Sample records for chirostoma humboldtianum atheriniformes

  1. The complete mitochondrial DNA of the endemic shortfin silverside, Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes, 1835).


    Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los A; De León, Francisco J García; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A


    The shortfin silverside Chirostoma humboldtianum, is an endemic fish from the Mesa Central of Mexico, it is considered the "ancestral" species of the "peces blancos" and plays an important role as a potential species for aquaculture. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ921739), which has a total length of 16,447 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Atheriniformes. This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic, population and phylogeographic studies of this and other important atherinopsid species. PMID:25185796

  2. Multi-locus fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Atheriniformes (Teleostei, Ovalentaria).


    Campanella, Daniela; Hughes, Lily C; Unmack, Peter J; Bloom, Devin D; Piller, Kyle R; Ortí, Guillermo


    Phylogenetic relationships among families within the order Atheriniformes have been difficult to resolve on the basis of morphological evidence. Molecular studies so far have been fragmentary and based on a small number taxa and loci. In this study, we provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequence data collected for eight molecular markers for a representative sample of 103 atheriniform species, covering 2/3 of the genera in this order. The phylogeny is calibrated with six carefully chosen fossil taxa to provide an explicit timeframe for the diversification of this group. Our results support the subdivision of Atheriniformes into two suborders (Atherinopsoidei and Atherinoidei), the nesting of Notocheirinae within Atherinopsidae, and the monophyly of tribe Menidiini, among others. We propose taxonomic changes for Atherinopsoidei, but a few weakly supported nodes in our phylogeny suggests that further study is necessary to support a revised taxonomy of Atherinoidei. The time-calibrated phylogeny was used to infer ancestral habitat reconstructions to explain the current distribution of marine and freshwater taxa. Based on these results, the current distribution of Atheriniformes is likely due to widespread marine dispersal along the margins of continents, infrequent trans-oceanic dispersal, and repeated invasion of freshwater habitats. This conclusion is supported by post-Gondwanan divergence times among families within the order, and a high probability of a marine ancestral habitat. PMID:25769409

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Parkinson's Rainbowfish, Melanotaenia parkinsoni (Atheriniformes: Melanotaeniidae).


    Wang, Lei; Chen, Zaizhong; Gao, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiaowu; Li, Zhongpu; Yu, Yongliang; Zhao, Yuming


    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Parkinson's Rainbowfish, Melanotaenia parkinsoni (Atheriniformes: Melanotaeniidae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome is 16 529 bp in length including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of Parkinson's Rainbowfish is 28.1% A, 29.7% C, 15.7% G, 26.5% T and shows 93% identity with Lake Kutubu Rainbowfish, M. lacustris. The complete mitogenome of the Parkinson's Rainbowfish provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for Rainbowfish phylogeny. PMID:27158786

  4. A complete chitinolytic system in the atherinopsid pike silverside Chirostoma estor: gene expression and activities.


    Pohls, P; González-Dávalos, L; Mora, O; Shimada, A; Varela-Echavarria, A; Toledo-Cuevas, E M; Martínez-Palacios, C A


    The expression and digestive activity of pike silverside Chirostoma estor endogenous chitinases were analysed in samples from four life stages: whole eggs; larvae; juvenile intestine and hepatopancreas and adult intestine and hepatopancreas. A chitinase cDNA was cloned and partially sequenced (GenBank accession number: FJ785521). It was highly homologous to non-acidic chitinase sequences from other fish species, suggesting that it is a chitotriosidase. Quantitative PCR showed that this chitinase was expressed throughout the life span of C. estor, with maximum expression in the hepatopancreas of juveniles. Chitotriosidase and chitobiosidase activities were found at all life stages, along with a very high level of N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAGase). The chitotriosidase activity could be encoded by the cloned complementary (c)DNA, although additional chitinase genes may be present. The chitotriosidase activity appeared to be transcriptionally regulated only at the juvenile stage. The expression and activity of chitinases tended to increase from the early to juvenile stages, suggesting that these variables are stimulated by chitin-rich live food. Nevertheless, the feeding of juvenile and adult fish with both live food and a balanced commercial diet seemed to provoke significant reductions in pancreatic NAGase secretion and/or synthesis in the gut. Moreover, all chitinase activities were lower in adults, probably reflecting a higher intake and use of the balanced diet. The observation of chitotriosidase and chitobiosidase activities together with a very high NAGase activity suggest the presence of a complete and compensatory chitinolytic chitinase system that enables this stomachless short-gut fish species to use chitin as an energy substrate. These novel findings suggest that dietary inclusions of chitin-rich ingredients or by-products might reduce the farming costs of C. estor without impairing performance. PMID:27161769

  5. Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor.


    Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Navarro, Juan C; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Martínez-Palacios, Carlos A; Monroig, Óscar


    Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement with this species having unusually high contents of DHA. The particular ancestry and pattern of LC-PUFA biosynthesis activity of C. estor make this species an excellent model for study to gain further insight into LC-PUFA biosynthetic abilities among teleosts. The present study aimed to characterize cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl elongases and desaturases, key genes involved in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Results show that C. estor expresses an elongase of very long-chain FA (Elovl)5 elongase and two Fads2 desaturases displaying Δ4 and Δ6/Δ5 specificities, thus allowing us to conclude that these three genes cover all the enzymatic abilities required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA. In addition, the specificities of the C. estor Fads2 enabled us to propose potential evolutionary patterns and mechanisms for subfunctionalization of Fads2 among fish lineages. PMID:24792929

  6. Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor[S

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Navarro, Juan C.; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R.; Martínez-Palacios, Carlos A.; Monroig, Óscar


    Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement with this species having unusually high contents of DHA. The particular ancestry and pattern of LC-PUFA biosynthesis activity of C. estor make this species an excellent model for study to gain further insight into LC-PUFA biosynthetic abilities among teleosts. The present study aimed to characterize cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl elongases and desaturases, key genes involved in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Results show that C. estor expresses an elongase of very long-chain FA (Elovl)5 elongase and two Fads2 desaturases displaying Δ4 and Δ6/Δ5 specificities, thus allowing us to conclude that these three genes cover all the enzymatic abilities required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA. In addition, the specificities of the C. estor Fads2 enabled us to propose potential evolutionary patterns and mechanisms for subfunctionalization of Fads2 among fish lineages. PMID:24792929

  7. Silversides of the genus Labidesthes (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae).


    Werneke, David C; Armbruster, Jonathan W


    The two species of Labidesthes, L. sicculus and L. vanhyningi, are herein redescribed. Labidesthes sicculus is separated from L. vanhyningi by the presence of an anterolateral process of the post temporal that is longer than it is wide (versus wider than long), a ratio of thoracic length to abdominal length greater than two (versus less than two), and a midlateral stripe that is narrows in front of first dorsal fin (versus expanding in front of first dorsal fin). Labidesthes sicculus is found in Gulf of Mexico drainages from the Brazos River East to the Pascagoula River, Mississippi River (absent in middle and upper Missouri River), and Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River (absent in Lake Superior). Labidesthes vanhyningi is found in Gulf Mexico drainages from the Neches River East around peninsular Florida North on the Atlantic Coast to the Pee Dee River, in the Mississippi River it is confined to lowland areas of the Lower Mississippi River. PMID:26624384

  8. Allochromatium humboldtianum sp. nov., isolated from soft coastal sediments.


    Serrano, Wilbert; Schrübbers, Jan; Amann, Rudolf; Fischer, Ulrich


    A novel purple sulfur bacterium, strain AX1YPE(T), was isolated from marine sediments sampled at 47 m depth in Callao Bay, Perú. Strain AX1YPE grew anaerobically, synthesizing bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoid pigments of the spirilloxanthin series. Cells were Gram-stain-negative rods and actively motile by a polar flagellum. Strain AX1YPE was able to grow photolithoautotrophically with sulfide and thiosulfate as electron donors. This new phototrophic organism utilized ammonium salt, N2, urea and glutamate as nitrogen sources. Strain AX1YPE had a DNA base composition of 63.9 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain AX1YPE clusters in a separate branch within the genus Allochromatium of the family Chromatiaceae. Strain AX1YPE showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.2% with Allochromatium vinosum DSM 180(T) and Allochromatium minutissimum DSM 1376(T), 98.1% with Allochromatium phaeobacterium JA144(T), 97.3% with Allochromatium renukae DSM 18713(T) and 96.8% with Allochromatium warmingiiDSM 173(T). DNA-DNA hybridization values to the type strains of its closest relatives, A. vinosum and A. minutissimum, were 59 and 64%, respectively. The predominant fatty acid of strain AX1YPE(T) was C18 : 1ω;7c and it notably possessed C20 : 1 as a minor component. PCR-based molecular typing (Box A1R and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) produced a unique banding pattern for strain AX1YPE(T) in comparison with the type strains of A. vinosum and A. minutissimum. Based on data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, which also includes average nucleotide identity comparison of five concatenated housekeeping genes, strain AX1YPE(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Allochromatium for which the name Allochromatiumhumboldtianum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AX1YPE(T) ( = DSM 21881(T) = KCTC 15448(T)). PMID:26025943

  9. Promiscuous Speciation with Gene Flow in Silverside Fish Genus Odontesthes (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae) from South Western Atlantic Ocean Basins

    PubMed Central

    García, Graciela; Ríos, Néstor; Gutiérrez, Verónica; Varela, Jorge Guerra; Bouza Fernández, Carmen; Pardo, Belén Gómez; Portela, Paulino Martínez


    The present paper integrates phylogenetic and population genetics analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers in silversides, genus Odontesthes, from a non-sampled area in the SW Atlantic Ocean to address species discrimination and to define Managements Units for sustainable conservation. All phylogenetic analyses based on the COI mitochondrial gene were consistent to support the monophyly of the genus Odontesthes and to include O. argentinensis, O. perugiae-humensis and some O. bonariensis haplotypes in a basal polytomy conforming a major derivative clade. Microsatellites data revealed somewhat higher genetic variability values in the O. argentinensis-perugia populations than in O. bonariensis and O. perugia-humensis taxa. Contrasting population genetics structuring emerged from mitochondrial and microsatellites analyses in these taxa. Whereas mitochondrial data supported two major groups (O. argentinensis-perugia-humensis vs. O. bonariensis-perugiae-humensis populations), microsatellite data detected three major genetic entities represented by O. bonariensis, O. perugiae-humensis and an admixture of populations belonging to O. argentinensis-perugiae respectively. Therefore, the star COI polytomy in the tree topology involving these taxa could be interpreted by several hypothetic scenarios such as the existence of shared ancestral polymorphisms, incomplete lineage sorting in a radiating speciation process and/or reticulation events. Present findings support that promiscuous and recent contact between incipient species sharing asymmetric gene flow exchanges, blurs taxa boundaries yielding complicated taxonomy and Management Units delimitation in silverside genus Odontesthes from SW Atlantic Ocean basins. PMID:25126842

  10. [Diet, selectivity and trophic overlap between the sizes of silverside Menidia humboldtiana (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae) in the reservoir Tiacaque, Mexico].


    Sánchez, Regina; Ochoa, Abigahil; Mendoza, Angélica


    D Menidia humboldtiana, a native species of Mexico, is a common inhabitant of local reservoirs. It represents a highly appreciated fish of economic importance in the central part of the country because of its delicate flavor. Trophic behavior of this species is important to understand the relationships with other fish species in reservoirs. With the aim to study this specific topic, the trophic spectrum, selectivity coefficient and overlap, were determined among different sizes of the Silverside M humboldtiana. For this, both zooplankton and fish samples were taken during four different seasons of 1995. Zooplankton samples were taken through a mesh (125 micron), and all organisms were identified to generic level. Fish were captured and grouped into standard length intervals per season, and the stomach contents were obtained and analyzed. Trophic interactions included the stomach contents analysis (Laevastu method), the coefficient of selection (Chesson) and the trophic overlap (Morisita index modified by Horn) between sizes. A total of 14 zooplankton genera were identified, of which Bosmina was the most abundant (29 625 ind./10 L) followed by Cyclops (9496 ind./10 L), during the spring. Small size fishes (1-4.9cm) consumed high percentages of Cyclops in the spring (61.24%) and winter (69.82%). Ceriodaphnia was consumed by fish sizes of 3-10.9cm (72.41%) and 13-14.9cm (95.5%) during the summer; while in autumn, small sizes (1-4.9cm) ingested Mastigodiaptomus and Ceriodaphnia; Daphnia and Bosmina were consumed by fishes of 5-8.9cm and the biggest sizes (9-14.9 cm) feed on Ceriodaphnia. M. humboldtiana makes a selective predation by the genera Ceriodaphnia, Daphnia, Mastigodiaptomus, Bosmina and Cyclops, depending on the size length interval. The trophic overlap was very marked among all sizes on spring, autumn and winter, unlike in summer fish of 1-2.9 and 11-12.9 cm did not show overlap with other length intervals. M humboldtiana is a zooplanktivore species, which performs a selective predation and a marked trophic overlap between the different fish sizes. PMID:23885589

  11. Population genetic structure of the striped silverside, Atherinomorus endrachtensis (Atherinidae, Atheriniformes, Teleostei), inhabiting marine lakes and adjacent lagoons in Palau: marine lakes are "Islands" for marine species.


    Gotoh, Ryo O; Chiba, Satoru N; Goto, Tadasuke V; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Hanzawa, Naoto


    Although evidence for the evolution of terrestrial species on islands continues to rapidly accumulate, little is known about the evolution of marine species in geographically isolated environments such as islands as ocean currents often facilitate gene flow among populations. In this study, we focused on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, which are considered to be true analogues of terrestrial islands for marine species. To examine evolutionary processes in marine lakes, we conducted population genetic analyses on marine lake and lagoon populations of the striped silverside, Atherinomorus endrachtensis, using two mitochondrial DNA markers differing in evolutionary rate, the cytochrome b gene and the control region. The analyses revealed that the amount of genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations and high levels of genetic differentiation occur among marine lake and lagoon populations. The present study has shown that marine lake populations have been completely isolated and have differentiated from lagoon populations, and each marine lake population is experiencing different evolutionary processes. These findings clearly demonstrate that marine lakes are excellent environments for the evolutionary study of marine species. PMID:22362031

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of red rainbowfish (Glossolepis incises Weber 1907).


    Zhao, Yuming; Chen, Zaizhong; Gao, Jianzhong; Wang, Lei; Li, Zhongpu; Yu, Yongliang; Zhou, Qi


    In this study, the mitochondrial genome of Glossolepis incisus (Weber 1907 ) (Atheriniformes: Melanotaeniidae) was sequenced for the first time. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16 529 bp, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and 1 putative control region. The overall base composition of G. incisus is 27.51% for A, 30.04% for C, 16.06% for G, 26.39% for T and showS 91% identities to Lake Kutubu Rainbowfish, Melanotaenia lacustris. These data will provide useful molecular information for phylogenetic relationships within the family Melanotaeniidae species. PMID:26359678

  13. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Ages for MIL 05035: Implications for Surface and Mantle Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.


    The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages and also the initial Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of MIL 05035 are the same as those of A-881757. Comparing the radiometric ages of these meteorites to lunar surface ages as modeled from crater size-frequency distributions as well as the TiO2 abundances and initial Sr-isotopic compositions of other basalts places their likely place of origin as within the Australe or Humboldtianum basins. If so, a fundamental west-east lunar asymmetry in compositional and isotopic parameters that likely is due to the PKT is implied.

  14. Moon - North Pole Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


    This view of the Moon's north pole is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter as the spacecraft flew by on December 7, 1992. The left part of the Moon is visible from Earth; this region includes the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left); Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region.

  15. On the equipotential surface hypothesis of lunar maria floors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar; Konopliv, A. S.; Sjogren, W. L.


    The equipotential surface hypothesis suggests that lunar maria floors lie on a surface parallel to the selenoid. This is examined using the spherical harmonic representations of the Clementine topography and Lunar Prospector gravity data. It is demonstrated that the floors of both circular and noncircular maria significantly deviate from an equipotential surface. Deeper circular maria and the deeper part of the noncircular Mare Tranquillitatis have been subsided under larger mass loads in the crust. We calculate the mass beneath the maria to be in excess to the mass required for isostatic compensation of the topography at 60 km depth. A global map of this excess mass shows that the noncircular maria are isostatically compensated, unlike the circular maria. The map also reveals seven new sizable mascons: the three largest are associated with Mendel-Rydberg, Mare Humboldtianum, and Mare Moscoviense.

  16. Complexities in pyroxene compositions derived from absorption band centers: Examples from Apollo samples, HED meteorites, synthetic pure pyroxenes, and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, D. P.; Pieters, C. M.


    We reexamine the relationship between pyroxene composition and near-infrared absorption bands, integrating measurements of diverse natural and synthetic samples. We test an algorithm (PLC) involving a two-part linear continuum removal and parabolic fits to the 1 and 2 μm bands—a computationally simple approach which can easily be automated and applied to remote sensing data. Employing a suite of synthetic pure pyroxenes, the PLC technique is shown to derive similar band centers to the modified Gaussian model. PLC analyses are extended to natural pyroxene-bearing materials, including (1) bulk lunar basalts and pyroxene separates, (2) diverse lunar soils, and (3) HED meteorites. For natural pyroxenes, the relationship between composition and absorption band center differs from that of synthetic pyroxenes. These differences arise from complexities inherent in natural materials such as exsolution, zoning, mixing, and space weathering. For these reasons, band center measurements of natural pyroxene-bearing materials are compositionally nonunique and could represent three distinct scenarios (1) pyroxene with a narrow compositional range, (2) complexly zoned pyroxene grains, or (3) a mixture of multiple pyroxene (or nonpyroxene) components. Therefore, a universal quantitative relationship between band centers and pyroxene composition cannot be uniquely derived for natural pyroxene-bearing materials without additional geologic context. Nevertheless, useful relative relationships between composition and band center persist in most cases. These relationships are used to interpret M3 data from the Humboldtianum Basin. Four distinct compositional units are identified (1) Mare Humboldtianum basalts, (2) distinct outer basalts, (3) low-Ca pyroxene-bearing materials, and (4) feldspathic materials.

  17. Modifications of the falciform process in the eye of beloniformes (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha): evolution of a curtain-like septum in the eye.


    Reckel, Frank; Melzer, Roland R


    In order to comparatively analyze curtain-like septa in the eyes of visually orientated "close-to-surface-predators" among atherinomorph teleosts, we examined the eyes of 24 atherinomorph species under a binocular microscope with regard to the falciform process and related structures in the vitreous cavity. Additionally, falciform process samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. All the studied representatives of the Cyprinodontiformes and Atheriniformes, and of one of the beloniform suborder, Adrianichthyioidei, possess a "typical" processus falciformis. In the eyes of the representatives of the other beloniform suborder, Belonoidei, however, pigmented structures that originate in the region of the optic disc and protrude into the vitreous cavity were noted. In the Hemiramphidae (halfbeaks) and Exocoetidae (flying fishes) these pigmented structures have a more cone-like shape, whereas in the Belonidae (needlefishes) and Scomberesocidae (sauries) horizontally oriented heavily pigmented curtain-like septa occur that divide the vitreous cavity dorsoventrally. It is suggested that the "typical" processus falciformis represents a plesiomorphic feature within the Atherinomorpha, whereas the pigmented modifications of the falciform process must be seen as a synapomorphic character state of the Belonoidei. The curtain-like septum of the Belonidae and Scomberesocidae might have evolved from the cone-like structures that are found in the Exocoetoidea. The functional significance of the pigmented structures in the eye is as yet not clear, except for the curtain-like septum found in Belonidae. It might play a role in visual orientation near the water surface at Snell's window. PMID:15052593

  18. [Evaluation of ten fish species to be included as part of renal diet, due to their protein, phosphorus and fatty acids content].


    Castro-González, Maria Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando


    Because renal disease is highly complex, its nutritional treatment is complicated and many foods are restricted, including fish because its phosphorus content. The aim of the present study was to analyze ten fillet fish species, commonly consumed in Mexico (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Ophichthus rex, Symphurus elongatus, Eucinostomus entomelas, Chirostoma patzcuaro, Bairdiella chrysoura, Salmo salar Oreochromis urolepis hornorum, Sphyraena guachancho, Istiophorus albicans), to determine their phosphorus (P), protein (Pr), cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamins D3 and E, and n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) according to the AOAC techniques, in order to identify which species could be included in renal diet; particularly because of their risk:benefit relations (calculated with those results). Protein values ranged from 16.5 to 33.5g/100 g of fillet; the specie with the highest phosphorus contest was Salmo salar, and with the lowest, Symphurus elongatus. EPA+DHA quantity ranged from 79.64 mg/100 g to 1,381.53 mg/100 g. Considering de P/Pr relation recommended to renal patients, all analyzed species (except Salmo salar, Ophichthus rex and Istiophorus albicans) could be included in their diet. As for the P/EPA+DHA relation, the species most recommended to renal patients are Symphurus elongatus, Bairdiella chrysoura and Sphyraena guachancho. PMID:23610899

  19. Moon - North Polar Mosaic, Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


    During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Moon. The Galileo spacecraft surveyed the Moon on December 7, 1992, on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-1997. The left part of this north pole view is visible from Earth. This color picture is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter. The left part of this picture shows the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left), Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region. The Galileo project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  20. Identification of Putative Nuclear Receptors and Steroidogenic Enzymes in Murray-Darling Rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) Using RNA-Seq and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Peter A.; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Kumar, Anupama


    Murray-Darling rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis [Castelnau, 1878]; Atheriniformes: Melanotaeniidae) is a small-bodied teleost currently under development in Australasia as a test species for aquatic toxicological studies. To date, efforts towards the development of molecular biomarkers of contaminant exposure have been hindered by the lack of available sequence data. To address this, we sequenced messenger RNA from brain, liver and gonads of mature male and female fish and generated a high-quality draft transcriptome using a de novo assembly approach. 149,742 clusters of putative transcripts were obtained, encompassing 43,841 non-redundant protein-coding regions. Deduced amino acid sequences were annotated by functional inference based on similarity with sequences from manually curated protein sequence databases. The draft assembly contained protein-coding regions homologous to 95.7% of the complete cohort of predicted proteins from the taxonomically related species, Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka). The mean length of rainbowfish protein-coding sequences relative to their medaka homologues was 92.1%, indicating that despite the limited number of tissues sampled a large proportion of the total expected number of protein-coding genes was captured in the study. Because of our interest in the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrine pathways, we manually curated subsets of coding regions for putative nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in the rainbowfish transcriptome, revealing 61 candidate nuclear receptors encompassing all known subfamilies, and 41 putative steroidogenic enzymes representing all major steroidogenic enzymes occurring in teleosts. The transcriptome presented here will be a valuable resource for researchers interested in biomarker development, protein structure and function, and contaminant-response genomics in Murray-Darling rainbowfish. PMID:26599404

  1. Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa.


    Chen, Wei-Jen; Bonillo, Céline; Lecointre, Guillaume


    Although much progress has been made recently in teleostean phylogeny, relationships among the main lineages of the higher teleosts (Acanthomorpha), containing more than 60% of all fish species, remain poorly defined. This study represents the most extensive taxonomic sampling effort to date to collect new molecular characters for phylogenetic analysis of acanthomorph fishes. We compiled and analyzed three independent data sets, including: (i) mitochondrial ribosomal fragments from 12S and 16s (814bp for 97 taxa); (ii) nuclear ribosomal 28S sequences (847bp for 74 taxa); and (iii) a nuclear protein-coding gene, rhodopsin (759bp for 86 taxa). Detailed analyses were conducted on each data set separately and the principle of taxonomic congruence without consensus trees was used to assess confidence in the results as follows. Repeatability of clades from separate analyses was considered the primary criterion to establish reliability, rather than bootstrap proportions from a single combined (total evidence) data matrix. The new and reliable clades emerging from this study of the acanthomorph radiation were: Gadiformes (cods) with Zeioids (dories); Beloniformes (needlefishes) with Atheriniformes (silversides); blenioids (blennies) with Gobiesocoidei (clingfishes); Channoidei (snakeheads) with Anabantoidei (climbing gouramies); Mastacembeloidei (spiny eels) with Synbranchioidei (swamp-eels); the last two pairs of taxa grouping together, Syngnathoidei (aulostomids, macroramphosids) with Dactylopteridae (flying gurnards); Scombroidei (mackerels) plus Stromatoidei plus Chiasmodontidae; Ammodytidae (sand lances) with Cheimarrhichthyidae (torrentfish); Zoarcoidei (eelpouts) with Cottoidei; Percidae (perches) with Notothenioidei (Antarctic fishes); and a clade grouping Carangidae (jacks), Echeneidae (remoras), Sphyraenidae (barracudas), Menidae (moonfish), Polynemidae (threadfins), Centropomidae (snooks), and Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes). PMID:12565036

  2. Comparative study of compensation mechanism of lunar impact basins from new gravity field model of SELENE (Kaguya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, N.; Sugita, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Goossens, S.; Ishihara, Y.; Noda, H.; Ssasaki, S.; Iwata, T.; Hanada, H.; Araki, H.


    The gravity field is a fundamental physical quantity for the study of the internal structure and the evolution of planetary bodies. The most significant problem of the previous lunar gravity models, however, is the lack of direct observations of the far side gravity signals [1]. We then developed a satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking sub-system for SELENE [2]. In this study, we adopt our new gravity field model with nearly full coverage of the lunar far side to discuss dichotomy of the lunar basins. Because all the nearside impact basins are filled with extensive mare basalt deposits, it is difficult to estimate the subsurface structures, such as uplift of the Moho surface, from gravity measurements. In contrast, far-side impact basins have much less or no mare basalt coverage. This may allow us to investigate the internal structure underneath impact basins. Such knowledge will be important in understanding the response of a solid planetary body to large meteoritic impacts and also the thermal state of the Moon during the late heavy bombardment period. There are distinctive differences between the anomalies of the near side principal mascons and the far side basins. As shown previously [1, 3], the near side principal mascons have sharp shoulders with a gravity plateau and a weakly negative gravity anomaly in the surroundings. In contrast, the far side basins are characterized by concentric rings of positive and negative anomalies. The circular gravity highs agree well with the topographic rims of the basins revealed by SELENE topography model STM-359_grid-02 [4]. In our gravity model, Orientale, Mendel-Rydberg, Lorentz, and Humboldtianum show more affinity with the far side basins than the near side principal mascons [5]. Korolev, Mendeleev, Planck, and Lorentz basins have sharp central peaks of which magnitude in free-air anomalies is almost equivalent to the one in Bouguer anomalies. On the other hand, Orientale, Mendel-Rydberg, Humboldtianum, Moscoviense

  3. Galileo imaging results from the second Earth-Moon flyby: Lunar Maria and related units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Belton, M. J. S.; Head, J. W.; Mcewen, A. S.; Pieters, C. M.; Neukum, G.; Becker, T. L.; Fischer, E. M.; Kadel, S. D.; Robinson, M. S.


    The second flyby of the Earth-Moon System by Galileo occurred on December 7, 1992, on its trajectory toward Jupiter. The flyby took the spacecraft over the lunar north polar region from the dark farside and continued across the illuminated nearside. This provided the first opportunity to observe northern and northeastern limb regions with a modern, multispectral imaging system with high spatial resolution (up to 1.1 km/pixel). Scientific objectives included compositional assessment of previously uncharacterized mare regions, study of various light plains materials, and assessment of dark mantle deposits (DMD) and dark halo craters (DHC). Color composite images were prepared from ratios of Galileo SSI filter data (0.76/0.41 yields red; 0.76/0.99 yields green; 0.41/0.76 yields blue) and used for preliminary comparison of units. The 0.41/0.76 ratio has been empirically correlated to Ti content of mare soils (blue is relatively high, red is relatively low). The relative strengths of the ferrous one micron absorption in mafic minerals can be compared using the 0.76/0.99 ratio. In addition, relative ages of units analyzed spectrally were determined from crater statistics using Lunar Orbiter images following the techniques of Neukum et al. Mare deposits analyzed include Mare Humboldtianum, central and eastern Mare Frigoris, Mare Crisium and other deposits in the Crisium Basin, and isolated mare patches on the northeastern lunar limb. Preliminary results show a diversity of 0.41/0.76 micron signatures, implying a wide range of titanium contents. Some light plains units are similar to units found at the Apollo 16 site; others may be ancient mare materials. Dark mantle deposits (DMD) analyzed also are available.

  4. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.


    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  5. Magnetic Anomalies Within Lunar Impact Basins: Constraints on the History of the Lunar Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, N. C.; Hood, L. L.


    Previous work has shown that lunar crustal magnetization has a combination of origins including shock remanent magnetization in transient magnetic fields and thermoremanent magnetization in a steady core dynamo magnetic field (e.g., Hood and Artemieva, Icarus, 2008; Richmond and Hood, JGR, 2008; Garrick-Bethell et al., Science, 2009; Hood, Icarus, 2011). In particular, magnetic anomalies within the interiors of lunar impact basins and large craters provide a potentially valuable means of constraining the history of the former dynamo (Halekas et al., MAPS, 2003; Hood, 2011). These anomalies likely have a thermoremanent origin owing to high subsurface temperatures reached at the time of impact and therefore require a long-lived, steady magnetic field to explain their magnetization. Central anomalies have previously been confirmed to be present using Lunar Prospector magnetometer (LP MAG) data within several Nectarian-aged basins (Moscoviense, Mendel-Rydberg, Crisium, and Humboldtianum), implying that a dynamo existed during this lunar epoch (Hood, 2011). Here, we further analyze low altitude LP MAG data for several additional basins, ranging in age from Nectarian to Imbrian. Results indicate that magnetic anomalies with a probable basin-related origin are present within at least two additional Nectarian-aged basins (Serenitatis and Humorum) and one Imbrian-aged basin (Schrodinger). No discernible anomalies are present within the largest Imbrian-aged basins, Imbrium and Orientale. While there is uncertainty regarding the age of the Schrodinger basin, it has been reported to be slightly more recent than Imbrium (Wilhelms, 1984). Our initial interpretation is therefore that a dynamo likely existed during the Imbrian epoch. The absence of anomalies within Imbrium and Orientale can be explained by insufficient conditions for acquisition of strong magnetization (e.g., inadequate concentrations of efficient remanence carriers) following these relatively large impacts.

  6. Central magnetic anomalies of Nectarian-aged lunar impact basins: Probable evidence for an early core dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Lon L.


    A re-examination of all available low-altitude LP magnetometer data confirms that magnetic anomalies are present in at least four Nectarian-aged lunar basins: Moscoviense, Mendel-Rydberg, Humboldtianum, and Crisium. In three of the four cases, a single main anomaly is present near the basin center while, in the case of Crisium, anomalies are distributed in a semi-circular arc about the basin center. These distributions, together with a lack of other anomalies near the basins, indicate that the sources of the anomalies are genetically associated with the respective basin-forming events. These central basin anomalies are difficult to attribute to shock remanent magnetization of a shocked central uplift and most probably imply thermoremanent magnetization of impact melt rocks in a steady magnetizing field. Iterative forward modeling of the single strongest and most isolated anomaly, the northern Crisium anomaly, yields a paleomagnetic pole position at 81° ± 19°N, 143° ± 31°E, not far from the present rotational pole. Assuming no significant true polar wander since the Crisium impact, this position is consistent with that expected for a core dynamo magnetizing field. Further iterative forward modeling demonstrates that the remaining Crisium anomalies can be approximately simulated assuming a multiple source model with a single magnetization direction equal to that inferred for the northernmost anomaly. This result is most consistent with a steady, large-scale magnetizing field. The inferred mean magnetization intensity within the strongest basin sources is ˜1 A/m assuming a 1-km thickness for the source layer. Future low-altitude orbital and surface magnetometer measurements will more strongly constrain the depth and/or thicknesses of the sources.

  7. Inventory of the freshwater fishes from a densely collected area in South America-a case study of the current knowledge of Neotropical fish diversity.


    Bertaco, Vinicius A; Ferrer, Juliano; Carvalho, Fernando R; Malabarba, Luiz R


    We herein analyse the history of the description of the freshwater fish fauna from three drainages in one of the most densely collected areas of Brazil, and possibly of South America, the Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. An updated inventory of the freshwater fish species from rio Uruguay (partial) in Brazil, Laguna dos Patos (complete) and rio Tramandaí basins (complete) is presented. We found the number of new species described in these drainages increased nearly 56% since 1981, reaching a total of 422 species, but even now 10% of this number still corresponds to undescribed species. This rate of species description suggests that previous estimates of the Neotropical fish fauna are low, and we predict a final number of Neotropical fishes larger than the largest prediction estimate (8,000 species), after other regions of South and Central Americas become densely sampled. We discuss and attempt to demonstrate that species diversity knowledge is historically and strictly related to collecting efforts. We also demonstrate that the ecoregions in eastern South America with the highest density of species per area correspond to the areas more densely sampled in collections, and this may represent a bias in such kinds of analyses. This uneven sampling in Brazilian regions is apparently associated with the uneven distribution of Zoological research centers in different regions of the country. Small-sized species represents an important source of new species, along with little explored regions or little explored habitats, sometimes associated with restricted range species, and species complexes that need revisionary work. In contrast to other Neotropical regions, Atheriniformes are relatively diverse, sharing the fifth place in species richness with Gymnotiformes, and there is a remarkably high number of species of Rivulidae. Eight species are endemic to the rio Tramandaí drainage, 68 to the Laguna dos Patos system, and 78 to the rio Uruguay drainage. Almost 10

  8. Lunar impact basins: New data for the nearside northern high latitudes and eastern limb from the second Galileo flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Belton, M.; Greeley, R.; Pieters, C.; Fischer, E.; Sunshine, J.; Klaasen, K.; Mcewen, A.; Becker, T.; Neukum, G.


    During the December 1992 Galileo Earth/Moon encounter the northern half of the nearside, the eastern limb, and parts of the western farside of the Moon were illuminated and in view, a geometry that was complementary to the first lunar encounter in December, 1990, which obtained images of the western limb and eastern farside. The Galileo Solid State Imaging System (SSI) obtained multispectral images for these regions during the second encounter and color ratio composite images were compiled using combinations of band ratios chosen on the basis of telescopic spectra and laboratory spectra of lunar samples. Ratios of images taken at 0.41 and 0.76 micron are sensitive to changes in the slope in the visible portion of the spectrum, and ratios of 0.99 and 0.76 micron relate to the strength of near-infrared absorptions due to iron-rich mafic minerals (0.76/0.99 ratio) such as olivine and pyroxene. Results of the analyses of the compositional diversity of the crust, maria, and Copernican craters are presented elsewhere. Primary objectives for lunar basin analysis for the second encounter include analysis of: the north polar region and the Humboldtianum basin; the characteristics of the Imbrium basin along its northern border and the symmetry of associated deposits; the origin of light plains north of Mare Frigoris and associated with several other basins; the nature and significance of pre-basin substrate; the utilization of the stereo capability to assess subtle basis structure; the identification of previously unrecognized ancient basins; basin deposits and structure for limb and farside basins; and assessment of evidence for proposed ancient basins. These data and results will be applied to addressing general problems of evaluation of the nature and origin of basin deposits, investigation of mode of ejecta emplacement and ejecta mixing, analysis of the origin of light plains deposits, analysis of basin deposit symmetry/asymmetry, investigation of basin depth of

  9. Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex (CBVC): An ash flow caldera on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Saran, S.; Chauhan, P.; Dagar, A.


    Volcanic calderas are found on Earth, Mars, Venus and Io, and are rare, but unique volcanic structures in the Solar System. Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex (CBVC) (60.5°N-99.5°E) on the far side of the Moon is a unique non-mare feature due to its evolved lithology, regional tectonic setting, its location being near the north pole, far from the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) and its recent association with endogenic water. High-resolution remote sensing observations of several structural features at CBVC such as ring faults, radial faults, fractures manifested by various morphological features such as domes of varied sizes and shapes and pyroclastic ash flows characterize it to be a volcanic caldera. The loading of Humboldtianum basin with basalts and subsequent development of extensional structures outside it along with high-thorium anomaly and resulting silicic volcanism at CBVC producing central collapsed caldera could be considered as an analogy to silicic calderas on Earth formed in extensional tectonic regime even though the tectonic processes involved in these two cases are entirely different, the former being impact-related, whereas the latter involves rifting or hotspot-related activities associated with extensional plate tectonics. Presence of high-reflectance feature and its extension to the east-southeast of the topographic expression and its relation with pyroclastic dispersal have been supported by radar-based Mini-RF observations and high-resolution LROC-NAC imagery. It suggests the presence of a late-stage fine pyroclastic layer within the CBVC region. The diverse volcanic features that exist at the studied site indicate a series of deformation and eruption events associated with silicic magmatism and thus, CBVC could be considered as an ash flow caldera on the Moon. Here, we present a detailed appraisal of various volcanic and structural features detected at CBVC through high-resolution optical as well as radar observations. Based on the

  10. The Compensation State of Intermediate Size Lunar Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindler, Lucas; Arkani-Hamed, Jafar


    characteristics of the excess mass a nomaly profiles of the eight well-known near side mascon basins are used to identify new mascon-like craters. Ten newly found mascons are confirmed: Humboldtianum, Moscoviense, Mendel-Rydberg, Lorentz, Hertzsprung, Korolev, Schrodinger, Freundlich-Sharonov, Coulomb-Sarton, and Schiller-Zucchius, while two more, Deslandres and Dirichlet-Jackson, are very plausible. These results show that mare flow is not necessarily required to produce mascon-like characteristics.

  11. Lunar Basins: New Evidence from Gravity for Impact-Formed Mascons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.


    The prominent gravity highs (mascons) associated with uncompensated mass anomalies in lunar mare basins are a dramatic expression of the present-day rigidity of the lunar lithosphere. First discovered in Lunar Orbiter tracking data, these about 350-mGal gravity highs have been redetermined from the analysis of Clementine and historical tracking. These highs coincide with topographic lows, indicating nonisostatic support. One of the rediscoveries of this analysis is the encirclement of the highs by substantial negative anomalies over topographic highs. Recent gravity fields are providing the increased resolution necessary to determine the causes of this unique mascon signature. The compensation of the basin anomalies remains controversial. The mascon highs have long been interpreted as the result of mare loading, subsequent to the decay of residual stresses resulting from the impact. Substantially more mare fill is required to produce mascon highs than has been inferred on geological grounds, and the amount of near-surface mass deficit required to produce a gravity most exceeds bounds inferred from terrestrial examples. This problem is most acute for the youngest basin, Orientale. Recent gravity fields from Lunar Prospector have suggested mascon highs associated with nonmare basins such as Mendel-Rydberg, or minimally filled basins like Humboldtianum, further calling this explanation into question. We suggest that the mascon gravity signal is produced by a combination of crustal thickness changes, manifested by central mantle uplift, outward displacement of crust, and downward flexure of the lithosphere under mare loading. The mantle uplift is superisostatic, maintained by residual stresses resulting from the process of impact cratering and modification. In particular, the process of crater collapse and mantle rebound terminates abruptly, leaving the mantle plug in a non-equilibrium state, surrounded by a ring of thickened crust. Viscous relaxation over geological

  12. Global Geochemical Variation on the Lunar Surface: A Three-Element Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, D. R.; Lawrence, D. J.; Vaniman, D.; Feldman, W. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Maurice, S.; Lucey, P. G.; Binder, A. B.


    . Most strikingly, ferroan anorthosite (Th < and = 0.37 micro g/g; Fe (wt%)< and =2.29; Ti (wt%) < and = 0.22), which should appear as an almost black, reddish color, does not appear on the diagram at any noticeable frequency. Based on this analysis, the suggestion of extensive FAN regions on the lunar surface is not strong, especially at the presently accepted values for Fe and Th. However, to make sure this effect is not due to systematic errors, a thorough investigation of the precision, accuracy, and uncertainties of the Fe, Ti, and Th abundances needs to be carried out, especially at low concentrations. A particular region of interest is an area of high Th concentrations relative to Fe and Ti content north and east of Humboldtianum Crater. First observed by Lawrence et al., this region does not coincide with any visible impact structure and comprises one of the closest approximations to pure blue (high Th, very low Ti and Fe) on the lunar surface. Such an elemental composition does not lend itself readily to classification, and presents something of an anomaly. More detailed analysis of this region is needed to understand its structure and origin. There seems to be a longitudinal asymmetry in the Th concentrations of the highlands regolith. High-Th, low-Ti, and Fe regions are located between 135 deg and 180 deg longitude and between -30 deg and +30 deg latitude. While the Th levels are not high enough to attract attention in a single elemental display, the variation in the abundance of Th relative to Fe and Ti abundances can be clearly seen. The composition that these data suggest is not well represented in the sample return suite. In addition, these regions were largely missed by the Apollo orbital ground tracks, which only covered the outer edge of the areas of interest. The LP orbital Th data represent the first information about the Th concentrations in these regions of the highlands. Additional information contained in original.

  13. Inventory of Multiring Basins on the Moon After the Clementine Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P. D.


    topography for a basin is that of the degraded Lomonosov-Fleming basin [3,6]. This feature appears as a quasi-circular, smooth plateau of nearly constant elevation about 500 km across. Such an expression is likely caused by infilling of the basin with ancient mare basalts, covered by highland plains and reexposed as the ejecta of dark halo impact craters [7,8]. This interpretation is supported by the mafic signature of the plains in this region in the Clementine global color image [9] and the presense of elevated amounts of iron in the highland crust here [10]. The altimetry data also show many depressions that are likely to be previously unrecognized basins. For example, depressions near the crater Darwin (20 degrees S, 70 degrees W; basin about 300 km diameter), eastern Mare Frigoris (55 degrees N, 30 degrees W; basin about 700 km across), and east of Mare Humboldtianum (60 degrees N, 130 degrees E; basin about 400 km diameter) are probably degraded impact basins. To date, over 45 basins and their rings have been mapped on the Moon and the relief and volumes of the basins have been measured. Work continues on the analysis of this numerical data, which should give insight into the processes of basin formation and planetary evolution. References: [1] Wilhelms D. E. (1987) USGS Prof. Pap. 1348, 302 pp. [2] Spudis P. D. (1993) Geology of Multi-Ring Impact Basins, Cambridge Univ., 263 pp. [3] Nozette S. et al. (1994) Science, 266, 1835. [4] Zuber M. T. et al. (1994) Science, 266, 1839. [5] Spudis P. D. et al. (1994) Science, 266, 1848. [6] Wilhelms D. and El-Baz F. (1977) USGS Map I-948. [7] Schultz P. H. and Spudis P. D. (1979) Proc. LPSC 10th, 2899. [8] Schultz P. H. and Spudis P. D. (1982) Nature, 302, 233. [9] Lucey P. G. et al. (1994) Science, 266, 1855. [10] Lucey P. G. et al. (1995) Science, 268, 1150.