterned substrates increased slightly due to fewer defects while output power of conventional LEDs decayed. This can be inferred from small reverse leakage currents and tunneling currents observed from Log I-V characteristics and EMMI measurement of P-LEDs. A slight redshift in emission wavelength was also found during aging because of possible leakage shunt paths caused by defect generation. Moreover, operation voltage increased slightly after aging which was caused by contact degradation induced by thermal annealing.

  9. A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled ‘Fun without Smokes’. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils’ smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Discussion The present study protocol describes the purpose, intervention design and study protocol of ‘Fun without Smokes’. Expectations are that pupils receiving tailored advice will be less likely to smoke after 24 months in contrast to pupils in the control condition. Furthermore, tailored feedback letters and prompting is expected to be more effective than providing tailored feedback letters only. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3116 PMID:22490110

  10. The Outcome of Patients With 2 Different Protocols of Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Gordon, Nahida H; Jr, Alfred F Connors; Garland, Allan; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Youngner, Stuart J

    2015-10-01

    Lack of clarity about the exact clinical implications of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) has caused confusion that has been addressed repeatedly in the literature. To provide improved understanding about the portability of DNR and the medical care provided to DNR patients, the state of Ohio passed a Do-Not-Resuscitate Law in 1998, which clearly pointed out 2 different protocols of do-not-resuscitate: DNR comfort care (DNRCC) and DNR comfort care arrest (DNRCC-Arrest). The objective of this study was to examine the outcome of patients with the 2 different protocols of DNR orders.This is a retrospective observational study conducted in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) in a hospital located in Northeast Ohio. The medical records of the initial admissions to the MICU during data collection period were concurrently and retrospectively reviewed. The association between 2 variables was examined using Chi-squared test or Student's t-test. The outcome of DNRCC, DNRCC-Arrest, and No-DNR patients were compared using multivariate logistic regression analysis.The total of 188 DNRCC-Arrest, 88 DNRCC, and 2051 No-DNR patients were included in this study. Compared with the No-DNR patients, the DNRCC (odds ratio?=?20.77, P?protocols of DNR orders, and to compare with the conventional DNR orders. Similar to conventional DNR, DNDCC and DNRCC-Arrest were both associated with the increased risk of death. Patients with DNRCC were more likely to be associated with increased risk of death than those with DNRCC-Arrest. PMID:26496311

  11. Ultrafast Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: A Comparative Study of Imaging Protocols during Image-Guided Therapy Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Annamma; Farhang, Mohammad; Kamali, Shahram; Tavanania, Mohsen; Vogl, Thomas; Panahi, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate two ultrafast cone-beam CT (UF-CBCT) imaging protocols with different acquisition and injection parameters regarding image quality and required contrast media during image-guided hepatic transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods. In 80 patients (male: 46, female: 34; mean age: 56.8 years; range: 33–83) UF-CBCT was performed during TACE for intraprocedural guidance. Imaging was performed using two ultrafast CBCT acquisition protocols with different acquisition and injection parameters (imaging protocol 1: acquisition time 2.54?s, and contrast 6?mL with 3?s delay; imaging protocol 2: acquisition time 2.72?s, and contrast 7?mL with 6?s delay). Image evaluation was performed with both qualitative and quantitative methods. Contrast injection volume and dose parameters were compared using values from the literature. Results. Imaging protocol 2 provided significantly better (P < 0.05) image quality than protocol 1 at the cost of slightly higher contrast load and patient dose. Imaging protocol 1 provided good contrast perfusion but it mostly failed to delineate the tumors (P < 0.05). On the contrary, imaging protocol 2 showed excellent enhancement of hepatic parenchyma, tumor, and feeding vessels. Conclusion. Tumor delineation, visualization of hepatic parenchyma, and feeding vessels are clearly possible using imaging protocol 2 with ultrafast CBCT imaging. A reduction of required contrast volume and patient dose were achieved due to the ultrafast CBCT imaging. PMID:25874213

  12. Continuous-variable entanglement on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masada, Genta; Miyata, Kazunori; Politi, Alberto; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Furusawa, Akira

    2015-05-01

    Encoding quantum information in continuous variables, as the quadrature of electromagnetic fields, is a powerful approach to quantum information science and technology. Continuous-variable entanglement (light beams in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen, or EPR, states) is a key resource for quantum information protocols and enables hybridization between continuous-variable and single-photon discrete-variable qubit systems. However, continuous-variable systems are currently limited by their implementation in free-space optical networks, and the demand for increased complexity, low loss, high-precision alignment and stability, as well as hybridization, require an alternative approach. Here we present an integrated photonic implementation of the key capabilities for continuous-variable quantum technologies—the generation and characterization of EPR beams in a photonic chip. When combined with integrated squeezing and non-Gaussian operations, these results will open the way to universal quantum information processing with light.

  13. Correcting positional correlations in Affymetrixź Genome Chips

    PubMed Central

    Homouz, Dirar; Chen, Gang; Kudlicki, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    We report and model a previously undescribed systematic error causing spurious excess correlations that depend on the distance between probes on Affymetrixź microarrays. The phenomenon affects pairs of features with large chip separations, up to over 100 probes apart. The effect may have a significant impact on analysis of correlations in large collections of expression data, where the systematic experimental errors are repeated in many data sets. Examples of such studies include analysis of functions and interactions in groups of genes, as well as global properties of genomes. We find that the average correlations between probes on Affymetrix microarrays are larger for smaller chip distances, which points out to a previously undescribed positional artifact. The magnitude of the artifact depends on the design of the chip, and we find it to be especially high for the yeast S98 microarray, where spurious excess correlations reach 0.1 at a distance of 50 probes. We have designed an algorithm to correct this bias and provide new data sets with the corrected expression values. This algorithm was successfully implemented to remove the positional artifact from the S98 chip data while preserving the integrity of the data. PMID:25767049

  14. MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS Study Group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11), funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR. Background Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort) and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented. Methods/Design Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford). Women with circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477) or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477). Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH)-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years. Discussion As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform public health policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. It will also provide a valuable resource in which to study the influence of maternal vitamin D status on other childhood outcomes such as glucose tolerance, blood pressure, cardiovascular function, IQ and immunology. PMID:22314083

  15. Imaging in ChIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Burke, D.; Evans, I.; Evans, J. D.; McLaughlin, W.

    2011-07-01

    The Chandra Interactive Plotting System (ChIPS) included in CIAO now allows users to incorporate and manipulate images in their plots. ChIPS uses the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) as a back end to provide basic imaging support, which includes displaying images in pseudo color or RGBA true color, adjusting the translucency of images, and several ways to threshold images. Users also have the ability to enhance them with annotations and place curves and contours directly onto the image. ChIPS imaging support provides a mechanism to adjust the image display resolution as necessary to provide high quality publication ready output. Beyond basic imaging, ChIPS includes the ability to recognize and incorporate WCS metadata into plots. ChIPS accurately calculates the intersections of world coordinate grids and plot axes, ensuring that these elements distort correctly with a tangent plane projection. Multiple image overlays are handled by reprojecting the overlaid images onto the reference image's coordinate system. New zooming and panning functions, and existing limits commands, use the WCS information from the image overlays to update the axes to reflect the new field of view being displayed. Although ChIPS already provides a number of user interactive commands, additional interactive capabilities are being considered for future releases. Enhanced interactive interfaces alongside the ability to script ChIPS in Python provide a more capable and user-friendly system.

  16. Enhanced Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines in Hong Kong: A Study Protocol for Three Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Nannan; Zhong, Linda L. D.; Han, XueJie; Ng, Bacon; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Aiping

    2015-01-01

    We presented a study protocol of developing Chinese medicine clinical practice guidelines for three common diseases in Hong Kong, including insomnia, chronic gastritis, and cerebral infarction. This research project will be conducted in three phases. First phase is the preparation stage which consists of the establishment of steering committee and panel. Second phase involves 6 steps, which are searching and identifying evidence, text mining process, Delphi survey, synthesizing of data, consensus conference, and drafting guidelines. In this phase, text mining technique, evidence-based method, and formal consensus method are combined to get consolidated supporting data as the source of CM CPGs. The final phase comprised external reviews, dissemination, and updating. The outputs from this project will provide three CM CPGs for insomnia, chronic gastritis, and cerebral infarction for Hong Kong local use. PMID:25815035

  17. Use of a Modified Frazier Water Protocol in Critical Illness Survivors With Pulmonary Compromise and Dysphagia: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Shari; Loeslie, Vicki; Rabatin, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding use of the Frazier free water protocol (FWP) with hospitalized patients who have dysphagia and have survived a critical illness with compromised pulmonary status. This pilot study used a two-group nonequivalent comparison group design to evaluate the FWP in 15 adults admitted to a respiratory care unit (RCU) with dysphagia concerns. Inclusion criteria included recommendation for a modified diet with thickened liquids by a dysphagia therapist and ability to follow the specific free water guidelines. The 15 control participants were chosen from a retrospective chart review of consecutive RCU admissions that met the same inclusion criteria. The intervention group for whom the free water guidelines were implemented did not differ significantly from the control group in rate of development of aspiration pneumonia, ?Č(30) = .01, p = 1.00. PMID:26709436

  18. High-efficiency rare cell identification on a high-density self-assembled cell arrangement chip

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsung-Ju; Wu, Jen-Kuei; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Fu, Chien-Yu; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chang, Hwan-You; Chieng, Ching-Chang; Tzeng, Chung-Yuh; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Detection of individual target cells among a large amount of blood cells is a major challenge in clinical diagnosis and laboratory protocols. Many researches show that two dimensional cells array technology can be incorporated into routine laboratory procedures for continuously and quantitatively measuring the dynamic behaviours of large number of living cells in parallel, while allowing other manipulations such as staining, rinsing, and even retrieval of targeted cells. In this study, we present a high-density cell self-assembly technology capable of quickly spreading over 300?000 cells to form a dense mono- to triple-layer cell arrangement in 5?min with minimal stacking of cells by the gentle incorporation of gravity and peripheral micro flow. With this self-assembled cell arrangement (SACA) chip technology, common fluorescent microscopy and immunofluorescence can be utilized for detecting and analyzing target cells after immuno-staining. Validated by experiments with real human peripheral blood samples, the SACA chip is suitable for detecting rare cells in blood samples with a ratio lower than 1/100?000. The identified cells can be isolated and further cultured in-situ on a chip for follow-on research and analysis. Furthermore, this technology does not require external mechanical devices, such as pump and valves, which simplifies operation and reduces system complexity and cost. The SACA chip offers a high-efficient, economical, yet simple scheme for identification and analysis of rare cells. Therefore, potentially SACA chip may provide a feasible and economical platform for rare cell detection in the clinic. PMID:24926391

  19. A study protocol to investigate the management of depression and challenging behaviors associated with dementia in aged care settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The high occurrence and under-treatment of clinical depression and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) within aged care settings is concerning, yet training programs aimed at improving the detection and management of these problems have generally been ineffective. This article presents a study protocol to evaluate a training intervention for facility managers/registered nurses working in aged care facilities that focuses on organisational processes and culture as well as knowledge, skills and self-efficacy. Methods A Randomised Control Trial (RCT) will be implemented across 18 aged care facilities (divided into three conditions). Participants will be senior registered nurses and personal care attendants employed in the aged care facility. The first condition will receive the training program (Staff as Change Agents – Enhancing and Sustaining Mental Health in Aged Care), the second condition will receive the training program and clinical support, and the third condition will receive no intervention. Results Pre-, post-, 6-month and 12-month follow-up measures of staff and residents will be used to demonstrate how upskilling clinical leaders using our transformational training approach, as well as the use of a structured screening, referral and monitoring protocol, can address the mental health needs of older people in residential care. Conclusions The expected outcome of this study is the validation of an evidence-based training program to improve the management of depression and BPSD among older people in residential care settings by establishing routine practices related to mental health. This relatively brief but highly focussed training package will be readily rolled out to a larger number of residential care facilities at a relatively low cost. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): The Universal Trial Number (UTN) is U1111-1141-0109. PMID:24047236

  20. Study protocol for the evaluation of an Infant Simulator based program delivered in schools: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a school based program developed to prevent teenage pregnancy. The program includes students taking care of an Infant Simulator; despite growing popularity and an increasing global presence of such programs, there is no published evidence of their long-term impact. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) program by investigating pre-conceptual health and risk behaviours, teen pregnancy and the resultant birth outcomes, early child health and maternal health. Methods and Design Fifty-seven schools (86% of 66 eligible secondary schools) in Perth, Australia were recruited to the clustered (by school) randomised trial, with even randomisation to the intervention and control arms. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP program was administered to 1,267 participants in the intervention schools, while 1,567 participants in the non-intervention schools received standard curriculum. Participants were all female and aged between 13-15 years upon recruitment. Pre and post-intervention questionnaires measured short-term impact and participants are now being followed through their teenage years via data linkage to hospital medical records, abortion clinics and education records. Participants who have a live birth are interviewed by face-to-face interview. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and proportional hazards regression will test for differences in pregnancy, birth and abortion rates during the teenage years between the study arms. Discussion This protocol paper provides a detailed overview of the trial design as well as initial results in the form of participant flow. The authors describe the intervention and its delivery within the natural school setting and discuss the practical issues in the conduct of the trial, including recruitment. The trial is pragmatic and will directly inform those who provide Infant Simulator based programs in school settings. Trial registration ISRCTN24952438 PMID:20964860

  1. A 58-”W Single-Chip Sensor Node Processor with Communication Centric Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Shintaro; Takeuchi, Takashi; Matsuda, Takashi; Lee, Hyeokjong; Konishi, Toshihiro; Tsuruda, Koh; Sakai, Yasuharu; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Ohta, Chikara; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    This paper presents an ultra-low-power single-chip sensor-node VLSI for wireless-sensor-network applications. A communication centric design approach has been introduced to reduce the power consumption of the RF circuits and the entire sensor network system, through a vertical cooperative design among circuits, architecture, and communication protocols. The sensor-node LSI features a synchronous media access control (MAC) protocol and integrates a transceiver, i8051 microcontroller, and dedicated MAC processor. The test chip occupies 3 Ś 3mm2 in a 180-nm CMOS process, including 1.38 M transistors. It dissipates 58.0”W under a network environment.

  2. Comparison of standard 1.5 T vs. 3 T optimized protocols in patients treated with glatiramer acetate. A serial MRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zivadinov, Robert; Hojnacki, David; Hussein, Sara; Bergsland, Niels; Carl, Ellen; Durfee, Jacqueline; Dwyer, Michael G; Kennedy, Cheryl; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effect of glatiramer acetate (GA, 20 mg) on lesion activity using the 1.5 T standard MRI protocol (single dose gadolinium [Gd] and 5-min delay) or optimized 3 T protocol (triple dose of Gd, 20-min delay and application of an off-resonance saturated magnetization transfer pulse). A 15-month, phase IV, open-label, single-blinded, prospective, observational study included 12 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who underwent serial MRI scans (Days -45, -20, 0; the minus ign indicates the number of days before GA treatment; and on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 270 and 360 during GA treatment) on 1.5 T and 3 T protocols. Cumulative number and volume of Gd enhancing (Gd-E) and T2 lesions were calculated. At Days -45 and 0, there were higher number (p < 0.01) and volume (p < 0.05) of Gd-E lesions on 3 T optimized compared to 1.5 T standard protocol. However, at 180 and 360 days of the study, no significant differences in total and cumulative number of new Gd-E and T 2 lesions were found between the two protocols. Compared to pre-treatment period, at Days 180 and 360 a significantly greater decrease in the cumulative number of Gd-E lesions (p = 0.03 and 0.021, respectively) was found using the 3 T vs. the 1.5 T protocol (p = NS for both time points). This MRI mechanistic study suggests that GA may exert a greater effect on decreasing lesion activity as measured on 3 T optimized compared to 1.5 T standard protocol. PMID:22754322

  3. Accuracy of a Computer-Aided Surgical Simulation (CASS) Protocol for Orthognathic Surgery: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Sam Sheng-Pin; Gateno, Jaime; Bell, R. Bryan; Hirsch, David L.; Markiewicz, Michael R.; Teichgraeber, John F.; Zhou, Xiaobo; Xia, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the accuracy of a computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) protocol for orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods The accuracy of the CASS protocol was assessed by comparing planned and postoperative outcomes of 65 consecutive patients enrolled from 3 centers. Computer-generated surgical splints were used for all patients. For the genioplasty, one center utilized computer-generated chin templates to reposition the chin segment only for patients with asymmetry. Standard intraoperative measurements were utilized without the chin templates for the remaining patients. The primary outcome measurements were linear and angular differences for the maxilla, mandible and chin when the planned and postoperative models were registered at the cranium. The secondary outcome measurements were: maxillary dental midline difference between the planned and postoperative positions; and linear and angular differences of the chin segment between the groups with and without the use of the template. The latter was measured when the planned and postoperative models were registered at mandibular body. Statistical analyses were performed, and the accuracy was reported using root mean square deviation (RMSD) and Bland and Altman's method for assessing measurement agreement. Results In the primary outcome measurements, there was no statistically significant difference among the 3 centers for the maxilla and mandible. The largest RMSD was 1.0mm and 1.5° for the maxilla, and 1.1mm and 1.8° for the mandible. For the chin, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups with and without the use of the chin template. The chin template group showed excellent accuracy with largest positional RMSD of 1.0mm and the largest orientational RSMD of 2.2°. However, larger variances were observed in the group not using the chin template. This was significant in anteroposterior and superoinferior directions, as in pitch and yaw orientations. In the secondary outcome measurements, the RMSD of maxillary dental midline positions was 0.9mm. When registered at the body of the mandible, the linear and angular differences of the chin segment between the groups with and without the use of the chin template were consistent with the results found in the primary outcome measurements. Conclusion Using the CASS protocol, the computerized plan can be accurately and consistently transferred to the patient to position the maxilla and mandible at the time of surgery. The computer-generated chin template provides more accuracy in repositioning the chin segment than the intraoperative measurements. PMID:22695016

  4. EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR THE NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: CASE STUDY AT THE TWIN CITIES ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    At the request of staff in the EPA Regions, EPA?s Office of Research and Development carried out an independent evaluation of the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA/600/R-98/128). The Protocol was developed around c...

  5. An Examination of the Design, Development, and Implementation of an Internet Protocol Version 6 Network: The ADTRAN Inc. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perigo, Levi

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author examined the capabilities of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) in regard to replacing Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) as the internetworking technology for Medium-sized Businesses (MBs) in the Information Systems (IS) field. Transition to IPv6 is inevitable, and, thus, organizations are adopting this protocol


  6. EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: CASE STUDY AT THE TWIN CITIES ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    At the request of staff in the EPA Regions, EPA's Office of Research and Development
    carried out an independent evaluation of the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA/600/R-98/128). The Protocol was developed around...

  7. Combining motivational and volitional strategies to promote unsupervised walking in patients with fibromyalgia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia patients are often advised to engage in regular low- to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The need of fibromyalgia patients to walk has been stressed in previous research. Behavioral self-regulation theories suggest that a combination of motivational aspects (to develop or strengthen a behavioral intention: Theory of Planned Behavior) and volitional aspects (engagement of intention in behavior: implementation intentions) is more effective than a single intervention. In this paper, we describe a protocol for identifying the motivational processes (using the Theory of Planned Behavior) involved in the practice of walking (phase I) and for studying the efficacy of an intervention that combines motivational and volitional contents to enhance the acquisition and continuation of this exercise behavior (phase II). The paper also shows the characteristics of eligible individuals (women who do not walk) and ineligible populations (women who walk or do not walk because of comorbidity without medical recommendation to walk). Both groups consist of members of any of four patients’ associations in Spain who are between 18 and 70 years of age and meet the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire criteria for fibromyalgia. Furthermore, using this study protocol, we will explore the characteristics of participants (eligible women who agreed to participate in the study) and nonparticipants (eligible women who refused to participate). Methods/design Two studies will be conducted: Phase I will be a cross-sectional study, and phase II will be a triple-blind, randomized longitudinal study with two treatment groups and one active control group. The questionnaires were sent to a total of 2,227 members of four patients’ associations in Spain. A total of 920 participants with fibromyalgia returned the questionnaires, and 582 were ultimately selected to participate. Discussion The first data gathered have allowed us to identify the characteristics of the study population and they support the appropriateness of the inclusion criteria.. When the study is complete, the results will enable us to establish whether this kind of intervention can be used as a self-regulation tool for increasing and maintaining walking as unsupervised physical exercise of low to moderate intensity in fibromyalgia patients. Trial registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN68584893 PMID:24721143

  8. Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration.

    PubMed

    Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2014-05-21

    Combining integrated circuitry with microfluidics enables lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices to perform sensing, freeing them from benchtop equipment. However, this integration is challenging with small chips, as is briefly reviewed with reference to key metrics for package comparison. In this paper we present a simple packaging method for including mm-sized, foundry-fabricated dies containing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits within LOCs. The chip is embedded in an epoxy handle wafer to yield a level, large-area surface, allowing subsequent photolithographic post-processing and microfluidic integration. Electrical connection off-chip is provided by thin film metal traces passivated with parylene-C. The parylene is patterned to selectively expose the active sensing area of the chip, allowing direct interaction with a fluidic environment. The method accommodates any die size and automatically levels the die and handle wafer surfaces. Functionality was demonstrated by packaging two different types of CMOS sensor ICs, a bioamplifier chip with an array of surface electrodes connected to internal amplifiers for recording extracellular electrical signals and a capacitance sensor chip for monitoring cell adhesion and viability. Cells were cultured on the surface of both types of chips, and data were acquired using a PC. Long term culture (weeks) showed the packaging materials to be biocompatible. Package lifetime was demonstrated by exposure to fluids over a longer duration (months), and the package was robust enough to allow repeated sterilization and re-use. The ease of fabrication and good performance of this packaging method should allow wide adoption, thereby spurring advances in miniaturized sensing systems. PMID:24682025

  9. Chip mounting and interconnection in multi-chip modules for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Peter; Jönsson, Mats; Stenmark, Lars

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop processing knowledge and technology of three-dimensional multi-chip modules for space applications. The aim is to test the reliability as well as to optimize the different process steps. Bisbenzocyclobuthene (BCB) was chosen as the interdielectric material as it fulfills the requirements for space qualification and process compatibility. Integrated circuit chips have been mounted recessed in silicon using BCB as glue. Metal interconnects of thin-film aluminum are isolated with spin-on deposited BCB as an interlayer dielectric (ILD). Two layers of BCB, total thickness 30 ”m, are needed to achieve chip edge step coverage. Via interconnections, minimum dimensions 100Ś100 ”m2 have successfully been patterned in a 30 ”m thick BCB layer. Measuring I-V characteristics has validated the connections.

  10. Multimorbidity in primary care in Portugal (MM-PT): a cross-sectional three-phase observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Prazeres, Filipe; Santiago, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Multimorbidity is defined as the co-occurrence of more than one chronic disease in one person without assigning an index disease. This rapidly increasing phenomenon markedly influences patients’ overall health, has major implications for effective provision of healthcare services and has a significant economic toll on individuals and society. Since Portugal is a country with a growing ageing population, a better understanding of the role of multimorbidity should be assessed. The aim of this study is to further the knowledge of the epidemiological factors associated with multimorbidity in Portugal, chiefly its prevalence and the health and social implications. Methods and analysis This study protocol describes a primary care nationwide three-phase study. The first phase is drawn to access the prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity. In the second phase, individual parameters are assessed, such as patients’ health-related quality of life, perceived family support and unmet health needs of patients with multimorbidity. The third and last phase of this study aims to characterise general practitioners’ knowledge, awareness and practices related to multimorbidity management. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki. It has full approval from the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, and the Ethics Committee of the Central Health Region of Portugal. Study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. PMID:24531449

  11. Cessation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist on triggering day in flexible multiple-dose protocol: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hye Jin; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Don; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate outcomes of stimulated IVF cycles in which GnRH antagonist was omitted on the ovulation triggering day. Methods A total of 86 women who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH and GnRH antagonist flexible multiple-dose protocols were recruited and prospectively randomized into the conventional group (group A) or cessation group (group B). The GnRH antagonist, 0.25 mg/day of cetrorelix, was started when the leading follicle reached 14 mm in diameter and was continuously administered until the hCG triggering day (group A, 43 cycles) or until the day before hCG administration (group B, 43 cycles). The maturity of oocytes, fertilization rate, embryo quality, and implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were evaluated. Results The duration of ovarian stimulation, total dose of gonadotropins, serum estradiol levels on hCG administration day, and number of oocytes retrieved were not significantly different between the two groups. The total dose of GnRH antagonist was significantly lower in group B than group A (2.5±0.9 vs. 3.2±0.8 ampoules, p<0.05). There was no premature luteinization in any of the subjects. The proportion of mature oocytes and fertilization rate were not significantly different in group B than group A (70.7% vs. 66.7%; 71.1% vs. 66.4%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the implantation or clinical pregnancy rates. Conclusion Our prospective randomized study suggested that cessation of GnRH antagonist on the hCG administration day during a flexible multiple-dose protocol could reduce the total dose of GnRH antagonist without compromising its effects on pregnancy rates. PMID:23875164

  12. Vinclozolin: a feasibility and sensitivity study of the ILSI-HESI F1-extended one-generation rat reproduction protocol.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Steffen; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2011-02-01

    Feasibility of the ILSI-HESI (ACSA) extended one-generation protocol was tested with vinclozolin (dietary 0, 4, 20, 100mg/kg/day). Parental Wistar rats (n=25/sex/dose) were dosed pre-mating (males 4, females 2 weeks) through F1 offspring weaning (postnatal day PND21); F1 dosing continued through PND70. At PND21, 3 subsets (each 1 pup/sex/litter) were selected for neurotoxicology (functional observational battery, motor activity, neuropathology), clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, thyroid hormone assay) (subsets 1a, 1b; each n=10/sex/dose), immunotoxicology (IgM) SRBC antibody response and natural killer cell assays (subset 2; n=25/sex/dose), and estrus cycle (subset 3; n=25/dose). Vinclozolin reduced parental and offspring bodyweight and prostate, seminal vesicles and epididymides weight, and increased adrenal weight/induced adrenal cortical hypertrophy at 100mg/kg. Mating, fertility, gestation and lactation were unaffected. At 20 and 100mg/kg, F1 males had reduced anogenital distance and retained areolae; at 100mg/kg only, there was hypospadias, purulent prostatitis and seminal vesicle inflammation with atrophy, and Leydig cell hyperplasia, and in F1 females accelerated vaginal opening. These effects are consistent with vinclozolin's known anti-androgenic developmental effects. Neuro- and immunotoxicology tests were unaffected. F1 Only T4 was reduced at 20 and 100mg/kg. The overall sensitivity of the extended one-generation protocol is comparable to or even greater than the current two-generation study. Thus it reduces animal use while maintaining or enhancing information for risk assessment. PMID:20875480

  13. Composable Multicore Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Doug; Keckler, Stephen W.; Sethumadhavan, Simha

    When designing a multicore chip, two primary concerns are how large and powerful to make each core and how many cores to include. A design with a few large cores is attractive for general purpose computing that has coarse-grained threads which depend on instructional-level parallelism for performance. At the other end of the processor granularity spectrum, a large collection of small processors is suited to applications with ample thread-level parallelism. While much of the spectrum between large cores and tiny cores is being pursued by different vendors, each of these fixed architectures are suited only to the range of workloads that maps well to its granularity of parallelism. An alternative is a class of architectures in which the processor granularity (and the number of processors) can be dynamically configured-at runtime. Called composable lightweight processors (CLPs), these architectures consist of arrays of simple processors that can be aggregated together to form larger more powerful processors, depending on the demand of the running application. Experimental results show that matching the granularity of the processors to the granularity of the tasks improves both performance and efficiency over fixed multicore designs.

  14. What verbal protocols reveal about the reading strategies of deaf students: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Barbara R; Bailey, Jill; Lockman, Alison Schirmer

    2004-01-01

    Deaf students' reading strategies were identified by investigating these students' self-reported thinking during reading. In an earlier study (Schirmer, 2003), 10 elementary-level students attending a state school for the deaf had constructed meaning, monitored comprehension and activated strategies to improve comprehension, and evaluated comprehension, but had not demonstrated each of the reading strategies within these three overarching activities, all observed in previous studies of hearing skilled readers. Also, the students used a considerably greater variety of reading strategies for constructing meaning than for the other two activities. The replication study used the same procedure. Six elementary-level students attending a site-based public school classroom for deaf students thought aloud after reading each page of a short story. Analysis of these verbal reports indicated the participants performed similarly to those in the first study, thus supporting the reliability of results regarding reading strategies of readers who are deaf. PMID:15332462

  15. Pilot study to evaluate 3 hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations

    PubMed Central

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie L.; Weese, J. Scott; Rousseau, Joyce D.; Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S.; Dargatz, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Reduction factors (RFs) for bacterial counts on examiners’ hands were compared when performing a standardized equine physical examination, followed by the use of one of 3 hand-hygiene protocols (washing with soap, ethanol gel application, and chlorohexidine-ethanol application). The mean RFs were 1.29 log10 and 1.44 log10 at 2 study sites for the alcohol-gel (62% ethyl alcohol active ingredient) protocols and 1.47 log10 and 1.94 log10 at 2 study sites for the chlorhexidine-alcohol (61% ethyl alcohol plus 1% chlorhexidine active ingredients) protocols, respectively. The RFs were significantly different (P < 0.0001) between the hand-washing group and the other 2 treatment groups (the alcohol-gel and the chlorhexidine-alcohol lotion). The use of alcohol-based gels or chlorhexidine-alcohol hand hygiene protocols must still be proven effective in equine practice settings, but in this study, these protocols were equivalent or superior to hand washing for reduction in bacterial load on the hands of people after they perform routine physical examinations. PMID:16898109

  16. Pilot study to evaluate 3 hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations.

    PubMed

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Weese, J Scott; Rousseau, Joyce D; Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S; Dargatz, David A

    2006-07-01

    Reduction factors (RFs) for bacterial counts on examiners' hands were compared when performing a standardized equine physical examination, followed by the use of one of 3 hand-hygiene protocols (washing with soap, ethanol gel application, and chlorohexidine-ethanol application). The mean RFs were 1.29 log10 and 1.44 log10 at 2 study sites for the alcohol-gel (62% ethyl alcohol active ingredient) protocols and 1.47 log10 and 1.94 log10 at 2 study sites for the chlorhexidine-alcohol (61% ethyl alcohol plus 1% chlorhexidine active ingredients) protocols, respectively. The RFs were significantly different (P < 0.0001) between the hand-washing group and the other 2 treatment groups (the alcohol-gel and the chlorhexidine-alcohol lotion). The use of alcohol-based gels or chlorhexidine-alcohol hand hygiene protocols must still be proven effective in equine practice settings, but in this study, these protocols were equivalent or superior to hand washing for reduction in bacterial load on the hands of people after they perform routine physical examinations. PMID:16898109

  17. Melancholic versus non-melancholic depression: differences on cognitive function. A longitudinal study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive dysfunction is common among depressed patients. However, the pattern and magnitude of impairment during episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) through to clinical remission remains unclear. Heterogeneity of depressive patients and the lack of longitudinal studies may account for contradictory results in previous research. Methods/Design This longitudinal study will analyze cognitive differences between CORE-defined melancholic depressed patients (n = 60) and non-melancholic depressed patients (n = 60). A comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessment will be performed at admission and after 6 months. Cognitive dysfunction in both groups will be longitudinally compared, and the persistence of cognitive impairment after clinical remission will be determined. Discussion The study of neuropsychological dysfunction and the cognitive changes through the different phases of depression arise a wide variety of difficulties. Several confounding variables must be controlled to determine if the presence of depression could be considered the only factor accounting for group differences. PMID:20565743

  18. Systematic review of adherence rates by medication class in type 2 diabetes: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Andrew; Tippu, Zayd; Hinton, William; Munro, Neil; Whyte, Martin; de Lusignan, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Treatment options for type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly complex with people often prescribed multiple medications, and may include both oral and injectable therapies. There is ongoing debate about which drug classes provide the optimum second-line and third-line treatment options. In the real world, patient adherence and persistence determines medication effectiveness. A better understanding of adherence may help inform the choice of second-line and third-line drug classes. Methods and analysis This systematic review will compare adherence and persistence rates across the different classes of medication available to people with type 2 diabetes. It will include all identified studies comparing medication adherence or persistence between two or more glucose-lowering medications in people with type 2 diabetes. Research databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, The Register of Controlled Trials, PsychINFO and CINAHL) will be searched for relevant articles, using a comprehensive search strategy. All identified medication trials and observational studies will be included which compare adherence or persistence across classes of diabetes medication. The characteristics and outcomes of all the included studies will be reported along with a study quality grade, assessed using the Cochrane Risk Assessment Tool. The quality of adjustment for confounders of adherence or persistence will be reported for each study. Where multiple (n ≄3) studies provide compare adherence or persistence across the same 2 medication classes, a meta-analysis will be performed. Ethics and dissemination No ethics approval is required. This review and meta-analysis (where possible) will provide important information on the relative patient adherence and persistence, with the different classes of diabetes therapies. Once complete, the results will be made available by peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration number CRD42015027865. PMID:26928029

  19. Longitudinal evaluation of dementia care in German nursing homes: the “DemenzMonitor” study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Germany, the number of people with dementia living in nursing homes is rapidly increasing. Providing adequate care for their special needs is a challenge for institutions and their staff members. Because of the growing number of people with dementia, changes to the conceptual orientation of nursing homes have occurred. These changes include specialized living arrangements and psychosocial interventions recommended for people with dementia. Until now, the provision of dementia care and its association to the residents’ behavior and quality of life is not well investigated in Germany. The purpose of this study is to describe the provision of dementia care and to identify resident- as well as facility-related factors associated with residents behavior and quality of life. Methods/Design The DemenzMonitor study is designed as a longitudinal study that is repeated annually. Data will be derived from a convenience sample consisting of nursing homes across Germany. For the data collection, three questionnaires have been developed that measure information on the level of the nursing home, the living units, and the residents. Data collection will be performed by staff members from the nursing homes. The data collection procedure will be supervised by a study coordinator who is trained by the research team. Data analysis will be performed on each data level using appropriate techniques for descriptions and comparisons as well as longitudinal regression analysis. Discussion The DemenzMonitor is the first study in Germany that assesses how dementia care is provided in nursing homes with respect to living arrangements and recommended interventions. This study links the acquired data with residents’ outcome measurements, making it possible to evaluate different aspects and concepts of care. PMID:24237990

  20. Rutger's CAM2000 chip architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald E.; Hall, J. Storrs; Miyake, Keith

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the architecture and instruction set of the Rutgers CAM2000 memory chip. The CAM2000 combines features of Associative Processing (AP), Content Addressable Memory (CAM), and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in a single chip package that is not only DRAM compatible but capable of applying simple massively parallel operations to memory. This document reflects the current status of the CAM2000 architecture and is continually updated to reflect the current state of the architecture and instruction set.

  1. Single chip camera active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Timothy (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Olson, Brita (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Panicacci, Roger A. (Inventor); Mansoorian, Barmak (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A totally digital single chip camera includes communications to operate most of its structure in serial communication mode. The digital single chip camera include a D/A converter for converting an input digital word into an analog reference signal. The chip includes all of the necessary circuitry for operating the chip using a single pin.

  2. A randomized controlled trial on errorless learning in goal management training: study rationale and protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many brain-injured patients referred for outpatient rehabilitation have executive deficits, notably difficulties with planning, problem-solving and goal directed behaviour. Goal Management Training (GMT) has proven to be an efficacious cognitive treatment for these problems. GMT entails learning and applying an algorithm, in which daily tasks are subdivided into multiple steps. Main aim of the present study is to examine whether using an errorless learning approach (preventing the occurrence of errors during the acquisition phase of learning) contributes to the efficacy of Goal Management Training in the performance of complex daily tasks. Methods/Design The study is a double blind randomized controlled trial, in which the efficacy of Goal Management Training with an errorless learning approach will be compared with conventional Goal Management Training, based on trial and error learning. In both conditions 32 patients with acquired brain injury of mixed etiology will be examined. Main outcome measure will be the performance on two individually chosen everyday-tasks before and after treatment, using a standardized observation scale and goal attainment scaling. Discussion This is the first study that introduces errorless learning in Goal Management Training. It is expected that the GMT-errorless learning approach will improve the execution of complex daily tasks in brain-injured patients with executive deficits. The study can contribute to a better treatment of executive deficits in cognitive rehabilitation. Trial registration (Dutch Trial Register): http://NTR3567 PMID:23786651

  3. PILOT STUDY PROTOCOL: APPLICATION OF MEASURES OF SPONTANEOUS MOTOR ACTIVITY FOR BEHAVORIAL ASSESSMENT IN HUMAN INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a participant in planning the National Childrens Study (NCS), EPA is interested in the investigation of key developmental disorders that may be associated with environmental exposures. This is particularly important in light of research that has established that prenatal and e...

  4. Translation Strategies of EFL Student Teachers: A Think Aloud Protocol-Based Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2004-01-01

    The main concern of the present study is to investigate the strategies followed by the EFL students in the translation process. This problem has been dealt with through answering the following two questions: 1- What are the strategies followed by the EFL student teachers in the translation process?; 2 - What are the educational implications for…

  5. Factors influencing social and health outcomes after motor vehicle crash injury: an inception cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that health and social outcomes following motor vehicle crash injury are related to cognitive and emotional responses of the injured individual, as well as relationships between the injured individual and the compensation systems with which they interact. As most of this evidence comes from other states in Australia or overseas, investigation is therefore warranted to identify the key determinants of health and social outcomes following injury in the context of the New South Wales motor accident insurance scheme. Methods/Design In this inception cohort study, 2400 participants, aged 17 years or more, injured in a motor vehicle crash in New South Wales will be identified though hospital emergency departments, general and physiotherapy practitioners, police records and a government insurance regulator database. Participants will be initially contacted through mail. Baseline interviews will be conducted by telephone within 28 days of the injury and participants will be followed up with interviews at 6, 12 and 24 months post-injury. Health insurance and pharmaceutical prescription data will also be collected. Discussion The study results will report short and long term health and social outcomes in the study sample. Identification of factors associated with health and social outcomes following injury, including related compensation factors will provide evidence for improved service delivery, post-injury management, and inform policy development and reforms. Trial registration Australia New Zealand Clinical trial registry identification number - ACTRN12613000889752. Available at: ANZCTR Registered FISH Study. PMID:24564821

  6. Medical Home Characteristics and Asthma Control: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sills, Marion R.; Kwan, Bethany M.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Sauer, Brian C.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Federico, Monica J.; Juarez-Colunga, Elizabeth; Schilling, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper describes the methods for an observational comparative effectiveness research study designed to test the association between practice-level medical home characteristics and asthma control in children and adults receiving care in safety-net primary care practices. Methods: This is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study, utilizing survey methodologies and secondary analysis of existing structured clinical, administrative, and claims data. The Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTINet) is a safety net-oriented, primary care practice-based research network, with federated databases containing electronic health record (EHR) and Medicaid claims data. Data from approximately 20,000 patients from 50 practices in four healthcare organizations will be included. Practice-level medical home characteristics will be correlated with patient-level asthma outcomes, controlling for potential confounding variables, using a clustered design. Linear and non-linear mixed models will be used for analysis. Study inception was July 1, 2012. A causal graph theory approach was used to guide covariate selection to control for bias and confounding. Discussion: Strengths of this design include a priori specification of hypotheses and methods, a large sample of patients with asthma cared for in safety-net practices, the study of real-world variations in the implementation of the medical home concept, and the innovative use of a combination of claims data, patient-reported data, clinical data from EHRs, and practice-level surveys. We address limitations in causal inference using theory, design and analysis. PMID:25848577

  7. Investigating silent strokes in hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study (ISSYS): rationale and protocol design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Silent brain infarcts are detected by neuroimaging in up to 20% of asymptomatic patients based on population studies. They are five times more frequent than stroke in general population, and increase significantly both with advancing age and hypertension. Moreover, they are independently associated with the risk of future stroke and cognitive decline. Despite these numbers and the clinical consequences of silent brain infarcts, their prevalence in Mediterranean populations is not well known and their role as predictors of future cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events in hypertensive remains to be determined. ISSYS (Investigating Silent Strokes in Hypertensives: a magnetic resonance imaging study) is an observational cross-sectional and longitudinal study aimed to: 1- determine the prevalence of silent cerebrovascular infarcts in a large cohort of 1000 hypertensives and to study their associated factors and 2-to study their relationship with the risk of future stroke and cognitive decline. Methods/Design Cohort study in a randomly selected sample of 1000 participants, hypertensive aged 50 to 70 years old, with no history of previous stroke or dementia. On baseline all participants will undergo a brain MRI to determine the presence of brain infarcts and other cerebrovascular lesions (brain microbleeds, white matter changes and enlarged perivascular spaces) and will be also tested to determine other than brain organ damage (heart-left ventricular hypertrophy, kidney-urine albumin to creatinine ratio, vessels-pulse wave velocity, ankle brachial index), in order to establish the contribution of other subclinical conditions to the risk of further vascular events. Several sub-studies assessing the role of 24 hour ambulatory BP monitoring and plasma or genetic biomarkers will be performed. Follow-up will last for at least 3 years, to assess the rate of further stroke/transient ischemic attack, other cardiovascular events and cognitive decline, and their predictors. Discussion Improving the knowledge on the frequency and determinants of these lesions in our setting might help in the future to optimize treatments or establish new preventive strategies to minimize clinical and socioeconomic consequences of stroke and cognitive decline. PMID:24083440

  8. WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study: protocol design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Gail G; Hirschman, Jay D; Owens, Tameka A; McNutt, Suzanne W; Sallack, Linnea E

    2014-03-01

    The federal Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), which began in the 1970s, has undergone revisions in the past several years, including revision to contents of the supplemental food "packages" in 2009 based on recommendations provided by an Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee of The National Academies. In 2010, the IOM held a workshop to examine and recommend research priorities for the program. The overall purpose of the current (ie, second) WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study (ITFPS-2) is to conduct a nationally representative, longitudinal study of contemporary WIC infant and toddler feeding practices. This study will update earlier studies and collect information on variations in WIC program components. The study will also assess ways in which WIC may address obesity in early childhood and examine changes in feeding practices that may stem from the 2009 food package revisions. The sample is drawn from the universe of WIC sites nationally, excluding only those with an insufficient volume of eligible participants. Eligibility for the study includes the ability to be interviewed in English or Spanish. Approximately 8000 women and infants are being sampled, and ∌ 4000 are expected to participate. Eligible women are invited to participate during their WIC enrollment visit, and informed consent is sought. The design includes a core sample to be followed until the infant reaches age 2 y and a supplemental sample to be used in some cross-sectional analyses to ensure adequate representation of groups that might be underrepresented in the core sample. Participants will complete up to 11 interviews (core sample) or 4 interviews (supplemental sample) each except for the prenatal interview, which includes a quantitative 24-h recall of food intake for the infant. Eighty sites have been sampled across 26 states and 1 territory. Instruments have been developed and pretested in both English and Spanish, and interviewers have been rigorously trained. Recruitment and interviewing began in July 2013. This study will provide the only current large-sample longitudinal feeding data available on a nationally representative sample of infants in low-income families, and results will be available to inform the 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for the 0- to 24-mo age group. PMID:24477040

  9. The Ethical Analysis Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Raul G.

    1992-01-01

    The Ethical Analysis Protocol is a set of questions on treatment of participants, research practices, and sociopolitical dimensions of research that can be used to elicit information about ethical assumptions, constraints, and implications of institutional research studies. They provide a framework for ethical analysis of an institutional research…

  10. Study protocol of a Dutch smoking cessation e-health program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The study aims to test the differential effects of a web-based text and a web-based video-driven computer-tailored approach for lower socio-economic status (LSES) and higher socio-economic status (HSES) smokers which incorporate multiple computer-tailored feedback moments. The two programs differ only in the mode of delivery (video- versus text-based messages). The paper aims to describe the development and design of the two computer-tailored programs. Methods/design Respondents who smoked at the time of the study inclusion, who were motivated to quit within the following six months and who were aged 18 or older were included in the program. The study is a randomized control trial with a 2 (video/text) * 2(LSES/HSES) design. Respondents were assigned either to one of the intervention groups (text versus video tailored feedback) or to the control group (non-tailored generic advice). In all three conditions participants were asked to fill in the baseline questionnaire based on the I-Change model. The questionnaire assessed socio-demographics, attitude towards smoking, knowledge, self-efficacy, social influence, depression, level of addiction, action planning, goal actions, intention to quit smoking, seven-day point prevalence and continued abstinence. Follow-up measurements were conducted at six and twelve months after baseline. Discussion The present paper describes the development of the two computer-tailored smoking cessation programs, their components and the design of the study. The study results reveal different working mechanisms of multiple tailored smoking cessation interventions and will help us to gain more insight into effective strategies to target different subgroups, especially smokers with a lower socio-economic status. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3102 PMID:22059446

  11. Influence of societal and practice contexts on health professionals’ clinical reasoning: a scoping study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie; Freeman, Andrew; Mullins, Gary; Quénec'hdu, Suzanne; Lalonde, Louise; Gagnon, Michaël; Lacasse, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In a context of constrained resources, the efficacy of interventions is a pivotal aim of healthcare systems worldwide. Efficacy of healthcare interventions is highly compromised if clinical reasoning (CR), the process that practitioners use to plan, direct, perform and reflect on client care, is not optimal. The CR process of health professionals is influenced by the institutional dimension (ie, legal, regulatory, administrative and organisational aspects) of their societal and practice contexts. Although several studies have been conducted with respect to the institutional dimension influencing health professionals’ CR, no clear integration of their results is yet available. The aim of this study is to synthesise and disseminate current knowledge on the influence of the institutional dimension of contexts on health professionals’ CR. Methods and analysis A scoping study of the scientific literature from January 1980 to March 2013 will be undertaken to summarise and disseminate research findings about the influence of the institutional dimension on CR. Numerous databases (n=18) from three relevant fields (healthcare, health law and politics and management) will be searched. Extended search strategies will include the manual search of bibliographies, health-related websites, public registries and journals of interest. Data will be collected and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. A systematic multidisciplinary team approach will allow optimal identification of relevant studies, as well as effective and valid content analysis and dissemination of the results. Discussion This scoping study will provide a rigorous, accurate and up-to-date synthesis of existing knowledge regarding: (1) those aspects of the institutional dimension of health professionals’ societal and practice contexts that impact their CR and (2) how these aspects influence health professionals’ CR. Through the synergy of a multidisciplinary research team from a wide range of expertise, clinical pertinence and an exhaustive dissemination of results to knowledge-users will be ensured. PMID:23633422

  12. Safer@home—Simulation and training: the study protocol of a qualitative action research design

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Siri; Guise, VeslemĂžy; Anderson, Janet; Storm, Marianne; Lunde HusebĂž, Anne Marie; Testad, Ingelin; SĂžyland, Elsa; Moltu, Kirsti L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While it is predicted that telecare and other information and communication technology (ICT)-assisted services will have an increasingly important role in future healthcare services, their implementation in practice is complex. For implementation of telecare to be successful and ensure quality of care, sufficient training for staff (healthcare professionals) and service users (patients) is fundamental. Telecare training has been found to have positive effects on attitudes to, sustained use of, and outcomes associated with telecare. However, the potential contribution of training in the adoption, quality and safety of telecare services is an under-investigated research field. The overall aim of this study is to develop and evaluate simulation-based telecare training programmes to aid the use of videophone technology in elderly home care. Research-based training programmes will be designed for healthcare professionals, service users and next of kin, and the study will explore the impact of training on adoption, quality and safety of new telecare services. Methods and analysis The study has a qualitative action research design. The research will be undertaken in close collaboration with a multidisciplinary team consisting of researchers and managers and clinical representatives from healthcare services in two Norwegian municipalities, alongside experts in clinical education and simulation, as well as service user (patient) representatives. The qualitative methods used involve focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observation and document analysis. To ensure trustworthiness in the data analysis, we will apply member checks and analyst triangulation; in addition to providing contextual and sample description to allow for evaluation of transferability of our results to other contexts and groups. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed written consent. Informants can withdraw at any point in time. The results will be disseminated at research conferences, peer review journals, one PhD thesis and through public presentations to people outside the scientific community. PMID:25079924

  13. Atom-chip-based generation of entanglement for quantum metrology.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Max F; Böhi, Pascal; Li, Yun; Hänsch, Theodor W; Sinatra, Alice; Treutlein, Philipp

    2010-04-22

    Atom chips provide a versatile quantum laboratory for experiments with ultracold atomic gases. They have been used in diverse experiments involving low-dimensional quantum gases, cavity quantum electrodynamics, atom-surface interactions, and chip-based atomic clocks and interferometers. However, a severe limitation of atom chips is that techniques to control atomic interactions and to generate entanglement have not been experimentally available so far. Such techniques enable chip-based studies of entangled many-body systems and are a key prerequisite for atom chip applications in quantum simulations, quantum information processing and quantum metrology. Here we report the experimental generation of multi-particle entanglement on an atom chip by controlling elastic collisional interactions with a state-dependent potential. We use this technique to generate spin-squeezed states of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate; such states are a useful resource for quantum metrology. The observed reduction in spin noise of -3.7 +/- 0.4 dB, combined with the spin coherence, implies four-partite entanglement between the condensate atoms; this could be used to improve an interferometric measurement by -2.5 +/- 0.6 dB over the standard quantum limit. Our data show good agreement with a dynamical multi-mode simulation and allow us to reconstruct the Wigner function of the spin-squeezed condensate. The techniques reported here could be directly applied to chip-based atomic clocks, currently under development. PMID:20357765

  14. Analysis Methods of Magnesium Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmann, Sven; Ditze, André; Scharf, Christiane

    2015-11-01

    The quality of recycled magnesium from chips depends strongly on their exposure to inorganic and organic impurities that are added during the production processes. Different kinds of magnesium chips from these processes were analyzed by several methods. In addition, the accuracy and effectiveness of the methods are discussed. The results show that the chips belong either to the AZ91, AZ31, AM50/60, or AJ62 alloy. Some kinds of chips show deviations from the above-mentioned normations. Different impurities result mainly from transition metals and lime. The water and oil content does not exceed 25%, and the chip size is not more than 4 mm in the diameter. The sieve analysis shows good results for oily and wet chips. The determination of oil and water shows better results for the application of a Soxhlet compared with the addition of lime and vacuum distillation. The most accurate values for the determination of water and oil are obtained by drying at 110°C (for water) and washing with acetone (for oil) by hand.

  15. Processes and Outcomes of the Veterans Health Administration Safe Patient Handling Program: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Toyinbo, Peter; Patel, Nitin; Powell-Cope, Gail; Hahm, Bridget; Elnitsky, Christine; Besterman-Dahan, Karen; Campbell, Robert; Sutton, Bryce

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care workers, such as nurses, nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants, who manually move patients, are consistently listed in the top professions for musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. These MSIs are typically caused by high-risk patient caregiving activities. In 2008, a safe patient handling (SPH) program was implemented in all 153 Veterans Administration Medical Centers (VAMCs) throughout the United States to reduce patient handling injuries. Objective The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effects associated with the national implementation of a comprehensive SPH program. The primary objectives of the research were to determine the effectiveness of the SPH program in improving direct care nursing outcomes and to provide a context for understanding variations in program results across sites over time. Secondary objectives of the present research were to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in reducing direct and indirect costs associated with patient handling, to explore the potential mediating and moderating mechanisms, and to identify unintended consequences of implementing the program. Methods This 3-year longitudinal study used mixed methods of data collection at 6- to 9-month intervals. The analyses will include data from surveys, administrative databases, individual and focus group interviews, and nonparticipant observations. For this study, a 3-tiered measurement plan was used. For Tier 1, the unit of analysis was the facility, the data source was the facility coordinator or administrative data, and all 153 VAMCs participated. For Tier 2, frontline caregivers and program peer leaders at 17 facilities each completed different surveys. For Tier 3, six facilities completed qualitative site visits, which included individual interviews, focus groups, and nonparticipant observations. Multiple regression models were proposed to test the effects of SPH components on nursing outcomes related to patient handling. Content analysis and constant comparative analysis were proposed for qualitative data analysis to understand the context of implementation and to triangulate quantitative data. Results All three tiers of data for this study have been collected. We are now in the analyses and writing phase of the project, with the possibility for extraction of additional administrative data. The focus of this paper is to describe the SPH program, its evaluation study design, and its data collection procedures. This study evaluates the effects associated with the national implementation of a comprehensive SPH program that was implemented in all 153 VAMCs throughout the United States to reduce patient handling injuries. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest evaluation of an SPH program in the United States. A major strength of this observational study design is that all VAMCs implemented the program and were included in Tier 1 of the study; therefore, population sampling bias is not a concern. Although the design lacks a comparison group for testing program effects, this longitudinal field study design allows for capturing program dose-response effects within a naturalistic context. Implementation of the VA-wide SPH program afforded the opportunity for rigorous evaluation in a naturalistic context. Findings will guide VA operations for policy and decision making about resources, and will be useful for health care, in general, outside of the VA, in implementation and impact of an SPH program. PMID:24246469

  16. Clinical study protocol for the ARCH project - computational modeling for improvement of outcome after vascular access creation.

    PubMed

    Bode, Aron; Caroli, Anna; Huberts, Wouter; Planken, Nils; Antiga, Luca; Bosboom, Marielle; Remuzzi, Andrea; Tordoir, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Despite clinical guidelines and the possibility of diagnostic vascular imaging, creation and maintenance of a vascular access (VA) remains problematic: avoiding short- and long-term VA dysfunction is challenging. Although prognostic factors for VA dysfunction have been identified in previous studies, their potential interplay at a systemic level is disregarded. Consideration of multiple prognostic patient specific factors and their complex interaction using dedicated computational modeling tools might improve outcome after VA creation by enabling a better selection of VA configuration. These computational modeling tools are developed and validated in the ARCH project: a joint initiative of four medical centers and three industrial partners (FP7-ICT-224390). This paper reports the rationale behind computational modeling and presents the clinical study protocol designed for calibrating and validating these modeling tools. The clinical study is based on the pre-operative collection of structural and functional data at a vascular level, as well as a VA functional evaluation during the follow-up period. The strategy adopted to perform the study and for data collection is also described here. PMID:21667457

  17. Pilot Study: Colostomy and Urine Collection Protocol for Investigating Potential Inciting Causes of Hen Diuresis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelli; Turner, Bradley; BrandĂŁo, JoĂŁo; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Baughman, Brittany; Wills, Robert; Tully, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Hen diuresis syndrome has emerged over the past 5 yr as a significant cause of mortality in the U.S. broiler breeder industry. The condition affects hens in production and is characterized by transient muscle weakness in the vent region, transient diuresis, and often urate deposits on the skin below the vent. Affected hens are often seen straining to lay an egg, which suggests oviduct contraction is also impaired. Related hen mortality, often reaching 1% or more a week, is believed to be primarily the result of male aggression of the vent region (Turner et al., "Investigating Causes of Excessive Urate Production in Broiler Breeder Hens Associated with Peritonitis and Cannibalism Mortality," Oral Presentation at The American Association of Avian Pathologists Annual Meeting, p. 139, 2010). The exact association between the cause of mortality and this syndrome is unknown, but it may be the consequence of transient partial to full oviduct prolapse, which predisposes or stimulates cannibalism and aggression. Based on unpublished work done prior to this study (Turner et al., ibid.), the evidence suggests the underlying problem is metabolic. We feel that urine collection and analysis is an essential component to understanding this condition. This study serves as a pilot study for future investigations that attempt to identify the nature and cause of the metabolic disturbance through paired urine and serum collection and analysis. For the purpose of this study, a small sample of 10 affected and 10 unaffected birds was used for sample collection. In order to collect pure urine, the birds were surgically colostomized. Colostomy did prove to be a useful means of collecting urine free of feces, and for the purposes of our study it yielded adequate urine samples for analysis. There were statistically relevant urine values observed. Affected birds had a higher presence of blood in the urine, a lower uric acid excretion rate (mg/hr), higher concentration (mEq/L) of urine Na+, and a lower concentration (mEq/L) of urine K+ than unaffected birds. This pilot study helps to address some of the pitfalls previously associated with colostomy and to determine when collection can begin postoperatively so that we can better understand when and how to begin our sampling in future trials to address the etiology of this condition. PMID:26473672

  18. Social and economic impact of diabetics in Bangladesh: protocol for a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes affects both individuals and their families and has an impact on economic and social development of a country. Information on the availability, cost, and quality of medical care for diabetes is mostly not available for many low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Complications from diabetes, which can be devastating, could largely be prevented by wider use of several inexpensive generic medicines, simple tests and monitoring and can be a cost saving intervention. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetes in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetes. The objectives of the study are: 1) To study the association between diabetes and other health problems and its social impacts 2) To estimate the economic impact of diabetes including total direct and indirect costs 3) To measure the impact of diabetes on quality of life among diabetes patients in Bangladesh 4) To study the impact of diabetes on the health care system Methods This is a case–control study comparing cases with type 2 diabetes to controls without diabetes matched on age, sex and place of residence. 564 cases and 564 controls will be selected from the outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data on socioeconomic status, health utility index, direct and indirect costs for diabetes, medication adherence, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, diet, physical activity, mental state examination, weight, height, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, pulse, medication history, laboratory data and physical examination will be conducted. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures will be association between diabetes and other health problems, cost of diabetes, impact of diabetes on quality of life and secondary outcome measures are impact of diabetes on healthcare systems in Bangladesh. Discussion This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetics in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetics. It will help to develop programs and policies for better management of Diabetics and cost effective strategies in Bangladesh context. PMID:24359558

  19. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  20. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.; Malba, Vincent; Riddle, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  1. Evaluating holistic needs assessment in outpatient cancer care—a randomised controlled trial: the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Austyn; Young, Jenny; White, Craig; Murray, Esther; Richard, Claude; Lussier, Marie-Therese; MacArthur, Ewan; Storey, Dawn; Schipani, Stefano; Wheatley, Duncan; McMahon, Jeremy; Ross, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction People living with and beyond cancer are vulnerable to a number of physical, functional and psychological issues. Undertaking a holistic needs assessment (HNA) is one way to support a structured discussion of patients’ needs within a clinical consultation. However, there is little evidence on how HNA impacts on the dynamics of the clinical consultation. This study aims to establish (1) how HNA affects the type of conversation that goes on during a clinical consultation and (2) how these putative changes impact on shared decision-making and self-efficacy. Methods and analysis The study is hosted by 10 outpatient oncology clinics in the West of Scotland and South West England. Participants are patients with a diagnosis of head and neck, breast, urological, gynaecological and colorectal cancer who have received treatment for their cancer. Patients are randomised to an intervention or control group. The control group entails standard care—routine consultation between the patient and clinician. In the intervention group, the patient completes a holistic needs assessment prior to consultation. The completed assessment is then given to the clinician where it informs a discussion based on the patient's needs and concerns as identified by them. The primary outcome measure is patient participation, as determined by dialogue ratio (DR) and preponderance of initiative (PI) within the consultation. The secondary outcome measures are shared decision-making and self-efficacy. It is hypothesised that HNA will be associated with greater patient participation within the consultation, and that shared decision-making and feelings of self-efficacy will increase as a function of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study has been given a favourable opinion by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee and NHS Research & Development. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference attendance. Trail registration number Clinical Trials.gov NCT02274701. PMID:25967990

  2. Understanding burn injuries in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. Methods and analysis All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and publication in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26463225

  3. Optimizing diffusion of an online computer tailored lifestyle program: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the Internet is a promising medium to offer lifestyle interventions to large amounts of people at relatively low costs and effort, actual exposure rates of these interventions fail to meet the high expectations. Since public health impact of interventions is determined by intervention efficacy and level of exposure to the intervention, it is imperative to put effort in optimal dissemination. The present project attempts to optimize the dissemination process of a new online computer tailored generic lifestyle program by carefully studying the adoption process and developing a strategy to achieve sustained use of the program. Methods/Design A prospective study will be conducted to yield relevant information concerning the adoption process by studying the level of adoption of the program, determinants involved in adoption and characteristics of adopters and non-adopters as well as satisfied and unsatisfied users. Furthermore, a randomized control trial will be conducted to the test the effectiveness of a proactive strategy using periodic e-mail prompts in optimizing sustained use of the new program. Discussion Closely mapping the adoption process will gain insight in characteristics of adopters and non-adopters and satisfied and unsatisfied users. This insight can be used to further optimize the program by making it more suitable for a wider range of users, or to develop adjusted interventions to attract subgroups of users that are not reached or satisfied with the initial intervention. Furthermore, by studying the effect of a proactive strategy using period prompts compared to a reactive strategy to stimulate sustained use of the intervention and, possibly, behaviour change, specific recommendations on the use and the application of prompts in online lifestyle interventions can be developed. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1786 and Medical Ethics Committee of Maastricht University and the University Hospital Maastricht (NL2723506809/MEC0903016). PMID:21689412

  4. Assessment of equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Asante, Augustine D; Price, Jennifer; Hayen, Andrew; Irava, Wayne; Martins, Joao; Guinness, Lorna; Ataguba, John E; Limwattananon, Supon; Mills, Anne; Jan, Stephen; Wiseman, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Equitable health financing remains a key health policy objective worldwide. In low and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is evidence that many people are unable to access the health services they need due to financial and other barriers. There are growing calls for fairer health financing systems that will protect people from catastrophic and impoverishing health payments in times of illness. This study aims to assess equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste in order to support government efforts to improve access to healthcare and move towards universal health coverage in the two countries. Methods and analysis The study employs two standard measures of equity in health financing increasingly being applied in LMICs—benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and financing incidence analysis (FIA). In Fiji, we will use a combination of secondary and primary data including a Household Income and Expenditure Survey, National Health Accounts, and data from a cross-sectional household survey on healthcare utilisation. In Timor-Leste, the World Bank recently completed a health equity and financial protection analysis that incorporates BIA and FIA, and found that the distribution of benefits from healthcare financing is pro-rich. Building on this work, we will explore the factors that influence the pro-rich distribution. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of University of New South Wales, Australia (Approval number: HC13269); the Fiji National Health Research Committee (Approval # 201371); and the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health (Ref MS/UNSW/VI/218). Results Study outcomes will be disseminated through stakeholder meetings, targeted multidisciplinary seminars, peer-reviewed journal publications, policy briefs and the use of other web-based technologies including social media. A user-friendly toolkit on how to analyse healthcare financing equity will be developed for use by policymakers and development partners in the region. PMID:25468509

  5. Cognitive Impairment in Diabetes: Rationale and Design Protocol of the Cog-ID Study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Jolien; Kooistra, Minke; van den Berg, Esther; Kappelle, L Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan; Rutten, Guy EHM

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment frequently co-occurs with type 2 diabetes but is often undiagnosed. Cognitive impairment affects self-management leading to treatment-related complications. Objective The aim of this study is to develop a stepped diagnostic procedure, consisting of a screening test complemented by an evaluation by a general practitioner (GP), to detect undiagnosed cognitive impairment in older people with type 2 diabetes. Methods The accuracy of two self-administered cognitive tests, the “Test Your Memory” (TYM) and “Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination” (SAGE) alone, and in combination with an evaluation by a GP will be assessed. A diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia at a memory clinic will serve as reference standard. This cognitive impairment in diabetes (Cog-ID) study will include 513 people from primary care facilities aged ?70 with type 2 diabetes. The participants will first fill out the TYM and SAGE tests, followed by a standardized GP evaluation for cognitive impairment, including a mini mental state examination (MMSE). Subsequently, participants suspected of cognitive impairment (on either test or the GP assessment) and a random sample of 15% (65/435) of participants without suspected cognitive impairment will be referred to the memory clinic. At the memory clinic, a medical examination, neuropsychological examination, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain will be performed. Participants will also fill out questionnaires assessing health status and depressive symptoms at baseline and after 6 and 24 months. Results This research obtained funding and ethical approval. Enrolment started in August, 2012, and all study-related activities will be completed in September, 2016. Conclusions With the results from this study, physicians will be able to detect cognitive impairment affecting type 2 diabetes patients through case-finding, and can use tailored care to reduce associated complications. Additionally, the results may stimulate discussions about cognitive impairment and whether early recognition is desirable. PMID:26058427

  6. Pre-Adolescent Cardio-Metabolic Associations and Correlates: PACMAC methodology and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Nicholas; Faulkner, James; Skidmore, Paula; Williams, Michelle; Lambrick, Danielle M; Signal, Leigh; Thunders, Michelle; Muller, Diane; Lark, Sally; Hamlin, Mike; Lane, Andrew M; Kingi, Te Kani; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although cardiovascular disease is typically associated with middle or old age, the atherosclerotic process often initiates early in childhood. The process of atherosclerosis appears to be occurring at an increasing rate, even in pre-adolescents, and has been linked to the childhood obesity epidemic. This study will investigate the relationships between obesity, lifestyle behaviours and cardiometabolic health in pre-pubescent children aged 8–10 years, and investigates whether there are differences in the correlates of cardiometabolic health between Māori and Caucasian children. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion/exclusion criteria, assessments, statistical analyses, dissemination of findings and anticipated impact are described. Methods and analysis Phase 1: a cross-sectional study design will be used to investigate relationships between obesity, lifestyle behaviours (nutrition, physical activity/fitness, sleep behaviour, psychosocial influences) and cardiometabolic health in a sample of 400 pre-pubescent (8–10 years old) children. Phase 2: in a subgroup (50 Caucasian, 50 Māori children), additional measurements of cardiometabolic health and lifestyle behaviours will be obtained to provide objective and detailed data. General linear models and logistic regression will be used to investigate the strongest correlate of (1) fatness; (2) physical activity; (3) nutritional behaviours and (4) cardiometabolic health. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval will be obtained from the New Zealand Health and Disabilities Ethics Committee. The findings from this study will elucidate targets for decreasing obesity and improving cardiometabolic health among preadolescent children in New Zealand. The aim is to ensure an immediate impact by disseminating these findings in an applicable manner via popular media and traditional academic forums. Most importantly, results from the study will be disseminated to participating schools and relevant Māori health entities. PMID:25234509

  7. Prescribing for Australians living with dementia: study protocol using the Delphi technique

    PubMed Central

    Page, Amy; Potter, Kathleen; Clifford, Rhonda; McLachlan, Andrew; Etherton-Beer, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prescribing is complicated for people living with dementia, and careful consideration should be given to continuing and initiating all medicines. This study aims to elicit opinion and gain consensus on appropriate medicine use for people living with dementia in Australia to create a consensus-based list of explicit prescribing criteria. Methods and analysis A Delphi technique will be used to develop explicit criteria of medication use in adults aged 65?years and above. An interdisciplinary panel of Australian experts in geriatric therapeutics will be convened that will consist of a minimum of 10 participants. To develop the consensus-based criteria, this study will use an iterative, anonymous, multistaged approach with controlled feedback. Round 1 questionnaire will be administered, and subsequently qualitatively analysed. The round 1 results will be fed back to the panel members, and a round 2 questionnaire developed using questions on a five-point Likert scale. This process will repeat until consensus is developed, or diminishing returns are noted. Ethics and dissemination All participants will be provided with a participant information sheet, and sign a written consent form. Ethical approval has been granted from the University of Western Australia's Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) (reference: RA/4/1/7172). We expect that data from this study will result in a paper published in a peer-reviewed clinical journal and will also present the results at conferences. PMID:26264272

  8. Psychosocial Outcomes in StrokE: the POISE observational stroke study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Maree L; Glozier, Nick; Jan, Stephen; Lindley, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background Each year, approximately 12,000 Australians of working age survive a stroke. As a group, younger stroke survivors have less physical impairment and lower mortality after stroke compared with older survivors; however, the psychosocial and economic consequences are potentially substantial. Most of these younger stroke survivors have responsibility for generating an income or providing family care and indicate that their primary objective is to return to work. However, effective vocational rehabilitation strategies to increase the proportion of younger stroke survivors able to return to work, and information on the key target areas for those strategies, are currently lacking. Methods/Design This multi-centre, three year cohort study will recruit a representative sample of younger (< 65 years) stroke survivors to determine the modifiable predictors of subsequent return to work. Participants will be recruited from the New South Wales Stroke Services (SSNSW) network, the only well established and cohesively operating and managed, network of acute stroke units in Australia. It is based within the Greater Metropolitan area of Sydney including Wollongong and Newcastle, and extends to rural areas including Wagga Wagga. The study registration number is ACTRN12608000459325. Discussion The study is designed to identify targets for rehabilitation-, social- and medical-intervention strategies that promote and maintain healthy ageing in people with cardiovascular and mental health conditions, two of the seven Australian national health priority areas. This will rectify the paucity of information internationally around optimal clinical practice and social policy in this area. PMID:19519918

  9. Electroacupuncture for pressure ulcer: a study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers are one of the most common health complaints, which often take months or years to heal, and affect patients’ morbidity and quality of life. Medical options for pressure ulcers are limited. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been employed to relieve the symptoms for patients with pressure ulcers, but there is limited clinical evidence for its effectiveness. Methods/Design This study consists of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms: a control group and an EA group. Both groups will receive standard wound care (including changing position, using mattresses and cushions, and a good diet) of five sessions per week for a total of 40 sessions during the 8-week treatment period. In addition, the EA group will receive the EA intervention. The following outcome measurements will be used in examination of participants: wound surface area (WSA), visual analogue scale (VAS), and the proportion of ulcers healed within trial period (PUHTP). All the outcomes will be evaluated at the start of the study, at the end of the fourth week, at 8 weeks after randomization, and 1 month after treatment cessation. Discussion The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of EA for the treatment of patients with pressure ulcers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR-TRC-11001693 PMID:24393344

  10. The ANIBES Study on Energy Balance in Spain: Design, Protocol and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Castillo, Adriån; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Bartrina, Javier Aranceta; Gil, Ángel; Gonzålez-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy Balance (EB) is an important topic to understand how an imbalance in its main determinants (energy intake and consumption) may lead to inappropriate weight gain, considered to be “dynamic” and not “static”. There are no studies to evaluate EB in Spain, and new technologies reveal themselves as key tools to solve common problems to precisely quantify energy consumption and expenditure at population level. The overall purpose of the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance”) Study was to carry out an accurate updating of food and beverage intake, dietary habits/behaviour and anthropometric data of the Spanish population (9–75 years, n = 2009), as well as the energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. Anthropometry measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, % body fat, % body water) were obtained; diet was evaluated throughout a three-day dietary record (tablet device) accompanied by a 24 h-dietary recall; physical activity was quantified by questionnaire and accelerometers were also employed. Finally, information about perception and understanding of several issues related to EB was also obtained. The ANIBES study will contribute to provide valuable useful data to inform food policy planning, food based dietary guidelines development and other health oriented actions in Spain. PMID:25658237

  11. The ANIBES Study on Energy Balance in Spain: design, protocol and methodology.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Castillo, Adriån; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Bartrina, Javier Aranceta; Gil, Ángel; Gonzålez-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy Balance (EB) is an important topic to understand how an imbalance in its main determinants (energy intake and consumption) may lead to inappropriate weight gain, considered to be "dynamic" and not "static". There are no studies to evaluate EB in Spain, and new technologies reveal themselves as key tools to solve common problems to precisely quantify energy consumption and expenditure at population level. The overall purpose of the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance") Study was to carry out an accurate updating of food and beverage intake, dietary habits/behaviour and anthropometric data of the Spanish population (9-75 years, n=2009), as well as the energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. Anthropometry measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, % body fat, % body water) were obtained; diet was evaluated throughout a three-day dietary record (tablet device) accompanied by a 24 h-dietary recall; physical activity was quantified by questionnaire and accelerometers were also employed. Finally, information about perception and understanding of several issues related to EB was also obtained. The ANIBES study will contribute to provide valuable useful data to inform food policy planning, food based dietary guidelines development and other health oriented actions in Spain. PMID:25658237

  12. Laparoscopic versus open peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion, the LOCI-trial: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. It allows patients more freedom to perform daily activities compared to haemodialysis. Key to successful PD is the presence of a well-functioning dialysis catheter. Several complications, such as in- and outflow obstruction, peritonitis, exit-site infections, leakage and migration, can lead to catheter removal and loss of peritoneal access. Currently, different surgical techniques are in practice for PD-catheter placement. The type of insertion technique used may greatly influence the occurrence of complications. In the literature, up to 35% catheter failure has been described when using the open technique and only 13% for the laparoscopic technique. However, a well-designed randomized controlled trial is lacking. Methods/Design The LOCI-trial is a multi-center randomized controlled, single-blind trial (pilot). The study compares the laparoscopic with the open technique for PD catheter insertion. The primary objective is to determine the optimum placement technique in order to minimize the incidence of catheter malfunction at 6 weeks postoperatively. Secondary objectives are to determine the best approach to optimize catheter function and to study the quality of life at 6 months postoperatively comparing the two operative techniques. Discussion This study will generate evidence on any benefits of laparoscopic versus open PD catheter insertion. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR2878 PMID:22185091

  13. Recognising the differences in the nurse consultant role across context: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The advanced practice role of the Nurse Consultant is unique in its capacity to provide clinical leadership across a range of contexts. However, the Nurse Consultant role has been plagued with confusion due to lack of clarity over function and appropriateness for purpose within health organisations across contexts. Changing health service delivery models are driving the emergence of new nursing roles, further clouding the waters related to role positioning and purpose. There is an urgent need for evidence of impact and demonstration of how Nurse Consultants contribute to health care outcomes. This study aims to gain a clearer understanding of the Nurse Consultant role and its impact in metropolitan and rural New South Wales (NSW) Australia. Design The proposed study employs a sequential mixed method design, underpinned by Realistic Evaluation, to explore how Nurse Consultants contribute to organisational outcomes. The ‘context – mechanism – outcome’ approach of realistic evaluation provides a sound framework to examine the complex, diverse and multifaceted nature of the Nurse Consultant’s role. Method Participants will be stakeholders, recruited across a large Local Health District in NSW, comprising rural and metropolitan services. A modified and previously validated survey will be used providing information related to role characteristics, patterns and differences across health context. Focus groups with Nurse Consultant’s explore issues highlighted in the survey data. Focus groups with other clinicians, policy makers and managers will help to achieve understanding of how the role is viewed and enacted across a range of groups and contexts. Discussion Lack of role clarity is highlighted extensively in international and Australian studies examining the role of the Nurse Consultant. Previous studies failed to adequately examine the role in the context of integrated and complex health services or to examine the role in detail. Such examination is critical in order to understand the significance of the role and to ascertain how Nurse Consultants can be most effective as members of the health care team. This is the first Australian study to include extensive stakeholder perspectives in order to understand the relational and integrated nature and impact of the role across metropolitan and rural context. PMID:25320563

  14. Study protocol: Home-based physical rehabilitation for survivors of a critical illness [ACTRN12605000166673

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Doug; McKinley, Sharon; Alison, Jennifer A; Aitken, Leanne M; King, Madeleine T

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Numerous primary studies and several review papers have highlighted delayed physical and psychological recovery for survivors of critical illness, often beyond 6 months after discharge. This randomized controlled trial with blinded assessment aims to test the effects of an 8-week, home-based, individually tailored physical rehabilitation programme on physical and psychological recovery for survivors of a critical illness after discharge from hospital. Method Participants are survivors of a critical illness discharged from nine intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia, who are aged 18 years or older, in an ICU longer than 48 hours, discharged home to self-care or carer (non-institutional care), able to participate in physical rehabilitation, and within the hospitals' local geographical areas for home visits. The study is based in participants' home environments. Blinded assessments at weeks 1, 8 and 26 after hospital discharge examine physical functioning, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life and psychological well being. The intervention is graded, individualized endurance and strength training prescribed by a pulmonary rehabilitation physiotherapist over an 8-week period, with three home visits, five follow-up phone calls, and a printed exercise manual supporting the training. Initial focus is on lower limb exercises and walking, with warm-up stretches, and progresses to the addition of core stabilization and upper limb exercises. Results The burden of a critical illness is well documented. This novel study will determine whether a home-based physical rehabilitation programme improves the recovery trajectory for survivors of critical illness. The projected sample size of 200 patients aims to detect a clinically important 10% improvement in physical functioning. The study will also examine whether other important physical and psychological measures are improved. Conclusion This multicentre, randomized controlled trial will examine outcomes that are meaningful to patients, their family and society, namely functional ability and well being. The study will also target a health problem that is likely to increase as the population ages. If the programme is effective, it will provide a model that can be easily adapted and adopted by existing primary care or community services to improve the recovery of individuals following critical illness. PMID:16792792

  15. Interprofessional collaborative practice within cancer teams: Translating evidence into action. A mixed methods study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A regional integrated cancer network has implemented a program (educational workshops, reflective and mentoring activities) designed to support the uptake of evidence-informed interprofessional collaborative practices (referred to in this text as EIPCP) within cancer teams. This research project, which relates to the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines and other sources of research evidence, represents a unique opportunity to learn more about the factors and processes involved in the translation of evidence-based recommendations into professional practices. The planned study seeks to address context-specific challenges and the concerns of nurses and other stakeholders regarding the uptake of evidence-based recommendations to effectively promote and support interprofessional collaborative practices. Aim This study aims to examine the uptake of evidence-based recommendations from best practice guidelines intended to enhance interprofessional collaborative practices within cancer teams. Design The planned study constitutes a practical trial, defined as a trial designed to provide comprehensive information that is grounded in real-world healthcare dynamics. An exploratory mixed methods study design will be used. It will involve collecting quantitative data to assess professionals' knowledge and attitudes, as well as practice environment factors associated with effective uptake of evidence-based recommendations. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted concurrently with care providers to gather qualitative data for describing the processes involved in the translation of evidence into action from both the users' (n = 12) and providers' (n = 24) perspectives. The Graham et al. Ottawa Model of Research Use will serve to construct operational definitions of concepts, and to establish the initial coding labels to be used in the thematic analysis of the qualitative data. Quantitative and qualitative results will be merged during interpretation to provide complementary perspectives of interrelated contextual factors that enhance the uptake of EIPCP and changes in professional practices. Discussion The information obtained from the study will produce new knowledge on the interventions and sources of support most conducive to the uptake of evidence and building of capacity to sustain new interprofessional collaborative practice patterns. It will provide new information on strategies for overcoming barriers to evidence-informed interventions. The findings will also pinpoint critical determinants of 'what works and why' taking into account the interplay between evidence, operational, relational micro-processes of care, uniqueness of patients' needs and preferences, and the local context. PMID:20626858

  16. Telephone-based health coaching for chronically ill patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of chronic conditions constitutes a major burden for patients and healthcare systems and is predicted to increase in the upcoming decades. Improving the self-management skills of patients is a strategy to steer against this burden. This could lead to better outcomes and lower healthcare costs. Health coaching is one method for enhancing the self-management of patients and can be delivered by phone. The effects of telephone-based health coaching are promising, but still inconclusive. Economic evaluations and studies examining the transferability of effects to different healthcare systems are still rare. Aim of this study is to evaluate telephone-based health coaching for chronically ill patients in Germany. Methods/Design The study is a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of telephone-based health coaching with usual care during a 4-year time period. Data are collected at baseline and after 12, 24 and 36 months. Patients are selected based on one of the following chronic conditions: diabetes, coronary artery disease, asthma, hypertension, heart failure, COPD, chronic depression or schizophrenia. The health coaching intervention is carried out by trained nurses employed by a German statutory health insurance. The frequency and the topics of the health coaching are manual-based but tailored to the patients’ needs and medical condition, following the concepts of motivational interviewing, shared decision-making and evidence-based-medicine. Approximately 12,000 insurants will be enrolled and randomized into intervention and control groups. Primary outcome is the time until hospital readmission within two years after enrolling in the health coaching, assessed by routine data. Secondary outcomes are patient-reported outcomes like changes in quality of life, depression and anxiety and clinical values assessed with questionnaires. Additional secondary outcomes are further economic evaluations like health service use as well as costs and hospital readmission rates. The statistical analyses includes intention-to-treat and as-treated principles. The recruitment will be completed in September 2014. Discussion This study will provide evidence regarding economic and clinical effects of telephone-delivered health coaching. Additionally, this study will show whether health coaching is an adequate option for the German healthcare system to address the growing burden of chronic diseases. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien; DRKS) DRKS00000584. PMID:24135027

  17. Psychological advocacy toward healing (PATH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA), defined as threatening behavior or abuse by adults who are intimate partners or family members, is a key public health and clinical priority. The prevalence of DVA in the United Kingdom and worldwide is high, and its impact on physical and mental health is detrimental and persistent. There is currently little support within healthcare settings for women experiencing DVA. Psychological problems in particular may be difficult to manage outside specialist services, as conventional forms of therapy such as counseling that do not address the violence may be ineffective or even harmful. The aim of this study is to assess the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a novel psychological intervention tailored specifically for survivors of DVA and delivered by domestic violence advocates based in third-sector organizations. Methods and study design This study is an open, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomized controlled trial. Women ages 16 years and older experiencing domestic violence are being enrolled and randomly allocated to receive usual DVA agency advocacy support (control) or usual DVA agency support plus psychological intervention (intervention). Those in the intervention group will receive eight specialist psychological advocacy (SPA) sessions weekly or fortnightly, with two follow-up sessions, 1 month and then 3 months later. This will be in addition to any advocacy support sessions each woman receives. Women in the control group will receive usual DVA agency support but no additional SPA sessions. The aim is to recruit 250 women to reach the target sample size. The primary outcomes are psychological well-being and depression severity at 1 yr from baseline, as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively. Secondary outcome measures include anxiety, posttraumatic stress, severity and frequency of abuse, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data from a subsample of women in both groups will contribute to a nested qualitative study with repeat interviews during the year of follow-up. Discussion This study will contribute to the evidence base for management of the psychological needs of women experiencing DVA. The findings will have important implications for healthcare commissioners and providers, as well as third sector specialist DVA agencies providing services to this client group. Trial registration ISRCTN58561170 PMID:23866771

  18. Disseminating quality improvement: study protocol for a large cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dissemination is a critical facet of implementing quality improvement in organizations. As a field, addiction treatment has produced effective interventions but disseminated them slowly and reached only a fraction of people needing treatment. This study investigates four methods of disseminating quality improvement (QI) to addiction treatment programs in the U.S. It is, to our knowledge, the largest study of organizational change ever conducted in healthcare. The trial seeks to determine the most cost-effective method of disseminating quality improvement in addiction treatment. Methods The study is evaluating the costs and effectiveness of different QI approaches by randomizing 201 addiction-treatment programs to four interventions. Each intervention used a web-based learning kit plus monthly phone calls, coaching, face-to-face meetings, or the combination of all three. Effectiveness is defined as reducing waiting time (days between first contact and treatment), increasing program admissions, and increasing continuation in treatment. Opportunity costs will be estimated for the resources associated with providing the services. Outcomes The study has three primary outcomes: waiting time, annual program admissions, and continuation in treatment. Secondary outcomes include: voluntary employee turnover, treatment completion, and operating margin. We are also seeking to understand the role of mediators, moderators, and other factors related to an organization's success in making changes. Analysis We are fitting a mixed-effect regression model to each program's average monthly waiting time and continuation rates (based on aggregated client records), including terms to isolate state and intervention effects. Admissions to treatment are aggregated to a yearly level to compensate for seasonality. We will order the interventions by cost to compare them pair-wise to the lowest cost intervention (monthly phone calls). All randomized sites with outcome data will be included in the analysis, following the intent-to-treat principle. Organizational covariates in the analysis include program size, management score, and state. Discussion The study offers seven recommendations for conducting a large-scale cluster-randomized trial: provide valuable services, have aims that are clear and important, seek powerful allies, understand the recruiting challenge, cultivate commitment, address turnover, and encourage rigor and flexibility. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials. govNCT00934141 PMID:21524303

  19. International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D), a randomized clinical trial: rationale and protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinically useful treatment moderators of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have not yet been identified, though some baseline predictors of treatment outcome have been proposed. The aim of iSPOT-D is to identify pretreatment measures that predict or moderate MDD treatment response or remission to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine; and develop a model that incorporates multiple predictors and moderators. Methods/Design The International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) is a multi-centre, international, randomized, prospective, open-label trial. It is enrolling 2016 MDD outpatients (ages 18-65) from primary or specialty care practices (672 per treatment arm; 672 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls). Study-eligible patients are antidepressant medication (ADM) naĂŻve or willing to undergo a one-week wash-out of any non-protocol ADM, and cannot have had an inadequate response to protocol ADM. Baseline assessments include symptoms; distress; daily function; cognitive performance; electroencephalogram and event-related potentials; heart rate and genetic measures. A subset of these baseline assessments are repeated after eight weeks of treatment. Outcomes include the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (primary) and self-reported depressive symptoms, social functioning, quality of life, emotional regulation, and side-effect burden (secondary). Participants may then enter a naturalistic telephone follow-up at weeks 12, 16, 24 and 52. The first half of the sample will be used to identify potential predictors and moderators, and the second half to replicate and confirm. Discussion First enrolment was in December 2008, and is ongoing. iSPOT-D evaluates clinical and biological predictors of treatment response in the largest known sample of MDD collected worldwide. Trial registration International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00693849 URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00693849?term=International+Study+to+Predict+Optimized+Treatment+for+Depression&rank=1 PMID:21208417

  20. Assessment of the ability of wheelchair subjects with spinal cord injury to perform a specific protocol of shoulder training: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Dellabiancia, Fabio; Filippi, Maria Vittoria; De Santis, Elisa; Alpi, Daniele; Magrini, Paola; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: a regular program of exercises in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) can contribute to reduce the risk of upper extremities injuries. Methods: in this prospective laboratory study we tested the hypothesis that a training machine developed for able-body users is suitable for a shoulder training protocol in 11 paraplegic subjects with SCI. Overall subjects were assessed with the SCIM III, CS, DASH and standard shoulder examination. We set a protocol of shoulder exercises performed with a training machine. Overall subjects were able to perform the protocol but 2 did not complete the exercises n° 6 and 7. The position of the wheelchair during each exercise was recorded. Wheelchair position/loading level were significantly correlated with the protocol n° 2, 3 and 5 as well as BMI/loading level for the exercises n° 5 and 9 and age/loading level for the exercise n° 7. Clinical scores were neither correlated with loading nor with anthropometric data. Results/Conclusions: from the analysis of data collected in this study arised that: 1) the training machine needs some adjustments for paraplegic subjects, 2) the training protocol was appropriate except for the exercises needing a torso-rotation and 3) the template for wheelchair position may be a valid guide for an optimal paraplegic shoulder training. PMID:25332931