Science.gov

Sample records for chisel plow shovel

  1. Mikkelson sweep/spike chisel plow shovel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Profitability comparisons are reported between the Mikkelson Sweep/Spike Chisel Plow Shovel standard sweeps. This evaluation covers the first year of testing of the new Sweep/Spike design. The data are not averaged over treatments due to significant interaction between treatments and environmental factors. The cost of fuel, fall and spring, to perform the various treatments ranged from $1.27 to $3.36 per acre. Use of the sweep/spike shovel always reduced total fuel cost. Savings varied from $0.11 to $0.71 per acre depending on prior treatment. This means there will be money saved, to off-set expenses, when converting present chisel plows or for special options on new chisel plows, needed for use of the sweep/spike shovel. A summary of 1991--1992 energy measurements. They indicate that more power will be required to pull a chisel plow equipped with the sweep/spike shovel. A larger tractor, narrower chisel plow and/or slower speed will be required to avoid the wheel slippage problems encountered on soft or wet field surfaces.

  2. Mikkelson sweep/spike chisel plow shovel. Economic summary of the 1992 crop season

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Profitability comparisons are reported between the Mikkelson Sweep/Spike Chisel Plow Shovel standard sweeps. This evaluation covers the first year of testing of the new Sweep/Spike design. The data are not averaged over treatments due to significant interaction between treatments and environmental factors. The cost of fuel, fall and spring, to perform the various treatments ranged from $1.27 to $3.36 per acre. Use of the sweep/spike shovel always reduced total fuel cost. Savings varied from $0.11 to $0.71 per acre depending on prior treatment. This means there will be money saved, to off-set expenses, when converting present chisel plows or for special options on new chisel plows, needed for use of the sweep/spike shovel. A summary of 1991--1992 energy measurements. They indicate that more power will be required to pull a chisel plow equipped with the sweep/spike shovel. A larger tractor, narrower chisel plow and/or slower speed will be required to avoid the wheel slippage problems encountered on soft or wet field surfaces.

  3. Depth dependence of chisel plow tillage erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage disturbs the soil vertically, and throws soil in the tillage direction. Tillage movement and disruption of soil is not uniform vertically or horizontally. Tracers have been used to document either the vertical or the horizontal disturbance by tillage, but few studies have examined both the v...

  4. Pegasus plow

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1997-04-01

    The Pagasus plow is a new implement for one-pass cotton plowdown. The Pagasus is unique in that it is capable of burying the whole cotton stalk without shredding. A very simple and reliable machine, the Pagasus gives the cotton farmer the option of using controlled traffic tillage without sacrificing good residue burial of easy machine maintenance.

  5. Loading shovel fire protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    An automatic fire sensing and suppression system using both dry chemical and Halon 1301 was developed. It is more rugged than similar industrial-type fire protection systems. Temperature sensors detect heat from a fire, and trigger the system. These sensors are located inside the machinery house and under the house and shovel frame where it rotates around the crawler chassis ring gear. An alarm is sounded, and extinguishing agents are released either in the machinery house or in the ring gear area. The system can also be triggered by a manual control. If the fire is detected in the machinery house, all power is shut down to the motor-generator sets, ventilation fan, and all electrical controls. Doors are automatically closed. After a delay to allow time for the ventilation fan to stop, Halon 1301, a gaseous fire extinguishing agent, is released inside the machinery house until it reaches a concentration of about 7 percent. This concentration is sufficient to extinguish a fire, but isn't toxic to personnel. After the concentration reaches 7 percent, additional Halon 1301 is continuously released inside the machinery house at a rate which replaces the Halon that is lost through the house's many small, permanent openings such as rope openings, louvers, vents, and pipe and cable runs. Halon 1301 is the preferred fire extinguishing agent for this application because it does not leave harmful residues that could damage costly electrical and mechanical equipment.

  6. Smarter shovels dig and load more efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-04-15

    Digital drive upgrades allow older shovels to power through the bank smoothly while improving safety and reliability. The Mine Technology Group of Flanders Electric has pioneered an effort to offer open architecture for shovel electrics by installing Power Performance Digital Drive controls to motors to ensure peak power is provided during the digging process. The new system also has a Smart Fault Recognition system to power down in a controlled fashion. The upgrades have been fitted to Asarco's shovel for use in coal mining operations. 1 fig., 1 photos. 4 figs.

  7. Evolutionary analysis of enzymes using Chisel.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, A. A.; Bompada, T.; Syed, M.; Shah, P. K.; Maltsev, N.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Availability of large volumes of genomic and enzymatic data for taxonomically and phenotypically diverse organisms allows for exploration of the adaptive mechanisms that led to diversification of enzymatic functions. We present Chisel, a computational framework and a pipeline for an automated, high-resolution analysis of evolutionary variations of enzymes. Chisel allows automatic as well as interactive identification, and characterization of enzymatic sequences. Such knowledge can be utilized for comparative genomics, microbial diagnostics, metabolic engineering, drug design and analysis of metagenomes. Chisel is a comprehensive resource that contains 8575 clusters and subsequent computational models specific for 939 distinct enzymatic functions and, when data is sufficient, their taxonomic variations. Application of Chisel to identification of enzymatic sequences in newly sequenced genomes, analysis of organism-specific metabolic networks, 'binning' of metagenomes and other biological problems are presented. We also provide a thorough analysis of Chisel performance with other similar resources and manual annotations on Shewanella oneidensis MR1 genome.

  8. Productivity considerations for shovels and excavators

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-09-15

    During Haulage and Loading 2007, the Engineering and Mining Journal organized an OEM round table discussion with the theme 'Reducing cycle times'. Seven panelists identified areas where they could improve cycle times for open-pit mining. Although the discussions focused mainly on haud trucks, two panelists discussed shovel productivity as it relates to cycle times. Topics ranged from truck-shovel pass matching to payload management. A clear message came through that all the minutes saved per cycle meant nothing if the mine did not have a properly trained operator. The article reports on the discussions. 4 figs.

  9. Smarter shovels dig and load more efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-03-15

    Digital drive upgrades allow older shovels to power through the bank smoothly while improving safety and reliability. Flanders Electric is currently working on the third of five electric shovel upgrades which consists of Flandex Electric manufactured motors, Allen-Bradley PLCs and the Power Performance Digital Drive upgrade. With an open system, or open architecture, mine operators can service and maintain machines where a close system would limit the electricians to work with the OEMs exclusively. Typically, upgrades replace the old analog or an older digital drive with a new Power Performance Digital Drive upgrade. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  10. Optimised dipper fine tunes shovel performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2005-06-01

    Joint efforts between mine operators, OEMs, and researchers yields unexpected benefits from dippers for shovels for coal, oil, or hardrock mining that can now be tailored to meet site-specific conditions. The article outlines a process being developed by CRCMining and P & H MIning Equipment to optimise the dipper that involves rapid prototyping and scale modelling of the dipper and the mine conditions. Scale models have been successfully field tested. 2 photos.

  11. PLOW POWER REQUIREMENTS FOR FORESTRY SITE PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field study, data were collected to determine power requirements required by a trailing site preparation plow and the magnitudes of dynamic forces experienced by a plow during normal operation and during impact with stumps or other obstructions. Drawbar pull data were collected from five dif...

  12. Blade size and weight effects in shovel design.

    PubMed

    Freivalds, A; Kim, Y J

    1990-03-01

    The shovel is a basic tool that has undergone only nominal systematic design changes. Although previous studies found shovel-weight and blade-size effects of shovelling, the exact trade-off between the two has not been quantified. Energy expenditure, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion and shovelling performance were measured on five subjects using five shovels with varying blade sizes and weights to move sand. Energy expenditure, normalised to subject weight and load handled, varied quadratically with the blade-size/shovel-weight (B/W) ratio. Minimum energy cost was at B/W = 0.0676 m2/kg, which for an average subject and average load would require an acceptable 5.16 kcal/min of energy expenditure. Subjects, through the ratings of perceived exertion, also strongly preferred the lighter shovels without regard to blade size. Too large a blade or too heavy a shovel increased energy expenditure beyond acceptable levels, while too small a blade reduced efficiency of the shovelling. PMID:15676758

  13. OEM unveil new ideas for shovels and excavators

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-08-15

    From upgrades to new loading arrangements, vendors are looking at new ways to optimize the production process. The paper describes P & M equipment's new C series electric shovels equipped with the centurion system, Hitachi's super-sized excavator to Canadian oil sands, and Bucyrus and Siemens' engineer shovels. 3 figs., 1 photo.

  14. Electric shovels meet the demands for mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    Rugged, intelligent shovels offer better productivity and help mine operators avoid costly downtime in a very tight market. In 2007 P & H Mining Equipment began to produce a new breed of electric mining shovels designed to help reduce operating cost in coal and other mining operations. These were designated the P & H C-Series. All have an advanced communication, command and control system called the Centurion system. Coal mining applications for this series include 4100XPCs in Australia, China and Wyoming, USA. The Centurion system provides information on shovel performance and systems health which is communicated via graphic user interface terminals to the operators cab. Bucyrus International is developing a hydraulic crowd mechanism for its electric shovels and is now field testing one for its 495 series shovel. The company has also added greater capability in the primary software in the drive system for troubleshooting and fault identification to quickly diagnose problems onboard or remotely. 4 photos.

  15. INTERMITTENT CHISEL TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SOIL ORGANIC CARBON AND TOTAL NITROGEN RELATIVE TO CONTINUOUS NO-TILL AND CHISEL PLOW SYSTEMS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For various reasons, North American crop farmers are more likely to practice limited-duration no-till than continuous no-till. Little is known about effects of short-term no-till on organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) relative to continuous no-till and conventional-till systems. A field experi...

  16. Loading spout and wheel for 1913 power grain shovel inside ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Loading spout and wheel for 1913 power grain shovel inside covered hopper loading dock at railroad level looking west - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN FROM LEDGE TO ACCESS COAL SEAMS BELOW. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  18. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN FROM LEDGE SO THAT DRAGLINE CAN CONTINUE REMOVING OVERBURDEN TO ACCESS LEVELS OF THE COAL SEAMS. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  19. 4. Osgood steam shovel excavating roadway at Mormon Flat. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Osgood steam shovel excavating roadway at Mormon Flat. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 14. Photocopied August 1978. STEAM SHOVEL, SEPTEMBER 23, 1898. LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopied August 1978. STEAM SHOVEL, SEPTEMBER 23, 1898. LOADING ONE OF THE FIRST TRAINS OF DUMP CARS IN THE ROCK SECTION. (10) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. An atypical clay shoveler's fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Victor B; Astri, Frank

    2001-01-01

    A case of an atypical clay shoveler's fracture with involvement of the spinolaminar line is described. Causative mechanisms of injury, radiographic appearances, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are reviewed. Classic clay shoveler's fractures are considered stable fractures. However, when the spinolaminar line is disrupted, spinal cord involvement must be ruled out. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4aFigure 4bFigure 5Figure 6

  2. HISTORY OF PLOWING OVER TEN THOUSAND YEARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historical lessons from plow-related erosion and soil degradation may contribute to present day social stability and sustainable agriculture. Agriculture originated 10 to 13 millennia ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, mostly along the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Indus and Yangtze River vall...

  3. The snow-shoveler's ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Janardhanan, Rajesh; Henry, Zachary; Hur, David J; Lin, Christine M; Lopez, David; Reagan, Patrick M; Rudnick, Sean R; Koshko, Travis J; Keeley, Ellen C

    2010-08-15

    Heavy snowfall, cold temperatures, and low atmospheric pressure during the winter months have been associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. However, only a few cases of the "snow shoveler's infarction" have been reported. The investigators describe their experience with 6 patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarctions, all within a 24-hour period during an unprecedented snowfall (4 of whom were shoveling snow), and provide a detailed review of previously reported cases of snow shoveler's infarction. Consistent with other reports, most patients reported here had the traditional cardiac risk factors of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, and sedentary lifestyle. Unique to this case series, however, was that the 4 patients who had histories of coronary artery disease and previous coronary artery stenting all presented with subacute stent thromboses documented on coronary angiography performed emergently. Moreover, these patients constituted 25% of all subacute stent thromboses diagnosed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in the preceding 12 months. In conclusion, these findings suggest that in typically sedentary individuals with cardiac risk factors or histories of coronary artery disease, snow shoveling may trigger ST elevation myocardial infarction and therefore should be avoided. This may be most critical in patients with histories of coronary stent placement, considering that these findings suggest that snow shoveling may precipitate subacute stent thrombosis. PMID:20691323

  4. RUNNER BOX MAINTENANCE. FRANK FEHER USES A COMPRESSED AIRPOWERED CHISEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RUNNER BOX MAINTENANCE. FRANK FEHER USES A COMPRESSED AIR-POWERED CHISEL TO CHIP OUT CONGEALED METAL IN PREPARATION FOR ANOTHER HEAT. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  5. View of drill holes with found chisel on rock face ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of drill holes with found chisel on rock face in work area, facing northeast - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  6. Confessions of a Shoveler: STS Subcultures and Engineering Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herkert, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    Mainstream science, technology, and society scholars have shown little interest in engineering ethics, one going so far as to label engineering ethics activists as "shit shovelers." Detachment from engineering ethics on the part of most STS scholars is related to a broader and long-standing split between the scholar-oriented and activist-orientedů

  7. EVALUATION OF FORESTRY PLOW ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR SITE PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field study, data were collected to determine energy requirements of trailing site preparation plows and the magnitudes of dynamic forces experienced by a plow during normal operation and during impact with stumps or other obstructions. Drawbar pull data were collected from five different t...

  8. Soil translocation estimates calibrated for moldboard plow depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past century, one of the biggest culprits of tillage-induced soil erosion and translocation has been the moldboard plow. The distance soil will move by moldboard plow tillage has been shown to be correlated with slope gradient. Lindstrom et al. (1992) developed regression equations describi...

  9. (Test and gather data on sweep spike combination tillage tool)

    SciTech Connect

    Lukach, J.

    1992-06-19

    This summary presents the data accumulated to date with only brief comment. It is prepared with the intent that the viewers will offer advice on terminology, data presentation, methods and other. The year end analysis will detail changes in the data due to the tillage treatments. The data is incomplete due to equipment problems and time limitations due to the wet fall and early freeze up. The trial was not completed due to our inability to get the Mikkelsen Chisel Plow Shovel (MCP), a 16 inch sweep with an anhydrous knife, to penetrate untilled land. The MCP shovel penetrated to deep on plowed ground and pulled so hard that the front wheels of our JD4440 tractor were jerked off the ground. The Standard Chisel Plow Shovels (SCP), a 16 inch sweep, worked well and the data is included.

  10. [Test and gather data on sweep spike combination tillage tool]. Quarterly technical report, August 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lukach, J.

    1992-06-19

    This summary presents the data accumulated to date with only brief comment. It is prepared with the intent that the viewers will offer advice on terminology, data presentation, methods and other. The year end analysis will detail changes in the data due to the tillage treatments. The data is incomplete due to equipment problems and time limitations due to the wet fall and early freeze up. The trial was not completed due to our inability to get the Mikkelsen Chisel Plow Shovel (MCP), a 16 inch sweep with an anhydrous knife, to penetrate untilled land. The MCP shovel penetrated to deep on plowed ground and pulled so hard that the front wheels of our JD4440 tractor were jerked off the ground. The Standard Chisel Plow Shovels (SCP), a 16 inch sweep, worked well and the data is included.

  11. Clay-shoveler's fracture during indoor rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Kaloostian, Paul E; Kim, Jennifer E; Calabresi, Peter A; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Indoor rock climbing is becoming more popular for people of all ages. Despite the tremendous interest in this competitive sport, participants are made aware of the dangers associated with participating. The authors present the first reported case of a clay-shoveler's fracture at the T1 spinous process during indoor rock climbing. They describe the management and natural history of this fracture and discuss management strategies for this increasingly popular recreational sport.A 14-year-old competitive indoor rock climber presented with acute-onset midline thoracic pain at T1 while indoor rock climbing. He reported no recent falls or trauma but stated that the pain came on abruptly while rock climbing. On examination, he was neurologically intact except for significant tenderness to palpation at the T1 spinous process. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a minimally displaced T1 spinous process fracture with evidence of significant surrounding muscular edema, suggesting an acute fracture. He was treated conservatively with anti-inflammatory drugs, complete climbing restriction, and rest. He continued to have focal upper back pain at the level of the fracture over the next 4 months. He was unable to climb for 4 months until his pain resolved after conservative treatment of climbing restriction, pain control, and rest.This is the first documented case of a clay-shoveler's fracture sustained in a pediatric patient directly attributable to indoor rock climbing. PMID:23464962

  12. A northern shoveler swims in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The broad, distinctive bill is a primary feature of this northern shoveler, paddling in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. Typically found in western Canada, Alaska, Colorado and Southern California, it can also be found farther east and south, wintering in the United States along the southeast coast. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  13. PLOWING TO REDUCE SURFACE STRATIFICATION OF PHOSPHORUS IN MANURED SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continual applications of fertilizer and manure can lead to an accumulation of P at the soil surface, which in turn increases the potential for P loss in overland flow. To investigate the feasibility of redistributing surface stratified P within the soil profile by plowing, Mehlich-3 P rich surface...

  14. Key performance indicators for electric mining shovels and oil sands diggability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnayak, Sibabrata

    A shovel performance monitoring study was undertaken in two oil sands mines operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. using performance data obtained from P&H 4100 TS and BOSS electric mining shovels. One year of shovel performance data along with geological, geotechnical, and climatic data were analyzed. The approach adopted was to use current and voltage data collected from hoist and crowd motors and to calculate the energy and/or power associated with digging. Analysis of performance data along with digital video records of operating shovels indicated that hoist and crowd motor voltages and currents can be used to identify the beginning and the end of individual dig cycles. A dig cycle identification algorithm was developed. Performance indicators such as dig cycle time, hoist motor energy and power, and crowd motor energy and power were determined. The shovel performance indicators provide important insight into how geology, equipment and operators affect the digging efficiency. The hoist motor power is a useful key performance indicator for assessing diggability. Hoist motor energy consumption per tonne of material excavated and the number of dig cycles required for loading a truck can be useful key performance indicators for assessing operator performance and productivity. Analysis of performance data along with operators team schedules showed that the performance of a shovel can be significantly influenced by the operator's digging technique while digging uniform material. Up to 25% variability in hoist motor power consumption and 50% variability in productivity was noted between different operators. Shovel type and dipper teeth configuration can also influence the power draw on electrical motors during digging. There is no common agreement existing on the influence of bitumen content on oil sands diggability. By comparing the hoist motor power consumption, it was found that the rich ore was more difficult to dig than the lean ore. Similarly, estuarine ore was more difficult to dig than marine ore. Winter weather was expected to have a significant influence on oil sands diggability but was found to have only a minor and localized influence that depends upon the ore type, temperature conditions and the duration of bench exposure.

  15. The terminal effects of chisel-shape projectile penetrating into metallic target plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xu; Yao, Xiaohu; Ma, Wei

    2015-09-01

    This work performs the analysis and simulation investigations of penetration behaviors of chisel-shape projectile. In analysis, the projectile is assumed to be a rigid body and the target plate is elastic-plastic material. By introducing the velocity potential function, the velocity field in target is first obtained. Then, the momentum equation is solved for determining the pressure and stress fields in the elastic and plastic regions in target. The variation of the resultant force subjected by the projectiles with the penetration depth is studied. The approximate expressions of penetration depth and the residual velocity with the initial impacting velocity are obtained for the exploration of the penetration mechanisms of the chisel-shape projectile. In numerical simulation, the main attention focuses on the dissipation mechanisms of the kinetic energy of the chisel-shape projectile in penetration process.

  16. Long term effects of profile-modifying deep plowing on soil properties and crop yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient plant available soil water limits dryland crop yields on the semiarid Southern Great Plains. Deep plowing to eliminate dense subsoil layers may increase soil water by increased infiltration and rooting, but the duration of treatment effects must be sufficiently long to recoup plowing co...

  17. GRADE CONTROL CAPABILITY OF A PULL-BEHIND PLOW UNDER EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research objective was to test the grade control capability of the Liebrecht pull-behind plow. The plow's installation performance (i.e., grade control and deviations from grade) was compared to specifications in ASTM 449- 97 and selected other criteria. Field research was conducted at The Ohio ...

  18. Coupling plowing of cartilage explants with gene expression in models for synovial joints.

    PubMed

    Correro-Shahgaldian, Maria Rita; Colombo, Vera; Spencer, Nicholas D; Weber, Franz E; Imfeld, Thomas; Gallo, Luigi M

    2011-09-01

    Articular cartilage undergoes complex loading modalities generally including sliding, rolling and plowing (i.e. the compression by a condyle normally to the tissue surface under simultaneously tangential displacement, thus generating a tractional force due to tissue deformation). Although in in vivo studies it was shown that excessive plowing can lead to osteoarthritis, little quantitative experimental work on this loading modality and its mechanobiological effects is available in the literature. Therefore, a rolling/plowing explant test system has been developed to study the effect on pristine cartilage of plowing at different perpendicular forces. Cartilage strips harvested from bovine nasal septa of 12-months-old calves were subjected for 2h to a plowing-regime with indenter normal force of 50 or 100 N and a sliding speed of 10 mm s(-1). 50 N produced a tractional force of 1.2▒0.3N, whereas 100 N generated a tractional force of 8.0▒1.4N. Furthermore, quantitative-real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments showed that TIMP-1 was 2.5x up-regulated after 50 N plowing and 2x after 100 N plowing, indicating an ongoing remodeling process. The expression of collagen type-I was not affected after 50 N plowing but it was up-regulated (6.6x) after 100 N plowing, suggesting a possible progression to an injury stage of the cartilage, as previously reported in cartilage of osteoarthritic patients. We conclude that plowing as performed by our mimetic system at the chosen experimental parameters induces changes in gene expression depending on the tractional force, which, in turn, relates to the applied normal force. PMID:21723557

  19. Enhancing carbon and nitrogen sequestration in reclaimed soils through organic amendments and chiseling

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, R.K.; Lal, R.; Jacinthe, P.A.

    2009-05-15

    The choice of reclamation techniques could affect restoration success, ecosystem productivity, and the capacity of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC). A field experiment was conducted at three reclaimed coal mine sites across eastern Ohio to assess the impact of several reclamation techniques on biomass production, soil properties, and temporal changes in SOC and N pools. Amendments and reclamation practices tested were: normal reclamation practice (NRP, control), cow (Bos taurus) manure (10 Mg ha{sup -1}), mulching with oat straw (15 Mg hat), and chiseling (30-cm depth). At each site, all treatments were applied in triplicate to experimental plots in accord with a randomized complete block design. After 5 yr of restoration, results showed no effect of mulching on any of the soil properties investigated but significant effects of manuring and chiseling. During that period, SOC sequestration rates ranged between 0.6 and 2.8 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, with the highest rates recorded in the manure-treated plots. Aboveground biomass production, biomass N content, and soil N and SOC pools were also significantly higher in the manure and chiseling treatments, probably due to greater exploration of the soil volume by plant roots and more efficient uptake of water and available nutrients. Ecosystem C (SOC + biomass C) in these two treatments also exceeded that in the NRP by 25 to 27 Mg C ha{sup -}. Thus, manure application and chiseling are effective reclamation practices for restoring RMS.

  20. The paradox of plows and productivity: an agronomic comparison of cereal grain production under Iroquois hoe culture and European plow culture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Mt Pleasant, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Iroquois maize farmers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries produced three to five times more grain per acre than wheat farmers in Europe. The higher productivity of Iroquois agriculture can be attributed to two factors. First, the absence of plows in the western hemisphere allowed Iroquois farmers to maintain high levels of soil organic matter, critical for grain yields. Second, maize has a higher yield potential than wheat because of its C4 photosynthetic pathway and lower protein content. However, tillage alone accounted for a significant portion of the yield advantage of the Iroquois farmers. When the Iroquois were removed from their territories at the end of the eighteenth century, US farmers occupied and plowed these lands. Within fifty years, maize yields in five counties of western New York dropped to less than thirty bushels per acre. They rebounded when US farmers adopted practices that countered the harmful effects of plowing. PMID:22180940

  1. Molecular and phenotypic diversity in Chionactis occipitalis (Western Shovel-nosed Snake), with emphasis on the status of C. o. klauberi (Tucson Shovel-nosed Snake).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, D.A.; Meik, J.M.; Holycross, A.T.; Fisher, R.N.; Vandergast, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Chionactis occipitalis (Western Shovel-nosed Snake) is a small colubrid snake inhabiting the arid regions of the Mojave, Sonoran, and Colorado deserts. Morphological assessments of taxonomy currently recognize four subspecies. However, these taxonomic proposals were largely based on weak morphological differentiation and inadequate geographic sampling. Our goal was to explore evolutionary relationships and boundaries among subspecies of C. occipitalis, with particular focus on individuals within the known range of C. o. klauberi (Tucson Shovel-nosed snake). Population sizes and range for C. o. klauberi have declined over the last 25 years due to habitat alteration and loss prompting a petition to list this subspecies as endangered. We examined the phylogeography, population structure, and subspecific taxonomy of C. occipitalis across its geographic range with genetic analysis of 1100 bases of mitochondrial DNA sequence and reanalysis of 14 morphological characters from 1543 museum specimens. We estimated the species gene phylogeny from 81 snakes using Bayesian inference and explored possible factors influencing genetic variation using landscape genetic analyses. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses reveal genetic isolation and independent evolutionary trajectories for two primary clades. Our data indicate that diversification between these clades has developed as a result of both historical vicariance and environmental isolating mechanisms. Thus these two clades likely comprise 'evolutionary significant units' (ESUs). Neither molecular nor morphological data are concordant with the traditional C. occipitalis subspecies taxonomy. Mitochondrial sequences suggest specimens recognized as C. o. klauberi are embedded in a larger geographic clade whose range has expanded from western Arizona populations, and these data are concordant with clinal longitudinal variation in morphology. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Reasons for service failure of an EKG-20 power shovel bogie wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovleva, S.P.; Milokhin, S.E.

    1986-03-01

    In tests of experimental models of the EKG-20 power shovel in Neryungri Open Pit Coal Mine, regardless of the temperature of the atmosphere, cases of failure of the bogie wheels were observed. Metallographic and fractographic investigations of one such fragment with the use of methods of light and electron microscopy were conducted to reveal the reasons for the insufficient strength reserve of the wheels. The investigated wheel was produced from 60KhN steel. The authors found that failure of the bogie wheel occurs as a result of spalling.

  3. Comparison of Drilling Performance of Chisel and Button Bits on the Electro Hydraulic Driller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Okan; Yarali, Olgay; Akcin, Nuri Ali

    2013-11-01

    Electro hydraulic drillers have been widely used in mining for drilling and roof-bolting. In the drilling process, the performance of the machine is predicted by selecting an appropriate bit type prior to drilling operations. In this paper, a series of field drilling studies were conducted in order to examine and compare the performance of chisel and button bits including wear on the bits. The effects of taper angle on chisel bits, which are at angles of 105┬░, 110┬░ and 120┬░, were investigated in terms of rate of penetration, instantaneous drilling rate and specific energy. The results of drilling and abrasivity tests performed in the laboratory supported the outcome of the field studies. Based on laboratory studies and field observations, it was proven that the conglomerate encountered, though it is very abrasive, is easy to drill. The cutter life in the encountered series is also longer in sandstone formation compared to the conglomerate. Additionally, button bits resulted in lower specific energy and higher penetration rates relative to chisel bits, regardless of their taper angles. The results were also supported with statistical analyses.

  4. Delayed plowing of forages within potato rotation reduces nitrate leaching losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Jamieson, T.; Nyiraneza, J.; Somers, G.; Thompson, B.; Murray, B.; Grimmett, M.

    2013-12-01

    The potato industry plays an important role in the economics in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Intensive potato production has been conducted on sandy soil underlain by a semi-confined or unconfined sandstone aquifer, which provides all the drinking water and a large majority of stream flow on the island. Typically, potato is grown in rotation with grain underseeded with forages, with the latter being plowed down in the fall of the third season. High levels of nitrate leaching losses from the potato production systems have adversely affected both groundwater and associated surface water quality. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) were proposed for maintaining optimal crop production while mitigating the nitrate contamination in PEI. But there is limited information on the environmental performance of the BMPs in commercial fields. The potentials of delayed forage plowing from fall to spring to reduce nitrate losses were evaluated in commercial fields at two separated sites in PEI during October 2010 and March 2013. At Site 1, two tile-drained fields were paired for spring vs. fall plowing treatments (with pre-plow herbicidal treatment); weekly tile-drainage samples were collected to evidence the effects of the treatments. At Site 2, a field was split in half for spring vs. fall plowing treatments (without pre-plow herbicidal treatment). Shallow piezometers were installed at the upper and lower ends of the field for water sampling, with the upper end one indicating the effects of shallow groundwater inflow and the lower ones evidencing the combined effects of groundwater inflow and drainage from plowing treatments. Soil drainage was estimated through coupled LEACHN and MODFLOW simulations. Nitrate leaching losses were calculated as the integration of measured leached nitrate concentrations and simulated drainage. Field monitoring showed that nitrate leaching mainly occurred during the offseason. Nitrate leaching during the forage phase were estimated to be 36 and 18 kg N/ha from the fall and spring plowed fields at Site 1, respectively. The differences of leached nitrate were mainly attributed to pre-plow herbicidal treatment associated with fall plowing. Respective nitrate leaching losses were estimated to be 54 and 32 kg N/ha from the fall and spring plowed fields at Site 2. The differences of leached nitrate at Site 2 were likely due to the different timing of tillage. The results suggested that postponing plowing of forages and associated herbicidal treatments until spring reduced nitrate leaching. Nitrate leaching losses derived exclusively from the decay of plow down forages were estimated to account for 16-21% of the overall N in the plants, implying that a significant amount of N in the forages were carried over into the subsequent crop phase. This large carried-over N pool creates an opportunity for the growers to save costs on fertilizer N by crediting some of the organic N while reducing the risk of nitrate leaching to groundwater.

  5. Impact of deep plowing on groundwater recharge in a semiarid region: Case study, High Plains, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Baumhardt, R. L.; Strassberg, G.

    2008-07-01

    Groundwater recharge is critical in semiarid regions where aquifers are currently being mined for intensive irrigation. Land use management related to agriculture can be used to control partitioning of water near the land surface and to potentially manage water resources. The purpose of this study was to quantify impacts of deep plowing in rainfed (nonirrigated) agriculture in a semiarid region on groundwater recharge, which had not been previously evaluated. Deep (0.7 m) plowing was conducted once in 1971 to remove low-permeability soil layers (0.15-0.70 m deep) in Pullman clay loam (20,000 km2 area) in a bench terrace system in the semiarid High Plains in Texas (USA). Deep plowing was followed by conventional tillage. Boreholes were drilled in deep plowed cropland (three boreholes) and also beneath conventionally tilled cropland (four) and natural ecosystems (three) to provide baseline controls. Soil samples were analyzed for water content, chloride concentrations, and matric potentials to quantify subsurface water movement. Bulges of chloride that accumulated beneath natural ecosystems during the past 9,000-14,000 years (Holocene period) provided a marker to quantify time-integrated response of subsurface drainage to hydrologic forcing in deep-plowed cropland. Displacement of chloride bulges to depths of 10.7, 12.3, and 13.7 m beneath deep-plowed cropland indicate minimum drainage rates of 58, 60, and 81 mm/a, whereas drainage beneath conventionally tilled cropland ranged from 0 (nonterraced) to 9 and 14 mm/a (bench terraced). Deep plowing slightly increased crop yield during wet years by reducing waterlogging. If deep plowing were applied to 10% of the Pullman soils, it could increase regional volumetric recharge by 0.1 km3/a, which is similar to the current regional volumetric recharge. Low-permeability soil layers are widespread in cropland areas globally, and deep plowing could greatly enhance groundwater recharge in such areas, which is critical in semiarid regions where recharge is negligible.

  6. Generation of ultra-high magnetic fields by a degenerate, snow-plow pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Gee, M.; Harte, J.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.

    1992-12-16

    In this paper we discuss 1 and 2-D LASNEX calculations of a snow-plow pinch in Xenon. The pinch is driven by inductively stored energy, switched by a compact-torus, fast-opening switch, with performance characteristics calculated by the TRACII, 2-D, MHD code. The 10-cm initial radius, 1 cm long Xe pinch is driven by 50 MA current, switched on in 100 ns. The pinch uniquely undergoes radiative collapse during the snow-plow phase, conforming to the original description of the snow-plow,'' to form a high-density, high-kinetic energy Xe shell which dynamically converges ([rho][sub R][sup [lg bullet

  7. A biphasic finite element model of in vitro plowing tests of the temporomandibular joint disc.

    PubMed

    Spilker, R L; Nickel, J C; Iwasaki, L R

    2009-06-01

    Disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) afflict 3-29% of people aged 19-40 years. Degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the TMJ generally occurs 15 years earlier than in other human joints and 1.5-2 times more often in women than men. The TMJ disc is the primary stress distribution mechanism within the joint. Mechanical failure of the TMJ disc precedes clinical signs of DJD. Unlike postcranial synovial joints, biomimetic replacements of the disc have not been successful, probably due to the paucity of knowledge about TMJ biomechanics. Translation of stress-fields mediolaterally across the TMJ disc may lead to fatigue failure because of the effect of traction forces on the tissue surface and because the disc is relatively weak in this aspect. Traction forces are composed of friction forces, which are known to be low in the TMJ, and plowing forces which are relatively much higher and result from movement and pressurization of fluids within the tissues due to translating surface loads. In the in vitro plowing experiment, a rigid curve-ended indenter is lowered into a TMJ disc that has been mounted on a stage with pressure gauges, and the indenter is then translated in a prescribed mediolateral motion that is intended to simulate the motion of the mandibular condyle on the TMJ disc in vivo. As a first step, these plowing experiments have quantified the variables thought to be important in tissue failure. A next step is to define the full role of these variables in the pathomechanics of TMJ disc tissue through a validated model. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and test a finite element model of the plowing experiments based on an orthotropic biphasic description of the soft tissue behavior of the TMJ disc. For this plowing model, the arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian method was used to approximate the moving load problem, where in vitro the indenter slid along the tissue's superior surface. Approximate validation of the plowing model was based on comparisons of model-predicted temporal and spatial distribution of indenter displacement and total normal stresses (+/-15%) and laboratory measurements during one complete cycle of plowing motion. Other useful predictions from the plowing model include spatial and temporal distributions of biomechanical variables of interest that cannot be measured experimentally, such as total stress, pressure, strain, and the relative significance of the orthotropic solid phase properties. PMID:19350392

  8. Progress report on the Pegasus plow, October--December 1996 and January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This is a progress report on a contract related to the invention of a plow which will bury organic waste from farm fields, either in the form of shredded stubble or as whole stalks. The report addresses completion of various tasks in the contract, primarily related to field testing and trying to move the product into the market place.

  9. Generation of ultra-high magnetic fields by a degenerate, snow-plow pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Gee, M.; Harte, J.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.

    1992-12-16

    In this paper we discuss 1 and 2-D LASNEX calculations of a snow-plow pinch in Xenon. The pinch is driven by inductively stored energy, switched by a compact-torus, fast-opening switch, with performance characteristics calculated by the TRACII, 2-D, MHD code. The 10-cm initial radius, 1 cm long Xe pinch is driven by 50 MA current, switched on in 100 ns. The pinch uniquely undergoes radiative collapse during the snow-plow phase, conforming to the original description of the ``snow-plow,`` to form a high-density, high-kinetic energy Xe shell which dynamically converges ({rho}{sub R}{sup {lg_bullet}}{sup 2} {much_gt} B{sub {Theta}}{sup 2}/8{pi}) to a pinch equilibrium with degenerate electron pressure, high-density ({rho} {approx_equal} 10{sup 5} gm/cm{sup 3}) high-magnetic field (B{Theta} {approx_equal} 10{sup 10}G), and T{sub e} {congruent}T{sub i} {congruent} T{sub radiation} {congruent} 5 keV. The described pinch configuration, calculated in 1-D, is expected to be unstable to R-T, sausage, and kink instabilities. A small initial B{sub zo} field ({approximately}100G) is calculated to be compressed to B{sub z} {approx_equal} B {sub {Theta}} at the final, degenerate, pinch equilibrium, thus stabilizing sausage instability. A larger initial B{sub z} field ({approximately}10 kG) is calculated to be compressed by the radiatively collapsing plasma in the snow-plow to B{sub z} {approx_equal} B {sub {Theta}} to stabilize R-T instability during the snow-plow phase. Finally, the kink instability (if it occurs) is expected, as observed, to leave intact the tightly pinched plasma column.

  10. Application of DRAINMOD-Ks-STMAX to predict deep chiseling effects on a drained southern alluvial soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep chiseling in heavy soils can help increase infiltration and hence reduce erosion, potentially enhancing growth by reducing excess water in the root zone and reducing nutrient losses through the reduction of runoff to surface waters. This study was conducted to test the use of DRAINMOD-Ks-STMAX,...

  11. CARBON DIOXIDE AND NITROUS OXIDE FLUXES IN ORGANIC, NO-TILL AND CHISEL-TILL CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic cropping systems may have the potential to increase soil C sequestration and reduce soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes compared to conventional systems but organic systems are not well studied. We are measuring greenhouse gas fluxes and soil C sequestration in no-till, chisel-till and organic ...

  12. [Testing and commercialization of a cotton stalk shredder and plow]. Technical progress report, July--September, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1995-10-23

    The paper describes plans to field test several prototypes of plows that cut cotton stalks after harvesting and plows then back into the soil to prepare the field for the next planting. Modifications to the design have been made to allow the soil to more easily slide off the plow to reduce fuel consumption. A prototype has been shipped to Australia for testing in their fields and further product development. A farm machinery manufacturer has been selected to build two full-scale preproduction prototypes. Field testing will be done at sites in California and Arizona, since both have regulations specifying that cotton stalks must be shredded.

  13. Comparative ability of northern pintails, gadwalls, and northern shovelers to metabolize foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Feeding trials were used to compare the ability of northern pintails (Anas acuta), gadwalls (A. strepera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) to metabolize energy from a turkey starter ration, alfalfa pellets, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected among the three species for any of the three foods (kg body weight/day basis), for dry matter intake (DMI), body weight gain (BWG), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or metabolized energy (MEE) on any given diet consumed in quantities large enough to promote body weight gain. The AME content of alfalfa was 57% less than the value for turkey starter and 50% less than for barnyardgrass seeds. All three species metabolized more energy and gained weight faster when fed turkey starter. Energy modeling may be facilitated if additional research verifies that all species of dabbling ducks have equal ability to obtain energy from foods available to them in the wild. Behavioral and morphological factors may be more important in defining feeding niches than digestive physiology, at least for the three duck species tested, at the time of year of the experiments, and within the limits of the quality of foods used.

  14. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 5; Abrasion: Plowing and Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5 discusses abrasion, a common wear phenomenon of great economic importance. It has been estimated that 50% of the wear encountered in industry is due to abrasion. Also, it is the mechanism involved in the finishing of many surfaces. Experiments are described to help in understanding the complex abrasion process and in predicting friction and wear behavior in plowing and/or cutting. These experimental modelings and measurements used a single spherical pin (asperity) and a single wedge pin (asperity). Other two-body and three-body abrasion studies used hard abrasive particles.

  15. Biting performance and skull biomechanics of a chisel tooth digging rodent (Ctenomys tuconax; Caviomorpha; Octodontoidea).

    PubMed

    Becerra, Federico; Casinos, AdriÓ; Vassallo, Aldo Ivßn

    2013-02-01

    Biting performance is a key factor in vertebrate groups possessing particular food habits. In subterranean rodents that use the incisors as a digging tool, apart from requirements related to gnawing abrasive diets, the force exerted at the incisors tips must be sufficient to break down soils that are often exceedingly compact. The subterranean genus Ctenomys diversified in the southern portion of South America closely associated with the relatively open environments that characterize that region. This genus is considered a "claw and chisel tooth digger," that is, during the excavation of their galleries, the animals break down the soil with both the fore-claws and the incisors. We report here measurements of in vivo bite force in one of the largest species of the genus, C. tuconax, which occupies highland grasslands with compacted soils. We document the combined use of claws and incisors observed under field conditions, also providing measurements of soil compaction in the habitat occupied by this species. We report estimates of bite force at the level of the incisors and cheek teeth calculated from the physiological cross-sectional area of jaw muscles. To this aim, anatomical and biomechanical analyses of the mandibular apparatus were performed in preserved specimens. We found that C. tuconax bites with a higher force than expected for a mammal of its size. To assess anatomical correlates of biting performance, the morphology of the skull and jaw, and incisor second moment of area were compared with those of other caviomorph rodents with different lifestyle. PMID:23203312

  16. Continuous dental replacement in a hyper-chisel tooth digging rodent

    PubMed Central

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Marangoni, Pauline; Őumbera, Radim; Tafforeau, Paul; Wendelen, Wim; Viriot, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to their reptilian ancestors, which had numerous dental generations, mammals are known to usually develop only two generations of teeth. However, a few mammal species have acquired the ability to continuously replace their dentition by the constant addition of supernumerary teeth moving secondarily toward the front of the jaw. The resulting treadmill-like replacement is thus horizontal, and differs completely from the vertical dental succession of other mammals and their extinct relatives. Despite the developmental implications and prospects regarding the origin of supernumerary teeth, this striking innovation remains poorly documented. Here we report another case of continuous dental replacement in an African rodent, Heliophobius argenteocinereus, which combines this dental system with the progressive eruption of high-crowned teeth. The escalator-like mechanism of Heliophobius constitutes an original adaptation to hyper-chisel tooth digging involving high dental wear. Comparisons between Heliophobius and the few mammals that convergently acquired continuous dental replacement reveal that shared inherited traits, including dental mesial drift, delayed eruption, and supernumerary molars, comprise essential prerequisites to setting up this dental mechanism. Interestingly, these dental traits are present to a lesser extent in humans but are absent in mouse, the usual biological model. Consequently, Heliophobius represents a suitable model to investigate the molecular processes leading to the development of supernumerary teeth in mammals, and the accurate description of these processes could be a significant advance for further applications in humans, such as the regeneration of dental tissues. PMID:21987823

  17. Static and dynamic mechanics of the TMJ: Plowing forces, joint load, and tissue stress

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J; Spilker, R; Iwasaki, L; Gonzalez, Y; McCall, WD; Ohrbach, R; Beatty, MW; Marx, D

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine (1) the combined effects of stress-field aspect ratio and velocity, and compressive strain, and (2) joint load, on TMJ disc mechanics Setting and Sample Population Fifty-two subjects (30 ?; 20 ? ) participated in the TMJ load experiments. Material and Methods In the absence of human tissue, pig TMJ discs were used to determine the effects of variables (1) on surface plowing forces, and to build a biphasic finite element model (bFEM) to test the effect of human joint loads (2) on tissue stresses. In the laboratory, discs received a 7.6 N static load via an acrylic indenter before cyclic movement. Data were recorded and analyzed using ANOVA. To determine human joint loads (2), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) calibrated investigators classified subjects based on signs of disc displacement (DD) and pain (+DD/+Pain, n=18; +DD/-Pain, n=17; -DD/-Pain, n=17). 3-D geometries were produced for each subject and used in a computer model to calculate joint loads. Results The combined effects of compressive strain, and aspect ratio and velocity of stress-field translation correlated with plowing forces (R2=0.85). +DD/-Pain subjects produced 60% higher joint loads (ANOVA, P<0.05), which increased bFEM-calculated compressive strain and peak total normal stress. Conclusions Static and dynamic variables of the stress-field and subject dependent joint load significantly affect disc mechanics. PMID:19627517

  18. Properties of agricultural aerosol released during wheat harvest threshing, plowing and sowing.

    PubMed

    Telloli, Chiara; Malaguti, Antonella; Mircea, Mihaela; Tassinari, Renzo; Vaccaro, Carmela; Berico, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    This study shows for the first time a chemical and morphological characterization of agricultural aerosols released during three important agricultural operations: threshing, plowing and sowing. The field campaigns were carried out in the eastern part of the Po Valley, Italy, in summer and autumn 2009. The aerosol particles were sampled on quartz fiber filters and polytetrafluoroethylene membranes in order to allow Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDS) investigations, respectively. The organic carbon mass concentrations were measured with a Sunset Laboratory Dual-Optical Organic Carbone/Elemental Carbon (OCEC) Aerosol analyzer. The morphological and chemical analyses by SEM-EDS allowed recognizing four main particle classes: organic, silica, calcite and clay minerals. The organic particles contribute to both fine and coarse aerosol fractions up to ca. 50% for all three agricultural activities. This was also confirmed by OCEC analysis for fine fraction. Most of the agricultural aerosols, about 60%, were single particles and the remaining 40% were agglomerations of particles. The ICP-MS results showed that threshing and plowing produce more aerosol particles than sowing, which was characterized by important amounts of clay minerals produced from land soils. PMID:25193841

  19. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze; Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the ôwritingö (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the ôwritingö speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 ?m in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be fabricated at a high speed of ?5 mm/s, with the line width and the line depth at ?95 nm and 2 nm, respectively. A fine pattern of the word ôNANOö is also fabricated at the speed of ?5 mm/s.

  20. Fabrication of a quantum point contact by the dynamic plowing technique and wet-chemical etching

    PubMed

    Skaberna; Versen; Klehn; Kunze; Reuter; Wieck

    2000-02-01

    We have fabricated extremely confined ballistic constrictions using a nanolithography technique based on an atomic force microscope. Vector-scan controlled dynamic plowing with the vibrating tip enables to plastically indent a thin resist layer along a prearranged path. Transfer of the resist pattern into the semiconductor substrate is achieved by a strongly diluted aqueous etchant. In this way approximately 30 nm deep gooves were etched in the channel area of a modulation-doped GaAs/GaA1As field-effect transistor. The quantum point contacts were defined by a broken line whose 60 nm width represents the length and the sub-100 nm gap determines the width of the constriction. At liquid-helium temperature the conductance as a function of gate voltage shows a stepwise increase in units of 2e2/h. Signatures of the conductance quantization persist up to 50 K, which indicates a large subband spacing. PMID:10741665

  1. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA-80-073-1589, Marion Power Shovel, Marion, Ohio. [Core and mold areas (MDI binders)

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, R.L.; Liss, G.M.

    1985-04-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for methylene-bisphenyl-isocyanate (MDI), total reactive isocyanate groups (TRIG), triethylamine, mineral spirits, and metal fume at Marion Power Shovel Foundry, Marion, Ohio, in March and September, 1983. The evaluation was requested by the union to assess exposures in the core and mold areas where MDI binders were used. Interviews were conducted with 26 exposed and 13 nonexposed workers. Medical examinations that included pulmonary function and immunological testing, and chest x-rays were administered. All exposures were below the OSHA standards for TRIG. Previously obtained silica monitoring data was reviewed. Silica overexposure was indicated. Twenty-seven exposed workers reported lower respiratory tract symptoms consistent with occupational asthma. The authors conclude that significant exposures to isocyanates have occurred at the facility. A health hazard due to silica also exists. Recommendations include establishing a medical surveillance program for MDI and reducing silica exposures by appropriate engineering controls.

  2. GROUND BEETLE (COLEOPTERA: CARABIDAE) ASSEMBLAGES IN ORGANIC, NO-TILL, AND CHISEL-TILL CROPPING SYSTEMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground beetle assemblages were compared in organic, no-till, and chisel-till cropping systems of the USDA Farming Systems Project in Maryland. The cropping systems consisted of three-year rotations of corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that were p...

  3. Six-level isolated spinous process fracture of the thoracic vertebrae (clay-shoveler's fracture) and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazanci, Atilla; Gurcan, Oktay; Gurcay, Ahmet Gurhan; Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Bavbek, Murad

    2015-01-01

    Clay-shoveler's fractures are isolated, avulsion-type spinous process fractures of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. Multi-level fractures of the spinous processes are extremely rare. We report the case of a 60-year-old female patient with a six-level isolated spinous process fracture of the thoracic spine. Our case is the fourth reported case in literature, of an isolated spinous process fracture involving five or more levels in the thoracic vertebrae. PMID:25947988

  4. Fuzzy boundaries: color and gene flow patterns among parapatric lineages of the western shovel-nosed snake and taxonomic implication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vandergast, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate delineation of lineage diversity is increasingly important, as species distributions are becoming more reduced and threatened. During the last century, the subspecies category was often used to denote phenotypic variation within a species range and to provide a framework for understanding lineage differentiation, often considered incipient speciation. While this category has largely fallen into disuse, previously recognized subspecies often serve as important units for conservation policy and management when other information is lacking. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic subspecies hypotheses within shovel-nosed snakes on the basis of genetic data and considered how evolutionary processes such as gene flow influenced possible incongruence between phenotypic and genetic patterns. We used both traditional phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analyses to infer range-wide genetic structure and spatially explicit analyses to detect possible boundary locations of lineage contact. Multilocus analyses supported three historically isolated groups with low to moderate levels of contemporary gene exchange. Genetic data did not support phenotypic subspecies as exclusive groups, and we detected patterns of discordance in areas where three subspecies are presumed to be in contact. Based on genetic and phenotypic evidence, we suggested that species-level diversity is underestimated in this group and we proposed that two species be recognized, Chionactis occipitalis and C. annulata. In addition, we recommend retention of two subspecific designations within C. annulata (C. a. annulata and C. a. klauberi) that reflect regional shifts in both genetic and phenotypic variation within the species. Our results highlight the difficultly in validating taxonomic boundaries within lineages that are evolving under a time-dependent, continuous process.

  5. Fuzzy Boundaries: Color and Gene Flow Patterns among Parapatric Lineages of the Western Shovel-Nosed Snake and Taxonomic Implication

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vandergast, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate delineation of lineage diversity is increasingly important, as species distributions are becoming more reduced and threatened. During the last century, the subspecies category was often used to denote phenotypic variation within a species range and to provide a framework for understanding lineage differentiation, often considered incipient speciation. While this category has largely fallen into disuse, previously recognized subspecies often serve as important units for conservation policy and management when other information is lacking. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic subspecies hypotheses within shovel-nosed snakes on the basis of genetic data and considered how evolutionary processes such as gene flow influenced possible incongruence between phenotypic and genetic patterns. We used both traditional phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analyses to infer range-wide genetic structure and spatially explicit analyses to detect possible boundary locations of lineage contact. Multilocus analyses supported three historically isolated groups with low to moderate levels of contemporary gene exchange. Genetic data did not support phenotypic subspecies as exclusive groups, and we detected patterns of discordance in areas where three subspecies are presumed to be in contact. Based on genetic and phenotypic evidence, we suggested that species-level diversity is underestimated in this group and we proposed that two species be recognized, Chionactis occipitalis and C. annulata. In addition, we recommend retention of two subspecific designations within C. annulata (C. a. annulata and C. a. klauberi) that reflect regional shifts in both genetic and phenotypic variation within the species. Our results highlight the difficultly in validating taxonomic boundaries within lineages that are evolving under a time-dependent, continuous process. PMID:24848638

  6. Spatial variability of detrended soil plow layer penetrometer resistance transect in a sugarcane field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P├ęrez, Luis D.; Cumbrera, Ramiro; Mato, Juan; Mill├ín, Humberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variability of soil properties is relevant for identifying those zones with physical degradation. In this sense, one has to face the problem of identifying the origin and distribution of spatial variability patterns (Brouder et al., 2001; Mill├ín et al., 2012). The objective of the present work was to quantify the spatial structure of soil penetrometer resistance (PR) collected from a transect data consisted of 221 points equidistant. In each sampling, readings were obtained from 0 cm till 70 cm of depth, with an interval of 5 cm (P├ęrez, 2012). The study was conducted on a Vertisol (Typic Hapludert) dedicated to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) production during the last sixty years (P├ęrez et al., 2010). Recently, scaling approach has been applied on the determination of the scaling data properties (Tarquis et al., 2008; Mill├ín et al., 2012; P├ęrez, 2012). We focus in the Hurst analysis to characterize the data variability for each depth. Previously a detrended analysis was conducted in order to better study de intrinsic variability of the series. The Hurst exponent (H) for each depth was estimated showing a characteristic pattern and differentiating PR evolution in depth. References Brouder, S., Hofmann, B., Reetz, H.F., 2001. Evaluating spatial variability of soil parameters for input management. Better Crops 85, 8-11. Mill├ín, H; AM Tarqu├şs, Lu├şs D. P├ęrez, Juan Mato, Mario Gonz├ílez-Posada, 2012. Spatial variability patterns of some Vertisol properties at a field scale using standardized data. Soil and Tillage Research, 120, 76-84. P├ęrez, Lu├şs D. 2012. Influencia de la maquinaria agr├şcola sobre la variabilidad espacial de la compactaci├│n del suelo. Aplicaci├│n de la metodolog├şa geoestad├şstica-fractal. PhD thesis, UPM (In Spanish). P├ęrez, Lu├şs D., Humberto Mill├ín, Mario Gonz├ílez-Posada 2010. Spatial complexity of soil plow layer penetrometer resistance as influenced by sugarcane harvesting: A prefractal approach. Soil and Tillage Research, 110(1), 77-86. Tarquis, A.M., N. Bird, M.C. Cartagena, A. Whitmore and Y. Pachepsky, 2008. Multiscale entropy-based analyses of soil transect data. Vadose Zone Journal, 7(2), 563-569.

  7. Changes in the soils of solonetzic associations in 30 years after their reclamation with the use of moldboard plowing, deep tillage with a three-tier plow, and deep rotary tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, V. P.; Sharshak, V. K.; Bezuglova, O. S.; Ladan, E. P.; Genev, E. D.; Illarionov, V. V.; Zinchenko, V. E.; Morkovskoi, N. A.; Chernenko, V. V.; Il'Ina, L. P.

    2011-08-01

    Changes in the properties of solonetzic soil associations (chestnut solonetzic soils and chestnut solonetzes) in the dry steppe after their reclamation have been studied for 30 years. The reclamation included the deep three-tier plowing and the approach of rotary tillage. A single rotary tillage operation resulted in the formation of fine aggregates of equal sizes in the plow layer; any morphological features of the restoration of solonetzic pedogenesis are absent. The atmospheric moisture easily penetrates into the soil, and soluble salts are leached off to a great depth. In 30 years since the soil amelioration with the use of a PMS-70 rotary tiller, the humus content has increased up to 3.3% in the upper 20-cm-thick layer and up to 2.4% in the layer of 20-40 cm. The content of adsorbed Na+ in the 20- to 30-cm-thick layer has decreased to 10.6% of the cation exchange capacity (in comparison with 19.8% in the nonreclaimed soil). The spatial heterogeneity of the soil cover has decreased in comparison with that prior to the reclamation. During the entire observation period, crop yields gained from the fields reclaimed with the use of the rotary tiller have been by 25-60% higher in comparison with those on the fields with traditional treatments.

  8. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  9. Bioavailability of metals and toxicity identification of the sediment pore waters from Plow Shop Pond, Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Jop, K.; Putt, A.; Shepherd, S.; Askew, A.; Bleiler, J.; Reed, S.; George, C.

    1995-12-31

    Plow Shop Pond is a shallow, 30-acre pond located at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. An ecological risk assessment was conducted at Plow Shop Pond as part of a remedial investigation. Preliminary analysis revealed high concentrations of arsenic, copper, chromium, lead, and mercury in the sediment. Therefore, a laboratory testing program was incorporated into this investigation to assess the toxicity of sediments to aquatic organisms. The screening testing program included short-term chronic exposure of Ceriodaphnia dubia to pore waters, 10-day exposures of Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca to bulk sediments and a bioaccumulation study with Lumbriculus variegatus. Survival and reproduction of C. dubia, growth of amphipods and reproduction of oligochaetes appeared to indicate sediment toxicity at some sites within the pond. Although high concentrations of arsenic, copper, mercury and lead were detected in the whole sediments and pore waters, the response could not be correlated to a particular element. Also, relatively low bioaccumulation of methyl mercury and high uptake of inorganic mercury was established for three sediment samples. To characterize and identify the source of toxicity, a toxicity identification evaluation program using sediments collected at several locations was performed. The pore water from these samples was used for fractionation coupled with a 10-day test using H. azteca. Survival and growth were evaluated as endpoints during the exposures. Partitioning of metals and their bioavailability was influenced primarily by organic carbon and AVS concentration. At least two constituents were responsible for the toxicity.

  10. ChISELS 1.0: theory and user manual :a theoretical modeler of deposition and etch processes in microsystems fabrication.

    SciTech Connect

    Plimpton, Steven James; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Ho, Pauline; Musson, Lawrence Cale

    2006-09-01

    Chemically Induced Surface Evolution with Level-Sets--ChISELS--is a parallel code for modeling 2D and 3D material depositions and etches at feature scales on patterned wafers at low pressures. Designed for efficient use on a variety of computer architectures ranging from single-processor workstations to advanced massively parallel computers running MPI, ChISELS is a platform on which to build and improve upon previous feature-scale modeling tools while taking advantage of the most recent advances in load balancing and scalable solution algorithms. Evolving interfaces are represented using the level-set method and the evolution equations time integrated using a Semi-Lagrangian approach [1]. The computational meshes used are quad-trees (2D) and oct-trees (3D), constructed such that grid refinement is localized to regions near the surface interfaces. As the interface evolves, the mesh is dynamically reconstructed as needed for the grid to remain fine only around the interface. For parallel computation, a domain decomposition scheme with dynamic load balancing is used to distribute the computational work across processors. A ballistic transport model is employed to solve for the fluxes incident on each of the surface elements. Surface chemistry is computed by either coupling to the CHEMKIN software [2] or by providing user defined subroutines. This report describes the theoretical underpinnings, methods, and practical use instruction of the ChISELS 1.0 computer code.

  11. Spatial variability and temporal changes in the heavy metal content of soils with a deep furrow-and-ridge microrelief formed by an afforestation plowing.

    PubMed

    Kabala, Cezary; Bojko, Oskar; Medynska, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Agnieszka

    2013-06-01

    An appropriate sampling method that provides for the representation of the collected material and the reliability of results plays a crucial role in environmental monitoring. This is especially important in soil quality investigations on sites with a differentiated surface microrelief, as in the case of afforested post-arable soils that have a specific, deep furrow-and-ridge microrelief. The present research was carried out on three sites afforested with pine (4-, 8-, and 15-year-old stands) located near a large tailings pond collecting the wastes from copper ore enrichment. Soils were sampled at depths of 0-10 and 0-30 cm, separately in the furrows and ridges. The "wide-furrow plow" contributed to the spatial variation in soil properties, including higher pH, organic carbon, and Cu content in soils of the ridges. The difference in Cu content in the ridges and furrows initially reached 300 %, and decreased with the decline of the furrow-and-ridge microrelief to 60 % at 15 years after the plowing. Observed rate of the furrow shallowing allows for an estimation of the time necessary for the complete disappearance of the furrow-and-ridge microrelief and associated variability in soil properties to at least 30-40 years after the plowing. Afforestation plowing had little impact on the Zn variability which was not influenced by the emissions from the tailings pond. Soil sampling in contaminated sites with furrow-and-ridge microrelief must collect equal quantities of soil samples from both furrows and ridges to allow a reliable estimation of the mean trace elements' concentration. PMID:23079794

  12. Spatial and temporal soil water variability in the plowing horizon of agriculturally used soils in two regions of Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltoradnev, Maxim; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Soil water dynamics plays an important role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. There is a lack of long-term continuous measurements of topsoil water content at the regional scale. The objective of the present study was to quantify and elucidate the seasonal dynamics of spatial soil water content variability in the plowing horizon (Ap) of agricultural soils at the regional scale. The study was conducted in the central part of the Kraichgau and the Mid Swabian Alb in Southwest Germany. In each region a soil water network embracing 21 stations was set up. All stations were installed on cropped agricultural sites and distributed across three spatial domains: an inner domain 3 km Î 3 km (5 stations), a middle 9 km Î 9 km (8 stations), and an outer domain 27 km Î 27 km (8 stations). Each station consists of a TDT sensor (SI.99 Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor, Streat Instruments Ltd, New Zealand), which senses both soil water content and soil temperature, a rain gauge, and a remote transfer unit (RTU, datalogger + GSM modem), which stores and transfers data via GPRS modem to the central data server (Adcon Telemetry GmbH, Austria) located at the University of Hohenheim. The TDT sensors were installed at 0.15 m depth. A sensor consists of a three meter long and three centimeter wide flat transmission line. The relationship between the standard deviation (??) of the soil water content (SWC) and mean spatial soil water content () formed combinations of concave and convex hyperbolas. However, it strongly depended on SWC state and season. Generally, ?? was found to be changing along a convex trend during dry out and rewetting phases with a maximum in the intermediate SWC range. At the rain event scale, ??() was either ascending or converging with decreasing . A concave shape was observed when approached to dry state. The majority of ??() hysteresis loops were observed in intermediate and intermediate/wet state of SWC. All hysteretic loops were clockwise oriented. Rainfall intensity and distribution were identified as main factors driving SWC variability at the regional scale.

  13. The formation of the agrogenic typical chernozem profile in the Ukrainian forest-steppe after plowing virgin steppe and fallow soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosko, B. S.

    2013-03-01

    The data on the changes in the physicochemical, biological, and agrochemical properties of a loamy-clayey typical chernozem after plowing a 40-year-old Fallow (for six cycles of a cereal-beet rotation) and a sandy-loamy typical chernozem (for eighteen cycles of a five-course rotation) under different intensities of their use are presented. The major role of the mineral and organic fertilizers and the methods of their application have been revealed in the formation of the humus profile, the acid-base characteristics, and the agrophysical and agrochemical properties.

  14. Derivation of soil-screening thresholds to protect the chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Linder, Greg; Otton, James K; Finger, Susan E; Little, Edward; Tillitt, Donald E

    2013-08-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes. PMID:23604138

  15. 29 CFR 553.24 - ÔÇťPublic safetyÔÇŁ, ÔÇťemergency responseÔÇŁ, and ÔÇťseasonalÔÇŁ activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for several weeks on a special project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the..., may have significant periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may be able to accrue compensatory time to...

  16. 29 CFR 553.24 - ÔÇťPublic safetyÔÇŁ, ÔÇťemergency responseÔÇŁ, and ÔÇťseasonalÔÇŁ activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for several weeks on a special project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the..., may have significant periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may be able to accrue compensatory time to...

  17. TILLAGE EROSION: TERRACE RELATIONSHIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All tillage moves soil. Implements drawn by animals or a tractor move soil in the direction of travel and, to a lesser extent, sideways. While a moldboard plow throws soil to only one side, most tillage implementsÔÇöincluding tandem disks, chisel plows, harrows, and cultivatorsÔÇöthrow soil to both side...

  18. Tillage and rotation effect on corn - soybean energy balances in eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from a field experiment conducted in eastern Nebraska over 16 yr (1986-2001) were used to determine the energy balance of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) as affected by tillage treatments and rotation. Tillage treatments included chisel plow, tandom disk, moldboard plow, ridge-t...

  19. Dirty Oil and Shovel-Ready Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Phail, Abby

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a role-playing activity on tar sands and the proposed TransCanada Keystone XL pipeline. In this activity, students take on the characters of six key stakeholders invited to an imaginary public hearing to discuss whether or not the State Department and President Obama should approve the Keystone XL pipeline.ů

  20. Influence of the Plow Filling and Thread Angle onto the Plow Head Efficiency / Wp┼éyw Wsp├│┼éczynnika Wype┼énienia Organu Oraz K─ůta Nawini─Öcia P┼éata ┼Ülimaka Na Sprawno┼Ť─ç ┼üadowania Frezuj─ůcymi Organami ┼Ülimakowymi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wydro, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory examinations on the plow heads at various filling rate and material grain-size, as well as various values of worm thread angle of the plow head have been executed. Influence of the worm thread angle and plow head filling onto optimal loading efficiency, has also been tested. Eksploatacja w─Ögla kamiennego w Polsce odbywa si─Ö przy zastosowaniu kompleks├│w ┼Ťcianowych kombajnowych jak r├│wnie┼╝ kompleks├│w strugowych. Ten drugi z kompleks├│w jest znacznie mniej rozpowszechniony w Polsce i stosowany do pok┼éad├│w o mi─ů┼╝szo┼Ťci poni┼╝ej 1,5 m. Do g┼é├│wnych maszyn i urz─ůdze┼ä ┼Ťcianowego kompleksu kombajnowego nale┼╝y zaliczy─ç maszyn─Ö urabiaj─ůco - ┼éaduj─ůc─ů jak─ů jest kombajn ┼Ťcianowy, obudow─Ö zmechanizowan─ů oraz przeno┼Ťnik ┼Ťcianowy. Elementami roboczymi w kombajnie ┼Ťcianowym s─ů frezuj─ůce organy ┼Ťlimakowe, kt├│re mocowane s─ů na ramionach kombajnu. Zadaniem frezuj─ůcych organ├│w ┼Ťlimakowych jest realizacja jednocze┼Ťnie dw├│ch proces├│w. Pierwszym z proces├│w jest frezowanie czyli oddzielanie kawa┼ék├│w w─Ögla od calizny. Drugi proces to proces ┼éadowania urobku, polegaj─ůcy na ci─ůg┼éym odprowadzaniu urobku na przeno┼Ťnik ┼Ťcianowy. R├│wnoleg┼éo┼Ť─ç realizacji pracy tych dw├│ch proces├│w, uniemo┼╝liwia w warunkach rzeczywistych przeprowadzenie obserwacji procesu ┼éadowania i dokonania jakichkolwiek pomiar├│w i analiz. Dlatego te┼╝, przeprowadzane badania i pomiary opisywane w literaturze zwykle mia┼éy charakter modelowy lub stanowiskowy, gdy┼╝ tylko takie warunki umo┼╝liwia┼éy rozdzia┼é tych funkcji organu (Chodura, 1992; Hyong Jong Gol, 1990; Jaszczuk & Tomaszewski, 2004; Krauze, 1997). W zwi─ůzku z powy┼╝szym, chc─ůc bli┼╝ej pozna─ç prawa rz─ůdz─ůce procesem ┼éadowania, zdecydowano si─Ö na rozdzielenie tych dw├│ch proces├│w i przeprowadzenie bada┼ä laboratoryjnych. Przedmiotowe badania zosta┼éy przeprowadzone w laboratorium Katedry Maszyn G├│rniczych, Przer├│bczych i Transportowych AGH. W badaniach uwzgl─Ödniono wp┼éyw jednego z parametr├│w konstrukcyjnych organu, a mianowicie k─ůta nawini─Öcia p┼éata ┼Ťlimaka ╬▒2 na sprawno┼Ť─ç ┼éadownia, a tak┼╝e jaki wp┼éyw ma wsp├│┼éczynnik wype┼énienia organu kw i wsp├│┼éczynnik rozluzowania urobku kr, na sprawno┼Ť─ç ┼éadowania (Wydro, 2011). Po przeprowadzonych badaniach wst─Öpnych przyj─Öto, ┼╝e kryteria oceny procesu ┼éadowania b─Öd─ů r├│┼╝ne dla organu wyposa┼╝onego w ┼éadowark─Ö kryterium oceny procesu ┼éadowania b─Ödzie pob├│r mocy silnika organu i posuwu, natomiast dla organu bez ┼éadowarki kryterium jego oceny b─Ödzie sprawno┼Ť─ç ┼éadowania. Za sprawno┼Ť─ç ┼éadowania uznano stosunek pola przekroju pryzmy urobku za┼éadowanego do pola przekroju ca┼ékowitego pryzmy urobku przemieszczonego, co szerzej zosta┼éo opisane w dalszej cz─Ö┼Ťci artyku┼éu (Wydro, 2011). Przedmiotowe badania mia┼éy na celu, sprawdzenie w jakim stopniu wybrany parametr konstrukcyjny, k─ůt nawini─Öcia p┼éat├│w ┼Ťlimaka ╬▒2 oraz wsp├│┼éczynnik wype┼énienia organu kw i wsp├│┼éczynnik rozluzowania kr urobku maj─ů wp┼éyw na sprawno┼Ť─ç ┼éadowania i przy jakich ich warto┼Ťciach organy ┼Ťlimakowe uzyskuj─ů najwi─Öksz─ů sprawno┼Ť─ç ┼éadowania. Warto┼Ťci i zakresy tych wsp├│┼éczynnik├│w, zosta┼éy okre┼Ťlone na podstawie bada┼ä empirycznych. Jak podaje literatura (Hamala & Wydro, 2005; Krauze, 1997) wsp├│┼éczynniki przyjmowane s─ů w granicach kw= 0├Ě1, kr > 1 na podstawie do┼Ťwiadczenia konstruktora dla nowo projektowanych organ├│w ┼Ťlimakowych. Parametr konstrukcyjny, kt├│ry zosta┼é przyj─Öty do bada┼ä, to k─ůt nawini─Öcia p┼éat├│w ┼Ťlimaka ╬▒2 i wed┼éug literatury (Bednarz, 2003; Krauze, 2000) przyjmuje optymaln─ů warto┼Ť─ç w zakresie 19┬░, a 23┬░. W zwi─ůzku z powy┼╝szym, w przedmiotowych badaniach chciano sprawdzi─ç jaki wp┼éyw na proces ┼éadowania maj─ů k─ůty poni┼╝ej i powy┼╝ej wspomnianego zakresu, a tak┼╝e sprawdzenia, czy mo┼╝na okre┼Ťli─ç jakie warto┼Ťci wsp├│┼éczynnik├│w kw i kr nale┼╝y przyjmowa─ç podczas okre┼Ťlania parametr├│w konstrukcyjnych i kinematycznych nowego organu nie opieraj─ůc si─Ö tylko na do┼Ťwiadczeniu projektanta. Do bada┼ä, zosta┼é przyj─Öty model analityczny procesu ┼éadowania frezuj─ůcymi organami ┼Ťlimakowymi, kt├│ry zosta┼é opisany ju┼╝ wcze┼Ťniej w literaturze (Krauze, 1994, 2000; Hamala & Wydro, 2005). Zgodnie z przyj─Ötym celem pracy, okre┼Ťlono r├│wnie┼╝ za┼éo┼╝enia i wytyczne do badania procesu ┼éadowania frezuj─ůcym organem ┼Ťlimakowym (Wydro, 2011), mianowicie: ÔÇó konieczno┼Ť─ç rozdzielenia procesu skrawania (frezowania) od procesu ┼éadowania, ÔÇó rozdzielenie powy┼╝szych proces├│w mo┼╝e nast─ůpi─ç tylko w warunkach laboratoryjnych, ÔÇó badaniom zostan─ů poddane zar├│wno organy bez ┼éadowarek jak i z ┼éadowarkami, ÔÇó do bada┼ä zostan─ů u┼╝yte organy o r├│┼╝nym k─ůcie nawini─Öcia p┼éata ┼Ťlimaka, ÔÇó do bada┼ä zostanie u┼╝yty urobek o r├│┼╝nym wsp├│┼éczynniku kr. Maj─ůc na uwadze powy┼╝sze wytyczne i za┼éo┼╝enia, przeprowadzono badania procesu ┼éadowania frezuj─ůcymi organami ┼Ťlimakowymi bez ┼éadowarek i z ┼éadowarkami. Badania zosta┼éy przeprowadzone, na specjalnie do tego celu przygotowanym stanowisku badawczym, na kt├│rym mo┼╝liwy by┼é pomiar opor├│w i sprawno┼Ťci procesu ┼éadowania. Urobek wykorzystany do bada┼ä, zosta┼é odpowiednio dobrany pod wzgl─Ödem w┼éasno┼Ťci i klasy ziarnisto┼Ťci do rzeczywistych parametr├│w zastosowanych organ├│w. Do bada┼ä wykorzystano specjalnie zaprojektowane ┼Ťlimakowe organy urabiaj─ůce, o okre┼Ťlonych k─ůtach nawini─Öcia p┼éata ┼Ťlimaka. K─ůty te, zawiera┼éy si─Ö w przedziale pomi─Ödzy 15┬░, a 26┬░. Specjalnie zaprojektowany uk┼éad pomiarowy pozwoli┼é okre┼Ťli─ç pob├│r mocy i wielko┼Ťci niezb─Ödne do obliczenia sprawno┼Ťci ┼éadowania. Zaproponowana metodyka i plan bada┼ä pozwoli┼éy uwzgl─Ödni─ç zakres wsp├│┼éczynnik├│w kw i kr maj─ůcych wp┼éyw na proces ┼éadowania. Parametrami mierzonymi podczas bada┼ä by┼éy: ÔÇó pob├│r mocy N┼é mierzony na silniku organu ┼éaduj─ůcego w funkcji ÔÇó sprawno┼Ť─ç ┼éadowania ╬Ěl, ÔÇó pob├│r mocy opor├│w posuwu Np mierzony na silniku posuwu w funkcji sprawno┼Ť─ç ┼éadowania ╬Ěl. Uzyskane wyniki i ich analiza pozwoli┼éy stwierdzi─ç, ┼╝e badane organy wykazywa┼éy bardzo zr├│┼╝nicowane sprawno┼Ťci ┼éadowania, w zale┼╝no┼Ťci od zmiennych parametr├│w ruchowych, czyli pr─Ödko┼Ťci posuwu vp i obrot├│w n, a tak┼╝e przy r├│┼╝nym k─ůcie nawini─Öcia p┼éata ┼Ťlimaka. R├│wnie┼╝ istotnym wnioskiem z bada┼ä, kt├│ry mo┼╝e w praktyce zosta─ç wykorzystany, jest fakt, ┼╝e dla sta┼éych obrot├│w organu n i zwi─Ökszanej pr─Ödko┼Ťci posuwu vp spada┼éa sprawno┼Ť─ç ┼éadowania ╬Ě┼é (dla pracy organu bez ┼éadowarki). Fakt ten jest wa┼╝ny, poniewa┼╝ w warunkach do┼éowych w trakcie eksploatacji kombajnu ┼Ťcianowego istnieje tylko mo┼╝liwo┼Ť─ç regulacji jego pr─Ödko┼Ťci posuwu. Istotnym dla wykorzystania w praktyce, mo┼╝e by─ç r├│wnie┼╝ fakt, i┼╝ przy pracy organu z ┼éadowark─ů wyst─Öpuje wzrost poboru mocy organu przy wzro┼Ťcie wsp├│┼éczynnika wype┼énienia kw. Jest to istotne z punktu widzenia ekonomi eksploatacji i d─ů┼╝enia do minimalnego zu┼╝ycia energii. Zrealizowane badania laboratoryjne sprawno┼Ťci procesu ┼éadowania, pozwoli┼éy uzyska─ç szeroki zakres wynik├│w, kt├│re mog─ů pom├│c przy doborze parametr├│w ruchowych kombajnu ┼Ťcianowego w trakcie jego eksploatacji, a nawet wcze┼Ťniej, na etapie projektowania organ├│w ┼Ťlimakowych (Wydro, 2011).

  1. Site Tamper and Material Plow Tool - STAMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aisen, Norman M.; Collins, Curtis L.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2012-01-01

    A non-actuated tool has been developed for preparing regolith for in situ measurement by smoothing uneven surfaces and excavating fresher subsurface material for planetary exploration. The STAMP tool contains two tools to prepare regolith for in situ measurement: a tamper to smooth uneven surfaces, and a blade to excavate fresher subsurface material.

  2. TILLAGE-INDUCED VARIATION IN TERRESTRIAL CARBON STOCKS AND CO2 LOSS ACROSS AN ERODED LANDSCAPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon (C) losses and soil translocation from tillage operations have been identified as causes of soil degradation and soil erosion. The objective of this work was to quantify the variability in terrestrial C stocks and tillage-induced CO2 loss by moldboard and chisel plowing across an eroded ...

  3. Transport and persistence of tylosin-resistant enterococci, erm genes, and tylosin in soil and drainage water from fields receiving swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of manure from tylosin-treated swine introduces tylosin-resistant enterococci, erm genes, which confer resistance to tylosin, and tylosin. This study documents the occurrence and transport of tylosin-resistant enterococci, erm genes, and tylosin in tile-drained chisel plow and no-ti...

  4. 30 CFR 77.409 - Shovels, draglines, and tractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND..., draglines, and tractors shall not be operated in the presence of any person exposed to a hazard from...

  5. Anticipating Stimulus Money for Campus Projects, Colleges Get "Shovel Ready"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Help for colleges may be on the way in the $825-billion stimulus package being pressed by Congressional leaders. The bill that House Democrats introduced this month includes $7-billion for higher-education modernization, renovation, and repair that could kick-start projects like upgrading heating and cooling systems, fixing roofs, and doingů

  6. Anticipating Stimulus Money for Campus Projects, Colleges Get "Shovel Ready"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Help for colleges may be on the way in the $825-billion stimulus package being pressed by Congressional leaders. The bill that House Democrats introduced this month includes $7-billion for higher-education modernization, renovation, and repair that could kick-start projects like upgrading heating and cooling systems, fixing roofs, and doingÔÇŽ

  7. Tillage and crop residue effects on soil carbon and carbon dioxide emission in corn-soybean rotations.

    PubMed

    Al-Kaisi, Mahdi M; Yin, Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    Soil C change and CO2 emission due to different tillage systems need to be evaluated to encourage the adoption of conservation practices to sustain soil productivity and protect the environment. We hypothesize that soil C storage and CO2 emission respond to conservation tillage differently from conventional tillage because of their differential effects on soil properties. This study was conducted from 1998 through 2001 to evaluate tillage effects on soil C storage and CO2 emission in Clarion-Nicollet-Webster soil association in a corn [Zea mays L.]-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation in Iowa. Treatments included no-tillage with and without residue, strip-tillage, deep rip, chisel plow, and moldboard plow. No-tillage with residue and strip-tillage significantly increased total soil organic C (TC) and mineral fraction C (MFC) at the 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-cm soil depths compared with chisel plow after 3 yr of tillage practices. Soil CO2 emission was lower for less intensive tillage treatments compared with moldboard plow, with the greatest differences occurring immediately after tillage operations. Cumulative soil CO2 emission was 19 to 41% lower for less intensive tillage treatments than moldboard plow, and it was 24% less for no-tillage with residue than without residue during the 480-h measurement period. Estimated soil mineralizable C pool was reduced by 22 to 66% with less intensive tillage treatments compared with moldboard plow. Adopting less intensive tillage systems such as no-tillage, strip-tillage, deep rip, and chisel plow and better crop residue cover are effective in reducing CO2 emission and thus improving soil C sequestration in a corn-soybean rotation. PMID:15758095

  8. Deep lime incorporation methods for neutralization of acidic minesoils. Final report, October 1987-May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dollhopf, D.J.

    1992-05-01

    There is concern that acidic minesoils limed to only the 30 cm depth may not provide sufficient root zone for either optimum plant growth or long-term plant establishment. It was shown that agricultural discs, chisel plows (subsoilers) and moldboard plows can incorporate lime efficiency to the 10 to 25 cm minesoil depth. One very large tandem disc having 91 cm diameter blades successfully neutralized acidic minesoil to the 30 cm depth. Tractors mounted rototillers commonly used in agricultural production can efficiently incorporate lime to the 25 cm minesoil depth.

  9. Cyber Shovels in High School: An Online Soil Science Resource for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzic, M.; Basiliko, N.; Bedard-Haughn, A.; Humphreys, E.; Price, G.; Dampier, L.; Grand, S.; Dynatkar, S.; Crowley, C.

    2012-04-01

    Declining enrolment in soil science courses at post-secondary institutions in Canada and around the world tells us that fewer high school students are considering a career in this discipline than ever before. This may be due to soil science programs losing visibility as they are incorporated into other, larger programs; a lack of awareness of what opportunities exist for soil science professionals; or a disinclination of high school educators to use soil science scenarios as examples in their science curriculum. In 2010, we initiated a three-year, multi-institutional project aimed at introducing soil science concepts into high school curricula across Canada. The goals of this project are to promote learning about the importance of soil as a natural resource, provide useful tools that high school educators can incorporate into their lesson plans, and encourage students to pursue soil science in their higher education. The tool (http://soilweb.landfood.ubc.ca/youth/) features five main themes: (1) descriptions of soil research projects currently undertaken by faculty at five universities across Canada; (2) links to age-appropriate soil related resources that provide exercises and examples teachers can easily use; (3) profiles of soil scientists "at work" in a diverse range of careers to motivate future soil scientists; (4) examples of recent news stories about soil to highlight its relevance in our day to day lives; and (5) a soil forum for students and teachers to ask questions. This tool will be further refined by incorporating feedback obtained from high school teachers and students.

  10. "Shovel-Ready" Data: The Stimulus Package and State Longitudinal Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act, commonly referred to simply as "the stimulus package," is poised to pump over $100 billion into U.S. public education in the next few years. This allocation reflects the Obama administration's new commitment to education as a public good, which is embodied in President Obama's ambitious goal of 60ů

  11. Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Sand, Hňkan

    2012-01-01

    Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical stateľspace model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as Ĺcryptic poachingĺ. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching. PMID:21849323

  12. Teach Students to Dig for Understanding Using an Unexpected Technological Shovel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Susan E. L.

    2004-01-01

    Online genealogy tools is an unexpected resource as these tools not only serve valuable for genealogy research, but also can be used by students to learn about their country's past and learn to use primary materials to draw conclusions. Some of these Online sources like the 1880 census available at www.ancestry.com, www.thepastwhispers.com, whichů

  13. ôShovel-readyö Sequences as a Stimulus for the Next Generation of Life Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics and bioinformatics are dynamic fields well-suited for capturing the imagination of undergraduates in both research laboratories and classrooms. Currently, raw nucleotide sequence is being provided, as part of several genomics research initiatives, for undergraduate research and teaching. These initiatives could be easily extended and much more effective if the source of the sequenced material and the subsequent focus of the data analysis were aligned with the research interests of individual faculty at undergraduate institutions. By judicious use of surplus capacity in existing nucleotide sequencing cores, raw sequence data could be generated to support ongoing research efforts involving undergraduates. This would allow these students to participate actively in discovery research, with a goal of making novel contributions to their field through original research while nurturing the next generation of talented research scientists. PMID:23653696

  14. Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N Thompson; Sand, Hňkan

    2012-03-01

    Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state-space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as 'cryptic poaching'. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching. PMID:21849323

  15. Watermelon transplanted by chisel, strip-tillage, and bedding methods produce similar yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon plants grown in semi-arid, subtropical south Texas (Lat. 26┬░ N) are subject to wind and high solar loads. In an effort to provide an environment that would reduce wind-related sand blasting, early transplant desiccation, and vine damage and reduced soil temperatures, watermelon seedlings...

  16. A New Model of Teaching Pedagogy in CHISEL for the 21th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-yi

    This paper describes and compares six models for teaching second languages developed and adopted since 1840 (grammar-translation, direct, structural, situational, audiolingual, and communicative methods), and proposes a seventh, the cognitive-linguistic method, incorporating Noam Chomsky's theory of learning. The model takes both extralinguisticÔÇŽ

  17. Changes in soil organic carbon contents and nitrous oxide emissions after introduction of no-till in Pampean agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Hayd├ęe S; Alvarez, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed published results to estimate no-till effects on SOC and denitrification in the Argentine Pampas and the potential of no-till to mitigate the global warming effect. On an equivalent mass basis, 42 paired data sets were used for SOC comparisons of no-till vs. plow till (moldboard plow or disk plow), 18 paired data for comparison of no-till vs. reduced till (chisel plow or harrow disk), and 20 paired data for comparison of plow till vs. reduced till. Twenty-six denitrification data sets were used for evaluation of tillage system and fertilization effects on N2O emission. Changes in SOC under no-till were not correlated to time since initiation of experiments. Averaged over years a 2.76 Mg ha(-1) SOC increase (P = 0.01) was observed in no-till systems compared with tilled systems, but no differences were detected between plow and reduced till. The SOC under tillage explained most of the SOC variation under no-till (R2= 0.94, P = 0.01). The model had a positive intercept and predicted a relatively higher increase of SOC in areas of low organic matter level. The conversion of the whole pampean cropping area to no-till would increase SOC by 74 Tg C, about twice the annual C emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Argentina. Emissions of N2O were greater under no-till with a mean increase of 1 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in denitrification rate for humid pampean scenarios. The increased emissions of N2O might overcome the mitigation potential of no-till due to C sequestration in about 35 yr, and therefore no-till might produce global warming. PMID:16391272

  18. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of runoff as affected by moldboard plowing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The repeated excessive application of manure on cropland areas can cause nutrients to accumulate near the soil surface and increase nutrient transport by overland flow. Inverting soils with high surface nutrient content could reduce runoff nutrient transport. This study was conducted to measure the ...

  19. Vegetation of plowed and unplowed playa lake wetlands in southwestern Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S.L.; Buckley, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    Playa lakes are shallow, circular basins within the High Plains that were formed by wind during the Pleistocene Era. These basins are often referred to as {open_quotes}buffalo wallows{close_quotes} by local residents. When rainfall occurs, playas pond water, allowing formation of hydric soils and wetland vegetation. Playa provide excellent waterfowl habitat and are second only to the Gulf Coast in importance as winter habitat for birds in the Central Flyway. Highly variable climatic conditions along with extensive changes in surrounding hydrology on agricultural lands contribute to alternating wet and dry cycles within the playas. As a result, the vegetative mixture of the playas can change drastically from one season to another.

  20. Evaporation and Condensation of Moisture in a Mole-Plowed Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishaev, M. G.

    2015-11-01

    Consideration is given to temperature waves, traveling in a soil from its surface, with account for phase transitions of moisture and for the influence exerted by mole passages made by a special technology. It is pointed out that evaporation and condensation, rather than a flux of soil air, introduce noticeable corrections into the distribution of the soil layer temperature. An analysis of the problem and evaluating solutions are given and a technique of calculation of the moisture condensed in mole passages and in the rooty layer of soil is suggested. Weather data for Yuzhno-Sukhokumsk are used. The results are applicable to the climatic conditions of the Prikaspiiskaya (Near-Caspian) semidesert.

  1. Diverse No-Till Irrigated Cropping Systems Instead of Burning and Plowing Continuous Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field burning of stubble has long been used as a management tool for irrigated wheat in the Inland Pacific Northwest. Concerns about regional air quality and government regulations led growers and scientists to conduct a 6-year no-till field experiment to evaluate two cycles of a 3-year irrigated c...

  2. Influence of plow pan on the enrichment and depletion of heavy metals in the surface soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydropedology is a new discipline that uses pedological information to understand the soil water movement, and thus the storage, transformation, and transportation of heavy metals (HMs). However, limited studies have investigated how the hydropedological feature, for example the water-restrictive so...

  3. It's still true: plowing up alfalfa releases plenty of N for corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers and their advisors question the accuracy of published fertilizer N replacement values that alfalfa provides to first-year corn. Their skepticism has risen as corn yields have increased, but higher fertilizer prices have heightened the need to trim unproductive inputs. Recent Minnesota data c...

  4. A Skunk Is in the Sky (or Is It a Plow?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes Project ARTIST (Astronomy-Related Teacher Inservice Training). Using hands-on science experiences, an integrated curriculum, and translated materials, teachers can make space science accessible and interesting to elementary and middle school children. (ZWH)

  5. Determination of methyl bromide in air resulting from pre-plant fumigations of plowed fields

    SciTech Connect

    Woodrow, J.E.; Honaganahalli, P.; Seiber, J.N.

    1995-12-31

    A method for measuring residues of methyl bromide in air entails concentrating the fumigant on charcoal from an airstream at a flowrate of 100 ml/min, desorption of the trapped material with benzyl alcohol solvent in a sealed vial at 60-110{degrees}C for 10-15 min, and then sampling of the equilibrated vapor for gas chromatographic assay using electron-capture detection. The desorbed vapor is chromatographed on a 27 in x 0.32 mm (id) porous-layer open tubular column, on which methyl bromide has a retention time of about 6 min at 90{degrees}C and at a carrier gas flowrate of 3-3.5 ml/min. Using this method, standard curves were linear over at least three orders of magnitude and a practical limit of detection for field air was about 20 ng/m{sup 3} ({approximately}5 ppt). This method has been used in studies concerned with methyl bromide volatilization from fumigated fields and with ambient background levels.

  6. Force and flow at the onset of drag in plowed granular media.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Goldman, Daniel I

    2014-04-01

    We study the transient drag force FD on a localized intruder in a granular medium composed of spherical glass particles. A flat plate is translated horizontally from rest through the granular medium to observe how FD varies as a function of the medium's initial volume fraction, ?. The force response of the granular material differs above and below the granular critical state, ?c, the volume fraction which corresponds to the onset of grain dilatancy. For ??c, FD rapidly rises to a maximum and then decreases over further displacement. The maximum force for ?>?c increases with increasing drag velocity. In quasi-two-dimensional drag experiments, we use granular particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure time resolved strain fields associated with the horizontal motion of a plate started from rest. PIV experiments show that the maxima in FD for ?>?c are associated with maxima in the spatially averaged shear strain field. For ?>?c the shear strain occurs in a narrow region in front of the plate, a shear band. For ??c, surface particles move only during the formation of the shear band, coincident with the maxima in FD, after which the particles remain immobile until the sheared region reaches the measurement region. PMID:24827236

  7. Laser sphincterotomy and ablation of the prostate using a sapphire chisel contact tip firing neodymium:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Perkash, I

    1994-12-01

    I report a modified technique for use of a contact laser for urological endoscopic surgery in spinal cord injury patients. Instead of the usual technique of passing the laser probe for surface vaporization, subsurface buttonholes were drilled with subsequent incision of the overlying tissue. As a result, creation of an adequate channel was expedited with excellent hemostasis. A total of 40 spinal cord injury patients (mean age 50.1 years, range 28 to 76) underwent transurethral surgery for bladder outlet obstruction using a sapphire contact laser tip. Of the patients 50% had undergone previous transurethral surgery and were not voiding well. Urodynamic studies demonstrated detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in 37 patients (92.5%). A voiding cystourethrogram was done in 83% of the patients and showed vesicoureteral reflux in 17%. On cystoscopic examination 32.5% of the patients had an associated enlarged prostate, 32% stricture of the bulbous urethra and 20% bladder neck stenosis. Apart from transurethral sphincterotomy in these patients, ablation of the prostate, stricture and eradication of bladder neck stenosis, as indicated, were also done with the contact laser. Blood loss was approximately 25 to 50 ml. per procedure except for 2 initial patients with a blood loss of 100 to 150 ml. Approximately 3,500 to 8,900 joules accumulated energy were used for transurethral sphincterotomy and 11,000 to 37,000 joules for transurethral resection of the prostate. An indwelling Foley catheter was placed postoperatively for a mean of 3 days (range 1 to 8). All patients were followed for 6 to 23 months (mean 13.1). Four patients failed laser transurethral sphincterotomy: 1 due to inadequate initial incision and 3 who initially underwent laser transurethral incisions of the prostate and had persistent detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (all had relief following laser transurethral sphincterotomy). All subsequent patients are voiding well with a wide open bladder neck and posterior urethra as shown on a voiding cystourethrogram. PMID:7966667

  8. Evaluation of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with piezosurgery versus oscillating saw and chisel osteotomy - a randomized prospective trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery has been introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional sharp instruments used in craniomaxillofacial surgery because of its precision and safety. The piezosurgery medical device allows the efficient cutting of mineralized tissues with minimal trauma to soft tissues. Piezoelectric osteotome has found its role in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME), a procedure well established to correct transverse maxillary discrepancies. The advantages include minimal risk to critical anatomic structures. The purpose of this clinical comparative study (CIS 2007-237-M) was to present the advantages of the piezoelectric cut as a minimally invasive device in surgically assisted, rapid maxillary expansion by protecting the maxillary sinus mucosal lining. Methods Thirty patients (18 females and 12 males) at the age of 18 to 54 underwent a surgically assisted palatal expansion of the maxilla with a combined orthodontic and surgical approach. The patients were randomly divided into two separate treatment groups. While Group 1 received conventional surgery using an oscillating saw, Group 2 was treated with piezosurgery. The following parameters were examined: blood pressure, blood values, required medication, bleeding level in the maxillary sinus, duration of inpatient stay, duration of surgery and height of body temperature. Results The results displayed no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding laboratory blood values and inpatient stay. The duration of surgery revealed a significant discrepancy. Deploying piezosurgery took the surgeon an average of 10áminutes longer than working with a conventional-saw technique. However, the observation of the bleeding level in the paranasal sinus presented a major and statistically significant advantage of piezosurgery: on average the bleeding level was one category above the one of the remaining patients. Conclusion This method of piezoelectric surgery with all its advantages is going to replace many conventional operating procedures in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Trial registration CIS 2007-237-M PMID:23414112

  9. Quantification of Soil Physical Properties by Using X-Ray Computerized Tomography (CT) and Standard Laboratory (STD) Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Ambert Sanchez

    2003-12-12

    The implementation of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) on agricultural soils has been used in this research to quantify soil physical properties to be compared with standard laboratory (STD) methods. The overall research objective was to more accurately quantify soil physical properties for long-term management systems. Two field studies were conducted at Iowa State University's Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua, IA using two different soil management strategies. The first field study was conducted in 1999 using continuous corn crop rotation for soil under chisel plow with no-till treatments. The second study was conducted in 2001 and on soybean crop rotation for the same soil but under chisel plow and no-till practices with wheel track and no-wheel track compaction treatments induced by a tractor-manure wagon. In addition, saturated hydraulic (K{sub s}) conductivity and the convection-dispersion (CDE) model were also applied using long-term soil management systems only during 2001. The results obtained for the 1999 field study revealed no significant differences between treatments and laboratory methods, but significant differences were found at deeper depths of the soil column for tillage treatments. The results for standard laboratory procedure versus CT method showed significant differences at deeper depths for the chisel plow treatment and at the second lower depth for no-till treatment for both laboratory methods. The macroporosity distribution experiment showed significant differences at the two lower depths between tillage practices. Bulk density and percent porosity had significant differences at the two lower depths of the soil column. The results obtained for the 2001 field study showed no significant differences between tillage practices and compaction practices for both laboratory methods, but significant differences between tillage practices with wheel track and no-wheel compaction treatments were found along the soil profile for both laboratory methods. The K{sub s} measurements and CDE parameters revealed no significant differences between tillages and treatments. In essence, the CT method and CDE model both proved to be useful methods to quantify macropores and estimate solute transport parameters, respectively. Breakthrough curves were generated to observe the initial and final breakthrough of solute response along the soil matrix.

  10. Maumee River basin pilot watershed study. Volume 5. Continued watershed monitoring (1981-1985) and rainulator study - detailed data (1986). Final report, 1981-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.

    1987-09-01

    The work was begun in 1975 as one of several studies of U.S. and Canadian watersheds draining to the Great Lakes. The Maumee River Basin is the largest of the Great Lakes watersheds and contributes the highest loads of sediments and nutrients. The study was to monitor sediment and nutrient losses from several small watersheds in the Maumee River Basin. The tillage method studied was fall moldboard or fall chisel plowing. No-till and No-till ridges were also examined. The watershed studies were supplemented with a detailed examination of the effects or residue cover on soil and phosphorus losses using the programmable rainfall simulator of the National Soil Erosion Laboratory at Purdue University.

  11. Evolution of the plow over 10,000 years and the rationale for no-till farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture originated 10 to 13 millennia ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, mostly along the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Indus and Yangtze River valleys and was introduced into Greece and southeast Europe > 8000 years ago. Sumerian and other civilizations developed a wide variety of simple ...

  12. FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT APPROXIMATIONS OF NONLOCAL IN TIME ONE-DIMENSIONAL PLOWS IN POROUS MEDIA. (R825207)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Modeling organic carbon dynamics under no-tillage and plowed systems in tropical soils of Brazil using CQESTR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CQESTR simulates the effect of several management practices on soil organic carbon stocks. The model had been calibrated and validated in temperate regions. Our objective was to calibrate the CQESTR model and evaluate its performance for simulating carbon dynamics as affected by tillage practices in...

  14. [Testing and commercialization of a cotton stalk shredder and plow]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1996-01-27

    This quarterly report describes work on Task 1: Field test and sell prototype to Ellis Equipment, Ltd; Task 2: Design, build, and field test two prototypes; and Task 3: Produce and sell Pegasus to farmers. The equipment has been built to shred stalks, deeply till the soil, and prepare seedbeds for cotton plants. The equipment has been field tested in Australia and is currently being field tested in California and Arizona. Unexpected problems appeared with hard dry soils and this report describes improvements made.

  15. Dissolved organic C and N pools in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems and sampling depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garc├şa-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro Angel; Garc├şa L├│pez de Sa, Esther; Polo, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage practices exert a significant influence on the dynamic of soluble organic C and N pools, affecting nutrient cycling in agricultural systems by enhancing its mineralization through microbial activities or stabilization in soil microaggregates, which contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of the present research was to determine the influence of three different soil management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) obtained from wastewater treatment processes on dissolved organic C (water-soluble organic C -WSOC-, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds) and soluble N (total-N, NH4+, NO3-) pools in a long-term field experiment (27 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station "La Higueruela" (40┬░ 03'N, 4┬░ 24'W) under semi-arid conditions. Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 tonnes per hectare prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. Soil sampling was performed two months after tillage practices at the following depths for each treatment: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Results obtained for unamended soils showed that no-tillage management increased total-N, NH4+ and NO3- contents at the 0-10 cm depth samples, meanwhile WSC and carbohydrates contents were larger at 20-30 cm depth samples in both moldboard and no-tillage plots. CS and TSS-amended soils presented a general increase in soluble C and N compounds, being significantly higher in TSS-amended soils, as TSS contains a great amount of labile organic C and N substrates due to the lack of stabilization treatment. TSS-amended soils under no-tillage and chisel plowing showed larger N, NH4+ and NO3- content at the 0-10 cm samples, meanwhile moldboard management exhibited larger NH4+ and NO3- content at 10-20 and 20-30 cm samples, possibly due to the incorporation of TSS at deeper depths (20-40 cm). CS and TSS-amended soils in no-tillage system showed the largest content of organic C pools at 0-10 cm depth samples due to less soil disturbance and the input of organic substrates with CS and TSS on soil surface. CS and TSS-amended soils under chisel plowing exhibited similar contents of soluble organic C pools at 10-20 and 20-30 cm depth samples and only TSS-amended soils increased significantly WSOC content at 0-10 cm samples. Similarly, contents of WSOC and carbohydrates in moldboard plowing were distributed more uniformly throughout the soil profile due to the turnover of soil and CS and TSS amendments into the plow layer. Acknowledgements: this research was supported by the Spanish CICYT, Project no. CTM2011-25557.

  16. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  17. Preferential bromide and pesticide movement to tile drains under different cropping practices.

    PubMed

    Fortin, J; Gagnon-Bertrand, E; VÚzina, L; RomprÚ, M

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface drainage systems are useful tools to study chemical leaching in soils. Our objective was to compare the breakthrough behavior of bromide, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamid] to tile drains under two fall tillage practices (conventional tillage [CT] with a moldboard plow, and reduced tillage [RT] with a chisel plow) in field plots cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). Leachate volume were greater in RT than in CT, with no statistical differences. Soil analysis showed that bromide migrated deeper in the soil profile than both herbicides, with little tillage effect. All chemicals were detected in drainage water at the same time and followed an event-driven behavior. Tillage had no effect on atrazine and metolachlor found in drainage water, while bromide concentration peaks were higher in RT than in CT in 1999. Concentration peaks were recorded earlier for atrazine and metolachlor than for bromide. Plots of cumulative relative chemical mass (cumulative mass divided by total mass measured in drainage) as a function of cumulative drainage were mostly linear for bromide, while they were S-shaped for both herbicides. Drainage that corresponded to 50% of relative cumulative mass ranged from 40 to 55% for bromide and from 5 to 28% for both herbicides. Rapid chemical movement to tile drains suggested that preferential flow was important in both CT and RT, and that these tillage practices had little influence on this phenomena. PMID:12469844

  18. Fertility and tilth effects of fuel-crop-residue removal. Final report, March 23, 1979-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, L.F.

    1981-01-01

    Research objectives were to evaluate the effect of differential levels of crop residue removal on tillage and on runoff, erosion, sediment, and nutrient losses with continuous till and no-till runoff plots and to evaluate the effect of differential levels of crop residue removal and tillage on soil organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus availability, bulk density, soil water, soil temperature, grain production, residue production, and nutrient content of crop and grain. The effects of tillage and residue management on soil organic matter nitrification and N mineralization potential using plots established before initiation of this study were also studied. Results indicate that the small amounts of runoff generated during water years 1980 and 1981 prevent firm conclusions from the data. There were trends for less soil and nutrient losses from the no-till plots as residue amounts were increased. Tillage did not seem to affect grain and straw yields from the runoff and erosion plots in 1979 and 1980. Grain and straw yields, %N, and %P for 1979 from the soil physical, chemical, and biological plots were unaffected by tillage. Grain and straw yields from the lower slope plots were higher because of better soil moisture. Results from the N-mineralization potential study showed that moldboard plowing resulted in uniform N-mineralization potentials throughout the top 15 cm of soil, but the N-mineralization potential at 0 to 5 cm was greater for chisel plowing and no-till than for moldboard plowing and less at the 5- to 10- and 10- to 15-cm depths. Crop rotations resulted in different N-mineralization potentials with depth throughout the top 15 cm of soil. The net result was that average N-mineralization potential for 0 to 15 cm was unaffected by tillage or crop rotation. Soil water was periodically measured by neutron and gravimetric methods on all research plots. Results are reported. (JGB)

  19. Dinosaur Tracks, Erosion Marks and Midnight Chisel Work (But No Human Footprints) in the Cretaceous Limestone of the Paluxy River Bed, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, David H.; Schafersman, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Creationists claim that human footprints coexist with those of dinosaurs in Cretaceous limestone exposed in the Paluxy riverbed near Glen Rose, Texas. Analysis of photos shows that the features in question are not human footprints and that creationist documentation/analysis of the prints is riddled with omissions, misrepresentations,ÔÇŽ

  20. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores was indicated by a rise in concentrations during or shortly after rainfall, but prior to any increase in tile flow. Macropores located above the tile lines were observed during smoke tests in 2012 confirming significantly greater macropore densities above tile lines in the no-till plots (average 23.2 macropores/m^2) as compared to the chisel-plowed plots (average 1.6 macropores/m^2). Identifiable macropores were generally within a 0.4m-wide zone above the tile lines. While bacterial loading to tile lines was dominated by rainfall-driven events, transport of bacteria to tile lines was observed less than a day after application under unsaturated conditions in 2012. Indicator bacteria concentrations were poorly correlated to Salmonella spp. throughout the study period, with water sample concentrations as high as 4x10^3 cfu/100 ml Salmonella spp. in samples where no E. coli or enterococci were detected. The differences in precipitation from year-to-year had the greatest effect on E. coli concentrations which averaged between 331 - 2140 cfu/100ml under the PL1 and PL2 treatments in 2010, and rarely exceeded 10 cfu/100ml in the month after litter application during dry years. Enterococci were similarly affected, while dry conditions did not result in lower average Salmonella spp. counts.

  1. Civic Learning through Agricultural Improvement: Bringing the Loom and the Anvil into Proximity with the Plow. Studies in the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Glenn P.

    2010-01-01

    How do people use education to respond to change? How do people learn what is expected of "good citizens" in their communities? These questions have long concerned educational historians, civic educators, and social scientists. In recent years, they have captured national attention through high-profile education reform proposals and civiců

  2. Soil Carbon Changes in Transitional Grain Crop Production Systems in South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    Corn-C (Zea Mays L.), soybean-S (Glycine max L.) and spring wheat-W (Triticum aestivum L.) crops were seeded as a component of either a C-S, S-W, or C-S-W crop rotation on silt-loam textured soils ranging from 3.0-5.0% organic matter. Conservation tillage(chisel plow-field cultivator) was applied to half of the plots. The other plots were direct seeded as a no-till (zero-tillage) treatment. Grain yield and surface crop residues were weighed from each treatment plot. Crop residue (stover and straw) was removed from half of the plots. After four years, soil samples were removed at various increments of depth and soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was measured. The ranking of crop residue weights occurred by the order corn>>soybean>wheat. Surface residue accumulation was also greatest with residue treatments that were returned to the plots, those rotations in which maize was a component, and those without tillage. Mean soil organic carbon levels in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.41% to 3.19% (- 0.22%) with conventional tillage (chisel plow/field cultivator) as compared to a decrease from 3.19% to 3.05% (-0.14%) in plots without tillage over a four year period. Organic carbon in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.21% to 3.01% (- 0.20%) after residue removed as compared to a decrease from 3.39% to 3.23% (-0.17%) in plots without tillage applied after four years. The soil C:N ratio (0-7.5cm) decreased from 10.63 to 10.37 (-0.26 (unitless)) in the tilled plots over a four-year period. Soil C:N ratio at the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 10.72 to 10.04 (-0.68) in the no-till plots over a four year period. Differences in the soil C:N ratio comparing residue removed and residue returned were similar (-0.51 vs. -0.43 respectively). These soils are highly buffered for organic carbon changes. Many cropping cycles are required to determine how soil carbon storage is significantly impacted by production systems.

  3. Strength Properties and Organic Carbon of Soils in the North Apalachian Region

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Owen, L B.; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2005-04-01

    Soil strength influenced by management and soil properties controls plant growth, root development, and soil-moisture relations. The impact of textural and structural parameters on soil strength is moderated by soil organic C (SOC) concentration. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess differences in soil strength and SOC concentration in watersheds under long-term (>15 yr) management practices in the North Appalachian region on a predominantly Typic Hapludults on undulating slopes (>6% slope). Seven watersheds without field replication under moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow, disk with beef cattle manure (DiskM), no-till with beef cattle manure (NTm), no-till with no beef cattle manure (NTnm), pasture, and forest were studied. Cone index (CI), shear strength, bulk density (b), volumetric moisture content (v), and SOC concentration were determined at the summit, backslope, and footslope landscape positions at the 0- to 10-, 10- to 20-, and 20- to 30-cm depths. The SOC concentration was slightly higher at the footslope than at the summit position in the cultivated watersheds. The b was lower at the footslope than at the summit in NTm (1.22 vs. 1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) and chisel (1.34 vs. 1.47 Mg m{sup -3}) treatments. Forest had the lowest CI (0.19 MPa), shear strength (6.11 kPa), and b (0.93 Mg m{sup -3}) and the highest SOC concentration (62.7 g kg{sup -1}), whereas MP had the highest CI (0.67 MPa), shear strength (25.5 kPa), b (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}), and the lowest SOC concentration (13.6 g kg{sup -1}) in the 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). The SOC concentration in NTm was 1.7 times higher than that in NTnm, and both no-till treatments had lower b (<1.21 Mg m{sup -3}) than MP (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}) at 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). Manuring decreased both CI and shear strength, but increased SOC concentration. The b, v, and SOC concentration were potential predictors of CI; whereas b and SOC concentration were of shear strength (r2 > 0.42; P < 0.01). Results show that landscape positions had small effect, but management, particularly manuring, had large and significant effects on soil strength and SOC concentration.

  4. Management factors affecting ammonia volatilization from land-applied cattle slurry in the Mid-Atlantic USA.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R B; Meisinger, J J

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization commonly causes a substantial loss of crop-available N from surface-applied cattle slurry. Field studies were conducted with small wind tunnels to assess the effect of management factors on NH3 volatilization. Two studies compared NH3 volatilization from grass sward and bare soil. The average total NH3 loss was 1.5 times greater from slurry applied to grass sward. Two studies examined the effect of slurry dry matter (DM) content on NH3 loss under hot, summer conditions in Maryland, USA. Slurry DM contents were between 54 and 134 g kg(-1). Dry matter content did not affect total NH3 loss, but did influence the time course of NH3 loss. Higher DM content slurries had relatively higher rates of NH3 volatilization during the first 12 to 24 h, but lower rates thereafter. Under the hot conditions, the higher DM content slurries appeared to dry and crust more rapidly causing smaller rates of NH3 volatilization after 12 to 24 h, which offset the earlier positive effects of DM content on NH3 volatilization. Three studies compared immediate incorporation with different tillage implements. Total NH3 loss from unincorporated slurry was 45% of applied slurry NH4+-N, while losses following immediate incorporation with a moldboard plow, tandem-disk harrow, or chisel plow were, respectively, 0 to 3, 2 to 8, and 8 to 12%. These ground cover and DM content data can be used to improve predictions of NH3 loss under specific farming conditions. The immediate incorporation data demonstrate management practices that can reduce NH3 volatilization, which can improve slurry N utilization in crop-forage production. PMID:12175054

  5. Reclamation techniques in southwestern wyoming.

    PubMed

    Parady, F E

    1985-03-01

    Bridger Coal Company operates a 5.8 million tpy surface coal mine thrity five miles northeast of Rock Springs. Wyoming. Approximately 20.000 acres are under permit, with disturbance over the life of the mine projected to reach 10,000 acres. Located on the western rim of the continental divide, the mine receives less than 8.5 inches of precipitation annually. Soils in the area are coarse-textured. and problems associated with elevated salinity and sodicity arc encountered.A variety of common reclamation techniques have been modified to reflect these conditions. Soil horizons are segregated during salvage operations (the surface six inches as topsoil and the balance as subsoil). Unsuitable materials are not salvaged. Direct application of soil is used (over 130 acres in 1983) to maximize native plant regeneration and conserve soil fertility. Inter-seeding of seeding failures has proven to be significantly more successful than chisel plowing and reseeding. Broadcast seeding has been ineffective because of strong winds, and a no till drill has been modified to handle diverse seed mixes and rock conditions. The utility of fertilization under typically xeric moisture regimes is being evaluated. A research project has been initiated to assess establishment of a predominately native, diverse seed mix under irrigation, as well as to determine irrigation rates and duration. PMID:24221682

  6. 76 FR 43370 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...), snow plow vehicle and snow plows. Snow removal equipment broom. Acquire aircraft rescue and... decision. Brief Description of Projects Approved for Use: Airfield sand and deicing facility. Airfield...

  7. Area terrace pit coal mining systems: volume 2--appendices. Open file report (final) Sep 1977-Jul 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, F.; Simon, C.; Stoddard, M.; Verma, M.; White, M.

    1980-10-01

    This report is principally concerned with the engineering and economic feasibility of area surface coal mining systems other than draglines. This analysis evaluates shovel-trucks, shovel-crusher-conveyors, and shovel-rail excavation and haulage systems for an assortment of geologic environments and production rates in the Powder River Basin (PRB). Shovel-trucks, front-end loader-trucks, and shovel-crusher-conveyors were studied in a multiseam, dipping geologic area of the Four Corners region. The Texas lignite engineering and economic research involved bucket-wheel excavators (BWE), BWE-backhoes, and scraper-backhoe combinations for overburden and coal excavation.

  8. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33┬░ 57' S; 60┬░ 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33┬░ 46' S; 60┬░ 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23┬▒1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (<0.5%) were similar in the three sites. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates were minimal due to the low crop response. The results are expressed in Mg ha-1 for an A soil horizon mass of 2500 Mg ha-1. The introduction of agriculture decreased SOC stock: 31Y varied from 68.3 to 40.1 Mg ha-1 (41.3% loss) and 80Y from 68.3 to 47.2 Mg ha-1 (30% loss). The SOC loss was the result of the mineralization of a large amount labile SOC present in the pristine soil and low annual additions of carbon issued from crop residue (3.5 and 3.3 Mg ha-1 corresponding to 31Y and 80Y, respectively). The lower loss of carbon in 80Y compared to 30Y can be explained by the accumulation of stable SOC fractions produced by the burnt stubble. We conclude that current agricultural systems of the Rolling Pampas are not sustainable.

  9. NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

    2005-05-01

    Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design features, construct a field ready prototype and perform field testing at the surface mining sites. It is anticipated that 10% in energy savings including electricity (cable shovel) and fuel (hydraulic shovel) will be achieved by implementation of ISE technology.

  10. Manure composition and incorporation effects on phosphorus in runoff following corn biomass removal.

    PubMed

    YagŘe, MarÝa R; Andraski, Todd W; Laboski, Carrie A M

    2011-01-01

    Greater demand for corn ( L.) stover for bioenergy use may lead to increased corn production acreage with minimal surface residue cover, resulting in greater risk for soil erosion and phosphorus (P) losses in runoff. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to determine the effects of spring-applied dairy cow () manure (none, in-barn composted, and exterior walled-enclosure pit) with >200 g kg organic solids content following fall corn biomass removal with and without incorporation (chisel plow [CP] and no-till [NT]) on sediment and P in runoff. Runoff was collected from a 0.83-m area for 60 min following the onset of rainfall simulation (76 mm h), once in spring and once in fall. Runoff dissolved reactive P (DRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations were positively correlated with manure P rate and were higher in NT compared with CP. Conversely, sediment and particulate P (PP) concentrations in runoff were inversely correlated with manure P rate (and manure solids) and were higher in CP compared with NT. Runoff volume where no manure was applied was higher in NT than in CP in spring but similar in fall. The addition of manure reduced runoff volumes by an average of 82% in NT and 42% in CP over spring and fall. Results from this study indicate that surface application of dairy manure with relatively high solids content may reduce sediment and PP losses in runoff without increasing the risk of increased DRP and DOP losses in the year of application where corn biomass is harvested. PMID:22031580

  11. Transport and persistence of tylosin-resistant enterococci, genes, and tylosin in soil and drainage water from fields receiving Swine manure.

    PubMed

    Garder, Jason L; Moorman, Thomas B; Soupir, Michelle L

    2014-07-01

    Land application of manure from tylosin-treated swine introduces tylosin, tylosin-resistant enterococci, and erythromycin resistant rRNA methylase () genes, which confer resistance to tylosin. This study documents the persistence and transport of tylosin-resistant enterococci, genes, and tylosin in tile-drained chisel plow and no-till agricultural fields treated with liquid swine manure in alternating years. Between 70 and 100% of the enterococci in manure were resistant to tylosin and B concentrations exceeded 10 copies g manure, while the mean F concentrations exceeded 10 copies g manure (T was not detected). The mean concentration of tylosin was 73 ng g manure. Soil collected from the manure injection band closely following application contained >10 copies g soil of both B and F in 2010 and >10 copies g soil after the 2011 application compared to 3 Î 10 to 3 Î 10 copies g soil in the no-manure control plots. Gene abundances declined over the subsequent 2-yr period to levels similar to those in the no-manure controls. Concentrations of enterococci in tile water were low, while tylosin-resistant enterococci were rarely detected. In approximately 75% of tile water samples, B was detected, and F was detected in 30% of tile water samples, but levels of these genes were not elevated due to manure application, and no difference was found between tillage practices. These results show that tylosin usage increased the short-term occurrence of tylosin-resistant enterococci, genes, and tylosin in soils but had minimal effect on tile drainage water quality in years of average to below average precipitation. PMID:25603096

  12. Comparison of Surface Water Quality and Yields from Organically and Conventionally Produced Sweet Corn Plots with Conservation and Conventional Tillage.

    PubMed

    Edgell, Joshua; Osmond, D L; Line, D E; Hoyt, G D; Grossman, J M; Larsen, E M

    2015-11-01

    Organic agricultural systems are often assumed to be more sustainable than conventional farming, yet there has been little work comparing surface water quality from organic and conventional production, especially under the same cropping sequence. Our objective was to compare nutrient and sediment losses, as well as sweet corn ( L. var. ) yield, from organic and conventional production with conventional and conservation tillage. The experiment was located in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Four treatments, replicated four times, had been in place for over 18 yr and consisted of conventional tillage (chisel plow and disk) with conventional production (CT/Conven), conservation no-till with conventional production (NT/Conven), conventional tillage with organic production (CT/Org), and conservation no-till with organic production (NT/Org). Water quality (surface flow volume; nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment concentrations) and sweet corn yield data were collected in 2011 and 2012. Sediment and sediment-attached nutrient losses were influenced by tillage and cropping system in 2011, due to higher rainfall, and tillage in 2012. Soluble nutrients were affected by the nutrient source and rate, which are a function of the cropping system. Sweet corn marketable yields were greater in conventional systems due to high weed competition and reduced total nitrogen availability in organic treatments. When comparing treatment efficiency (yield kg ha /nutrient loss kg ha ), the NT/Conven treatment had the greatest sweet corn yield per unit of nutrient and sediment loss. Other treatment ratios were similar to each other; thus, it appears the most sustainably productive treatment was NT/Conven. PMID:26641338

  13. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fields of eastern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madison, Allison M.; Ruark, Matthew D.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Lara W.; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric T.

    2014-11-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn-soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66-96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L-1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  14. Fate and transport of tylosin-resistant bacteria and macrolide resistance genes in artificially drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure.

    PubMed

    Luby, Elizabeth M; Moorman, Thomas B; Soupir, Michelle L

    2016-04-15

    Application of manure from swine treated with antibiotics introduces antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to soil with the potential for further movement in drainage water, which may contribute to the increase in antibiotic resistance in non-agricultural settings. We compared losses of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus and macrolide-resistance (erm and msrA) genes in water draining from plots with or without swine manure application under chisel plow and no till conditions. Concentrations of ermB, ermC and ermF were all >10(9)copies g(-1) in manure from tylosin-treated swine, and application of this manure resulted in short-term increases in the abundance of these genes in soil. Abundances of ermB, ermC and ermF in manured soil returned to levels identified in non-manured control plots by the spring following manure application. Tillage practices yielded no significant differences (p>0.10) in enterococci or erm gene concentrations in drainage water and were therefore combined for further analysis. While enterococci and tylosin-resistant enterococci concentrations in drainage water showed no effects of manure application, ermB and ermF concentrations in drainage water from manured plots were significantly higher (p<0.01) than concentrations coming from non-manured plots. ErmB and ermF were detected in 78% and 44%, respectively, of water samples draining from plots receiving manure. Although ermC had the highest concentrations of the three genes in drainage water, there was no effect of manure application on ermC abundance. MsrA was not detected in manure, soil or water. This study is the first to report significant increases in abundance of resistance genes in waters draining from agricultural land due to manure application. PMID:26874610

  15. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fieldsof eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Allison; Ruark, Matthew; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Laura W; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till cornÔÇôsoybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66ÔÇô96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32┬ámg┬áLÔłĺ1┬áfor sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  16. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garc├şa-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; L├│pez-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 ╬╝mol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 ╬╝mol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 ╬╝mol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 ╬╝mol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 ╬╝mol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0.03-0.10 m3m-3, 0-11-0.21 m3m-3, 0.22-0.30 m3m-3). In general, Q10 values were lower at elevated temperatures when soil moisture contents decreased, confirming that SCE is less sensitive to soil temperature during drought periods. Q10 values were higher in moldboard and chisel tilled soils, possibly due to the incorporation of residues into soil and the increase of soil C substrate, meanwhile in no-tillage part of the organic C pools are likely protected from microorganisms by physico-chemical mechanisms. TSS-amended soils exhibited higher Q10 values than CS, pointing that the biochemical lability of the organic C added with amendments exerts an influence on SCE. Acknowledgements: this research was supported by the Spanish CICYT, Project no. CTM2011-25557.

  17. Real promise or false hope: DOE's title XVII loan Guarantee

    SciTech Connect

    Massouh, Jennifer F.; Cannon, George D. Jr.; Logan, Suzanne M.; Schwartz, David L.

    2009-05-15

    While the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 expanded the DOE loan guarantee program to include certain ''shovel-ready'' projects, and appropriated $6 billion to cover the credit subsidy cost associated with these projects, it failed to resolve some of the most pressing problems facing the program. Here are some recommendations that may finally get some shovels in the ground. (author)

  18. Effects of tillage and poultry manure application rates on Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in tiles draining Des Moines Lobe soils.

    PubMed

    Hruby, C E; Soupir, M L; Moorman, T B; Shelley, M; Kanwar, R S

    2016-04-15

    Application of poultry manure (PM) to cropland as fertilizer is a common practice in artificially drained regions of the Upper Midwest United States. Tile-waters have the potential to contribute pathogenic bacteria to downstream waters. This 3-year study (2010-2012) was designed to evaluate the impacts of manure management and tillage practices on bacteria losses to drainage tiles under a wide range of field conditions. PM was applied annually in spring, prior to planting corn, at application rates ranging from 5 to 40┬ákg/ha to achieve target rates of 112 and 224┬ákg/ha nitrogen (PM1 and PM2). Control plots received no manure (PM0). Each treatment was replicated on three chisel-plowed (CP) plots and one no-till (NT) plot. Tile-water grab samples were collected weekly when tiles were flowing beginning 30 days before manure application to 100 days post application, and additional grab samples were obtained to target the full spectrum of flow conditions. Manure and tile-water samples were analyzed for the pathogen, Salmonella spp. (SALM), and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli (EC), and enterococci (ENT). All three bacterial genera were detected more frequently, and at significantly higher concentrations, in tile-waters draining NT plots compared to CP plots. Transport of bacteria to NT tiles was most likely facilitated by macropores, which were significantly more numerous above tiles in NT plots in 2012 as determined by smoke-testing. While post-manure samples contained higher concentrations of bacteria than pre-manure samples, significant differences were not seen between low (PM1) and high (PM2) rates of PM application. The highest concentrations were observed under the NT PM2 plot in 2010 (6.6┬á├Ś┬á10(3)┬ácfu/100┬ámL┬áEC, 6.6┬á├Ś┬á10(5)┬ácfu/100┬ámL ENT, and 2.8┬á├Ś┬á10(3)┬ácfu/100┬ámL SALM). Individual and 30-day geometric mean ENT concentrations correlated more strongly to SALM than EC; however, SALM were present in samples with little or no FIB. PMID:26874615

  19. Distribution of organic carbon in physical fractions of soils as affected by agricultural management

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhu, Jagadamma; Lal, Dr. Rattan

    2010-08-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed heterogeneously among different-sized primary particles and aggregates. Further, the SOC associated with different physical fractions respond differently to managements. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective to quantify the SOC associated with all the three structural levels of SOC (particulate organic matter, soil separates and aggregate-size fractions) as influenced by long-term change in management. The study also aims at reevaluating the concept that the SOC sink capacity of individual size-fractions is limited. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on distribution of SOC among fractions were compared with soil from adjacent undisturbed area under native vegetation for the mixed, mesic, Typic Fragiudalf of Wooster, OH. Forty five years of no-till (NT) management resulted in more SOC accumulation in soil surface (0 7.5 cm) than in chisel tillage and plow tillage (PT) treatments. However, PT at this site resulted in a redistribution of SOC from surface to deeper soil layers. The soils under continuous corn accumulated significantly more SOC than those under corn soybean rotation at 7.5 45 cm depth. Although soil texture was dominated by the silt-sized particles, most of the SOC pool was associated with the clay fraction. Compared to PT, the NT treatment resulted in (i) significantly higher proportion of large macroaggregates (>2,000 m) and (ii) 1.5 2.8 times higher SOC concentrations in all aggregate-size classes. A comparative evaluation using radar graphs indicated that among the physical fractions, the SOC associated with sand and silt fractions quickly changed with a land use conversion from native vegetation to agricultural crops. A key finding of this study is the assessment of SOC sink capacity of individual fractions, which revealed that the clay fraction of agricultural soils continues to accumulate more SOC, albeit at a slower rate, with progressive increase in total SOC concentration. However, the clay fraction of soil under native woodlot showed an indication for SOC saturation. The data presented in this study from all the three structural levels of SOC would be helpful for refining the conceptual pool definitions of the current soil organic matter prediction models.

  20. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L.

    2012-10-25

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of very large pores associated with former root channels in NT and NS aggregates. Our findings indicate that mechanisms of macro-aggregate formation might differ in their importance in different land use and management practices.

  1. Open-pit equipment notebook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Beds of consolidated material need to be drilled and blasted before successful excavation. In open-pit mining it is common to move fragmented material across to spoil piles by dragline, shovel, or bucketwheel excavator. One method recently introduced uses explosives to throw much of the overburden across the pit, thus reducing the amount of material needing rehandling. The increased cost of explosives must be balanced with the reduced cost of power needed by the prime excavator. The drill hole pattern and the use of high energy explosives require careful design. Making the choice between hydraulic excavators with a backhoe or front shovel, wheel loaders, and rope-operated shovels continues to be an interesting area of debate. While the rope-operated electric shovel is best for large output, smaller shovels are being replaced by hydraulic excavators for numerous reasons. One of the advantages of hydraulic excavators is that they weigh around half that of rope-operated shovels with the same size bucket. Another advantage is their mobility. They can move at a speed roughly twice that of a rope-operated shovel. Hydraulic excavators can successfully attack a solid face that needs blasting before being loaded by a wheel loader or rope-operated shovel. Neither the rope-operated shovel nor the wheel loader has the wrist-action of the hydraulic excavator. The backhoe's ability to dig below the level on which it is situated and to load trucks that are on the pit floor is important. Recently, many equipment manufacturers have introduced microprocessor-controlled systems for higher power and simpler operation. The choice between wheel loaders and hydraulic excavators should be based on site conditions.

  2. Application of Virtual Prototype Technology to Analyzing the Kinetic and Dynamic Characteristics of the Base of the Remote Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhu; Long, Yin-Cheng; Fa, Chen; Fan-Rang, Kong; Li, Guo

    The technology for Virtual Prototyping could be adopted to take the place of Physical Prototyping so that we could innovate, test and evaluate the products, thus shortening the circle of product development, decreasing its cost and enhancing up an enterpriseĺs competition. Aiming at the rupture on the base of the remote cylinder during the Plow working, first the plowĺs virtual prototype was established by SolidWorks in a computer ; secondly in view of the structure characteristic of the base of the remote cylinder, it was analyzed in kinematics and dynamics, at last with the help of the dynamics simulation software DDM, the plow was simulated working in the field to find out which of the two motion types operating in the field made the plow load larger and to determine the corresponding time the load was larger, supplying the potent data for the optimum design of the plow in the future.

  3. 26 CFR 48.4041-8 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ö includes any road (whether a Federal highway, State highway, city street, rural road, or otherwise) in the.... The term does not include farm tractors, trench diggers, power shovels, bulldozers, road graders...

  4. 26 CFR 48.4041-8 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ö includes any road (whether a Federal highway, State highway, city street, rural road, or otherwise) in the.... The term does not include farm tractors, trench diggers, power shovels, bulldozers, road graders...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-8 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ö includes any road (whether a Federal highway, State highway, city street, rural road, or otherwise) in the.... The term does not include farm tractors, trench diggers, power shovels, bulldozers, road graders...

  6. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

  7. 155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  8. Take Care in The Bitter Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in a hospital news release. "In the cold weather, it's important to keep your head, face and ... Glatter also warned that the combination of cold weather and shoveling can significantly increase heart attack risk, ...

  9. Build an Emergency Preparedness Kit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and tow rope. -compass and road maps. -shovel. -tire repair kit and pump. -extra clothing to keep ... and a hat -kitty litter or sand for tire traction -Red or brightly- colored cloth -NOAA weather ...

  10. Extreme Cold: A Prevention Guide to Promote Your Personal Health and Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... extra batteries ÔÇó non-electric can opener ÔÇó snow shovel ÔÇó rock salt ÔÇó special needs items (diapers, hearing aid batteries, ... as free of ice as possible by using rock salt or another chemical de-icing compound. Sand ...

  11. How to Clear Snow without Getting Hurt

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_156208.html How to Clear Snow Without Getting Hurt More than 203,000 Americans required treatment for injuries suffered while shoveling snow last year To use the sharing features on ...

  12. 76 FR 2944 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    .... Snow removal equipment. Pavement management plan. Apron lighting. Runway 5/23 rehabilitation. Rotating.... Acquire broom truck snow removal equipment. Airfield pavement rehabilitation. Acquire rotary plow...

  13. Area terrace pit coal mining systems: volume 1--technical and economic evaluation of terrace pit mining systems. Open file report (final) Sep 1977-Jul 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, F.; Simon, C.; Stoddard, M.; Verma, M.; White, M.

    1980-10-01

    This report is principally concerned with the engineering and economic feasibility of area surface coal mining systems other than draglines. This analysis evaluates shovel-trucks, shovel-crusher-conveyors, and shovel-rail excavation and haulage systems for an assortment of geologic environments and production rates in the Powder River Basin (PRB). Shovel-trucks, front-end loader-trucks, and shovel-crusher conveyors were studied in a multiseam, dipping geologic area of the Four Corners region. The Texas lignite engineering and economic research involved bucket-wheel excavators (BWE), BWE-backhoes, and scraper-backhoe combinations for overburden and coal excavation. The PRB truck-shovel study utilized the most recent computer simulation available in both the design and cost analysis. Detailed engineering analysis, followed by in-depth operating costs result in a complete evaluation of each mining system. Cost comparisons of the different mining systems under similar geologic and production constraints are presented to illustrate the estimated capital investment and production costs per ton of coal and bank cubic yard of overburden.

  14. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., operative dental amalgam carver, surgical bone chisel, operative amalgam and foil condenser, endodontic... dental excavator, operative explorer surgical bone file, operative margin finishing file, periodontic..., periodontic hoe, operative matrix contouring instrument, operative cutting instrument, operative...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., operative dental amalgam carver, surgical bone chisel, operative amalgam and foil condenser, endodontic... dental excavator, operative explorer surgical bone file, operative margin finishing file, periodontic..., periodontic hoe, operative matrix contouring instrument, operative cutting instrument, operative...

  16. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., operative dental amalgam carver, surgical bone chisel, operative amalgam and foil condenser, endodontic... dental excavator, operative explorer surgical bone file, operative margin finishing file, periodontic..., periodontic hoe, operative matrix contouring instrument, operative cutting instrument, operative...

  17. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., operative dental amalgam carver, surgical bone chisel, operative amalgam and foil condenser, endodontic... dental excavator, operative explorer surgical bone file, operative margin finishing file, periodontic..., periodontic hoe, operative matrix contouring instrument, operative cutting instrument, operative...

  18. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., operative dental amalgam carver, surgical bone chisel, operative amalgam and foil condenser, endodontic... dental excavator, operative explorer surgical bone file, operative margin finishing file, periodontic..., periodontic hoe, operative matrix contouring instrument, operative cutting instrument, operative...

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF LARGE BORE HOLE, SHOWING TRIANGULAR SHAPE FORMED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LARGE BORE HOLE, SHOWING TRIANGULAR SHAPE FORMED BY CHISEL METHOD OF DRILLING - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  20. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The U-2 underflight photography has shown that the critical stages in cotton plow down (defoliation, shredding, and plowing) can be identified. This result will prove invaluable to a user agency whose purpose is to monitor the cotton season for compliance with California State law.

  1. Soil Compaction and Root Growth under Field Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While plow pans (a thin layer of compacted soil at the bottom of the normal tillage depth) in the Central and Southern US tend to be genetic in origin, they were believed to be wheel-induced in the upper Midwest by running the rear tractor wheel in the plow furrow. But it was also believed that annu...

  2. High biomass removal limits carbon sequestration potential of mature temperate pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of plowing have depleted organic carbon stocks in many agricultural soils. Conversion of plowed fields to pasture has the potential to reverse this process, recapturing organic matter that was lost under more intensive cropping systems. Temperate pastures in the northeast USA are highly prod...

  3. Determinants of tillage frequency among smallholder farmers in two semi-arid areas in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temesgen, Melesse; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Alemu, Dawit

    Traditional tillage systems practiced by farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia are characterized by repeated and cross plowing with an indigenous plow called Maresha. Repeated and cross plowing have led to land degradation. Conservation tillage systems that advocate minimum soil disturbance can alleviate land degradation problems. However, before introducing reduced tillage systems, it was found necessary to study why farmers undertake repeated plowing. The study was undertaken in two semi-arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity located in the central rift valley of Ethiopia and on two major crops; Tef ( Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.)) and maize ( Zea mays XX). Fifty farmers from each area were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that farmers in the study area plow repeatedly in order to completely disturb unplowed strips of land left between adjacent furrows. Unplowed strips are the results of the V-shaped furrows created by the Maresha plow. Farmers generally do not plow before the soil is wetted by rainfall. Wetting and drying cycles due to dry spells occurring between rainfall events force farmers to plow frequently to avoid moisture losses through surface runoff, evaporation and weed transpiration. Tef fields are plowed 4-5 times while maize fields are plowed 3-4 times. Tillage frequency increased with the education level and experience of farmers; with their perception about the purpose of tillage such as moisture conservation, weed control and soil warming; and with resource availability such as area of land and family labor. Tillage frequency was higher for Tef than for maize and in heavy soils than in light soils.

  4. Ethnic variation of selected dental traits in Coorg

    PubMed Central

    Uthaman, Chancy; Sequeira, Peter Simon; Jain, Jithesh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In a country like India, in addition to the great innate diversity, there are distinct migrant populations with unique dental traits. Aim: To assess the distribution and degree of expression of cusp of Carabelli of maxillary first permanent molars and shoveling trait of maxillary central incisors, between three ethnic groups of Coorg, namely Kodavas, Tibetans, and Malayalees. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, indirect, anthropometric, study was carried out among 15- to 30-year-old subjects belonging to three different ethnic origins. A random sample consisting of 91 subjects were recruited for the study. The shovel trait of incisors and the Carabelli trait of molars were recorded according to the classification given by HrdliĂłka and Sousa et al., respectively. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis test was employed to determine the difference in three populations for shoveling and Carabelli traits. Mann-Whitney Test was used for pair-wise comparisons of three populations. Result: Of the total 91 subjects, 31 were Kodavas, 30 Malayalees and 30 Tibetans. There was a statistically significant difference in shoveling trait among the three ethnic groups. For Carabelli traits, there was no statistically significant difference among three ethnic groups. Conclusion: The present study findings showed that Tibetans have a higher degree of shoveling trait than the selected South Indian ethnic groups. PMID:26816457

  5. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alc├íntara, Luis; Lozano-Garc├şa, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (C├│rdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the Anderson-Darling test at each horizon or a combination of horizons for each soil type. RESULTS The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, reducing the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). The reduction of SOC by LUC, can be explained by a degraded process (due to vegetation losses and unsustainable soil management, which result in progressive impoverishment in the soil organic matter (OM) content, causing low productivity, which derived in unsuitable chemical properties) and by the reduced input of OM in cultivated soils, which reduced physical protection of soil and increased water erosion. However, 46 years of LUC had a positive effect in the soil, increasing the SR (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio (Parras-Alc├íntara et al., 2013). REFERENCES Parras-Alc├íntara, L., Mart├şn-Carrillo, M., Lozano-Garc├şa, B. 2013. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain). Solid Earth, 4: 167-177.

  6. White Flame Energy switches to backhoes

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2005-06-01

    The mountaintop coal operator, White Flame Energy has switched to different truck-shovel arrangement. Along with many surface mining operations throughout central Appalachia, the company is using hoe-configured hydraulic excavators as opposed to the traditional front-shovel arrangements. Located in Varney, WV, White Flame Energy uses two Terex O & K mining shovels, an RH170 and an RH 200, which have the capacity to move 2 million cu yards per month from five seams, primarily the Coalburg, Stockton, and No 5 Block and associated rider seams. The article records conversations on the operations with Mike Vines, the general manager, and Don Nicewonder, the owner of White Flame Energy. 2 photos.

  7. Feeding ecology of waterfowl wintering on evaporation ponds in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), Northern Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) wintering on drainwater evaporation ponds in California from 1982 through 1984. Pintails primarily consumed midges (Chironomidae) (39.3%) and widegeongrass (Ruppia maritima) nutlets (34.6%). Shovelers and Ruddy Ducks consumed 92.5% and 90.1% animal matter, respectively. Water boatmen (Corixidae) (51.6%), rotifers (Rotatoria) (20.4%), and copepods (Copepoda) (15.2%) were the most important Shoveler foods, and midges (49.7%) and water boatmen (36.0%) were the most important foods of Ruddy Ducks. All three species were opportunistic foragers, shifting their diets seasonally to the most abundant foods given their behavioral and morphological attributes.

  8. Relationship between waterfowl nutrition and condition on agricultural drainwater ponds in the Tulare Basin, California: waterfowl body composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    We examined carcass composition and proximate food composition of ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), and northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering on agricultural drainwater ponds in California during 1983-84. Lipids varied seasonally in northern shovelers and northern pintails. Protein did not fluctuate except in ruddy ducks whose protein mass increased over winter, suggesting that some protein was catabolized prior to arrival on wintering areas or that a buildup of protein occurred prior to spring migration. Waterfowl diets varied among species and time, but the nutritional composition of the diets was relatively stable. Ruddy ducks and shovelers consumed mostly animal foods rich in protein (53-60%) and low in Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE)(1-7%). Pintail diets contained more NFE (23-38%) and less protein (14-38%) because of greater consumption of plant foods. Nutritional composition of pintail diets varied with lower protein consumption occurring from November through January.

  9. Made in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    This supplement was prepared in collaboration with the Association of German Mining Machine Manufacturers within VDMA to give an overview of German manufacturers' contribution to the coal industry. It has 18 short papers and a VDMA vendor matrix and directory. Papers include details of MAN Takraf's surface mining equipment, hydraulic shovels and excavators from Komatsu, Liebherr and Terex O & K, Siemens motors and electric control technology in trucks, shovels etc., new technology from DBT, IBS and Wirth, and low emission engines and drives from Deutz and DaimlerCrysler. 2 figs.

  10. A comparison of the helminth communities in Anas undulata, Anas erythrorhyncha, Anas capensis and Anas smithii at Barberspan, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Alexander, S; McLaughlin, J D

    1997-09-01

    Examination of the helminth communities in 25 yellow-billed ducks (Anas undulata), 21 red-billed ducks (Anas erythrorhyncha), ten Cape teal (Anas capensis) and seven Cape shovellers (Anas smithii) that had overwintered at Barberspan, revealed differences in community structure. Infracommunities in yellow-billed and red-billed ducks were characterized by low diversity and high eveness, and generally consisted of less than 100 helminths per duck. Similarity values (mean percent similarity and mean Jaccard's coefficients) were low. In contrast, infracommunities in Cape teal and Cape shovellers were more diverse, displayed low eveness values and consisted of far greater numbers of helminths. Mean similarity values for the infracommunities in Cape teal and Cape shovellers were much higher than those in yellow-billed or red-billed ducks. The component communities in all four duck hosts were species rich. Those in yellow-billed and red-billed ducks, however, consisted predominantly of satellite species and no core species were present, whereas those in Cape teal and Cape shoveller included several core species. Cape teal and Cape shovellers each had a group of recurrent species but there was not much of a tendency for species to co-occur in yellow-billed and red-billed ducks. Multivariate analysis revealed a greater similarity between the communities in Cape teal and Cape shovellers than between the latter and the communities in yellow-billed or red-billed ducks. Communities in Cape teal and Cape shovellers could be distinguished from each other by the presence or absence of particular cestode species. The communities in these two species could be distinguished from those in yellow-billed or red-billed ducks by a suite of cestode species that was absent in the latter two. Two recurrent groups, consisting of eight and two species, were identified in the compound community. Each group consisted of species found predominantly in Cape teal and Cape shovellers. Patterns seen in the helminth communities of the various hosts reflected differences in diet, but other factors, including feeding behaviour, spatial segregation and host specificity, may also have had an effect. PMID:9467171

  11. The Mechanization of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Wayne D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses technological innovations affecting the economic and social basis of farm life, focusing on trends, farm equipment (plows, reaping tools, tractors, and harvesters), productivity, and influence of computers in all phases of agribusiness. (JN)

  12. 4. CORNICE AND PARAPET DETAIL. IN THE CENTER IS AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CORNICE AND PARAPET DETAIL. IN THE CENTER IS AN ANVIL AND A PLOW, SYMBOLIC TOOLS OF THE FARMERS AND MECHANICS - Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank, 427 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. River and Stream Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    ... washing into lakes and streams comes from exposed earth. This exposed earth includes plowed fields, construction sites, and areas that ... using new methods to reduce the amount of earth they disturb. Bacteria Bacteria are also a big ...

  14. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... follows: (a) An American bald eagle in black and white holding the scales of balanced interests over a black and white wheel of commerce and a farmer's plow, also in black and white. These symbols...

  15. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... follows: (a) An American bald eagle in black and white holding the scales of balanced interests over a black and white wheel of commerce and a farmer's plow, also in black and white. These symbols...

  16. 78 FR 57205 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... twin agent extinguishing skid unit and equipment. Acquire snow removal equipment--runway plow truck.... Widen, reconfigure, and rehabilitate taxiway B--design and construct, phase 2. Conduct preliminary...

  17. 77 FR 27537 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    .... Runway high speed snow removal broom. Taxiway R extension and road relocation--construction. PFC... rehabilitation, phase I. Purchase airport snow removal truck/plow. Design and construct noise mitigation...

  18. 49 CFR 325.1 - Scope of the rules in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Agency, 40 CFR part 202. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the rules in this part... police van, or a rescue van, when it is responding to an emergency call; (5) A snow plow in operation;...

  19. 49 CFR 325.1 - Scope of the rules in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Agency, 40 CFR part 202. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the rules in this part... police van, or a rescue van, when it is responding to an emergency call; (5) A snow plow in operation;...

  20. 49 CFR 325.1 - Scope of the rules in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Agency, 40 CFR part 202. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the rules in this part... police van, or a rescue van, when it is responding to an emergency call; (5) A snow plow in operation;...

  1. Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2013-05-15

    Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated. PMID:23500104

  2. Normatives of changes in the physical properties of chernozems in the forest-steppe zone of European Russia under conditions of their intensive agricultural use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, I. V.; Utkaeva, V. F.; Bondarev, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Normatives of changes in the physical properties of plowed typical and leached heavy loamy and light clayey chernozems under their intensive agricultural use are developed for two major provinces of the forest-steppe zone of European Russia. The limits of the optimal, permissible, and critical values of the physical properties of the plow layer for crop growth are determined. It is shown that the variation in the physical properties of the plow layer of chernozems is determined not only by the zonal-provincial features but also by the period and type of their use and the farming standards. In the plow layer, the natural differences in the physical properties of chernozems at the subtype level are significantly leveled by agrotechnical measures and the similar requirements of cultivated crops. Upon high farming standards, the physical properties of plowed chernozems on fields with high and moderate fertility levels remain close to the optimum or permissible values. The technogenic compaction of the plow layer of chernozems of different textures in the forest-steppe zone and the corresponding decrease in the yield of cereals are predicted on the basis of known models. The developed normatives of changes in the physical properties of cultivated chernozems can be applied to assess the modern state of the physical conditions of these soils and the tendencies of their alteration; they can serve as a basis for improving regional systems of land use.

  3. 75 FR 53598 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Shovelnose Sturgeon Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) (55 FR 36641, September 6, 1990). The pallid sturgeon has a flattened, shovel... under the Act (55 FR 36641). At the time of listing, the primary threats and vulnerabilities for pallid... recruitment, commercial harvest, pollution and contaminants, and hybridization (55 FR 36641, September 6,...

  4. HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE THE JACKET AND WEIGHTS. A PNEUMATIC SHOVEL PUSHES THE MORE RECENTLY POURED MOLD INTO THE COOLED MOLD, FORCING THE LATTER ONTO THE VIBRATING SHAKEOUT CONVEYOR AND LEAVING A SPACE UNDER THE RAISED JACKET AND WEIGHTS FOR A FRESHLY MADE UNPOURED MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 78 FR 16501 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    .... manufactured mining equipment and services to Mongolia. Brief non-proprietary description of the anticipated...): N/A. Description of Items Being Exported Heavy mining trucks, shovels, drills, and other mining equipment, plus consulting and engineering services. Information on Decision: Information on the...

  6. Teaching Literacy in the Technology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panell, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Much of the learning in programming jobs comes not through the directions of managers or coworkers, but from hours of research and reading. As such, the job of a technology instructor is not simply to "shovel out" knowledge. Rather, technology instructors must inspire students to seek out information on their own. This article presents some ideasÔÇŽ

  7. Big Jobs: Planning for Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nancy P.

    2005-01-01

    Three- to five-year-olds grow emotionally participating in meaningful and challenging physical, social, and problem-solving activities outdoors in an early childhood program on a farm. Caring for animals, planting, raking, shoveling, and engaging in meaningful indoor activities, under adult supervision, children learn to work collaboratively,ÔÇŽ

  8. Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 75M05760, Marion Power Shovel Company, January 1965. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT. Sheet 3 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. 17. Steam construction trains along construction of sublevel rightofway through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Steam construction trains along construction of sub-level right-of-way through east side of Cleveland, just west of Shaker Square (Moreland Circle): 'Working in cut of Shaker Boulevard East of Woodhill Road; Steam Shovel filling train of dump cars'. 1915 - Shaker Heights Rapid Transit Line, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. Sampling Mud in the Elwha River Estuary

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologic technician Andrew Spanjer shovels Elwha River mud into a bucket for latter analysis in the lab. The USGS is monitoring turbidity at several locations in the Elwha River during the largest dam-removal project in United States history. The mud will be mixed with water to assess how dif...

  11. 56. Photographic copy of historic photo, 1911 (original print filed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographic copy of historic photo, 1911 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). STEAM SHOVEL EXCAVATING GRAVEL FOR FACING LOWER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  12. 19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, WITH SEVERAL PARTIALLY SUBMERGED STEAM SHOVELS SHOWN IN THE FLOODED CANAL. ONE OF THE TEMPORARY BRIDGES CONSTRUCTED OVER THE CANAL RIGHT -OF-WAY IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. (39) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  13. Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 75M05761, Marion Power Shovel Company, October 1963. CRAWLER TRUCK ASSEMBLY-SIDE VIEW. Sheet 3 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 75M05761, Marion Power Shovel Company, October 1963. CRAWLER TRUCK ASSEMBLY-PLAN VIEW. Sheet 2 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 75M05761, Marion Power Shovel Company, October 1963. CRAWLER TRUCK ASSEMBLY-FIELD WELDMENT SECTIONS & DETAILS. Sheet 4 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 75M05770, Marion Power Shovel Company, February 1964. OPERATOR'S CAB ASSY. Sheet 1 of 1 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 75M05762, Marion Power Shovel Company, December 1964. CHASSIS STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY. Sheet 2 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. 26 CFR 1.162-12 - Expenses of farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... taxpayer, be regarded as investments of capital. For the treatment of soil and water conservation...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations ┬ž 1.162-12 Expenses of... shovels, rakes, etc., may be deducted. The purchase of feed and other costs connected with...

  19. Incubation length of dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Prince, H.H.; Arnold, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    We collected unincubated eggs from wild Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Gadwall (A. strepera), Blue-winged Teal (A. discors), and Northern Shoveler (A. clypeata) nests and artificially incubated them at 37.5??C. Average incubation lengths of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs did not differ from their wild-nesting counterparts, but artificially incubated Blue-winged Teal eggs required an additional 1.7 days to hatch, suggesting that wild-nesting teal incubated more effectively. A small sample of Mallard, Gadwall, and Northern Shoveler eggs artificially incubated at 38.3??C hatched 1 day sooner, indicating that incubation temperature affected incubation length. Mean incubation length of Blue-winged Teal declined by 1 day for each 11-day delay in nesting, but we found no such seasonal decline among Mallards, Gadwalls, or Northern Shovelers. There is no obvious explanation for the seasonal reduction in incubation length for Blue-winged Teal eggs incubated in a constant environment, and the phenomenon deserves further study. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005.

  20. 2006 Haulage & Loading Conference: big equipment, big crowd

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-15

    The theme of this year's Haulage and Loading Conference was 'Is better still better?' Most of the presenters either considered the effectiveness of bigger equipment or examined other strategies from various perspectives, based on their experiences. Papers were presented on trucks, shovels, loaders, excavators, haul road design and maintenance, and incorporating IT equipment. 5 photos.

  1. 28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE 'GEORGE M. CARL.' THE END OF UNLOADING, TRACTOR SCRAPERS ARE LOWERED INTO THE HOLD TO 'CLEAN UP.' PRIOR TO ABOUT 1953, MEN WITH SHOVELS DID THE JOB. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. Cross-pit conveyor and end-around-conveyor continuous mining systems. [Coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, K.L.; Files, T.I.; Gilewicz, P.J.

    1981-09-01

    These systems will perform prebenching for draglines and shovels, reclamation of spoils without soil compaction, mining of surface coal seams that are beyond the normal dragline range, mining of multiple thin coal seams and cost efficient haulage. In addition to coal mining, these systems can be used in tar sands, phosphate, or other applications where large volumes of material must be moved.

  3. Big Jobs: Planning for Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nancy P.

    2005-01-01

    Three- to five-year-olds grow emotionally participating in meaningful and challenging physical, social, and problem-solving activities outdoors in an early childhood program on a farm. Caring for animals, planting, raking, shoveling, and engaging in meaningful indoor activities, under adult supervision, children learn to work collaboratively,ů

  4. Technology for Institutional Enrollment, Communication, and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Grace; Alexander, Julie S.

    2008-01-01

    Regardless of whether an institution is a reluctant passenger on the racing technology train or itching to throw another shovel of coal on the fire, continuing advancements in technology make it a formidable factor in life on college campuses today. While students are updating their most recent social networking sites, faculty, staff, andů

  5. 30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of surplus trailing cables. 56.12039... ┬ž 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar equipment shall beÔÇö (a) Stored in cable boats; (b) Stored on reels mounted on the equipment; or...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of surplus trailing cables. 57.12039... Electricity Surface and Underground ┬ž 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar equipment shall beÔÇö (a) Stored in cable boats; (b) Stored on...

  7. 17. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION II, NEAR ASHMUN STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION II, NEAR ASHMUN STREET, LOOKING WEST, DECEMBER 7, 1900. ONE OF THE CITY'S NEW BRIDGES OVER THE CANAL IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TEMPORARY DUMP TRACKS, DUMP TRAINS AND DUMP TRAIN LOCOMOTIVES, AND STEAM SHOVELS ARE ALL SHOWN IN OPERATION. (106) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  8. 15. Photocopied August 1978. LOCOMOTIVE CRANE IN THE ROCK CUT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopied August 1978. LOCOMOTIVE CRANE IN THE ROCK CUT, AUGUST 21, 1900. LOADING DUMP CARS. A STEAM SHOVEL LOADING DUMP CARS IS VISIBLE IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. (61) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  9. 16. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, AUGUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, AUGUST 21, 1900. NOTE THE DUMP TRAIN ENGINES PUSHING THE TRAIN OF DUMP CARS AWAY FROM THE STEAM SHOVEL. (62) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  10. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This articleÔÇŽ

  11. Making a Big Deal about Everyday Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Don

    2010-01-01

    Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, who have been married over 30 years, take items from popular culture and transform them into giant sculptures that are on display all over the world. Their installations include clothespins, baseball bats, garden shovels and ice cream cones, to name a few. This transformation of everyday things is a greatÔÇŽ

  12. Making a Big Deal about Everyday Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Don

    2010-01-01

    Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, who have been married over 30 years, take items from popular culture and transform them into giant sculptures that are on display all over the world. Their installations include clothespins, baseball bats, garden shovels and ice cream cones, to name a few. This transformation of everyday things is a greatů

  13. 30 CFR 77.1607 - Loading and haulage equipment; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shovel dipper unless cable slings or sleds are used. (r) Equipment which is to be hauled shall be loaded...) Railroad cars shall be kept under control at all times by the car dropper. Cars shall be dropped at a safe rate and in a manner that will insure that the car dropper maintains a safe position while working...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1607 - Loading and haulage equipment; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shovel dipper unless cable slings or sleds are used. (r) Equipment which is to be hauled shall be loaded...) Railroad cars shall be kept under control at all times by the car dropper. Cars shall be dropped at a safe rate and in a manner that will insure that the car dropper maintains a safe position while working...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1607 - Loading and haulage equipment; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shovel dipper unless cable slings or sleds are used. (r) Equipment which is to be hauled shall be loaded...) Railroad cars shall be kept under control at all times by the car dropper. Cars shall be dropped at a safe rate and in a manner that will insure that the car dropper maintains a safe position while working...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1607 - Loading and haulage equipment; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shovel dipper unless cable slings or sleds are used. (r) Equipment which is to be hauled shall be loaded...) Railroad cars shall be kept under control at all times by the car dropper. Cars shall be dropped at a safe rate and in a manner that will insure that the car dropper maintains a safe position while working...

  17. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This articleů

  18. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material... of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that... metal particles. The wires in the curd knives shall be stainless steel, kept tight and replaced...

  19. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material... of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that... metal particles. The wires in the curd knives shall be stainless steel, kept tight and replaced...

  20. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material... of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that... metal particles. The wires in the curd knives shall be stainless steel, kept tight and replaced...

  1. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material... of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that... metal particles. The wires in the curd knives shall be stainless steel, kept tight and replaced...

  2. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., shovels, scoops, paddles, strainers, and miscellaneous equipment shall be stainless steel or of material... of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that... metal particles. The wires in the curd knives shall be stainless steel, kept tight and replaced...

  3. 6. AERATOR VIEWED UPSTREAM. DETAIL OF FLUSH VALVE AND VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERATOR VIEWED UPSTREAM. DETAIL OF FLUSH VALVE AND VIEW INTO BOX FLUME. NOTE WRENCH TO OPEN VALVE AND REMAINS OF OLD SHOVEL USED FOR MAINTENANCE. TRASH SCREEN MESH IS SEEN AT BOTTOM LEFT. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  4. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE TRASH GRATE THAT REPLACED THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE TRASH GRATE THAT REPLACED THE LOCK GATES TO LOCK 71 WHEN THE FLIGHT OF FIVE WAS CONVERTED TO A SPILLWAY AFTER THE LARGER LOCKS, 34 AND 35, WERE PUT INTO OPERATION. THE SHOVEL TRUCK IN THE VIEW IS USED TO CLEAR DEBRIS. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  5. Punchy, Munchy...Culinary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Carolee; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Eating involves--and offers--a lot more than merely shoveling food into your mouth. It can be used in innumerable ways in your room. Here is a multitude of food experiences, all designed for kids' heads as well as their stomachs. You can use cooking and food throughout your curriculum. Here's how! (Editor)

  6. 4. East portal of Tunnel 17, contextual view to southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. East portal of Tunnel 17, contextual view to southeast, 135mm lens. This end of the tunnel was badly damaged during construction in April 1909 by a disgruntled worker who set off a heavy powder charge, injuring fellow workers and destroying a steam shovel. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 17, Milepost 408, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA

  7. 29 CFR 1926.408 - Special systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... revolving-type machines (shovels, draglines, etc.) shall be guarded. (4) Tunnel installationsÔÇö(i... exceeding 1000 feet (305 m) throughout the tunnel. (b) Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote control..., signaling, or power-limited circuits are characterized by their usage and electrical power limitation...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.408 - Special systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... revolving-type machines (shovels, draglines, etc.) shall be guarded. (4) Tunnel installationsÔÇö(i... exceeding 1000 feet (305 m) throughout the tunnel. (b) Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote control..., signaling, or power-limited circuits are characterized by their usage and electrical power limitation...

  9. Prevalence of aberrant dental morphological details in 6-10 year old school children in an Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kirthiga, M.; Manju, M.; Praveen, R.; Umesh, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variations in the structure of teeth have always been a great curiosity to the dentist from the scientific and practical point of view. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of a few aberrant morphological features namely, cusp of Carabelli in primary maxillary second molar and in permanent first molar, five cusp in primary maxillary second molar and permanent first molar, shoveling and double shoveling with respect to permanent maxillary central incisors, four cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar, six cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar and seven cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar in 6ľ10 year old children belonging to the East Bengaluru, a City in India. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2111 children by two stage sampling method. Type III examination was performed. The findings were subjected to Chi-square test. Results: 83.8% of the studied population had one or more of the variations checked for, as mentioned above. The variation most commonly seen was double shoveling (66.6%) followed by shoveling (65.7%). No significant results were observed in any trait with respect to gender. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind, providing a baseline data of the prevalence of morphological details in the pediatric Indian population. PMID:26604571

  10. Technology for Institutional Enrollment, Communication, and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Grace; Alexander, Julie S.

    2008-01-01

    Regardless of whether an institution is a reluctant passenger on the racing technology train or itching to throw another shovel of coal on the fire, continuing advancements in technology make it a formidable factor in life on college campuses today. While students are updating their most recent social networking sites, faculty, staff, andÔÇŽ

  11. Isolation of PhyllosilicateľIron Redox Cycling Microorganisms from an IlliteľSmectite Rich Hydromorphic Soil

    PubMed Central

    Shelobolina, Evgenya; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Wu, Tao; Bl÷the, Marco; Roden, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicateľFe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illiteľsmectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicateľFe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicateľFe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II) in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II) source, and O2 as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp. and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II) with O2, each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II) in reduced NAu-2 smectite with NO3- as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III) oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to Geobacter toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicateľFe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil. PMID:22493596

  12. ACCUMULATION AND CROP UPTAKE OF SOIL MINERAL NITROGEN AS INFLUEMCED BY TILLAGE, COVER CROPS, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secaele cereale L.)]...

  13. Comparison of surface emissions and subsurface distribution of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in sandy field beds covered with four different plastic films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiment was conducted at a Florida sandy soil field site to study surface emissions and subsurface distribution of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP). Sixteen raised beds were applied with Telone C35 by chisel injection and covered with 4 different plastic films (bla...

  14. Phenology and Abundance of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eastern South Dakota on Alfalfa and Soybean Relative to Tillage, Fertilization and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (F÷rster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without a...

  15. Global Warming Potential of Organic and Conventional Grain Cropping Systems in the mid-Atlantic Region of the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global warming potential (GWP) of a cropping system is the balance between the net exchange of the greenhouse gases CO2, N2O and CH4 that result from on-farm practices and the production and transport of inputs. We report here on GWP calculations for no-till (NT), chisel till (CT) and organic (O...

  16. Basic Hand Tools for Bricklaying and Cement Masonry [and] Basic Hand Tools of the Carpenter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Intended for student use, this unit discusses and illustrates the tools used in brick and masonry and carpentry. Contents of the brick and masonry section include informative materials on bricklaying tools (brick trowels, joint tools, levels, squares, line and accessories, rules, hammers and chisels, tool kits) and cement masonry tools (tampers,ů

  17. Annual Research Review: Parenting and Children's Brain Development--The End of the Beginning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; de Haan, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    After questioning the practical significance of evidence that parenting influences brain development--while highlighting the scientific importance of such work for understanding "how" family experience shapes human development--this paper reviews evidence suggesting that brain structure and function are "chiselled" by parenting. Although theů

  18. TILLAGE-INDUCED CO2 LOSS ACROSS A LANDSCAPE AFTER 30 YEARS OF INTENSIVE TILLAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon (C)losses and soil translocation from tillage operations have been identified as causes of soil degradation and soil erosion that may contribute to global climate change. The objective of this work was to quantify the variability in tillage-induced CO2 loss by moldboard and chisel plowin...

  19. COMPARISON OF TILLAGE TYPE AND FREQUENCY FOR COTTON ON PIEDMONT SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-row chisel (IC) and paratill (PT) tillages disrupt consolidated soil zones and improve rooting capacity. Compaction disrupting tillages increase costs of farm operations because of the need for more powerful tractors and greater fuel use. The need for continuous or less frequent disrupting tilla...

  20. Describing Polygonum aviculare emergence in different tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of four tillage systems (direct drill, subsoiler, chisel plough and mouldboard plough) on the dynamics of Polygonum aviculare populations were studied over three growing seasons. Densities before and after herbicide application and cumulative emergence on a weekly basis were determined in ea...

  1. Evaluation of strip-tillage and fertilizer placement in Southern Idaho corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strip tillage (ST) and associated nutrient placement can potentially help producers reduce fuel and machinery costs, increase yield, and reduce soil erosion compared to chisel tillage (CT). This study was initiated to evaluate corn production (Zea mays L.) under ST and CT, and various nitrogen (N) ...

  2. Soil and crop nitrogen as influenced by tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)],...

  3. Tillage and Water Deficit Stress Effects on Corn (Zea mays, L.) Root Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One goal of soil management is to provide optimum conditions for root growth. Corn root distributions were measured in 2004 from a crop rotation ľ tillage experiment that was started in 2000. Corn was grown either following corn or following sunflower with either no till or deep chisel tillage. Wate...

  4. A New Grid Bar Design for a Modified Cylinder Cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grid bars having a chisel shape and sharp cutting edge were designed and installed in a modified cylinder cleaner. The modified cleanerÔÇÖs seed cotton and lint cleaning performances were evaluated in two tests. Results indicated that seed-cotton cleaning efficiency of the modified cylinder cleaner ...

  5. Cutting Tools, Files and Abrasives. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on cutting tools, files, and abrasives is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify and explain the proper use and care of various knives, saws, snips, chisels, and abrasives. The module may contain some or all of theů

  6. Long and short-term tillage effects on Heterodera glycines reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigations were conducted to determine the long and short-term effects of tillage on Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode (SCN), reproduction. Tillage plots were established in 1979 representing six tillage/no-tillage regimes. A portion of each plot was changed from no-tillage to chisel or...

  7. NO-TILL COTTON YIELD RESPONSE TO A WHEAT COVER CROP IN MISSISSIPPI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers need cost-effective production methods that maintain or improve environmental quality. Experiment station research has shown that no-tillage (NT) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop can increase yields about 100 kg lint/ha compared to chisel/disk-ti...

  8. Woodworking. A Bilingual Text = Carpinteria. Un Texto Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This booklet is a course of instruction in woodworking in a two-column, English-Spanish format. Following an introduction to woodworking and a lesson on safety, the booklet contains 19 units covering the following topics: wood; planning; laying out project parts; hand saws; planes; chisels and gouges; wood files and forming tools; boring holes inů

  9. TILLAGE, COVER CROPS, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON SOIL NITROGEN AND COTTON AND SORGHUM YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable soil and crop management practices that reduce soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching, conserve soil organic matter, and optimize cotton and sorghum yields still remain a challenge. We examined the influence of three tillage practices (no-till, strip till, and chisel till ), four cover c...

  10. Listening for Students' Voices through Positional Writing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassonde, Cynthia A.

    2006-01-01

    Writing is a powerful social tool that offers students opportunities to chisel their identities as they position themselves and others on issues and beliefs (Dyson, 1992). This article presents the story of how Mark, a fifth-grade student who resisted writing in certain classroom contexts, used positional writing practices to shape his identities.ů

  11. Soil Respiration Controls Ionic Nutrient Concentration In Percolating Water In Rice Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.

    2004-12-01

    Soil water in the plow layer in rice fields contains various kinds of cations and anions, and they are lost from the plow layer by water percolation. Some portions of CO2 produced by respirations of rice roots and soil microorganisms are also leached by water percolation to the subsoil layer as HCO3-. As the electrical neutrality of inorganic substances in percolating water is maintained when they are assumed to be in the form of simple cations and anions, soil respiration accelerates the leaching of ionic nutrients from the plow layer by water percolation. The proportion of inorganic carbon (? CO2) originated from photosynthates in the total ? CO2 in soil solution in the plow layer was from 28 to 36 % in the rice straw amended soil and from 16 to 31 % in the soil without rice straw amendment in a soil pot experiment with rice plant after the maximum tillering stage. Most of ? CO2 in percolating water from the plow layer accumulates in the subsoil layer. Periodical measurement of ? CO2 in percolating water at 13 and 40 cm soil depths indicated that 10 % of total soil organic C in the plow layer was leached down from the plow layer (13 cm), and that about 90 % of it was retained in the subsoil layer to the depth of 40 cm. Water soluble organic materials are also leached from the plow layer by water percolation, and the leaching is accelerated by soil reduction. Soil reduction decreased the content of organic materials that were bound with ferric iron in soil (extractable by 0.1M Na4P2O7 + NaBH4) and increased the content of organic materials that were extractable by the neutral chelating solution (0.1M Na4P2O7). In addition, water percolation transformed the latter organic materials to those that were extractable by water and a neutral salt. Considerable portions of organic materials in percolating water are adsorbed in the subsoil layer, and then partially decomposed and polymerized to specific soil organic materials in the subsoil. Organic materials that were leached from the plow layer by percolating water amounted to 170 kgC ha-1 in a Japanese rice field, among which 120 kgC of organic materials were adsorbed in the subsoil layer between 13 and 40 cm depth.

  12. Debris transport around high-speed snowplows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhla, Hany Kamel

    2001-08-01

    The distribution of airborne debris around high-speed snowplows affects visibility and thus road safety. A combination of calculations, windtunnel experiments, and road trials are presented to provide knowledge of debris distributions and to obtain understanding of the mechanisms that can reduce suspended debris. Measurements obtained around windtunnel models show the influence of a variety of plow geometries on the location of debris around plowing trucks. Debris trajectories were calculated around plows with and without overplow deflectors by solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with cutting-edge and particle-tracking models. Calculations extrapolated windtunnel results over the wide range of snow conditions from light powder to slushy ice. Road trials compared visibility of conventional and modified snowplows with image analysis that quantified visible area, contrast and color intensity. In full scale tests, snow did not blow overtop of plow configurations that had trap angles less than 50 degrees, as predicted in windtunnel and computational results. Packing and junction flaps deflected discharge snow back into the consolidated discharge stream and decreased the amount of loose debris. Side-mounted hopper vanes kept rearward- facing surfaces clearer and made rear lighting and signage more effective. The visible area of high-speed snowplows outfitted with overplow deflector, packing flap, junction flap and hopper vanes was measured to be more than 50% larger than conventional plows for following motorists in all wind conditions and this was linked to reductions in the quantity of debris in the downstream snow cloud.

  13. Effect of residual biomass burning on CO2 flux at a paddy field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Iwata, T.; Nakaya, K.

    2014-12-01

    Paddy field is one of the most important ecosystem in monsoon Asia, and takes a great important role in CO2 uptake. Carbon budget in agricultural fields is largely influenced by some artificial managements. After the harvest of crops, residual biomass is burned on fields, brought out from fields, or left and plowed into paddy soils. If the open burning is conducted on fields, one part of biomass carbon would be emitted to atmosphere as CO2, and the other part would be plowed into soils. In this study, an experimental paddy field was divided into two areas to investigate what impact is brought on the annual CO2 flux by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. At the one area, residual biomass was burned and plowed into soils after the harvest in late November 2011, 2012, and 2013. At the other area, residue was not burned and plowed into soils as usual. From three-years average of sampling surveys, carbon content of residue plowed into soils after the harvest was estimated 293▒1 and 220▒36 g C m-2 at no-burned and burned area, respectively. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes at each area were conducted for three years. A little bit of difference in CO2 flux between two areas was shown during rice season.

  14. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long-articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1ľ2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. The general equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-based agriculture increases erosion rates enough to prove unsustainable. In contrast to how net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields (?1 mm/yr) can erode through a typical hillslope soil profile over time scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations, no-till agriculture produces erosion rates much closer to soil production rates and therefore could provide a foundation for sustainable agriculture. PMID:17686990

  15. Autoerotic fatalities with power hydraulics.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, R L; Dietz, P E

    1993-03-01

    We report two cases in which men used the hydraulic shovels on tractors to suspend themselves for masochistic sexual stimulation. One man developed a romantic attachment to a tractor, even giving it a name and writing poetry in its honor. He died accidentally while intentionally asphyxiating himself through suspension by the neck, leaving clues that he enjoyed perceptual distortions during asphyxiation. The other man engaged in sexual bondage and transvestic fetishism, but did not purposely asphyxiate himself. He died when accidentally pinned to the ground under a shovel after intentionally suspending himself by the ankles. We compare these cases with other autoerotic fatalities involving perceptual distortion, cross-dressing, machinery, and postural asphyxiation by chest compression. PMID:8454997

  16. Improving haul truck productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-06-15

    The paper reviews developments in payload management and cycle times. These were discussed at a roundtable held at the Haulage and Loading 2007 conference held in May in Phoenix, AZ, USA. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) explaind what their companies were doing to improve cycle times for trucks, shovels and excavators used in surface coal mining. Quotations are given from Dion Domaschenz of Liebherr and Steve Plott of Cat Global Mining. 4 figs.

  17. Bucyrus say HydraCrowd could generate revenue

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-15

    Amongst news of new products from US suppliers is the announcement by Bucyrus International of HydraCrowd which eliminates the need for rope crowd change intervals in electric shovels. Active Control Technology has had its Wi-Fi mesh network system for underground communications and tracking system approved by the MSHA. The Spatial Solutions Division of Leica Geosystems has gone into partnership with Maptek to supply laser scanners and associated mine scanning software. 2 photos.

  18. 62. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. VIEW FROM EASTERLY END OF EMBANKMENT UNDER CONSTRUCTION. TRAIN IN FOREGROUND RETURNING TO EASTERLY BORROW PIT. STEAM SHOVEL NO.2 IN DISTANCE AT WORK IN WESTERLY BORROW PIT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  19. Art Curriculum That Works. Art for Your Summer Vacation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Kids can pack their shovel and pail, slather on the sunscreen and get ready to create their best artwork yet this summer. Art can be the one activity that you can take to the beach, the lake and special faraway places this summer. Being an artist on your vacation is an added dimension to how you see and experience the world you visit during thisÔÇŽ

  20. Frequency and variability of dental morphology in deciduous and permanent dentition of a Nasa indigenous group in the municipality of Morales, Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    D├şaz, Eider; Garc├şa, Lorena; Hern├índez, Michelle; Palacio, Lesly; Ruiz, Diana; Velandia, Nataly; Villavicencio, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency, variability, sexual dimorphism and bilateral symmetry of fourteen dental crown traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition of 60 dental models (35 women and 25 men) obtained from a native, indigenous group of Nasa school children of the Musse Ukue group in the municipality of Morales, Department of Cauca, Colombia. Methods: This is a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study that characterizes dental morphology by means of the systems for temporary dentition from Dahlberg (winging), and ASUDAS (crowding, reduction of hypocone, metaconule and cusp 6), Hanihara (central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and cusp 7), Sciulli (double bit, layered fold protostylid, cusp pattern and cusp number) and Grine (Carabelli trait); and in permanent dentition from ASUDAS (Winging, crowding, central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and double shovel-shape, Carabelli trait, hypocone reduction, metaconule, cusp pattern, cusp number, layered fold protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7). Results: The most frequent dental crown features were the shovel-shaped form, grooved and fossa forms of the Carabelli trait, metaconule, cusp pattern Y6, layered fold, protostylid (point P) and cusp 6. Sexual dimorphism was not observed and there was bilateral symmetry in the expression of these features. Conclusions: The sample studied presented a great affinity with ethnic groups belonging to the Mongoloid Dental Complex due to the frequency (expression) and variability (gradation) of the tooth crown traits, upper incisors, the Carabelli trait, the protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7. The influence of the Caucasoide Dental Complex associated with ethno-historical processes cannot be ruled out. PMID:24970955

  1. 13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  2. 59. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. STEAM SHOVEL NO. 1 AT WORK ON EASTERLY BORROW PIT. CLASS OF MATERIAL BEING EXCAVATED IS LARGELY SAND AND GRAVEL, WITH ENOUGH CLAY TO FORM A BOND BETWEEN SAND AND GRAVEL. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  3. Age-specific survival and philopatry in three species of European ducks: a long-term study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Mednis, A.; Bauga, I.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Capture-recapture and band recovery models were used to estimate age-specific survival probabilities for female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata), Common Pochards (Aythya ferina), and Tufted Ducks (Aythya.fuligula) at Engure Marsh, Latvia, in 1964-1993. We banded more than 65,100 day-old ducklings of both sexes and captured 10,211 incubating females (3,713 new bandings and 6,498 recaptures). We developed a set of 3-age capture-recapture models to estimate annual survival rates for female ducklings, yearlings (SY), and adults (ASY) using programs SURGE and SURVIV and selected parsimonious models using a method developed bv Akaike (1973). Survival rates of SY and ASY females were highest-for Tufted Ducks intermediate for Common Pochards, and lowest for Northern Shovelers. Survival rates of SY and ASY females varied in parallel for shovelers and pochards. We believe that much of the difference in survival estimates between SY and ASY birds was caused by mortality rather than permanent emigration. Estimates of day-old duckling survival, reflecting both mortality and permanent emigration, were 0.12 for shoveler, 0.06 for pochard, and 0.03 for Tufted Duck. For all species, duckling survival varied over years, but the pattern of variation was not similar to that of the other age classes. Estimates of survival using band recovery data for SY + ASY female pochards and Tufted Ducks were similar to the capture-recapturee stimates, suggestingt hat surviving females returned to the breeding marsh with probabilities approaching 1.

  4. Temporal flexibility of reproduction in temperate-breeding dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    I compared nesting intervals during three consecutive years in five species of temperate-nesting dabbling ducks (Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], Northern Pintail [Anas acuta], Northern Shoveler [Anas clypeata], Blue-winged Teal [Anas discors], Gadwall [Anas strepera]) and assessed whether differences existed in timing of refractoriness. Most nesting by females of all five species ended by the summer solstice. Nesting ended earliest for Northern Shovelers and Northern Pintails and latest for Gadwalls. Some Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls continued to nest into mid- and late summer, whereas Northern Shovelers and Northern pintails did not. Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls accounted for 99% (81 of 82) of flightless broods resulting from nests initiated during mid- or late summer in North Dakota and 98% (58 of 59) of flightless juveniles shot on or after 1 October by a random sample of duck hunters from across the United States. Early cessation of breeding by Northern Shovelers may have evolved in response to the species' limited flexibility in diet. Photorefractory mechanisms that limit most breeding to spring presumably evolved in response to severe constraints on reproductive success when nesting continued through summer(e.g. mortality of late-hatched young and molting females due to low temperatures). Interspecific differences in photosensitivity may account for variation in timing of cessation of nesting in late spring, but controlled experiments are needed to assess the possible role of non-photic influences. My results suggest that the refractory mechanisms controlling length of the breeding in temperate-nesting dabbling ducks are more varied and complex than previously thought, with non-photic influences (e.g. water conditions, food availability, food quality) having a larger role than indicated by earlier research.

  5. 60. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. STEAM SHOVEL NO. 1 LOADING CARS IN EASTERLY BORROW PIT. CARS IN THIS TRAIN OF 12 NEARLY ALL LOADED. EAIGHT MINUTES REQUIRED TO LOAD 12 CARS EQUAL TO 42 CU YDS. PLACE MEASUREMENT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  6. Hydraulic excavators: reference for the surface mine operator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    This survey is intended as a reference guide for the surface mine operator. It indicates what crawler-mounted hydraulic excavators are available on today's market. The survey is split into two parts. The first part lists pertinent specifications for excavators with bucket capacities greater than 3 cubic meters. The second part lists seven important specifications for hydraulic excavators with bucket capacities less than 3 cubic meters. In recent years, the use of hydraulic excavators in mining applications has been increasing. Hydraulic shovels may one day become the dominant equipment used for removing overburden in certain mines. Front-end loaders, cable shovels, and hydraulic excavators all have their strong and weak points in actual use and when choosing a piece of equipment, the mine operator must judge what kind of equipment best suits his needs. As far as hydraulic excavators are concerned, the main trend over the past few years has been increasing size. These large machines, coupled with high selectivity, mobility, and bucket control features common to all hydraulic excavators, present a serious challenge to cable shovels. Another important trend in hydraulic excavators is the use of electric power for the prime mover instead of Diesel engines. This is particularly significant in the larger machines.

  7. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 {mu}g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 {mu}g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake`s closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

  8. Biomechanical modelling and evaluation of construction jobs for performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Parida, Ratri; Ray, Pradip Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Occupational risk factors, such as awkward posture, repetition, lack of rest, insufficient illumination and heavy workload related to construction-related MMH activities may cause musculoskeletal disorders and poor performance of the workers, ergonomic design of construction worksystems was a critical need for improving their health and safety wherein a dynamic biomechanical models were required to be empirically developed and tested at a construction site of Tata Steel, the largest steel making company of India in private sector. In this study, a comprehensive framework is proposed for biomechanical evaluation of shovelling and grinding under diverse work environments. The benefit of such an analysis lies in its usefulness in setting guidelines for designing such jobs with minimization of risks of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and enhancing correct methods of carrying out the jobs leading to reduced fatigue and physical stress. Data based on direct observations and videography were collected for the shovellers and grinders over a number of workcycles. Compressive forces and moments for a number of segments and joints are computed with respect to joint flexion and extension. The results indicate that moments and compressive forces at L5/S1 link are significant for shovellers while moments at elbow and wrist are significant for grinders. PMID:22317733

  9. Modification of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in a study using pig mandibles.

    PubMed

    Schoen, P; Frotscher, M; Eggeler, G; Kessler, P; Wolff, K-D; Boeckmann, R

    2011-05-01

    In a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) mechanical irritation of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) (e.g. by chiselling) should be avoided to prevent neural damage. A modification of the Obwegeser-Dal Pont operation technique was studied by splitting 100 pig mandibles ex vivo. An additional osteotomy at the caudal border of the mandible was used to facilitate the sagittal split by means of a locus of minor resistance. The chisel was inserted distal to the second molar and far away from the IAN. The mandible was split by torque. The modified technique reduced the required torque to split the mandible about 30% compared with the original technique (paired t-test, t(69)=-12.89; p<0.05). 75% of all mandibles split by the modified technique were classified as bad splits compared with 100% using the original technique using the same protocol without the additional osteotomy. PMID:21255979

  10. Two-stage bone expansion technique using spear-shaped implants associated with overlapped flap: a case report.

    PubMed

    Magno Filho, Luiz Carlos; Hayashi, Fernando; Conte, Alexandre; Feng, Hsu Shao; Casati, Mßrcio Zaffalon; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro

    2013-10-01

    The conventional method of ridge expansion uses a mucoperiosteal flap elevation to allow bone corticotomy, which is followed by bone expansion performed with chisels and bone expanders. To facilitate corticotomy and avoid flap elevation, bone expansion can be performed in 2 stages. This case report presents a modified 2-stage bone expansion technique to achieve better implant stabilization and wound closure. This modified approach may be an efficient procedure for minimizing complications. PMID:22067052

  11. Optical coherence tomography to evaluate the interaction of different edge designs of four different silicone hydrogel lenses with the ocular surface

    PubMed Central

    Turhan, Semra Akkaya; Toker, Ebru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the lens edge interaction with the ocular surface with different edge designs using optical coherence tomography and to examine the effect of lens power on the lens edge interactions. Methods Four types of silicone hydrogel lenses with different edge designs (round-, semi-round-, chisel-, and knife-edged) at six different powers (+5.0, +3.0, +1.0, Ôłĺ1.0, Ôłĺ3.0, and Ôłĺ5.0 diopters) were fitted to both eyes of 20 healthy volunteers. Optical coherence tomography images were taken at the corneal center and at the limbus within 15ÔÇô30 minutes after insertion. The images were evaluated with respect to two parameters: conjunctival indentation exerted by the lens edge; and the tear film gaps between the posterior surface of the lens and the ocular surface. The amount of conjunctival indentation was measured with the distortion angle of the conjunctiva at the lens edge. Results The degree of conjunctival indentation was highest with the chisel-edged design followed by the semi-round design (P<0.0001). Knife- and round-edged lenses exerted similar levels of conjunctival indentation that was significantly lower compared to chisel-edged lens (P<0.001). For each one of the tested lens edge designs, no significant difference was observed in the conjunctival indentation with respect to lens power. The chisel-edged lens produced the highest amount of conjunctival indentation for each one of the six lens powers (P<0.0001). Post-lens tear film gaps at the limbus were observed at most in the round-edge design (P=0.001). Conclusion The fitting properties of contact lenses may be influenced by their edge design but not by their lens power. PMID:26045658

  12. Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-01

    The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of egg hatching of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M H; Orozco, A; Chavez, B; Martinez-Palomo, A

    1992-09-01

    Scanning electron and light microscopic observations showed that egg hatching in Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann is aided by a chisel-shaped spine. This hatching tooth is surrounded by a thin flexible membrane fixed to a groove in the head of the larvae. Increased intracranial pressure may force the spine against the egg shell until a fissure is produced. Further opening of the egg is achieved by movements of the head and the entire body of the larva. PMID:1404271

  14. 17. A closeup detail, looking east from the northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. A close-up detail, looking east from the northeast corner of the roadbed. This image shows the concrete commemorative inscription which is let into the inside of the eastern balustrade at the north end of the bridge. The name of one of the county commissioners has been chiselled out of the inscription. The parting fault between the parapet and its coping is evident. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  15. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec «) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  16. An Effective Method for Improvement of Field Electron Emission Site Density and Uniformity of Amorphous Carbon Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Bing-Lin; Yao, Ning; Zang, Qi-Ren; Chen, Jun; Duan, Xin-Chao

    2006-05-01

    Amorphous carbon films are deposited on the Mo film/ceramic substrates, which are pretreated by a laser spattering chiselling technique (2 line/mm), by using the microwave chemical vapour deposition technique. The films are characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental result indicates that the laser spattering chiselling pretreated techniques can essentially improve the field emission uniformity and the emission site density of the amorphous carbon thin film devices so that its emission site density can reach the level of actual application (undistinguishable by naked eye) from a broad well-proportioned emission area of 50 mm Î 50 mm. This kind of device can show various digits and words clearly. The lowest turn-on field below 1 V/m, the emission current density over 5.0▒0.1 mA/cm2, and the highest luminance 1.0Î103 cd/m2 are obtained. Meanwhile, the role of the laser spattering chiselling techniques in improving the field emission properties of the amorphous carbon film are explained.

  17. America's First Government Documentary Films as Teaching Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Kenneth E.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews two documentaries produced by the U.S. government: "The Plow That Broke the Plains" (1936) and "The River" (1937). The first examines soil erosion in the Great Plains; the second considers Mississippi River usage. Narrates storylines and explains initial film criticism. Highlights the films' effectiveness for teaching about the New Dealů

  18. WATER AND SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A CULTIVATED SILT LOAM SOIL: 2. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was performed to study the effects of soil structure heterogeneity generated by farming practices (i.e., compaction by wheel traffic, plowing, surface tillage) on plot-scale water flow and solute transport. The experiment involved a 4m by 2 m field plot that was uniformly sprinkle...

  19. WATER AND SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A CULTIVATED SILT LOAM SOIL: 1. FIELD OBSERVATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vadose zone flow and transport processes are known to be strongly affected by both soil structure and soil texture. We conducted a field experiment to explore the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by agricultural operations such as wheel traffic, plowing and surface tillage on water ...

  20. 26. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV), photographer unknown, ca. 1936. VIEW NORTHWEST, GARAGE (DEMOLISHED), NURSERY MANAGER'S GARAGE AND RESIDENCE, AND PACKING BUILDING, TRANSPLANT SHEDS AND PLOW IN FOREGROUND. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  1. Theme: Educational Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Agricultural Education & School-to-Work" (Larson, Cox); Agricultural Opportunities with Home Schoolers" (Frick, Brennan); "Private Schools and Agricultural Education in North Carolina" (Forrest); "Career Pathways" (Sigar, Thompson); "Perkins and Plows" (Lovejoy); "Charter Schools" (Knight, Armstrong); "Telling the College Tech. Prep.ů

  2. At Paul Quinn, Students Till the Soil to Cultivate a Better College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In autumn, most colleges' football fields are covered with a thick carpet of grass or artificial turf and are adorned with yard lines. But the football field at Paul Quinn College was carved up by plowing and planting. This past fall, portions of the college's gridiron were covered with sweet potatoes, watermelons, peppers, rosemary, and sugarÔÇŽ

  3. 43. From Superintendent's Monthly Report, March 1936. Haleakala District Ranger ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. From Superintendent's Monthly Report, March 1936. Haleakala District Ranger J.A. Peck, Photographer. THIS IS HAWAII-CLEARING SNOW FROM HALEAKALA ROAD AFTER STORM. HOWEVER THIS IS NOT A PRELIMINARY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PURCHASE OF ROTARY PLOW. PHOTO PECK, FEB. 5. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  4. Trends and patterns of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems in lands of agricultural afforestation within the territory of forest-steppe in the center of eastern Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anthropogenic evolution of chernozems as a result of plowing and the creation of forest shelterbelts on three meadow-steppe areas of forest-steppe were studied. It was established, that in all areas there are similar patterns, caused by the transformation of virgin soils into arable soils and vi...

  5. Crop rotation and tillage effects on a thermic ustalf on the Southern High Plains of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable research has indicated that changing from plow tillage to no-, minimum- or conservation-tillage will, for many soils, result in improved soil physical, chemical, and biochemical quality. Recently however, some researchers have reported that for sandy soils in warm temperature regimes, ...

  6. Arsenic Fate And Transport In Red Cove, Fort Devens

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of a discharging arsenic plume on sediment contamination in a cove (Red Cove) within Plow Shop Pond adjacent to Shepley's Hill Landfill at the Fort Devens Superfund Site in Massachusetts. Site characterization included a...

  7. Nitrogen fertilizer effects on irrigated conventional tillage corn yields and soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional plow tillage (CT) is a common soil management practice under irrigated continuous corn (Zea mays L.) in the semiarid central Great Plains that requires a relatively high nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate to optimize grain yield and economic returns. This study investigated how four rates of ...

  8. Tests validate fiberglass cement to protect subsea FBE coating

    SciTech Connect

    Traulsen, C.; Nielsen, N.J.R.; Nielsen, T.S. )

    1990-09-17

    Rock-shield coating on subsea pipelines is a viable alternative to concrete coating when protection against rock dumping is required. Tests and installation experience indicates this use, providing that special attention is paid to the priming process, cleanliness of the coating applicator, handling of the line pipe, and selection of a suitable plow for trenching.

  9. Arsenic Fate, Transport And Stability Study: Groundwater, Surface Water, Soil And Sediment Investigation At Fort Devens Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in groundwater, surface water, and sediments at the Fort Devens Superfund Site. The study area encompassed a portion of plow Shop Pond (Red Cove), which receives groundwater discharge from the aquifer und...

  10. Devens 2008 Monitoring Update

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents results from site monitoring activities during calendar year 2008 at the EPA/ORD Red Cove Study Area relative to site characterization activities under Operable Units 01 (Shepley's Hill Landfill) and 11 (Plow Shop Pond) at the Fort Devens Superfund site. T...

  11. 40 CFR 232.3 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section. Activities on areas lying fallow as part of a conventional rotational cycle are part of an... redistribution of soil, rock, sand, or other surficial materials in a manner which changes any area of the waters..., grading, or other means to fill in wetland areas is not plowing. Rock crushing activities which result...

  12. 40 CFR 232.3 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section. Activities on areas lying fallow as part of a conventional rotational cycle are part of an... redistribution of soil, rock, sand, or other surficial materials in a manner which changes any area of the waters..., grading, or other means to fill in wetland areas is not plowing. Rock crushing activities which result...

  13. 40 CFR 232.3 - Activities not requiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section. Activities on areas lying fallow as part of a conventional rotational cycle are part of an... redistribution of soil, rock, sand, or other surficial materials in a manner which changes any area of the waters..., grading, or other means to fill in wetland areas is not plowing. Rock crushing activities which result...

  14. Redeposited Neoproterozoic (?) glacial deposits on the winter coast (Winter Mountains, White Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumakov, N. M.; Ivantsov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Large dolomite fragments, part of which contain lonestones, while others look like cap dolomites, were found on the Winter coast of the White Sea. It is assumed that these rocks were plowed by the Late Quaternary glacier from Neoproterozoic glacial deposits lying probably on the White Sea bottom.

  15. Challenges and Strategies Related to Hearing Loss among Dairy Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass-Slavin, Louise; McColl, Mary Ann; Pickett, William

    2005-01-01

    Context: Farming is often imagined to be a serene and idyllic business based on historical images of a man, a horse, and a plow. However, machinery and equipment on farms, such as older tractors, grain dryers, and vacuum pumps, can have noise levels, which may be dangerous to hearing with prolonged, unprotected exposure. Purpose: This qualitativeů

  16. Types of Carbon Compounds That Accumulate Under No-Tillage In Rice-Based Rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a long-term field experiment of rice-based rotations near Stuttgart, AR, no-tillage promoted carbon and nitrogen sequestration in the plow layer compared to conventional tillage. The increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen sequestered with no-tillage varied by crop rotation, ranging from about 1...

  17. Effects of residual biomass burning on the methane emission from a paddy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunishio, A.; Akaike, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Murakami, H.; Ono, K.; Iwata, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is generated by organic matter decomposition in anaerobic soil. It is said that about 20% of CH4 sources is paddy fields. At some paddy fields, residual biomass left after the harvest is burned and plowed into soil. And at the other fields, unburned residue is directly plowed. It is an unsolved problem what impact is brought on CH4 budget during following cultivated period by the difference in the plowed biomass amount in soil after the harvest. In this study, an experimental paddy field was divided into two areas. At one area biomass residue is burned and at the other area residue is directly plowed. On that basis, long-term continuous measurements of micrometeorological CH4 flux were conducted in both areas. Experimental site is located reclaimed land in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Single rice cropping cultivation has continued in a similar way every year. Intermittent irrigation water managements, or 3-days flooded and 4-days drained conditions, were carried out during almost all the period of rice cultivated term. CH4 flux was calculated by aerodynamic gradient technique. The open biomass burning experiment was conducted at one area in November 29, 2011. We illustrate some results for the control term before the burning experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.

  18. ARSENIC TRANSPORT ACROSS THE GROUNDWATER ÔÇô SURFACE WATER INTERFACE AT A SITE IN CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plow Shop Pond, located in central Massachusetts within the New England ÔÇśarsenic belt,ÔÇÖ receives water from a series of interconnected upstream ponds as well as from upward-discharging groundwater. A small, shallow embayment on the southwest side of the pond is known as Red Cove...

  19. Effect of deep vs. shallow tillage on onion stunting and onion bulb yield, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted at a site inoculated with R. solani AG 8 at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, OR to determine the effect of plowing (deep tillage) vs. rototilling (shallow tillage) on onion stunting caused by R. solani AG ...

  20. Durability of Drainage Improvement by Combination of Main Drain and Trench Drains with Vertical Drains in Clayey Field Converted from Paddy to Upland Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kazuhide; Ohno, Satoshi; Furuhata, Masami; Ogura, Chikara; Tanimoto, Takeshi

    The drainage efficiency of a subsurface drainage system for avoidance of standing water on the plow pan of clayey field was evaluated. A subsurface drainage system with a main drain and orthogonally adjoined rice husk trench drains joined by vertical rice husk drains was constructed on a test plot and compared to an identical control plot of paddy field converted to upland use under soybean cultivation. The ratio of total underdrain discharge to rainfall in the improved plot greatly increased over two years compared to that in a control plot. In the improved plot, the peak underdrain discharge per hour associated with some heavy rainfalls was around 3 mm/h in the first year but decreased to about 2 mm/h in the second year. By improving drainage in the paddy field, standing water on the plow pan was quickly eliminated after rain events and the period of flooding on the plow pan during the soybean growing season was greatly reduced. However, underdrain discharge in the improved plot decreased greatly in the third year to be at the same level as in the control plot, and rain water flooded the plow pan for extended periods of time.

  1. TILLAGE AND WIND EFFECTS ON SOIL CO2 CONCENTRATIONS IN MUCK SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased CO2 concentrations from agricultural activities has prompted the need to quantify greenhouse gas emissions to better understand C cycling and its role in environmental quality. The specific objective of this work was to determine the effect of no-tillage, deep plowing and wind speeds on th...

  2. SOIL-PROFILE ORGANIC CARBON AND TOTAL NITROGEN UNDER BERMUDAGRASS MANAGEMENT IN THE SOUTHERN PIEDMONT USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of potential carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sequestration at depths below the traditional plow layer (0-30 cm) are limited, but are needed to improve our understanding of management influences on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient cycling. Soil samples were collected under `Coastal' bermud...

  3. The Navajo Agricultural Projects Industry: Subsistence Farming to Corporate Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Originally designed to create small farms for individual Navajos, the irrigation project has grown into a single 110,000-acre corporate agribusiness, the land's management has fallen out of the grasp of individual Navajos, and the idea of subsistence farming has been plowed under for the planting of major money-making crops. (NQ)

  4. Changing Agricultural Education to Meet Needs of Emerging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rick; Brase, Terry; Dewsnup, Mel; Anderson, Mandi; Collins, Ashley; Klopp, Deborah; Johnson, Brian; Feldmann, Holly

    2009-01-01

    With less than 2% of Americans involved in traditional production agriculture (cows, plows, and sows), agricultural programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels must change to address the workforce of the future. AgrowKnowledge works at the national level to provide tools for changing agriculture, food, and natural resource educationalů

  5. Nitrogen, Tillage, and Crop Rotation Effects On Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes from Irrigated Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: a) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; b...

  6. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPERVARIABLE DOMAINS OF THE 16S RRNA GENES FOR THEIR VALUE IN DETERMINING MICROBIAL COMMUNITY DIVERSITY: THE PARADOX OF TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL INDICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amplicon length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR) was investigated for its ability to distinguish between microbial community patterns from the same soil type under different land management practices. Natural sagebrush (NSB) and irrigated moldboard plowed (IMP) soils from Idaho were queried as to which h...

  7. Dilemmas in Introducing Applied Technology: The Plough and the Cattlelords in Timor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mary

    1990-01-01

    An effort to introduce the plow to Timor farmers faced following barriers: nature of the land and climate, strongly demarcated traditional system, tensions among ethnic groups, cattlelords system, necessary time to place/retain trainers in villages. Positive factors were concrete results, use of small groups and native trainers, age of adopters,ÔÇŽ

  8. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today manyÔÇŽ

  9. BEEF FEEDYARD EFFLUENT APPLICATION EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT MASS BALANCES FOR THREE CROPPING ROTATIONS OF SORGHUM AND WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedlot runoff was applied to 27 plots of winter wheat and forage sorghum over 24 months at the Agriculture Research Station located at Bushland, TX, 12 miles west of Amarillo. Each plot measured 16 m x 4.5 m to allow for access of farming implements. All plots were plowed with an offset disc, chi...

  10. ARSENIC TRANSPORT ACROSS THE GROUNDWATER ľ SURFACE WATER INTERFACE AT A SITE IN CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plow Shop Pond, located in central Massachusetts within the New England Ĺarsenic belt,ĺ receives water from a series of interconnected upstream ponds as well as from upward-discharging groundwater. A small, shallow embayment on the southwest side of the pond is known as Red Cove...

  11. Retirement Straight Talk: The Self-Discovery that It's Not a Simple Transition but a New Phase in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draayer, Donald R.

    2004-01-01

    After 38 years as a teacher and school administrator, including 24 years as the superintendent in Minnetonka, Minnesota, Donald Draayer, the author of this article, has discovered that retirement is not one transition, but many, affecting all aspects of life. He is finding that retirement is like virgin soil. The ground must be cleared, plowed andÔÇŽ

  12. Dilemmas in Introducing Applied Technology: The Plough and the Cattlelords in Timor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mary

    1990-01-01

    An effort to introduce the plow to Timor farmers faced following barriers: nature of the land and climate, strongly demarcated traditional system, tensions among ethnic groups, cattlelords system, necessary time to place/retain trainers in villages. Positive factors were concrete results, use of small groups and native trainers, age of adopters,ů

  13. At Paul Quinn, Students Till the Soil to Cultivate a Better College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In autumn, most colleges' football fields are covered with a thick carpet of grass or artificial turf and are adorned with yard lines. But the football field at Paul Quinn College was carved up by plowing and planting. This past fall, portions of the college's gridiron were covered with sweet potatoes, watermelons, peppers, rosemary, and sugarů

  14. Soil Carbon Dynamics for Irrigated Corn under Two Tillage Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional plow tillage (CT) with high N rates is commonly used to grow irrigated, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) in the central Great Plains. Less common than CT is to instead use continuous no-till (NT). Both systems, with optimum irrigation and N fertilization, produce similar corn stover yields...

  15. Changing Agricultural Education to Meet Needs of Emerging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rick; Brase, Terry; Dewsnup, Mel; Anderson, Mandi; Collins, Ashley; Klopp, Deborah; Johnson, Brian; Feldmann, Holly

    2009-01-01

    With less than 2% of Americans involved in traditional production agriculture (cows, plows, and sows), agricultural programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels must change to address the workforce of the future. AgrowKnowledge works at the national level to provide tools for changing agriculture, food, and natural resource educationalÔÇŽ

  16. Long-term tillage impacts on soil aggregation and carbon dynamics under wheat-fallow in the central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional tillage (CT) winter wheat (Tritucum aestivum L.) with summer fallow (WF) is the predominant cropping system in the central Great Plains. We investigated the effect of 39 yr of different tillage intensities, conventional tillage (CT); moldboard plow (MP); no-tillage (NT); and reduced ti...

  17. LONG-TERM CORN RESIDUE EFFECTS: HARVEST ALTERNATIVES, SOIL CARBON TURNOVER AND ROOT-DERIVED CARBON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of carbon (C) turnover, with estimates of root-derived C, is needed to manage soil C sequestration. Stover and fertilizer treatments (in a 2 X 2 factorial) and a control were imposed on 29 yr of continuous corn (Zea mays L.) with moldboard plow tillage with silage (stover) rem...

  18. REACTIONS OF FUEL NITROGEN COMPOUNDS UNDER CONDITIONS OF INERT PYROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the pyrolysis of fossil fuels and model nitrogen compounds in helium in a small quartz plow reactor, as part of a study of the chemical mechanisms involved in the conversion of fuel-nitrogen compounds to nitric oxide (NO) during combustion. Hydrogen cyanide (H...

  19. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers preventů

  20. Where does Strip Tillage Fit in Montana and Wyoming Sugarbeet Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet in Montana and Wyoming is often grown in a two year rotation alternating with spring grains. Normally, a sugarbeet grower will make five or more passes across a field for fertilizer application, disking, plowing or ripping, leveling, mulching and hilling. The high price of diesel fuel is m...

  1. Ready for Action

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photo shows a snow plow and road salt application truck that is used to clear snow and ice from roadways for improving traffic and pedestrian safety. The use of salt to deice pavement can be harmful to aquatic life in urban streams. The USGS is involved in studies that focus on the influence of...

  2. VARIATION OF SURFACE SOIL QUALITY BY INTENSIVE DONKEY-DRAWN TILLAGE ON A STEEP SLOPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The progressive but relatively rapid redistribution of soil from uplands to field depressions or lower field boundaries by tillage has the potential to modify soil properties. However, few direct measurements have been made for this effect. We conducted 50 plowing operations using a donkey-drawn mol...

  3. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today manyů

  4. Strip-tillage: A conservation alternative to full-width tillage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkowski, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Historically no-till management has been a challenge for maize production in the Midwestern USA because crop residue slows the warming of the soil in the spring and can physically impair planting by plugging the planter. After trying no-till, producers often return to more aggressive tillage operations to address residue concerns; however these systems can cause soil erosion and can increase the cost of production. An alternative system known as strip-tillage has been suggested as a compromise between no-till and full-width tillage. This practice utilizes implements that loosen the soil and allow warming in the row area, yet maintain nearly as much residue as no-till. Strip-tillage is generally understood to be a single pass with a separate implement in the fall, although spring strip-tillage is possible if soil moisture and conditions permit. Strip-tillage can be accomplished in a shorter time, with lower energy and equipment inputs compared to full-width tillage. The first of two studies that examined the merits of strip-tillage was conducted the University of Wisconsin Lancaster Agricultural Research Station (42.84, -90.80). Natural runoff collectors were installed in a field having a silt loam soil with an 8% slope in fall chisel and fall strip-tillage system. The measured soil loss in a year that experienced substantial rainfall prior to canopy closure was 10.6 Mg ha-1 in chisel vs. 0.64 Mg ha-1 in strip-tillage. Soil loss was much less for both systems in the second year when early season rainfall was minimal. A second, ten year study was conducted at the University of Wisconsin Arlington Agricultural Research Station (43.30, -89.36) that compared fall strip-tillage with fall chisel/spring field cultivator and no-till systems in both a continuous maize and soybean-maize rotation. This work showed equal maize grain yield in maize after soybean when comparing chisel and strip-tillage. No-till yield was about 5 % lower. Yield in continuous maize was highest in the chisel system, being about 4 % greater than strip-tillage and 8 % greater than no-till. An economic analysis of this data showed that the benefit to strip-tillage is greatest in maize following soybean. Strip-tillage is a system that can optimize both economic and environmental return for maize production and should be implemented more widely, especially on erosive soils.

  5. Factors associated with duck nest success in the prairie pothole region of Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.; Sargeant, A.B.; Johnson, D.H.; Cowardin, L.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    Populations of some dabbling ducks have declined sharply in recent decades and information is needed to understand reasons for this. During 1982-85, we studied duck nesting for 1-4 years in 17 1.6 by 16.0-km, high-density duck areas in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of Canada, 9 in parkland and 8 in prairie. We estimated nest-initiation dates, habitat preferences, nest success, and nest fates for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwalls (A. strepera), blue-winged teals (A. discors), northern shovelers (A. clypeata), and northern pintails (A. acuta). We also examined the relation of mallard production to geographic and temporal variation in wetlands, breeding populations, nesting effort, and hatch rate.Average periods of nest initiation were similar for mallards and northern pintails, and nearly twice as long as those of gadwalls, blue-winged teals, and northern shovelers. Median date of nest initiation was related to presence of wet wetlands (contained visible standing water), spring precipitation, and May temperature. Length of initiation period was related to presence of wet wetlands and precipitation in May, June temperature, and nest success; it was negatively related overall to drought that prevailed over much of Prairie Canada during the study, especially in 1984.Mallards, gadwalls, and northern pintails nested most often in brush in native grassland, blue-winged teals in road rights-of-way, and northern shovelers in hayfields and small (<2 ha) untilled tracts of upland habitat (hereafter called Odd area). Among 8 habitat classes that composed all suitable nesting habitat of each study area, nest success estimates averaged 25% in Woodland, 19% in Brush, 18% in Hayland, 16% in Wetland, 15% in Grass, 11% in Odd area, 8% in Right-of-way, and 2% in Cropland. We detected no significant difference in nest success among species: mallard (11%), gadwall (14%), blue-winged teal (15%), northern shoveler (12%), and northern pintail (7%). Annual nest success (pooled by study area and averaged [unweighted] over all study areas) was 17% in 1982, 15% in 1983, 7% in 1984, and 14% in 1985.We estimated that predators destroyed 72% of mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, and northern shoveler nests and 65% of northern pintail nests. In prairie, average nest success decreased about 4 percentage points for every 10 percentage points increase in Cropland, suggesting that under conditions of 1982-85, local populations of these species probably were not stable when Cropland exceeded about 56% of available habitat. We found recent remains of 573 dead ducks during 1983-85; most were females (Anas spp.) apparently killed by predators. In some years, mallards and northern pintails were more numerous among dead ducks than we expected. More females than males were found dead among mallards and northern shovelers, suggesting higher vulnerability of females. Of factors we examined, nest-success rate appeared to be the most influential factor in determining mallard production. Nest success varied both geographically and annually.

  6. Selecting Tasks for Evaluating Human Performance as a Function of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J. R.; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge in understanding human performance as a function of gravity is determining which tasks to research. Initial studies began with treadmill walking, which was easy to quantify and control. However, with the development of pressurized rovers, it is less important to optimize human performance for ambulation as rovers will likely perform gross translation for them. Future crews are likely to spend much of their extravehicular activity (EVA) performing geology, construction and maintenance type tasks, for which it is difficult to measure steady-state-workloads. To evaluate human performance in reduced gravity, we have collected metabolic, biomechanical and subjective data for different tasks at varied gravity levels. Methods: Ten subjects completed 5 different tasks including weight transfer, shoveling, treadmill walking, treadmill running and treadmill incline walking. All tasks were performed shirt-sleeved at 1-g, 3/8-g and 1/6-g. Off-loaded conditions were achieved via the Active Response Gravity Offload System. Treadmill tasks were performed for 3 minutes with reported oxygen consumption (VO2) averaged over the last 2 minutes. Shoveling was performed for 3 minutes with metabolic cost reported as ml O2 consumed per kg material shoveled. Weight transfer reports metabolic cost as liters O2 consumed to complete the task. Statistical analysis was performed via repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Statistically significant metabolic differences were noted between all 3 gravity levels for treadmill running and incline walking. For the other 3 tasks, there were significant differences between 1-g and each reduced gravity, but not between 1/6-g and 3/8-g. For weight transfer, significant differences were seen between gravities in both trial-average VO2 and time-to-completion with noted differences in strategy for task completion. Conclusion: To determine if gravity has a metabolic effect on human performance, this research may indicate that tasks should be selected that require the subject to work vertically against the force of gravity.

  7. Sources of variation in survival and breeding site fidelity in three species of European ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    1. We used long-term capture-recapture-recovery data and a modelling approach developed by Burnham (1993) to test a priori predictions about sources of variation in annual survival rates and fidelity within a population of individually marked females in three species of European ducks from a breeding ground study site in Latvia. 2. True annual survival was higher for diving ducks (tufted duck 0-72, common pochard 0-65) and lower for northern shoveler (0-52). Survival of female diving ducks was positively correlated with mean winter temperatures at Western European wintering areas, the relationship being much stronger for pochard. 3. We present the first unbiased estimates of breeding fidelity and permanent emigration in European ducks. Estimated fidelity rates were high (0'88-1-0) and emigration rates low (0-0-12) for all three species, and we found strong evidence for age-specific differences in fidelity of pochards. Unusual long-distance (up to 2500 km) breeding dispersal movements that we found in female tufted ducks have not been documented in any other European waterfowl and are most probably a result of saturated nesting habitats. 4. Fidelity was a function of patch reproductive success in the previous year for all three species providing support for the idea that patch success is an important cue influencing fidelity. 5. Fidelity probability increased to 1.0 for shovelers during the last 12 years of study following provision of critical improvements in nesting habitats and suggested that habitat conditions and reproductive success determined site fidelity and settling patterns for shoveler and probably also influenced fidelity of the two other species. In predictable habitats, fidelity is a parameter that reflects the integration of fitness components and is thus a good quantity for assessing the effectiveness of habitat management actions.

  8. Geologic data for blasting at the Minntac Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Eloranta, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is a case study showing the assembly of available rock property parameters for the purpose of blast design. Blast optimization now includes subsequent milling and requires a full knowledge of the rock mass. Individual blast holes should be designed using all available data. The parameters include: geologic layer from diamond drilling, shovel performance, crushing plant experience from that area, drill monitoring, magnetic susceptibility from a downhole probe, size analysis history from digital image analysis, compressive strength tests of problem areas and cross hole sonic testing. Bedding thickness observed from drill core appear to have a strong influence on fragmentation.

  9. LBNL Computational Research & Theory Facility Groundbreaking - Full Press Conference. Feb 1st, 2012

    ScienceCinema

    Yelick, Kathy

    2013-05-29

    Energy Secretary Steven Chu, along with Berkeley Lab and UC leaders, broke ground on the Lab's Computational Research and Theory (CRT) facility yesterday. The CRT will be at the forefront of high-performance supercomputing research and be DOE's most efficient facility of its kind. Joining Secretary Chu as speakers were Lab Director Paul Alivisatos, UC President Mark Yudof, Office of Science Director Bill Brinkman, and UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgeneau. The festivities were emceed by Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences, Kathy Yelick, and Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates joined in the shovel ceremony.

  10. NASA Shared Services Center breaks ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA officials and elected leaders were on hand for the groundbreaking ceremony of the NASA Shared Services Center Feb. 24, 2006, on the grounds of Stennis Space Center. The NSSC provides agency centralized administrative processing, human resources, procurement and financial services. From left, Louisiana Economic Development Secretary Mike Olivier, Stennis Space Center Director Rick Gilbrech, Computer Sciences Corp. President Michael Laphen, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Rep. Gene Taylor, Sen. Trent Lott, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Shared Services Center Executive Director Arbuthnot use golden shovels to break ground at the site.

  11. LBNL Computational Research and Theory Facility Groundbreaking. February 1st, 2012

    ScienceCinema

    Yelick, Kathy

    2013-05-29

    Energy Secretary Steven Chu, along with Berkeley Lab and UC leaders, broke ground on the Lab's Computational Research and Theory (CRT) facility yesterday. The CRT will be at the forefront of high-performance supercomputing research and be DOE's most efficient facility of its kind. Joining Secretary Chu as speakers were Lab Director Paul Alivisatos, UC President Mark Yudof, Office of Science Director Bill Brinkman, and UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgeneau. The festivities were emceed by Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences, Kathy Yelick, and Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates joined in the shovel ceremony.

  12. Conveyor system moves material continuously

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    German technology and equipment is used in mining operations worldwide. A PHB Wesserhutte system is being used with face shovel, mobile crusher, crawler-mounted transfer conveyor, and shiftable conveyor which results in crushing and transporting the minerals to the processing plant in a continuous flow path. The entire process is controlled by a programmable logic controller (a mini-computer) and all systems are sequentially interlocked according to the material flow path. Working methods using the mobile crusher and conveying systems are illustrated.

  13. Vertical ridge augmentation of the atrophic posterior mandible with a 2-stage inlay technique: a case report.

    PubMed

    Felice, Pietro; Piana, Laura; Checchi, Luigi; Pistilli, Roberto; Pellegrino, Gerardo

    2012-06-01

    The use of a 2-stage inlay technique in atrophic posterior mandibles with more than 10-mm thickness and less than 5-mm height above the inferior alveolar nerve is described. The first surgical procedure was a basic corticotomy of the buccal and lingual bone. One month later, a complete inlay procedure was performed. Computed tomography and conventional radiography showed a mean vertical bone gain of 11.5 mm. This 2-stage inlay technique avoids the use of chisels to complete bone osteotomy and reduces postsurgical nerve disturbances in atrophic posterior mandibles. This technique reduces intraprocedure and postoperative patient discomfort. PMID:22584421

  14. Technology and methods of making decorated balusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauinsh, D.; Selivanova, A.

    2015-10-01

    Woodworking companies looking for a simple solution to simplify and speed up the whole process of making a carved balusters. Tech solution is the replacement of threaded elements solid wood balusters on plastic threaded overhead items secured by adhesive to the surface of the workpiece chiseled. This solution allows to reduce the cost of manufacturing carved balusters, without resorting to a woodcarver and using expensive equipment. Through further improvements, such as painting, patina, it turns out a product that is difficult to distinguish from solid carved balusters.

  15. Ultrasonic/Sonic Jackhammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Herz, Jack

    2005-01-01

    An ultrasonic/sonic jackhammer (USJ) is the latest in a series of related devices. Each of these devices cuts into a brittle material by means of hammering and chiseling actions of a tool bit excited with a combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations. A small-scale prototype of the USJ has been demonstrated. A fully developed, full-scale version of the USJ would be used for cutting through concrete, rocks, hard asphalt, and other materials to which conventional pneumatic jackhammers are applied, but the USJ would offer several advantages over conventional pneumatic jackhammers.

  16. Modified lingual split technique for extraction of impacted mandibular third molars.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J E

    1980-08-01

    Critical evaluation of existing chisel and bur techniques for removal of impacted mandibular third molars reveals a high incidence of complications. Both approaches require creation of a buccal defect immediately distal to the second molar for the insertion of an elevator, which may cause pocketing to occur postoperatively. The method described here minimizes periosteal reflection, almost completely avoids loss of bone, and effectively reduces the use of rotary instrumentation. The planning of the soft tissue flaps and bony cuts assists in primary wound closure, obliteration of dead space, and reduction of postoperative morbidity. PMID:6930459

  17. Habitat use by Swainson's Hawks on their austral winter grounds in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canavelli, Sonia B.; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, B.; Kochert, Michael N.; Maceda, Juan J.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the use of agricultural habitats by Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni)in La Pampa and Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. We found an association of foraging Swainson's Hawks with permanent pastures such as fallow, natural, and alfalfa fields. The hawks also used plowed fields for sunning, resting, and preening. Fields planted with annual crops and pastures were used very little, except when they were cut for hay, plowed, and harvested, or when low crop height and cover allowed the hawks to land in fields. The availability of abundant, yet widely-spaced and transient food-sources, such as insect outbreaks, appeared to be the principal factor influencing habitat use by the hawks. Their reliance on agricultural habitats makes Swainson's Hawks highly vulnerable to pesticide contamination and has contributed to the occurrence of significant mortality events on their wintering grounds.

  18. Friction and wear behavior of single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single crystal silicon carbide in sliding contact with titanium. Results indicate that the friction coefficient is greater in vacuum than in argon and that this is due to the greater adhesion or adhesive transfer in vacuum. Thin films of silicon carbide transferred to titanium also adhered to silicon carbide both in argon at atmospheric pressure and in high vacuum. Cohesive bonds fractured on both the silicon carbide and titanium surfaces. The wear debris of silicon carbide created by fracture plowed the silicon carbide surface in a plastic manner. The friction characteristics of titanium in contact with silicon carbide were sensitive to the surface roughness of silicon carbide, and the friction coefficients were higher for a rough surface of silicon carbide than for a smooth one. The difference in friction results was due to plastic deformation (plowing of titanium).

  19. The influence of complex compost on the aggregate composition and water and air properties of an ordinary chernozem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyuchenko, I. S.; Antonenko, D. A.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of complex compost composed of the waste products of the agriculture (semi-rotted cattle manure and plant residues) and chemical industries (phosphogypsum) on the agrophysical properties of an ordinary chernozem (Haplic Chernozem) was studied in the western Ciscaucasian region. In the field experiment, the compost was applied to the plow layer (0-20 cm) in 2007. In five years, the content of agronomically valuable aggregates increased by 7-9%, and their water stability became higher. This resulted in a better aggregation of the plow layer; its bulk density decreased by about 0.1 g/cm3 in comparison with the control plot treated with mineral fertilizers according to traditional technology. The water and air properties of the soil were optimized, which was seen from an increase in the field and total water capacity, total porosity, and soil water storage.

  20. Depth profile study of Ti implanted Si at very high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olea, J.; Pastor, D.; Toledano-Luque, M.; Mßrtil, I.; Gonzßlez-DÝaz, G.

    2011-09-01

    A detailed study on the resulting impurity profile in Si samples implanted with high doses of Ti and subsequently annealed by pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is reported. Two different effects are shown to rule the impurity profile redistribution during the annealing. During the melting stage, the thickness of the implanted layer increases while the maximum peak concentration decreases (box-shaped effect). On the contrary, during the solidifying stage, the thickness of the layer decreases and the maximum peak concentration increases (snow-plow effect). Both effects are more pronounced as the energy density of the annealing increases. Moreover, as a direct consequence of the snow-plow effect, part of the impurities is expelled from the sample through the surface.

  1. Swarm Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Gerard J.; Joshi, Rajeev; Groce, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Reportedly, supercomputer designer Seymour Cray once said that he would sooner use two strong oxen to plow a field than a thousand chickens. Although this is undoubtedly wise when it comes to plowing a field, it is not so clear for other types of tasks. Model checking problems are of the proverbial "search the needle in a haystack" type. Such problems can often be parallelized easily. Alas, none of the usual divide and conquer methods can be used to parallelize the working of a model checker. Given that it has become easier than ever to gain access to large numbers of computers to perform even routine tasks it is becoming more and more attractive to find alternate ways to use these resources to speed up model checking tasks. This paper describes one such method, called swarm verification.

  2. Surface Roughness Parameter Uncertainties on Radar Based Soil Moisture Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, A. T.; vanderVelde, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Lang, R.; Su, Z.; Gish, T.

    2012-01-01

    Surface roughness variations are often assumed to be negligible for the retrieval of sol moisture. Although previous investigations have suggested that this assumption is reasonable for natural vegetation covers (i.e. Moran et al. 2002), in-situ measurements over plowed agricultural fields (i.e. Callens et al. 2006) have shown that the soil surface roughness can change considerably due to weathering induced by rain.

  3. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.; Lewis, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    The use of satellite data from the ERTS-1 satellite for mapping the cotton acreage in the southern deserts of California is discussed. The differences between a growing, a defoliated, and a plowed down field can be identified using an optical color combiner. The specific application of the land use maps is to control the spread of the pink bollworms by establishing planting and plowdown dates.

  4. Waiting for Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamson-Nussbaum, Jorie

    2013-01-01

    The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the RumÔÇŽ

  5. [Effects of long-term tillage and rice straw returning on soil nutrient pools and Cd concentration].

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-guang; Xiao, Xiao-ping; Tang, Hai-ming; Zhang, Hai-lin; Chen, Fu; Chen, Zhong-du; Xue, Jian-fu; Yang, Guang-li

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of tillage and straw returning on soil nutrient and its pools, and soil Cd concentration, and to identify the strategies for rational tillage and remediation of Cd contaminated paddy fields. The experiment was established with no-tillage with straw retention (NTS) , rotary tillage with straw incorporation (RTS) , conventional plow tillage with straw incorporation (CTS), conventional plow tillage with straw removed ( CT) from 2005 to 2013. The results indicated that tillage and rice straw retention had a great impact on soil properties at 0-10 cm soil depth. The soil aeration, and concentrations of soil nutrient and soil Cd increased under CTS, CT, and RTS. Due to the shallow plow layers, soil nutrient pools and the Cd concentration in rice shoot decreased in long-term tilled soil. Under long-term no-tillage, the soil bulk, soil nutrient pools and Cd concentration in rice shoot increased, but concentrations of soil nutrients decreased. In addition, rice straw returning significantly increased the soil nutrient concentrations, cation exchange capacity, depth of plow layer, and soil nutrient pools. However, the Cd in the rice straw was also returned to the soil by rice straw returning, which would not benefit the remediation of soil Cd. Therefore, it is necessary to improve tillage and straw retention practices due to the disadvantages of long-term continuous single tillage method and rice straw returning practices. Some recommended managements (e.g., rotational tillage or subsoiling, reducing straw returning amount, and rotational straw returning) could be good options in enhancing soil fertility and remedying soil pollution. PMID:25985668

  6. Spatial variation of benzo[ a]pyrene and agrozem properties in the vicinity of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, D. N.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Manakhov, D. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Brekhov, P. T.

    2015-05-01

    The spatial variability of the density, moisture, pH, humus, and benzo[ a]pyrene contamination in a structural-metamorphic agrozem within the impact zone of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk thermal power plant has been considered. The correlation of the benzo[ a]pyrene content with the humus and density in the plow horizon has been revealed. The necessary numbers of sampling points for different problems of ecological monitoring have been planned.

  7. Waiting for Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamson-Nussbaum, Jorie

    2013-01-01

    The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the Rumů

  8. Extractable trace elements in the soil profile after years of biosolids application

    SciTech Connect

    Barbarick, K.A.; Ippolito, J.A.; Westfall, D.G.

    1998-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and some state agencies regulate trace element additions to soil from land application of biosolids. The authors generally consider trace elements added in biosolids (sewage sludge) to accumulate in the soil surface without significant transport below the plow layer. They used 11 yr of field-study information from biosolids addition to dryland hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Vona or TAM107) to determine the distribution of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn in 0 to 20 (plow layer), 20 to 60, 60 to 100, and 100 to 150 cm depth increments. This study is unique since it involves multiple biosolids application in a dryland summer fallow agroecosystem. The authors applied five or six applications of biosolids from the cities of Littleton and Englewood, CO, to Weld loam or Platner loam at four locations. This paper focuses on the 0 (control), the 56 or 67 kg of N ha{sup {minus}1} fertilizer rates, and the 6.7 and 26.8 dry Mg of biosolids ha{sup {minus}1} rates that they added every crop year. The authors observed significant (P < 0.10) accumulations of the trace elements in the plow layer of the biosolids-amended soils. Only Zn showed consistent increases in extractable levels below the plow layer at all four sites. The biosolids Zn concentration was larger than any other trace element resulting in larger loading of this element.

  9. ERIP invention 637. Technical progress report 2nd quarter, April 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1997-07-22

    This technical report describes progress in the development of the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus. Prototype testing is reported, and includes the addition of precision tillage. Disease data, organic matter, and nitrogen levels results are very briefly described. Progress in marketing is also reported. Current marketing issues include test use by cotton and wheat growers, establishment of dealer relationships, incorporation of design modifications, expansion of marketing activities, and expansion of loan and lease program.

  10. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old r├ęsum├ę. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery byÔÇŽ

  11. Application of water jet assisted drag bit and pick cutter for the cutting of coal measure rocks. Final technical report. [Tests of combination in different rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ropchan, D.; Wang, F.D.; Wolgamott, J.

    1980-04-01

    A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of high pressure water jets on the cutting forces of drag bit cutters in sedimentary rocks. A hard and soft sandstone, shale and limestone were tested with commercially obtainable conical and plow type drag bits on the EMI linear cutting machine. About 1200 cuts were made at different bit penetration, jet orientation, and water pressure to determine the reduction of cutting forces on the bit from the use of the water jet. Both independent and interactive cutting was used. The greatest reduction in cutting forces were with both of the sandstones; the drag forces were reduced about 30 percent and the normal forces about 60 percent at 5000 psi water pressure with the nozzle behind the bit. The method was less effective in the shale, except at 10,000 psi water pressure the reduction in drag force was about 55 percent. Of the rocks tested, the limestone was least affected by the water jet. The cutting forces for the plow bit showed continuous change with wear so a machined conical bit was used for most of the testing. Tests with the plow bit did show a large reduction in cutting forces by using the water jet with worn bits. An economic analysis of equipping a drag bit tunnel boring machine indicated that the water jet system could reduce costs per foot in sandstone by up to 40 percent.

  12. Changes in the status of harvested rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California: Implications for wintering waterfowl.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.; Garr, Jay D.; Coates, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Harvested rice fields provide critical foraging habitat for wintering waterfowl in North America, but their value depends upon post-harvest treatments. We visited harvested ricefields in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winters of 2007 and 2008 (recent period) and recorded their observed status as harvested (standing or mechanically modified stubble), burned, plowed, or flooded. We compared these data with those from identical studies conducted during the 1980s (early period). We documented substantial changes in field status between periods. First, the area of flooded rice increased 4-5-fold, from about 15% to >40% of fields, because of a 3-4-fold increase in the percentage of fields flooded coupled with a 37-41% increase in the area of rice produced. Concurrently, the area of plowed fields increased from 35% of fields, burned fields declined from about 40% to 1%, and fields categorized as harvested declined from 22-54% to <15%. The increased flooding has likely increased access to food resources for wintering waterfowl, but this benefit may not be available to some goose species, and may be at least partially countered by the increase of plowed fields, especially those left dry, and the decrease of fields left as harvested.We encourage waterfowl managers to implement a rice field status survey in the Sacramento Valley and other North American rice growing regions as appropriate to support long-term monitoring programs and wetland habitat conservation planning for wintering waterfowl.

  13. Sewage disposal system and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Danford, J.D.

    1981-02-03

    The system includes transport means to carry sewage to holding pits or tanks in open areas remote from community and delivery from tanks to tunnels plowed in ground. Transport may be by tankers or pipeline. Tender tankers receive batches of sewage from storage tanks and deliver to field where tractors pull frames with depending plow members which produce tunnels in ground with narrow slashes or crevices extending to surface. Frames carry manifolds and discharge conduits to deliver sewage to tunnels. Tender tankers arranged beside tractors have supply conduits connecting them to manifolds, with pumps in conduits to produce continuous flow. Tankers travel in synchronism with tractors and deliver sewage to tunnels as they are formed. Compacting rollers pulled behind frames close crevices directly after they are formed by plow, and sewage is sealed into ground. The sewage provides moisture, nutrients, and humus at a proper sub-surface level to support crop growth for a year or more, and the same ground may be used for repeated disposals at suitable intervals.

  14. EDARV370A associated facial characteristics in Uyghur population revealing further pleiotropic effects.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qianqian; Li, Jinxi; Tan, Jingze; Yang, Yajun; Zhang, Manfei; Wu, Sijie; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Juan; Qin, Pengfei; Guan, Yaqun; Jiao, Yi; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Sabeti, Pardis C; Tang, Kun; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Wang, Sijia

    2016-01-01

    An adaptive variant of human Ectodysplasin receptor, EDARV370A, had undergone strong positive selection in East Asia. In mice and humans, EDARV370A was found to affect ectodermal-derived characteristics, including hair thickness, hair shape, active sweat gland density and teeth formation. Facial characteristics are also largely ectodermal derived. In this study, taking advantage of an admixed population of East Asian and European ancestry-the Uyghur, we aim to test whether EDARV370A is affecting facial characteristics and to investigate its pleiotropic nature and genetic model. In a sample of 1027 Uyghurs, we discover that EDARV370A is significantly associated with several facial characteristics, in particular shape of earlobe (Pá=á3.64áÎá10 (-6) ) and type of chin (Pá=á9.23áÎá10 (-5) ), with successful replication in other East Asian populations. Additionally, in this Uyghur population, we replicate previous association findings of incisors shoveling (Pá=á1.02áÎá10 (-7) ), double incisors shoveling (Pá=á1.86áÎá10 (-12) ) and hair straightness (Pá=á3.99áÎá10 (-16) ), providing strong evidence supporting an additive model for the EDARV370A associations. Partial least square path model confirms EDARV370A systematically affect these weakly related ectodermal-derived characteristics, suggesting the pleiotropic effect of EDARV370A mainly plays roles in early embryo development. This study extends our knowledge about the pleiotropic nature of EDARV370A and provides potential clues to its adaptation fitness in human evolution. PMID:26603699

  15. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  16. Mx gene diversity and influenza association among five wild dabbling duck species (Anas spp.) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Danielle; Runstadler, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    Mx (myxovirus-resistant) proteins are induced by interferon and inhibit viral replication as part of the innate immune response to viral infection in many vertebrates. Influenza A virus appears to be especially susceptible to Mx antiviral effects. We characterized exon 13 and the 3' UTR of the Mx gene in wild ducks, the natural reservoir of influenza virus and explored its potential relevance to influenza infection. We observed a wide range of intra- and interspecies variations. Total nucleotide diversity per site was 0.0014, 0.0027, 0.0044, 0.0051, and 0.0061 in mallards, northern shovelers, northern pintails, American wigeon, and American green-winged teals, respectively. There were 61 haplotypes present across all five species and four were shared among species. Additionally, we observed a significant association between Mx haplotype and influenza infection status in northern shovelers. However, we found no evidence of balancing or diversifying selection in this region of the Mx gene. Characterization of the duck Mx gene is an important step in understanding how the gene may affect disease resistance or susceptibility in wild populations. Furthermore, given that waterfowl act as a natural reservoir for influenza virus, the Mx gene could be an important determinant in the ecology of the virus. PMID:20621205

  17. Slickenside formation by surface melting during the mechanical excavation of rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spray, John G.

    This work discusses the nature and origin of slickensides generated by the impingement of high-carbon steel teeth on sandstone during the mechanical excavation of boulders by back shovel and front loader. The slickensides show a number of morphological features that can be related to the direction and sense of tooth displacement, including striations, carrot-shaped grooves, curved fractures and steps. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the slickensides comprise a layer of Fe-enriched, glass-bonded gouge (?150 ?m thick). The estimated shear stresses and velocities realized at the tooth-rock interface (175 MPa at 1 m s -1 for the back shovel and 100 MPa at 2 m s -1 for the front loader) indicate that a heat production of 150-200 MW m -2 and mean surface temperature of 1400-1700░C were achieved. XRF and microprobe analyses confirm that localized bulk melting and Fe-enrichment of the surface occurred during slip. The excavator-generated slickensides provide an analogue for the effects of a single co-seismic event in the evolution of a shallow, relatively dry fault surface. From a simple consideration of energetics under these conditions, it is apparent that localized surface melting should be commonplace. Such an analogue may be useful as a guide for recognizing melt features in natural slickensides, features that would otherwise tend to be obscured during lengthier periods of interseismic surface modification.

  18. History of reclamation: the times - they are a changin'

    SciTech Connect

    Cardwell, S.P.; Sanz, L.O.

    1985-12-09

    Surface mining in Kentucky and the US has risen from rather sporadic beginnings in the late 1800's to a full fledged, heavily regulated industry in the 1980's. The industry has undergone a more traumatic regulatory metamorphosis in the past twenty-five years than any other single industry in the US. Reclamation requirements have gone from supplying a simple mine registration with the appropriate agency immediately prior to beginning operations to spending as much as 18-24 months collecting data for what amounts to a mini-environmental impact statement which must be submitted as part of a lengthy application several months prior to actual start-up of the operation itself. Increasingly stringent laws have been the result of two main forces: (1) Increasing citizen concern to save the environment and (2) Increasingly efficient technology which can both mine more coal (and as a result disturb more ground). This paper will follow the evolution of the coal mining and reclamation industry, from its beginning in the late nineteenth century when surface mining was conducted with a pick-and-shovel and a mule-drawn scraper to the present day, when a 100 cu.yd. stripping shovel is almost commonplace. Particular attention will be given to the relationship between the evolving technology and the increasingly stringent laws. 33 references.

  19. Duck nest success in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, A.T.; Shaffer, T.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    We estimated nest success of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (A. strepera), blue-winged teal (A. discors), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), and northern pintail (A. acuta) for 5 regions in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota, for 1-3 periods between 1966 and 1984, and for 8 habitat classes. We obtained composite estimates of nest success for regions and periods by weighting each habitat proportional to the number of nest initiations. The distribution of nest initiations was derived from estimates of breeding populations, preferences of species for nesting habitats, and availability of habitats. Nest success rates ranged from <5 to 36% among regions, periods, and species. Rates were lowest in western Minnesota (MNW) and eastern North Dakota (NDE), intermediate in central North Dakota (NDC) and eastern South Dakota (SDE), and highest in central South Dakota (SDC). In regions with comparable data, no consistent trend in nest success was apparent from early to late periods. Gadwalls and blue-winged teal nested more successfully than mallards and pintails; the relative success of shovelers varied regionally. Ducks nesting in idle grassland were the most successful and those nesting in cropland were least successful. Mammalian predation was the major cause of nesting failure (54-85%) in all habitats, but farming operations resulted in 37 and 27% of the nesting failures in cropland and hayland, respectively. Most of the populations studied were not self-sustaining.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii in waterfowl: the first detection of this parasite in Anas crecca and Anas clypeata from Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Mugnaini, Linda; Poli, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii in waterfowl is of interest for elucidating the potential involvement of these birds in maintaining the parasitic life cycle because birds are exposed to these parasites. Sera from 103 adult, free-range game birds, representing 13 different species living in the Italian wetlands, were examined using modified agglutination tests for antibodies specific to T. gondii . In seropositive birds, the brain and heart were homogenized and DNA was extracted to perform nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and genotyping. Out of the 103 serum samples, 9 (8.7%) were scored as positive with titers ranging from 1/20 to 1/160. The seropositive animals corresponded to 4 of the species: Anas platyrhynchos (mallard; 2/17), Anas clypeata (northern shoveller; 2/11), Anas crecca (common teal; 3/41), and Gallinago gallinago (common snipe; 2/8). Parasite DNA was detected in 3 out of 9 brain samples, while the PCR results from the heart specimens were negative in all of the birds. The occurrence of non-clonal types of T. gondii was suggested in all cases. In conclusion, we describe the first documented detection of DNA of T. gondii in tissues from the northern shoveller and common teal, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite. PMID:23145510

  1. Mercury concentrations in migratory waterfowl harvested from Southern Nevada Wildlife Management Areas, USA.

    PubMed

    Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2004-02-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in 14 species of migratory waterfowl harvested from Southern Nevada Wildlife Management areas during the 2001-2002 hunting season. Common mergansers (2.61 +/- 0.87 ppm liver; 0.22 +/- 0.04 ppm muscle), northern shovelers (3.51 +/- 3.8 ppm liver; 0.16 +/- 0.03 ppm muscle), and bufflehead (2.63 +/- 0.24 ppm liver; 0.91 ppm muscle) had the highest concentrations of mercury in the liver and muscle of the species harvested. The relationships between muscle and liver concentrations were also examined. These data indicate that liver tissue can be used with reasonable confidence (r >.80 for most species) to predict mercury concentrations in muscle, the most commonly consumed portion of waterfowl. The mercury concentrations reported here are some of the highest reported in the scientific literature, and they identify certain species, such as the northern shoveler and common merganser, that have accumulated unusually high concentrations of mercury. Evidence for the use of these three species as possible bioindicators for mercury is also presented. PMID:14758592

  2. The effects of body properties on sand-swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Koehler, Stephan; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Numerous animals locomote effectively within sand, yet few studies have investigated how body properties and kinematics contribute to subsurface performance. We compare the movement strategies of two desert dwelling subsurface sand-swimmers exhibiting disparate body forms: the long-slender limbless shovel-nosed snake (C. occipitalis) and the relatively shorter sandfish lizard (S. scincus). Both animals ``swim'' subsurface using a head-to-tail propagating wave of body curvature. We use a previously developed granular resistive force theory to successfully predict locomotion of performance of both animals; the agreement with theory implies that both animal's swim within a self-generated frictional fluid. We use theory to show that the snake's shape (body length to body radius ratio), low friction and undulatory gait are close to optimal for sand-swimming. In contrast, we find that the sandfish's shape and higher friction are farther from optimal and prevent the sandfish from achieving the same performance as the shovel-nosed snake during sand-swimming. However, the sandfish's kinematics allows it to operate at the highest performance possible given its body properties. NSF PoLS

  3. A new marine reptile from the Triassic of China, with a highly specialized feeding adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Long; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Shang, Qing-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The Luoping fauna (Anisian, Middle Triassic) is probably the oldest of Triassic faunas in Guizhou-Yunnan area, China. The reptilian assemblage is comprised of ichthyosaurs, a number of sauropterygians (pachypleurosaur-like forms), saurosphargids, protorosaurs, and archosauriforms. Here, we report on a peculiar reptile, newly found in this fauna. Its dentition is fence or comb-like and bears more than 175 pleurodont teeth in each ramus of the upper and lower jaws, tooth crown is needle-like distally and blade-shaped proximally; its rostrum strongly bends downward and the anterior end of its mandible expands both dorsally and ventrally to form a shovel-headed structure; and its ungual phalanges are hoof-shaped. The specializations of the jaws and dentition indicate that the reptile may have been adapted to a way of bottom-filter feeding in water. It is obvious that such delicate teeth are not strong enough to catch prey, but were probably used as a barrier to filter microorganisms or benthic invertebrates such as sea worms. These were collected by the specialized jaws, which may have functioned as a shovel or pushdozer (the mandible) and a grasper or scratcher (the rostrum). Our preliminary analysis suggests that the new reptile might be more closely related to the Sauropterygia than to other marine reptiles.

  4. Cascading effect of economic globalization on human risks of scrub typhus and tick-borne rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Huang, Jing-Lun; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lee, Pei-Lung; Kelt, Douglas A; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2012-09-01

    The increase in global travel and trade has facilitated the dissemination of disease vectors. Globalization can also indirectly affect vector-borne diseases through the liberalization of cross-border trade, which has far-reaching, worldwide effects on agricultural practices and may in turn influence vectors through the modification of the ecological landscape. While the cascading effect of economic globalization on vector-borne diseases, sometimes acting synergistically with regional agricultural policy, could be substantial and have significant economic, agricultural, and public health implications, research into this remains very limited. We evaluated how abandonment of rice paddies in Taiwan after joining the World Trade Organization, along with periodic plowing, an agricultural policy to reduce farm pests in abandoned fields can unexpectedly influence risks to diseases transmitted by ticks and chiggers (larval trombiculid mites), which we collected from their small-mammal hosts. Sampling was limited to abandoned (fallow) and plowed fields due to the challenge of trapping small mammals in flooded rice paddies. Striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) are the main hosts for both vectors. They harbored six times more ticks and three times more chiggers in fallow than in plowed plots. The proportion of ticks infected with Rickettsia spp. (etiologic agent of spotted fever) was three times higher in fallow plots, while that of Orientia tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus) in chiggers was similar in both treatments. Fallow plots had more ground cover and higher vegetation than plowed ones. Moreover, ticks and chiggers in both field types were dominated by species known to infest humans. Because ticks and chiggers should exhibit very low survival in flooded rice paddies, we propose that farm abandonment in Taiwan, driven by globalization, may have inadvertently led to increased risks of spotted fever and scrub typhus. However, periodic plowing can unintentionally mitigate vector burdens. Economic globalization can have unexpected consequences on disease risk through modification of the agricultural landscape, but the outcome may also be influenced by agricultural policies, calling for further research on vector-borne diseases and their control from broader perspectives. PMID:23092017

  5. Effects of application methods and plastic covers on distribution of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in root zone.

    PubMed

    Ou, L-T; Thomas, J E; Allen, L H; McCormack, L A; Vu, J C; Dickson, D W

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the effects of three application methods (chisel injection, Avenger coulter injection, and drip irrigation) and two plastic films (polyethylene film [PE] and virtually impermeable film [VIF]) on distribution of cis- and trans- 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in a Florida sandy soil after application of Telone C35 or Telone In-Line. Regardless of application method, VIF retained greater amounts of cis- and trans-1,3-D and CP in the root zone with longer residential time than PE. There was better retention of the three compounds in the root zone when applied with the Avenger coulter injection rig than chisel injection, especially in combination with VIF. Distribution of the three compounds in the root zone was less predictable when applied by drip irrigation. Following drip irrigation, more than 50% of the three compounds in the PE and VIF-covered beds was found near the end of the drip tapes in one experiment, whereas the distribution was much more uniform in the root zone in a second experiment. Among the three biologically active compounds, CP disappeared from the root zone more rapidly than cis- and trans-1,3-D, especially in the PE-covered beds. PMID:19262895

  6. [A paratibial fasciotomy technic in chronic venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Hornř, J

    1996-01-01

    From extensive paratibial fasciectomies on account of crural ulcers W. Hach changed to subcutaneous fasciotomy from an incision 30 to 40 mm long with digital severing of the perforating veins. Its main effect is the creation of wide communication between the subfascial and suprafascial space. The subcutaneous tissue affected with lipodermatosclerosis rest on muscles well supplied with blood which can improve the trophics of surface tissues. The reduction of the surgical approach to 10 mm calls for special instruments. Instruments designed by the author proved useful. The author operated eight patients with advanced varicosis of the saphena maior with incompetence of two to three Cockett veins and with developed lipodermatosclerosis. After stripping of the saphena maior the smaller varicosities were extracted by dented strippers, haemostasis was ensured by tamponade by means of an applicator. Cockett's veins were interrupted in the subfascial layer from a paratibial incision in the middle of the leg by means of a 10 mm L-shaped chisel and straight chisel. This was followed by prolongation of fasciotomy by means of a fasciotome to the inner ankle. The postoperative course was devoid of complications with minimal pain, the cosmetic effect was excellent. PMID:8768957

  7. Powder-Collection System for Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Blake, David; Bryson, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A system for collecting samples of powdered rock has been devised for use in conjunction with an ultrasonic/sonic drill/corer (USDC) -- a lightweight, lowpower apparatus designed to cut into, and acquire samples of, rock or other hard material for scientific analysis. The USDC includes a drill bit, corer, or other tool bit, in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are excited by an electronically driven piezoelectric actuator. The USDC advances into the rock or other material of interest by means of a hammering action and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, a negligible amount of axial force is needed to make the USDC advance into the material. Also unlike a conventional twist drill, the USDC operates without need for torsional restraint, lubricant, or a sharp bit. The USDC generates powder as a byproduct of the drilling or coring process. The purpose served by the present samplecollection system is to remove the powder from the tool-bit/rock interface and deliver the powder to one or more designated location(s) for analysis or storage

  8. The Use of Soil in Criminal Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Lorna; Fitzpatrick, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Forensic soil science, as a newly developed discipline of soil science, has matured to the extent that well-defined questions and successful crime scene investigations are being addressed in increasingly refined ways to assist law enforcement agencies. Soils, rocks, regolith, minerals and man-made mineral particles such as bricks (i.e. referred to "human-made" soil materials) are being used in specialised forensic investigations to associate/disassociate a sample taken from an item, such as shoes, clothing, shovel or vehicle, with a specific location. The majority of forensic cases involving soil materials are usually overwhelmingly complex, and the challenges of associating relevant information from one source with another, often requires the use and development of sophisticated field and laboratory methods. Through examples from case studies, this presentation will demonstrate how advanced field and laboratory approaches have been critical in developing coherent, predictive, soil models, from landscape to microscopic scales, to help contribute to soil-based criminal investigations in both Australia and Scotland. To demonstrate the critical importance of soil materials in forensic investigations, the following 2 case studies, which tackle difficult problems at a range of scales involving highly complex issues, will be presented: ÔÇóThe use of soil evidence to help solve a double murder case. This investigation used morphological, chemical, physical and mineralogical properties to identify similarities between soil-regolith found on a shovel taken from the suspect's vehicle and wetland soil-regolith subsequently located in the bottom of a quarry (Fitzpatrick and Raven, 2012). ÔÇóThe use of soil and related material to help search and to provide evidence in a murder case. This investigation used soil mineralogical and organic properties to identify similarities between sand found on a shovel and sand subsequently located at a beach. Results illustrate the benefit of using a complementary approach and consideration of the two way transfer of materials (Dawson and Hillier, 2010). References Fitzpatrick R.W. and Raven M.D. (2012) How Pedology and mineralogy helped solve a double murder case: Using forensics to inspire future generations of soil scientists. Soil Horizons. 53 (5) doi:10.2136/sh12-05-0016. Dawson, L.A. Hillier, S. (2010) Measurement of soil characteristics for forensic applications. Surface and Interface Analysis, 42, 363-377.

  9. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual and flyway differences in remigial measurements and reduced performance of age classification models as evidence of high variability in size of blue-winged ducks' remiges. Variability in remigial size of these and other small-bodied waterfowl may be related to nutrition during molt.

  10. Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring water levels and movement was much weaker for young females than for adults. 7. Young female diving ducks exhibited much stronger (compared to adults) asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water locations than away from these locations. 8. Local survival of day-old ducklings during the first year of life was time-specific and very low (means for different strata/states 0?01-0?08) because of high rates of emigration and prefledging mortality.

  11. Mountaintop converts to home sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    A subsidiary of Filbert Imported Hardwoods is going to turn a mountaintop surface-mining operation into a 225 acre housing development after coal removal is completed. Located in western West Virginia, the plan developed by Architectural Assoc. of Charleston calls for investing about $8 million to construct 200 homes. Obtaining the necessary permits from the USBM Office of Surface Mining was difficult because of the law requiring restoration of surface mined land to approximate original contours. Special mining techniques of the four seams of metallurgical coal are described. A 1000 CK Poclain excavator is being tested on the excavation work at this site. The performance and cost guarantees of this hydraulic shovel are discussed.

  12. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Impairment in a Patient with Hypothyroidism: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Mayada

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male with hypothyroidism who developed acute renal impairment with rhabdomyolysis after strenuous physical activity (snow shoveling). His thyroid function test confirmed marked hypothyroidism. Severe elevation of serum CK consistent with rhabdomyolysis was noted and an elevated creatinine indicated acute renal impairment. Patient's condition improved significantly after starting him on thyroid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive hydration. Acute renal impairment with rhabdomyolysis in patients with hypothyroidism is quite rare and we expect that this case report adds to the existing literature on this subject. We also emphasize that thyroid status should be evaluated in patients with unexplained acute renal impairment and presenting with the symptoms of muscle involvement. PMID:24822067

  13. T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, H.M. ); Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K. . Aero and Naval Systems)

    1993-01-01

    There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

  14. T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones. Transuranic storage area-retrieval enclosure program

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, H.M.; Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

  15. Sediment transport simulation in an armoured stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.; Bradley, Jeffrey B.; Loeffler, Cindy L.

    1986-01-01

    Improved methods of calculating bed material stability and transport must be developed for a gravel bed stream having an armoured surface in order to use the HEC-6 model to examine channel change. Good possibilities exist for use of a two layer model based on the Schoklitsch and the Einstein-Brown transport equations. In Einstein-Brown the D35 of the armour is used for stabilities and the D50 of the bed (sub-surface) is used for transport. Data on the armour and sub-surface size distribution needs to be obtained as part of a bed material study in a gravel bed river; a "shovel" sample is not adequate. The Meyer-Peter, Muller equation should not be applied to a gravel bed stream with an armoured surface to estimate the initiation of transport or for calculation of transport at low effective bed shear stress.

  16. Later Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Almonda Karstic system, Torres Novas, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Marks, Anthony E; Brugal, Jean Philip; Bailey, Shara E; Rink, W Jack; Richter, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    Later Middle Pleistocene archeological deposits of the Galeria Pesada (Gruta da Aroeira), Almonda Karstic System, Torres Novas, Portugal, yielded two archaic human teeth, a mandibular canine and a maxillary third molar. The C(1)presents moderate and asymmetrical shoveling with a stout root. The slightly worn M(3)exhibits at least four cusps with a large hypocone, three roots with large radicular plates, and an absence of taurodontism. They are moderately large for later Middle Pleistocene humans in their buccolingual crown diameters, although the M(3)mesiodistal diameter is modest. The C(1)exhibits labial calculus and multiple linear hypoplastic defects, but the M(3)is lesion free. Both teeth are morphologically similar to those of other Middle Pleistocene European humans and reinforce a pattern of dental hypertrophy among these archaic Homo. PMID:14580591

  17. Mortality of waterfowl on a hypersaline wetland as a result of salt encrustation

    SciTech Connect

    Wobeser, G.; Howard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Approximately 300 geese, primarily lesser Canada geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) were found unable to fly or dead on a small hypersaline lake (conductivity 77,000-90,000 mumhos/cm) in western Saskatchewan in September 1985. The birds were heavily encrusted with sodium sulfate crystals. Dead birds that were necropsied had aspirated lake water and had evidence of acute muscle degeneration. The live geese (155) were captured and moved to nearby freshwater wetlands where most apparently survived. Some birds died of severe myopathy after translocation. Five northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) were found encrusted with salt and unable to fly on the lake approximately 10 days later. Salt encrustation apparently occurred when rapid cooling of the lake resulted in supersaturation and crystallization of the dissolved salt. A local resident recalled similar events occurring on the lake in autumn on at least two other occasions during the past 50 yr.

  18. Waterfowl ecology and avian influenza in california: Do host traits inform us about viral occurrence?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, N.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Cardona, C.J.; Ackerman, J.T.; Schultz, A.K.; Spragens, K.A.; Boyce, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether host traits influenced the occurrence of avian influenza virus (AIV) in Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans) at wintering sites in California's Central Valley. In total, 3487 individuals were sampled at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge and Conaway Ranch Duck Club during the hunting season of 2007-08. Of the 19 Anatidae species sampled, prevalence was highest in the northern shoveler (5.09%), followed by the ring-necked duck (2.63%), American wigeon (2.57%), bufflehead (2.50%), greater white-fronted goose (2.44%), and cinnamon teal (1.72%). Among host traits, density of lamellae (filtering plates) of dabbling ducks was significantly associated with AIV prevalence and the number of subtypes shed by the host, suggesting that feeding methods may influence exposure to viral particles. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  19. Dental anthropology of a Brazilian sample: Frequency of nonmetric traits.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Lima, LaÝse Nascimento Correia; Delwing, Fßbio; Francesquini, Luiz; Daruge, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Dental elements are valuable tools in a study of ancient populations and species, and key-features for human identification; among the dental anthropology field, nonmetric traits, standardized by ASUDAS, are closely related to ancestry. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of six nonmetric traits in a sample from Southeast Brazil, composed by 130 dental casts from individuals aged between 18 and 30, without foreign parents or grandparents. A single examiner observed the presence or absence of shoveling, Carabelli's cusp, fifth cusp, 3-cusped UM2, sixth cusp, and 4-cusped LM2. The frequencies obtained were different from the ones shown by other researches to Amerindian and South American samples, and related to European and sub-Saharan frequencies, showing the influence of this groups in the current Brazilian population. Sexual dimorphism was found in the frequencies of Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped UM2, and sixth cusp. PMID:26628292

  20. Dust control for draglines

    SciTech Connect

    Grad, P.

    2009-09-15

    Monitoring dust levels inside draglines reveals room for improvement in how filtration systems are used and maintained. The Australian firm BMT conducted a field test program to measure airflow parameters, dust fallout rates and dust concentrations, inside and outside the machine house, on four draglines and one shovel. The study involved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The article describes how the tests were made and gives results. It was not possible to say which of the two main filtration systems currently used on Australian draglines - Dynavane or Floseps - performs better. It would appear that more frequent maintenance and cleaning would increase the overall filtration performance and systems could be susceptible to repeat clogging in a short time. 2 figs., 1 photos.

  1. Backcountry snowmobilers' risk perceptions, avalanche related information seeking behaviours, preparedness and decision-making processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Jennifer

    Although there has been substantial research on the avoidance of risk, much less has been completed on voluntary risk. This study examined backcountry snowmobilers' risk perceptions, avalanche related information seeking behaviours, and decision-making processes when dealing with avalanches and backcountry risk in Canada. To accomplish this, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 participants who were involved in backcountry snowmobiling. Interviews were done both in person and by telephone. The results of this study show that, unlike previous research on snowmobilers, the participants of this study were well prepared and knowledgeable about backcountry risks. All 17 participants stated that they carried a shovel, probe, and transceiver with them on each backcountry trip, and 10 participants had taken an avalanche safety course. Group dynamics and positive peer pressure were influential in promoting safe backcountry behaviour. KEYWORDS: Backcountry snowmobiling, Avalanches, Voluntary Risk, Preparedness, Decision-Making.

  2. Waterfowl density on agricultural fields managed to retain water in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Nelms, C.O.

    1999-01-01

    Managed water on private and public land provides habitat for wintering waterfowl in the Mississippi Valley, where flood control projects have reduced the area of natural flooding. We compared waterfowl densities on rice, soybean, and moist-soil fields under cooperative agreements to retain water from 1 November through 28 February in Arkansas and Mississippi and assessed temporal changes in waterfowl density during winter in 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. Fields flooded earlier in Arkansas, but retained water later in Mississippi. Over winter, waterfowl densities decreased in Arkansas and increased in Mississippi. Densities of waterfowl, including mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), the most abundant species observed, were greatest on moist-soil fields. However, soybean fields had the greatest densities of northern shoveler (Spatula clypeata).

  3. Study of Internal Dump Stability of Dudhichua Open Cast Project, Northern Coalfields Limited, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, S.; Roy, I.

    2015-04-01

    Dudhichua Open Cast Project is one of the prestigious projects of Northern Coalfields Limited, India; with total mineable coal reserves of approximately 400 million tonnes and corresponding 1,700 million m3 volume of waste rock i.e. overburden material. Accommodating this waste dump masses in the limited space of the de-coaled portion of the quarry is considered as one of the major challenges to the mine operators. It has been reported that this mine is facing frequent slope failures of waste rock dumps which is of great concern to the mine management in view of unsafe working condition. To tackle the above problem, a detailed investigation was carried out to propose a stable dump profile which will cater to the land economics and safety aspects of the mine. A detailed investigation along with recommendation of optimum design for dragline dump profile along with shovel-dumper-dump profile is presented in this paper.

  4. Mining in low coal. Volume 1. Biomechanics and work physiology. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.; Caddel, D.K.

    1981-11-01

    The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the job demands associated with low coal mining, (2) to survey the anthropometry, strength, and aerobic capacity of low coal miners to determine if they differ from the U.S. population, and (3) to recommend, on the basis of available information, optimal job and work station design for low coal mining. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. Back strength for male and female miners was significantly lower than the industrial worker population. This can be one of the contributing factors of low back problems in mining. Shoveling, timbering, and helpers tasks were physiologically demanding activities. However, because of the frequent stoppage of work, adequate rest was usually available. If work stoppage is corrected, then better work and rest schedules are essential.

  5. Infrared thermographic detection of buried grave sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.; Graf, Richard J.

    1992-04-01

    Since time began, people have been born and people have died. For a variety of reasons grave sites have had to be located and investigated. These reasons have included legal, criminal, religious, construction and even simple curiosity problems. Destructive testing methods such as shovels and backhoes, have traditionally been used to determine grave site locations in fields, under pavements, and behind hidden locations. These existing techniques are slow, inconvenient, dirty, destructive, visually obtrusive, irritating to relatives, explosive to the media and expensive. A new, nondestructive, non-contact technique, infrared thermography has been developed to address these problems. This paper will describe how infrared thermography works and will be illustrated by several case histories.

  6. Stone tool production and utilization by bonobo-chimpanzees (Pan paniscus)

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Itai; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Rubert-Pugh, Elizabeth; Ronen, Avraham; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-01-01

    Using direct percussion, language-competent bonobo-chimpanzees Kanzi and Pan-Banisha produced a significantly wider variety of flint tool types than hitherto reported, and used them task-specifically to break wooden logs or to dig underground for food retrieval. For log breaking, small flakes were rotated drill-like or used as scrapers, whereas thick cortical flakes were used as axes or wedges, leaving consistent wear patterns along the glued slits, the weakest areas of the log. For digging underground, a variety of modified stone tools, as well as unmodified flint nodules, were used as shovels. Such tool production and utilization competencies reported here in Pan indicate that present-day Pan exhibits Homo-like technological competencies. PMID:22912400

  7. Stone tool production and utilization by bonobo-chimpanzees (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Roffman, Itai; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Rubert-Pugh, Elizabeth; Ronen, Avraham; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-09-01

    Using direct percussion, language-competent bonobo-chimpanzees Kanzi and Pan-Banisha produced a significantly wider variety of flint tool types than hitherto reported, and used them task-specifically to break wooden logs or to dig underground for food retrieval. For log breaking, small flakes were rotated drill-like or used as scrapers, whereas thick cortical flakes were used as axes or wedges, leaving consistent wear patterns along the glued slits, the weakest areas of the log. For digging underground, a variety of modified stone tools, as well as unmodified flint nodules, were used as shovels. Such tool production and utilization competencies reported here in Pan indicate that present-day Pan exhibits Homo-like technological competencies. PMID:22912400

  8. Selection of operating machinery parameters for a bucket excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrichnyi, Y.F.; Baboshin, K.V.; Etinger, I.M.; Mekk, V.A.

    1985-05-01

    The mining industry uses extensively single-bucket excavators of the straight shovel type, like the EKG-4.6, as the most effective way of loading previously loosened hard and abrasive excavated rocks. Therefore, an increase in their working efficiency, mainly as regards increasing productivity, reducing load on the operating machinery, and reducing wear of the operating machinery elements, is of particular importance. Analysis shows that the possibilities for this lie in the correct selection of movement trajectory parameters for the excavator bucket, which for existing excavators are inadequate for loading excavated rock. The authors study here the effect of trajectory parameters on excavator bucket filling, and on their basis they select parameters for the operating machinery.

  9. Accidental decapitation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-09-01

    We report a case of an accidental decapitation of an agriculture worker in a field. The scene investigation revealed that the worker had loosely tied a scarf tied over his face in an attempt to diminish his exposure to barley dust, to which he was allergic, while distributing the barley loads with a shovel upon a trailer. The trailer was simultaneously being loaded by a helix elevator machine and its rotating shaft suddenly caught the victim's scarf and pulled it down to the victim's neck. The rotating motion immediately tightened the scarf around the neck resulting in hanging/strangulation noose that, by continued tightening, caused decapitation of the victim. The victim's body was found on the ground by the trailer and the victim's head was discovered in the barley load in the trailer. Examination revealed that the neck was severed at the level of the second and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:19696584

  10. Impacts of changing irrigation practices on waterfowl habitat use in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnum, D.A.; Euliss, N. H ., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    We used diurnal aerial census data to examine habitat use patterns of ducks wintering in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California from 1980-87. We calculated densities (birds/ha) for the northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), green-winged teal (A. crecca), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), shoveler (A. clypeata), ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), and total ducks in each of 5 habitats. Densities of pintail and total ducks were greater in September than in other months. From October through January, density of teal and total ducks was greatest on Kern National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Densities of ruddy duck and pintail were greatest on agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds and preirrigated cropland, respectively.

  11. Grassland birds orient nests relative to nearby vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoekman, S.T.; Ball, I.J.; Fondell, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    We studied orientation of nest sites relative to nearby vegetation for dabbling ducks (Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera; Blue-winged Teal, A. discors; Gadwall, A. strepera; Mallard, A. platyrhynchos; and Northern Shoveler, A. clypeata) and Short-eared Owls (Asio flammeus) in ungrazed grassland habitat during 1995-1997 in westcentral Montana. We estimated an index of vegetation height and density in intercardinal directions (NE, SE, SW, NW) immediately around nests. All species oriented nests with the least vegetation to the southeast and the most vegetation to either the southwest or northwest. Furthermore, maximum vegetation around nests shifted from the southwest to the northwest with increasing nest initiation date, apparently as a response of individuals tracking seasonal change in the afternoon solar path. Thus, nests were relatively exposed to solar insolation during cool morning hours but were shaded from intense insolation in the afternoon throughout the breeding season. We suggest that nest microhabitat was selected in part to moderate the thermal environment.

  12. Ergonomics evaluation of a foam rubber grip for tool handles.

    PubMed

    Fellows, G L; Freivalds, A

    1991-08-01

    An important consideration in tool design is the avoidance of hand discomfort and a reduction of work efficiency by using proper grip designs. To measure grip force distribution on a tool handle, Force Sensing Resistors were calibrated, placed on two different types of grip (wood and foam) and interfaced to a personal computer. The results, using six common garden tools - loppers, hedge shears, shovels, leaf rakes, hoes, garden rakes - indicated a very uneven distribution in grip force, but with the foam grip providing a more uniform distribution. Unfortunately, in most cases, the tool grip force was greater for the foam grip due to the deformation of the foam and a 'loss of control' feeling in the subjects. However, most subjects strongly preferred the foam grips. PMID:15676818

  13. Revealing the Hidden Value that the Federal Investment Tax Credit and Treasury Cash Grant Provide To Community Wind Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2009-12-14

    Although the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 has slowed wind power development in general, the crisis has, in several respects, been a blessing in disguise for community wind project development in the United States. For xample, the crisis-induced slowdown in the broader commercial wind market has, for the first time since 2004, created slack in the supply chain, creating an opportunity for shovel-ready community wind projects to finally proceed towards onstruction. Many such projects had been forced to wait on the sidelines as the commercial wind boom of 2005-2008 consumed virtually all available resources needed to complete a wind project (e.g., turbines, cranes, contractors).

  14. Maneuvering through a pipeline obstacle course

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, N.

    1992-08-01

    Installing a pipeline may not seem like much of a challenge for natural gas companies, but the logistics of laying pipe in the ground is not simple in many cases, and no pipeline project is ever routine. Before lifting a shovel, there are a number of potential obstacles to consider: the possibility of damage to the environment and historical landmarks, the stress-resistance of the pipes themselves --- and, of course, the natural wonders of the world that are nothing less than holy terrors to the contractors who must work around, over and through them. It used to take six to eight months to build a pipeline; now it's one to two years just getting through FERC (the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission). This paper shows that with the right technology, as well as a little creativity, there's no hill too high, no field too fruitful, no ferret too feisty and no regulation too rigid to transport natural gas through pipelines anywhere, anyhow, anytime.

  15. Mechanical behavior of bovine nasal cartilage under static and dynamic loading.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Vera; Cadovß, Michala; Gallo, Luigi M

    2013-09-01

    Abnormal mechanical loading may trigger cartilage degeneration associated with osteoarthritis. Tissue response to load has been the subject of several in vitro studies. However, simple stimuli were often applied, not fully mimicking the complex in vivo conditions. Therefore, a rolling/plowing explant test system (RPETS) was developed to replicate the combined in vivo loading patterns. In this work we investigated the mechanical behavior of bovine nasal septum (BNS) cartilage, selected as tissue approximation for experiments with RPETS, under static and dynamic loading. Biphasic material properties were determined and compared with those of other cartilaginous tissues. Furthermore, dynamic loading in plowing modality was performed to determine dynamic response and experimental results were compared with analytical models and Finite Elements (FE) computations. Results showed that BNS cartilage can be modeled as a biphasic material with Young's modulus E=2.03 ▒ 0.7 MPa, aggregate modulus HA=2.35 ▒ 0.7 MPa, Poisson's ratio ?=0.24 ▒ 0.07, and constant hydraulic permeability k0=3.0 ▒ 1.3 Î 10(-15)m(4)(Ns)(-1). Furthermore, dynamic analysis showed that plowing induces macroscopic reactions in the tissue, proportionally to the applied loading force. The comparison among analytical, FE analysis and experimental results showed that predicted tangential forces and sample deformation lay in the range of variation of experimental results for one specific experimental condition. In conclusion, mechanical properties of BNS cartilage under both static and dynamic compression were assessed, showing that this tissue behave as a biphasic material and has a viscoelastic response to dynamic forces. PMID:23915577

  16. Specific features of the morphology and chemical properties of coarse-textured postagrogenic soils of the southern taiga, Kostroma oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesnina, V. M.; Vaganov, I. E.; Karlsen, A. A.; Ivanova, A. E.; Zhukov, M. A.; Lebedev, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of loamy sandy postagrogenic soils in the course of their natural overgrowing were studied in the southeastern part of Kostroma oblast. Micromorphological indications of tillage were preserved in these soils at least 35-40 years after the cessation of their agricultural use. In the course of the soil overgrowing with forest vegetation, the bulk density of the upper part of the former plow horizon decreased, the pH and the ash content of the litter horizon somewhat lowered with a simultaneous increase in the acidity of the upper mineral horizon, especially at the beginning of the formation of the tree stand. In 5-7 years after the cessation of tillage, the former plow horizon was differentiated with respect to the organic carbon content. The total pool of organic carbon in the upper 30 cm increased. In the course of the further development, in the postagrogenic soil under the 90to 100-year-old forest, the organic carbon pool in this layer became lower. The soil of the young fallow (5-7 years) was characterized by the higher values of the microbial biomass in the upper mineral horizon in comparison with that in the plowed soil. In general, the microbial biomass in the studied postagrogenic ecosystems (the soils of the fields abandoned in 2005 and 2000 and the soil under the secondary 40-year-old forest) was lower than that in the soil of the subclimax 90to 100-year-old forest. The enzymatic activity of the soils tends to increase during the succession. The restoration of the invertase and, partly, catalase activities to the values typical of the soils under mature forests takes place in about 40 years.

  17. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  18. Post-fire hydrologic response in Central Portugal. A four years study at microplot scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Diana; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; Machado, Ana; Nunes, JoŃo; Keizer, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are a natural phenomenon in regions with a Mediterranean-type climate. However, their present-day widespread occurrence in southern Europe is unprecedented and strongly reflects human activity such as ignition, land-use changes, land abandonment and introduction of highly flammable plantations. Besides wildfires, post-fire management practices such as plowing, terracing, clearcutting and logging should also be considered, since their occurrence is getting increasingly common. And, in a long-term period these practices seem to be executed intercalated with repeated fire occurrences in the same site, sharing the impacts together with fire in an escalated degradational effect. In this sense, the work presented here concerns four years of runoff and erosion data at microplot scale after the wildfire, comparing different land management practices that occurred before the fire. Preliminary results indicate that in four years of monitoring, runoff is constantly higher in plowed sites than in the unplowed ones, with the exception of the first year. Regarding soil losses the plowed plots present always higher sediment rates than the unplowed ones. The comparison between two unplowed sites with different land uses, indicate higher runoff and erosion risk for pine comparatively to the eucalypt ones, however the reduced soil depth in the first can have an important role in these differences. Following these facts, the aim of the present work is to answer the following research questions: i) Do these four years of observations fit with the window of disturbance model presented by Prosser and Williams (1998). or the alternative version by Wittenberg and Inbar (2009)?; ii) Does pre-fire disturbances (wildfire, land use changes and land management practices) still have repercussions after wildfire?; In what sense does four years of intensive monitoring provides that one year couldn't provide?

  19. Effects of Different Tillage and Straw Return on Soil Organic Carbon in a Rice-Wheat Rotation System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

    2014-01-01

    Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0ľ7, 7ľ14 and 14ľ21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0ľ7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7ľ14 cm depth. However, at 14ľ21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:24586434

  20. Cross-Site Soil Microbial Communities under Tillage Regimes: Fungistasis and Microbial Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yrj├Ąl├Ą, Kim; Alakukku, Laura; Paloj├Ąrvi, Ansa

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of soil ecosystem services by agricultural management strategies requires knowledge of microbial communities in different management regimes. Crop cover by no-till management protects the soil surface, reducing the risk of erosion and nutrient leaching, but might increase straw residue-borne and soilborne plant-pathogenic fungi. A cross-site study of soil microbial communities and Fusarium fungistasis was conducted on six long-term agricultural fields with no-till and moldboard-plowed treatments. Microbial communities were studied at the topsoil surface (0 to 5 cm) and bottom (10 to 20 cm) by general bacterial and actinobacterial terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses. Fusarium culmorum soil fungistasis describing soil receptivity to plant-pathogenic fungi was explored by using the surface layer method. Soil depth had a significant impact on general bacterial as well as actinobacterial communities and PLFA profiles in no-till treatment, with a clear spatial distinction of communities (P < 0.05), whereas the depth-related separation of microbial communities was not observed in plowed fields. The fungal biomass was higher in no-till surface soil than in plowed soil (P < 0.07). Soil total microbial biomass and fungal biomass correlated with fungistasis (P < 0.02 for the sum of PLFAs; P < 0.001 for PLFA 18:2¤ë6). Our cross-site study demonstrated that agricultural management strategies can have a major impact on soil microbial community structures, indicating that it is possible to influence the soil processes with management decisions. The interactions between plant-pathogenic fungi and soil microbial communities are multifaceted, and a high level of fungistasis could be linked to the high microbial biomass in soil but not to the specific management strategy. PMID:22983972

  1. Transformation and sorption of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine in two soils: a short-term batch study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasteel, Roy; Mboh, Cho; Unold, Myriam; Groeneweg, Joost; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2010-05-01

    The worldwide use of veterinary antibiotics poses a continuous threat to the environment. There is, however, a lack of mechanistic studies on sorption and transformation processes for environmental assessment in soils. Two-weeks batch sorption experiments were performed with the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the plow layer and the subsoil of a loamy sand and a silty loam. The sorption and transformation parameters of SDZ and its main transformation products N1-2-(4-hydroxypyrimidinyl) benzenesulfanilamide (4-OH-SDZ) and 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-aniline (An-SDZ) were estimated using a global optimization algorithm. A two-stage, one-rate kinetic sorption model combined with a first-order transformation model adequately described the batch data. Sorption of SDZ was nonlinear (Freundlich), time-dependent, and affected by pH (speciation), with a higher sorption capacity for the loamy sand. Transformation of SDZ into 4-OH-SDZ occurred only in the liquid phase, with half-life values of about 1 month in the plow layers and about 6 months in the subsoils. Both the faster transformation rate in the plow layer compared to the subsoil and negligible transformation in the solid phase point to a microbial process for the formation of 4-OH-SDZ. Under the exclusion of light, An-SDZ was formed in substantial amounts in the silty loam only, with liquid phase half-life values of about 2 to 3 weeks. Despite the rather large parameter uncertainties, which may be reduced after the inclusion of additional information obtained from sequential solid phase extraction, the proposed method allows us to quantify and predict the fate of antibiotics in soils.

  2. Geographical gradients in the population dynamics of North American prairie ducks.

    PubMed

    Saether, Bernt-Erik; Lillegňrd, Magnar; Gr°tan, Vidar; Drever, Mark C; Engen, Steinar; Nudds, Thomas D; Podruzny, Kevin M

    2008-09-01

    1. Geographic gradients in population dynamics may occur because of spatial variation in resources that affect the deterministic components of the dynamics (i.e. carrying capacity, the specific growth rate at small densities or the strength of density regulation) or because of spatial variation in the effects of environmental stochasticity. To evaluate these, we used a hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate parameters characterizing deterministic components and stochastic influences on population dynamics of eight species of ducks (mallard, northern pintail, blue-winged teal, gadwall, northern shoveler, American wigeon, canvasback and redhead (Anas platyrhynchos, A. acuta, A. discors, A. strepera, A. clypeata, A. americana, Aythya valisineria and Ay. americana, respectively) breeding in the North American prairies, and then tested whether these parameters varied latitudinally. 2. We also examined the influence of temporal variation in the availability of wetlands, spring temperature and winter precipitation on population dynamics to determine whether geographical gradients in population dynamics were related to large-scale variation in environmental effects. Population variability, as measured by the variance of the population fluctuations around the carrying capacity K, decreased with latitude for all species except canvasback. This decrease in population variability was caused by a combination of latitudinal gradients in the strength of density dependence, carrying capacity and process variance, for which details varied by species. 3. The effects of environmental covariates on population dynamics also varied latitudinally, particularly for mallard, northern pintail and northern shoveler. However, the proportion of the process variance explained by environmental covariates, with the exception of mallard, tended to be small. 4. Thus, geographical gradients in population dynamics of prairie ducks resulted from latitudinal gradients in both deterministic and stochastic components, and were likely influenced by spatial differences in the distribution of wetland types and shapes, agricultural practices and dispersal processes. 5. These results suggest that future management of these species could be improved by implementing harvest models that account explicitly for spatial variation in density effects and environmental stochasticity on population abundance. PMID:18631261

  3. Dust exposure during small-scale mining in Tanzania: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bratveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Mashalla, Yohana J S; Maalim, Hatua

    2003-04-01

    Small-scale mining in developing countries is generally labour-intensive and carried out with low levels of mechanization. In the Mererani area in the northern part of Tanzania, there are about 15000 underground miners who are constantly subjected to a poor working environment. Gemstones are found at depths down to 500 m. The objectives of this pilot study were to monitor the exposure to dust during work processes, which are typical of small-scale mining in developing countries, and to make a rough estimation of whether there is a risk of chronic pulmonary diseases for the workers. Personal sampling of respirable dust (n = 15) and 'total' dust (n = 5) was carried out during three consecutive days in one mine, which had a total of 50 workers in two shifts. Sampling started immediately before the miners entered the shaft, and lasted until they reappeared at the mine entrance after 5-8 h. The median crystalline silica content and the combustible content of the respirable dust samples were 14.2 and 5.5%, respectively. When drilling, blasting and shovelling were carried out, the exposure measurements showed high median levels of respirable dust (15.5 mg/m(3)), respirable crystalline silica (2.4 mg/m(3)), respirable combustible dust (1.5 mg/m(3)) and 'total' dust (28.4 mg/m(3)). When only shovelling and loading of sacks took place, the median exposures to respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica were 4.3 and 1.1 mg/m(3). This study shows that the exposure to respirable crystalline silica was high during underground small-scale mining. In the absence of personal protective equipment, the miners in the Mererani area are presumably at a high risk of developing chronic silicosis. PMID:12639837

  4. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  5. Impact of the chemical concentration on the solid-phase epitaxial regrowth of phosphorus implanted preamorphized germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoen, E.; BrugŔre, A.; Satta, A.; Firrincieli, A.; Van Daele, B.; Brijs, B.; Richard, O.; Geypen, J.; Meuris, M.; Vandervorst, W.

    2009-05-01

    The impact of the phosphorus concentration [P] on the solid-phase epitaxial regrowth rate of preamorphized p-type germanium has been studied by a combination of Rutherford backscattering, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. It will be shown that for P concentrations in the 1018-5Î1019 cm-3 range, the regrowth rate is significantly enhanced compared with undoped germanium, while the opposite holds for [P] above about 4-5Î1020 cm-3. This regrowth retardation is shown associated with segregation across the crystalline/amorphous boundary and snow plow of P in excess of the metastable solid solubility in the recrystallized material.

  6. Delayed complete heart block secondary to jailed first septal perforator.

    PubMed

    Nee, Lisa M; Guttormsen, Brian; Gimelli, Giorgio

    2007-11-01

    Partial or total occlusion of septal perforator branches can occur during stenting of the proximal and mid portion of the left anterior descending artery, secondary to plaque snow plowing and/or stent "jailing". Flow compromise in a sizeable septal branch can result in a myocardial infarction or in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities. Complete heart block has been described at the time of the procedure, and though it is usually transient, it may require temporary pacing. We report a case of delayed, symptomatic and permanent complete atrio-ventricular block that occurred 2 days after the index procedure, requiring implantation of a permanent pacemaker. PMID:17986733

  7. Paddy soil cracks: characteristics and their impact on preferential flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongbin; Peng, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    Paddy soils with harrowing and puddling easily crack under alternate flooding and drying cycles (AFD). These cracks in paddy field may become pathways of preferential flow, improving water infiltration and increasing the pollution risk of groundwater. The objectives of this study were to investigate the 2D and 3D characteristics of soil cracks in paddy fields; and to determine their impacts on preferential flow. Two paddy fields, one cultivated for 20 years (YPF) and the other cultivated for more than 100 years (OPF), were subjected to either alternate flooding and drying (AFD) or continuous flooding (CF) during rice growing season. After the harvest of late rice crop, soil surface cracks were recorded using digital camera; and 3D structure of soil cracks was scanned by computed tomography (CT). The characteristics of 2D and 3D soil cracks were quantified with the aid of image analysis. The influence of soil cracks on preferential flow was characterized by tension infiltrometer, dye tracer and ion breakthrough curve. Our main results in this study were summed up as follows: under AFD condition, for the 2D soil cracks, the YPF presented 10 fold more cracks in quantity but these cracks were finer and more complicated as compared to those generated in the OPF. The results of CT scanning showed that the presence of soil cracks under the AFD increased average macropore length but decreased the number of macropores significantly, and it also changed macropore size distribution and macropore area density distribution with soil depth. The 3D structures of soil cracks were complicated but can be quantified using CT. The depth of soil cracks in young paddy field (7.58 cm) was smaller than that in old paddy field (9.34 cm), but soil cracks in both fields did not reach the plough pan (about 15 cm). Soil cracks significantly increased soil hydraulic conductivity. They serviced as pathways for preferential flow only in plow layer, as evidenced by a large dyed area above plough pan but a small area below it. Both the shape of BTCs and fitting parameters demonstrated that soil cracks did not increase preferential flow below plow pan because they did not perforate through the dense plow pan. This study demonstrates that soil cracks in paddy fields significantly affect macropore structure but their impact on preferential flow may be poor when they do not penetrate through the plow pan.

  8. Ground control failures. A pictorial view of case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2007-07-01

    The book shows, in pictorial views, many forms and/or stages of types of failures in mines, for instance, cutter, roof falls, and cribs. In each case, the year of occurrence is stated in the beginning so that the environment or technological background under which it occurred are reflected. The narrative than begins with the mining and geological conditions, followed by a description of the ground control problems and recommended solutions and results, if any. The sections cover failure of pillars, roof falls, longwall, roof bolting, multiple-seam mining, floor heave, longwall, flooding and weathering of coal, old workings, and shortwall and thin-seam plow longwall.

  9. Self-revegetation of disturbed ground in the deserts of Nevada and Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Sauer, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Plant cover established without purposeful soil preparation or seeding was measured on ground disturbed by plowing in Washington and by aboveground nuclear explosions in Nevada. After a time lapse of three decades in Washington and two decades in Nevada, fewer species were self-established on the disturbed ground than the nearby undisturbed ground. Alien annual plants were the dominants on the disturbed ground. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominated abandoned fields in Washington, and filaree (Erodium cicutarium) dominated disturbed ground in Nevada. Perennial grasses and shrubs appeared to be more successful as invaders in Nevada than in Washington. This distinction is attributed to the superior competitive ability of cheatgrass in Washington.

  10. Applications of ERTS-1 data to landscape change in eastern Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The analysis of landscape change in eastern Tennessee from ERTS-1 data is being derived from three avenues of experimentation and analysis: (1) a multi-stage sampling procedure utilizing ground and aircraft imagery for ground truth and control; (2) a densitometric and computer analytical experiment for the analysis of gray tone signatures and comparisons for landscape change detection and monitoring; and (3) an ERTS image enhancement procedure for the detection and analysis of photomorphic regions. Significant results include: maps of strip mining changes and forest inventory, watershed identification and delimitation, and agricultural regions derived from spring plowing patterns appearing on the ERTS-1 imagery.

  11. Friction and wear of metals with a single-crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide: Effect of shear strength of metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with spherical, single-crystal silicon carbide riders in contact with various metals and with metal riders in contact with silicon carbide flats. Results indicate that: (1) the friction force in the plowing of metal and (2) the groove height (corresponding to the volume of the groove) are related to the shear strength of the metal. That is, they decrease linearly as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases. Grooves are formed in metals primarily from plastic deformation, with occasional metal removal. The relation between the groove width D and the load W can be expressed by W = kD, superscript n which satisfies Meyer's law.

  12. Frictional disturbances in superconducting magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kensley, R. S.; Iwasa, Y.; Maeda, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is reported that uses a liner-friction apparatus to study the frictional and sliding behavior of metal/insulator pairs commonly used in superconducting magnet windings. Both copper G-10 and CDIF-G-10 pairs show similar friction behavior: first-run slips (and sometimes second runs) are very fast, while subsequent runs are slow. The fast slip is attributed to the plowing effect of the glass fibers. Coating with a thin layer of soft material or sanding the surface have been found effective in eliminating slip.

  13. Impact of conservation agriculture on harnessing sustainability and building resilience against land degradation in the northern Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Tesfay; Cornelis, Wim M.; Govaerts, Bram; Bauer, Hans; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Conservation Agriculture (CA) aims at improving soil quality and crop yield whilst reducing runoff and topsoil erosion which raises the soil resilience to combat soil degradation. Different chemical, physical, and biological properties of a soil interact in complex ways that determine the crop productivity potential of the soil. Hence, a medium-term tillage experiment was carried out (2005 to 2011) on a Vertisol to evaluate changes in soil quality, runoff and soil loss due to CA-based field conservation practices in northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was implemented in a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, plowed once at planting by refreshing the furrow and with 30% standing crop residue retention, terwah+ (TER+) with plowing once at planting with 30% standing crop residue retention and contour furrows made at 1.5 m distance interval, and conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three tillage operations and removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plow mahresha. Local crop rotation practices followed during the seven years sequentially from the first to the seventh year included wheat-teff-wheat-barley-wheat-teff-grass pea. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weed in DER+ and TER+. Significantly different (p<0.05) mean runoff coefficients (%) in 7-yrs of 13, 20 and 27 were recorded for DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Mean soil losses of 7-yrs were 4.4, 12.5 and 18 t ha-1 y-1 in DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Among the several assessed soil properties, SOM, N, P, soil microbial biomass carbon, aggregate stability index, consistency index, cone index, air capacity and macroporosity were shown to significantly increase in soils subjected to DER+ planting system compared to CT, specifically at 0-10 cm depth. Aggregate instability index, crack size at harvest, relative water capacity and plastic limit were significantly larger in CT compared to CA treatments. Adoption of improved local practices of DER+ and TER+ planting systems that employ conservation agriculture principles can reduce runoff, soil loss and improve crop yield and soil quality and thus, sustainability in Vertisols. Keywords: Soil resilience, Vertisol, conservation agriculture, field conservation practices, soil quality

  14. Timing of x-ray burst from X-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shen; Zhang, Ran; Zhu, Xinlei; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-06-01

    The x-ray burst timings of X-pinches, TXB, made using eight different wires for different current were measured. The results showed that a higher current makes a shorter TXB for a given X-pinch wire. In other words, TXB scales linearly with the line mass density for a given current. Based on the snow-plow model for Z-pinch plasma, it was derived that for a given X-pinch wire the integral of the current over time from zero to TXB is constant, i.e., ?0TXBi (t ) ?d t =const. . This theoretically derived relation was confirmed by our experiments.

  15. Cropping management using color and color infrared aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. Solving this equation yields the long-term average annual soil loss that can be expected from rill and inter-rill erosion. In this study, manual interpretation of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at the scale of 1:60,000 is used to determine the cropping management factor in the USLE. Accurate information was collected about plowing practices and crop residue cover (unharvested vegetation) for the winter season on agricultural land in Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  16. Late Bronze Age hoard studied by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guti├ęrrez Neira, P. C.; Zucchiatti, A.; Montero-Ruiz, I.; Vila├ža, R.; Bottaini, C.; Gener, M.; Climent-Font, A.

    2011-12-01

    The hoards of metallic objects belonging to the Late European Bronze Age can be interpreted differently depending on the type, number and composition of the artefacts. PIXE analysis has been performed in nine items from the Hoard of Freixanda in Portugal comprising four socket axes, a palstave axe, a ring, a chisel, a dagger, and a casting debris. Besides the composition of the main matrix elements, that is Cu and Sn, the amount of trace elements of interest like, As, Pb, Ni, and Ag has been determined using this ion beam technique. The high tin content alloy and the high purity of the metals from the Freixanda hoard are characteristic of the Portuguese and Spanish Late Bronze Age metallurgy, supporting the idea of a regional production.

  17. [Chromatography analysis of tobacco smoke condensate in biology tissue].

    PubMed

    Zurabashvili, D Z; Chanturia, I R; Kapanadze, L R

    2010-01-01

    Specialized analytical instrumentation for detailed analysis of nicotine, benz(alpha)pyrene, pyridine and benzene in tooth enamel and pulp of inveterate tobacco smokers is created. A Waters PPY-24 liquid chromatograph is equipped with Model M660 solvent programmer and a Model U6K sample injector is used. A Model 440 dual-wavelength detector is used to obtain absorbance ratios on dual-pen recorder. Our data show that concentration of tobacco smoke components in tooth cavity of inveterate tobacco smokers is different. The chisel tooth pulp contained considerably more nicotine and pyridine as compared with molars. The level of benzene does not change analyzed structures. The assumption of linearity between calculation of predicted retention times and concentration has been shown to be valid up to about 8,0% for all studied compounds. PMID:20157203

  18. Benchmarks for target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Darin T.; West, Philip D.

    2011-09-01

    The term benchmark originates from the chiseled horizontal marks that surveyors made, into which an angle-iron could be placed to bracket ("bench") a leveling rod, thus ensuring that the leveling rod can be repositioned in exactly the same place in the future. A benchmark in computer terms is the result of running a computer program, or a set of programs, in order to assess the relative performance of an object by running a number of standard tests and trials against it. This paper will discuss the history of simulation benchmarks that are being used by multiple branches of the military and agencies of the US government. These benchmarks range from missile defense applications to chemical biological situations. Typically, a benchmark is used with Monte Carlo runs in order to tease out how algorithms deal with variability and the range of possible inputs. We will also describe problems that can be solved by a benchmark.

  19. A balsa violin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Almost half a century ago John Schelleng determined the scaling rules that show how violins can be made from nontraditional materials. These principles suggest that balsa wood may be a possible, if unlikely, construction material. To test this idea, a balsa violin was constructed and found to be playable. Its vibrational behavior is shown to be in agreement with Schelleng's scaling rules. The instrument was not difficult to build, and its construction can be repeated by anyone of moderate skill with a chisel and sandpaper and access to an audio frequency analysis program. The reward is a tactile appreciation for the vibrational behavior of materials and the physics of musical instruments that is difficult to gain otherwise.

  20. Were Viking Dry-dock methods in the Americas used earlier to Build Pyramids, with Outflow Eroding the Sphinx, and were Stonehenge, the Obelisks, and Moas Similarly Erected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Edward; McLeod, Roger

    2006-03-01

    Chisel-quarried recycled granite in MA is datable by runes to 1069 CE; it could corroborate dating by a LIDAR. Associated sites, possibly used by Vikings to dry-dock their ships, could have exploited lock-like controls, possibly a continued technology. Site-leveling at the Giza Pyramids proves water was used. `Locks' and body-immersion worked for building, moving, erecting, or watering, at sites like Stonehenge, The Hanging Gardens at Babylon, the Moas of Easter Island, or The Pyramids, where the eroding water discharge was deliberately flushed over the Sphinx complex. It enhance the electromagnetically excited blue light signals we can detect, especially at sites frequented by Molocket of ME. Information, as at America's Stonehenge, in NH, and constructions at Acton MA, at Giza or at Rumford ME proves that the Pyramids and Sphinx were engineered and built about 4500 BP.

  1. Scanning tunneling microscopy. Final report, 1 Oct 87-30 Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    Dow, J.D.

    1992-03-17

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to image and modify the surfaces of III-V, II-VI and group IV semiconductors. A tip-simulator based on a photocode was developed. The simulator allows the development of ultra-sensitive electronics for controlling STM tip movement. Various forms of 'nano-machining,' including chiselling, sanding, and sweeping of atoms on a surface, were developed. An STM design was modified to allow bending of long thin samples of Si(100) in UHV to permit the study of surface strain. A variety of studies were conducted on Au (in air) CdTe (in air), Hg(sub 1-x)Mn(sub x)Te (under glycerin), and Hg(sub 1-x)Cd(sub x)Te (in air and under glycerin).

  2. Nanoscale devices fabricated by direct machining of GaAs with an atomic force microscope

    PubMed

    Versen; Klehn; Kunze; Reuter; Wieck

    2000-02-01

    We demonstrate a lithography wherein the tapping mode of an atomic force microscope the Si tip is used as a chiseling tool for direct machining of a GaAs surface. Single-groove drawing movements in a vector-scan mode result in approximately 3-4 nm deep and 30 nm wide furrows, which can be combined to arbitrary noncontiguous polygon patterns. Beneath such a groove a barrier arises in the electron channel of a GaAs/A1GaAs modulation-doped field effect transistor (MODFET). Using appropriate sub-100 nm line patterns we prepared quantum point contacts and single electron devices. At T = 4.2 K the transconductance characteristics of these nanoscale MODFETs exhibit structures, which represent signatures of either the quantized conductance or Coulomb-blockade effects. PMID:10741666

  3. Scaling and dynamics of washboard roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen W.; McElwaine, Jim N.

    2009-06-01

    Granular surfaces subjected to forces due to rolling wheels develop ripples above a critical speed. The resulting pattern, known as washboard or corrugated road, is common on dry unpaved roads. We investigated this phenomenon theoretically and experimentally using laboratory-scale apparatus and beds of dry sand. A thick layer of sand on a circular track was forced by a rolling wheel on an arm whose weight and moment of inertia could be varied. We compared the ripples made by the rolling wheel to those made using a simple inclined plow blade. We investigated the dependence of the critical speed on various parameters and described a scaling argument that leads to a dimensionless ratio, analogous to the hydrodynamic Froude number, which controls the instability. This represents the crossover between conservative dynamic forces and dissipative static forces. Above onset wheel-driven ripples move in the direction of motion of the wheel, but plow-driven ripples move in the reverse direction for a narrow range of Froude numbers.

  4. Modified patch-based locally optimal Wiener method for interferometric SAR phase filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Huang, Haifeng; Dong, Zhen; Wu, Manqing

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a modified patch-based locally optimal Wiener (PLOW) method for interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) phase filtering. PLOW is a linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) estimator based on a Gaussian additive noise condition. It jointly estimates moments, including mean and covariance, using a non-local technique. By using similarities between image patches, this method can effectively filter noise while preserving details. When applied to InSAR phase filtering, three modifications are proposed based on spatial variant noise. First, pixels are adaptively clustered according to their coherence magnitudes. Second, rather than a global estimator, a locally adaptive estimator is used to estimate noise covariance. Third, using the coherence magnitudes as weights, the mean of each cluster is estimated, using a weighted mean to further reduce noise. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally verified using simulated and real data. The results of our study demonstrate that the proposed method is on par or better than the non-local interferometric SAR (NL-InSAR) method.

  5. [Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; Leˇn Pelßez, Juan Diego

    2011-03-01

    Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing. PMID:21516640

  6. Bacterial Community Diversity in Soil Under two Tillage Practices as Determined by Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Aditi; Dick, Warren A

    2015-10-01

    The ability of soil to provide ecosystem services is dependent on microbial diversity, with 80-90á% of the processes in soil being mediated by microbes. There still exists a knowledge gap in the types of microorganisms present in soil and how soil management affects them. However, identification of microorganisms is severely limited by classical culturing techniques that have been traditionally used in laboratories. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly becoming common, with current high-throughput sequencing approaches allowing for more in-depth analysis. We conducted a preliminary analysis of bacterial diversity in soils from the longest continuously maintained no-till (NT) plots in the world (52áyears) and in adjacent plow-till (PT) plots in Ohio, USA managed similarly except for tillage. Bacterial diversity was determined using a culture-independent approach of high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were predominant in both samples but the NT soil had a higher number of reads, bacterial richness, and five unique phyla. Four unique phyla were observed in PT and 99á% of the community had relative abundance of <1á%. Plowing and secondary tillage tend to homogenize the soil and reduces the unique (i.e., diverse) microenvironments where microbial populations can reside. We conclude that tillage leads to fewer dominant species being present in soiláand that these species contribute to a higher percentage of the total community. PMID:25930203

  7. [Body Image Index in the Rorschach test in ulcerative proctocolitis].

    PubMed

    Porcelli, P; Zaka, S; Tarantino, S; Sisto, G

    1993-03-01

    The use of the Rorschach test allows the body image to be examined using the Body-Image Index formulated by Fisher-Cleveland. This index is obtained by calculating the responses to Penetration and Barrier. The hypothesis is that the diseases which affect the inside of the body are more greatly correlated to a high P score and a low B score (high P-low B type personality). The paper examines the Body-Image Index in a sample of 41 patients suffering from ulcerous rectocolitis comprising 24 males and 17 females with a mean age of 32 years. The personality profile obtained is of the "high P-low B" type with a P/R% ratio which is clearly higher than the central mean value (28.7% vs 8%) and a B/R% ratio which is clearly lower than the central mean value (4.2% vs 18%). The personality of the patients in this group was marked by a tendency to anxiety and a tendency to express aggression within their bodies (anger-in) which was field-dependent, difficulty in tolerating stress, a tendency to react somatically to conflicts, a low degree of body image stability and a constant need for an external holding object. PMID:8492674

  8. Changes in the salinity of solonetzic soil complexes of the Ergeni Upland under long-term anthropogenic impact (soil studies at the Arshan'-Zel'men Experimental Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, A. F.; Gabchenko, M. V.; Bespalov, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Unique experiments performed since the 1950s at the ArshanÔÇÖ-ZelÔÇÖmen Experimental Station have formed the basis for afforestation in the dry steppe and semidesert zone without irrigation on the salt-affected soils of solonetzic soil complexes of the Ergeni Upland. Ameliorative measures favored the accumulation of productive moisture in the upper 2-m-thick soil layer, which ensured the growth of trees and the partial leaching of soluble salts to a depth of 1-1.4 m. However, no complete desalinization of the soil profiles took place. The degree of removal of exchangeable sodium from the exchange complex (soil dealkalization) was smaller. The monitoring of changes in the salt status of the soils upon agroforest reclamation was performed until the early 1980s. Our investigations of 2005-2006 showed that the soil amelioration is still in progress: the salt maximum in the profile of the solonetzes descended to a depth of 2.2 m, and the exchangeable sodium was lost from the plow layer (0-40 cm). Plowed soils between forest shelterbelts were also subjected to desalinization and dealkalization of their soil profile, though less intensely than those under the shelterbelts.

  9. Geographic applications of ERTS-1 imagery to landscape change. [Mississippi River and Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 has proven to be an effective earth-orbiting monitor of landscape change. Its regional coverage for large areal monitoring has been effective for the detection and mapping of agricultural plowing regions, for general forest cover mapping, for flood mapping, for strip mine mapping, and for short-lived precipitation mapping patterns. Paramount to the entire study has been the temporal coverage provided by ERTS. Without the cyclic coverage on an 18 day basis, temporal coverage would have been inadequate for the detection and mapping of strip mining landscape change, the analysis of agricultural landscape change based on plowing patterns, the analysis of urban-suburban growth changes, and the mapping of the Mississippi River floods. Cost benefits from ERTS are unquestionably superior to aircraft systems in regard to large regional coverage and cyclic temporal parameters. For the analysis of landscape change in large regions such as statewide areas or even areas of 10,000 square miles, ERTS is of cost benefit consideration. Not only does the cost of imagery favor ERTS but the reduction of man-hours using ERTS has been in the magnitude of 1:10.

  10. The pool of pedogenic carbon in the soils of different types and durations of use as croplands in the forest-steppe of the Central Russian Upland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, O. S.; Chendev, Yu. G.; Myakshina, T. N.; Shishkov, V. A.

    2013-05-01

    Based on studying five agrochronoseries, including recent forest (dark) gray soils and soils plowed for 100, 150, and 200-240 and more years in the forest-steppe zone of the Central Russian Upland, the dynamics of the pedogenic carbon pool, including the Corg and Ccarb, are considered. In the 2-m-thick layer of the agrogenic soils studied, the pedogenic carbon pool was shown to increase by 15-30% (up to 50%) mainly due to the changes in the Ccarb content. The insignificant (by ╦ť10%) growth of the Corg content was found in the soils that were plowed for more than 200-250 years. As the hydrothermal regime changed when passing from the forest to croplands, the Ccarb reserves increased due to the ascending of carbonates from the parent rock through the capillary pores, probably, in colloid solution-suspensions. This process proceeded without exchange with the soil CO2, since the 14C age and the content of the newly formed carbonates became higher. These carbonates may be called pedogenic-lithogenic agrocarbonates, since they appear in soils as a result of the (agro-) pedogenesis. In this case, their additional source is the lithogenic carbonates, which bring in the "old" carbon. The process of carbonates ascending could be referred to the rapid soil-forming ones with their implementation time being close to ÔëĄ50 years.

  11. [Effects of tillage and mulching on orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Hui; Liao, Yun-Cheng; Gao, Mao-Sheng; Yin, Rui-Jing

    2009-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage system (no-tillage, rotary tillage, and plow tillage) and mulching (straw mulch, sod mulch, and film mulch) on the orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau. Under different tillage system, the soil moisture content in 0-1 m layer differed significantly in May, with the sequence of no-tillage (14.28%) > rotary tillage (14.13%) > plow tillage (13.57%), but had less difference in September. Straw mulch induced significantly higher soil moisture content than sod mulch, film mulch, and no-mulch. Among the treatments tillage plus mulching, no-tillage plus straw mulch resulted in the greatest soil water storage. The average soil temperature at daytime was in order of film mulch > no-mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch, and the change range of soil temperature was no-mulch > film mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch. Soil water storage under different mulching treatments was not always negatively correlated with soil temperature, but depended on the water conservation effect and heat-preserved capacity of mulching material. Above all, the main conservation tillage system for the orchards in Loess Plateau would be no tillage plus straw mulch. PMID:20135996

  12. Assessment of aliphatic-aromatic copolyester biodegradable mulch films. Part I: field study.

    PubMed

    Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Ngouajio, Mathieu; Fernandez, R Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the use of new biodegradable films in agriculture under open field conditions. Three biodegradable mulch films made from modified biodegradable polyester of different thicknesses and colors (black and white) and a conventional low density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch film were used to cover the beds of tomato plants. Changes in physical appearance of the films were recorded as well as changes in their mechanical, optical, and physical properties. Once tomato harvest was completed, the conventional LDPE mulch film was removed and all the tomato plants were cut using a mower. The biodegradable mulch films were plowed into the soil. The change in the appearance of the film was recorded and samples of each film after plowing were characterized according to the properties mentioned above. After the biodegradable films photodegraded, cross-link formation occurred within the films which promoted brittleness. Titanium dioxide, an additive used to produce white color in the films, catalyzed the photodegradation, while carbon black used for black color stabilized the photodegradation. The white films started to degrade after two weeks while it took about eight weeks for the black films to significantly degrade. The black biodegradable film seems to be a more promising alternative as a mulch film because of the comparable yields and weed suppression ability to conventional mulch film. PMID:18262221

  13. Waterbird communities in rice fields subjected to different post-harvest treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, J.H.; Colwell, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In California's Sacramento Valley, the potential value of rice fields as habitat for waterbirds may vary with harvest method, post-harvest treatment of rice straw (chopped, burned, plowed), and extent of flooding. Recent changes in rice harvesting methods (i.e., use of stripper-headers) and a legislative mandate to decrease burning of rice straw after harvest may alter habitat availability and use. Thus, we investigated species richness and community composition of nonbreeding waterbirds during October-March 1993-94 and 1994-95 in rice fields of the northern Sacramento Valley. Most (85-91% of land area) rice was conventionally harvested (i.e., cutter bar), and the remainder was stripped. Rice straw was left untreated in more than half of fields (52% in 1994 and 54% in 1995), especially in stripped fields (56-70%). In fields where farmers treated straw, the most common management methods were plowing (15-21%), burning (19-24%), and chopping (3-5%). Fields became increasingly wet from October through March as seasonal precipitation accumulated and farmers flooded fields to facilitate straw decomposition and provide habitat for ducks. Species richness of waterbirds was greater (P 0.23). Species richness in stripped fields probably was low because foraging opportunities were limited by tall dense straw, decreased grain density, and infrequent flooding. We recommend that land managers wishing to provide habitat for a diverse waterbird community harvest rice using conventional methods and flood fields shallowly.

  14. Specific features of bacterial communities in floodplain agrocenoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'Skaya, T. G.; Leont'evskaya, E. A.; Sneg, A. A.; Balabko, P. N.

    2010-04-01

    The analysis of the taxonomic structure of the bacterial complexes in the alluvial soils of the Oka River valley allowed revealing the distinct differences in the spectrum of the bacterial dominants in the virgin and cultivated soils. Arthrobacter and pigment coryneform bacteria are shown to predominate in the virgin soil; bacilli and pseudomonades are common in the soil under vegetables. On cabbage leaves and carrot roots (both healthy and rotten), the spectrum of dominants is composed of two genera of enterobacteria: Pantoea and Erwinia. As a result of the plowing in of vegetables into the soil, enterobacteria accumulate; among them, phytopathogenic species are present. Within a year after this plowing in and the new yield, the enterobacteria practically disappeared, but myxobacteria and cytophages developed. Since these bacteria belong to the cellulose-destroying prokaryotes, the increase in their contents in the soil testified to their participation in the decomposition of the buried vegetable residues. Weeds are known to concentrate various bacterial forms in the phylloplane; they enter from different ecological niches: soil, water, meadow, and agricultural plants. Representatives of phytopathogenic bacteria as minor components were found on weeds.

  15. Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second year of a three year study comparing the Pegasus to conventional tillage. So far, no downside has been with the Pegasus and the following benefits have been documented: (1) Energy savings of 65.0 kilowatt hours per hectare over conventional tillage. This is when the Pegasus plow is used to bury whole stalks, and represents a 70% savings over conventional tillage (92.5 kilowatt hours per hectare). (2) Four to seven fewer passes of tillage, depending on the particular situation. This represents a substantial time savings to farmers. (3) So far, no differences in cotton yields. Recent cotton boll counts in one study indicate a higher yield potential with the Pegasus. (4) No disease problems. (5) Significantly higher levels of organic matter in the soil. A hypothesis of the study is that whole stalk burial may reduce plant disease problems. This hypothesis has not yet been proven. (6) Significantly higher levels of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen trended higher but were not significantly different. This shows that whole stalk burial does not adversely affect the nitrogen cycle in the soil and may actually improve it. The marketing support stage of the project is also described in the report.

  16. Effects of "open burning" on the greenhouse gas exchange from a single-rice paddy field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Y.; Akaike, Y.; Kunishio, A.; Murakami, H.; Ono, K.; Hayashi, K.; Iwata, T.

    2012-12-01

    Paddy fields are artificially maintained wetland and are one of the large source of CH4. Besides, a large quantity of N2O is emitted from the soil surface due to the decomposition of inorganic fertilizer. A long term continuous measurement of GHG fluxes between atmosphere and paddy ecosystem is effective method to clarify the contribution of paddy fields to recent rapid increase of GHG concentration. In this study, three techniques for flux measurement (eddy covariance, aerodynamic gradient, and chamber techniques) were applied to investigate the annual variation of three GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) exchanges at a single-rice paddy field for two years. An observational site is located on reclaimed land in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, an experimental paddy field was divided into two areas to investigate what impact is brought on the annual GHG fluxes by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. Residual biomass was burned and plowed into soil at the one area on Nov. 29th, 2011, and residue was not burned and directly plowed into soil at the other area as usual. We illustrate some results for the control term before the burning experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.

  17. Effects of residual biomass burning on the CO2 flux from a paddy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, H.; Kunishio, A.; Akaike, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ono, K.; Iwata, T.

    2012-12-01

    Paddy field is one of the most important eco-system in monsoon Asia, and takes a great important role in CO2 uptake. Carbon budget in agricultural field is influenced by some artificial management. After the harvest, residual biomass is burned on fields, brought out from fields, or remained and harrowed into the fields. If open burning was conducted in a field, one part of biomass carbon is emitted into atmosphere as CO2, and the other part is harrowed into soils. In this study, quantity of lost carbon according to burning of residual biomass were investigated at a single rice cropping field in western Japan, in which long-term continuous CO2 flux (NEE) measurement by the eddy-covariance technique was conducted. In addition, an experimental paddy field was divided into two areas to investigate what impact is brought on the annual CO2 flux by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. Residual biomass was burned and plowed into soil at the one area on Nov. 29th, 2011, and residue was not burned and directly plowed into soil at the other area as usual. We illustrate some results for the control term before the burning experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.

  18. Real-Time Electrical Impedance Variations in Women With and Without Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartov, Alex; Poplack, Steven P.; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Wells, Wendy A.; Rosenkranz, Kari M.; Barth, Richard J.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    The chaotic vascular network surrounding malignant tumors leads to pulsatile blood flow patterns that differ from those in benign regions of the breast. This study aimed to determine if high-speed electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is able to detect conductivity changes associated with cyclic blood-volume changes and to gauge the potential of using these signatures to differentiate malignant from benign regions within the breast. EIT imaging of pulsating latex membranes submerged in saline baths provided initial validation of its use for tracking temporally varying conductivities. Nineteen women (10 with cancer, nine without) were imaged with EIT over the course of several heartbeats in synchrony with pulse-oximetry acquisition. Eight parameters (rs, ?(rt,max), rt,max, Plow:full, Phigh:full, Plow:high) relating the conductivity images and pulse-oximeter signatures were extracted and used as a means of comparing malignant and benign regions of the breast. Significant differences (p < 0.01) between malignant and benign regions of interest were noted in seven of the eight parameters. The maximum correlation between conductivity and pulse-oximeter signals, rt,max, was observed to be the optimal discriminating parameter with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.8 and a specificity of 81% at a sensitivity of 77%. Assessing the dynamic conductivity of breast may provide additional clinical utility to that of standard imaging modalities, but further investigation is necessary to better understand the biophysical mechanisms leading to the observed conductivity changes. PMID:25073168

  19. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P < 0.05). After subsoiling and harvesting with heavy machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting. PMID:18464642

  20. [Functions of different cultivation modes in oasis agriculture on soil wind erosion control and soil moisture conservation].

    PubMed

    Su, Peixi; Zhao, Aifen; Du, Mingwu

    2004-09-01

    During 2001-2002, the effects of different cultivation modes including winter irrigation and zero tillage, crop-grass intercropping, and early spring film mulching on sand entrainment, wind velocity gradient and soil moisture conservation were studied in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in the Hexi Corridor region. The results showed that all these modes could reduce soil wind erosion and halt sand entrainment to different degrees. Compared with the bare fields exposed by spring plowing, early spring film mulching could increase soil moisture storage by 35.6%. At present, spring plowing and sowing was a main factor responsible to the occurrence of sand storms and the increase in suspended dust content. Farmlands in the upper and middle reaches of the Heihe River generally produced a dust transport up to 4.8-6.0 million tons per year, which was higher than that of sandy desert in the same region. In the Hexi Corridor region, the suspended dust amount produced from 1 hm2 farmland was equivalent to that of 1.5 hm2 desert. PMID:15669480

  1. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

  2. Real-time electrical impedance variations in women with and without breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Halter, Ryan J; Hartov, Alex; Poplack, Steven P; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Wells, Wendy A; Rosenkranz, Kari M; Barth, Richard J; Kaufman, Peter A; Paulsen, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    The chaotic vascular network surrounding malignant tumors leads to pulsatile blood flow patterns that differ from those in benign regions of the breast. This study aimed to determine if high-speed electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is able to detect conductivity changes associated with cyclic blood-volume changes and to gauge the potential of using these signatures to differentiate malignant from benign regions within the breast. EIT imaging of pulsating latex membranes submerged in saline baths provided initial validation of its use for tracking temporally varying conductivities. Nineteen women (10 with cancer, nine without) were imaged with EIT over the course of several heartbeats in synchrony with pulse-oximetry acquisition. Eight parameters ( rs, ?(rt,max), rt,max, Plow:full, Phigh:full, Plow:high) relating the conductivity images and pulse-oximeter signatures were extracted and used as a means of comparing malignant and benign regions of the breast. Significant differences between malignant and benign regions of interest were noted in seven of the eight parameters. The maximum correlation between conductivity and pulse-oximeter signals, rt,max , was observed to be the optimal discriminating parameter with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.8 and a specificity of 81% at a sensitivity of 77%. Assessing the dynamic conductivity of breast may provide additional clinical utility to that of standard imaging modalities, but further investigation is necessary to better understand the biophysical mechanisms leading to the observed conductivity changes. PMID:25073168

  3. High biomass removal limits carbon sequestration potential of mature temperate pastures.

    PubMed

    Skinner, R Howard

    2008-01-01

    Decades of plowing have depleted organic C stocks in many agricultural soils. Conversion of plowed fields to pasture has the potential to reverse this process, recapturing organic matter that was lost under more intensive cropping systems. Temperate pastures in the northeast USA are highly productive and could act as significant C sinks. However, such pastures have relatively high biomass removal as hay or through consumption by grazing animals. In addition, the ability to sequester C decreases over time as previously depleted stocks are replenished and the soil returns to equilibrium conditions. The objective of this research was to use eddy covariance systems to quantify CO(2) fluxes over two fields in central Pennsylvania that had been managed as pastures for at least 35 yr. Net ecosystem exchange measurements averaged over 8 site-years suggested that the pastures were acting as small net C sinks of 19 g C m(-2) yr(-1) (positive values indicate uptake). However, when biomass removal and manure deposition were included to calculate net biome productivity, the pastures were a net source of -81 g C m(-2) yr(-1) (negative values indicate loss to the atmosphere). Manure generated from the hay that was consumed off site averaged 18 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Returning that manure to the pastures would have only partially replenished the lost C, and the pastures would have remained net C sources. Heavy use of the biomass produced on these mature pastures prevented them from acting as C sinks. PMID:18574161

  4. The effect of surface morphology on the friction of electrogalvanized sheet steel in forming processes

    SciTech Connect

    Skarpelos, P. N.

    1993-12-01

    The effect in the drawbead simulator test were evaluated for a set of commercially coated steels and a set of laboratory coated steels with underlying surfaces produced by laser textured, shot blast, and electro-discharge textured rolls. In general, surfaces with higher roughness (R{sub a} parameter) measured lower friction in the DBS tests. The requisite roughness amplitude necessary for low friction was moderated somewhat by having a more closely spaced roughness as described by the median wavelength, {lambda}m, of the power spectrum. This effect is due to interaction with the lubricant by the micro-roughness imparted by the galvanizing process. The lubricant tends to be retained better by the surfaces with the micro-roughness, thereby increasing the amount of elasto- and plasto-hydrodynamic support of the load. Other variables, such as large variations in thickness of the sheet can mask the effect of the surface by changing the actual distance of sliding contact during the DBS test. For tests where the amount of sliding is similar, the effect of roughness is significant. The friction measured for EG steels in the DBS test is dominated by deformation of the surface with plowing by the asperities of the tooling adding to that caused by the deformation. The size of the plow marks in the deformed surfaces corresponds to the roughness of the tooling and no significant evidence of wear particles was observed.

  5. Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow. PMID:25398196

  6. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    PubMed

    Filipovi─ç, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Val├ęrie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA-Veolia partnership 1998-2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat-maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (Δ), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (Γ), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy. PMID:24958010

  7. Assessment of vertical soil solid phase transport (pedoturbations) in different types of land use by magnetic tracer method (Belgorod region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    New method of quantitative assessments of vertical soil solid phase transport (pedoturbations) is based on redistribution of spherical magnetic particles (SMP) in soil profiles. SMP - are fly ash components, which mainly produce during coal burning. The main sources of SMP on studied object were locomotives on the railroads, which used coal at the turn of the XIX century. SMP income into the soil only from the atmosphere, very stable for destructions, can be preserved in soils for centuries, and have the same size and weight as the soil matter. So SMP redistribution reflects soil solid phase transport. SMP used as tracers of soil erosion (Olson et.al., 2013), but for the first time applied for quantitative assessments of pedoturbations. In Belgorod region of Russia studied vertical distribution of SMP in soils in different types of land use: a) arable chernozem about 160-year plowing, b) arable chernozem 120-year plowing, c) dark-gray forest soil, which didn't plow at least last 150 years. All three sites are located nearby for the same physical-geography conditions. Distribution of SMP studied layer by layer (thickness of the layer 7 cm) from the top to 70 cm depth, in triplicate soil columns in every land use type (totally 90 soil samples). The period of SMP kept in studied soils is about 115 years. Revealed the different depth of SMP penetration (burial) in soil profiles for this period: 49 cm in the soil of 160-year arable land, 58 cm in the soil of 120-year arable land and 68 cm in the virgin forest soil. Different depth of SMP penetration is connected with different activity of pedoturbations, which differs according to the composition of soil flora and fauna, root activity, and animal mixing work. It is supposed that in the arable land single cropping can reduce the thickness of the active layer and as a result the zone of active pedoturbation depth. Based on SMP distribution counted rates of vertical soil solid phase transport, which are equaled: 31 t/ha/year in the soil of 160-year arable land, 28 t/ha/year in the soil of 120-year arable land, 24 t/ha/year in the virgin forest soil. Certainly raised rates of vertical transport in arable land relative to forest is connected with agricultural plowing. Revealed the connection between the period of plowing and rates of vertical soil transport. Also worth noting is that the rates of pedoturbation in virgin forest soils are rather high and only 1,2-1,3 times less than on arable land uses. This research is funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research - Project 14-05-31141. 1. Olson K.R., Gennadiyev A.N., Zhidkin A.P., Markelov M.V., Golosov V.N., Lang J.M. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates // Catena. - 2013. - V. 104 - P. 103-110.

  8. Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio depending on soil depth and agrogenic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Manucharova, Natalia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Archaeal communities and their potential roles in the soil ecosystem are affected by a number of soil proprerties and environmental factors. Competitive interactions between Archaea and Bacteria play a particular role in spread and abundance of these two domains. Therefore, the goal of the study was to evaluate the Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio in different soils. The research was carried out at field and natural ecosystems of European part of Russia. Samples were collected within the soil profiles (3-6 horizons) of chernozem and kastanozem with distinctly different agrogenic impact. In situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes (FISH) was used to determine the abundance of metabolically active cells of Archaea and Bacteria. The Cmic, Corg, C/N, DNA content and growth characteristics have been analyzed as well. Determination of number of metabolically active cells in chernozem under arable land and forest revealed that abundance of Archaea in topsoil under forest was higher more than 2 times comparing with arable land, but leveled off in the deeper horizons. Plowing of Chernozem decreased amount of archaeal and bacterial active cells simultaneously, however, Bacteria were more resistant to agrogenic impact than Archaea. Determination of the taxonomic composition within Bacteria domain showed a significant decrease in the abundance of phylogenetic groups Firmicutes and Actinobacteria in the topsoil under arable land comparing to the forest, which is the main reason for the declining of the total amount of prokaryotic cells. In kastanozem significant change in the number of metabolically active cells due to plowing was detected only within 40 cm soil layer, and this effect disappeared in lower horizons. The number of Archaea was higher in the upper horizons of arable as compared to virgin soil. Conversely, the number of Bacteria in the upper layers of the soil after plowing kastanozem decreased. Relationship between soil organic carbon content and the amount of soil metabolically active Bacteria and Archaea cells revealed that distribution of both Bacteria and Archaea throughout the soil profile was governed by organic matter content. Thus, the organic matter content seemed to be the main factor of declining Bacteria-to- Archaea ratio down the profile (from 7.1 to 4.2 for virgin soil and from 5 to 3.9 for arable soil). In conclusion, Archaea out-compete Bacteria under conditions of reduced energy supply.

  9. Fault Wear and Friction Evolution: Experimental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boneh, Y.; Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Wear is an inevitable product of frictional sliding of brittle rocks as evidenced by the ubiquitous occurrence of fault gouge and slickenside striations. We present here experimental observations designed to demonstrate the relationship between wear and friction and their governing mechanisms. The experiments were conducted with a rotary shear apparatus on solid, ring-shaped rock samples that slipped for displacements up to tens of meters. Stresses, wear and temperature were continuously monitored. We analyzed 86 experiments of Kasota dolomite, Sierra White granite, Pennsylvania quartzite, Karoo gabbro, and Tennessee sandstone at slip velocities ranging from 0.002 to 0.97 m/s, and normal stress from 0.25 to 6.9 MPa. We conducted two types of runs: short slip experiments (slip distance < 25 mm) primarily on fresh, surface-ground samples, designed to analyze initial wear mechanisms; and long slip experiments (slip distance > 3 m) designed to achieve mature wear conditions and to observe the evolution of wear and friction as the fault surfaces evolved. The experiments reveal three wear stages: initial, running-in, and steady-state. The initial stage is characterized by (1) discrete damage striations, the length of which is comparable to total slip , and local pits or plow features; (2) timing and magnitude of fault-normal dilation corresponds to transient changes of normal and shear stresses; and (3) surface roughness increasing with the applied normal stress. We interpret these observations as wear mechanisms of (a) plowing into the fresh rock surfaces; (b) asperity breakage; and (c) asperity climb. The running-in stage is characterized by (1) intense wear-rate over a critical wear distance of Rd = 0.3-2 m; (2) drop of friction coefficient over a weakening distance of Dc = 0.2-4 m; (3) Rd and Dc display positive, quasi-linear relation with each other. We interpret these observations as indicating the organizing of newly-created wear particles into a 'three-body' structure that acts to lubricate the fault (Reches & Lockner, 2010). The steady-state stage is characterized by (1) relatively low wear-rate (approximately 10% of running-in wear-rate) and (2) quasi-constant friction coefficient. These observations suggest only small changes in the gouge layer in term of thickness (100 to 200 microns) and strength in this final stage. The present study indicates that (1) wear by plowing and asperity failure initiate early, during the first few millimeters of slip; and (2) wear and associated gouge formation appear as the controlling factors of friction evolution and fault weakening.

  10. Lateral Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Spherical Magnetic Particles within Soil Catenas of the Arable Watershed (Tver Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshovskii, Timur; Zhidkin, Andrei; Gennadiev, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very dangerous substances because of their carcinogenic properties. It is important to know the features of PAHs transport and accumulation in soils, especially on agricultural lands. Unfortunately this scientific problem is studied not enough. It is known that predominantly PAHs in soils are sorbed on solid phase particles [2], so redistribution of PAHs should be carried out with transport of soil solid phase matter. For the purpose of assessment of connections between PAHs and soil solid phase transport the lateral distribution of PAHs and spherical magnetic particles (SMP) as tracers of soil solid phase migration has been compared. SMP is the component of fly ash which is used last two decades for quantitative assessment of soil erosion [1]. Studies were conducted in small watershed of south-taiga zone in European part of Russia in Tver region. The watershed has 53 ha, steep slopes, less 50, convex and convexo-concave shapes with ridges and runnels. The watershed lands were plowed up for the last 350-400 years until 1995 year. Predominant soils are Umbric Albeluvisols. Soil samples were selected at four soil catenas (30 points with average distance about 70 meters). Two catenas were on opposite slopes near the road, and other two catenas were located on the opposite slopes (250-400 m from the road). It is revealed that average concentration of PAHs in studied soils are 105 ng/g, and varies from 11 to 770 ng/g, with coefficient of variation 143%. Lateral distribution of PAHs and SMP differs within different catenas, because of various factors influence on PAHs concentrations: 1) amounts of PAHs income, depending on the distance from the source; 2) homogenization of PAHs concentrations within arable layer because of mixing the soil matter due to plowing; 3) vertical transport of PAHs in subarable layers is also connected with plowing and bioturbation; 4) rates of decomposition of PAHs in arable layer, depending on photodestruction and biological activity; 5) transport of PAHs caused by soil erosion. Depending on these factors in different parts of the watershed occurred specific lateral and vertical distribution of PAHs. This research is funded by Russian Scientific Foundation - Project 14-17-00193. 1. Olson K.R., Gennadiyev A.N., Zhidkin A.P., Markelov M.V., Golosov V.N., Lang J.M. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates // Catena. - 2013. - V. 104 - P. 103-110. 2. Tsibart A.S., Gennadiev A.N. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils: Sources, behavior, and indication significance (a review) // Eurasian Soil Sci. - 2013. - V. 46. ?7 - P. 728-741.

  11. Tabletop Tectonics: Diverse Mountain Ranges Using Flour and Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the frontal deformation zones where plates converge (foreland fold- and-thrust belts on continents and accretionary wedges at subduction zones) involve shortening over a decoupling layer, or decollement. A simple but successful way of explaining many aspects of their behavior is called the critical Coulomb wedge model, which regards these contractional wedges as analogous to the wedge-shaped mass of soil accreted in front of a bulldozer, or the wedge of snow that piles up in front of a snow plow. The shape and deformation history of the accreted wedge of soil or snow will depend upon the frictional strength of the material being plowed up and the surface over which it is being plowed. The same is true of `bulldozer' wedges consisting of many km thick piles of sediment at convergent plate margins. Using flour (or powdered milk), sandpaper, graphite, transparency sheets, and athletic field marker chalk, manipulated with sieves, brushes, pastry bags and blocks and sheets of wood, it is possible to demonstrate a wide variety of processes and tectonic styles observed at convergent plate boundaries. Model fold-and-thrust belts that behave like natural examples with a decollement that is strong (e.g., in rock without high pore fluid pressure) or weak (e.g., in a salt horizon or with elevated pore fluid pressure) can be generated simply by placing wither sandpaper or graphite beneath the flour that is pushed across the tabletop using a block of wood (the strong basement and hiterland rocks behind the fold-thrust belt). Depending upon the strength of the decollement, the cross-sectional taper of the deforming wedge will be thin or broad, the internal deformation mild or intense, and the structures either close to symmetric or strongly forward-vergent, just as at the analogous natural fold-thrust belts. Including a horizontal sheet of wood or Plexiglas in front of the pushing block allows generation of an accretionary wedge, outer-are high, and forearc basin, just as over a subduction zone. Any dark material emplaced (a pastry bag works well) atop the experiment before deformation in the form of football-field `hash marks' every 10 cm allows for easy calculation of strain distribution at any time during or after the experiment. Finally, the entire orogen can be excavated using a plastic photocopier transparency sheet. If the original set-up included occasional thin layers of red and blue field marker chalk within sedimentary column (the rest of which consists of white flour or powdered milk), excavation reveals (quite colorfully) many internal details of the fold-thrust belts that have been generated.

  12. A rapid, controlled-environment seedling root screen for wheat correlates well with rooting depths at vegetative, but not reproductive, stages at two field sites

    PubMed Central

    Watt, M.; Moosavi, S.; Cunningham, S. C.; Kirkegaard, J. A.; Rebetzke, G. J.; Richards, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Root length and depth determine capture of water and nutrients by plants, and are targets for crop improvement. Here we assess a controlled-environment wheat seedling screen to determine speed, repeatability and relatedness to performance of young and adult plants in the field. Methods Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and diverse genotypes were grown in rolled, moist germination paper in growth cabinets, and primary root number and length were measured when leaf 1 or 2 were fully expanded. For comparison, plants were grown in the field and root systems were harvested at the two-leaf stage with either a shovel or a soil core. From about the four-leaf stage, roots were extracted with a steel coring tube only, placed directly over the plant and pushed to the required depth with a hydraulic ram attached to a tractor. Key Results In growth cabinets, repeatability was greatest (r = 0┬Ě8, P < 0┬Ě01) when the paper was maintained moist and seed weight, pathogens and germination times were controlled. Scanned total root length (slow) was strongly correlated (r = 0┬Ě7, P < 0┬Ě01) with length of the two longest seminal axile roots measured with a ruler (fast), such that 100ÔÇô200 genotypes were measured per day. Correlation to field-grown roots at two sites at two leaves was positive and significant within the RILs and cultivars (r = 0┬Ě6, P = 0┬Ě01), and at one of the two sites at the five-leaf stage within the RILs (r = 0┬Ě8, P = 0┬Ě05). Measurements made in the field with a shovel or extracted soil cores were fast (5 min per core) and had significant positive correlations to scanner measurements after root washing and cleaning (>2 h per core). Field measurements at two- and five-leaf stages did not correlate with root depth at flowering. Conclusions The seedling screen was fast, repeatable and reliable for selecting lines with greater total root length in the young vegetative phase in the field. Lack of significant correlation with reproductive stage root system depth at the field sites used in this study reflected factors not captured in the screen such as time, soil properties, climate variation and plant phenology. PMID:23821620

  13. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

    2013-10-01

    Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism is important for avalanche formation. Even when gradients appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart, faceting close to a~crust can still be observed. Recent studies that visualized small scale (< 10 cm) thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR) camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within the studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and at artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or a shovel produced small concavities (holes) even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which is only observed at times with large temperature differences between air and snow. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed slower compared with convex areas (bumps) when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative transfer or convection by air at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of the use of a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly in scenarios where large gradients exist between air and snow and the interaction of snow pit and atmospheric temperatures are enhanced. At crusts or other heterogeneities, we were unable to create a sufficiently homogenous snow pit surface and non-internal gradients appeared at the exposed surface. The immediate adjustment of snow pit temperature as it reacts with the atmosphere complicates the capture of the internal thermal structure of a snowpack even with thermal videos. Instead, the shown structural dependency of the IR signal may be used to detect structural changes of snow caused by kinetic metamorphism. The IR signal can also be used to measure near surface temperatures in a homogenous new snow layer.

  14. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

    2014-03-01

    Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism plays an import role in avalanche formation. When gradients based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, faceting close to a crust can be observed. Recent studies that visualised small-scale (< 10 cm) thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR) camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large-scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within these studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or shovel produced small concavities (holes) even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which was only observed at times during a strong cooling/warming of the exposed pit wall. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed more slowly compared with convex areas (bumps) when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative and/or turbulent energy transfer at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of using a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly during windy conditions, clear skies and large temperature differences between air and snow. At crusts or other heterogeneities, we were unable to create a sufficiently planar snow pit surface and non-internal gradients appeared at the exposed surface. The immediate adjustment of snow pit temperature as it reacts with the atmosphere complicates the capture of the internal thermal structure of a snowpack with thermal videos. Instead, the shown structural dependency of the IR signal may be used to detect structural changes of snow caused by kinetic metamorphism. The IR signal can also be used to measure near surface temperatures in a homogenous new snow layer.

  15. Individual quality, survival variation and patterns of phenotypic selection on body condition and timing of nesting in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.; Mednis, A.

    2005-01-01

    Questions about individual variation in 'quality' and fitness are of great interest to evolutionary and population ecologists. Such variation can be investigated using either a random effects approach or an approach that relies on identifying observable traits that are themselves correlated with fitness components. We used the latter approach with data from 1,925 individual females of three species of ducks (tufted duck, Aythya fuligula; common pochard, Aythya ferina; northern shoveler, Anas clypeata) sampled on their breeding grounds at Engure Marsh, Latvia, for over 15 years. Based on associations with reproductive output, we selected two traits, one morphological (relative body condition) and one behavioral (relative time of nesting), that can be used to characterize individual females over their lifetimes. We then asked whether these traits were related to annual survival probabilities of nesting females. We hypothesized quadratic, rather than monotonic, relationships based loosely on ideas about the likely action of stabilizing selection on these two traits. Parameters of these relationships were estimated directly using ultrastructural models embedded within capture-recapture-band-recovery models. Results provided evidence that both traits were related to survival in the hypothesized manner. For all three species, females that tended to nest earlier than the norm exhibited the highest survival rates, but very early nesters experienced reduced survival and late nesters showed even lower survival. For shovelers, females in average body condition showed the highest survival, with lower survival rates exhibited by both heavy and light birds. For common pochard and tufted duck, the highest survival rates were associated with birds of slightly above-average condition, with somewhat lower survival for very heavy birds and much lower survival for birds in relatively poor condition. Based on results from this study and previous work on reproduction, we conclude that nest initiation date and body condition covary with both reproductive and survival components of fitness. These associations lead to a positive covariance of these two fitness components within individuals and to the conclusion that these two traits are indeed correlates of individual quality.

  16. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three vegetated treatments, CT, MT and NT showed a lower efficiency in reducing water losses than soil losses. Water losses by runoff during a number of events were of the same order of magnitude for all the management systems studied here; which was mainly true when the volume of rainfall was high and the lag between successive events was small. In general, soil losses in the autumn-winter seasons were lower than under the spring-summer seasons. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity. However, the degree of dependence between these two variables decreased as the efficiency of soil management in controlling soil erosion increased. The large soil and water losses in the BS and CT treatments suggest that there is a need to implement soil conservation measures in the study region. In this context soil conservation would take advantage from soil cover by previous crop residue as well as from terrace building. Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

  17. Evaluating TerraSAR-X for the identification of tillage occurrence over an agricultural area in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Anna M.; McNairn, Heather; Merzouki, Amine

    2010-10-01

    Tillage practices can affect the long term sustainability of agricultural soils as well as a variety of soil processes that impact the environment. The benefits of reduced tillage and no-till practices over agriculture fields are well documented and include: (1) significant reductions in wind and water erosion mitigating nutrient and pesticide runoff into waterways; (2) increasing and/or maintaining soil organic matter; (3) increasing biological activity and improving soil structure; and (4) increasing soil carbon and its sequestration. Information on tillage activities assists in implementing policies and programs to promote beneficial management practices (BMPs), and in monitoring the success of these initiatives. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada supports environmentally responsible agriculture and has identified this as one of their priorities. Thus, tillage information requirements have become increasingly important to a number of programs and policies within the department. Rapid, accurate and objective methods are required to map and monitor tillage activities. Earth observing satellites can assist with targeting and monitoring land management activities. For the last decade, research has clearly demonstrated that complementary information provided by both optical and radar satellite sensors are fundamental in developing an agricultural land management monitoring system. Launched in June 2007, the TerraSAR-X is a radar satellite acquiring data at the X-band frequency (9.6 GHz). The application of TerraSAR-X data for conservation tillage mapping has been somewhat limited, and thus this study investigates its use in determining tillage occurrence. An HH-HV TerraSAR-X image was acquired on November 4, 2009 and ground data were also collected characterizing tillage conditions at the time of acquisition. Backscatter responses were analyzed to identify tillage occurrence and to differentiate between untilled, chiseled and moldboard ploughed fields. Preliminary analysis showed that HH polarization can better contribute to tillage discrimination than compared to HV polarization and that the backscatter response can be used to discriminate untilled fields from ones that are moldboard ploughed. However, chiseled fields were often confused with highroughness (rms height~1.30 cm) untilled fields and moldboard ploughed fields. Fully polarimetric X-band radar datasets could potentially contribute more information to mapping tillage conditions.

  18. Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a gopher, it periodically stops advancing at the end of the hole to bring excavated material (in this case, a core sample) to the surface, then re-enters the hole to resume the advance of the end of the hole. By use of a cable suspended from a reel on the surface, the gopher is lifted from the hole to remove a core sample, then lowered into the hole to resume the advance and acquire the next core sample.

  19. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Southern California deserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main objective is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (i.e., crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to data has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

  20. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Imperial Valley, Coachella Valley, and Palo Verde Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to date has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

  1. Hydrologic modeling to screen potential environmental management methods for malaria vector control in Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L.; Bomblies, Arne; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the first use of Hydrology-Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a physically based distributed hydrology model, to investigate environmental management methods for malaria vector control in the Sahelian village of Banizoumbou, Niger. The investigation showed that leveling of topographic depressions where temporary breeding habitats form during the rainy season, by altering pool basin microtopography, could reduce the pool persistence time to less than the time needed for establishment of mosquito breeding, approximately 7 days. Undertaking soil surface plowing can also reduce pool persistence time by increasing the infiltration rate through an existing pool basin. Reduction of the pool persistence time to less than the rainfall interstorm period increases the frequency of pool drying events, removing habitat for subadult mosquitoes. Both management approaches could potentially be considered within a given context. This investigation demonstrates that management methods that modify the hydrologic environment have significant potential to contribute to malaria vector control in water-limited, Sahelian Africa.

  2. Strategies for overcoming temporary phytotoxic effects of calcium sulfite applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchey, K.D.; Kinraide, T.B.; Wendell, R.R.; Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C.

    1994-12-31

    Calcium sulfite is a major component of scrubber residues produced by lime-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, widely used in the Ohio River Valley. Preliminary studies have shown that calcium sulfite severely decreased corn plant growth when incorporated into acid soils at moderate rates. Evidence is strong that the toxic effect on plant growth is due to generation of sulfur dioxide in acidic soil. Bioassay methods were used to demonstrate that raising soil pH reduced calcium sulfite toxicity. In solution and in soils, calcium sulfite oxidizes to calcium sulfate (gypsum), which is an agricultural soil amendment useful for increasing calcium levels in acidic subsoils. This potential for oxidation indicates the possibility of incorporating calcium sulfite several months before the crop is sown so that the calcium sulfite will transform to gypsum, which should, because of its relatively high solubility, leach below the plow layer and improve the subsoil.

  3. Brine release based on structural calculations of damage around an excavation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Jensen, A.L.; Webb, S.W.; DeVries, K.L.

    1996-02-01

    In a large in situ experimntal circular room, brine inflow was measured over 5 years. After correcting for evaporation losses into mine ventilation air, the measurements gave data for a period of nearly 3 years. Predicted brine accumulation based on a mechanical ``snow plow`` model of the volume swept by creep-induced damage as calculated with the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model was found to agree with experiment. Calculation suggests the damage zone at 5 years effectively exends only some 0.7 m into the salt around the room. Also, because the mecahnical model of brine release gives an adequate explanation of the measured data, the hydrological process of brine flow appears to be rapid compared to the mechanical process of brine release.

  4. The lignin content in virgin and cultivated peat soils of Belarussian poles'e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambalov, N. N.

    2007-11-01

    The contents of lignin extracted by a mixture of dioxane, water, and hydrochloric acid was determined in peat-forming plants (moss, herbaceous, and woody) corresponding to types of peat, cultivated and virgin peat soils, and stubby barley residues. The balance experiments in the field and in the laboratory over 12 36 months showed that, upon the decomposition of the peat-forming plants, the part of lignin available for microorganisms was humified and mineralized, while the unavailable part accumulated in the peat. A close correlation was revealed between the lignin content in the peat-forming plants and the humic acid concentration in the peat. Upon agricultural use, the lignin content in the plow horizons of the peat soils did not change if the degree of the peat decomposition was identical to that in the virgin soils or if it was higher by 2 2.5% if the peat decomposition rate increased.

  5. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Laser Clad Fe-Cr3C2 Composite Coating on 35CrMo Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bin; Li, Meiyan; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-01

    Fe-Cr3C2 hard coatings with varying Cr3C2 content were produced on 35CrMo steel substrates by laser cladding. The experimental results showed that the coatings were uniform, continuous, and free of cracks. High adhesions between all produced coatings and their corresponding substrates were obtained due to the metallurgical interfaces between them. The microstructures of the coatings were mainly composed of austenitic dendrites and M7C3. The microhardness gradually increased from the bottom to the top of the coating, and increased with elevation of Cr3C2 content. The Fe-Cr3C2 coatings improved the sliding wear resistance of the 35CrMo steel substrates obviously, and the dominant wear mechanism was spalling fatigue, with plowed grooves on the worn surfaces.

  6. Multidimensional Simulations of Colliding Outbursts from very Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan

    2015-08-01

    Massive stars that end their lives with helium cores in the range of 35 to 65 solar masses are known to produce repeated thermonuclear outbursts due to a recurring pair-instability. In some of these events, solar masses of material are ejected in repeated outbursts of several times 1050 erg each. Such models can be used to explain the strong mass loss rates at the last moment before the massive stars die. Collisions between these shells can sometimes produce very luminous transients. Previous 1D studies of these events produce thin,high-density shells as one ejection plows into another. We present the first multidimensional simulations of these collisions, we show that the development of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability truncates the growth of the high density spike and drives mixing between the shells.

  7. Tribological behavior of Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings deposited by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Guizhi; Ma Shengli; Xu Kewei; Chu, Paul K

    2012-03-15

    Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings are deposited on high speed steel by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering, and the hardness, adhesion, and tribological behavior are studied. On account of the nanocomposite structure, the coatings possess hardness of more than 30 GPa. Failure of the coating during the scratch test is due to the buckling and wedge spallation failure mechanism. Compared to Ti-Al-Si-N, the presence of C in the Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings leads to reduced friction coefficient and wear rate, indicating effective lubrication rendered by amorphous C. According to the wear tracks examined by scanning electron microscopy, the wear mechanism can be explained by plowing abrasion.

  8. Ultrarelativistic electromagnetic pulses in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Tajima, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Kennel, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The physical processes of a linearly polarized electromagnetic pulse of highly relativistic amplitude in an underdense plasma accelerating particles to very high energies are studied through computer simulation. An electron-positron plasma is considered first. The maximum momenta achieved scale as the square of the wave amplitude. This acceleration stops when the bulk of the wave energy is converted to particle energy. The pulse leaves behind as a wake a vacuum region whose length scales as the amplitude of the wave. The results can be explained in terms of a snow plow or piston-like action of the radiation on the plasma. When a mass ratio other than unity is chosen and electrostatic effects begin to play a role, first the ion energy increases faster than the electron energy and then the electron energy catches up later, eventually reaching the same value.

  9. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Davis, G. R.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from twelve successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay have been analyzed with special emphasis on coastal vegetation, land use, current circulation, water turbidity and pollution dispersion. Secchi depth, suspended sediment concentration and transmissivity as measured from helicopters and boats were correlated with ERTS-1 image radiance. Multispectral signatures of acid disposal plumes, sediment plumes and slick were investigated. Ten vegetative cover and water discrimination classes were selected for mapping: (1) forest-land; (2) Phragmites communis; (3) Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata; (4) Spartina alterniflora; (5) cropland; (6) plowed cropland; (7) sand and bare sandy soil; (8) bare mud; (9) deep water; and (10) sediment-laden and shallow water. Canonical analysis predicted good classification accuracies for most categories. The actual classification accuracies were very close to the predicted values with 8 of 10 categories classified with greater than 90% accuracy indicating that representative training sets had been selected.

  10. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling and tribological characterization of ion-plated gold on various metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    For the case of ion-plated gold, the graded interface between gold and a nickel substrate and a nickel substrate, such tribological properties as friction and microhardness are examined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and depth profiling. Sliding was conducted against SiC pins in both the adhesive process, where friction arises from adhesion between sliding surfaces, and abrasion, in which friction is due to pin indentation and groove-plowing. Both types of friction are influenced by coating depth, but with opposite trends: the graded interface exhibited the highest adhesion, but the lowest abrasion. The coefficient of friction due to abrasion is inversely related to hardness. Graded interface microhardness values are found to be the highest, due to an alloying effect. There is almost no interface gradation between the vapor-deposited gold film and the substrate.

  11. An Unremembered Diversity: Mixed Husbandry and the American Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    SYLVESTER, KENNETH; CUNFER, GEOFF

    2009-01-01

    The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about a dramatic rise in global crop yields. But, as most observers acknowledge, this has come at a considerable cost to biodiversity. Plant breeding, synthetic fertilizers, and mechanization steadily narrowed the number of crop varieties commercially available to farmers and promoted fencerow-to-fencerow monocultures. Many historians trace the origins of this style of industrialized agriculture to the last great plow-up of the Great Plains in the 1920s. In the literature, farms in the plains are often described metaphorically as wheat factories, degrading successive landscapes. While in many ways these farms were a departure from earlier forms of husbandry in the American experience, monocultures were quite rare during the early transformation of the plains. Analysis of a large representative sample, based on manuscript agricultural censuses and involving twenty-five townships across the state of Kansas, demonstrates that diverse production reached even the most challenging of plains landscapes. PMID:19839113

  12. Maneuverable full face miner

    SciTech Connect

    Delli-gatti, F. A.; Justice, J. C.

    1980-12-16

    A full face miner including a simplified conveying arrangement and designed for easy maneuverability into and out of mine sites. A plow operatively mounted to and longitudinally movable with each of a pair of rotatable cutting heads of the miner provide for the conveyance of cut coal to a middle conveying portion for ultimate transport away from the mine site. The mounting mechanism for the cutting heads is designed so that at least the end portions thereof are movable from a position generally parallel to the mine face to a position generally perpendicular to the mine face and extending in front of and in line with the central conveying means, for ease of withdrawal from the mining area. A motive power source, such as a powered crawler or powered wheels, is provided which is movable into operative engagement with the ground to transport the miner to and from the mining site when in a collapsed position.

  13. A physically-based abrasive wear model for composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gun Y.; Dharan, C.K.H.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2001-05-01

    A simple physically-based model for the abrasive wear of composite materials is presented based on the mechanics and mechanisms associated with sliding wear in soft (ductile) matrix composites containing hard (brittle) reinforcement particles. The model is based on the assumption that any portion of the reinforcement that is removed as wear debris cannot contribute to the wear resistance of the matrix material. The size of this non-contributing portion of the reinforcement is estimated by modeling the three primary wear mechanisms, specifically plowing, interfacial cracking and particle removal. Critical variables describing the role of the reinforcement, such as its relative size and the nature of the matrix/reinforcement interface, are characterized by a single contribution coefficient, C. Predictions are compared with the results of experimental two-body (pin-on drum) abrasive wear tests performed on a model aluminum particulate-reinforced epoxy matrix composite material.

  14. Comparison of alternative manure management systems: effect on the environment, total energy requirement, nutrient conservation, contribution to corn silage production and economics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.O.; Matthews, D.L.

    1983-09-01

    This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservation, corn silage production and total annual operating costs. The dairy production facility used was a confinement stall barn at the Agway Farm Research Center, Tully, New York. Provisions were made to handle the manure from the barn in three ways: (1) directly into a spreader for daily spreading, (2) by gravity into a liquid manure storage tank for spring application and immediate plow down, (3) hydraulic ram to a roof-covered above-ground manure storage for spring and fall spreading. Results of the study show that a manure storage system can reduce annual labor requirements by 65 percent and fuel requirement by 60 percent or more, compared to daily spreading.

  15. Acceleration and Compression of Charged Particle Bunches Using Counter-Propagating Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets; N. J. Fisch; A. Pukhov

    2000-10-17

    The nonlinear interaction between counter-propagating laser beams in a plasma results in the generation of large (enhanced) plasma wakes. The two beams need to be slightly detuned in frequency, and one of them has to be ultra-short (shorter than a plasma period). Thus produced wakes have a phase velocity close to the speed of light and can be used for acceleration and compression of charged bunches. The physical mechanism responsible for the enhanced wake generation is qualitatively described and compared with the conventional laser wakefield mechanism. The authors also demonstrate that, depending on the sign of the frequency difference between the lasers, the enhanced wake can be used as a ``snow-plow'' to accelerate and compress either positively or negatively charged bunches. This ability can be utilized in an electron-positron injector.

  16. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  17. Investigation of Spatial Distribution of Radiocesium in a Paddy Field as a Potential Sink

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Surface soils, under various land uses, were contaminated by radionuclides that were released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Because paddy fields are one of the main land uses in Japan, we investigated the spatial distribution of radiocesium and the influence of irrigation water in a paddy field during cultivation. Soil core samples collected at a paddy field in Fukushima showed that plowing had disturbed the original depth distribution of radiocesium. The horizontal distribution of radiocesium did not show any evidence for significant influence of radiocesium from irrigation water, and its accumulation within the paddy field, since the original amount of radiocesium was much larger than was added into the paddy field by irrigation water. However, it is possible that rainfall significantly increases the loading of radiocesium. PMID:24260481

  18. Slurry Erosion Performance Study of Detonation Gun-Sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr Coatings on CF8M Steel Under Hydro-Accelerated Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Sanjeev; Singh, Harpreet; Kumar, Harmesh; Rastogi, Vikas

    2012-09-01

    In the current investigation, cermet coatings (WC-10Co-4Cr) were deposited on CF8M steel by detonation gun (D-gun) thermal spraying process. Subsequently, the slurry erosion behaviors of the coated and bare steels were investigated using a high-speed erosion test rig. Slurry collected from an actual hydro power plant was used as the abrasive media. Effects of concentration (ppm), average particle sizes and rotational speed on the slurry erosion behaviors of coated and bare steels under different experimental conditions were studied. The analysis of eroded samples was done using SEM and stylus profilometry. Signatures of microcutting, fracture of well-bonded WC grains, and fragmentations were observed on the eroded surface of WC-10Co-4Cr coating, while signatures of formation of plowing, lips, shearing of platelet, formation of crater, and micro-cutting were observed on the eroded surface of CF8M steel.

  19. Application of magnetic tracer method for quantification of pedoturbations in soils under different land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkin, Andrey; Gennadiyev, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Pedoturbations are widely known and good classified by scientists. It is known 10 types of pedoturbations, allocated by F.D. Hole (1961) and supplemented by D.L. Johnson and collaborators (1987). They influence on many soil properties and also on migration substances (including pollutants). But there is a lack of data of quantitative assessments of pedoturbations especially in soils under different land use. In this paper are shown approaches for the use of magnetic tracer method for assessments of pedoturbation processes. This method is widely spread for study lateral solid phase soil matter (soil erosion), but first use for study pedoturbations. Magnetic tracer method is based on study of spherical magnetic particles (SMP) in soils. Origin of SMP is mainly connected with atmospheric deposition of fly ash, resulting from coal burning in steam engines of locomotives and thermal electric power stations. The period of active emission of SMP is the last 150 years. Magnetic spherules are stable and resistant to soil weathering and can be preserved in soils for decades without any clear signs of destruction. In European part of Russia and Middle West USA were analyzed 63 soil profiles under virgin forest and steppe vegetation and croplands. Vertical distribution of SMP in the upper 30 cm divided into 5 types: a) residually accumulative, b) not uniform with maximum in the upper 10 cm, c) not uniform with maximum in the 10-20 cm, d) not uniform with maximum in the 20-30 cm, e) gomogeneous. Vertical distribution of SMP reflects intensity of pedoturbations, because SMP migrate into the soils only from the atmospheric depositions. Labeled types of SMP vertical distribution are listed in order of increasing intensity of the pedoturbation. Most intensive pedoturbations are detected in arable soils. Depending on the region arable soils characterized by highest percentage of soil profiles with homogenous type of SMP distribution (up to 17%) and lowest percentage of soil profiles with residually accumulative SMP distribution (15-75%). Revealed the important role of type of plowing. On two sites in Russia with depleted type of plowing detected very high intensity of pedoturbation - homogenous type of SMP distribution was in 8-17% of soils and accumulative type - in 15-25%. Otherwise on two sites in the Middle West USA with moldboard type of plowing, homogenous type was much less (in 0-8% of soils) and accumulative type was 2-3 times more (55-75%). In virgin soils intensity of pedoturbations is much less, homogenous type of SMP distribution is not detected in any soil profiles. Furthermore on two virgin forest sites in USA and Russia percentage of soils with initial accumulative type of SMP distribution was 100%. On site in virgin steppe region of Russia - 85% of soils characterized by initial accumulative type and other 15% by not uniform with maximum in the upper 10 cm. Only on one site in forest region of Russia percentage of initial accumulative type of SMP distribution was rather low and even less than on arable soils with moldboard type of plowing - 67%.

  20. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  1. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. The uses of ERTS-1 imagery in the analysis of landscape change. [agriculture, strip mining forests, urban-suburban growth, and flooding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The analysis of strip mining from ERTS-1 data has resulted in the mapping of landscape changes for the Cumberland Plateau Test Site. Several mapping experiments utilizing ERTS-1 data have been established for the mapping of state-wide land use regions. The first incorporates 12 frames of ERTS-1 imagery for the generalized thematic mapping of forest cover for the state of Tennessee. In another mapping effort, 14 ERTS-1 images have been analyzed for plowed ground signatures to produce a map of agricultural regions for Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern portions of Mississippi and Alabama. Generalized urban land use categories and transportation networks have been determined from ERTS-1 imagery for the Knoxville Test Site. Finally, through the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery, short-lived phenomena such as the 1973 spring floods on the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, have been detected, monitored, and mapped.

  3. [Effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and quality and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].

    PubMed

    Ma, Fu-Liang; Song, Fu-Peng; Gao, Yang; Zou, Peng

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and its quality, plow layer soil inorganic nitrogen (N) contents, and fertilizer N use efficiency. Compared with traditional urea fertilizer, both sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers increased the grain yield by 10.4%-16.5%, and the grain protein and starch contents by 5.8%-18.9% and 0.3%-1.4%, respectively. The controlled release urea fertilizers could maintain the topsoil inorganic N contents to meet the N requirement for the wheat, especially during its late growth stage. In the meantime, the fertilizer N use efficiency was improved by 58.2%-101.2%. Polymer-coated urea produced better wheat yield and higher fertilizer N use efficiency, compared with sulfur-coated controlled release urea. PMID:22489481

  4. Impact of reclamation treatment on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, L. V.; Khamova, O. F.; Paderina, E. V.; Gindemit, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The abundance and activity of the soil microflora were studied in a field experiment with the use of green manure crops to assess the impact of reclamation measures on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex. The number of microorganisms in the plow soil horizon increased in the background of the green fallows as compared to the black ones. Coefficients of mineralization, immobilization, and transformation of organic compounds were calculated for different variants of the soil treatment. The value of the mineralization coefficient indicates the intense decomposition of the green manure that entered the soil. In the first year, peas were actively decomposed, while oats, in the second year (aftereffect). The activity of the soil enzymes (invertase, urease, and catalase) was determined. A close relationship between the catalase activity and the intensity of the microbiological processes in the soils was revealed.

  5. An augmented Lagrangian method for sliding contact of soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongqiang; Nickel, Jeffrey C; Iwasaki, Laura R; Spilker, Robert L

    2012-08-01

    Despite the importance of sliding contact in diarthrodial joints, only a limited number of studies have addressed this type of problem, with the result that the mechanical behavior of articular cartilage in daily life remains poorly understood. In this paper, a finite element formulation is developed for the sliding contact of biphasic soft tissues. The augmented Lagrangian method is used to enforce the continuity of contact traction and fluid pressure across the contact interface. The resulting method is implemented in the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics. The accuracy of the new implementation is verified using an example problem of sliding contact between a rigid, impermeable indenter and a cartilage layer for which analytical solutions have been obtained. The new implementation's capability to handle a complex loading regime is verified by modeling plowing tests of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc. PMID:22938363

  6. Preliminary results from 1.2 MJ plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Borowiecki, M.; Dubrovski, A.V.; Gribkov, V.A.; Jakubowski, J.; Karpinski, L.; Miklaszewski, R.; Scholz, M.P.; Stepniews, W.

    1995-12-31

    Preliminary results from 1.2 MJ Plasma-Focus device PF-1000 operating at the moment within the energy range 100--250 KJ are presented. The following diagnostic equipment is used during the first stage of investigations: (1) fast streak and electro-optical cameras; (2) one-frame laser interferometry and shadowgraphy; (3) x-ray pinhole cameras; (4) silver activation neutron counters; (5) scintillation neutron probes; (6) ion spectrometry; and (7) Rogowski coils, magnetic probes, HV dividers etc. To support experimental investigations several numerical codes were prepared, namely: (1) 2D code for initial break-down phenomena modeling; (2) 2D MHD eulerian code for modeling of the plasma dynamics; (3) 2D MHD lagrangian free-point code for modeling of the last phase of the discharge; and (4) 2D snow-plow code. The comparison of results of numerical modeling and experimental investigations is presented.

  7. A summary of Viking sample-trench analyses for angles of internal friction and cohesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Clow, G. D.; Hutton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Analyses of sample trenches excavated on Mars, using a theory for plowing by narrow blades, provide estimates of the angles of internal friction and the cohesions of the Martian surface materials. Angles of internal friction appear to be the same as those of many terrestrial soils because they are generally between 27 degrees and 39 degrees. Drift material, at the Lander 1 site, has a low angle of internal friction (near 18 degrees). All the materials excavated have low cohesions, generally between 0.2 and 10 kPa. The occurrence of cross bedding, layers of crusts, and blocky slabs shows that these materials are heterogeneous and that they contain planes of weakness. The results reported here have significant implications for future landed missions, Martian eolian processes, and interpretation of infrared temperatures.

  8. Timing of x-ray burst from X-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shen; Zhang, Ran; Zhu, Xinlei; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-06-15

    The x-ray burst timings of X-pinches, T{sub XB}, made using eight different wires for different current were measured. The results showed that a higher current makes a shorter T{sub XB} for a given X-pinch wire. In other words, T{sub XB} scales linearly with the line mass density for a given current. Based on the snow-plow model for Z-pinch plasma, it was derived that for a given X-pinch wire the integral of the current over time from zero to T{sub XB} is constant, i.e., Ôłź{sub 0}{sup T{sub X}{sub B}}i(t)Ôőůdt=const.. This theoretically derived relation was confirmed by our experiments.

  9. Control of Structure in Conventional Friction Stir Welds through a Kinematic Theory of Metal Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubisoff, H.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Nunes, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating pin is translated along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. Metal is prevented from flowing up the pin, which would result in plowing/cutting instead of welding, by a shoulder on the pin. In conventional FSW, the weld metal rests on an "anvil", which supports the heavy "plunge" load on the tool. In this study, both embedded tungsten wires along and copper plating on the faying surfaces were used to trace the flow of AA2219 weld metal around the C-FSW tool. The effect of tool rotational speed, travel speed, plunge load, and pin thread pitch on the resulting weld metal flow was evaluated. Plan, longitudinal, and transverse section x-ray radiographs were examined to trace the metal flow paths. The results are interpreted in terms of a kinematic theory of metal flow in FSW.

  10. Zero-tillage and corn production in eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, G.S.V.; Taylor, F.; Negi, S.; Douglas, E.; McKyes, E.; Tessier, S.; Burrows, J.

    1981-01-01

    During the summer of 1979, a zero-tillage experiment was conducted in which corn (maize) was grown on 68 different plots representing different soil structural status. Sixty-four of the plots had been subjected to 16 different compaction and tillage treatments and corn grown on them. No machinery traffic had been introduced to these plots since the spring of 1978. Four new plots were established which had been subjected to conventional tillage methods, those being plowing in the fall of 1978 and disc harrowing in the spring of 1979. Corn was hand seeded into all the plots and the growth, development and yield of the crop measured. Several times over the growing season, soil dry bulk density, soil moisture content and soil temperature were measured. Observation of days to emerge, tassel and silk showed that the zero-till plots performed much better than the control plots.

  11. Effects of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and its influence on the topography of the Fe thin film grown in pulsed laser deposition facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, S.; Rawat, R. S.; Wang, Y.; Lee, S.; Tan, T. L.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, P.; Zakaullah, M.

    2012-10-15

    The effect of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in laser induced Fe plasma is investigated using time-resolved fast gated imaging. The snow plow and shock wave models are fitted to the experimental results and used to estimate the ablation parameters and the density of gas atoms that interact with the ablated species. It is observed that RT instability develops during the interface deceleration stage and grows for a considerable time for higher laser energy fluence. The effects of RT instabilities formation on the surface topography of the Fe thin films grown in pulsed laser deposition system are investigated (i) using different laser energy fluences for the same wavelength of laser radiation and (ii) using different laser wavelengths keeping the energy fluence fixed. It is concluded that the deposition achieved under turbulent condition leads to less smooth deposition surfaces with bigger sized particle agglomerates or network.

  12. The friction and wear of metals and binary alloys in contact with an abrasive grit of single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various metals and iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh and W) in contact with single crystal silicon carbide riders. Results indicate that the friction force in the plowing of metal and the groove height (corresponding to the wear volume of the groove) decrease linearly as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases. The coefficient of friction and groove height generally decrease, and the contact pressure increases with an increase in solute content of binary alloys. There appears to be very good correlation of the solute to iron atomic ratio with the decreasing rate of change of coefficient of friction, the decreasing rate of change of groove height and the increasing rate of change of contact pressure with increasing solute content. These rates of change increase as the solute to iron atomic radius ratio increases or decreases from unity.

  13. Friction and wear characteristics of iron-chromium alloys in contact with themselves and silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron-chromium alloys in contact with (1) themselves, (2) single crystal silicon carbide disks, and (3) single crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide. Results indicate the coefficients of friction for the alloys sliding against themselves are between those for pure iron and pure chromium, and are only slightly different with 1, 5, 9, 14, and 19 weight percent chromium in iron. The wear is due, primarily, to shearing, or tearing fracture, of the cohesive bonds in the bulk metal and plowing of the bulk by lumps of wear debris. There are only slight differences in the coefficients of friction for the various alloys when sliding on silicon carbide. The coefficient of friction for the alloys are higher than those for pure iron and pure chromium. Alloy hardening observed in the alloys plays a dominant role in controlling the abrasive friction and wear behavior of the alloys.

  14. Chondrule Formation: Nebular Gas Confinement of Impact Splashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullemond, Cornelis Petrus; Johansen, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We show that the impact debris from a high-speed collision between two planetesimals during the first few million years would sweep up the nebular gas as a snow plow, leading to deceleration and compression of the debris into a thin shell. This shell breaks up into dense bullets through the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. As a result of the compression by the gas, these bullets will have super-Roche densities and thus will gravitationally collapse to form new planetesimals. Chondrules that may have formed from impact melting would thus rapidly be reaccreted into planetesimals. These dense environments are ideal for forming compound chondrules. The hydrodynamic interaction with the nebular gas could lead to mixing between the newly formed chondrules and surviving pre-impact material. Volatiles can be exchanged between these components in the dense bullets, allowing for chemical complementarity. We believe that this scenario may have some advantages over earlier impact scenarios for chondrule formation.

  15. A method for sampling waste corn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  16. Effects of Particulate Debris Morphology on the Rolling Wear Behavior of All-Steel and Si(Sub 3)N(Sub 4)-Steel Bearing Element Couples

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, J.H.; Mecholsky, J.J., Jr.; Mitchell, D.J.

    1999-01-25

    Rolling contact fatigue experiments were performed on all-steel and hybrid Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-M50 steel rolling bearing systems using particulate contaminated lubricants. The particulate contaminants used were glycothermally synthesized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} platelets or Arizona test dust. The effects of contaminant composition and morphology on rolling contact fatigue and wear behavior were explored. The effects of bearing element material properties on fatigue and wear behavior were also examined. Rolling wear behavior is related to bearing component material configuration and the type of particulate contaminant present in the lubricant. Component and particulate material properties such as hardness and elastic modulus are observed to affect rolling wear behavior. Wear mechanisms such as contact stress fatigue, indenting, cutting and plowing are observed.

  17. Stress-field translation in the healthy human temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Gallo, L M; Nickel, J C; Iwasaki, L R; Palla, S

    2000-10-01

    Movement over the surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc produces tractional forces. These forces potentially increase the magnitude of shear stresses and contribute to wear and fatigue of the disc. Theoretically, tractional forces in all synovial joints are the result of frictional forces, due to rubbing of the cartilage surfaces, and plowing forces, due to translation of the stress-field through the cartilage matrix as the joint surface congruency changes during motion. For plowing forces to occur in the TMJ, there must be mediolateral translation of the stress-field as the condyle moves dorsoventrally during jaw function. To test whether mediolateral stress-field translation occurs in the intact TMJ, we measured stress-field position and translation velocities in ten normal individuals during rhythmic jaw opening and closing. Magnetic resonance imaging and jaw tracking were combined to animate the three-dimensional position of the stress-field between the articulating surfaces. This allowed for mediolateral translation velocity measurements of the centroid of the stress-field. The results showed that during jaw opening and closing at 0.5 Hz, the average peak mediolateral translation velocity was 35 +/- 17 mm/sec. When opening and closing increased to 1.0 Hz, the average peak velocity was 40 +/- 19 mm/sec. Theoretical model estimates of the work done during such translation ranged from 6 to 709 mJ between the individual joints studied. The potential clinical importance of this measure is that long-term exposure of the TMJ disc to high work may result in fatigue failure of the TMJ disc. PMID:11077988

  18. Fabrication of Conductive Paths on a Fused Deposition Modeling Substrate using Inkjet Deposition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-15

    Inkjet deposition is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques for producing cost efficient and lightweight electronic devices on various substrates with low environmental impact. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most used and reliable additive manufacturing processes by extrusion of wire-shaped thermoplastic materials, which provides an opportunity for embedding printed electronics into mechanical structures during the building process and enables the design of compact smart structures that can sense and adapt to their own state and the environment. This paper represents one of the first explorations of integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDMmore┬á┬╗ process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three challenges have been identified and investigated, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process, and the slow drying process caused by the skinning effect . Two different techniques are developed in this paper to address the issue of continuity of the printed lines, including surface ironing and a novel thermal plow technique that plows a channel in the FDM substrate to seal off the pores in the substrate and contain the deposited inks. Two solutions are also found for obtaining conductivity from the continuous printed lines, including porous surface coating and using a more viscous ink with larger nanoparticle size. Then the effects of the printing and post-processing parameters on the conductivity are examined. It is found that post-processing is a dominant factor in determining the conductivity of the printed lines.┬ź┬áless

  19. Carbon decomposition process of the residual biomass in the paddy soil of a single-crop rice field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Iwata, T.

    2014-12-01

    In cultivated fields, residual organic matter is plowed into soil after harvest and decaying in fallow season. Greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 is generated by the decomposition of the substantial organic matter and released into the atmosphere. In some fields, open burning is carried out by tradition, when carbon in residual matter is released into atmosphere as CO2. However, burning effect on carbon budget between crop lands and atmosphere is not entirely considered yet. In this study, coarse organic matter (COM) in paddy soil of a single-crop rice field was sampled on regular intervals between January, 2011 and August, 2014 The amount of carbon release from residual matter was estimated by analyzing of the variations in carbon content of COM. Effects of soil temperature (Ts) and soil water content (SWC) at the paddy field on the rate of carbon decomposition was investigated. Though decreasing rate of COM was much smaller in winter season, it is accelerated at the warming season between April and June every year. Decomposition was resisted for next rice cultivated season despite of highest soil temperature. In addition, the observational field was divided into two areas, and three time open burning experiments were conducted in November, 2011, 2012, and 2013. In each year, three sampling surveys, or plants before harvest and residuals before and after the burning experiment, were done. From these surveys, it is suggested that about 48▒2% of carbon contents of above-ground plant was yield out as grain by harvest, and about 27▒2% of carbon emitted as CO2 by burning. Carbon content of residuals plowed into soil after the harvest was estimated 293▒1 and 220▒36gC/m2 in no-burned and burned area, respectively, based on three-years average. It is estimated that 70 and 60% of the first input amount of COM was decomposed after a year in no-burned and burned area, respectively.

  20. Assessment of high resolution digital elevation model for deep humus-rich sediments delineation at a plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pen├ş┼żek, V├şt; Z├ídorov├í, Tereza

    2014-05-01

    Resolution and quality of digital elevation models is a key factor in erosion modeling. Spatial estimates of erosion and sedimentation rates are important for soil organic carbon stocks prediction or delineation of newly formed soil cover by degradation and sedimentation of soil material. Such analysis can be sensitive to DEM vertical accuracy and horizontal resolution. LIDAR data can provide very precise DEMs with very high resolution. In our study we used ground based LIDAR data with 10cm pixel. At such resolution, not only naturally formed terrain features are observed, but also anthropogenic features are depicted. Anthropogenic features are represented by more significant objects like hedges or ditches that can significantly influence the water and sediment movement in the landscape on one hand, on the other hand less significant anthropogenic impact can influence the terrain surface. Plot management forms a regular network consisting of parallel linear features given by plowing operations. At our research plot, such features depicted by DEM form specific flow direction (drainage) pattern over the area comparing to coarser resolution DEMs. We focused on comparison of differently preprocessed DEMs for deep humus-rich sediments depth prediction. We compared success rate of prediction models based on original DEM, DEMs with different resampling (resolution) and modeling of original DEM adding random noise given by size of plowing based terrain pattern. The study showed that original high resolution DEM significantly decreases the possibility of soil depth prediction. The actual very precise surface description is not very relevant for GIS modeling due to sensitivity of the models. DEMs depicting the wider constellations of the terrain were more successful in the prediction. The study was supported by grant nr. 13-07516P of the Czech science foundation and by grant nr. QJ1230319 of the Ministry of Agriculture.