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1

Mikkelson sweep/spike chisel plow shovel  

SciTech Connect

Profitability comparisons are reported between the Mikkelson Sweep/Spike Chisel Plow Shovel standard sweeps. This evaluation covers the first year of testing of the new Sweep/Spike design. The data are not averaged over treatments due to significant interaction between treatments and environmental factors. The cost of fuel, fall and spring, to perform the various treatments ranged from $1.27 to $3.36 per acre. Use of the sweep/spike shovel always reduced total fuel cost. Savings varied from $0.11 to $0.71 per acre depending on prior treatment. This means there will be money saved, to off-set expenses, when converting present chisel plows or for special options on new chisel plows, needed for use of the sweep/spike shovel. A summary of 1991--1992 energy measurements. They indicate that more power will be required to pull a chisel plow equipped with the sweep/spike shovel. A larger tractor, narrower chisel plow and/or slower speed will be required to avoid the wheel slippage problems encountered on soft or wet field surfaces.

Not Available

1992-01-01

2

Mikkelson sweep/spike chisel plow shovel. Economic summary of the 1992 crop season  

SciTech Connect

Profitability comparisons are reported between the Mikkelson Sweep/Spike Chisel Plow Shovel standard sweeps. This evaluation covers the first year of testing of the new Sweep/Spike design. The data are not averaged over treatments due to significant interaction between treatments and environmental factors. The cost of fuel, fall and spring, to perform the various treatments ranged from $1.27 to $3.36 per acre. Use of the sweep/spike shovel always reduced total fuel cost. Savings varied from $0.11 to $0.71 per acre depending on prior treatment. This means there will be money saved, to off-set expenses, when converting present chisel plows or for special options on new chisel plows, needed for use of the sweep/spike shovel. A summary of 1991--1992 energy measurements. They indicate that more power will be required to pull a chisel plow equipped with the sweep/spike shovel. A larger tractor, narrower chisel plow and/or slower speed will be required to avoid the wheel slippage problems encountered on soft or wet field surfaces.

Not Available

1992-12-31

3

Pegasus plow  

SciTech Connect

The Pagasus plow is a new implement for one-pass cotton plowdown. The Pagasus is unique in that it is capable of burying the whole cotton stalk without shredding. A very simple and reliable machine, the Pagasus gives the cotton farmer the option of using controlled traffic tillage without sacrificing good residue burial of easy machine maintenance.

Thacker, G.W.

1997-04-01

4

Shoveling in a materials world  

SciTech Connect

Shovels. How do you find the right one for your mine. Where do you start. Because capital costs for a fleet of shovels run into millions of dollars, proper planning can save you hundreds of thousands of dollars down the road. To help you make the most intelligent choice and use of these equipment resources, the authors analyzed ''electric'' shovels (also called cable shovels or wire rope shovels) and hydraulic shovels. This article is designed to answer those questions you may have concerning shovel selection, productivity, and operation.

Zaburunov, S.A.

1988-07-01

5

Optimized design for the plow of a submarine plowing trencher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plow of the submarine plowing trencher is one of the main functional mechanisms, and its optimization is very important. The design parameters play a very significant role in determining the requirements of the towing force of a vessel. A multi-objective genetic algorithm based on analytical models of the plow surface has been examined and applied in efforts to obtain optimal design of the plow. For a specific soil condition, the draft force and moldboard surface area which are the key parameters in the working process of the plow are optimized by finding the corresponding optimal values of the plow blade penetration angle and two surface angles of the main cutting blade of the plow. Parameters such as the moldboard side angle of deviation, moldboard lift angle, angular variation of the tangent line, and the spanning length are also analyzed with respect to the force of the moldboard surface along soil flow direction. Results show that the optimized plow has an improved plow performance. The draft forces of the main cutting blade and the moldboard are 10.6% and 7%, respectively, less than the original design. The standard deviation of Gaussian curvature of moldboard is lowered by 64.5%, which implies that the smoothness of the optimized moldboard surface is much greater than the original.

Gong, Hanyang; Yuan, Ruhua; Xing, Xiaodong; Wang, Liquan; Wang, Zhipeng; Gong, Haixia

2013-03-01

6

Evolutionary analysis of enzymes using Chisel.  

SciTech Connect

Availability of large volumes of genomic and enzymatic data for taxonomically and phenotypically diverse organisms allows for exploration of the adaptive mechanisms that led to diversification of enzymatic functions. We present Chisel, a computational framework and a pipeline for an automated, high-resolution analysis of evolutionary variations of enzymes. Chisel allows automatic as well as interactive identification, and characterization of enzymatic sequences. Such knowledge can be utilized for comparative genomics, microbial diagnostics, metabolic engineering, drug design and analysis of metagenomes. Chisel is a comprehensive resource that contains 8575 clusters and subsequent computational models specific for 939 distinct enzymatic functions and, when data is sufficient, their taxonomic variations. Application of Chisel to identification of enzymatic sequences in newly sequenced genomes, analysis of organism-specific metabolic networks, 'binning' of metagenomes and other biological problems are presented. We also provide a thorough analysis of Chisel performance with other similar resources and manual annotations on Shewanella oneidensis MR1 genome.

Rodriguez, A. A.; Bompada, T.; Syed, M.; Shah, P. K.; Maltsev, N.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago

2007-01-01

7

30 CFR 77.409 - Shovels, draglines, and tractors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Shovels, draglines, and tractors. 77.409 Section 77...Mechanical Equipment § 77.409 Shovels, draglines, and tractors. (a) Shovels, draglines, and tractors shall not be...

2009-07-01

8

30 CFR 77.409 - Shovels, draglines, and tractors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shovels, draglines, and tractors. 77.409 Section 77...Mechanical Equipment § 77.409 Shovels, draglines, and tractors. (a) Shovels, draglines, and tractors shall not be...

2010-07-01

9

Evaluation of Variable Curvature Snow Plow Blades.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flexible moldboard plow manufactured by Frink America was evaluated for its ease of use and effectiveness at reducing the snow cloud obscuring the plow. Video and interviews of snow plow operators reveal the flexible plow is simple to use and effective ...

J. Becker

1996-01-01

10

Plowing: Interactive stretching and compaction in magic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Magic layout editor provides a new operation called plowing, for stretching and compacting Manhattan VLSI layouts. Plowing works directly on the mask-level representation of a layout, allowing portions of it to be rearranged while preserving connectivity and layout-rule correctness. The layout and connectivity rules are read from a file, so plowing is technology independent. Plowing is fast enough to

Walter S. Scott; John K. Ousterhout

1984-01-01

11

Smarter shovels dig and load more efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Digital drive upgrades allow older shovels to power through the bank smoothly while improving safety and reliability. The Mine Technology Group of Flanders Electric has pioneered an effort to offer open architecture for shovel electrics by installing Power Performance Digital Drive controls to motors to ensure peak power is provided during the digging process. The new system also has a Smart Fault Recognition system to power down in a controlled fashion. The upgrades have been fitted to Asarco's shovel for use in coal mining operations. 1 fig., 1 photos. 4 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2009-04-15

12

Monte Carlo simulation of the CHISEL flash memory cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work shows how physically-based hot carrier simulation was used to understand the importance of CHannel Initiated Secondary ELectron (CHISEL) injection in scaled MOSFETs, and how it was used to develop a powerful CHISEL-based technique for low voltage flash programming. Furthermore, it is shown how CHISEL flash addresses many of the disadvantages of CHE programming techniques, making it an ideal

Jeff D. Bude; Mark R. Pinto; R. Kent Smith

2000-01-01

13

Cosmetic osteoplastic craniotomy with a chisel and hammer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDOsteoplastic craniotomy has been performed recently with microfixation systems such as miniplates, burr hole buttons, and\\/or ceramic dust. However, these are costly methods of treatment. Without the use of these devices, we performed cosmetic osteoplastic craniotomy using an inexpensive chisel and hammer.METHODSOur osteoplastic craniotomy with a chisel and hammer was used on 19 lesions in 15 patients. Using a chisel,

S Nishi; N Hashimoto; T Todaka; M Nomura; M Sawada; M Morimoto; A Kojima

1999-01-01

14

Productivity considerations for shovels and excavators  

SciTech Connect

During Haulage and Loading 2007, the Engineering and Mining Journal organized an OEM round table discussion with the theme 'Reducing cycle times'. Seven panelists identified areas where they could improve cycle times for open-pit mining. Although the discussions focused mainly on haud trucks, two panelists discussed shovel productivity as it relates to cycle times. Topics ranged from truck-shovel pass matching to payload management. A clear message came through that all the minutes saved per cycle meant nothing if the mine did not have a properly trained operator. The article reports on the discussions. 4 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-09-15

15

Smarter shovels dig and load more efficiently  

SciTech Connect

Digital drive upgrades allow older shovels to power through the bank smoothly while improving safety and reliability. Flanders Electric is currently working on the third of five electric shovel upgrades which consists of Flandex Electric manufactured motors, Allen-Bradley PLCs and the Power Performance Digital Drive upgrade. With an open system, or open architecture, mine operators can service and maintain machines where a close system would limit the electricians to work with the OEMs exclusively. Typically, upgrades replace the old analog or an older digital drive with a new Power Performance Digital Drive upgrade. 1 fig., 2 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-03-15

16

The Plow and Agricultural Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Settled agriculture began about 10 to 13 millennia ago in the valleys of the Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, and other rivers. Prehistoric tools developed included a short-handled forked branch that evolved into a hoe, and a long-armed hockey-shaped stick with a curved handle called an ard. The ard, which eventually evolved into a plow, won religious sanctions in many ancient cultures

R. Lal

2009-01-01

17

PLOW POWER REQUIREMENTS FOR FORESTRY SITE PREPARATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this field study, data were collected to determine power requirements required by a trailing site preparation plow and the magnitudes of dynamic forces experienced by a plow during normal operation and during impact with stumps or other obstructions. Drawbar pull data were collected from five dif...

18

Conveyor belt plow for ideal belt cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of excess material around the return drum of a conveyor arises from an inefficient belt plow. The frequency with which this problem occurs would indicate a design problem rather than faulty installation or negligent maintenance. The reasons for the poor operation of the plow become obvious after applying basic physical principles. Simple and cheap improvements can be implemented to improve plow performance. To be effective, a plow should be installed either near the tail end, to protect the return drum, or ahead of the automatic belt tensioning device, to prevent spillage from falling onto the take-up pulley. In order to perform well, the scraping blade of the plow must be in continuous contact with the belt across its full width, having contact pressure as uniform as possible. It has been proven, though, that uniform contact pressure cannot be achieved under operating conditions with the standard arrangement shown in Figure 1. There are two solutions to this problem which can be carried out in most mine workshops and help reduce belt downtime. All too often an ineffective plow allows material to be needlessly trapped against the belt, causing excessive wear and, ultimately, tearing the belt. Even with highly experienced belt crews, a short stoppage in the main belt can have serious effects throughout the mine. An efficient plow means a cleaner running belt.

Michaelsen, W.J.

1982-05-01

19

INTERMITTENT CHISEL TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SOIL ORGANIC CARBON AND TOTAL NITROGEN RELATIVE TO CONTINUOUS NO-TILL AND CHISEL PLOW SYSTEMS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For various reasons, North American crop farmers are more likely to practice limited-duration no-till than continuous no-till. Little is known about effects of short-term no-till on organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) relative to continuous no-till and conventional-till systems. A field experi...

20

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN FROM LEDGE TO ACCESS COAL SEAMS BELOW. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

21

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN FROM LEDGE SO THAT DRAGLINE CAN CONTINUE REMOVING OVERBURDEN TO ACCESS LEVELS OF THE COAL SEAMS. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

22

4. Osgood steam shovel excavating roadway at Mormon Flat. Photographer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Osgood steam shovel excavating roadway at Mormon Flat. Photographer unknown, 1923. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

23

The Snow-Shoveler's ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Heavy snowfall, cold temperatures, and low atmospheric pressure during the winter months have been associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. However, only a few cases of the snow -shovelers infarction have been reported. We present our experience with 6 patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction all within a 24-hour period during an unprecedented snowfall (4 of whom were shoveling snow), and provide a detailed review of previously reported cases of snow-shovelers infarction. Consistent with other reports, the majority of our patients had the traditional cardiac risk factors of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, and were habitually sedentary. Unique to our case series, however, was that the four patients who had a history of coronary artery disease and prior coronary artery stenting, all presented with subacute stent thrombosis documented on the coronary angiography performed emergently. Moreover, these patients constituted 25% of all the subacute stent thromboses diagnosed in our cardiac catheterization laboratory over the preceding 12 months. In conclusion, our findings suggest that in typically sedentary individuals with cardiac risk factors or a history of coronary artery disease, snow shoveling may trigger ST elevation myocardial infarction and, therefore, should be avoided. This may be most critical in patients with a history of coronary stent placement since our findings suggest that snow shoveling may precipitate subacute stent thrombosis.

Janardhanan, Rajesh; Henry, Zachary; Hur, David J.; Lin, Christine M.; Lopez, David; Reagan, Patrick M.; Rudnick, Sean R.; Koshko, Travis J.; Keeley, Ellen C.

2010-01-01

24

Experimental Studies of Plows with Active Working Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental studies of an RP-200 rotary plow and a POD-5-35 moldboard plow with a rotor showed a greater degree of soil breakup can be secured with active tillage tools. The POD-5-35 plow provided a soild condition adequate for seeding but the soil break...

V. V. Melikhov I. M. Panov V. A. Shmonin

1970-01-01

25

Conversion of Rome Plow, KGBA7E Clearing Blade, to Minefield-Clearing Plow: Design Data Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final report describes the design effort, from parameter establishment to prototype design, required for the conversion of the KGBA7E Rome Plow to a minefield-clearing plow as requested by the Armor Engineer Board, Fort Knox, Kentucky.

J. H. Allison

1983-01-01

26

International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery show. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.

1995-01-01

27

The snow-shoveler's ST elevation myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Heavy snowfall, cold temperatures, and low atmospheric pressure during the winter months have been associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. However, only a few cases of the "snow shoveler's infarction" have been reported. The investigators describe their experience with 6 patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarctions, all within a 24-hour period during an unprecedented snowfall (4 of whom were shoveling snow), and provide a detailed review of previously reported cases of snow shoveler's infarction. Consistent with other reports, most patients reported here had the traditional cardiac risk factors of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, and sedentary lifestyle. Unique to this case series, however, was that the 4 patients who had histories of coronary artery disease and previous coronary artery stenting all presented with subacute stent thromboses documented on coronary angiography performed emergently. Moreover, these patients constituted 25% of all subacute stent thromboses diagnosed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in the preceding 12 months. In conclusion, these findings suggest that in typically sedentary individuals with cardiac risk factors or histories of coronary artery disease, snow shoveling may trigger ST elevation myocardial infarction and therefore should be avoided. This may be most critical in patients with histories of coronary stent placement, considering that these findings suggest that snow shoveling may precipitate subacute stent thrombosis. PMID:20691323

Janardhanan, Rajesh; Henry, Zachary; Hur, David J; Lin, Christine M; Lopez, David; Reagan, Patrick M; Rudnick, Sean R; Koshko, Travis J; Keeley, Ellen C

2010-08-15

28

Confessions of a Shoveler: STS Subcultures and Engineering Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mainstream science, technology, and society scholars have shown little interest in engineering ethics, one going so far as to label engineering ethics activists as "shit shovelers." Detachment from engineering ethics on the part of most STS scholars is related to a broader and long-standing split between the scholar-oriented and activist-oriented

Herkert, Joseph R.

2006-01-01

29

Confessions of a Shoveler: STS Subcultures and Engineering Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mainstream science, technology, and society scholars have shown little interest in engineering ethics, one going so far as to label engineering ethics activists as "shit shovelers." Detachment from engineering ethics on the part of most STS scholars is related to a broader and long-standing split between the scholar-oriented and activist-oriented

Herkert, Joseph R.

2006-01-01

30

[Test and gather data on sweep spike combination tillage tool]. Quarterly technical report, August 1991--March 1992  

SciTech Connect

This summary presents the data accumulated to date with only brief comment. It is prepared with the intent that the viewers will offer advice on terminology, data presentation, methods and other. The year end analysis will detail changes in the data due to the tillage treatments. The data is incomplete due to equipment problems and time limitations due to the wet fall and early freeze up. The trial was not completed due to our inability to get the Mikkelsen Chisel Plow Shovel (MCP), a 16 inch sweep with an anhydrous knife, to penetrate untilled land. The MCP shovel penetrated to deep on plowed ground and pulled so hard that the front wheels of our JD4440 tractor were jerked off the ground. The Standard Chisel Plow Shovels (SCP), a 16 inch sweep, worked well and the data is included.

Lukach, J.

1992-06-19

31

(Test and gather data on sweep spike combination tillage tool)  

SciTech Connect

This summary presents the data accumulated to date with only brief comment. It is prepared with the intent that the viewers will offer advice on terminology, data presentation, methods and other. The year end analysis will detail changes in the data due to the tillage treatments. The data is incomplete due to equipment problems and time limitations due to the wet fall and early freeze up. The trial was not completed due to our inability to get the Mikkelsen Chisel Plow Shovel (MCP), a 16 inch sweep with an anhydrous knife, to penetrate untilled land. The MCP shovel penetrated to deep on plowed ground and pulled so hard that the front wheels of our JD4440 tractor were jerked off the ground. The Standard Chisel Plow Shovels (SCP), a 16 inch sweep, worked well and the data is included.

Lukach, J.

1992-06-19

32

EVALUATION OF FORESTRY PLOW ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR SITE PREPARATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this field study, data were collected to determine energy requirements of trailing site preparation plows and the magnitudes of dynamic forces experienced by a plow during normal operation and during impact with stumps or other obstructions. Drawbar pull data were collected from five different t...

33

Here are the latest advances in pipeline trenching by plowing  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a brief history of the plow development and more specifically the rapid advancement in the technology along with a detailed description of the Woodside plow's technical aspects, advantages, and operating features. The method of trenching of pipelines by plowing has been established to be technically feasible and cost effective. The latest plow to be utilized has been the post-trenching type on the 85-mile, 40-in. diameter Woodside North Rankin field gas pipeline on the North West Shelf of Australia. Over 300 km (185 miles) of trench have been plowed in conditions which varied from very soft clay to the tough pleistocene type with boulders, sand, weathered sandstone, limestone with caprock, and through various combinations of these soils.

Brown, R.J.

1983-05-02

34

A Shovel With a Perforated Blade Reduces Energy Expenditure Required for Digging Wet Clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A shovel with a blade perforated with small holes was tested to see whether a worker would use less whole-body energy to dig wet clay than with a shovel with an opaque blade.Background: A perforated shovel is hypothesized to require less whole-body energy on the basis of adhesion theory; a smaller surface area would require less physical effort to

Sridhar Harivanam; Richard W. Marklin; Paula E. Papanek; Vikram Cariapa

2010-01-01

35

Cheatgrass communities: effect of plowing on species composition and productivity  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-year-old cheatgrass communities were disturbed by experimentally plowing small plots, Cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum L., promptly invaded the plowed plots. Plowing enhanced plant production at the high elevation site, 520 m, but depressed production at the low elevation site, 320 m, during a year of near normal precipitation in 1976. During the 1977 drought, plant production was very low at both study sites, but productivity was most depressed at the low elevation site. Possible factors in the explanation of results are discussed.

Rickard, W.H.; Cline, J.F.

1980-01-01

36

The Testing of a Rotary Plow on Mountain Slopes (Ispytaniya Potachionnogo Pluga na Gornykh Sklonakh).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were made using rotary and moldboard plows on sloped areas. The rotary plow consistently had better stability of path than the moldboard plow. Stability of both plows decreased as the slope was increased. The low draft requirement of the rotary pl...

I. M. Panov A. M. Sultanov

1973-01-01

37

Prediction of Shovel Productivity in the Gol-e-Gohar Iron Mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the modified Rosin Rammler Bennett expression and the image analysis, the relationship of the shovel productivity in the Gol-e-Gihar mine and the granulometric composition of rocks is obtained. It is shown that when percentage of crushed rock oversizes increases, the shovel productivity decreases.

M. Osanloo; A. Hekmat

2005-01-01

38

Clay-shoveler's fracture during indoor rock climbing.  

PubMed

Indoor rock climbing is becoming more popular for people of all ages. Despite the tremendous interest in this competitive sport, participants are made aware of the dangers associated with participating. The authors present the first reported case of a clay-shoveler's fracture at the T1 spinous process during indoor rock climbing. They describe the management and natural history of this fracture and discuss management strategies for this increasingly popular recreational sport.A 14-year-old competitive indoor rock climber presented with acute-onset midline thoracic pain at T1 while indoor rock climbing. He reported no recent falls or trauma but stated that the pain came on abruptly while rock climbing. On examination, he was neurologically intact except for significant tenderness to palpation at the T1 spinous process. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a minimally displaced T1 spinous process fracture with evidence of significant surrounding muscular edema, suggesting an acute fracture. He was treated conservatively with anti-inflammatory drugs, complete climbing restriction, and rest. He continued to have focal upper back pain at the level of the fracture over the next 4 months. He was unable to climb for 4 months until his pain resolved after conservative treatment of climbing restriction, pain control, and rest.This is the first documented case of a clay-shoveler's fracture sustained in a pediatric patient directly attributable to indoor rock climbing. PMID:23464962

Kaloostian, Paul E; Kim, Jennifer E; Calabresi, Peter A; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy

2013-03-01

39

Seasonal variations of steroid hormones and triiodothyronine concentrations in migratory northern shovelers.  

PubMed

Endogenous serum testosterone, estradiol, and triiodothyronine concentrations were measured in the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata, n = 20) during different stages of migratory condition at their wintering grounds to look at how these hormones may be linked to the development of migratory condition. These hormones were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in hormones concentrations were parallel to each other and correspond to the increasing day lengths of spring. Furthermore, the northern shovelers showed a distinct seasonal cycle in serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, estradiol, and testosterone. It is suggested that these seasonal cycles in the northern shovelers are endogenously programmed and their entrainment to the environmental photoperiod ensures the occurrence of different physiological functions at temporally fixed time of the year. The results of this study offer a captive model of the seasonal changes in physiology and behavior that occur in the months preceding and including vernal migration of the northern shovelers. PMID:22331661

Elarabany, N F; Abdallah, G A; Said, A E

2012-02-13

40

Evaluation of Urethane and Carbide-Tipped Blades on Wheel-Supported Snow Plows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of urethane and carbide-tipped snow plow blades in wheel-supported plows. Their performance was compared to that of VDOT's standard blade arrangement: carbide-tipped blades on plows without wheel...

D. S. Roosevelt B. H. Cottrell

1997-01-01

41

Numerical Modeling of Steady-State Plow/Soil Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A numerical model of steady-state plow/soil interaction in support of cable burial operations on the seafloor was developed. Coupled field equations for equilibrium of an elasto-plastic medium and pore water diffusion in the presence of rigid surfaces con...

T. A. Shugar

1997-01-01

42

PLOWING TO REDUCE SURFACE STRATIFICATION OF PHOSPHORUS IN MANURED SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Continual applications of fertilizer and manure can lead to an accumulation of P at the soil surface, which in turn increases the potential for P loss in overland flow. To investigate the feasibility of redistributing surface stratified P within the soil profile by plowing, Mehlich-3 P rich surface...

43

Post-trenching plow cuts ditch under offshore line  

SciTech Connect

In a 15-day operation, a 68-ton, 60-ft-long underwater post-trenching plow successfully cut an approximately 4-ft-deep protective trench under the 23-mile-long, 24-in.-diameter gas-transmission pipeline connecting Esso Australia's Snapper A platform to shore in Australia's Bass Strait. Scale-model tests had provided towing-force data and proved the feasibility of split, butterfly-type shares that wrap around the pipe. A yoke on the pull-cable attachment, which places the pulling points on the shares rather than on the plow body, permitted the use of a much lighter body, thus saving about 30 tons of steel. Underwater television cameras monitored the plow's instrumentation panel, which received data on horizontal and vertical loads, the position of the shares, cutting depth and forward speed, and pull-cable horizontal and vertical departure angles from the plow. The soils encountered along the line included high-water-content quicksand, firm sand, cemented sandstone, and hard limestone.

Brown, R.J.

1980-06-01

44

The effect of technique and shaft configuration in snow shoveling on physiologic, kinematic, kinetic and productivity variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repeated measures 22 factorial design using a psychophysical experimental methodology was performed to quantify the effect of shaft design (straight and bent shaft) and shoveling technique (forward and backward progression) on heart rate, perceived exertion, productivity, trunk kinematics and load kinetics. Ten male subjects performed four 8-min trials of snow shoveling on a paved asphalt surface. The most notable

Raymond W McGorry; Patrick G Dempsey; Tom B Leamon

2003-01-01

45

Natural preservation mechanisms at play in a Bronze Age wooden shovel found in the copper mines of Alderley Edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wooden shovel, dating from the Early Bronze Age, has survived in a remarkable state of preservation in the copper mines of Alderley Edge, Cheshire UK. Other historic timbers recovered from the mines, whilst still intact, have fared less well. An X-ray investigation into the distribution of minerals through the shovel using portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) along with the use

A. D. Smith; D. I. Green; J. M. Charnock; E. Pantos; S. Timberlake; A. J. N. W. Prag

2011-01-01

46

Monitoring dispatch information system of trucks and shovels in an open pit based on GIS\\/GPS\\/GPRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using GIS, GPS and GPRS, an intelligent monitoring and dispatch system of trucks and shovels in an open pit has been designed and developed. The system can monitor and dispatch open-pit trucks and shovels and play back their historical paths. An intelligent data algorithm is proposed in a practical application. The algorithm can count the times of deliveries of trucks

Qing-hua GU; Cai-wu LU; Fa-ben LI; Chang-yong WAN

2008-01-01

47

Ingestion of lead and nontoxic shot by Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) and Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata) from the mid-Gulf Coast of Texas, USA.  

PubMed

Ninety-eight Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) and 84 Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) gizzards were examined for ingested shot. One Northern Shoveler had lead and three had steel shot; 24 teal and 17 shovelers had composite nontoxic shot or nonlead metal fragments. Prevalence of ingested lead appears minimal and consistent with other studies conducted after lead-shot bans. PMID:21719854

Garrison, Drew A; Fedynich, Alan M; Smith, Autumn J; Ferro, Pamela J; Butler, David A; Peterson, Markus J; Lupiani, Blanca

2011-07-01

48

A nonlinear 3D finite element analysis of the soil forces acting on a disk plow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare predicted soil forces on a disk plow with measured forces within the tillage depth of clay (90gkg?1 sand, 210gkg?1 silt, 700gkg?1 clay) and sandy loam (770gkg?1 sand, 40gkg?1 silt, 190gkg?1 clay) soils. The model assumed the effects of both tilt angle and plowing speed. Two plowing speeds (4 and 10km\\/h) at three tilt angles (15,

Nidal H Abu-Hamdeh; Randall C Reeder

2003-01-01

49

Ultrasonically activated scalpel versus monopolar electrocautery shovel in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the feasibility and safety of monopolar electrocautery shovel (ES) in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) with anal sphincter preservation for rectal cancer in order to reduce the cost of the laparoscopic operation, and to compare ES with the ultrasonically activated scalpel (US). METHODS: Forty patients with rectal cancer, who underwent laparoscopic TME with anal sphincter preservation from

Bao-Jun Zhou; Wei-Qing Song; Qing-Hui Yan; Jian-Hui Cai; Feng-An Wang; Jin Liu; Guo-Jian Zhang; Guo-Qiang Duan; Zhan-Xue Zhang; Zhou BJ; Wang FA; Liu J; Duan GQ

2008-01-01

50

Impact of deep plowing on groundwater recharge in a semiarid region: Case study, High Plains, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

(20,000 km2 area) in a bench terrace system in the semiarid High Plains in Texas (USA). Deep plowing was followed by conventional tillage. Boreholes were drilled in deep plowed cropland (three boreholes) and also beneath conventionally tilled cropland (four) and natural ecosystems (three) to provide baseline controls. Soil samples were analyzed for water content, chloride concentrations, and matric potentials to

B. R. Scanlon; R. C. Reedy; R. L. Baumhardt; G. Strassberg

2008-01-01

51

Long term effects of profile-modifying deep plowing on soil properties and crop yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insufficient plant available soil water limits dryland crop yields on the semiarid Southern Great Plains. Deep plowing to eliminate dense subsoil layers may increase soil water by increased infiltration and rooting, but the duration of treatment effects must be sufficiently long to recoup plowing co...

52

Seabed plow used to trench BP's Ula-Cod gas line  

SciTech Connect

Land and Marine Engineering Ltd.'s new pipe line plow, PBP3, was used to trench the 16-mi, 10-in. Ula-Cod natural gas transmission line for BP Petroleum Development in Norwegian waters. Details are given on how the plow trenched the 16-in. diameter line to allow a minimum 4 in. of cover.

Not Available

1986-07-01

53

Post-trenching by plow of a 36-inch concrete coated gas trunkline  

SciTech Connect

During a 20-day period in April 1982, a 42-mile section of a 36-inch diameter concrete coated gas transmission line was successfully buried in the sea bed, in water depths of up to 150 feet, using a post-trenching plow designed and developed by R J Brown and Associates. The overall final results proved to be extremely good both in terms of speed and effectiveness. The pipeline was brought flush to or below the original seabed over more than 80% of the trenched section. The above result should not only be attributed to the plowing operation itself, but primarily to the extensive preparation for the plowing operation. Preparations started in February 1981 with the design of a 1:3 Scale model plow. This model plow was field tested in the vicinity of the actual pipeline route and resulting full scale plow was extensively tested onshore end October the same year before actual plowing operations took place in April 1982. In spite of the extensive preparations made, the particular plow used turned out to be difficult to recover and redeploy, while the depth cutting adjustment mechanism did not cope adequately with soils of varying consistencies. These items caused delays that should be avoided during future applications.

Janssens, K.J.

1984-02-01

54

Adverse Effects to Northern Shovelers fron Exposure to Teated Wastewater from Central Front Range, Colorado, Wastewater Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From January through February of 2007, more than 900 waterfowl, the majority of which were northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), died in apparent association with prolonged exposure to water in or near treatment tanks at a number of wastewater treatment pla...

2002-01-01

55

Contact laser transurethral surgery using a sapphire chisel probe firing Nd:YAG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a report on a modified technique for use of a contact laser for transurethral surgery to improve voiding in spinal core injury patients. To produce a channel for voiding, chisel sapphire tips are used to deliver adequate Nd:YAG laser energy to vaporize tissue blocking the urethral passage. We present data on 51 spinal cord injury patients (range 29 - 76 years) who had contact laser surgery in the past 22 months. Urodynamic studies showed detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in 82% of patients. On cystoscopic examination prior to surgery, 39% had associated enlargement of the prostate and/or bladder-neck stenosis. Thirty-one percent also had associated strictures in the bulbous urethra. For transurethral resection of the sphincter, a 12 o'clock incision was made by passing the contact probe repeatedly and/or buttonholing and then cutting the overlying tissue. For vaporization of the prostate and eradication of urethral strictures, the contact chisel probe was passed repeatedly over the surface and also buttonholes were drilled. The overlying tissue was incised with the laser chisel. The buttonhole technique expedited the procedure for creation of an adequate urethral channel for voiding. During surgery, there was minimal blood loss of about 25 - 50 ml per procedure except in 2 patients who lost 100 to 150 ml. All except 4 patients voided satisfactorily within 1 to 8 days (mean 2.7 days) when the catheter was removed following surgery. The initial 4 patients who did not void well are also voiding satisfactorily following repeat surgery.

Perkash, Inder

1995-05-01

56

The paradox of plows and productivity: an agronomic comparison of cereal grain production under Iroquois hoe culture and European plow culture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.  

PubMed

Iroquois maize farmers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries produced three to five times more grain per acre than wheat farmers in Europe. The higher productivity of Iroquois agriculture can be attributed to two factors. First, the absence of plows in the western hemisphere allowed Iroquois farmers to maintain high levels of soil organic matter, critical for grain yields. Second, maize has a higher yield potential than wheat because of its C4 photosynthetic pathway and lower protein content. However, tillage alone accounted for a significant portion of the yield advantage of the Iroquois farmers. When the Iroquois were removed from their territories at the end of the eighteenth century, US farmers occupied and plowed these lands. Within fifty years, maize yields in five counties of western New York dropped to less than thirty bushels per acre. They rebounded when US farmers adopted practices that countered the harmful effects of plowing. PMID:22180940

Mt Pleasant, Jane

2011-01-01

57

Decrease of Energy Requirement of a Rotary Plow (Snizhinie Energoemkoti Rotatsionnogo Pluga).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sweeps mounted in front of the rotary drums of a rotary plow decreased the energy requirement by 20 percent. An advantage of the design includes reducing peak loads so that there is longer life of the drive system. (Author)

I. M. Panov V. V. Melikhov S. N. Petrov V. A. Yubashev

1971-01-01

58

Molecular and phenotypic diversity in Chionactis occipitalis (Western Shovel-nosed Snake), with emphasis on the status of C. o. klauberi (Tucson Shovel-nosed Snake).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chionactis occipitalis (Western Shovel-nosed Snake) is a small colubrid snake inhabiting the arid regions of the Mojave, Sonoran, and Colorado deserts. Morphological assessments of taxonomy currently recognize four subspecies. However, these taxonomic proposals were largely based on weak morphological differentiation and inadequate geographic sampling. Our goal was to explore evolutionary relationships and boundaries among subspecies of C. occipitalis, with particular focus on individuals within the known range of C. o. klauberi (Tucson Shovel-nosed snake). Population sizes and range for C. o. klauberi have declined over the last 25 years due to habitat alteration and loss prompting a petition to list this subspecies as endangered. We examined the phylogeography, population structure, and subspecific taxonomy of C. occipitalis across its geographic range with genetic analysis of 1100 bases of mitochondrial DNA sequence and reanalysis of 14 morphological characters from 1543 museum specimens. We estimated the species gene phylogeny from 81 snakes using Bayesian inference and explored possible factors influencing genetic variation using landscape genetic analyses. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses reveal genetic isolation and independent evolutionary trajectories for two primary clades. Our data indicate that diversification between these clades has developed as a result of both historical vicariance and environmental isolating mechanisms. Thus these two clades likely comprise 'evolutionary significant units' (ESUs). Neither molecular nor morphological data are concordant with the traditional C. occipitalis subspecies taxonomy. Mitochondrial sequences suggest specimens recognized as C. o. klauberi are embedded in a larger geographic clade whose range has expanded from western Arizona populations, and these data are concordant with clinal longitudinal variation in morphology. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Wood, D. A.; Meik, J. M.; Holycross, A. T.; Fisher, R. N.; Vandergast, A. G.

2008-01-01

59

Development of a waterjet assisted coal plow (the hydrominer)  

SciTech Connect

Conventional mining of coal on longwall faces, is largely by use of the shearer-loader cutting system. In this type of mining, closely allied in concept to the continuous miner of room and pillar mining, the coal is, virtually exclusively, extracted by the impact of mechanical cutting bits. Each unit volume of the coal is extracted in the same manner, and thus a relatively constant specific energy of removal is required. This, inter alia, means that if the shearer is to take a wider slice of coal from the face, a procedure with both productivity and safety advantages, the speed of the machine must slow down so that a relatively constant instantaneous output is maintained. The mechanical crushing action of the pick on the coal will produce a large quantity of small coal, difficult and expensive to clean, relatively large volumes of respirable dust are created (which are difficult to control within the limits sets by Federal law) and the high velocity of travel of the pick across the face can lead to ignition of methane, where stone bands are present in the face. These many disadvantages to the current technology led to the evaluation of how best to use high pressure waterjets to assist in the mining of coal on longwall faces. The method of solution proposed was to place high pressure waterjets on the leading edge of a plow-shaped machine, in order to both cut and load the coal from the face. The machine has become known as the HYDROMINER.

Summers, D.A.

1984-01-01

60

CARBON DIOXIDE AND NITROUS OXIDE FLUXES IN ORGANIC, NO-TILL AND CHISEL-TILL CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic cropping systems may have the potential to increase soil C sequestration and reduce soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes compared to conventional systems but organic systems are not well studied. We are measuring greenhouse gas fluxes and soil C sequestration in no-till, chisel-till and organic ...

61

Generation of ultra-high magnetic fields by a degenerate, snow-plow pinch  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss 1 and 2-D LASNEX calculations of a snow-plow pinch in Xenon. The pinch is driven by inductively stored energy, switched by a compact-torus, fast-opening switch, with performance characteristics calculated by the TRACII, 2-D, MHD code. The 10-cm initial radius, 1 cm long Xe pinch is driven by 50 MA current, switched on in 100 ns. The pinch uniquely undergoes radiative collapse during the snow-plow phase, conforming to the original description of the snow-plow,'' to form a high-density, high-kinetic energy Xe shell which dynamically converges ([rho][sub R][sup [lg bullet

Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Gee, M.; Harte, J.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.

1992-12-16

62

West sole gas line trenched swiftly by post-burial plow  

SciTech Connect

A ''post trenching'' aspect and soil conditions made it necessary for British Petroleum to plow-trench its 43.75-mile (70 km), concrete-coated 24-in. (610 mm) steel pipeline from the West Sole gas field offshore in the North Sea to the BP Easington Terminal. The capability to set a plow over an existing pipeline and to bury it in its prelaid location is an invaluable alternative to pretrenching techniques or to conventional jetting sleds. Design and modifications to equipment, instrumentation, control systems, and support vessels had to be performed in a 6-month period. Computer display CRT monitors onboard the barge helped insure that anchor movements and subsea activities remained a safe distance from another live gas pipeline along the route of the new line. Overall plowing rate average was 1.125 miles per day (1.8 km) or 1.25 m per minute (4.1 ft) on the offshore section.

Hale, D.

1983-05-01

63

Macrodontia, shovel-shaped incisors, and multituberculism: probable Ekman-Westborg-Julin trait.  

PubMed

Multiple macrodontia is a rare finding and is defined as a condition in which a tooth is significantly larger than normal. Macrodontia may occur as an isolated finding, part of a group of dental anomalies, or as a component of a syndrome with multiple oral and systemic manifestations. The purpose of this paper was to report a case of macrodontia affecting all permanent teeth and exhibiting shovel-shaped maxillary and mandibular incisors and multituberculate molars and premolars. Some or all of this patient's characteristics have been reported in both males and females, with a ratio of 5:2. No inheritance pattern has been established, as these traits have generally occurred spontaneously. As more individuals are identified and as molecular techniques continue to advance, it is probable that a gene or genes responsible for macrodontia and the associated traits will be identified. PMID:23433627

Reardon, Gayle Tieszen; Slayton, L Rebecca; Norby, Clinton; Geneser, Teresa

64

Increase of the Specific Resistance of the Soil in Relation to the Speed of Plowing (Uvelichenie Udelnogo Soprotivleniya Pochvy v Zavisimosti ot Skorosti Pakhoty).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the coefficient of increase of specific resistance to plowing to the speed of plowing in Azerbaidzhan soils. In the range of plowing speeds from 5-8 km/hr, the specific resistance per km increase of speed varied only...

M. T. Rustamov

1971-01-01

65

Impact of deep plowing on groundwater recharge in a semiarid region: Case study, High Plains, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater recharge is critical in semiarid regions where aquifers are currently being mined for intensive irrigation. Land use management related to agriculture can be used to control partitioning of water near the land surface and to potentially manage water resources. The purpose of this study was to quantify impacts of deep plowing in rainfed (nonirrigated) agriculture in a semiarid region

B. R. Scanlon; R. C. Reedy; R. L. Baumhardt; G. Strassberg

2008-01-01

66

Progress report on the Pegasus plow, October--December 1996 and January--March 1997  

SciTech Connect

This is a progress report on a contract related to the invention of a plow which will bury organic waste from farm fields, either in the form of shredded stubble or as whole stalks. The report addresses completion of various tasks in the contract, primarily related to field testing and trying to move the product into the market place.

NONE

1997-04-01

67

Simulating carbon sequestration in plowed and no-tillage systems in Brazilian Oxisols using CQESTR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CQESTR simulates the effect of several management practices on soil organic carbon stocks. The model had been calibrated and validated in temperate regions. Our objective was to simulate carbon sequestration in Oxisols under plowed and no-tillage systems in northeastern and southeastern Brazil using...

68

Design and Analysis of a Low Speed Drag Plow for Use in Deep Snow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Winter logistical operations employing wheeled vehicles are severely restricted because of traction losses in deep snow. To enable the use of wheeled vehicles for off-road winter deployment, an independent drag-plow was developed to be attached to the pin...

M. R. Walsh P. W. Richmond

1992-01-01

69

Microbial biomass and mineralizable nitrogen distributions in no-tillage and plowed soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution of soil microbial biomass and potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) in long-term tillage comparisons at seven sites in the United States varied with tillage management and depth in soil. Microbial biomass and PMN levels of no-tillage soils averaged 54% and 37% higher, respectively, than those in the surface layer of plowed soil. Biomass and PMN levels were greatest in the

J. W. Doran

1987-01-01

70

Nanopattern fabrication by tip plowing technology on 55 nm grating with stitching image method.  

PubMed

An appropriate calibration positioning method is imperative to examine localized tip on nanoscale patterns for scanning probe microscopy (SPM). This paper is to develop a new nanofabrication processes for AFM tip positioning with image stitching method in tip plowing technology. Moreover, this paper adjusts the set-point amplitude (A(sp)) to develop the tip plowing technology for fabricating nanopattern on 55 nm grating gage of a silicon substrate. The developed image stitching program is based on an iterative closet point (ICP) algorithm which has six degrees of freedom alignment. A closed-loop piezo motor is used to tip approach and plow in Z-axis. Experimental result of fabricating nanobagua on 55 nm grating of silicon substrate show that the developed positioning processes with image stitching method verify the feasibility of repeatability for the tip plowing technology successfully. This developed method can be further performed by a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) with CAD/CAM. This technology can also be applied in dip pen nanolithography (DPN), SPM oxidation lithography and related fabrication technology with AFM tips. PMID:21128433

Chen, Chao-Chang A; Chen, Jr-Rung

2010-07-01

71

Generation of ultra-high magnetic fields by a degenerate, snow-plow pinch  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss 1 and 2-D LASNEX calculations of a snow-plow pinch in Xenon. The pinch is driven by inductively stored energy, switched by a compact-torus, fast-opening switch, with performance characteristics calculated by the TRACII, 2-D, MHD code. The 10-cm initial radius, 1 cm long Xe pinch is driven by 50 MA current, switched on in 100 ns. The pinch uniquely undergoes radiative collapse during the snow-plow phase, conforming to the original description of the ``snow-plow,`` to form a high-density, high-kinetic energy Xe shell which dynamically converges ({rho}{sub R}{sup {lg_bullet}}{sup 2} {much_gt} B{sub {Theta}}{sup 2}/8{pi}) to a pinch equilibrium with degenerate electron pressure, high-density ({rho} {approx_equal} 10{sup 5} gm/cm{sup 3}) high-magnetic field (B{Theta} {approx_equal} 10{sup 10}G), and T{sub e} {congruent}T{sub i} {congruent} T{sub radiation} {congruent} 5 keV. The described pinch configuration, calculated in 1-D, is expected to be unstable to R-T, sausage, and kink instabilities. A small initial B{sub zo} field ({approximately}100G) is calculated to be compressed to B{sub z} {approx_equal} B {sub {Theta}} at the final, degenerate, pinch equilibrium, thus stabilizing sausage instability. A larger initial B{sub z} field ({approximately}10 kG) is calculated to be compressed by the radiatively collapsing plasma in the snow-plow to B{sub z} {approx_equal} B {sub {Theta}} to stabilize R-T instability during the snow-plow phase. Finally, the kink instability (if it occurs) is expected, as observed, to leave intact the tightly pinched plasma column.

Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Gee, M.; Harte, J.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.

1992-12-16

72

Continuous dental replacement in a hyper-chisel tooth digging rodent  

PubMed Central

Contrary to their reptilian ancestors, which had numerous dental generations, mammals are known to usually develop only two generations of teeth. However, a few mammal species have acquired the ability to continuously replace their dentition by the constant addition of supernumerary teeth moving secondarily toward the front of the jaw. The resulting treadmill-like replacement is thus horizontal, and differs completely from the vertical dental succession of other mammals and their extinct relatives. Despite the developmental implications and prospects regarding the origin of supernumerary teeth, this striking innovation remains poorly documented. Here we report another case of continuous dental replacement in an African rodent, Heliophobius argenteocinereus, which combines this dental system with the progressive eruption of high-crowned teeth. The escalator-like mechanism of Heliophobius constitutes an original adaptation to hyper-chisel tooth digging involving high dental wear. Comparisons between Heliophobius and the few mammals that convergently acquired continuous dental replacement reveal that shared inherited traits, including dental mesial drift, delayed eruption, and supernumerary molars, comprise essential prerequisites to setting up this dental mechanism. Interestingly, these dental traits are present to a lesser extent in humans but are absent in mouse, the usual biological model. Consequently, Heliophobius represents a suitable model to investigate the molecular processes leading to the development of supernumerary teeth in mammals, and the accurate description of these processes could be a significant advance for further applications in humans, such as the regeneration of dental tissues.

Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Marangoni, Pauline; Sumbera, Radim; Tafforeau, Paul; Wendelen, Wim; Viriot, Laurent

2011-01-01

73

Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) between the shoveler (Anas clypeata) duck and the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).  

PubMed

Muscle containing macroscopic cysts of Sarcocystis sp. from naturally infected wild shoveler (Anas clypeata) ducks was fed to two captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The skunks passed sporocysts in their feces beginning 19 and 22 days post-infection, and continued to pass small numbers of sporocysts sporadically to 63 and 51 days post-infection, respectively. Sporocysts from the skunks were administered orally to four laboratory-reared shovelers. No cysts were found in ducks examined 56 and 84 days post-infection. One duck examined at 85 days post-infection had many microscopic cysts in its skeletal muscle. The remaining duck had numerous small macroscopic cysts in muscle at 154 days post-infection. A skunk fed muscle from this duck began to pass sporocysts on day 18 post-infection. All cysts in muscle (natural and experimental infection) had irregular cauliflower-like projections of the primary cyst wall. PMID:6796702

Cawthorn, R J; Rainnie, D; Wobeser, G

1981-07-01

74

[Testing and commercialization of a cotton stalk shredder and plow]. Technical progress report, July--September, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes plans to field test several prototypes of plows that cut cotton stalks after harvesting and plows then back into the soil to prepare the field for the next planting. Modifications to the design have been made to allow the soil to more easily slide off the plow to reduce fuel consumption. A prototype has been shipped to Australia for testing in their fields and further product development. A farm machinery manufacturer has been selected to build two full-scale preproduction prototypes. Field testing will be done at sites in California and Arizona, since both have regulations specifying that cotton stalks must be shredded.

Thacker, G.W.

1995-10-23

75

Comparative ability of northern pintails, gadwalls, and northern shovelers to metabolize foods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Feeding trials were used to compare the ability of northern pintails (Anas acuta), gadwalls (A. strepera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) to metabolize energy from a turkey starter ration, alfalfa pellets, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected among the three species for any of the three foods (kg body weight/day basis), for dry matter intake (DMI), body weight gain (BWG), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or metabolized energy (MEE) on any given diet consumed in quantities large enough to promote body weight gain. The AME content of alfalfa was 57% less than the value for turkey starter and 50% less than for barnyardgrass seeds. All three species metabolized more energy and gained weight faster when fed turkey starter. Energy modeling may be facilitated if additional research verifies that all species of dabbling ducks have equal ability to obtain energy from foods available to them in the wild. Behavioral and morphological factors may be more important in defining feeding niches than digestive physiology, at least for the three duck species tested, at the time of year of the experiments, and within the limits of the quality of foods used.

Miller, M. R.

1984-01-01

76

Investigation of dust sources and control technology for longwall plow operations. Information Circular/1988  

SciTech Connect

This document reports a study of longwall plow operations to identify dust sources and existing control technology. Three longwalls employing either the high-speed overtaking or conventional method of mining were surveyed. Principal operating parameters and on-site dust-control technology at the time of each survey are described. Short-term gravimetric and instantaneous sampling results are discussed in detail. The relationship between longwall dust levels and dust-control technology was examined.

McClelland, J.J.; Jankowski, R.A.

1988-01-01

77

The Plow, Female Contribution to Agricultural Subsistence and Polygyny: A Log Linear Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among plow agriculture, female contributions to crop tending, and polygyny in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample are examined here. Without controlling for world regions, a log-linear analysis would suggest that each of these variables is related to the other two. Introducing a control for region with a four-way contingency table, we find significant relationships between region and each of the

Michael L. Burton; Karl Reitz

1981-01-01

78

Investigation of dust sources and control technology for longwall plow operations  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted a study of longwall plow operations to identify dust sources and existing control technology. Three longwalls employing either the high-speed overtaking or conventional method of mining were surveyed. Principal operating parameters and on-site dust control technology at the time of each survey are described. Short-term gravimetric and instantaneous sampling results are discussed in detail. The relationship between longwall dust levels and dust control technology was examined.

McClelland, J.J.; Jankowski, R.A.

1988-01-01

79

Plow On!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Text of author's testimony before the Joint Committee of the Massachusetts Great and General Court, March 21, 1972, the main subject of the testimony being the possible amendment or repeal of the 1965 Racial Imbalance Law. (SB)|

Sullivan, Neil V.

1972-01-01

80

Lift and drag forces on an inclined plow moving over a granular surface.  

PubMed

We studied the drag and lift forces acting on an inclined plate while it is dragged on the surface of a granular media, both in experiment and in numerical simulation. In particular, we investigated the influence of the horizontal velocity of the plate and its angle of attack. We show that a steady wedge of grains is moved in front of the plow and that the lift and drag forces are proportional to the weight of this wedge. These constants of proportionality vary with the angle of attack but not (or only weakly) on the velocity. We found a universal effective friction law that accounts for the dependence on all the above-mentioned parameters. The stress and velocity fields are calculated from the numerical simulations and show the existence of a shear band under the wedge and that the pressure is nonhydrostatic. The strongest gradients in stress and shear occur at the base of the plow where the dissipation rate is therefore highest. PMID:22181406

Percier, Baptiste; Manneville, Sebastien; McElwaine, Jim N; Morris, Stephen W; Taberlet, Nicolas

2011-11-03

81

Evaluation of stereoscopic video cameras synchronized with the movement of an operator's head on the teleoperation of the actual backhoe shovel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operator performance while using a remote controlled backhoe shovel is described for three different stereoscopic viewing conditions: direct view, fixed stereoscopic cameras connected to a helmet mounted display (HMD), and rotating stereo camera connected and slaved to the head orientation of a free moving stereo HMD. Results showed that the head- slaved system provided the best performance.

Minamoto, Masahiko; Matsunaga, Katsuya

1999-05-01

82

Paleolimnological assessment of Grove and Plow Shop Ponds, Ayer, Massachusetts, USA--a superfund site.  

PubMed

Three sediment cores from each of severely polluted Grove and Plow Shop Ponds, Ayer, Massachusetts, USA, were dated using (210)Pb, characterized for plant macrofossil assemblages, and analyzed for H(2)O, loss-on-ignition, stable Pb isotopes, and concentrations of As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, methyl-Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. A core from nearby kettle Spectacle Pond, Littleton, Massachusetts, was similarly characterized (except for plant macrofossil assemblages) to assess the regional air pollution signal in sediment for comparison with the six cores. Accumulation rates for metals (mass per area per year), the anthropogenic component (mass per area per year), and total accumulation of the anthropogenic component (mass per area) indicate that As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, methyl-Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn have accumulated in sediment as a consequence of point source pollution from within the drainage basins of Grove and Plow Shop Ponds. Three distinct sources of pollution are inferred. As is entering Plow Shop Pond via groundwater in the southwest. Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn are entering the system predominantly at the eastern end of, or upstream from, Grove Pond. Pb also comes from the northwest corner of Grove Pond, the principal source of Cr, Cu, and Hg. These results are consistent with chemistry of modern surface sediments. The history of pollution extends back more than 100 years. Intra- and inter-core variability of concentrations and accumulation rates indicate that much of the pollution was likely in particulate form with little physical redistribution. Recently, concentrations and accumulation rates have generally decreased substantially for those elements present in excessive concentrations in the past. This is a consequence of accumulation of recent, less polluted sediment. In Spectacle Pond, the nearby reference lake, accumulation rates for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, adjusted for background values and changes in sedimentation rate, increased above background starting in the late 19th century, peaked about 1980, and declined substantially to 2000. These decreases suggest that the anthropogenic (pollution) component of atmospheric deposition of these elements declined after 1980 by at least 50%(As), 80%(Cd), 80%(Hg), and 80%(Pb). PMID:15152315

Norton, Stephen A; Perry, Ethan R; Haines, Terry A; Dieffenbacher-Krall, Ann C

2004-03-26

83

Disk Plows and Disk Harrows: Section 8.2.5, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An equipment report on disk plows and disk harrows is provided as Section 8.2.5 of the US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual. The report is designed to assist the Corps District or project biologist with the selection and use of ...

T. B. Doerr

1986-01-01

84

Atomic force microscopy based manipulation of graphene using dynamic plowing lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) is employed for dynamic plowing lithography of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide substrates. The shape of the graphene sheet is determined by the movement of the vibrating AFM probe. There are two possibilities for lithography depending on the applied force. At moderate forces, the AFM tip only deforms the graphene and generates local strain of the order of 0.1%. For sufficiently large forces the AFM tip can hook graphene and then pull it, thus cutting the graphene along the direction of the tip motion. Electrical characterization by AFM based electric force microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive AFM allows us to distinguish between the truly separated islands and those still connected to the surrounding graphene.

Vasi?, Borislav; Kratzer, Markus; Matkovi?, Aleksandar; Nevosad, Andreas; Ralevi?, Uro; Jovanovi?, Djordje; Ganser, Christian; Teichert, Christian; Gaji?, Rado

2013-01-01

85

Design, development and performance of a disk plow combined with rotary blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disk plow combined with rotary blades, defined as comboplow, is used for soil preparation for planting. The comboplow includes four units: Chassis, concave disk, transmission system and rotary blades. A multiple tillage operation is reduced in a single pass resulting in a potential reduction of soil compaction, labor, fuel cost and saving in time. The comboplow was tested at University Putra Malaysia Research Park, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, on three different plots of 675 m2 in the year 2010/2011. The treatments were three types of blade [(straight (S),curved (c) and L-shaped)] and three rotary speeds (130,147and 165 rpm). The parameters were Mean Weight Diameter Dry Basis (MWDd), Mean weight Diameter Wet Basis (MWDW), Aggregate Stability Index (SI) and Instability Index (II).

Hashemi, A.; Ahmad, D.; Othman, J.; Sulaiman, S.

2012-09-01

86

ChISELS 1.0: theory and user manual :a theoretical modeler of deposition and etch processes in microsystems fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically Induced Surface Evolution with Level-Sets--ChISELS--is a parallel code for modeling 2D and 3D material depositions and etches at feature scales on patterned wafers at low pressures. Designed for efficient use on a variety of computer architectures ranging from single-processor workstations to advanced massively parallel computers running MPI, ChISELS is a platform on which to build and improve upon previous

Steven James Plimpton; Rodney Cannon Schmidt; Pauline Ho; Lawrence Cale Musson

2006-01-01

87

Water Spray Systems for Control of Respirable Dust on a Longwall Plow. Underground Investigation and Dust Tunnel Evaluation of Spray System Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This contract was originally to evaluate through underground tests, water spray systems for controlling respirable dust at the face of a longwall plow. A number of difficulties were encountered which made such an evaluation impractical. The contract was m...

F. DuBreuil J. A. Kost R. D. Saltsman

1979-01-01

88

Macrophages lift off surface-bound bacteria using a filopodium-lamellipodium hook-and-shovel mechanism  

PubMed Central

To clear pathogens from host tissues or biomaterial surfaces, phagocytes have to break the adhesive bacteria-substrate interactions. Here we analysed the mechanobiological process that enables macrophages to lift-off and phagocytose surface-bound Escherichia coli (E. coli). In this opsonin-independent process, macrophage filopodia hold on to the E. coli fimbriae long enough to induce a local protrusion of a lamellipodium. Specific contacts between the macrophage and E. coli are formed via the glycoprotein CD48 on filopodia and the adhesin FimH on type 1 fimbriae (hook). We show that bacterial detachment from surfaces occurrs after a lamellipodium has protruded underneath the bacterium (shovel), thereby breaking the multiple bacterium-surface interactions. After lift-off, the bacterium is engulfed by a phagocytic cup. Force activated catch bonds enable the long-term survival of the filopodium-fimbrium interactions while soluble mannose inhibitors and CD48 antibodies suppress the contact formation and thereby inhibit subsequent E. coli phagocytosis.

Moller, Jens; Luhmann, Tessa; Chabria, Mamta; Hall, Heike; Vogel, Viola

2013-01-01

89

ChISELS 1.0: theory and user manual :a theoretical modeler of deposition and etch processes in microsystems fabrication.  

SciTech Connect

Chemically Induced Surface Evolution with Level-Sets--ChISELS--is a parallel code for modeling 2D and 3D material depositions and etches at feature scales on patterned wafers at low pressures. Designed for efficient use on a variety of computer architectures ranging from single-processor workstations to advanced massively parallel computers running MPI, ChISELS is a platform on which to build and improve upon previous feature-scale modeling tools while taking advantage of the most recent advances in load balancing and scalable solution algorithms. Evolving interfaces are represented using the level-set method and the evolution equations time integrated using a Semi-Lagrangian approach [1]. The computational meshes used are quad-trees (2D) and oct-trees (3D), constructed such that grid refinement is localized to regions near the surface interfaces. As the interface evolves, the mesh is dynamically reconstructed as needed for the grid to remain fine only around the interface. For parallel computation, a domain decomposition scheme with dynamic load balancing is used to distribute the computational work across processors. A ballistic transport model is employed to solve for the fluxes incident on each of the surface elements. Surface chemistry is computed by either coupling to the CHEMKIN software [2] or by providing user defined subroutines. This report describes the theoretical underpinnings, methods, and practical use instruction of the ChISELS 1.0 computer code.

Plimpton, Steven James; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Ho, Pauline; Musson, Lawrence Cale

2006-09-01

90

Direct Measurement of Plowing Friction and Wear of a Polymer Thin Fill Using the Atomic Force Microscope, Reprinted from the Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 16, 1487-1492, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nanometer-scale plowing friction and wear of a polycarbonate thin film were directly measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM) with nanoscratching capabilities. During the nanoscratch tests, lateral forces caused discrepancies between the maximum fo...

B. Du M. R. VanLandingham Q. Zhang T. He

2000-01-01

91

Comparison of phospholipid fatty acid composition in percolating water, floodwater, and the plow layer soil during the rice cultivation period in a Japanese paddy field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in the percolating water (PW), the floodwater (FW), and the plow layer soil (PLS) in a paddy field was compared during the period of rice cultivation. The amounts of PLFAs in PW, FW, and PLS ranged from 19.2 to 40.3 ?g L, from 41.6 to 72.3 ?g L, and from 56.4 to 75.3

Miho Shimizu; Yasunori Nakajima; Kazuo Matsuya; Makoto Kimura

2002-01-01

92

Spatial variability and temporal changes in the heavy metal content of soils with a deep furrow-and-ridge microrelief formed by an afforestation plowing.  

PubMed

An appropriate sampling method that provides for the representation of the collected material and the reliability of results plays a crucial role in environmental monitoring. This is especially important in soil quality investigations on sites with a differentiated surface microrelief, as in the case of afforested post-arable soils that have a specific, deep furrow-and-ridge microrelief. The present research was carried out on three sites afforested with pine (4-, 8-, and 15-year-old stands) located near a large tailings pond collecting the wastes from copper ore enrichment. Soils were sampled at depths of 0-10 and 0-30 cm, separately in the furrows and ridges. The "wide-furrow plow" contributed to the spatial variation in soil properties, including higher pH, organic carbon, and Cu content in soils of the ridges. The difference in Cu content in the ridges and furrows initially reached 300 %, and decreased with the decline of the furrow-and-ridge microrelief to 60 % at 15 years after the plowing. Observed rate of the furrow shallowing allows for an estimation of the time necessary for the complete disappearance of the furrow-and-ridge microrelief and associated variability in soil properties to at least 30-40 years after the plowing. Afforestation plowing had little impact on the Zn variability which was not influenced by the emissions from the tailings pond. Soil sampling in contaminated sites with furrow-and-ridge microrelief must collect equal quantities of soil samples from both furrows and ridges to allow a reliable estimation of the mean trace elements' concentration. PMID:23079794

Kabala, Cezary; Bojko, Oskar; Medynska, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Agnieszka

2012-10-20

93

The formation of the agrogenic typical chernozem profile in the Ukrainian forest-steppe after plowing virgin steppe and fallow soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data on the changes in the physicochemical, biological, and agrochemical properties of a loamy-clayey typical chernozem after plowing a 40-year-old Fallow (for six cycles of a cereal-beet rotation) and a sandy-loamy typical chernozem (for eighteen cycles of a five-course rotation) under different intensities of their use are presented. The major role of the mineral and organic fertilizers and the methods of their application have been revealed in the formation of the humus profile, the acid-base characteristics, and the agrophysical and agrochemical properties.

Nosko, B. S.

2013-03-01

94

Effect of Soil Plowing and Fertilization on the Susceptibility of Four Olive Cultivars to the Insect Bactrocera oleae and the Fungi Sphaeropsis dalmatica and Spilocaea oleagina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to the insectBactrocera oleae and the fungiSpilocaea oleagina andSphaeropsis dalmatica was investigated in four olive cultivars, two for table fruit production (Kalamon and Chondrolia Chalkidikis) and two for\\u000a oil production (Lianolia and Koroneiki). Cv. Chondrolia Chalkidikis was the most susceptible to all three pathogens, followed\\u000a by cv. Kalamon. Soil plowing and the organic fertilizer Bio-Trust (10-3-6+8% MgCO3+10% CaCO8) increased

E. Navrozidis; Z. Zartaloudis; T. Thomidis; N. Karagiannidis; K. Roubos; Z. Michailides

2007-01-01

95

Plow and ridge nanofabrication.  

PubMed

Traditionally, scanning probe lithography tools are limited in resolution by the radius of curvature of the tip used. Herein, an approach is described for patterning the ridge of piled-up polymer that naturally occurs when a scanning probe is pressed against a soft surface. The use of this phenomenon to transfer patterns to hard materials with 20 nm resolution is demonstrated. PMID:23427089

Shim, Wooyoung; Brown, Keith A; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Rasin, Boris; Liao, Xing; Schmucker, Abrin L; Mirkin, Chad A

2013-02-20

96

TILLAGE EROSION: TERRACE RELATIONSHIPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All tillage moves soil. Implements drawn by animals or a tractor move soil in the direction of travel and, to a lesser extent, sideways. While a moldboard plow throws soil to only one side, most tillage implementsincluding tandem disks, chisel plows, harrows, and cultivatorsthrow soil to both side...

97

Tillage and rotation effect on corn - soybean energy balances in eastern Nebraska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data from a field experiment conducted in eastern Nebraska over 16 yr (1986-2001) were used to determine the energy balance of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) as affected by tillage treatments and rotation. Tillage treatments included chisel plow, tandom disk, moldboard plow, ridge-t...

98

Dirty Oil and Shovel-Ready Jobs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes a role-playing activity on tar sands and the proposed TransCanada Keystone XL pipeline. In this activity, students take on the characters of six key stakeholders invited to an imaginary public hearing to discuss whether or not the State Department and President Obama should approve the Keystone XL pipeline.

Mac Phail, Abby

2012-01-01

99

Tillage and rotation effect on cornsoybean energy balances in eastern Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a field experiment conducted in eastern Nebraska over 16 years (19862001) were used to determine the energy balance of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) as affected by tillage treatments and rotation. Tillage treatments included chisel plow, tandem disk, moldboard plow, ridge-tillage, no-till and subsoil tillage. Crop sequences were continuous corn, continuous soybean, corn in

G.-W. Rathke; B. J. Wienhold; W. W. Wilhelm; W. Diepenbrock

2007-01-01

100

Tillage and residue management effects on arylamidase activity in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in soil tillage and residue management has focused on low-input sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of three tillage systems (no-till, chisel plow, and moldboard plow) and four residue placements (bare, normal, mulch, and double mulch) on a most recently detected enzyme in soils, arylamidase activity. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of an N-terminal

V. Acosta-Martnez; M. A. Tabatabai

2001-01-01

101

Soil compaction and root distribution for okra as affected by tillage and vehicle parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many soil physical properties and crop yield are affected by compaction and tillage systems. The effect of three different factors, i.e. tillage treatments (no-tillage, chisel plowing, and moldboard plowing), axle load (6 and 16t\\/axle vehicle), and tire inflation pressure (120 and 350kPa inflation pressures) on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) root density and soil physical properties (bulk density and cone penetration resistance)

Nidal H Abu-Hamdeh

2003-01-01

102

Deep tillage and traffic effects on subsoil compaction and sunflower ( Helianthus annus L.) yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main function of deep tillage is to alleviate subsoil compaction, but how long do the benefits of this technique remain? Traffic on loose soil causes a significant increase in soil compaction. Subsoiling and chisel plowing were carried out at 450 and 280mm depth, respectively on a compacted soil in the west Rolling Pampas region of Argentina. The draft required,

G. F. Botta; D. Jorajuria; R. Balbuena; M. Ressia; C. Ferrero; H. Rosatto; M. Tourn

2006-01-01

103

IRRIGATION INCREASES CARBON IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We measured organic and inorganic C stored in southern Idaho soils having long term land use histories that supported native sagebrush vegetation (NSB), irrigated moldboard plowed crops (IMP), irrigated conservation -chisel- tilled crops (ICT) and irrigated pasture systems (IP). Inorganic C and to...

104

SOIL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND LANDSCAPE ATTRIBUTES IMPACTS ON FIELD-SCALE CORN PRODUCTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil management practices and terrain attributes effects on corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield were assessed in a 9-ha Alabama field (Typic and Aquic Paleudults) during 2001-2004. A conventional system (chisel plowing/disking with no cover crops) with or without dairy manure (CTmanure or CT), and a cons...

105

INTERMITTENT TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SOIL ORGANIC CARBON RELATIVE CONTINUOUS NO-TILL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

No-till management leads to the accumulation of organic carbon near the soil surface. Farmers often plow (chisel or moldboard) formerly no-till soils for crop rotation (e.g. before corn because that crop is perceived to be more likely to suffer a yield loss with no-till than soybean) or to correct ...

106

Energy for conservation tillage in coastal plain soils  

SciTech Connect

Draft and energy data are presented for six reduced tillage treatments on Dothan sandy soil. The implements included a paraplow, KMC subsoiler, chisel plow and A.C. no-till planter. Plant height, yield, taproot length and harvest population were evaluated with respect to tillage treatments. Statistical relationships between tillage system, soil compaction, taproot length and crop yield are given.

Khalilian, A.; Garner, T.H.; Musen, H.L.; Dodd, R.B.

1986-01-01

107

Freedom's Plow: Teaching in the Multicultural Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers are the central players in building a multiracial and multicultural democracy, and the schools where teachers work are one of the primary institutions where a new society is born. The 17 chapters in this volume provide resources for people seeking to build fully democratic schools and to make the schools agents of democracy in an

Perry, Theresa, Ed.; Fraser, James W.

108

Heat resistance of chisels armored with a hard alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The heat resistance of steel armored with a granular layer is lower than that of unarmored steel. The difference in the structures of the armor layer and the base metal favor the destruction of armored samples.2.The heat resistance of armored samples depends on the composition of the base metal. The heat resistance of the armored layer on 20KhN3A steel is

E. M. Kuzmak; K. P. Efremova; T. V. Firkovich

1963-01-01

109

USA's Black Thunder mine: a truck and shovel operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1966\\/1967, ARCO obtained over 2,631 hectares (6,500 acres) of federal and state coal leases, and initial exploration was started. A total of 312 coal core holes were drilled and logged to determine the reserves and quality of the coal. The results indicated that a large surface mine could be developed to exploit the substantial reserves. The application procedure for

Dorling

1978-01-01

110

Anticipating Stimulus Money for Campus Projects, Colleges Get "Shovel Ready"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Help for colleges may be on the way in the $825-billion stimulus package being pressed by Congressional leaders. The bill that House Democrats introduced this month includes $7-billion for higher-education modernization, renovation, and repair that could kick-start projects like upgrading heating and cooling systems, fixing roofs, and doing

Carlson, Scott

2009-01-01

111

Effect of tillage and farming system upon VAM fungus populations and mycorrhizas and nutrient uptake of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-input agricultural systems that do not rely on fertilizers may be more dependent on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal [VAM] fungi than conventionally managed systems. We studied populations of spores of VAM fungi, mycorrhiza formation and nutrient utilization of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in moldboard plowed, chisel-disked or no-tilled soil under conventional and low-input agricultural systems. Maize shoots and roots were collected

L. Galvez; D. D. Douds; L. E. Drinkwater; P. Wagoner

2001-01-01

112

Carbon Concentrations and Transport in Sediment Leaving Small, Cropped Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the current interest in CO2 emissions and their potential impacts on global climate change, it is important to evaluate the role of agriculture in the global carbon budget. The impacts of various tillage practices on carbon release\\/sequestration need to be assessed. At the USDA-ARS research station near Coshocton, Ohio, various conservation tillage practices including corn\\/soybean rotations with no-till, chisel-plow,

L. B. Owens; R. W. Malone; G. C. Starr; R. Lal

113

Effects of management practices on annual net N-mineralization in a restored prairie and maize agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) mineralization is a spatially variable and difficult component of the N cycle to quantify accurately under field conditions. Net N-mineralization was compared by direct measurement, indirect estimate, and laboratory incubation for a restored tallgrass prairie and for deficiently and optimally N-fertilized, no-tillage (NT) and chisel-plowed (CP) maize (Zea mays L.) agroecosystems on Plano silt loam soil (fine-silty, mixed,

K. R. Brye; J. M. Norman; S. T. Gower; L. G. Bundy

2003-01-01

114

Water-Budget Evaluation of Prairie and Maize Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

age because of considerable interception of precipitation by a residue layer. Soil water storage in the no-tillage maize setting was more ing soil water-storage changes and matric potential gra- similar to the prairie, while Et, net primary productivity, and drainage dients and applying Darcy's law (McGowan and Wil- were more comparable to the chisel-plow agroecosystem. Total drain- liams, 1980; Hanna

K. R. Brye; J. M. Norman; L. G. Bundy; S. T. Gower

2000-01-01

115

Biomechanics of cantilever plow during anterior thoracic scoliosis correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextAnterior instrumentation is often used for correction of thoracic scoliosis. Loss of spinal correction may occur after failure at the boneimplant interface, and forces on the boneimplant interface during scoliosis correction remain unclear.

Andrew T. Mahar; David S. Brown; Richard S. Oka; Peter O. Newton

2006-01-01

116

Black Hole-Powered Jets Plow Into Galaxy  

NASA Website

This composite image of a galaxy illustrates how the intense gravity of a supermassive black hole can be tapped to generate immense power. The image contains X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue), optical light obtained with the ...

117

Prehypertension and chronic kidney disease: the ox or the plow?  

PubMed

Nearly ten years ago, practice recommendations supported use of the clinical classification of 'prehypertension' for people with systolic blood pressure of 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic pressure of 80-89 mm Hg. This recommendation was based on observations that these ranges of blood pressure were associated with enhanced cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risks compared with blood pressure less than 120/80 mm Hg. Recent observations, including the report by Yano and colleagues, also suggest that prehypertension is an important risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease. PMID:22241558

Middleton, John P; Crowley, Steven D

2012-02-01

118

Should Schools Plow Under the Old Agrarian Calendar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Approximately 600 schools nationwide began the 1989-90 school year on a 12-month calendar, a 20 percent increase over last year. The traditional calendar was designed for an agrarian society and is no longer needed. Year-round schools offer more continuous learning and less learning loss during the summer months. (MLF)|

Stover, Del

1989-01-01

119

Enhancing carbon and nitrogen sequestration in reclaimed soils through organic amendments and chiseling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of reclamation techniques could affect restoration success, ecosystem productivity, and the capacity of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC). A field experiment was conducted at three reclaimed coal mine sites across eastern Ohio to assess the impact of several reclamation techniques on biomass production, soil properties, and temporal changes in SOC and N pools.

Raj K. Shrestha; Rattan Lal; Pierre-Andre Jacinthe

2009-01-01

120

Effect of tillage system and cumulative rainfall on multifractal parameters of soil surface microrelief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical description of the spatial characteristics of soil surface microrelief still remains a challenge. Soil surface roughness parameters are required for modelling overland flow and erosion. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of multifractal for analyzing the decay of initial surface roughness induced by natural rainfall under different soil tillage systems. Field experiments were performed on an Oxisol at Campinas, So Paulo State (Brazil). Six tillage treatments, namely, disc harrow, disc plow, chisel plow, disc harrow + disc level, disc plow + disc level and chisel plow + disc level were tested. In each plot soil surface microrelief was measured for times, with increasing amounts of natural rainfall using a pinmeter. The sampling scheme was a square grid with 25 x 25 mm point spacing and the plot size was 1350 x 1350 mm, so that each data set consisted of 3025 individual elevation points. Duplicated measurements were taken per treatment and date, yielding a total of 48 experimental data sets. All the investigated microrelief data sets exhibited, in general, scale properties, and the degree of multifractality showed wide differences between them. Multifractal analysis distinguishes two different patterns of soil surface microrelief, the first one has features close to monofractal spectra and the second clearly indicates multifractal behavior. Both, singularity spectra and generalized dimension spectra allow differentiating between soil tillage systems. In general, changes in values of multifractal parameters under simulated rainfall showed no or little correspondence with the evolution of the vertical microrelief component described by indices such as the standard deviation of the point height measurements. Multifractal parameters provided valuable information for chararacterizing the spatial features of soil surface microrelief as they were able to discriminate data sets with similar values for the vertical component of roughness.

Vidal Vzquez, E.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Mirs-Avalos, J. M.; Daz, M. C.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

2009-04-01

121

From dirt to shovels: fully automatic tool generation from ad hoc data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ad hoc data sourceis any semistructured data source for which useful data analysis and transformation tools are not readi ly avail- able. Such data must be queried, transformed and displayed by systems administrators, computational biologists, financ ial analysts and hosts of others on a regular basis. In this paper, we demon- strate that it is possible to generate a

Kathleen Fisher; David Walker; Kenny Qili Zhu; Peter White

2008-01-01

122

"Shovel-ready" Sequences as a Stimulus for the Next Generation of Life Scientists  

PubMed Central

Genomics and bioinformatics are dynamic fields well-suited for capturing the imagination of undergraduates in both research laboratories and classrooms. Currently, raw nucleotide sequence is being provided, as part of several genomics research initiatives, for undergraduate research and teaching. These initiatives could be easily extended and much more effective if the source of the sequenced material and the subsequent focus of the data analysis were aligned with the research interests of individual faculty at undergraduate institutions. By judicious use of surplus capacity in existing nucleotide sequencing cores, raw sequence data could be generated to support ongoing research efforts involving undergraduates. This would allow these students to participate actively in discovery research, with a goal of making novel contributions to their field through original research while nurturing the next generation of talented research scientists.

Boyle, Michael D.

2010-01-01

123

Shovel incisors, three-rooted molars, talon cusp, and supernumerary tooth in one patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Ad- ditionally, multiple dental anomalies have been re- ported in individuals and within families, without evi- dence of other systemic manifestations. Ekman-Westborg and Julin3 reported a case of macrodontia, multituberculism, central cusps and pulp invaginations in the permanent dentition. Reportedly, no hereditary factors were found. Mann et al.^ reported a variant of the Ekman-Westborg-Julin syndrome, dis- covered as part

1992-01-01

124

Reducing adhesion of soil against loading shovel using bionic electro-osmosis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bionic electro-osmosis, a new method of reducing soil adhesion to soil-engaging components or parts of terrain machines, is presented. It is based on the anti-adhesion mechanism of the body surfaces of soil burrowing animals. The key feature of bionic electro-osmosis is to arrange a series of electric pole plates to create a non-smooth working surface. The static and dynamic effects

Luquan Ren; Qian Cong; Jin Tong; Bingcong Chen

2001-01-01

125

Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe.  

PubMed

Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state-space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as 'cryptic poaching'. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching. PMID:21849323

Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N Thompson; Sand, Hkan

2011-08-17

126

Solar panels, shovels and the 'Net: Selective uses of technology in the homesteading movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the dystopian and utopian academic literature on technology present either a pessimistic or optimistic picture of its societal impact, people's everyday uses of technology often counter such views. This paper examines the selective uses of technology, and particularly communications technology, in the everyday practices of homesteaders, or members of the back to the land movement in Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Teresa Heinz Housel

2006-01-01

127

Cyber Shovels in High School: An Online Soil Science Resource for Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Declining enrolment in soil science courses at post-secondary institutions in Canada and around the world tells us that fewer high school students are considering a career in this discipline than ever before. This may be due to soil science programs losing visibility as they are incorporated into other, larger programs; a lack of awareness of what opportunities exist for soil science professionals; or a disinclination of high school educators to use soil science scenarios as examples in their science curriculum. In 2010, we initiated a three-year, multi-institutional project aimed at introducing soil science concepts into high school curricula across Canada. The goals of this project are to promote learning about the importance of soil as a natural resource, provide useful tools that high school educators can incorporate into their lesson plans, and encourage students to pursue soil science in their higher education. The tool (http://soilweb.landfood.ubc.ca/youth/) features five main themes: (1) descriptions of soil research projects currently undertaken by faculty at five universities across Canada; (2) links to age-appropriate soil related resources that provide exercises and examples teachers can easily use; (3) profiles of soil scientists "at work" in a diverse range of careers to motivate future soil scientists; (4) examples of recent news stories about soil to highlight its relevance in our day to day lives; and (5) a soil forum for students and teachers to ask questions. This tool will be further refined by incorporating feedback obtained from high school teachers and students.

Krzic, M.; Basiliko, N.; Bedard-Haughn, A.; Humphreys, E.; Price, G.; Dampier, L.; Grand, S.; Dynatkar, S.; Crowley, C.

2012-04-01

128

Economic analysis of shovels and draglines used in U. S. surface coal mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coal strip-mining industry, the past tendency has been to invest in increasingly larger and more automated mining machinery. The expense of these machines has been justified because of the savings in labor cost and the increased production from removal of more overburden. However, the industry is now in danger of becoming overcapitalized, as too much money is being

B. W. Cone; L. J. Defferding; W. I. Enderlin

1976-01-01

129

Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe  

PubMed Central

Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical statespace model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as cryptic poaching. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching.

Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Sand, Hakan

2012-01-01

130

Dear Shit-Shovellers: Humour, Censure and the Discourse of Complaint  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we analyse letters of complaint about instances of comic discourse where the humour is regarded as overstepping the mark and causing offence. We are particularly interested in how this sense of offence is registered and how complainants articulate the offence for which they seek some form of redress. In pursuing this interest, we seek to bring together

SHARON LOCKYER; MICHAEL PICKERING

2001-01-01

131

The stork, the plow, rural social structure and tropical deforestation in poor countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authoritative sources attribute deforestation in poor countries to the actions of the rural poor. Others argue that this is tantamount to blaming the victim and directing attention away from the fundamental causesinequality in landholding, tenure insecurity and landlessnessof deforestation. Unfortunately, there are no statistical tests of the impact of these rural political economy variables on deforestation. This paper uses

Michael T. Rock

1996-01-01

132

Wedge model of force and flow oscillations in plowed granular media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a model that captures the changing response of granular media with volume fraction, ,to a partially submerged vertical plate dragged horizontally at low velocity. In experiment, a bifurcation in force and flow occurs at the onset of grain dilatancy, ?c. Below ?c rapid irregular fluctuations in the drag force, FD, are observed. Above ?c fluctuations in FD are periodic and increase with ?. Velocity field measurements indicate FD fluctuations are correlated with the creation and destruction of shear bands during drag. Shear bands originate at the base of the plate and extend to the surface forming a nearly triangular wedge of material moving with the plate. Our model assumes that FD originates in the force required to overcome sliding friction and push the wedge of material up the slope defined by the inclination of the shear band. Combined with the fact that shear bands are weaker (stronger) than the bulk material for ?> ?c (??c and gives significant insight into the non-periodic fluctuations observed for ?

Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Gravish, Nick; Goldman, Daniel I.

2010-11-01

133

High-speed plow mines 1043 tons per shift in 40 in-thick seam  

SciTech Connect

The operation of a high-speed plough in longwall working of a 40 in seam at Beckley No. 2 mine West Virginia is described. Conditions are not ideal, but an output of 1043 ton/shift is obtained, with the maximum for an 8-hour shift of 2750 tons of clean coal.

Campbell, J.I.

1984-11-01

134

Influence of plow pan on the enrichment and depletion of heavy metals in the surface soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydropedology is a new discipline that uses pedological information to understand the soil water movement, and thus the storage, transformation, and transportation of heavy metals (HMs). However, limited studies have investigated how the hydropedological feature, for example the water-restrictive so...

135

A Skunk Is in the Sky (or Is It a Plow?).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes Project ARTIST (Astronomy-Related Teacher Inservice Training). Using hands-on science experiences, an integrated curriculum, and translated materials, teachers can make space science accessible and interesting to elementary and middle school children. (ZWH)|

Lebofsky, Nancy R.

1994-01-01

136

ROTYLENCHULUS RENIFORMIS BELOW PLOW DEPTH SUPPRESSES COTTON YIELD AND ROOT GROWTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to Rotylenchulus reniformis is absent in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and could be introduced from G. barbadense, G. arboretum, or G. herbaceum, but resistant accessions identified in pots need field confirmation. In 2001, six accessions suppressed nematode populations 70 to 98% in...

137

Thermal diffusivity of plowed leached meadow-chernozemic soils in the Adygeya Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal diffusivity of the upper horizons of leached meadow-chernozemic soils varies in dependence on the soil water content within the following limits: 1.20-4.11 10-7 m2/s for the Ap horizon, 1.21-3.85 10-7 m2/s for the A1 horizon, and 1.35-3.73 10-7 m2/s for the A1B horizon. The relationships between the thermal diffusivity and the soil water content are described by S-shape curves with a long gently inclined segment within the range of water contents of <0.20 cm3/cm3, a distinct rise in thermal diffusivity within the water contents from 0.20 to 0.30-0.35 cm3/cm3, and a flattened or somewhat declining segment in the area with the high (>0.30-0.35 cm3/cm3) water contents. The thermal diffusivity of air-dried soil samples correlates with the physical clay (<0.01 mm) content. The Pearson correlation coefficient for these two variables equals -0.67 and is statistically significant at the significance level of 0.05. Regression equations allowing one to calculate the thermal diffusivity of the investigated soil horizons on the basis of data on the soil water content have been obtained.

Luk'yashchenko, K. I.; Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Umarova, A. B.

2012-04-01

138

Chiselling Away: The Role of Employment Agencies in the Erosion of the Australian National Model of Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the changing role of employment agencies in Australia. It commences with an account of the early forms of unregulated employment agencies, and subsequent public policy initiatives to limit the extent of their harmful impact on the labour market. Overseas and Australian evidence is drawn upon to illustrate both the nature of the problems and common solutions found.

Elsa Underhill

139

Nitrous oxide emissions from corn-soybean systems in the midwest.  

PubMed

Soil N2O emissions from three corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems in central Iowa were measured from the spring of 2003 through February 2005. The three managements systems evaluated were full-width tillage (fall chisel plow, spring disk), no-till, and no-till with a rye (Secale cereale L. 'Rymin') winter cover crop. Four replicate plots of each treatment were established within each crop of the rotation and both crops were present in each of the two growing seasons. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured weekly during the periods of April through October, biweekly during March and November, and monthly in December, January, and February. Two polyvinyl chloride rings (30-cm diameter) were installed in each plot (in and between plant rows) and were used to support soil chambers during the gas flux measurements. Flux measurements were performed by placing vented chambers on the rings and collecting gas samples 0, 15, 30, and 45 min following chamber deployment. Nitrous oxide fluxes were computed from the change in N2O concentration with time, after accounting for diffusional constraints. We observed no significant tillage or cover crop effects on N2O flux in either year. In 2003 mean N2O fluxes were 2.7, 2.2, and 2.3 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1) from the soybean plots under chisel plow, no-till, and no-till + cover crop, respectively. Emissions from the chisel plow, no-till, and no-till + cover crop plots planted to corn averaged 10.2, 7.9, and 7.6 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. In 2004 fluxes from both crops were higher than in 2003, but fluxes did not differ among the management systems. Fluxes from the corn plots were significantly higher than from the soybean plots in both years. Comparison of our results with estimates calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change default emission factor of 0.0125 indicate that the estimated fluxes underestimate measured emissions by a factor of 3 at our sites. PMID:16825470

Parkin, Timothy B; Kaspar, Thomas C

2006-07-06

140

Adverse Effects to Northern Shovelers from Exposure to Treated Wastewater from Central Front Range, Colorado, Wastewater Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From January through February 2007, more than 900 waterfowl died in or near ten different wastewater treatment plants located in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area and other locations along the Front Range of central Colorado (ProMED-mail, 2007a,b,c;...

C. E. Rostad D. W. Rutherford J. Berven L. A. Baeten W. M. Iko

2009-01-01

141

Fuzzy-PID Control in the Application of Multi-purpose Vehicles of the Road Snow Plowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studied a multifunctional snow removal trucks electro-hydraulic proportional valve control system for the cylinder position control. The fuzzy - intelligent PID controller which could improve the operational efficiency of a multifunctional snow removal trucks, compared with conventional PID control, fuzzy control, and other control strategies by demonstration, simulation analysis and pilot studies. It could make up for some

Wang Hui; Yang Yongbo; Liu Meiyu

2009-01-01

142

Comparison of microbial communities in percolating water from plow layer and subsoil layer estimated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount and composition of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in the percolating water taken from different depths of soil (10 cm, PW10; 40 cm, PW40) and floodwater (FW) in a paddy field were compared during the period of rice cultivation. The amounts of PLFAs in PW10, PW40, and FW ranged from 22.6 to 46.2 ?g L, from 22.3 to 54.5

Miho Shimizu; Motoki Hayashi; Kazuo Matsuya; Jun Murase; Makoto Kimura

2002-01-01

143

Oxen Can Plow, But Women Can Ruminate: Animal Classification and the Helper in Genesis 2,18-24  

Microsoft Academic Search

In describing the finding of a helper for the newly created man in Gen 2,18-24, the author established a contrast between the woman, who is suitable for the role, and various types of animals, which are unsuitable for the role. The author did this to use the characteristics which the Israelites associated with each type of animal, and which disqualified

Richard Whitekettle

2009-01-01

144

[Testing and commercialization of a cotton stalk shredder and plow]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes work on Task 1: Field test and sell prototype to Ellis Equipment, Ltd; Task 2: Design, build, and field test two prototypes; and Task 3: Produce and sell Pegasus to farmers. The equipment has been built to shred stalks, deeply till the soil, and prepare seedbeds for cotton plants. The equipment has been field tested in Australia and is currently being field tested in California and Arizona. Unexpected problems appeared with hard dry soils and this report describes improvements made.

Thacker, G.W.

1996-01-27

145

Modeling organic carbon dynamics under no-tillage and plowed systems in tropical soils of Brazil using CQESTR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CQESTR simulates the effect of several management practices on soil organic carbon stocks. The model had been calibrated and validated in temperate regions. Our objective was to calibrate the CQESTR model and evaluate its performance for simulating carbon dynamics as affected by tillage practices in...

146

FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT APPROXIMATIONS OF NONLOCAL IN TIME ONE-DIMENSIONAL PLOWS IN POROUS MEDIA. (R825207)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

147

Soil quality differences among long-term no-till irrigated crop rotations to replace burning and plowing continuous wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heavy residue in irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States (PNW) is a problem often resolved by burning. We investigated the soil quality benefits of a diversified no-till crop rotation with various residue management practices compared t...

148

A simple, chisel-assisted mechanical microdissection system for harvesting homogenous plant tissue suitable for the analysis of nucleic acids and proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many physiological processes are limited to specific tissues or even specific cell types. Analysing entire plants or organs\\u000a results in averaged data of all cell types contained in the sample; thus, specific metabolic functions cannot be assigned\\u000a to individual cell types. A higher spatial resolution is required. By microdissecting plant organs, homogeneous material can\\u000a be obtained. If a suitable amount

Christina Walz; Martina Schad; Nada Pavlovic; Julia Kehr

2003-01-01

149

Implementation of chiselling and mouldboard ploughing in soil after 8 years of no-till management in SW, Spain: Effect on soil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term no-till practices (NT) have a positive effect on recovery and improving soil fertility and decreasing soil erosion. Nevertheless, long term no-till practices may also cause some inconveniences, such as soil compaction, water infiltration and problems in seed germination. Thus, in the present work we assess the effects of the implementation (October 2008) of a traditional tillage (mouldboard ploughing) (TT)

S. Melero; M. Panettieri; E. Madejn; H. Gmez Macpherson; F. Moreno; J. M. Murillo

2011-01-01

150

Strength Properties and Organic Carbon of Soils in the North Apalachian Region  

SciTech Connect

Soil strength influenced by management and soil properties controls plant growth, root development, and soil-moisture relations. The impact of textural and structural parameters on soil strength is moderated by soil organic C (SOC) concentration. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess differences in soil strength and SOC concentration in watersheds under long-term (>15 yr) management practices in the North Appalachian region on a predominantly Typic Hapludults on undulating slopes (>6% slope). Seven watersheds without field replication under moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow, disk with beef cattle manure (DiskM), no-till with beef cattle manure (NTm), no-till with no beef cattle manure (NTnm), pasture, and forest were studied. Cone index (CI), shear strength, bulk density (b), volumetric moisture content (v), and SOC concentration were determined at the summit, backslope, and footslope landscape positions at the 0- to 10-, 10- to 20-, and 20- to 30-cm depths. The SOC concentration was slightly higher at the footslope than at the summit position in the cultivated watersheds. The b was lower at the footslope than at the summit in NTm (1.22 vs. 1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) and chisel (1.34 vs. 1.47 Mg m{sup -3}) treatments. Forest had the lowest CI (0.19 MPa), shear strength (6.11 kPa), and b (0.93 Mg m{sup -3}) and the highest SOC concentration (62.7 g kg{sup -1}), whereas MP had the highest CI (0.67 MPa), shear strength (25.5 kPa), b (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}), and the lowest SOC concentration (13.6 g kg{sup -1}) in the 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). The SOC concentration in NTm was 1.7 times higher than that in NTnm, and both no-till treatments had lower b (<1.21 Mg m{sup -3}) than MP (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}) at 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). Manuring decreased both CI and shear strength, but increased SOC concentration. The b, v, and SOC concentration were potential predictors of CI; whereas b and SOC concentration were of shear strength (r2 > 0.42; P < 0.01). Results show that landscape positions had small effect, but management, particularly manuring, had large and significant effects on soil strength and SOC concentration.

Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Owen, L B.; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

2005-04-01

151

Nitrate leaching to shallow groundwater systems from agricultural fields with different management practices.  

PubMed

Monitoring the concentration of NO(3)-N from agricultural fields to the subsurface and shallow ground water resources have received considerable interest worldwide, since agriculture has been identified as a major source of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) pollution of groundwater systems in intensively farmed watersheds. A study was conducted to quantify the impact of two tillage practices viz. chisel plow (CP) and no till (NT) with liquid swine manure application on nitrate leaching to the shallow ground water system under corn-soybean production system. This study is part of the long-term field experiments conducted at Iowa State University using completely randomized block design. The NO(3)-N concentrations in the shallow ground water were monitored at three depths viz., a network of subsurface drains at a depth of 1.2 m and piezometers at depths of 1.8 m and 2.4 m. Results of this study showed that the average NO(3)-N concentration during the study period was 16.1 mg l(-1), 14.4 mg l(-1) and 11.8 mg l(-1) at 1.2 m, 1.8 m and 2.4 m depths, respectively implying significant amount of NO(3)-N leaching past the subsurface drain depth of 1.2 m into the shallow groundwater but the NO(3)-N concentration decreases with the depth. The NO(3)-N concentrations in shallow groundwater were significantly higher under the chisel plow system in comparison with the no till method of tillage. Fall application of liquid swine manure caused more leaching in comparison with the spring application. Higher NO(3)-N concentration was observed under corn in comparison with the soybean plots. An in-depth analysis of the data showed a definite relationship between the NO(3)-N concentration in subsurface drain water at a depth of 1.2 m and shallow groundwater at depths of 1.8 m and 2.4 m depths. PMID:21785805

Nila Rekha, P; Kanwar, R S; Nayak, A K; Hoang, C K; Pederson, C H

2011-07-25

152

Tillage, Mulch and N Fertilizer Affect Emissions of CO2 under the Rain Fed Condition.  

PubMed

A two year (2010-2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010-11 relative to the year 2011-12. During cropping year 2010-11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011-12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options. PMID:24086256

Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

2013-09-25

153

Fungal colonization in soils with different management histories: modeling growth in three-dimensional pore volumes.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of fungi in soil functioning they have received comparatively little attention, and our understanding of fungal interactions and communities is lacking. This study aims to combine a physiologically based model of fungal growth with digitized images of internal pore volume of samples of undisturbed soil from contrasting management practices to determine the effect of physical structure on fungal growth dynamics. We quantified pore geometries of the undisturbed-soil samples from two contrasting agricultural practices, conventionally plowed (chisel plow) (CT) and no till (NT), and from native-species vegetation land use on land that was taken out of production in 1989 (NS). Then we modeled invasion of a fungal species within the soil samples and evaluated the role of soil structure on the progress of fungal colonization of the soil pore space. The size of the studied pores was > or =110 microm. The dynamics of fungal invasion was quantified through parameters of a mathematical model fitted to the fungal invasion curves. Results indicated that NT had substantially lower porosity and connectivity than CT and NS soils. For example, the largest connected pore volume occupied 79% and 88% of pore space in CT and NS treatments, respectively, while it only occupied 45% in NT. Likewise, the proportion of pore space available to fungal colonization was much greater in NS and CT than in NT treatment, and the dynamics of the fungal invasion differed among the treatments. The relative rate of fungal invasion at the onset of simulation was higher in NT samples, while the invasion followed a more sigmoidal pattern with relatively slow invasion rates at the initial time steps in NS and CT samples. Simulations allowed us to elucidate the contribution of physical structure to the rates and magnitudes of fungal invasion processes. It appeared that fragmented pore space disadvantaged fungal invasion in soils under long-term no-till, while large connected pores in soils under native vegetation or in tilled agriculture promoted the invasion. PMID:21774424

Kravchenko, Alexandra; Falconer, Ruth E; Grinev, Dmitri; Otten, Wilfred

2011-06-01

154

Tillage, Mulch and N Fertilizer Affect Emissions of CO2 under the Rain Fed Condition  

PubMed Central

A two year (20102012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 201011 relative to the year 201112. During cropping year 201011, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 201112, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options.

Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

2013-01-01

155

Edaphic and crop production changes resulting from pipeline installation in semiarid agricultural ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The effects of pipeline installation on soil properties and crop production are being documented on three transects (pipe ditch, working side, and control) at four sites (dryland row crop, native pasture, dryland wheat, and irrigated cropland) in Beaver County, Oklahoma. Plant-cover data from the native pasture site show a 37% increase in cover on the pipe ditch during the initial growth season; no significant differences in cover were observed when the control and working side transects were compared. Wheat yield on the pipe ditch at the irrigated crop site was significantly higher, a fact attributed to increased moisture-retention capacity and lower bulk density of the pipe ditch soil. The significantly higher grain sorghum yield on the right-of-way at the dryland row crop site may have resulted from the reclamation practice of chisel plowing the right-of-way on croplands following pipeline construction. Data from the initial sampling and first year of monitoring of the Beaver County sites indicate pipeline installations in semiarid agro-ecosystems have either positive or negligible impacts on soil properties and crop production. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Zellmer, S.D.; Taylor, J.D.; Carter, R.P.

1985-01-01

156

Physical properties and spatial distribution of the plowpan in different arable soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology, water-physical properties, and spatial distribution of plowpans were studied. The presence of a plowpan in the root layer is most reliably detected from the macro- and micromorphometric indices and a reliable decrease in the interaggregate porosity and in the range of active moisture. As a rule, the plowpan does not have a continuous character; its appearance in the soil profile depends on the soil texture and wetting and is usually confined to the lower and wetter mesorelief elements. Loamy and clay loamy soils are more liable to form a plowpan. The current farming system favors the propagation of overcompaction deep into the soil profile. The areas with a plowpan within plowed fields vary in a wide range. The main reasons for the unfavorable physical properties of the subplow layer in a plowland are the natural extenuation of the soil-forming processes in this layer, which is manifested in a poorer aggregation, and the residual soil deformation under the long-term pressure of heavy machines. It is suggested that the plowpan can be destroyed via deep chiseling with the use of precision agriculture technologies.

Medvedev, V. V.

2011-12-01

157

29 CFR 1910.184 - Slings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Fiber Core (FC)Rope...37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Independent Wire Rope...IWRC Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope RopeDia...

2010-07-01

158

29 CFR 1910.184 - Slings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Fiber Core (FC)Rope...37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Independent Wire Rope...IWRC Construction Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope RopeDia...

2009-07-01

159

Variations in nitrogen, zinc, and sugar concentrations in Chinese fir seedlings grown on shrubland and plowed soils in response to arbuscular mycorrhizae-mediated process  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-year-old seedlings of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) are not colonized with ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, but often colonized with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi.\\u000a The AM fungi could be important for nutrient acquisition in Chinese fir seedlings. Previous studies show that feedbacks between\\u000a aboveground and belowground plant tissues play a fundamental role in controlling the interaction between plants and AM

He-Chun Piao; Cong-Qiang Liu

160

Design and Evaluation of a Towed Snow Plow for the Small Unit Support Vehicle (SUSV). Full-Scale Prototype Development and 1992 Field Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Light Infantry Division elements require a system to allow them to conduct semi-autonomous operations and limited self-resupply with existing wheeled vehicles in snow deeper than 15 cm. Since many roads and trails will not have been kept open prior to dep...

P. W. Richmond M. R. Walsh

1994-01-01

161

Civic Learning through Agricultural Improvement: Bringing the Loom and the Anvil into Proximity with the Plow. Studies in the History of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How do people use education to respond to change? How do people learn what is expected of "good citizens" in their communities? These questions have long concerned educational historians, civic educators, and social scientists. In recent years, they have captured national attention through high-profile education reform proposals and civic

Lauzon, Glenn P.

2010-01-01

162

Migration of (14)C in the paddy soil-to-rice plant system after (14)C-acetic acid breakdown by microorganisms below the plow layer.  

PubMed

Migration of (14)C derived from (14)C-acetic acid was examined by using soils sampled from paddies in four administrative areas in Japan (Aomori, Yamanashi, Ehime and Okinawa) and rice plant in a tracer experiment to understand the fate of (14)C in the paddy soil-to-rice plant system. The loss of (14)C radioactivity levels derived from (14)C-acetic acid was caused by soil microorganism breakdown. A part of the (14)C fixation to soil was caused by microbial assimilation into the fatty acid fraction. (14)C moved upward via two different types of (14)C dynamics in soil: quick movement upward; and constant but slow movement upward. (14)C was highly assimilated into the plant panicle and that was caused by the root-uptake and the transfer of (14)C. Migration of (14)C derived from (14)C-acetic acid relied heavily upon changes of chemical forms and characteristics of (14)C-compound as caused by microorganisms in soil. PMID:19896253

Ogiyama, Shinichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo

2009-11-05

163

Manure composition and incorporation effects on phosphorus in runoff following corn biomass removal.  

PubMed

Greater demand for corn ( L.) stover for bioenergy use may lead to increased corn production acreage with minimal surface residue cover, resulting in greater risk for soil erosion and phosphorus (P) losses in runoff. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to determine the effects of spring-applied dairy cow () manure (none, in-barn composted, and exterior walled-enclosure pit) with >200 g kg organic solids content following fall corn biomass removal with and without incorporation (chisel plow [CP] and no-till [NT]) on sediment and P in runoff. Runoff was collected from a 0.83-m area for 60 min following the onset of rainfall simulation (76 mm h), once in spring and once in fall. Runoff dissolved reactive P (DRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations were positively correlated with manure P rate and were higher in NT compared with CP. Conversely, sediment and particulate P (PP) concentrations in runoff were inversely correlated with manure P rate (and manure solids) and were higher in CP compared with NT. Runoff volume where no manure was applied was higher in NT than in CP in spring but similar in fall. The addition of manure reduced runoff volumes by an average of 82% in NT and 42% in CP over spring and fall. Results from this study indicate that surface application of dairy manure with relatively high solids content may reduce sediment and PP losses in runoff without increasing the risk of increased DRP and DOP losses in the year of application where corn biomass is harvested. PMID:22031580

Yage, Mara R; Andraski, Todd W; Laboski, Carrie A M

164

NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING  

SciTech Connect

Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design features, construct a field ready prototype and perform field testing at the surface mining sites. It is anticipated that 10% in energy savings including electricity (cable shovel) and fuel (hydraulic shovel) will be achieved by implementation of ISE technology.

Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

2005-05-01

165

78 FR 57205 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...firefighting twin agent extinguishing skid unit and equipment. Acquire snow removal equipment--runway plow truck, chemical spreader, front end loader, plow truck, and skidsteer tractor with front loader. Extend taxiway Y--design and...

2013-09-17

166

50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...9) Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors ) (10) Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera ) (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria ) (2) Redhead (Aythya americana )...

2010-10-01

167

50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...9) Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors ) (10) Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera ) (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria ) (2) Redhead (Aythya americana )...

2009-10-01

168

29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Table 1Wire Rope Clips Improved plow steel, rope (Inches (cm)) Minimum...619 or 637 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Fiber Core (FC...19 or 637 Classification Extra Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Independent...

2013-07-01

169

29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Table 1Wire Rope Clips Improved plow steel, rope (Inches (cm)) Minimum...619 or 637 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Fiber Core (FC...19 or 637 Classification Extra Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Independent...

2010-07-01

170

29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Table G-2Rated Capacities for Improved Plow Steel, Independent Wire Rope Core...Table G-3Rated Capacities for Improved Plow Steel, Independent Wire Rope Core, Wire...Table G-4Rated Capacities for Improved Plow Steel, Fiber Core, Wire Rope and...

2010-07-01

171

29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Table 1Wire Rope Clips Improved plow steel, rope (Inches (cm)) Minimum...619 or 637 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Fiber Core (FC...19 or 637 Classification Extra Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Independent...

2009-07-01

172

29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Table G-2Rated Capacities for Improved Plow Steel, Independent Wire Rope Core...Table G-3Rated Capacities for Improved Plow Steel, Independent Wire Rope Core, Wire...Table G-4Rated Capacities for Improved Plow Steel, Fiber Core, Wire Rope and...

2009-07-01

173

Incinerator ash removal systems  

SciTech Connect

An incinerator is disclosed which includes apparatus for removing ash from an incinerating chamber and which comprises hydraulically operated plows that slide along the floor of the chamber to push the ash towards an ash trough. Ash removal efficiency is improved in accordance with the present invention by the hinged suspension of a brush from the plow face. An auxiliary plow is added to the waste material loading device to clear ash from the highest of several stepped floor levels even in the absence of no new load being entered. The auxiliary plow further includes a clevis assembly which pivots the brush away from the incinerator floor during reverse plow travel.

Sakash, G.; Dada, A. G.; Grier Jr., R. K.; McKeel, D. W.; Stern, H.

1985-08-13

174

Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of very large pores associated with former root channels in NT and NS aggregates. Our findings indicate that mechanisms of macro-aggregate formation might differ in their importance in different land use and management practices.

Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L. (MSU); (UC)

2012-10-25

175

Application of Virtual Prototype Technology to Analyzing the Kinetic and Dynamic Characteristics of the Base of the Remote Cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology for Virtual Prototyping could be adopted to take the place of Physical Prototyping so that we could innovate, test and evaluate the products, thus shortening the circle of product development, decreasing its cost and enhancing up an enterprises competition. Aiming at the rupture on the base of the remote cylinder during the Plow working, first the plows virtual prototype was established by SolidWorks in a computer ; secondly in view of the structure characteristic of the base of the remote cylinder, it was analyzed in kinematics and dynamics, at last with the help of the dynamics simulation software DDM, the plow was simulated working in the field to find out which of the two motion types operating in the field made the plow load larger and to determine the corresponding time the load was larger, supplying the potent data for the optimum design of the plow in the future.

Lin, Zhu; Long, Yin-Cheng; Fa, Chen; Fan-Rang, Kong; Li, Guo

176

Rehabilitation of the Soil Quality of a Degraded Peat site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rewetting or Deep-Plow-Sand-Covering are feasible procedures for the rehabilitation of soil quality of degraded Histosols. The choice of the procedure depends on the desired future land use. In Oct. 1988, a degraded 20 ha, shallow peat site located in the Upper Rhinluch region (Northeast Germany) was deep-plowed and transformed into a Deep-Plow-Sand-Covering-Site (DPSC). In this study, the resulting changes in

U. Schindler; L. Mller

177

Influence for Soil Environment by Continuing use of Biodegradable Plastic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence on soil environment by continuing use of the biodegradable plastic films (biodegradable mulching films) in farmland\\u000a was investigated. The difference was not seen in the amount of soil bacteria between mulching film plowing sections and non-plowing\\u000a sections. The total bacteria amount did not increase by the effect of plowing the biodegradable mulching film. Poly-(butylene\\u000a succinate and adipate) (PBSA)

Akihiko Masui; Satoshi Ikawa; Nobuaki Fujiwara; Hiroaki Hirai

178

Improving dust return techniques at coal handling facilities  

SciTech Connect

A relatively new device is described, the Dust Plow, which allows the user to return the dust directly back into the conveying system without altering the material characteristics. A the same time, the machine eliminates dust return problems by literally plowing the dust under the main product and burying it. Dusting at the point of return is eliminated and re-entrainment at a subsequent transfer point is reduced by as much as 95%. The Dust Plow costs less than $4,000.

Hescux, M.C.; Shelstad, K.L.

1984-11-01

179

40 CFR 205.50 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...equipment in nonoperating condition. For purposes of this regulation special purpose equipment includes, but is not limited to, construction equipment, snow plows, garbage compactors and refrigeration...

2011-07-01

180

21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hand-held device intended to perform various tasks in general dentistry and oral surgery procedures. The device includes the operative burnisher, operative amalgam carrier, operative dental amalgam carver, surgical bone chisel, operative...

2009-04-01

181

21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hand-held device intended to perform various tasks in general dentistry and oral surgery procedures. The device includes the operative burnisher, operative amalgam carrier, operative dental amalgam carver, surgical bone chisel, operative...

2010-04-01

182

76 FR 795 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...flakes, 2 pieces of shatter, 2 chisels, 3 polished stones, 8 celts, 2 faunal bones, 9 cupreous metal fragments and 1 cupreous metal plate. In the Federal Register, page 910, paragraph number 6 is corrected by substituting the...

2011-01-06

183

78 FR 56733 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...adult male. No known individuals were identified. The 83 associated funerary objects are 1 ceramic bowl, 1 ceramic tripod bottle, 1 broken ceramic jar, 2 chipped-stone picks or chisels, 1 ground and scored rectangular stone object, 2...

2013-09-13

184

21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4565 Dental hand...carrier, operative dental amalgam carver, surgical bone chisel, operative amalgam and...operative curette, periodontic curette, surgical curette, dental surgical...

2013-04-01

185

29 CFR 570.58 - Occupations involved in the operation of power-driven hoisting apparatus (Order 7).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ram, scoop, shovel, crane, revolving fork, or other attachments...necessary small openings), the car door, and the hoistway doors are constructed of solid surfaces...hoistway openings at floor level have doors which are interlocked with...

2007-01-01

186

29 CFR 1910.308 - Special systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be reset without locked doors being opened. Enclosures...Collector ring assemblies on revolving-type machines (shovels...be reset without locked doors being opened. Enclosures...Collector ring assemblies on revolving-type machines...

2007-07-01

187

3. Producer pitch trap (producer #1), mezzanine level, with workers ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Producer pitch trap (producer #1), mezzanine level, with workers shoveling pitch from trap; looking N. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

188

Some Aspects of an Open Drainage Canal and Maintenance Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet contains many aspects of a drainage program. Topics discussed include principal causes for the failure of open drainage canals, recent research on the mechanics of open drainage canal maintenance, and the Ahmed Davis shovel. Included in the b...

W. J. Davis

1978-01-01

189

L'Entretient des Canaux de Drainage a Ciel Ouvert (Some Aspects of an Open Drainage Canal and Maintenance Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet contains many aspects of a drainage program. Topics discussed include principal causes for the failure of open drainage canals, recent research on the mechanics of open drainage canal maintenance, and the Ahmed Davis shovel. Included in the b...

W. J. Davis

1978-01-01

190

Curecanti Archeological Project: 1982 Excavations at Three Sites in Curecanti National Recreation Area, Colorado,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1982 Midwest Archeological Center program in Curecanti National Recreation Area, Colorado included evaluative and mitigative investigations at five archeological sites. Controlled interval shovel tests and block excavations at a building site at the s...

B. A. Jones

1986-01-01

191

78 FR 17350 - Foreign-Trade Zone 262-Southaven (Desoto County), Mississippi; Notification of Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...wire/tubing/fasteners, shovels, axes, pruners, shears, saws and related parts, hand tools, metal brackets/stoppers/sign plates, pumps and related parts, heat guns, filters, machines, presses and related tools, bearings...

2013-03-21

192

Archeological Reconnaissance in the Salado Creek Watershed, Bexar County, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the survey was to provide an overview of the archeological potential within areas to be effected by construction of 16 small dams. Examination was surficial with very limited shovel testing. Selective collection of materials was directed to...

D. S. Dibble

1979-01-01

193

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...portable welding units, and augers, shall be equipped with at least one portable fire extinguisher. (2) Power shovels, draglines, and other large equipment shall be equipped with at least one portable fire extinguisher; however, additional fire...

2009-07-01

194

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers commensurate with the potential...with at least one portable fire extinguisher. (2) Power shovels, draglines...with at least one portable fire extinguisher; however, additional...

2013-07-01

195

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...primarily engaged in manufacturing power marine boilers, pressure and...burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters (except...dredging machinery; pavers; and power shovels. Also...

2013-07-01

196

GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

197

49 CFR 232.3 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...6) Freight and other non-passenger trains of four-wheel coal cars; (7) Freight and other non-passenger trains of...test weight cars. (2) Locomotive cranes, steam shovels, pile drivers, and machines of similar construction, and...

2012-10-01

198

Archaeological Survey of a Proposed Boat Launch Site in Arena Township, Iowa County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources contracted for an archeological survey of a proposed boat landing site in Arena Township, Iowa County, Wisconsin. In the course of the survey, the project area was subjected to pedestrian survey. Two shovel te...

P. H. Salkin

1989-01-01

199

Relationship between waterfowl nutrition and condition on agricultural drainwater ponds in the Tulare Basin, California: Waterfowl body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined carcass composition and proximate food composition of ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), and northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering on agricultural drainwater ponds in California during 198384. Lipids varied seasonally in northern shovelers\\u000a and northern pintails. Protein did not fluctuate except in ruddy ducks whose protein mass increased over winter, suggesting\\u000a that some protein was catabolized

Ned H. Euliss; Robert L. Jarvis; David S. Gilmer

1997-01-01

200

Tillage impacts on soil microbial biomass C, N and P, earthworms and agronomy after two years of cropping following permanent pasture in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of pasture land to crop rotation by plow tillage and reversion to pasture for replenishment of nutrients is a common practice in New Zealand. It is known that plow tillage decreases soil organic matter and causes biological degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tillage practices on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass

T Aslam; M. A Choudhary; S Saggar

1999-01-01

201

Divergent Flap for a Gas Turbine Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A divergent flap assembly of a gas turbine engine includes a hotsheet, a backbone structure for supporting the hotsheet, and a plow portion secured to the backbone structure to bridge a gap between the hotsheet and an external flap. The plow portion is fa...

J. A. Arbona

2004-01-01

202

29 CFR 553.24 - Public safety, emergency response, and seasonal activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...may have significant periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may be able to accrue compensatory time to the higher cap, while other employees of the...

2013-07-01

203

Feeding ecology of waterfowl wintering on evaporation ponds in California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the feeding ecology of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), Northern Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) wintering on drainwater evaporation ponds in California from 1982 through 1984. Pintails primarily consumed midges (Chironomidae) (39.3%) and widegeongrass (Ruppia maritima) nutlets (34.6%). Shovelers and Ruddy Ducks consumed 92.5% and 90.1% animal matter, respectively. Water boatmen (Corixidae) (51.6%), rotifers (Rotatoria) (20.4%), and copepods (Copepoda) (15.2%) were the most important Shoveler foods, and midges (49.7%) and water boatmen (36.0%) were the most important foods of Ruddy Ducks. All three species were opportunistic foragers, shifting their diets seasonally to the most abundant foods given their behavioral and morphological attributes.

Euliss, N. H., Jr.; Jarvis, R. L.; Gilmer, D. S.

1991-01-01

204

White Flame Energy switches to backhoes  

SciTech Connect

The mountaintop coal operator, White Flame Energy has switched to different truck-shovel arrangement. Along with many surface mining operations throughout central Appalachia, the company is using hoe-configured hydraulic excavators as opposed to the traditional front-shovel arrangements. Located in Varney, WV, White Flame Energy uses two Terex O & K mining shovels, an RH170 and an RH 200, which have the capacity to move 2 million cu yards per month from five seams, primarily the Coalburg, Stockton, and No 5 Block and associated rider seams. The article records conversations on the operations with Mike Vines, the general manager, and Don Nicewonder, the owner of White Flame Energy. 2 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2005-06-01

205

Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second y...

1997-01-01

206

Methane and Dust Controls for Longwalls: Pocahontas No. 3 Coalbed, Grundy, Va.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The periphery of longwall panels in the Pocahontas No. 3 coalbed is characterized by a zone of reduced permeability that inhibits the natural drainage of methane. The buildup of gas pressure within large blocks causes methane problems during plowing opera...

A. Cetinbas J. Cervik M. G. Zabetakis R. P. Vinson

1974-01-01

207

4. CORNICE AND PARAPET DETAIL. IN THE CENTER IS AN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CORNICE AND PARAPET DETAIL. IN THE CENTER IS AN ANVIL AND A PLOW, SYMBOLIC TOOLS OF THE FARMERS AND MECHANICS - Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank, 427 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

208

Journal for Scientific Agricultural Research. Volume 22, Number 78, 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The Smonitsa of Sumadia and its contemporary evolution; Watering regime of sugar beet in the climatic conditions of the Velika Morava region; Effects of plowing depth and farmyard manure on soil porosity; Fertilization relationships between some...

1970-01-01

209

40 CFR 201.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...self-propelled vehicle designed for and used on railroad tracks in the transport or rail cars, including self-propelled rail passenger vehicles...grinders, grouters, pile drivers, rail heaters, rail layers, sandblasters, snow plows, spike drivers, sprayers...

2013-07-01

210

The Mechanization of Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses technological innovations affecting the economic and social basis of farm life, focusing on trends, farm equipment (plows, reaping tools, tractors, and harvesters), productivity, and influence of computers in all phases of agribusiness. (JN)|

Rasmussen, Wayne D.

1982-01-01

211

75 FR 44047 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Description of Projects Approved for Collection and Use: Snow removal equipment--runway sweeper. Snow removal equipment--runway plow. Airfield friction tester. Snow removal equipment--airfield snow blower. PFC application and administration fees....

2010-07-27

212

Apparatus for controlling the dispersion of coal fines into the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

In order to limit the dispersion into the air of fines during the processing, handling and transport of fines-containing material, a hollow plow-like member is employed to insert the fines onto a conveyor belt well below larger particulate matter being conveyed by the belt. The plow-like member has a generally narrow v-shaped cross section, and the sidewalls flare outwardly at its lower terminus. The plow-like member is positioned just above the belt surface and is oriented with its leading edge facing the direction of material flow. Thus, the larger particulate matter lumps are lifted and folded back from each side of the plow-like member's centerline to define a space into which fines can be inserted through the tool interior. After the larger particulate matter lumps pass the member trailing edge, they fall back toward the belt center and cover the deposited fines.

Shelstad, K. L.

1981-05-26

213

78 FR 27472 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Description Of Withdrawn Projects: Solar farm, phase 2. 5615 Lee Highway demolition. Date Of Withdrawal: July 26, 2012. Snow plow blade. Date Of Withdrawal: August 6, 2012. Decision Date: August 7, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cynthia...

2013-05-10

214

25 CFR 213.33 - Diligence and prevention of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...waste, and preservation of the property and the health and safety of workmen; bury all pipelines crossing tillable lands below plow depth unless other arrangements therefor are made with the Area Director; pay the lessor all damages to crops,...

2013-04-01

215

25 CFR 211.47 - Diligence, drainage and prevention of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements of the authorized officer relative to prevention of waste; (h) Bury all pipelines crossing tillable lands below plow depth unless other arrangements are made with the Indian surface owner; and (i) Pay the Indian surface owner all...

2013-04-01

216

Phase II Evaluation Trunk Highway 19 Snowplow Demonstration Project Minnesota DOT Intelligent Vehicle Initiative Winter 1999-2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project evaluated Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies to help snow plow drivers operate safely and efficiently in low visibility conditions. Two ITS technologies were evaluated: a lateral guidance system (LGS) developed by 3M and a c...

M. Nookala

2001-01-01

217

Made in Germany  

SciTech Connect

This supplement was prepared in collaboration with the Association of German Mining Machine Manufacturers within VDMA to give an overview of German manufacturers' contribution to the coal industry. It has 18 short papers and a VDMA vendor matrix and directory. Papers include details of MAN Takraf's surface mining equipment, hydraulic shovels and excavators from Komatsu, Liebherr and Terex O & K, Siemens motors and electric control technology in trucks, shovels etc., new technology from DBT, IBS and Wirth, and low emission engines and drives from Deutz and DaimlerCrysler. 2 figs.

NONE

2005-09-01

218

Physiology of the Potato: New Insights into Root System and Repercussions for Crop Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato roots are concentrated mostly in the plow layer up to 30cm in soil depth. Some roots extend up to 100cm depth and\\u000a the total root length throughout the soil profile reaches about 1020km m?2 area. There are large differences in root mass (dry weight and length) in the plow layer between cultivars, breeding lines\\u000a and wild relatives. The differences

K. Iwama

2008-01-01

219

Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.  

PubMed

Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated. PMID:23500104

O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

2013-03-15

220

Crop production and soil water storage in long-term winter wheatfallow tillage experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil water is the major limiting factor in dryland crop production in the Central Great Plains. No-till fallow management increases soil water storage and reduces soil erosion potential. Two experiments were initiated in 1969 and 1970 near Sidney, NE to compare effects of moldboard plow (Plow), sub-tillage (Sub-till) and no-tillage (No-till) fallow systems on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

Drew J. Lyon; Walter W. Stroup; Randall E. Brown

1998-01-01

221

Soil microbial activity, nitrogen cycling, and long-term changes in organic carbon pools as related to fallow tillage management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were established in 1969 and 1970 near Sidney, NE, to determine the effect of moldboard plow (plow), sub-tillage (sub-till), and no-tillage (no-till) fallow management on soil properties, biological activities, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. One experiment was on land which had been broken from sod in 1920, seeded to crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] from 1957 to

J. W Doran; E. T Elliott; K Paustian

1998-01-01

222

Lay, bury method proves effective  

SciTech Connect

The best way to lay and bury a pipeline offshore is to perform both operations simultaneously. Historically these two operations have been separate but recently a simultaneous lay and bury technique has been developed that is technically feasible and cost effective. The technique employs a patented Sea Plow that cuts a trench in the ocean floor into which the pipeline is laid. The operation and performance of the Sea Plow are described.

Fulton, R.N.

1984-08-01

223

Centimeter-scale spatial variability in 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid mineralization increases with depth in agricultural soil.  

PubMed

Mineralization of organic chemicals in soil is typically studied using large homogenized samples, but little is known about the small-scale spatial distribution of mineralization potential. We studied centimeter-scale spatial distribution of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) mineralization activity at different depths (8-115 cm) in a Danish agricultural soil profile using a 96-well microplate C-radiorespirometric method for small-volume samples. The heterotrophic microbial population and specific MCPA degraders decreased 10- to 100-fold from the plow layer to a depth of 115 cm. MCPA was mineralized in all samples in the plow layer, but only about 60% in the transition zone immediately below the plow layer showed mineralization; at greater depth even fewer samples showed mineralization. A patchy spatial distribution of mineralization activity was observed from right below the plow layer and in the subsoil, with a few clearly defined active zones surrounded by areas devoid of mineralization activity. Due to the patchy distribution of mineralization activity at the centimeter scale just beneath the plow layer, MCPA and presumably other weakly sorbing pesticides might be at risk of leaching to the groundwater if transported from the plow layer into the subsoil. PMID:23673934

Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R; Srensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

224

The first discovery of a brachiosaurid from the Asian continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described here is a sauropod tooth from the Early Cretaceous of South Korea, similar to Brachiosaurus. The crown of the tooth is beveled off lingually so that when worn it presents a chisel-like edge. This find confirms the presence of a brachiosaurid in East Asia during the Early Cretaceous.

Lim, J.-D.; Martin, L. D.; Baek, K.-S.

2001-02-01

225

Smart Alignment Tool for Knee MosaicPlasty Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smart Alignment Tool for Knee MosaicPlasty Surgery is a device that aids in aligning the MosaicPlasty harvesting chisel with the cartilage surface of the knee. In the standard arthroscopic procedure, the angle at which the graft is harvested and inserted is determined visually by the surgeon through a single endoscopic view. The ability of the surgeon to obtain and

Albert W. Brzeczko; Randal P. Goldberg; Russell H. Taylor; Peter Evans

2001-01-01

226

Annual Research Review: Parenting and Children's Brain Development--The End of the Beginning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After questioning the practical significance of evidence that parenting influences brain development--while highlighting the scientific importance of such work for understanding "how" family experience shapes human development--this paper reviews evidence suggesting that brain structure and function are "chiselled" by parenting. Although the

Belsky, Jay; de Haan, Michelle

2011-01-01

227

Problematic ichthyosaurs from southwest England: a question of authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptopterygius tenuirostris is a long-snouted ichthyosaur which extends from the Upper Triassic (Rhaetian) to the Lower Jurassic (Hettangian and Sinemurian) of England. The species is quite common, but few complete skeletons are known and most of these were collected from the vicinity of Street, in Somerset, during the last century. Some of these skeletons bear a distinctive pattern of chisel

C. McGowan

1990-01-01

228

Evaluation of strip-tillage and fertilizer placement in Southern Idaho corn production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Strip tillage (ST) and associated nutrient placement can potentially help producers reduce fuel and machinery costs, increase yield, and reduce soil erosion compared to chisel tillage (CT). This study was initiated to evaluate corn production (Zea mays L.) under ST and CT, and various nitrogen (N) ...

229

Mining machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mining machine is disclosed in which a cutting drum undercuts a vein of coal and side relief cutters make vertical kerfs in the vein upwardly from the undercut. A chisel plate is forced into the coal vein and breaks loose the material above the undercut and between the side relief cuts. The coal falls into conveyors and is loaded

Mendola

1981-01-01

230

Coal cutting research slashes dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

US Bureau of Mines' research projects aimed at the reduction of coal dust during coal cutting operations are described. These include an investigation of the effects of conical bit wear on respirable dust generation, energy and cutting forces; the determination of the best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; a comparison between chisel- and conical-type

Roepke

1983-01-01

231

Characterization of soil physical properties and organic matter under long-term primary tillage in a humid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chisel ploughing is considered to be a potential conservation tillage method to replace mouldboard ploughing for annual crops in the cool-humid climate of eastern Canada. To assess possible changes in some soil physical and biological properties due to differences in annual primary tillage, a study was conducted for 9 years in Prince Edward Island on a Tignish loam, a well-drained

M. R. Carter

1996-01-01

232

Nitrogen requirements associated with improved conservation tillage for corn production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive soil erosion and use of nitrogen fertilizer are costly to the Atlantic Coastal Plain corn (zea mays L., Funks G 4507') producer and both may serve to create environmental hazards. An in?row chisel (36 cm deep) tillage method was compared with the standard 5 cm fluted coulter method for planting corn in premature wheat (Triticim aestivum L.) residues grown

G. W. Langdale; J. E. Box Jr; C. O. Plank; W. G. Fleming

1981-01-01

233

HISTORY, RESIDUE, AND TILLAGE EFFECTS ON EROSION OF LOESSIAL SOIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have shown that no-till (NT) management reduces soil erosion relative to chisel/disk-tillage (CT), and that this benefit may increase over time. There are fewer data, however, to separate the erosion-reduction contributions of surface residue mulch from those of improved soil properties und...

234

Modular Feature Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

CRESS (CHISEL Representation Employing Systematic Specification) is a no tation and set of tools for graphical specification and analysis of feat ures. It is applicable wherever a system consists of base functionality to which are added optionally selected features. The CRESS notation is introduced for basic diagrams, feature diagrams, and rules governing their behaviour. Although telephony is used to illustrate

Kenneth J. Turner

235

Basic Hand Tools for Bricklaying and Cement Masonry [and] Basic Hand Tools of the Carpenter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended for student use, this unit discusses and illustrates the tools used in brick and masonry and carpentry. Contents of the brick and masonry section include informative materials on bricklaying tools (brick trowels, joint tools, levels, squares, line and accessories, rules, hammers and chisels, tool kits) and cement masonry tools (tampers,

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

236

The Excavation Technology used in the Cow Catacombs of the Sacred Animal Necropolis, North Saqqara, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology used in tomb excavation in ancient Egypt has not been the subject of thorough investigation to date. A 'false end' in the catacombs of the mother of Apis bulls at the North Saqqara necropolis provides evidence of one excavation system used by tomb excavators. Chisel marks and 'cone' excavations elsewhere in the catacombs provide some evidence of an

Christopher J. Davey

237

Renovation of pastures containing paspalum 1 . Persistence of overdrilled ryegrass and prairie grass and effect on seasonal pasture production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence of Nui ryegrass and Matua prairie grass was measured over a 2-year period, after over drilling into pasture containing paspalum. Ryegrass and a mixture of rye grass and prairie grass were direct drilled in autumn through triple disc or chisel coulter assemblies. Half the width of each main plot received paraquat in 40 mm bands covering the drill

E. R. Thom; G. W. Sheath; A. M. Bryant; N. R. Cox

1986-01-01

238

Effects of deep tillage under rainfed agriculture on production of sorghum ( Sorghum biocolor L. Moench) intercropped with green gram ( Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) in western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of deep tillage on soil properties and crop yields under rainfed agriculture were evaluated on a shallow calcareous sandy loam (Ustochrept) in Bhilwara region in Western India. Disc and chisel ploughing (deep tillage, 25 to 40 cm) were compared with conventional, minimum and zero tillage (shallow tillage, 0 to 12.5 cm) under rainfed agriculture for two consecutive years,

K. C. Laddha; K. L. Totawat

1997-01-01

239

Listening for Students' Voices through Positional Writing Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Writing is a powerful social tool that offers students opportunities to chisel their identities as they position themselves and others on issues and beliefs (Dyson, 1992). This article presents the story of how Mark, a fifth-grade student who resisted writing in certain classroom contexts, used positional writing practices to shape his

Lassonde, Cynthia A.

2006-01-01

240

The Influence of Directional Associations on Directed Forgetting and Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined how cross-list directional associations influenced list-method directed forgetting and the degree of interference observed on each list. Each List 1 item had a (a) bidirectionally related item on List 2 (chip ?? potato), (b) forward association with an item on List 2 (chip ? wood), (c) backward association from an item on List 2 (chip ? chisel),

Lili Sahakyan; Leilani B. Goodmon

2007-01-01

241

Corn Production as Affected by Tillage System and Starter Fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

coverage after planting was maintained at high levels (40%) with NT, ZT, and ST, whereas coverage averaged only 25% with the CT loam soils, respectively, in southern Ontario. On clay practice. Cone index during the period of early plant growth was loam soils, yields were not different among ST, chisel significantly less for the ZT and ST systems compared with

Jeffrey A. Vetsch; Gyles W. Randall

2002-01-01

242

Woodworking. A Bilingual Text = Carpinteria. Un Texto Bilingue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is a course of instruction in woodworking in a two-column, English-Spanish format. Following an introduction to woodworking and a lesson on safety, the booklet contains 19 units covering the following topics: wood; planning; laying out project parts; hand saws; planes; chisels and gouges; wood files and forming tools; boring holes in

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

243

Debonding orthodontic ceramic brackets by ultrasonic instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breakage of ceramic brackets because of brittleness may cause such problems as aspiration of fragments and injury by flying debris. Portions remaining on the tooth must be laboriously ground off with a handpiece. This study investigated a potential method of lowering the force required to remove ceramic brackets, i.e., use of an ultrasonic chisel. Ceramic brackets were bonded to extracted

Daniel B. Boyer; Geoffrey Engelhardt; Samir E. Bishara

1995-01-01

244

VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE TRASH GRATE THAT REPLACED THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE TRASH GRATE THAT REPLACED THE LOCK GATES TO LOCK 71 WHEN THE FLIGHT OF FIVE WAS CONVERTED TO A SPILLWAY AFTER THE LARGER LOCKS, 34 AND 35, WERE PUT INTO OPERATION. THE SHOVEL TRUCK IN THE VIEW IS USED TO CLEAR DEBRIS. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

245

Design and simulation analysis for maize stubble harvester  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the towing resistance of the digging maize stubble device and ensure the indicators of reducing missing ratio and raising the harvest productivity when reaping maize, the new harvest technique was put forward, namely, stubble cutting shovel first stretch stubble ridge, and then maize rhizomes were collected by rhizome pick-up device and auxiliary pick-up device together. A

Yang ChuanHua; Ge YiYuan; Wang JunFa; Wei TianLu

2011-01-01

246

Technology for Institutional Enrollment, Communication, and Student Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of whether an institution is a reluctant passenger on the racing technology train or itching to throw another shovel of coal on the fire, continuing advancements in technology make it a formidable factor in life on college campuses today. While students are updating their most recent social networking sites, faculty, staff, and

Salas, Grace; Alexander, Julie S.

2008-01-01

247

15. Photocopied August 1978. LOCOMOTIVE CRANE IN THE ROCK CUT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopied August 1978. LOCOMOTIVE CRANE IN THE ROCK CUT, AUGUST 21, 1900. LOADING DUMP CARS. A STEAM SHOVEL LOADING DUMP CARS IS VISIBLE IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. (61) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

248

36 CFR 7.29 - Gateway National Recreation Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must be carried in the vehicle at all times while on the beaches or on the designated oversand routes: (i) Shovel; (ii) Jack; (iii) Tow rope or chain; (iv) Board or similar support; (v) Low pressure tire gauge. Prior to the...

2013-07-01

249

AN EPIZOOTIC OF AVIAN BOTULISM IN A PHOSPHATE MINE SETTLING POND IN NORTHERN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type C botulism was determined to be the cause of an epizootic among waterfowl and shorebirds in a phosphate mine settling pond in northern Florida during May and June of 1979. Several hundred birds, the most common of which were American coots (Fulica americana), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), common gallinules (Gallinula chloropus), and northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) were afflicted over

J. FORRESTER; LLKARL C. WENNER; FRANKLIN H. WHITE; C. GREINER; L WAYNE R. MARION; JAMES E. THUL; GERMAN A. BERKHOFF

250

CANAL AUTOMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canals have been used to distribute water for irrigation for several millennia. The practices gradually evolved from a shovel to open gaps in a berm to fixed structures to movable structures such as gates. Regulation of water in canals is still by manual labor in most parts of the world. A few hydra...

251

REDESCRIPTION OF THE SARCOCYSTS OF SARCOCYSTIS RILEYI (APICOMPLEXA : SARCOCYSTIDAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis rileyi ( Stiles 1893 ) Minchin 1913 are ducks (Anas spp.), and the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) is its definitive host. The structure of sarcocysts from an experimentally-infected shoveler duck (Anas cylpeata) fed sporocysts from an experimentally-infect...

252

29 CFR 1910.1050 - Methylenedianiline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must be equipped with separate storage for protective clothing and...not be cleaned by the use of compressed air. (5) Shoveling...for Safe Use, Handling and Storage A. Material is combustible...equipment. VI. Special Storage and Handling Precautions...

2013-07-01

253

Cross-pit conveyor and end-around-conveyor continuous mining systems. [Coal mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

These systems will perform prebenching for draglines and shovels, reclamation of spoils without soil compaction, mining of surface coal seams that are beyond the normal dragline range, mining of multiple thin coal seams and cost efficient haulage. In addition to coal mining, these systems can be used in tar sands, phosphate, or other applications where large volumes of material must

K. L. Barden; T. I. Files; P. J. Gilewicz

1981-01-01

254

Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health Report of Investigation: Underground Nonmetal Mine (Gemstone), Fatal Fall of Rib Accident, March 20, 2012, Vortex Mine, Mike Roberts, Great Falls, Judith Basin County, Montana. ID No. 24-01835.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Michael D. Roberts, Owner, age 54, was killed on March 20, 2012. He was cleaning fine ore with a shovel and loading it in the bucket of a front-end loader when rock, about 20 feet high, fell from the top left rib striking him. The accident occurred due to...

2012-01-01

255

Diesel Engine Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article

Tech Directions, 2010

2010-01-01

256

47. Photographic copy of historic photo, June 3, 1907 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. Photographic copy of historic photo, June 3, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). STEAM SHOVEL NO. 2 AT WORK ON LOWER EMBANKMENT, HUBBARD & CARLSON, CONTRACTORS. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

257

Lunar cycle on an Eneolithic bone artifact from the town of Karnobat, Southeast Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a well preserved bone artifact found in a prehistoric settlement mound near Karnobat, Bulgaria, and dated to the end of the V millennium BC. It has the shape of a shovel or shallow spoon with a short handle decorated with holes and notches (Figs.3,4). The author assumes that this is not a utilitarian object but rather a

Vesselina Koleva

2010-01-01

258

Improving haul truck productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews developments in payload management and cycle times. These were discussed at a roundtable held at the Haulage and Loading 2007 conference held in May in Phoenix, AZ, USA. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) explaind what their companies were doing to improve cycle times for trucks, shovels and excavators used in surface coal mining. Quotations are given from

Fiscor

2007-01-01

259

High Angle Conveyor Study. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the use of a high angle conveying system in an open pit mine. It identifies available high angle conveying equipment and examines the haulage and crushing costs associated with both a conventional truck and shovel mining operation and a...

E. A. Mevissen A. C. Siminerio J. A. Dos Santos

1981-01-01

260

2006 Haulage & Loading Conference: big equipment, big crowd  

SciTech Connect

The theme of this year's Haulage and Loading Conference was 'Is better still better?' Most of the presenters either considered the effectiveness of bigger equipment or examined other strategies from various perspectives, based on their experiences. Papers were presented on trucks, shovels, loaders, excavators, haul road design and maintenance, and incorporating IT equipment. 5 photos.

NONE

2006-06-15

261

28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE 'GEORGE M. CARL.' THE END OF UNLOADING, TRACTOR SCRAPERS ARE LOWERED INTO THE HOLD TO 'CLEAN UP.' PRIOR TO ABOUT 1953, MEN WITH SHOVELS DID THE JOB. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

262

Challenging Gifted Learners through Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gifted learners can be challenged by extending and enriching the mandated curriculum through the use of children's literature. Demonstrated is the use of the book "Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel" as a mechanism for learning about authorship, research skills, story evaluation, simple machines, problem solving, and technological change. (PB)

Bryant, Margaret A.

1989-01-01

263

Making a Big Deal about Everyday Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, who have been married over 30 years, take items from popular culture and transform them into giant sculptures that are on display all over the world. Their installations include clothespins, baseball bats, garden shovels and ice cream cones, to name a few. This transformation of everyday things is a great

Masse, Don

2010-01-01

264

50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...digger; (vii) A pot; (viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and...gear, except when fishing through the ice, when you may substitute for the keg or buoy a stake inscribed with your first...

2009-10-01

265

36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...digger; (vii) A pot; (viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and...gear, except when fishing through the ice, when you may substitute for the keg or buoy a stake inscribed with your first...

2010-07-01

266

Selective feeding by ducklings of different species  

Microsoft Academic Search

f rounding marshes and hatched in the laboratory incubator. Thus, newly hatched young of wild heritage were available to us for further study. We studied the diet and feeding behavior of Mallard (Anus platyrhynchos) , Pin- tail (A. acuta) , Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) , American Widgeon (Marecu umericunu) , Gadwall (A. strepera) , Shoveler (Spatula clypeutu) , Wood Duck

E COLLIAS

1958-01-01

267

Surveys of wetlands and waterbirds in Cagayan valley, Luzon, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2001 and January 2002, we searched the entire Cagayan valley, north-east Luzon, Philippines for wetlands and congre- gations of waterbirds. Five wetlands were identified that held substantial numbers of waterbirds. Important numbers of the endemic Philippine Duck Anas luzonica (Vulnerable) were observed at two lakes, as well as large numbers of Wandering Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arcuata, Northern Shoveler Anas

MERLIJN VAN WEERD; JAN VAN DER PLOEG

2004-01-01

268

Advantages of a combined GPS+GLONASS precision sensor for machine control applications in open pit mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of GPS in open pit mining. Existing applications are presented to show how GPS is already being used for dispatch of haul-trucks, navigation and positioning of shovels and drills, as well as conventional survey tasks. The limitations of GPS-based technology are discussed. Of all the problems presented by the mine environment (multipath, high vibration, restricted

L. Johnson; F. van Diggelen

1998-01-01

269

Technology for Institutional Enrollment, Communication, and Student Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Regardless of whether an institution is a reluctant passenger on the racing technology train or itching to throw another shovel of coal on the fire, continuing advancements in technology make it a formidable factor in life on college campuses today. While students are updating their most recent social networking sites, faculty, staff, and

Salas, Grace; Alexander, Julie S.

2008-01-01

270

19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, WITH SEVERAL PARTIALLY SUBMERGED STEAM SHOVELS SHOWN IN THE FLOODED CANAL. ONE OF THE TEMPORARY BRIDGES CONSTRUCTED OVER THE CANAL RIGHT -OF-WAY IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. (39) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

271

Increased productivity with AC drives for mining excavators and haul trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews how the effective implementation of AC drive systems on mining excavators (shovels and draglines) and haul trucks has led to dramatic increases in productivity. The review focuses on the major factors that influence productivity: production rate; reliability; maintenance cost; power grid compatibility; system intelligence; and efficiency. Key features of the haul truck drive are powerful GTO technology

Gerald M. Brown; B. J. Elbacher; Walter G. Koellner

2000-01-01

272

Making a Big Deal about Everyday Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, who have been married over 30 years, take items from popular culture and transform them into giant sculptures that are on display all over the world. Their installations include clothespins, baseball bats, garden shovels and ice cream cones, to name a few. This transformation of everyday things is a great

Masse, Don

2010-01-01

273

G92-1121 Winter Deicing Agents for the Homeowner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on deicers and how they affect plants is covered here.\\u000aSlick sidewalks and roads are hazardous. Removing compacted snow and ice with shovels or snow blowers is not always an easy task. Deicers can help by \\

Jay Fitzgerald; Donald E. Janssen

1992-01-01

274

Microbiological characterization of soddy soils of the Severnaya Dvina River floodplain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils of virgin lands, hayfields, and plowed lands were studied in the Severnaya Dvina River floodplain. The potential possibilities of microbiological processes were shown to increase in the summer in the soils in the following sequence as related to the increasing number of copiotrophs in them: virgin landhayfieldplowed land. Copiotrophs are microorganisms that use easily available organic substances, including nitrogencontaining ones. The increase in their number enhanced the nitrification, while other microbiological processes became weaker. The number of fungi increased due to the improvement of the water-air regime. As the agricultural use of the soils became more intense, the cellulose decomposition slowed down, the actual nitrification ability was lowered, and the carbon content in the physiologically active microbial biomass decreased because the area of the natural plant cover was reduced from the virgin land to the plowed land.

Kutuzova, R. S.; Vorob'ev, N. I.; Gamova, M. V.; Popova, L. A.; Kruglov, Yu. V.

2009-02-01

275

Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability  

PubMed Central

Data drawn from a global compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long-articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 12 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. The general equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-based agriculture increases erosion rates enough to prove unsustainable. In contrast to how net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields (?1 mm/yr) can erode through a typical hillslope soil profile over time scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations, no-till agriculture produces erosion rates much closer to soil production rates and therefore could provide a foundation for sustainable agriculture.

Montgomery, David R.

2007-01-01

276

Changes in the structure of soil microbial biomass under fallow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number and biomass of various groups of microorganisms in fallow soils is greater as compared to plowed soils. The microbial biomass in all fallow and plowed soils is dominated by fungal mycelium (from 90% in the top horizons to 97% in the lower ones). The part of spores in the fungal biomass is higher in plowed soils (from 9% in the top horizons to 4% in the lower ones) as compared to fallow soils (3.5-6%). The fallow soils are characterized by the greater part of prokaryotic microorganisms in the biomass, and the reserves and structure of the microbial biomass are more similar to those in the undisturbed soils. These characteristics changed during a ten-year-long period in a soddy-calcareous soil and during a 25-year-long period in a leached chernozem.

Polyanskaya, L. M.; Sukhanova, N. I.; Chakmazyan, K. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

2012-07-01

277

Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability.  

PubMed

Data drawn from a global compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long-articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. The general equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-based agriculture increases erosion rates enough to prove unsustainable. In contrast to how net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields ( approximately 1 mm/yr) can erode through a typical hillslope soil profile over time scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations, no-till agriculture produces erosion rates much closer to soil production rates and therefore could provide a foundation for sustainable agriculture. PMID:17686990

Montgomery, David R

2007-08-08

278

Effect of urban waste compost application on soil near-saturated hydraulic conductivity.  

PubMed

Compost application tends to increase soil fertility and is likely to modify soil hydrodynamic properties by acting on soil structural porosity. Two composts, a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW), have been applied every other year for 6 yr to cultivated plots located on a silt loam soil in the Parisian Basin, France. Four soil zones were defined in the topsoil after plowing: the plowpan located at the base of the plowed layer, compacted (Delta) or noncompacted (Gamma) zones located within the plowed layer, and interfurrows created by plowing and containing a large quantity of crop residues together with the recently-applied compost. To assess the effect of compost application on the near-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, infiltration rates were measured using a tension disc infiltrometer at three water pressure potentials -0.6, -0.2, and -0.05 kPa in the various zones of the soil profile. Compost addition decreased K((sat)) in the interfurrows after plowing by almost one order of magnitude with average values of 5.6 x 10(-5) m.s(-1) in the MSW plot and 4.1 x 10(-5) m.s(-1) in the SGW plot, against 2.2 x 10(-4) m.s(-1) in the control plot. This effect had disappeared 6 mo after plowing when the average K((sat)) in the control plot had decreased to 1.9 x 10(-5) m.s(-1) while that in the compost-amended plots remained stable. PMID:19244499

Schneider, S; Coquet, Y; Vachier, P; Labat, C; Roger-Estrade, J; Benoit, P; Pot, V; Houot, S

2009-02-25

279

Tillage energy savings from zone burial of shredded and whole cotton stalks  

SciTech Connect

Two prototypes of a stalk burial implement were tested for energy requirements at the University of California, Shafter Research Station. Both versions of the implement are designed to bury the cotton stalks in a concentrated Zone and reform the bed in the same location. To plow under shredded stalks, both versions of the implement required less energy than a conventional tillage systems typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Both stalk burial implements were also used to plow under whole cotton stalks. This offers additional energy savings by eliminating the stalk shredding operation.

Carter, L.; Chesson, J.; Thacker, G.; Penner, V.

1996-04-01

280

Anti-vacuum apparatus and method for installing concrete piles  

SciTech Connect

A method of installing a concrete pile in soil is described comprising forming a substantially vertical opening in the soil below the surface of the soil by driving a pusher which is preceded by a plow point downwardly into the soil, simultaneously delivering group into the opening to form the body of a concrete pile therein, and venting to the atmosphere the evacuated void which tends to develop in the opening being formed below the grout and between the grout and the plow point.

Steding, J.A.

1988-04-19

281

The Location of the Maximum Temperature on the Cutting Edges of a Drill  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes the temperature profile along the cutting edges of a drill and describes how the temperature on the chisel edge can exceed the temperature on the primary cutting edges. A finite element model predicts the temperature distribution in the drill, where the heat flux loads applied to the finite element model are determined from analytical equations. The model for the heat flux loads considers both the heat generated on the shear plane and the heat generated on the rake face of the tool to determine the amount of heat flowing into the tool on each segment of the cutting edges. Contrary to the conventional belief that the maximum temperature occurs near the outer corner of the drill, the model predicts that the maximum temperature occurs on the chisel edge, which is consistent with experimental measurements of the temperature profile.

Bono, M J; Ni, J

2005-01-07

282

Autoerotic fatalities with power hydraulics.  

PubMed

We report two cases in which men used the hydraulic shovels on tractors to suspend themselves for masochistic sexual stimulation. One man developed a romantic attachment to a tractor, even giving it a name and writing poetry in its honor. He died accidentally while intentionally asphyxiating himself through suspension by the neck, leaving clues that he enjoyed perceptual distortions during asphyxiation. The other man engaged in sexual bondage and transvestic fetishism, but did not purposely asphyxiate himself. He died when accidentally pinned to the ground under a shovel after intentionally suspending himself by the ankles. We compare these cases with other autoerotic fatalities involving perceptual distortion, cross-dressing, machinery, and postural asphyxiation by chest compression. PMID:8454997

O'Halloran, R L; Dietz, P E

1993-03-01

283

Stationary engineering handbook  

SciTech Connect

Years ago, the only qualifications you needed to become to become an operating engineer were the ability to shovel large chunks of coal through small furnace doors and the fortitude to sweat profusely for hours without fainting. As a consequence of technological evolution, the engineer's coal shovels have been replaced with computers and now perspiration is more the result of job stress than exposure to high temperatures. The domain of the operator has been extended far beyond the smoke-filled caverns that once encased him, out into the physical plant, and his responsibilities have been expanded accordingly. Unlike his less sophisticated predecessor, today's technician must be well versed in all aspects of the operation. The field of power plant operations has become a full-fledged profession and its principals are called Stationary Engineers. This book addresses the areas of responsibility and the education and skills needed for successful operation of building services equipment.

Petrocelly, K.L.

1989-01-01

284

Axle load and tillage effects on crop yields on a Mollic Ochraqualf in Northwest Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of axle load and tillage methods were studied for four crops grown on a clayey soil in the lake-bed region of northwestern Ohio for 7 consecutive years from 1988 to 1994. Three tillage methods were no-till (NT), chisel plough (CP) and mouldboard ploughing (MP). Split-plot axle load treatments were control, 10 Mg axle load and 20 Mg axle laod.

R. Lal

1996-01-01

285

On the way towards conservation tillage-soil moisture and mineral nitrogen in a long-term field experiment in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten years of a long-term field experiment using different strategies of conventional and conservation tillage in SW Germany were evaluated for soil mineral nitrogen (SMN) and soil moisture content. Treatments analysed were combinations of stubble tillage (S) or no stubble tillage with primary tillage P: mouldboard plough, CP: chisel plough, RTT: rototiller, NT: no-till, and VAR: alternating S\\/P or S\\/CP.

Sabine Gruber; Jens Mhring; Wilhelm Claupein

2011-01-01

286

Influence of residual stresses on high cycle fatigue strength of Ti6Al4V subjected to foreign object damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of residual stresses in the high cycle fatigue (HCF) strength of Ti6Al4V subjected to foreign object damage (FOD) was evaluated on simulated airfoil and rectangular geometries. Both real and simulated impacts were conducted using spherical projectiles launched at 300 m\\/s and quasi-static chisel indentation, respectively. The spheres used were 1 mm diameter glass beads while the quasi-static indentor

Steven R. Thompson; John J. Ruschau; Theodore Nicholas

2001-01-01

287

The Small Muscle-Specific Protein Csl Modifies Cell Shape and Promotes Myocyte Fusion in an Insulin-like Growth Factor 1Dependent Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a murine cDNA encoding a 9-kD protein, Chisel (Csl), in a screen for transcrip- tional targets of the cardiac homeodomain factor Nkx2- 5. Csl transcripts were detected in atria and ventricles of the heart and in all skeletal muscles and smooth muscles of the stomach and pulmonary veins. Csl protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm in fetal

Steve Palmer; Nicola Groves; Aaron Schindeler; Thomas Yeoh; Christine Biben; Cheng-Chun Wang; Duncan B. Sparrow; Louise Barnett; Nancy A. Jenkins; Neal G. Copeland; Frank Koentgen; Tim Mohun; Richard P. Harvey

2001-01-01

288

Scanning Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Bottom-up nanostructure synthesis has played a pivotal role in the advancement of nanoscale science. This approach is typically less labor and energy intensive than its topdown counterpart because only the required amount of material is grown from a chosen precursor, rather than a macroscopic object being chiseled down to the desired size. However, device integration often requires complex manipulation steps for placing the synthesized nano-object in the appropriate location.

Torrey, Jessica D.; Vasko, Stephanie E.; Kapetanovic, Adnan; Zhu, Zihua; Scholl, Andreas; Rolandi, Marco

2010-09-24

289

Pb isotopic ratios and elemental abundances for selective leachates from near-surface till: implications for mineral exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pb isotope ratios obtained from fine-grained fractions ( In this study, Pb isotopic measurements, and selective leaching of 6 near-surface till samples down-ice from the Chisel Lake (Manitoba) and Manitouwadge (Ontario) VMS deposits were carried out in order to determine the location and nature of the Pb within till. Elemental abundances from selective leachates for all 6 samples display similar

G. E. M. Hall; K. Bell

1996-01-01

290

Comparison of surface emissions and subsurface distribution of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropne and chloropicrin in sandy field beds covered with four different plastic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to conduct a field study at a Florida field site on surface emissions and subsurface distribution of cis-and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in raised beds injected with Telone C35 with four replications. A total of 16 beds were applied with Telone C35 by chisel injection and covered with four different plastic films, 4

Li-Tse Ou; John E. Thomas; L. Hartwell Allen Jr; Joseph C. Vu; Donald W. Dickson

2008-01-01

291

Cavitation and water storage capacity in bole xylem segments of mature and young Douglas-fir trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic specific conductivity, vulnerability to cavitation and water storage capacity of Douglas-fir sapwood was determined for samples from six young (1.0-1.5 m tall) and six mature trees (41-45 m tall). Measurements on samples from young trees showedthere were no effects of two contrasting sample types (entire stem segments vs sectors chiseled out of entire stems) on any of the calculated

Jean-Christophe Domec; Barbara L. Gartner

2001-01-01

292

Analysis of diatomite sediments from a paleolake in central Mexico using PIXE, X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatomite samples from paleolake Tlaxcala, in Central Mexico, have been analyzed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction. Chiseled blocks were scanned with a 0.7 MeV proton beam, 0.1 mm in diameter, in 0.25 mm steps across the sediments. X-ray tomography with the same step sizes was then applied, in order to compare the concentrations obtained

J. Miranda; A. Oliver; G. Vilaclara; R. Rico-Montiel; V. M. Macas; J. L. Ruvalcaba; M. A. Zenteno

1994-01-01

293

Power spectrum crossover in sediments of a paleolake disturbed by volcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a We study density fluctuations from sediments of a \\u000a paleolake in central Mexico that was subjected to volcanic perturbations by \\u000a means of computed tomography (CT) measurements on blocks chiselled out of \\u000a mines at the lake's bed. The mine walls show laminations corresponding to \\u000a the alternation of low density diatom sediments and high density volcanic \\u000a ash depositions. We have previously shown

G. Martnez-Mekler; E. Ugalde; G. Vilaclara

2007-01-01

294

Scaling and extended scaling in sediment registers of a paleolake perturbed by volcanic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a sequence of density variations of sedimentary material from an extinct paleolake of the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico, which we previously obtained by means of computer-aided tomography [J. Miranda, A. Oliver, G. Vilaclara, R. Rico-Montiel, V.M. Macias, J.L. Ruvalcava, M.A. Zenteno, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 85 (1994) 886]. In the stratified blocks chiselled out of mines

Edgardo Ugalde; Gustavo Martnez-Mekler; Gloria Vilaclara

2006-01-01

295

Scaling and extended scaling in sediment registers of a paleolake perturbed by volcanic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a sequence of density variations of sedimentary material from an extinct paleolake of the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico, which we previously obtained by means of computer-aided tomography (J. Miranda, A. Oliver, G. Vilaclara, R. Rico-Montiel, V.M. Macias, J.L. Ruvalcava, M.A. Zenteno, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 85 (1994) 886). In the stratified blocks chiselled out of mines

Edgardo Ugaldea; Gustavo Martinez-Mekler; Gloria Vilaclara

296

SUBSOIL COMPACTION EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES, NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND YIELD OF MAIZE FODDER (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted during the years 2003-2004 at Soil Chemistry Section, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, to evaluate the effect of hardpan and NPK fertilizers on soil properties, nutrient uptake and yield of maize fodder. Three hardpan levels, natural hardpan broken by chiseling (HP0); natural hardpan (HP1) and artificial hardpan (HP2) by compacting soil with 10 ton-loaded trolley, were

WASEEM RAZA; SOHAIL YOUSAF; ABID NIAZ; M. KHALID RASHEED; IQBAL HUSSAIN

297

Experimental Study of Different Laser Systems for PMMA Extraction Within the Scope of Revision Hip Arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Cement removal at revision hip arthroplasty forms a critical step for a successful operation. The removal of polymethymethacrylate\\u000a (PMMA) with curet and chisel can cause major damage to the femoral shaft. The use of ultrasound or lithotripsy can cause perforation\\u000a and microfractures to bone tissue. The goal of our study was to evaluate the application and practicability of different

K. Birnbaum; C. K. Sardemann; N. Gutknecht; K. W. Zilkens

2000-01-01

298

Atmospheric Volatilization and Distribution of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-Dichloropropene in Field Beds with and without Plastic Covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) is considered to be a potential replacement for methyl bromide when methyl bromide is phased out in 2005. This study on surface emissions and subsurface diffusion of 1,3-D in a Florida sandy soil was conducted in field beds with or without plastic covers. After injection of the commercial fumigant Telone II by conventional chisels to field

John E. Thomas; L. Hartwell Allen Jr.; Leslie A. McCormack; Joseph C. Vu; Donald W. Dickson; Li-Tse Ou

2004-01-01

299

13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

300

Defensive burying in rodents: ethology, neurobiology and psychopharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defensive burying refers to the typical rodent behavior of displacing bedding material with vigorous treading-like movements of their forepaws and shoveling movements of their heads directed towards a variety of noxious stimuli that pose a near and immediate threat, such as a wall-mounted electrified shock-prod. Since its introduction 25 years ago by Pinel and Treit [J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 92

Sietse F. De Boer; Jaap M. Koolhaas

2003-01-01

301

Correlates of lifetime reproductive success in three species of European ducks.  

PubMed

Number of breeding attempts is a strong correlate of lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in birds, but the relative importance of potentially interacting factors affecting LRS has rarely been fully evaluated. We considered simultaneously five main factors hypothesized to influence LRS (age at first breeding, nesting date, number of breeding attempts, female traits, brood parasitism) by analyzing with path analysis 22-year data sets for 1,279 individually marked females and their offspring in tufted duck ( Aythya fuligula), common pochard ( A. ferina) and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). We recaptured marked offspring as breeding adults (n=496 females) and obtained more complete estimates of LRS by incorporating information about banded ducklings of both sexes shot by hunters > or =12 months after banding (n=138). In tufted ducks and especially pochard (both diving duck species), late-hatched females tended to delay nesting until 2-years old. Most females (tufted duck, 74%; pochard, 71%; shoveler, 59%) apparently produced no breeding-age offspring. Number of breeding attempts (i.e., longevity) was the strongest correlate of LRS in all species, after controlling effects of age at first breeding, relative nest initiation date, wing length and body mass. Percentage of females producing recruits increased gradually with number of breeding attempts for all three species. Also, as expected, females nesting early in the breeding season had higher LRS than late-nesting individuals. In shoveler, female-specific characteristics of relatively longer wings and heavier late incubation body mass had positive effects on LRS, the latter feature being more common in 2-year-old nesters. In diving ducks, no relationships were detected between LRS and female-specific traits like wing length or body mass, and nor did acceptance of parasitic eggs have any deleterious impact on fitness estimates. Overall, number of fledged ducklings and LRS were related in tufted duck, weakly associated in pochard and unrelated in shoveler, implying that fledging success is not always a reliable measure of LRS. PMID:15138877

Blums, Peter; Clark, Robert G

2004-05-12

302

Wonder Underground  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners engage in the joy of discovery as they dig to uncover the wonders that can be found underground. Learners use tools (gardening shovels and sifters) to find natural items like twigs and litter like bottle caps buried in topsoil. Learners use scientific skills to collect, classify, describe and record their findings. Use this activity to talk about the difference between non-living and living things and/or littering.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

303

59. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. STEAM SHOVEL NO. 1 AT WORK ON EASTERLY BORROW PIT. CLASS OF MATERIAL BEING EXCAVATED IS LARGELY SAND AND GRAVEL, WITH ENOUGH CLAY TO FORM A BOND BETWEEN SAND AND GRAVEL. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

304

Mining production information management system in an open pit based on GIS\\/GPS\\/GPRS\\/RFID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using GIS, GPS, GPRS and RFID, a dynamic information management system of digital mining in an open pit was designed and developed.\\u000a A linear programming model was set up in a practical application. By the model, the system can automatically draw up production\\u000a plan of ore blending well every day. The system can monitor and dispatch open-pit trucks and shovels

Qing-hua Gu; Cai-wu Lu; Fa-ben Li; Shi-gun Jing

2010-01-01

305

Silvicultural manipulation and site effect on above and belowground biomass equations for young Pinus radiata  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little understanding of how silvicultural treatments, during the early stages of tree development, affect allometric relationships. We developed and compared stem, branch, foliage, coarse and fine root biomass, and leaf area estimation equations, for four-year-old genetically improved radiata pine trees grown on three contrasting soil-site conditions. At each site, selected trees were destructively sampled from a control (shovel

Rafael A. Rubilar; H. Lee Allen; Jose S. Alvarez; Timothy J. Albaugh; Thomas R. Fox; Jose L. Stape

306

Bucyrus say HydraCrowd could generate revenue  

SciTech Connect

Amongst news of new products from US suppliers is the announcement by Bucyrus International of HydraCrowd which eliminates the need for rope crowd change intervals in electric shovels. Active Control Technology has had its Wi-Fi mesh network system for underground communications and tracking system approved by the MSHA. The Spatial Solutions Division of Leica Geosystems has gone into partnership with Maptek to supply laser scanners and associated mine scanning software. 2 photos.

NONE

2009-03-15

307

60. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. STEAM SHOVEL NO. 1 LOADING CARS IN EASTERLY BORROW PIT. CARS IN THIS TRAIN OF 12 NEARLY ALL LOADED. EAIGHT MINUTES REQUIRED TO LOAD 12 CARS EQUAL TO 42 CU YDS. PLACE MEASUREMENT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

308

Improving haul truck productivity  

SciTech Connect

The paper reviews developments in payload management and cycle times. These were discussed at a roundtable held at the Haulage and Loading 2007 conference held in May in Phoenix, AZ, USA. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) explaind what their companies were doing to improve cycle times for trucks, shovels and excavators used in surface coal mining. Quotations are given from Dion Domaschenz of Liebherr and Steve Plott of Cat Global Mining. 4 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-06-15

309

Stories I tell my patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once upon a time, a long, long time ago in the 1930s, two farmers (cousins, in fact) owned farms side by side. In late March, when the ground finally softened, the cousins decided it was time to start plowing. By tradition, the first farmer started on the west side of his long, narrow plot of ground, and the second farmer

Arnold E. Andersen

1996-01-01

310

MHD Modelling of Flow Phenomena during the Impulse Plasma Deposition Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents recent computational studies of plasma dynamics in a coaxial accelerator used in surface engineering for Impulse Plasma Deposition (IPD). In our earlier studies we proposed a schematic pattern of a discharge region and a physical model of dynamic phenomena in the IPD accelerator with a tubular external electrode. The simplified snow plow code of our previous studies

M. Rabinski; K. Zdunek

2008-01-01

311

Decline and Renewal in the Heartland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arrival of European Americans in the Upper Midwest in the middle of the nineteenth century led to dramatic changes in the region's ecology. In what was perhaps the most rapid and extensive degradation of a natural ecosystem in human history, in the space of 50 years settlers plowed under millions of acres of the native tallgrass prairie and replaced

Jonathan Andelson

312

Spores, Dust and Valley Fever.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In California, most of the old-time pioneers and many of their children and grand-children recount episodes of a disease once referred to as soil-breaking fever . They recall that one to four weeks after a severe dust storm, or after plowing the sun baked...

H. B. Levine

1983-01-01

313

Resistance of steel strength wires used in small fiber-optic cables to seawater corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion rates of single strands of strength wire and the same wires assembled in small, fiber-optic cables with jacket damage that exposes the wire have been measured and used to predict the loss in wire and cable strength with time. The wires consisted of galvanized and ungalvanized extra improved plow steel. The results of laboratory measurements and of tensile

Colin J. Sandwith; Robert L. Ruedisueli; Allan L. James; Gerald A. Gotthardt

1996-01-01

314

Devens 2008 Monitoring Update  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents results from site monitoring activities during calendar year 2008 at the EPA/ORD Red Cove Study Area relative to site characterization activities under Operable Units 01 (Shepley's Hill Landfill) and 11 (Plow Shop Pond) at the Fort Devens Superfund site. T...

315

Contemporary Agriculture. Volume 19, Number 1-2, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Third Yugoslav symposium on soil tillage; Effect of the time and depth of tillage on the yield of corn under agroecological conditions of Eastern Serbia; Effect of different plowing depths, methods of pre-planting preparation and quantities of s...

1971-01-01

316

Durability of Drainage Improvement by Combination of Main Drain and Trench Drains with Vertical Drains in Clayey Field Converted from Paddy to Upland Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drainage efficiency of a subsurface drainage system for avoidance of standing water on the plow pan of clayey field was evaluated. A subsurface drainage system with a main drain and orthogonally adjoined rice husk trench drains joined by vertical rice husk drains was constructed on a test plot and compared to an identical control plot of paddy field converted to upland use under soybean cultivation. The ratio of total underdrain discharge to rainfall in the improved plot greatly increased over two years compared to that in a control plot. In the improved plot, the peak underdrain discharge per hour associated with some heavy rainfalls was around 3 mm/h in the first year but decreased to about 2 mm/h in the second year. By improving drainage in the paddy field, standing water on the plow pan was quickly eliminated after rain events and the period of flooding on the plow pan during the soybean growing season was greatly reduced. However, underdrain discharge in the improved plot decreased greatly in the third year to be at the same level as in the control plot, and rain water flooded the plow pan for extended periods of time.

Adachi, Kazuhide; Ohno, Satoshi; Furuhata, Masami; Ogura, Chikara; Tanimoto, Takeshi

317

Use of Manganese Cast Iron for Parts of Soil Working Machines (Primenenie Margantsovistogo Chuguna dlya Detalei Pochvoobrabatyvayushchikh Mashin).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cast steels with high manganese contents (4-12%) and inoculated with cerium were evaluated as materials for tillage tools. The greatest wear resistance to soil abrasion occurred for the 4% manganese steels. Landsides of plows, cultivator tips, and disk hi...

V. B. Lyadski M. I. Masumov V. I. Rublev

1971-01-01

318

Differential Tolerances of Amaranthus Strains to High Levels of Aluminum and Manganese in Acid Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of Amaranthus are grown extensively as leafy green vegetables in tropical Africa and Asia and as high yielding grain crops in Western South America, Central America, Northern India, Western Nepal, and Pakistan. The crop is often grown on acid, marginal soils, under subsistence conditions, where liming even the soil plow layer may not be economically feasible. Hence, the identification

C. D. Foy; T. A. Campbell

1984-01-01

319

Ten-Year Growth of Planted Paper Birch in Old Fields in Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The survival and growth of paper birch seedlings planted in old fields were better where the sod was removed before planting than where the sod was left intact. Plowing a double furrow and planting on the second overturned slice gave the best results. Ini...

J. C. Bjorkbom

1972-01-01

320

Carbon dioxide fluxes following tillage from a mollisol in the Argentine Rolling Pampa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emission from soil plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. Short term losses of soil carbon due to tillage are of a variable magnitude. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of plowing the soil on CO2-C emissions during summer in a coarse-loamy mixed thermic Typic Hapludoll from the Argentine Rolling Pampa. Temperature after tillage was

Roberto Alvarez; Carina Rosa Alvarez; Gabriel Lorenzo

2001-01-01

321

LONG-TERM CORN RESIDUE EFFECTS: HARVEST ALTERNATIVES, SOIL CARBON TURNOVER AND ROOT-DERIVED CARBON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A better understanding of carbon (C) turnover, with estimates of root-derived C, is needed to manage soil C sequestration. Stover and fertilizer treatments (in a 2 X 2 factorial) and a control were imposed on 29 yr of continuous corn (Zea mays L.) with moldboard plow tillage with silage (stover) rem...

322

Tillage system effects on runoff and sediment yield in hillslope agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff and soil erosion are major factors of land and lake degradation in the Patzcuaro Watershed located in Michoacan, Mexico. This non-point source pollution results from corn cultivation on steep cropland sites. In the local farming system, the soil is bare for much of the year and subject to frequent plowing and cultivation. Conservation tillage and the use of crop

Mario Tapia-Vargas; Mario Tiscareo-Lpez; Jeffrey J Stone; Jose Luis Oropeza-Mota; Miguel Velzquez-Valle

2001-01-01

323

Changes in Water Quality in an Urban Stream Following the Use of Organically Derived Deicing Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Willow Brook receives runoff from Cooperstown, NY and flows into Otsego Lake, a phosphorus limited, mesotrophic waterbody. Between 1992 and 1998, the Village of Cooperstown's winter road management policy included plowing and applying abrasives (particulate material intended to increase traction) mixed with enough salt to minimize clumping. Between 1998 and 2002, Ice Ban Magic and Magic Minus Zero, both organic

Matthew Albright

2005-01-01

324

Sustainable Management of Dryland Alfisols (Red Soils) in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community based cooperative research project was implemented on farmers' fields on some dryland Alfisols in Tamil Nadu, India, to demonstrate and validate improved dry-farming technologies, such as: 1) soil and water conservation and water harvesting; 2) cropping systems, including intercropping and double cropping; 3) recycling of processed agricultural wastes and byproducts; and 4) low-cost drip irrigation. Disc plowing to

S. P. Palaniappan; R. Balasubramanian; T. Ramesh; A. Chandrasekaran; K. G. Mani; M. Velayutham; R. Lal

2009-01-01

325

ARSENIC TRANSPORT ACROSS THE GROUNDWATER ? SURFACE WATER INTERFACE AT A SITE IN CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Plow Shop Pond, located in central Massachusetts within the New England ?arsenic belt,? receives water from a series of interconnected upstream ponds as well as from upward-discharging groundwater. A small, shallow embayment on the southwest side of the pond is known as Red Cove...

326

Trends and patterns of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems in lands of agricultural afforestation within the territory of forest-steppe in the center of eastern Europe  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The anthropogenic evolution of chernozems as a result of plowing and the creation of forest shelterbelts on three meadow-steppe areas of forest-steppe were studied. It was established, that in all areas there are similar patterns, caused by the transformation of virgin soils into arable soils and vi...

327

43. From Superintendent's Monthly Report, March 1936. Haleakala District Ranger ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. From Superintendent's Monthly Report, March 1936. Haleakala District Ranger J.A. Peck, Photographer. THIS IS HAWAII-CLEARING SNOW FROM HALEAKALA ROAD AFTER STORM. HOWEVER THIS IS NOT A PRELIMINARY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PURCHASE OF ROTARY PLOW. PHOTO PECK, FEB. 5. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

328

The Problem of Basic Parameters of Tillage Tools for Primary Soil Tillage, Chapter II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are six basic systems interactions of the operating tools of plowshare type plows with the soil: The action of one body alone without supplementary working tools; The operation of the basic body in conjunction with a skim coulter; The operation of t...

A. T. Vaginym

1968-01-01

329

Longwall mining  

SciTech Connect

Longwall mining theory and practice in the USA is covered. Chapters discuss: US panel layout, strata mechanics, design considerations for panel layout, powered supports, design and application of powered supports, methods of coal extraction with the shearer and plow, coal transportation, methane and dust control, longwall face move, surface subsidence and instrumentation.

Peng, S.S.; Chiang, H.S.

1984-01-01

330

Application of water jet assisted drag bit and pick cutter for the cutting of coal measure rocks. Final technical report. [Tests of combination in different rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of high pressure water jets on the cutting forces of drag bit cutters in sedimentary rocks. A hard and soft sandstone, shale and limestone were tested with commercially obtainable conical and plow type drag bits on the EMI linear cutting machine. About 1200 cuts were made at different bit penetration, jet orientation,

D. Ropchan; F. D. Wang; J. Wolgamott

1980-01-01

331

Women farmers in early twentieth century American fiction: Gates, Cather, Glasgow, Ferber, and Hurston  

Microsoft Academic Search

By comparing Eleanor Gate's The Plow-Woman (1906), Willa Cather's O Pioneers! (1913), Edna Ferber's So Big (1924), Ellen Glasgow's Barren Ground (1925), and Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937) to urban novels of the period, I argue that while urban American novels emphasize internal, personal freedom of choice, the rural fictions emphasize both women's internal and external

Douglas William Werden

2001-01-01

332

Animal draft power in South Africa: past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indigenous peoples of South Africa used cattle for riding and packing. The European settlers of the 1600s introduced plows, carts, horses and later donkeys, but early in the 20th century steam and internal combustion engines became the preferred sources of draft power. Animal draft remains, however, often the most profitable and environmentally friendly power source. It is used by

Richard Fowler

333

49 CFR 325.1 - Scope of the rules in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...such as a fire engine, an ambulance, a police van, or a rescue van, when it is responding to an emergency call; (5) A snow plow in operation; or (6) The sound generated by auxiliary equipment which is normally operated only when the motor...

2011-10-01

334

Rainfall and tillage effects on soil structure after alfalfa conversion to maize on a clay loam soil in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil degradation is accelerated when perennial crops are converted to annual row crops, primarily due to increased soil disturbance from tillage. Subsequent heavy rainfall may induce soil settling, reduce macroporosity and increase hardsetting upon drying. An experiment involving plow and no-tillage and two simulated rainfall treatments (wet and dry) was conducted on Kingsbury clay loam soil in northern New York

U. P. Karunatilake; H. M van Es

2002-01-01

335

Meeting Mandatory Federal Health Standards Under Difficult Dust Control Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Respirable dust measurements made by coal mine inspectors during the first year of enforcement of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 established that the high-risk dust concentrations on the four longwall plows operating in Virginia were in the r...

J. J. Pendergast T. A. Cox W. H. Sutherland

1976-01-01

336

Meeting Mandatory Federal Health Standards under Difficult Dust-Control Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Respirable dust measurements made by coal mine inspectors during the first year of enforcement of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 established that the high-risk dust concentrations on the four longwall plows operating in Virginia were in the r...

J. J. Pendergast T. A. Cox W. H. Sutherland

1976-01-01

337

Commentary Tillage and soil carbon sequestrationWhat do we really know?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that soil disturbance by tillage was a primary cause of the historical loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) in North America, and that substantial SOC sequestration can be accomplished by changing from conventional plowing to less intensive methods known as conservation tillage. This is based on experiments where changes in carbon storage have been estimated through

John M. Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Rodney T. Venterea; Timothy J. Griffis

338

Soil quality and carbon sequestration: Impacts of no-tillage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - The agriculture sector world-wide accounts for about one fifth of the annual anthropogenic increase in greenhouse forcing, producing about 50 to 75% of anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions and about 5% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Plowing or soil inversion is a principal cause of CO2 emission from croplands. There is scientific evidence that soil tillage has been

R. Mrabet

339

Recovery of fertilizer nitrogen from continuous corn soils under contrasting tillage management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tillage systems influence soil properties and may influence the availability of applied and mineralized soil N. This laboratory study (20C) compared N cycling in two soils, a Wooster (fine, loamy Typic Fragiudalf) and a Hoytville (fine, illitic Mollic Epiaqualf) under continuous corn ( Zea mays) production since at least 1963 with no-tillage (NT), minimum (CT) and plow tillage (PT) management.

Dean A. Martens; Warren Dick

2003-01-01

340

[Short-term effects of different tillage modes combined with straw-returning on the soil labile organic carbon components in a farmland with rice-wheat double cropping].  

PubMed

A two-year (2009-2011) field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage modes, straw-returning, and their interactions on the soil total organic carbon (TOC) and labile organic carbon (LOC) components (easily oxidizable organic carbon (EOC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC)) at the soil depths of 0-7, 7-14, and 14-21 cm in a farmland with rice-wheat double cropping. In all treatments of straw-returning, the TOC and LOC contents in each soil layer were significantly higher than those without straw-returning. Under plowing tillage, the MBC content in 0-7 cm soil layer was significantly higher than that under rotary tillage, but the EOC content was in adverse. Rotary tillage made the TOC content in 7 - 14 cm soil layer being significantly higher, as compared with plowing tillage. The TOC, WSOC, and MBC contents in 14-21 cm soil layer under plowing tillage were significantly higher than those under rotary tillage. Plowing tillage combined with rice and wheat straws-returning made the soil TOC content being higher than the other treatments. PMID:24015560

Yang, Min-Fang; Zhu, Li-Qun; Han, Xin-Zhong; Gu, Ke-Jun; Hu, Nai-Juan; Bian, Xin-Min

2013-05-01

341

No-Till Farming Is a Growing Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most U.S. farmers prepare their soil for seeding and weed and pest control through tillage, plowing operations that disturb the soil. Tillage practices affect soil carbon, water pollution, and farmers' energy and pesticide use, and therefore data on tilla...

J. Horowitz K. Ueda R. Ebel

2010-01-01

342

Appropriate technology in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of China (based on a visit to China in 1980) is described. The human labor intensity, particularly in the rural areas, is emphasized. Most tasks are accomplished using simple tools. Plowing, using water buffalo or single-piston diesel tractors, is discussed as well as the methods of nutrient recycling. All organic wastes are considered precious resources to be recycled

Sardinsky

1981-01-01

343

Fundamental study of ultrasonic polishing of mold steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic Machining (USM) is conventionally used for machining hard and brittle materials. As polishing of steel mold has been a serious concern in the industry, an innovative cost-effective ultrasonic polishing system is developed for this purpose. The ultrasonic tool moves in a patterned path to cover the entire surface to be polished. Microcutting, plowing and indentation by abrasives are observed

H. Hocheng; K. L. Kuo

2002-01-01

344

Method for transporting low temperature heat long distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for transporting low temperature heat long distances consists of a system of high pressure air with a high specific heat in a low heat loss and low cost non-metallic heat pipe that is coilable for plowing into the earth. The hot air is used for space heating or for heating hot water heating systems or for process

Pugh

1983-01-01

345

Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent

Helms, Douglas

1991-01-01

346

Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Colonization of Pig Carrion in South Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data

Jeffery K. Tomberlin; D. Craig Sheppard; John A. Joyce

2005-01-01

347

Extractable trace elements in the soil profile after years of biosolids application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and some state agencies regulate trace element additions to soil from land application of biosolids. The authors generally consider trace elements added in biosolids (sewage sludge) to accumulate in the soil surface without significant transport below the plow layer. They used 11 yr of field-study information from biosolids addition to dryland hard red winter

K. A. Barbarick; J. A. Ippolito; D. G. Westfall

1998-01-01

348

Tillage and soil carbon sequestrationWhat do we really know?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that soil disturbance by tillage was a primary cause of the historical loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) in North America, and that substantial SOC sequestration can be accomplished by changing from conventional plowing to less intensive methods known as conservation tillage. This is based on experiments where changes in carbon storage have been estimated through

John M. Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Rodney T. Venterea; Timothy J. Griffis

2007-01-01

349

Assessing The Effectiveness Of Soil Carbon Sequestration In North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil carbon sequestration has been shown to be an important part of a portfolio of carbon sequestration strategies in the U.S. and Canada, and one that can be implemented at relatively low costs. This analysis focuses on the estimate of carbon sequestration in soil as a result of a change from conventional plow tillage (CT) to no-till (NT) in North

A. K. Jain; X. Yang; W. Post

2006-01-01

350

Effects of cutting conditions on dynamic cutting factor and process damping in milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how cutting conditions affect dynamic cutting factor and system process damping in a dynamic milling process. By considering variation of edge plowing force, a frequency domain method is presented to identify the dynamic cutting factor through measured vibration in a milling process, and cutting conditions most suitable for the identification experiments are also discussed. A series of

C. Y. Huang; J.-J. Junz Wang

2011-01-01

351

Effects of Watershed Best Management Practices on Habitat and Fish in Wisconsin's Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effectiveness of watershed-scale implementations of best-management practices (BMPs) for improving habitat and fish attributes in two coldwater stream systems in Wisconsin. We sampled physical habitat, water temperature, and fish communities in multiple paired treatment and reference streams before and after upland (barnyard runoff controls, manure storage, contour plowing, reduced tillage) and riparian (stream bank fencing, sloping, limited

Lizhu Wang; John Lyons; Paul Kanehl

2002-01-01

352

Effects of compact layer on salt accumulation in plastic film house soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact layer was detected below the plow layer of old plastic film house soils (Eutrudepts) cultivated for more than 10 y in Yousung and Yesan districts, in the central part of Korea. In addition, salts had accumulated in the surface layers of these soils. One representative site was irrigated continuously for 96 h and redistribution patterns of the salts

Pil Joo Kim

2001-01-01

353

Endangered Democratic Institutions and Instrumental Inquiry: Remarks upon Receiving the Veblen-Commons Award  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1890s, British cattle companies drove large herds into the sparsely settled grasslands of Nebraska like an invading army. Immediately, the drovers started killing homesteaders, who were always shot on the homesteaders land at the plow or mower to clarify that it was the homesteading that was the capital offense. The cattle companies fenced public lands and paid others

F. Gregory Hayden

2003-01-01

354

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE METHODS ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELD OF WATERMELON (Citrullus Vulgaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods on soil physical properties and crop yield of watermelon. Tillage treatments in the study were moldboard plow + two passes of disk harrow as conventional tillage (CT), two passes of disk harrow as reduced tillage (RT), one pass of disk harrow as minimum tillage (MT)

Majid Rashidi; Fereydoun Keshavarzpour

355

EARLY JOURNEYS OF ZEA MAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Every spring in the Himalayan mountains of Nepal, farmers plow their terraced fields and plant maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), an American crop plant. Although Nepalese farmers are convinced that their maize, or "makai", is indigenous to the Himalayas, several independent lines of evidence indicate tha...

356

UNDERSTANDING AND MISUNDERSTANDING THE MIGRAnON OF THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY (NYMPHALIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA: 1857-1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1857, amateurs and professionals have woven a rich tapestry of biological information about the monarch butterfly's migration in North America. Huge fall migrations were first noted in the midwestern states, and then eastward to the Atlantic coast. Plowing of the prairies together with clearing of the eastern forests promoted the growth of the milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, and probably extended

LINCOLN P. BROWER

357

Environmental aspects of ethanol derived from no-tilled corn grain: nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with ethanol (a liquid fuel) derived from corn grain produced in selected counties in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin are presented. Corn is cultivated under no-tillage practice (without plowing). The system boundaries include corn production, ethanol production, and the end use of ethanol as a fuel in a

Seungdo Kim; Bruce E. Dale

2005-01-01

358

Modeling post-tillage soil structural dynamics: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tillage modifies the soil structure to create conditions favorable for plant growth. However, the resulting loose structure is susceptible to collapse by internal capillary forces and external compactive stresses with concurrent changes in soil hydraulic properties. Presently, limited understanding of these complex processes often leads to consideration of the soil plow-layer as a static porous medium. Our objective is to

Dani; Teamrat A. Ghezzehei

2002-01-01

359

Wind erosion from cropland in the USA: a review of problems, solutions and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural practices dominate over climatic variability in determining temporal variability in dust blowing on cropland in the USA. Farming operations that increase wind erosion and dust emissions include plowing, leveling beds, planting, weeding, seeding, fertilizing, mowing, cutting, baling, spreading compost or herbicides and burning fields. Methods of controlling sediment loss include planting windbreaks and special crops to alter wind flow;

Karl F Nordstrom; Shintaro Hotta

2004-01-01

360

INFLUENCE OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE ON SOIL CARBON AND MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing the amount of carbon (C) in soils is one method to reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. We measured organic C stored in Southern Idaho soils having long term cropping histories that supported native sagebrush vegetation (NSB), irrigated moldboard plowed crops (IMP...

361

Soil Carbon Dynamics for Irrigated Corn under Two Tillage Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional plow tillage (CT) with high N rates is commonly used to grow irrigated, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) in the central Great Plains. Less common than CT is to instead use continuous no-till (NT). Both systems, with optimum irrigation and N fertilization, produce similar corn stover yields...

362

Challenges and Strategies Related to Hearing Loss among Dairy Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Farming is often imagined to be a serene and idyllic business based on historical images of a man, a horse, and a plow. However, machinery and equipment on farms, such as older tractors, grain dryers, and vacuum pumps, can have noise levels, which may be dangerous to hearing with prolonged, unprotected exposure. Purpose: This qualitative

Hass-Slavin, Louise; McColl, Mary Ann; Pickett, William

2005-01-01

363

Nitrogen, Tillage, and Crop Rotation Effects On Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes from Irrigated Cropping Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: a) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; b...

364

Nitrogen fertilizer effects on irrigated conventional tillage corn yields and soil carbon and nitrogen pools  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional plow tillage (CT) is a common soil management practice under irrigated continuous corn (Zea mays L.) in the semiarid central Great Plains that requires a relatively high nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate to optimize grain yield and economic returns. This study investigated how four rates of ...

365

New tools to cut labor costs  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute is developing new techniques that will reduce the labor costs of building and maintaining power-distribution systems. The new tools include a cable plow for underground cables, concrete cutters, an underground borer, tree growth retardants, and other devices which reduce labor requirements and cause less environmental disruption. 2 references. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Kendrew, T.; Rodenbaugh, T.; Steiner, R.; Tackaberry, R.

1983-03-01

366

Dilemmas in Introducing Applied Technology: The Plough and the Cattlelords in Timor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An effort to introduce the plow to Timor farmers faced following barriers: nature of the land and climate, strongly demarcated traditional system, tensions among ethnic groups, cattlelords system, necessary time to place/retain trainers in villages. Positive factors were concrete results, use of small groups and native trainers, age of adopters,

Johnston, Mary

1990-01-01

367

Changing Agricultural Education to Meet Needs of Emerging Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With less than 2% of Americans involved in traditional production agriculture (cows, plows, and sows), agricultural programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels must change to address the workforce of the future. AgrowKnowledge works at the national level to provide tools for changing agriculture, food, and natural resource educational

Parker, Rick; Brase, Terry; Dewsnup, Mel; Anderson, Mandi; Collins, Ashley; Klopp, Deborah; Johnson, Brian; Feldmann, Holly

2009-01-01

368

Managing Intensively Grazed Pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forage production during periods of summer drought can be increased by including additional species in the pasture mixture, especially if those species have desirable attributes such as improved water use efficiency or deep root systems. Conversion of plowed fields to pasture also has the potential ...

369

SOIL AGGREGATION, AGGREGATE CARBON AND NITROGEN, AND MOISTURE RETENTION INDUCED BY CONSERVATION TILLAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Problems generated by deficient soil organic matter (SOM) levels are often acute in the tropics and subtropics, where better soil and residue management methods are needed, but have not been much studied. Conservation tillage may ameliorate SOM losses. We studied the effects of 13 y of plow tillag...

370

29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (A)Rough lumber. (B)Dressed lumber. Table G-1Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire Rope Clips Improved plow steel, rope diameter, inches Number of clips Drop forged Other material Minimum spacing, inches (1 )...

2013-07-01

371

ROTARY SUBSOILING TO REDUCE EROSION AND IMPROVE INFILTRATION IN NEWLY PLANTED WINTER WHEAT AFTER SUMMER FALLOW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Subsoiling is the practice of ripping continuous open channels or creating pits using a rotary subsoiler to penetrate plow-pans for the purpose of improving root penetration of, and water infiltration into the soil profile. In the Pacific Northwest, precipitation ranges from 150 - 350 mm, and falls ...

372

26. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV), photographer unknown, ca. 1936. VIEW NORTHWEST, GARAGE (DEMOLISHED), NURSERY MANAGER'S GARAGE AND RESIDENCE, AND PACKING BUILDING, TRANSPLANT SHEDS AND PLOW IN FOREGROUND. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

373

America's First Government Documentary Films as Teaching Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews two documentaries produced by the U.S. government: "The Plow That Broke the Plains" (1936) and "The River" (1937). The first examines soil erosion in the Great Plains; the second considers Mississippi River usage. Narrates storylines and explains initial film criticism. Highlights the films' effectiveness for teaching about the New Deal

Hendrickson, Kenneth E.

1991-01-01

374

Parliamentary Procedure: Tool of Leadership. Fastback Series, No. 39.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is not a manual on parliamentary procedure. It is a discussion that posits that parliamentary procedure is not a complicated and esoteric subject of interest and of use only to an enlightened few who have the fortitude to plow through a whole manual on the subject, but that parliamentary procedure is a practical tool of leadership. Three

Broadrick, King

375

Theme: Educational Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Includes "Agricultural Education & School-to-Work" (Larson, Cox); Agricultural Opportunities with Home Schoolers" (Frick, Brennan); "Private Schools and Agricultural Education in North Carolina" (Forrest); "Career Pathways" (Sigar, Thompson); "Perkins and Plows" (Lovejoy); "Charter Schools" (Knight, Armstrong); "Telling the College Tech. Prep.

Agricultural Education Magazine, 1998

1998-01-01

376

Beyond This Point.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A middle-school French teacher describes her frustrated efforts to discipline students and plow through the curriculum. She finally realized her job was not to dominate her classroom, turn out French scholars, or win a popularity contest. She settled for helping a few kids "beyond this point." (MLH)|

Chase, Kim

1999-01-01

377

Nudging toward Inquiry: Awakening and Building upon Prior Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Prior knowledge" (sometimes called schema or background knowledge) is information one already knows that helps him/her make sense of new information. New learning builds on existing prior knowledge. In traditional reporting-style research projects, students bypass this crucial step and plow right into answer-finding. It's no wonder that many

Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.

2010-01-01

378

Solar Age Information Directory: Organizations & Agencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The detachable magazine segment is a guide to sources of solar energy information sources. Included are (1) organizations; (2) bibliographies; (3) educational materials; (4) audiovisuals; (5) analytical tools; (6) construction plows; (7) directories and catalogues; and (8) miscellaneous. (Author/RE)|

Solar Age, 1980

1980-01-01

379

29 CFR 1917.42 - Miscellaneous auxiliary gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Improved plow steel, rope diameter...having a breaking strength not less than...the rope; (4) Variations in the size or roundness...have a breaking strength at least equal...wrought iron and alloy steel chains and chain...identification of size, grade and rated...

2013-07-01

380

29 CFR 1926.251 - Rigging equipment for material handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wire rope slings of all grades shall be permanently removed...wire rope slings of any grade are used at temperatures...cut fibers. (iv) Variations in the size or roundness...Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the...Clips Improved plow steel, rope diameter...

2013-07-01

381

A survey of models and algorithms for winter road maintenance. Part III: Vehicle routing and depot location for spreading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter road maintenance planning involves a variety of decision-making problems related to the routing of vehicles for spreading chemicals and abrasives, for plowing roadways and sidewalks, for loading snow into trucks, and for transporting snow to disposal sites. These problems are very difficult and site specific because of the diversity of operating conditions influencing the conduct of winter road maintenance

Nathalie Perrier; Andr Langevin; James F. Campbell

2007-01-01

382

Population patterns through twenty years of oldfield succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 48 permanent, 0.52.0 m quadrats, changes in species composition and cover were followed in an oldfield abandoned after plowing in the spring of 1960. Twenty years of data collected since then show the succession to be individualistic, that is, composed of broadly overlapping population curves through time. In general, the population curves exhibit long, persistent tails, indicating that, through

S. T. A. Pickett

1982-01-01

383

At Paul Quinn, Students Till the Soil to Cultivate a Better College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In autumn, most colleges' football fields are covered with a thick carpet of grass or artificial turf and are adorned with yard lines. But the football field at Paul Quinn College was carved up by plowing and planting. This past fall, portions of the college's gridiron were covered with sweet potatoes, watermelons, peppers, rosemary, and sugar

Kelderman, Eric

2012-01-01

384

Evolutionary-inspired probabilistic search for enhancing sampling of local minima in the protein energy surface  

PubMed Central

Background Despite computational challenges, elucidating conformations that a protein system assumes under physiologic conditions for the purpose of biological activity is a central problem in computational structural biology. While these conformations are associated with low energies in the energy surface that underlies the protein conformational space, few existing conformational search algorithms focus on explicitly sampling low-energy local minima in the protein energy surface. Methods This work proposes a novel probabilistic search framework, PLOW, that explicitly samples low-energy local minima in the protein energy surface. The framework combines algorithmic ingredients from evolutionary computation and computational structural biology to effectively explore the subspace of local minima. A greedy local search maps a conformation sampled in conformational space to a nearby local minimum. A perturbation move jumps out of a local minimum to obtain a new starting conformation for the greedy local search. The process repeats in an iterative fashion, resulting in a trajectory-based exploration of the subspace of local minima. Results and conclusions The analysis of PLOW's performance shows that, by navigating only the subspace of local minima, PLOW is able to sample conformations near a protein's native structure, either more effectively or as well as state-of-the-art methods that focus on reproducing the native structure for a protein system. Analysis of the actual subspace of local minima shows that PLOW samples this subspace more effectively that a naive sampling approach. Additional theoretical analysis reveals that the perturbation function employed by PLOW is key to its ability to sample a diverse set of low-energy conformations. This analysis also suggests directions for further research and novel applications for the proposed framework.

2012-01-01

385

Carbon monoxide fluxes from natural, managed, or cultivated savannah grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a comprehensive study on tropical land use change and its effect on atmospheric trace gas fluxes, we report the CO fluxes recorded at a natural grassland site and the changes produced when this ecosystem was managed or cultivated. The field site is located in the central part of the savannah climatic region of Venezuela. Fluxes were measured in the dark using the enclosed chamber technique. CO was analyzed with a reduction-gas detector in combination with a molecular sieve 5A columm for CO separation. At all sites, CO fluxes exhibited a strong diurnal variation, with net emission during daytime and consumption or no fluxes during nightime. In unplowed soils no differences were observed between dry and rainy season. A large disparity was observed between unplowed and plowed grassland soils. Plowed soil shows a much smaller emission during daytime and a larger consumption at night. The 24-hour integrated fluxes indicate that the nonperturbed grassland switches from being a net source of CO (3.41010 molecules cm-2 s-1) to being a net sink (-1.61010 molecules cm-2s-1) after plowing. It is likely that burial of surface litter reduces the production of CO in the top soil and that the diffusion of CO to deeper layers (where CO is consumed by microbiological processes) is promoted in decompacted soils. As the rainy season progressed the plowed soil gradually compacted and CO fluxes changed back, and after 3 months the fluxes from plowed soils and the original unplowed soils were equal. Even though the various cultivated fields (corn, sorghum, and pasture) received differing inorganic fertilization treatments, no significant difference in the CO fluxes resulted. Measurements during the dry season suggest that "degrading dry (dead) vegetation" produces CO under dark conditions.

Sanhueza, Eugenio; Donoso, Loreto; Scharffe, Dieter; Crutzen, Paul J.

1994-08-01

386

Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX). Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003-2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS) and without subsoiling (ST) were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV). Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season-1), the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season-1), the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha-1) and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m-3) followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season-1, T=178 mm-season-1, Y=1840 kg-ha-1, WPET=0.60 kg-m-3) and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season-1,T=158 mm-season-1, Y=1720 kg-ha-1, WPET=0.58 kg-m-3). However, when the time between the last tillage operation and planting of maize was more than 26 days, the reverse occurred. There was no statistically significant change in soil physical and chemical properties after three years of experimenting with different tillage systems.

Temesgen, M.; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.

2007-07-01

387

Trace element concentrations in wintering waterfowl from the Great Salt Lake, Utah.  

PubMed

The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is an important region for millions of migratory waterbirds. However, high concentrations of some trace elements, including Hg and Se, have been detected within the GSL, and baseline ecotoxicological data are lacking for avian species in this system. We collected common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), and green-winged teal (A. crecca) from the GSL during the winters of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 to evaluate sources of variation in liver trace element concentrations. Hg concentrations were among or exceeded the highest values reported in the published literature for common goldeneye, northern shoveler, and green-winged teal. Average Hg (total) concentrations of common goldeneye peaked in midwinter, whereas average Se concentrations peaked during late winter. During late winter, 100% and 88% of female goldeneye contained elevated concentrations of Hg [>or=1.0 microg/g wet weight (ww)] and Se (>or=3.0 microg/g ww), respectively, and 5% and 14% contained potentially harmful amounts of Hg (>or=30.0 microg/g ww) and Se (>10.0 microg/g ww), respectively. Similarly, 30% and 16% of male goldeneye contained potentially harmful concentrations of Hg and Se, respectively. Concentrations of Hg and Se were elevated in 100% and 79%, respectively, of northern shoveler samples (sexes combined) collected during February. We suggest that waterfowl contain biologically concerning amounts of Hg and Se during winter while on the GSL and further research is needed to evaluate the effect of these elements on GSL waterbirds. PMID:18560923

Vest, J L; Conover, M R; Perschon, C; Luft, J; Hall, J O

2008-06-17

388

Sources of variation in survival and breeding site fidelity in three species of European ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. We used long-term capture-recapture-recovery data and a modelling approach developed by Burnham (1993) to test a priori predictions about sources of variation in annual survival rates and fidelity within a population of individually marked females in three species of European ducks from a breeding ground study site in Latvia. 2. True annual survival was higher for diving ducks (tufted duck 0-72, common pochard 0-65) and lower for northern shoveler (0-52). Survival of female diving ducks was positively correlated with mean winter temperatures at Western European wintering areas, the relationship being much stronger for pochard. 3. We present the first unbiased estimates of breeding fidelity and permanent emigration in European ducks. Estimated fidelity rates were high (0'88-1-0) and emigration rates low (0-0-12) for all three species, and we found strong evidence for age-specific differences in fidelity of pochards. Unusual long-distance (up to 2500 km) breeding dispersal movements that we found in female tufted ducks have not been documented in any other European waterfowl and are most probably a result of saturated nesting habitats. 4. Fidelity was a function of patch reproductive success in the previous year for all three species providing support for the idea that patch success is an important cue influencing fidelity. 5. Fidelity probability increased to 1.0 for shovelers during the last 12 years of study following provision of critical improvements in nesting habitats and suggested that habitat conditions and reproductive success determined site fidelity and settling patterns for shoveler and probably also influenced fidelity of the two other species. In predictable habitats, fidelity is a parameter that reflects the integration of fitness components and is thus a good quantity for assessing the effectiveness of habitat management actions.

Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

2002-01-01

389

Depth profile study of Ti implanted Si at very high doses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study on the resulting impurity profile in Si samples implanted with high doses of Ti and subsequently annealed by pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is reported. Two different effects are shown to rule the impurity profile redistribution during the annealing. During the melting stage, the thickness of the implanted layer increases while the maximum peak concentration decreases (box-shaped effect). On the contrary, during the solidifying stage, the thickness of the layer decreases and the maximum peak concentration increases (snow-plow effect). Both effects are more pronounced as the energy density of the annealing increases. Moreover, as a direct consequence of the snow-plow effect, part of the impurities is expelled from the sample through the surface.

Olea, J.; Pastor, D.; Toledano-Luque, M.; Mrtil, I.; Gonzlez-Daz, G.

2011-09-01

390

Effects on suspended and substrate sediments in two streams resulting from different gas-pipeline installation techniques  

SciTech Connect

The effects of gas-pipeline construction projects on suspended solids (SS) and streambed sediments were investigated at two stream sites. The Little Miami River in Ohio was crossed using the wet-ditching technique. Concentrations of SS were elevated up to 400 m downstream during the two days of trenching operations, and fine sediment was deposited on the streambed up to 200 m downstream of the crossing. The SS decreased rapidly after trenching was completed, and the fine sediment was removed from the streambed by high stream flows two to eight months after construction. Canada Creek in Michigan was crossed using a plow method. The time duration of stream disturbance was much less for the plow method, and the effects on suspended solids and streambed sedimentation were minimal. For both installation methods, the impacts were reversible, and no long-term impacts on the stream environments were detectable. 24 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Schubert, J.P.; Vinikour, W.S.

1987-01-01

391

[Cement removal with ultrasound in revision or total hip prosthesis].  

PubMed

Bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) removal during revision hip arthroplasty can be a tedious, time-consuming process. The usual methods of removing cement include high-speed drills, chisels, saws, and reamers, which are often associated with fracture or perforation of the femoral shaft. An alternative very promising method is cement removal with ultrasound. We present an ultrasonic device for rapid cement removal with minimum risk of trauma to the fragile femoral bone. The technique of cement removal with ultrasound is described and problems and risks are addressed. PMID:11417239

Schwaller, C A; Elke, R

2001-05-01

392

Modified lingual split technique for extraction of impacted mandibular third molars.  

PubMed

Critical evaluation of existing chisel and bur techniques for removal of impacted mandibular third molars reveals a high incidence of complications. Both approaches require creation of a buccal defect immediately distal to the second molar for the insertion of an elevator, which may cause pocketing to occur postoperatively. The method described here minimizes periosteal reflection, almost completely avoids loss of bone, and effectively reduces the use of rotary instrumentation. The planning of the soft tissue flaps and bony cuts assists in primary wound closure, obliteration of dead space, and reduction of postoperative morbidity. PMID:6930459

Lewis, J E

1980-08-01

393

An epizootic of avian botulism in a phosphate mine settling pond in northern Florida.  

PubMed

Type C botulism was determined to be the cause of an epizootic among waterfowl and shorebirds in a phosphate mine settling pond in northern Florida during May and June of 1979. Several hundred birds, the most common of which were American coots (Fulica americana), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), common gallinules (Gallinula chloropus), and northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), were afflicted over about a three-week period. A second smaller outbreak occurred in the same pond in early December of 1979. This is apparently the first time that botulism has been reported in waterbirds of Florida. PMID:6997514

Forrester, D J; Wenner, K C; White, F H; Greiner, E C; Marion, W R; Thul, J E; Berkhoff, G A

1980-07-01

394

The use of blood in Anas clypeata as an efficient and non-lethal method for the biomonitoring of mercury.  

PubMed

Hg was analyzed in seven tissues of 52 common shoveler Anas clypeata collected from the coast of SE Gulf of California. Mean Hg concentrations were highest in the liver (2,885 ng g?) and lowest in the gizzard (621 ng g?); they followed the order: liver, feathers > muscle tissue and tissues of the circulatory system > digestive organs. Hg levels were similar or higher than birds of the same trophic level and feeding habits. Considering the relationships of Hg among tissues and blood we recommend the use of blood as an efficient method to monitor Hg. PMID:23595347

Raygoza-Viera, J R; Ruiz-Fernndez, A C; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Pez-Osuna, F

2013-04-18

395

Oral characteristics of a patient with Ekman-Westborg-Julin trait: a case history.  

PubMed

This article presents the case of a Japanese woman who had Ekman-Westborg-Julin trait. She had general macrodontia with multituberculism, evagination of the premolar, single conical roots, shovel-shaped incisors, enamel hypoplasia, impacted tooth, dental crowding, and an open bite. The oral and general characteristics of this patient are described and include the histological and radiographic findings of the mandibular third molars. We suggest that the distinctive oral features with macrodontia of the permanent teeth, multituberculism, evagination, single conical roots, and impaction of the tooth could be defined as the Ekman-Westborg-Julin trait. PMID:22416990

Komatsu, Tomoko; Kurihara, Tae; Ito, Yumi; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il; Miyagi, Atsushi; Ikeda, Masakazu

2012-03-01

396

Out of the sandbox - cohesive dragline planning  

SciTech Connect

Since 1983, Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC), through the Coal Research Center in Carterville, Illinois, has been engaged in operator, engineer, supervisor and manager training in the foundations, plan formulation, iteration and improvement in efficiency of dragline planning and operations. 3d-Dig is a 3-D modeling package used in SIUC's training program to simulate digging and dumping from truck-shovel, dozer-push and dragline operations. SIUC has a scale model dragline and dragline simulator available to assist course attendees with standard dig progressions and optimizing operator technique. 1 fig., 6 photos.

Cobcroft, T. [Marston & Marston Inc., St Louis, MO (United States)

2008-01-15

397

Selective Dissolution Analysis of Major and Trace Elements in an Allophanic Andisol Acidified by Long?Term Fertilizer Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long?term (61 years) experimental field was used to examine the effect of acidification on the chemical composition of an allophanic Andisol in northeastern Japan. The pH values of the 1:10 water extract of the plow layer soils were 4.1, 4.7, and 6.2 for three fertilizer application treatments: chemical fertilizers only (CF), CF and compost (CFC), and CFC with liming,

Masami Nanzyo; Akira Takeda; Hirofumi Tsukada

2009-01-01

398

Generation of relativistic electrons and ultra-high magnetic field for fast ignition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain plasma processes would play a crutialal role during fast ignition (M. Tabak et. al., Phys. Plasmas 1,) 1626 (1994)., including the production of relativistic electrons in laser-matter interactions, the resulting generation of multi-megagauss magnetic fields, and the self-consistent effect on the relativistic electrons. We present an analytical model of fast electron generation by ``snow-plowing'' the plasma by an intense

Gennady Shvets; Nathaniel Fisch

1997-01-01

399

Paramagnetic properties of humus acids of podzolic and bog-podzolic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of free radicals in preparations of humic and fulvic acids extracted from virgin and plowed podzolic, surface\\u000a gleyic podzolic, and peaty podzolic-gleyic soils were determined. The concentration of paramagnetic centers in the humic acids\\u000a was 1.52 times higher than that in the fulvic acids. The agricultural use decreases the paramagnetic activity of the humus\\u000a compounds and promotes the

E. D. Lodygin; V. A. Beznosikov; S. N. Chukov

2007-01-01

400

A near-infrared shock wave in the 2006 outburst of recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared spectra are presented for the recent 2006 outburst of the\\u000arecurrent nova RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph).We report the rare detection of an infrared\\u000ashock wave as the nova ejecta plows into the pre-existing wind of the secondary\\u000ain the RS Oph system consisting of a white dwarf (WD) primary and a red giant\\u000asecondary. The evolution of the shock

Ramkrishna Das; Dipankar P. K. Banerjee; Nagarhalli M. Ashok

2006-01-01

401

Conservation tillage induced changes in organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus in a semi-arid alkaline subtropical soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-year experiment was conducted to compare the effects of conservation tillage (no-till and ridge-till) with conventional plow tillage on organic C, N, and resin-extractable P in an alkaline semi-arid subtropical soil (Hidalgo sandy clay loam, a fine-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Typic Calciustoll) at Weslaco, TX (269?N 9757?W). Tillage comparisons were established on irrigated plots in 1992 as a randomized block

L. M Zibilske; J. M Bradford; J. R Smart

2002-01-01

402

Phospholipid fatty acid composition of microbiota in the percolating water from a rice paddy microcosm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbiota in the percolating water from the plow layer soil in paddy fields was studied based on the composition of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in a pot experiment. The mean concentrations of PLFAs in the percolating water were 175 and 114 g L in the planted and non-planted pots, respectively. The dominant PLFAs in the percolating water were 16:

Makoto Kimura; Hirokazu Kishi; Akiko Okabe; Nagamitsu Maie

2001-01-01

403

Water infusion for coal mine dust control: Three case studies  

SciTech Connect

This Bureau of Mines report discusses recent applications of water infusion technology to control dust in U.S. coal mines and presents recommended guidelines for determining coal seam infusibility. The techniques required to use water infusion are presented in detail. A Bureau case study indicated that water infusion reduced dust levels by 68 pct along a longwall plow face, bringing this section into compliance with the 2.0-mg/m/sup 3/ Federal dust standard.

McClelland, J.J; Organiscak, J.A.; Jankowski, R.A.; Pothini, B.R.

1987-01-01

404

Transpression, displacement partitioning, and exhumation in the eastern Caribbean\\/South American plate boundary zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Caribbean\\/South American plate boundary zone in northeastern Venezuela is a transpressive orogenic belt consisting from north to south of a nascent subduction zone (South Caribbean deformed belt), a volcanic arc (Leeward Antilles arc), a ``hinterland'' with high-pressure (P)\\/low temperature (T) metamorphic rocks (Cordillera de la Costa belt), and a southern nonmetamorphic, foreland fold and thrust belt (Serrana del Interior).

Hans G. Av Lallemant

1997-01-01

405

Transpression, displacement partitioning, and exhumation in the eastern Caribbean \\/ South American plate boundary zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Caribbean\\/South American plate boundary zone in northeastern Venezuela is a transpressive orogenic belt consisting from north to south of a nascent subduction zone (South Caribbean deformed belt), a volcanic arc (Leeward Antilles arc), a hinterland with high-pressure (P)\\/low temperature (T) metamorphic rocks (Cordillera de la Costa belt), and a southern nonmetamorphic, foreland fold and thrust belt (Serrana del Interior).

Hans G. Av Lallemant

1997-01-01

406

Microbial Distributions And Their Potential Controlling Factors In Terrestrial Subsurface Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earths biomass, yet are relatively\\u000a undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions\\u000a of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity,\\u000a and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to

R. Michael Lehman

407

Team Medicine in The NICU: Ship or Flotilla of Lifeboats?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The image of a majestic ocean liner plowing the Atlantic, a square-jawed captain firmly gripping the wheel, does not fit the\\u000a Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU). All the NICUs in which I have worked have been small and overcrowded, not at all majestic.\\u000a The lives that hang in the balance there are also small and fragile. Clearly, the physical symbolism

ERNEST N. KRAYBILL

408

Residue Decomposition and Fate of Nitrogen?15 in a Wheat Crop under Different Previous Crops and Tillage Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) management may be improved by a thorough understanding of the nutrient dynamics during previous?crop residue decomposition and its impact on fertilizer N fate in the soilplant system. An experiment was conducted in the Argentine Pampas to evaluate the effect of maize and soybean as previouscrops and plow?till and no?till methods on N dynamics and N?labeled fertilizer uptake during

Carina R. lvarez; Roberto lvarez; Alejandra Sarquis

2008-01-01

409

Methanogenic archaeal communities developed in paddy fields in the Kojima Bay polder, estimated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, real-time PCR and sequencing analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanogenic archaeal communities inhabiting the paddy field soils in the Kojima Bay polder were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), real-time PCR and sequencing analyses. Soil samples of the plow and subsoil layers were collected in 2006 from four paddy fields that were reclaimed between 1692 and 1954. The DGGE band patterns of the targeted 16S rRNA

Takeshi Watanabe; Vita Ratri Cahyani; Jun Murase; Eiji Ishibashi; Makoto Kimura; Susumu Asakawa

2009-01-01

410

ERIP invention 637. Technical progress report 2nd quarter, April 1997--June 1997  

SciTech Connect

This technical report describes progress in the development of the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus. Prototype testing is reported, and includes the addition of precision tillage. Disease data, organic matter, and nitrogen levels results are very briefly described. Progress in marketing is also reported. Current marketing issues include test use by cotton and wheat growers, establishment of dealer relationships, incorporation of design modifications, expansion of marketing activities, and expansion of loan and lease program.

Thacker, G.W.

1997-07-22

411

Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in an acid Oxisol in western Puerto Rico: effects of tillage, liming and fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in land use and management of tropical systems are considered to be major factors in the recent upsurge in increases in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Studies were initiated in western Puerto Rico grasslands to determine the effect of plowing, or liming and fertilizing an acid Oxisol on the soilatmosphere exchanges of N2O and CH4. Weekly field

A. R. Mosier; J. A. Delgado; M. Keller

1998-01-01

412

Evaluation of soil nitrogen status in japanese agricultural lands with reference to land use and soil types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrogen content of agricultural soils collected from throughout Japan was characterized according to the form and availability, and with reference to land use and soil types. In total, 147 plow layer soil samples were collected80 from paddy fields and 67 from upland fields to include various soil types. Soil N was separated into four fractions: inorganic extractable-N (Iex-N), fixed

Shuji Sanal; Takashi Kasaki

2004-01-01

413

Impact of Tillage, Crop Sequence and N-fertilization on Trace Gas Exchange in an Irrigated Agroecosystem in Northeastern Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term study was initiated in 1999 to investigate the potential of no-till cropping systems to sequester CO2 while maintaining crop production in irrigated agriculture in northeastern Colorado. As the impact of agricultural management changes on trace gas fluxes are not well understood, we began measuring the soil-atmosphere exchange of CO2, CH4 and N2O during the spring of 2002. Fluxes were measured, using vented chambers, one to three times per week, year round, within plots that are continuously cropped to corn under conventional plow tillage (CT), within no-till continuous corn plots (NT), and within a NT corn-soybean rotation. Plots were fertilized at planting with rates of 0, 134 and 202 kg N ha-1. In 2002, all plots in which trace gas fluxes were measured were cropped with corn that was planted on April 26 and harvested on November 5, 2002. From planting until early April 2003 no tillage or N-fertilization effects on CH4 flux were observed, with the soil serving as a small CH4 source during the irrigation season and a small sink during the winter. Converting to NT did not increase N2O emissions while N2O emissions increased in response to fertilizer N supply. N2O emissions were higher in plots that had been cropped to soybeans the year before. On January 2, 2003 the CT plots were plowed. Even though soil temperature was near zero oC, CO2 fluxes averaged 33+/-5 mg C m-2 hr-1 in CT plots compared to 4.8+/-1.4 in NT plots the day after plowing. The first year of trace gas flux measurements suggest that converting conventionally plowed soils to no-till decreases soil CO2 loss and does not increase N2O or CH4 flux.

Mosier, A. R.; Halvorson, A. D.

2003-12-01

414

Mineralization of organic matter and the carbon sequestration capacity of zonal soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of soil organic matter (SOM) to mineralization decreases in the following sequence of zonal soils: tundra\\u000a soil > soddy-podzolic soil > gray forest soil > chestnut soil > dark chestnut soil > chernozem. The content of potentially\\u000a mineralizable organic matter in the plowed soils is 1.93.9 times lower than that in their virgin analogues. The highest soil\\u000a carbon

V. M. Semenov; L. A. Ivannikova; T. V. Kuznetsova; N. A. Semenova; A. S. Tulina

2008-01-01

415

Stratification ratio of soil organic matter pools as an indicator of carbon sequestration in a tillage chronosequence on a Brazilian Oxisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term no-tillage (NT) leads to profile stratification of soil organic matter (SOM) pools, and the soil organic carbon (SOC) stratification ratio (SR) is an indicator of soil quality. The objective of this report is to assess the feasibility of using SOC-SR as an index for estimating SOC sequestration in NT soils. The effect of a plow tillage (PT) and NT

Joo Carlos de Moraes S; Rattan Lal

2009-01-01

416

Micromorphological analysis of soil structure under no tillage management in the black soil zone of Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the black soil in Northeast China has been greatly deteriorated by long-term intensive conventional mouldboard\\u000a plow tillage (CT) practices. In this study, micromorphological observation and image analysis of soil thin sections were conducted\\u000a to evaluate the impacts of 21 years (19862007) of no tillage (NT) on soil structure as compared to CT in an experiment near\\u000a Gongzhuling

Hu Zhou; Baoguo Li; Yizhong Lu

2009-01-01

417

Actinomycetes: Sources for Soil Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Soil is the most complicated biomaterial on the planet.It is a natural source for microorganisms and is a natural laboratory\\u000a to do experiments. Soil, which arises from the weathering of parent rock materials, is by definition capable of acting as\\u000a a habitat for microorganisms. Microbially, the most active soil is the upper 16- to 17.2-cmthick plow layer. As with any

V. Suneetha; Zaved Ahmed Khan

418

Extractable trace elements in the soil profile after years of biosolids application  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and some state agencies regulate trace element additions to soil from land application of biosolids. The authors generally consider trace elements added in biosolids (sewage sludge) to accumulate in the soil surface without significant transport below the plow layer. They used 11 yr of field-study information from biosolids addition to dryland hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Vona or TAM107) to determine the distribution of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn in 0 to 20 (plow layer), 20 to 60, 60 to 100, and 100 to 150 cm depth increments. This study is unique since it involves multiple biosolids application in a dryland summer fallow agroecosystem. The authors applied five or six applications of biosolids from the cities of Littleton and Englewood, CO, to Weld loam or Platner loam at four locations. This paper focuses on the 0 (control), the 56 or 67 kg of N ha{sup {minus}1} fertilizer rates, and the 6.7 and 26.8 dry Mg of biosolids ha{sup {minus}1} rates that they added every crop year. The authors observed significant (P < 0.10) accumulations of the trace elements in the plow layer of the biosolids-amended soils. Only Zn showed consistent increases in extractable levels below the plow layer at all four sites. The biosolids Zn concentration was larger than any other trace element resulting in larger loading of this element.

Barbarick, K.A.; Ippolito, J.A.; Westfall, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences

1998-07-01

419

Effects of weed management practices on orchard soil biological and fertility properties in southeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weed management practices on soil biological and fertility properties were studied in a subtropical citrus orchard situated at Changshan County (2854?N, 11830?E) in Zhejiang Province, China. Three weed management practices were chemical control plus tillage (herbicide), tillage alone (plowed) and mowing plus tillage (mowed). No significant differences in microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil organic matter (SOM) or total nitrogen (TN)

Yisong Yang; Han Wang; Jianjun Tang; Xin Chen

2007-01-01

420

Framing the Classroom: Pedagogy, Power, Oleanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

I open this essay with an admission: I have never been a fan of Oleanna. When I first heard about the play in early 1992, I was apprehensive. Given the problematic attitudes toward women in plays such as Sexual Perversity in Chicago, American Buffalo, and Speed-the-Plowand the strident masculine poses of both the playwright and his dramatic charactersDavid Mamet seemed

Stanton B. Garner

421

A Single Dominant Gene Controlling Resistance to Soil Zinc Deficiency in Common Bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

or deep plowing that brings the highly calcareous subsoil to the surface may also enhance Zn deficiency (Brown Cultivated soils often are either deficient or possess toxic concen- and Leggett, 1967). LeBaron (1966) and LeBaron et al. trations of one or more mineral elements that adversely affect emer- gence, growth, maturity, production potential, and\\/or nutritional qual- (1971) suggested applying 11

Shree P. Singh; Dale T. Westermann

2002-01-01

422

T4-type bacteriophage communities estimated from the major capsid genes (g23) in manganese nodules in Japanese paddy fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared the capsid gene (g23) of T4-type bacteriophages (phages) in Mn nodules with those in the plow layer soil and subsoils of two Japanese paddy fields by applying the primers MZIA1bis and MZIA6 to DNA extracts from the nodules and soils. The deduced amino acid sequences of the g23 genes in the Mn nodules were similar to

Vita Ratri Cahyani; Jun Murase; Eiji Ishibashi; Susumu Asakawa; Makoto Kimura

2009-01-01

423

The effect of surgical trauma on muscle protein turnover in rats. A serious methodological misunderstanding.  

PubMed Central

The reported rates of protein degradation in a recent paper on the effect of surgical trauma on muscle protein turnover [Hoover-Plow & Clifford (1978) Biochem. J. 176, 137--142] have no real meaning because of a serious methodological misunderstanding by the authors. In addition, there are problems involved in the determination of synthesis rates, so that the reported effects of trauma on muscle protein turnover can be discounted.

Millward, D J

1979-01-01

424

Experimental Oxidative Dissolution of Sphalerite in the Aznalcllar Sludge and Other Pyritic Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the collapse on 25 Apr. 1998 of the Aznalcollar mine tailings dike in southwestern Spain, 45 km2 of the Guadiamar valley were coveredbyapyriticsludgecontainingupto2%sphalerite(ZnS).Later, the sludge was mechanically removed and calcium carbonate was plowed into the soil to immobilize heavy metals. By June 2001 more than 60% of the sulfides in the residual sludge had oxidized and soil Zn contents

Ral Hita; Jos Torrent; Jerry M. Bigham

2006-01-01

425

Investigating Soils for Agri-Environmental Protection in an Arid Region of Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The saline wetlands of the Monegros Desert, in the central Ebro Basin (NE Spain), host valuable biodiversity and pedodiversity.\\u000a A part of this area has been proposed for inclusion in the European Union Natura 2000 network. However, agricultural intensification\\u000a is changing the area as more land is consolidated for new irrigation or is plowed to earn CAP (Common Agricultural Policy)

C. Castaneda; S. Mendez; J. Herrero; J. Betran

426

Waiting for Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the Rum

Lamson-Nussbaum, Jorie

2013-01-01

427

Zero-Dimensional MHD Modelling of Two Gas-Puff Staged Pinch Plasma with FINITE-? Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implosion dynamics of two gas-puff staged pinch plasma is investigated using zero-dimensional MHD code in the presence of pressure gradients. A modified snow-plow model has been used to describe the dynamics of staged pinch plasma. Our numerical results demonstrate that fusion parameters can be achieved for an optimum choice of density ratio of the test to driver gas and kinetic to magnetic pressure ratio.

Mirza, Arshad M.; Deeba, F.; Ahmed, K.; Haseeb, M. Q.

2007-04-01

428

Effect of long-term application of inorganic fertilizer and organic amendments on soil organic matter and microbial biomass in three subtropical paddy soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter (SOM), microbial carbon (Cmic), and microbial nitrogen (Nmic) status affected by the application of inorganic fertilizer and organic amendments in subtropical paddy soils were investigated.\\u000a Soil samples were collected from the plow layer of three long-term (17years) field experiments at Xinhua, Ningxiang, and\\u000a Taojiang counties in Hunan Province, China. Results showed that, compared to the control, application

X. H. Hao; S. L. Liu; J. S. Wu; R. G. Hu; C. L. Tong; Y. Y. Su

2008-01-01

429

Coke-oven by-product modifications at National Steel's Great Lakes Div  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rebuilt by-products plant, and coal and coke material handling facilities began operation in Nov. 1992. Coal handling facilities were reused with repairs and modifications, such as new vibrating bin bottoms, bin blasters and variable-speed belts with weigh scales for an accurate coal blend. Coke handling consists of two new fixed-blade rack and pinion drive coke plows, new conveyors and

R. P. Kalinowsky; M. Platts

1994-01-01

430

Vertical Distribution of Rotylenchulus reniformis in Cotton Fields.  

PubMed

The possible impact of Rotylenchulus reniformis below plow depth was evaluated by measuring the vertical distribution of R. reniformis and soil texture in 20 symptomatic fields on 17 farms across six states. The mean nematode population density per field, 0 to 122 cm deep, ranged from 0.4 to 63 nematodes/g soil, and in 15 fields more than half of the R. reniformis present were below 30.5 cm, which is the greatest depth usually plowed by farmers or sampled by consultants. In 11 fields measured, root density was greatest in the top 15 cm of soil; however, roots consistently penetrated 92 to 122 cm deep by midseason, and in five fields in Texas and Louisiana the ratio of nematodes to root-length density within soil increased with depth. Repeated sampling during the year in Texas indicated that up to 20% of the nematodes in soil below 60 cm in the fall survived the winter. Differences between Baermann funnel and sugar flotation extraction methods were not important when compared with field-to-field differences in nematode populations and field-specific vertical distribution patterns. The results support the interpretation that R. reniformis below plow depth can significantly impact diagnosis and treatment of cotton fields infested with R. reniformis. PMID:19262871

Robinson, A F; Akridge, R; Bradford, J M; Cook, C G; Gazaway, W S; Kirkpatrick, T L; Lawrence, G W; Lee, G; McGawley, E C; Overstreet, C; Padgett, B; Rodrguez-Kbana, R; Westphal, A; Young, L D

2005-09-01

431

Changes in the status of harvested rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California: Implications for wintering waterfowl.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Harvested rice fields provide critical foraging habitat for wintering waterfowl in North America, but their value depends upon post-harvest treatments. We visited harvested ricefields in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winters of 2007 and 2008 (recent period) and recorded their observed status as harvested (standing or mechanically modified stubble), burned, plowed, or flooded. We compared these data with those from identical studies conducted during the 1980s (early period). We documented substantial changes in field status between periods. First, the area of flooded rice increased 4-5-fold, from about 15% to >40% of fields, because of a 3-4-fold increase in the percentage of fields flooded coupled with a 37-41% increase in the area of rice produced. Concurrently, the area of plowed fields increased from 35% of fields, burned fields declined from about 40% to 1%, and fields categorized as harvested declined from 22-54% to <15%. The increased flooding has likely increased access to food resources for wintering waterfowl, but this benefit may not be available to some goose species, and may be at least partially countered by the increase of plowed fields, especially those left dry, and the decrease of fields left as harvested.We encourage waterfowl managers to implement a rice field status survey in the Sacramento Valley and other North American rice growing regions as appropriate to support long-term monitoring programs and wetland habitat conservation planning for wintering waterfowl.

Miller, Michael R.; Garr, Jay D.; Coates, Peter S.

2010-01-01

432

Hydrology of a groundwater-irrigated rice field in Bangladesh: Seasonal and daily mechanisms of infiltration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow through a groundwater-irrigated rice field in Bangladesh was characterized with data collected from a transect of tensiometers and time domain reflectometry sensors, novel tracer tests, infiltration tests, soil core analyses, and calculated water budgets. The combined data captured the dynamic hydrologic behavior of the rice field over an entire growing season, which included many irrigation events. Recharge to the aquifer flowed from the surface of the rice field through preferential flow paths located in the subsoil beneath the plowed surface of the field and in the bunds, the raised boundaries around the perimeter of the field. Water that remained within the soil matrix did not recharge the aquifer. Bund flow was the dominant loss for the field because the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the soil beneath the bunds was greater than that in the plowed and planted region of the rice field. Each year, farmers plow the rice fields, destroying cracks and decreasing the conductivity of the shallow soil, but leave the bunds unplowed because they follow property boundaries. We determined bund flow with a daily water balance and confirmed its importance by comparing irrigation losses among fields of different sizes and geometries and hence different ratios of perimeter to area. The perimeter-to-area ratio predicted the fraction of water lost down the bunds for these and other fields located throughout Southeast Asia. Finally, we determined the economic and environmental benefits of reducing bund flow.

Neumann, Rebecca B.; Polizzotto, Matthew L.; Badruzzaman, A. Borhan M.; Ali, M. Ashraf; Zhang, Zhongyuan; Harvey, Charles F.

2009-09-01

433

BotEC: The Himalayas and Continental Drift  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Queston: The story of the Himalayas can be traced back to the breakup of the supercontinent, called Pangaea, about 200 million years ago, when India began its rapid movement northward towards Asia. Asia was a much smaller continent then. Then, between 45 and 55 million years ago, India and Asia collided. Before collision, India moved northward at about 7-10 centimeters per year. Remarkably, India's northward movement was slowed only a little after the collisionâit continues to plow into Asia at a rate of 5-6 centimeters per year. We can measure the present northward movement of India into Asia using GPS measurements over a period of time. So, there is little doubt of the continued movement of India. There is much debate about how the northward march of India into Asia is being accommodated. Of course, the high Himalayan Plateau is a manifestation of this collision between two continents. Let's assume that India began to plow into the Asian continent 55 million years ago and that, since then, it has continued to uniformly move northward into the Asian continent at 6 centimeters per year (for 55 million years). Calculate the total distance (in kilometers) that India has plowed into Asia.

Kresan, Peter

434

Water budget items and temperature regime of postagrogenic soddy-podzolic soils of Moscow region and their effect on the soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The postagrogenic transformation of the plow horizon of soddy-podzolic soils under a mown meadow and an artificially planted dense spruce stand has been studied in relation to the microclimatic specificity, water budgets, and soil temperature regimes in the compared cenoses. Over 20 years, a considerable part of precipitation reaching the soil surface under the meadow cenosis has been discharged with the surface runoff and subsurface lateral water flows. The soil warming in summer has been considerable, and the soil freezing in winter has been relatively weak. As a result, a gray humus horizon with well-shaped fine granular and coprolitic structure has been formed within the body of the former plow layer. Under the spruce stand, a larger part of atmospheric moisture has been infiltrated into the soil. The microclimatic conditions under the spruce stand have been more humid and colder. As a result, a thinner humus horizon with a considerable admixture of weakly decomposed plant debris has been formed in the upper part of the former plow layer. Below, a newly formed horizon with a specific thin platy (schlieren) structure ha been developed. The morphology of this horizon resembles the morphology of the eluvial horizon in virgin soddy-podzolic soils.

Bazykina, G. S.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Tonkonogov, V. D.; Khokhlov, S. F.

2007-06-01

435

Impacts of conservation tillage on the hydrological and agronomic performance of Fanya juus in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay) river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adoption of soil conservation structures (SCS) has been low in high rainfall areas of Ethiopia mainly due to crop yield reduction, increased soil erosion following breaching of SCS, incompatibility with the tradition of cross plowing and water-logging behind SCS. A new type of conservation tillage (CT) involving contour plowing and the construction of invisible subsoil barriers using a modified Maresha winged "subsoiler" is suggested as a means to tackle these problems as an integral part of the SCS. We investigated the effect of integrating the CT with SCS on the surface runoff, water-logging, soil loss, crop yield and plowing convenience. The new approach of conservation tillage has been compared with traditional tillage (TT) on 5 farmers' fields in a high rainfall area in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay) river basin. Test crops were wheat [triticum vulgare] and tef [eragrostis tef]. Farmers found CT convenient to apply between SCS. Surface runoff appeared to be reduced under CT by 48 and 15%, for wheat and tef, respectively. As a result, CT reduced sediment yield by 51 and 9.5%, for wheat and tef, respectively. Significantly reduced water-logging was observed behind SCS in CT compared to TT. Grain yields of wheat and tef increased by 35 and 10%, respectively, although the differences were not statistically significant apparently due to high fertility variations among fields of participating farmers. Farmers who tested CT indicated that they will continue this practice in the future.

Temesgen, M.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Simane, B.; van der Zaag, P.; Mohamed, Y.; Wenninger, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2012-12-01

436

Impacts of conservation tillage on the hydrological and agronomic performance of fanya juus in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay) river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adoption of soil conservation structures (SCS) has been low in high rainfall areas of Ethiopia mainly due to crop yield reduction, increased soil erosion following breaching of SCS, incompatibility with the tradition of cross plowing and water-logging behind SCS. A new type of conservation tillage (CT) involving contour plowing and the construction of invisible subsoil barriers using a modified Maresha winged "subsoiler" is suggested as a means to tackle these problems as an integral part of the SCS. We investigated the effect of integrating the CT with SCS on the surface runoff, water-logging, soil loss, crop yield and plowing convenience. The new approach of conservation tillage has been compared with traditional tillage (TT) on 5 farmers' fields in a high rainfall area in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay) river basin. Test crops were wheat [triticum vulgare] and tef [eragrostis tef]. Farmers found CT convenient to apply between SCS. Surface runoff appeared to be reduced under CT by 48 and 15%, for wheat and tef, respectively. As a result, CT reduced sediment yield by 51 and 9.5%, for wheat and tef, respectively. Significantly reduced water-logging was observed behind SCS in CT compared to TT. Grain yields of wheat and tef increased by 35 and 10%, respectively, although the differences were not statistically significant apparently due to high fertility variations among fields of participating farmers. Farmers who tested CT indicated that they will continue this practice in the future.

Temesgen, M.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Simane, B.; van der Zaag, P.; Mohamed, Y.; Wenninger, J.; Savenije1, H. H. G.

2012-01-01

437

Modeling a washboard road: From experimental measurements to linear stability analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When submitted to the repeated passages of vehicles unpaved roads made of sand or gravel can develop a ripply pattern known as washboard or corrugated road. We propose a stability analysis based on experimental measurements of the force acting on a blade (or plow) dragged on a circular sand track and show that a linear model is sufficient to describe the instability near onset. The relation between the trajectory of the plow and the profile of the sand bed left after its passage is studied experimentally. The various terms in the expression of the lift force created by the flow of granular material on the plow are determined up to first order by imposing a sinusoidal trajectory to the blade on an initially flat sand bed, as well as by imposing a horizontal trajectory on an initially rippled sand bed. Our model recovers all the previously observed features of washboard road and accurately predicts the most unstable wavelength near onset as well as the critical velocity for the instability.

Percier, Baptiste; Manneville, Sbastien; Taberlet, Nicolas

2013-01-01

438

Sewage disposal system and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The system includes transport means to carry sewage to holding pits or tanks in open areas remote from community and delivery from tanks to tunnels plowed in ground. Transport may be by tankers or pipeline. Tender tankers receive batches of sewage from storage tanks and deliver to field where tractors pull frames with depending plow members which produce tunnels in ground with narrow slashes or crevices extending to surface. Frames carry manifolds and discharge conduits to deliver sewage to tunnels. Tender tankers arranged beside tractors have supply conduits connecting them to manifolds, with pumps in conduits to produce continuous flow. Tankers travel in synchronism with tractors and deliver sewage to tunnels as they are formed. Compacting rollers pulled behind frames close crevices directly after they are formed by plow, and sewage is sealed into ground. The sewage provides moisture, nutrients, and humus at a proper sub-surface level to support crop growth for a year or more, and the same ground may be used for repeated disposals at suitable intervals.

Danford, J.D.

1981-02-03

439

Modeling a washboard road: from experimental measurements to linear stability analysis.  

PubMed

When submitted to the repeated passages of vehicles unpaved roads made of sand or gravel can develop a ripply pattern known as washboard or corrugated road. We propose a stability analysis based on experimental measurements of the force acting on a blade (or plow) dragged on a circular sand track and show that a linear model is sufficient to describe the instability near onset. The relation between the trajectory of the plow and the profile of the sand bed left after its passage is studied experimentally. The various terms in the expression of the lift force created by the flow of granular material on the plow are determined up to first order by imposing a sinusoidal trajectory to the blade on an initially flat sand bed, as well as by imposing a horizontal trajectory on an initially rippled sand bed. Our model recovers all the previously observed features of washboard road and accurately predicts the most unstable wavelength near onset as well as the critical velocity for the instability. PMID:23410322

Percier, Baptiste; Manneville, Sbastien; Taberlet, Nicolas

2013-01-17

440

An improved whole cell pertussis vaccine with reduced content of endotoxin.  

PubMed

An improved whole cell pertussis vaccine, designated as Plow, which is low in endotoxicity due to a chemical extraction of lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) from the outer membrane, was evaluated for safety, immunogenicity and potency, comparatively to a traditional whole cell pertussis vaccine. Current whole cell pertussis vaccines are effective but contain large quantities of endotoxin and consequently display local and systemic adverse reactions after administration. Endotoxin is highly inflammatory and contributes considerably to the reactogenicity as well as the potency of these vaccines. In contrast, acellular pertussis vaccines hardly contain endotoxin and are significantly less reactogenic, but their elevated costs limit their global use, especially in developing countries. In this paper, bulk products of Plow and a traditional whole cell vaccine, formulated as plain monocomponents or combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTPlow or DTP, respectively) were compared by in vitro and in vivo assays. Chemical extraction of LOS resulted in a significant decrease in endotoxin content (20%) and a striking decline in endotoxin related toxicity (up to 97%), depending on the used in vitro or in vivo test. The LOS extraction did not affect the integrity of the product and, more importantly, did not affect the potency and/or stability of DTPlow. Moreover, hardly any differences in antibody and T-cell responses were observed. The development of Plow is a significant improvement regarding the endotoxicity of whole cell pertussis vaccines and therefore a promising and affordable alternative to currently available whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccines for developing countries. PMID:23291935

Dias, Waldely Oliveira; van der Ark, Arno A J; Sakauchi, Maria Aparecida; Kubrusly, Flvia Saldanha; Prestes, Ana Fabola R O; Borges, Monamaris Marques; Furuyama, Noemi; Horton, Denise S P Q; Quintilio, Wagner; Antoniazi, Marta; Kuipers, Betsy; van der Zeijst, Bernard A M; Raw, Isaias

2013-01-04

441

Application of water jet assisted drag bit and pick cutter for the cutting of coal measure rocks. Final technical report. [Tests of combination in different rocks  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of high pressure water jets on the cutting forces of drag bit cutters in sedimentary rocks. A hard and soft sandstone, shale and limestone were tested with commercially obtainable conical and plow type drag bits on the EMI linear cutting machine. About 1200 cuts were made at different bit penetration, jet orientation, and water pressure to determine the reduction of cutting forces on the bit from the use of the water jet. Both independent and interactive cutting was used. The greatest reduction in cutting forces were with both of the sandstones; the drag forces were reduced about 30 percent and the normal forces about 60 percent at 5000 psi water pressure with the nozzle behind the bit. The method was less effective in the shale, except at 10,000 psi water pressure the reduction in drag force was about 55 percent. Of the rocks tested, the limestone was least affected by the water jet. The cutting forces for the plow bit showed continuous change with wear so a machined conical bit was used for most of the testing. Tests with the plow bit did show a large reduction in cutting forces by using the water jet with worn bits. An economic analysis of equipping a drag bit tunnel boring machine indicated that the water jet system could reduce costs per foot in sandstone by up to 40 percent.

Ropchan, D.; Wang, F.D.; Wolgamott, J.

1980-04-01

442

Measurement of coal-cutting forces underground with the in-seam tester. Report of investigations/1986  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines designed, fabricated, and is using an in-seam tester for in-situ determination of coal-cutting forces. The report describes the results of field tests conducted in the Pocahontas No. 3 and Upper Freeport seams to obtain peak and mean cutting forces during coal cutting with several bit geometries, including radial and point attack bits currently used on drum-type machines. Comparisons were also made between new and worn bits, and by using data obtained from a Bureau-modified chisel bit. The test results show that longwall plough cutting (horizontal cuts) in bony coal bands (shale) requires greater than three times the cutting force for the same cuts in a vertical direction. When no bony coal is present, the cutting forces required to make horizontal and vertical cuts are equal. Worn bits require four to five times more cutting and normal force than new or undamaged bits. Normal force increased drastically for the worn chisel bit. Peak force encountered in making independent cuts was found to be approximately three times higher than that required to make interactive cuts using a spacing-to-depth-of-cut ratio of 2. Both rake and clearance angles were found to have a significant effect on normal and cutting force.

Sundae, L.S.

1986-01-01

443

Effects of application methods and plastic covers on distribution of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in root zone.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of three application methods (chisel injection, Avenger coulter injection, and drip irrigation) and two plastic films (polyethylene film [PE] and virtually impermeable film [VIF]) on distribution of cis- and trans- 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in a Florida sandy soil after application of Telone C35 or Telone In-Line. Regardless of application method, VIF retained greater amounts of cis- and trans-1,3-D and CP in the root zone with longer residential time than PE. There was better retention of the three compounds in the root zone when applied with the Avenger coulter injection rig than chisel injection, especially in combination with VIF. Distribution of the three compounds in the root zone was less predictable when applied by drip irrigation. Following drip irrigation, more than 50% of the three compounds in the PE and VIF-covered beds was found near the end of the drip tapes in one experiment, whereas the distribution was much more uniform in the root zone in a second experiment. Among the three biologically active compounds, CP disappeared from the root zone more rapidly than cis- and trans-1,3-D, especially in the PE-covered beds. PMID:19262895

Ou, L-T; Thomas, J E; Allen, L H; McCormack, L A; Vu, J C; Dickson, D W

2005-12-01

444

Toxoplasma gondii in waterfowl: the first detection of this parasite in Anas crecca and Anas clypeata from Italy.  

PubMed

Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii in waterfowl is of interest for elucidating the potential involvement of these birds in maintaining the parasitic life cycle because birds are exposed to these parasites. Sera from 103 adult, free-range game birds, representing 13 different species living in the Italian wetlands, were examined using modified agglutination tests for antibodies specific to T. gondii . In seropositive birds, the brain and heart were homogenized and DNA was extracted to perform nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and genotyping. Out of the 103 serum samples, 9 (8.7%) were scored as positive with titers ranging from 1/20 to 1/160. The seropositive animals corresponded to 4 of the species: Anas platyrhynchos (mallard; 2/17), Anas clypeata (northern shoveller; 2/11), Anas crecca (common teal; 3/41), and Gallinago gallinago (common snipe; 2/8). Parasite DNA was detected in 3 out of 9 brain samples, while the PCR results from the heart specimens were negative in all of the birds. The occurrence of non-clonal types of T. gondii was suggested in all cases. In conclusion, we describe the first documented detection of DNA of T. gondii in tissues from the northern shoveller and common teal, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite. PMID:23145510

Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Mugnaini, Linda; Poli, Alessandro

2012-11-12

445

Mx gene diversity and influenza association among five wild dabbling duck species (Anas spp.) in Alaska  

PubMed Central

Mx (myxovirus-resistant) proteins are induced by interferon and inhibit viral replication as part of the innate immune response to viral infection in many vertebrates. Influenza A virus appears to be especially susceptible to Mx antiviral effects. We characterized exon 13 and the 3 UTR of the Mx gene in wild ducks, the natural reservoir of influenza virus and explored its potential relevance to influenza infection. We observed a wide range of intra- and interspecies variation. Total nucleotide diversity per site was 0.0014, 0.0027, 0.0044, 0.0051, and 0.0061 in mallards, northern shovelers, northern pintails, American wigeon, and American green-winged teals, respectively. There were 61 haplotypes present across all five species and four were shared among species. Additionally, we observed a significant association between Mx haplotype and influenza infection status in northern shovelers. However, we found no evidence of balancing or diversifying selection in this region of the Mx gene. Characterization of the duck Mx gene is an important step in understanding how the gene may affect disease resistance or susceptibility in wild populations. Furthermore, given that waterfowl act as a natural reservoir for influenza virus, the Mx gene could be an important determinant in the ecology of the virus.

Dillon, Danielle; Runstadler, Jonathan

2010-01-01

446

Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

1993-08-01

447

Duck nest success in the prairie pothole region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We estimated nest success of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (A. strepera), blue-winged teal (A. discors), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), and northern pintail (A. acuta) for 5 regions in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota, for 1-3 periods between 1966 and 1984, and for 8 habitat classes. We obtained composite estimates of nest success for regions and periods by weighting each habitat proportional to the number of nest initiations. The distribution of nest initiations was derived from estimates of breeding populations, preferences of species for nesting habitats, and availability of habitats. Nest success rates ranged from <5 to 36% among regions, periods, and species. Rates were lowest in western Minnesota (MNW) and eastern North Dakota (NDE), intermediate in central North Dakota (NDC) and eastern South Dakota (SDE), and highest in central South Dakota (SDC). In regions with comparable data, no consistent trend in nest success was apparent from early to late periods. Gadwalls and blue-winged teal nested more successfully than mallards and pintails; the relative success of shovelers varied regionally. Ducks nesting in idle grassland were the most successful and those nesting in cropland were least successful. Mammalian predation was the major cause of nesting failure (54-85%) in all habitats, but farming operations resulted in 37 and 27% of the nesting failures in cropland and hayland, respectively. Most of the populations studied were not self-sustaining.

Klett, A. T.; Shaffer, T. L.; Johnson, D. H.

1988-01-01

448

Effects of management of ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes in grassland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grasslands represent a large land-use footprint and have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for land managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack robust understanding of C sequestration in grasslands. Previous research has shown that management approaches such as organic amendments or vertical subsoiling can lead to larger soil C pools. These management approaches can both directly and indirectly affect soil C pools. We used well-replicated field experiments to explore the effects of these management strategies on ecosystem C pools and fluxes in two bioclimatic regions of California (Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) and Nicasio Ranch). Our treatments included an untreated control, compost amendments, plowed (vertical subsoil), and compost + plow. The experiment was conducted over two years allowing us to compare dry (360 mm) and average (632 mm) rainfall conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured weekly using a LI-8100 infrared gas analyzer. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured monthly using static flux chambers. Aboveground and belowground biomass were measured at the end of the growing season as an index of net primary productivity (NPP) in the annual plant dominated system. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously and averaged on hourly and daily timescales. Soil organic C and N concentrations were measured prior to the application of management treatments and at the ends of each growing season. Soils were collected to a 10 cm depth in year one and at four depth increments (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm) in year two. Soil C and N concentrations were converted to content using bulk density values for each plot. During both growing seasons, soil respiration rates were higher in the composted plots and lower in the plowed plots relative to controls at both sites. The effects on C loss via soil respiration were stronger in the first year, with compost soils experiencing a 21 1 % greater cumulative loss at SFREC and 16 3 % more at Nicasio. The second year showed a similar trend, but with a lower magnitude loss. Aboveground NPP responded positively to compost additions and negatively to plowing at both sites. At SFREC, we measured 58 % more ANPP in composted relative to control plots in year one (369 vs 230 g C/m2) and 56 % more in year two (327 vs 209 g C/m2). Aboveground NPP on plowed plots was 129 g C/m2 in year one, and 185 g C/m2 in year two. Plowed soils also showed a significant decline in soil C and N concentrations (C= 2.67 0.13%, N = 0.20 0.01%). Compost additions increased soil C and N concentrations (C= 3.92 0.29%, N = 0.32 0.02%) relative to control soils (C= 3.52 0.20%, N = 0.27 0.07%). Throughout the experiment, we did not detect significant treatment differences in CH4 or N2O fluxes, nor did we detect significant differences at any individual sampling point. These results suggest that compost addition can lead to an increase in ecosystem C storage, with a small offset from elevated soil respiration.

Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

2010-12-01

449

Quantification of forces required for stabbing with screwdrivers and other blunter instruments.  

PubMed

In the UK, stabbing is the most common cause of homicide. The weapons used include knives, swords, screwdrivers and glass shards. Quantifying the exact force used in a stabbing incident is considered to be a difficult area due to the large number of variables present, such as sharpness of weapon, angle of attack and relative movements of the people involved. Having quantifiable data would allow a forensic pathologist to make a more informed decision when it comes to answering the commonly posed question in court "what was the degree of force involved in the stabbing incident?" The answer to this question is considered significant in determining an alleged assailant's intent to cause harm. This paper presents results of the first detailed study relating geometry of screwdrivers to the forces required for penetration. Additionally, a range of other blunt weapons such as pens and chisels have also been studied. A silicone rubber-foam analogue has been used as the main skin simulant owing to it having similar mechanical properties to that of human skin and giving highly repeatable results. Different screwdrivers of varying shape and size have been tested (i.e. slotted, Phillips, posidriv and Torx), along with other implements including chisels and pens. The weapon geometry was characterised and related to the peak force required for penetration. Our results show that there is a direct correlation between the cross-sectional area of a screwdriver head and the amount of force required for penetration. Screwdrivers with larger cross-sectional areas require a significantly greater force to penetrate (forces in the region of 100-120 N) but "sharper" slotted screwdrivers penetrate with much lower forces (~30 N). The forces required for penetrating the rubber-foam analogue with screwdrivers are higher than for "sharp" knives, but in some cases similar to the forces required for stabbing with "blunt" knives. For the other weapons such as chisels and biros, the force required for penetration was again high and there was found to be a good relationship between area of the implement making contact and penetration force. PMID:21465182

Parmar, Kiran; Hainsworth, Sarah Victoria; Rutty, Guy Nathan

2011-04-05

450

Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring water levels and movement was much weaker for young females than for adults. 7. Young female diving ducks exhibited much stronger (compared to adults) asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water locations than away from these locations. 8. Local survival of day-old ducklings during the first year of life was time-specific and very low (means for different strata/states 0?01-0?08) because of high rates of emigration and prefledging mortality.

Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

2003-01-01

451

Longwall mining of thin seams  

SciTech Connect

Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

Curth, E A

1981-01-01

452

Cross-site soil microbial communities under tillage regimes: fungistasis and microbial biomarkers.  

PubMed

The exploitation of soil ecosystem services by agricultural management strategies requires knowledge of microbial communities in different management regimes. Crop cover by no-till management protects the soil surface, reducing the risk of erosion and nutrient leaching, but might increase straw residue-borne and soilborne plant-pathogenic fungi. A cross-site study of soil microbial communities and Fusarium fungistasis was conducted on six long-term agricultural fields with no-till and moldboard-plowed treatments. Microbial communities were studied at the topsoil surface (0 to 5 cm) and bottom (10 to 20 cm) by general bacterial and actinobacterial terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses. Fusarium culmorum soil fungistasis describing soil receptivity to plant-pathogenic fungi was explored by using the surface layer method. Soil depth had a significant impact on general bacterial as well as actinobacterial communities and PLFA profiles in no-till treatment, with a clear spatial distinction of communities (P < 0.05), whereas the depth-related separation of microbial communities was not observed in plowed fields. The fungal biomass was higher in no-till surface soil than in plowed soil (P < 0.07). Soil total microbial biomass and fungal biomass correlated with fungistasis (P < 0.02 for the sum of PLFAs; P < 0.001 for PLFA 18:2?6). Our cross-site study demonstrated that agricultural management strategies can have a major impact on soil microbial community structures, indicating that it is possible to influence the soil processes with management decisions. The interactions between plant-pathogenic fungi and soil microbial communities are multifaceted, and a high level of fungistasis could be linked to the high microbial biomass in soil but not to the specific management strategy. PMID:22983972

Sipil, Timo P; Yrjl, Kim; Alakukku, Laura; Palojrvi, Ansa

2012-09-14

453

Transformation and sorption of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine in two soils: a short-term batch study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide use of veterinary antibiotics poses a continuous threat to the environment. There is, however, a lack of mechanistic studies on sorption and transformation processes for environmental assessment in soils. Two-weeks batch sorption experiments were performed with the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the plow layer and the subsoil of a loamy sand and a silty loam. The sorption and transformation parameters of SDZ and its main transformation products N1-2-(4-hydroxypyrimidinyl) benzenesulfanilamide (4-OH-SDZ) and 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-aniline (An-SDZ) were estimated using a global optimization algorithm. A two-stage, one-rate kinetic sorption model combined with a first-order transformation model adequately described the batch data. Sorption of SDZ was nonlinear (Freundlich), time-dependent, and affected by pH (speciation), with a higher sorption capacity for the loamy sand. Transformation of SDZ into 4-OH-SDZ occurred only in the liquid phase, with half-life values of about 1 month in the plow layers and about 6 months in the subsoils. Both the faster transformation rate in the plow layer compared to the subsoil and negligible transformation in the solid phase point to a microbial process for the formation of 4-OH-SDZ. Under the exclusion of light, An-SDZ was formed in substantial amounts in the silty loam only, with liquid phase half-life values of about 2 to 3 weeks. Despite the rather large parameter uncertainties, which may be reduced after the inclusion of additional information obtained from sequential solid phase extraction, the proposed method allows us to quantify and predict the fate of antibiotics in soils.

Kasteel, Roy; Mboh, Cho; Unold, Myriam; Groeneweg, Joost; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

2010-05-01

454

Soil radiocesium distribution in rice fields disturbed by farming process after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.  

PubMed

A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent large tsunami hit the northeastern coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. This resulted in serious damage to the reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. Large amounts of radionuclides were released from the FDNPP, a proportion of which were deposited onto the ground. In this study, we investigated soil radiocesium contamination of rice fields in Aga and Minamiuonuma, Niigata, ~130 and 200 km away from the FDNPP, respectively, as Niigata is one of the largest rice growing regions in Japan. Soil samples were collected from the plow layer of five rice fields in August and September, 5-6 months after the FDNPP accident. Results showed that radiocesium concentrations (the sum of Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the rice soil samples were ~300 Bq (kg dry soil)(-1). All samples contained a Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratio of 0.68-0.96 after correction to March 11, 2011, showing that the radiocesium released from the FDNPP were deposited on these areas. Although the rice fields had been disturbed by farming processes after the FDNPP accident, the depth distribution of radiocesium concentrations in the plow layers showed higher concentrations in the upper soil layers. This suggests that spring tillage, flooding and puddling performed before rice transplantation may not disperse radiocesium deposited on the surface through the whole plow layer. In addition, the planar distribution of radiocesium concentrations was examined near the water inlet in one of the rice fields. Highest activities were found aligned with the direction of irrigation water discharge, indicating that radioactivity levels in rice fields may be elevated by an influx of additional radionuclides, probably in irrigation water, during farming. PMID:23000550

Harada, Naoki; Nonaka, Masanori

2012-09-20

455

[Modeling the Cd accumulation in agricultural soil irrigated with reclaimed water].  

PubMed

Recent years, soil pollution of heavy metal has affected human life seriously, especially in farmland. Heavy metal pollution in farmland is mainly caused by irrigation, fertilizing and atmospheric fallout. As the character of heavy metal input in farmland is chronic and low dosage, application of model would be more suitable than routine methods to illustrate the dynamic changes of heavy metals in soil. In this paper, we use the model of STEM-profile to analyze and predict Cd pollution in farmland in Tongzhou, Beijing, based on the data from field survey. The results showed that: the concentration of Cd in this land would exceed the national soil environment standard after 100 years under current situations, reaching 0.866 mg x kg(-1) in plow layer. Studies of the influence of the amount and the form of inputs and the amount of irrigation water on the distribution of Cd in soil showed that irrigated with reclaimed water or fertilized with organic manure could lead to accumulation of Cd in the soil, while groundwater irrigation with inorganic fertilization would not cause accumulation of Cd in soil. When Cd inputs changed from mineral to organic form, the concentration of Cd in plow layer would be 0.943 mg x kg(-1) after 100 year. When the amount of irrigation water increased from 0.8 ET to 1.5 ET and to 2.0 ET, the plow layer Cd content would be 0.952, 0.784 and 0.638 mg x kg(-1) respectively. PMID:23379131

Zhao, Zhong-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

456

Immunogenicity of a Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccine with Low Lipopolysaccharide Content in Infants?  

PubMed Central

The lack of a clear correlation between the levels of antibody to pertussis antigens and protection against disease lends credence to the possibility that cell-mediated immunity provides primary protection against disease. This phase I comparative trial had the aim of comparing the in vitro cellular immune response and anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers induced by a cellular pertussis vaccine with low lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content (wPlow vaccine) with those induced by the conventional whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine. A total of 234 infants were vaccinated at 2, 4, and 6 months with the conventional wP vaccine or the wPlow vaccine. Proliferation of CD3+ T cells was evaluated by flow cytometry after 6 days of peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with stimulation with heat-killed Bordetella pertussis or phytohemagglutinin (PHA). CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and T-cell receptor ??-positive (??+) cells were identified in the gate of blast lymphocytes. Gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-10 levels in supernatants and serum anti-PT IgG levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The net percentage of CD3+ blasts in cultures with B. pertussis in the group vaccinated with wP was higher than that in the group vaccinated with the wPlow vaccine (medians of 6.2% for the wP vaccine and 3.9% for the wPlow vaccine; P = 0.029). The frequencies of proliferating CD4+, CD8+, and ??+ cells, cytokine concentrations in supernatants, and the geometric mean titers of anti-PT IgG were similar for the two vaccination groups. There was a significant difference between the T-cell subpopulations for B. pertussis and PHA cultures, with a higher percentage of ??+ cells in the B. pertussis cultures (P < 0.001). The overall data did suggest that wP vaccination resulted in modestly better specific CD3+ cell proliferation, and ??+ cell expansions were similar with the two vaccines.

Zorzeto, Tatiane Queiroz; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; da Silva, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco; Carniel, Emilia de Faria; Dias, Waldely Oliveira; Ramalho, Vanessa Domingues; Mazzola, Tais Nitsch; Lima, Simone Corte Batista Souza; Morcillo, Andre Moreno; Stephano, Marco Antonio; Antonio, Maria Angela Reis de Goes; Zanolli, Maria de Lurdes; Raw, Isaias; Vilela, Maria Marluce dos Santos

2009-01-01

457

Prediction of soil loss with the CREAMS model  

SciTech Connect

Variations in soil loss as a function of certain land use and land management practices were investigated on a small watershed in the Texas Panhandle using CREAMS, a recently developed computer model capable of simulating dynamic rainfall, runoff, and erosion processes over the time-frame of decades. Simulations of different curve numbers, three types of cropping, and varying crop yield and plowing practices were made to determine the sensitivity of soil loss to these parameters. Comparisons were made to actual in-field measurements of soil loss on experimental plots. 8 references, 3 figures.

Becker, N.M.

1984-07-24

458

Ground control failures. A pictorial view of case studies  

SciTech Connect

The book shows, in pictorial views, many forms and/or stages of types of failures in mines, for instance, cutter, roof falls, and cribs. In each case, the year of occurrence is stated in the beginning so that the environment or technological background under which it occurred are reflected. The narrative than begins with the mining and geological conditions, followed by a description of the ground control problems and recommended solutions and results, if any. The sections cover failure of pillars, roof falls, longwall, roof bolting, multiple-seam mining, floor heave, longwall, flooding and weathering of coal, old workings, and shortwall and thin-seam plow longwall.

Peng, S.S.

2007-07-01

459

Effect of Cultural Practices, Soil Phosphorus, Potassium, and pH on the Incidence of Fusarium Head Blight and Deoxynivalenol Levels in Wheat  

PubMed Central

In a survey conducted in 1984 in Essex, Lambton, and Middlesex Counties of Ontario, Canada, greater incidences of head blight and greater concentrations of deoxynivalenol in grain were observed in fields of winter wheat planted after corn than in those planted after soybeans, barley, and mixed grains. Neither head blight nor deoxynivalenol level were correlated significantly with soil P, K, or pH. Head blight was reduced in wheat planted after corn where the residues from a preceding corn crop were plowed down or where seed was treated with Vitaflo 280. However, head blight and deoxynivalenol levels were not affected significantly by the level of N application, cultivar, other diseases or herbicides.

Teich, A. H.; Hamilton, J. R.

1985-01-01

460

Self-revegetation of disturbed ground in the deserts of Nevada and Washington  

SciTech Connect

Plant cover established without purposeful soil preparation or seeding was measured on ground disturbed by plowing in Washington and by aboveground nuclear explosions in Nevada. After a time lapse of three decades in Washington and two decades in Nevada, fewer species were self-established on the disturbed ground than the nearby undisturbed ground. Alien annual plants were the dominants on the disturbed ground. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominated abandoned fields in Washington, and filaree (Erodium cicutarium) dominated disturbed ground in Nevada. Perennial grasses and shrubs appeared to be more successful as invaders in Nevada than in Washington. This distinction is attributed to the superior competitive ability of cheatgrass in Washington.

Rickard, W.H.; Sauer, R.H.

1982-01-01

461

Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.  

PubMed

The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

2005-01-01

462

Experimental Study of Implosion Dynamics of Multi-Shell Z-Pinches at Microsecond Implosion Times  

SciTech Connect

A set of experiments has been conducted on the GIT-12 generator (4.7 MA, 1.7 {mu}s) operating at microsecond mode. The experiments were carried out with multi-shell gas puffs. Dynamics of current-carrying plasma was registered by a set of B-dots monitors placed at different radii inside a multi-shell gas puff. The experimental data obtained with the help of B-dots monitors are compared with 0D snow-plow simulations of implosion dynamics and discussed taking into consideration the data from other Z-pinch diagnostics.

Shishlov, Alexander V.; Chaikovsky, Stanislav A.; Fedunin, Anatoly V.; Fursov, Fedor I.; Kokshenev, Vladimir A.; Kurmaev, Nikolai E.; Labetsky, Aleksey Yu.; Oreshkin, Vladimir I.; Rousskikh, Alexander G.; Zhidkova, Natalia A. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

2006-01-05

463

A new technology for pipeline installation in wetlands  

SciTech Connect

One technique, known as the sled or plow, is being developed. In monitoring one crossing, we found that suspended sediment loads were reduced by 50% from those associated with a conventional crossing and that costs were reduced by approximately 25%. These reductions suggest that a larger-scale sled may have considerable potential for installing larger-diameter pipelines over greater distances, as well as for application in wetland and barrier island environments. We are obtaining performance and cost data for the sled technique, through model- and full-scale laboratory and field testing, to quantify the technique's potential and define its limitations. 3 refs.

Johnson, D.O.; Carter, R.P.; Gaynor, A.J.

1987-01-01

464

Impact of conservation agriculture on harnessing sustainability and building resilience against land degradation in the northern Ethiopian highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation Agriculture (CA) aims at improving soil quality and crop yield whilst reducing runoff and topsoil erosion which raises the soil resilience to combat soil degradation. Different chemical, physical, and biological properties of a soil interact in complex ways that determine the crop productivity potential of the soil. Hence, a medium-term tillage experiment was carried out (2005 to 2011) on a Vertisol to evaluate changes in soil quality, runoff and soil loss due to CA-based field conservation practices in northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was implemented in a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, plowed once at planting by refreshing the furrow and with 30% standing crop residue retention, terwah+ (TER+) with plowing once at planting with 30% standing crop residue retention and contour furrows made at 1.5 m distance interval, and conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three tillage operations and removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plow mahresha. Local crop rotation practices followed during the seven years sequentially from the first to the seventh year included wheat-teff-wheat-barley-wheat-teff-grass pea. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weed in DER+ and TER+. Significantly different (p<0.05) mean runoff coefficients (%) in 7-yrs of 13, 20 and 27 were recorded for DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Mean soil losses of 7-yrs were 4.4, 12.5 and 18 t ha-1 y-1 in DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Among the several assessed soil properties, SOM, N, P, soil microbial biomass carbon, aggregate stability index, consistency index, cone index, air capacity and macroporosity were shown to significantly increase in soils subjected to DER+ planting system compared to CT, specifically at 0-10 cm depth. Aggregate instability index, crack size at harvest, relative water capacity and plastic limit were significantly larger in CT compared to CA treatments. Adoption of improved local practices of DER+ and TER+ planting systems that employ conservation agriculture principles can reduce runoff, soil loss and improve crop yield and soil quality and thus, sustainability in Vertisols. Keywords: Soil resilience, Vertisol, conservation agriculture, field conservation practices, soil quality

Araya, Tesfay; Cornelis, Wim M.; Govaerts, Bram; Bauer, Hans; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

2013-04-01

465

Feature length-scale modeling of LPCVD & PECVD MEMS fabrication processes.  

SciTech Connect

The surface micromachining processes used to manufacture MEMS devices and integrated circuits transpire at such small length scales and are sufficiently complex that a theoretical analysis of them is particularly inviting. Under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is Chemically Induced Surface Evolution with Level Sets (ChISELS), a level-set based feature-scale modeler of such processes. The theoretical models used, a description of the software and some example results are presented here. The focus to date has been of low-pressure and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, LPCVD and PECVD) processes. Both are employed in SNLs SUMMiT V technology. Examples of step coverage of SiO{sub 2} into a trench by each of the LPCVD and PECVD process are presented.

Plimpton, Steven James; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Musson, Lawrence Cale; Ho, Pauline (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, CA)

2004-06-01

466

Observation of Nonspreading Wave Packets in an Imaginary Potential  

SciTech Connect

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method to prepare a nonspreading atomic wave packet. Our technique relies on a spatially modulated absorption constantly chiseling away from an initially broad de Broglie wave. The resulting contraction is balanced by dispersion due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. This quantum evolution results in the formation of a nonspreading wave packet of Gaussian form with a spatially quadratic phase. Experimentally, we confirm these predictions by observing the evolution of the momentum distribution. Moreover, by employing interferometric techniques, we measure the predicted quadratic phase across the wave packet. Nonspreading wave packets of this kind also exist in two space dimensions and we can control their amplitude and phase using optical elements.

Stuetzle, R.; Goebel, M.C.; Hoerner, Th.; Kierig, E.; Mourachko, I.; Oberthaler, M.K. [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Efremov, M.A.; Fedorov, M.V. [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, V.P. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University), 31 Kashirskoe shosse, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Leeuwen, K.A.H. van [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schleich, W.P. [Abteilung fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

2005-09-09

467

Benchmarks for target tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term benchmark originates from the chiseled horizontal marks that surveyors made, into which an angle-iron could be placed to bracket ("bench") a leveling rod, thus ensuring that the leveling rod can be repositioned in exactly the same place in the future. A benchmark in computer terms is the result of running a computer program, or a set of programs, in order to assess the relative performance of an object by running a number of standard tests and trials against it. This paper will discuss the history of simulation benchmarks that are being used by multiple branches of the military and agencies of the US government. These benchmarks range from missile defense applications to chemical biological situations. Typically, a benchmark is used with Monte Carlo runs in order to tease out how algorithms deal with variability and the range of possible inputs. We will also describe problems that can be solved by a benchmark.

Dunham, Darin T.; West, Philip D.

2011-09-01

468

Were Viking Dry-dock methods in the Americas used earlier to Build Pyramids, with Outflow Eroding the Sphinx, and were Stonehenge, the Obelisks, and Moas Similarly Erected?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chisel-quarried recycled granite in MA is datable by runes to 1069 CE; it could corroborate dating by a LIDAR. Associated sites, possibly used by Vikings to dry-dock their ships, could have exploited lock-like controls, possibly a continued technology. Site-leveling at the Giza Pyramids proves water was used. `Locks' and body-immersion worked for building, moving, erecting, or watering, at sites like Stonehenge, The Hanging Gardens at Babylon, the Moas of Easter Island, or The Pyramids, where the eroding water discharge was deliberately flushed over the Sphinx complex. It enhance the electromagnetically excited blue light signals we can detect, especially at sites frequented by Molocket of ME. Information, as at America's Stonehenge, in NH, and constructions at Acton MA, at Giza or at Rumford ME proves that the Pyramids and Sphinx were engineered and built about 4500 BP.

McLeod, Edward; McLeod, Roger

2006-03-01

469

[Chromatography analysis of tobacco smoke condensate in biology tissue].  

PubMed

Specialized analytical instrumentation for detailed analysis of nicotine, benz(alpha)pyrene, pyridine and benzene in tooth enamel and pulp of inveterate tobacco smokers is created. A Waters PPY-24 liquid chromatograph is equipped with Model M660 solvent programmer and a Model U6K sample injector is used. A Model 440 dual-wavelength detector is used to obtain absorbance ratios on dual-pen recorder. Our data show that concentration of tobacco smoke components in tooth cavity of inveterate tobacco smokers is different. The chisel tooth pulp contained considerably more nicotine and pyridine as compared with molars. The level of benzene does not change analyzed structures. The assumption of linearity between calculation of predicted retention times and concentration has been shown to be valid up to about 8,0% for all studied compounds. PMID:20157203

Zurabashvili, D Z; Chanturia, I R; Kapanadze, L R

2010-01-01

470

Late Bronze Age hoard studied by PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hoards of metallic objects belonging to the Late European Bronze Age can be interpreted differently depending on the type, number and composition of the artefacts. PIXE analysis has been performed in nine items from the Hoard of Freixanda in Portugal comprising four socket axes, a palstave axe, a ring, a chisel, a dagger, and a casting debris. Besides the composition of the main matrix elements, that is Cu and Sn, the amount of trace elements of interest like, As, Pb, Ni, and Ag has been determined using this ion beam technique. The high tin content alloy and the high purity of the metals from the Freixanda hoard are characteristic of the Portuguese and Spanish Late Bronze Age metallurgy, supporting the idea of a regional production.

Gutirrez Neira, P. C.; Zucchiatti, A.; Montero-Ruiz, I.; Vilaa, R.; Bottaini, C.; Gener, M.; Climent-Font, A.

2011-12-01

471

Mortality of waterfowl on a hypersaline wetland as a result of salt encrustation.  

PubMed

Approximately 300 geese, primarily lesser Canada geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) were found unable to fly or dead on a small hypersaline lake (conductivity 77,000-90,000 mumhos/cm) in western Saskatchewan in September 1985. The birds were heavily encrusted with sodium sulfate crystals. Dead birds that were necropsied had aspirated lake water and had evidence of acute muscle degeneration. The live geese (155) were captured and moved to nearby freshwater wetlands where most apparently survived. Some birds died of severe myopathy after translocation. Five northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) were found encrusted with salt and unable to fly on the lake approximately 10 days later. Salt encrustation apparently occurred when rapid cooling of the lake resulted in supersaturation and crystallization of the dissolved salt. A local resident recalled similar events occurring on the lake in autumn on at least two other occasions during the past 50 yr. PMID:3820414

Wobeser, G; Howard, J

1987-01-01

472

Avian influenza in wild waterfowl and shorebirds in the Donana National Park: Serological survey using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed

The indirect ELISA was used to detect antibodies to influenzavirus A in the sera of wildfowl from the Donana National Park. Of the 712 birds examined, 44 (6.2%) were seropositive. Positive birds belonged to 10 of the 13 species studied. Infection rates varied widely: spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, 32.2%), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, 9.9%), gadwall (Anas strepera, 8.6%), red-crested pochard (Netta rufina, 8.1%), pochard (Aythya ferina, 6.4%), shoveler (Anas clypeata, 5%), great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus, 4.3%), avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta, 3.1%), grey heron (Ardea cinerea, 3.1%) and coot (Fulica atra, 0.8%). Although infection rates were not high, the wide range of avian species susceptible to influenzavirus A suggests circulation of the virus amongst wildfowl at Donana. PMID:18671098

Astorga, R J; Leon, L; Cubero, M J; Arenas, A; Maldonado, A; Tarradas, M C; Perea, A

1994-06-01

473

Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.  

PubMed

Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control. PMID:17365634

Randler, Christoph

2007-03-01

474

Impacts of changing irrigation practices on waterfowl habitat use in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used diurnal aerial census data to examine habitat use patterns of ducks wintering in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California from 1980-87. We calculated densities (birds/ha) for the northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), green-winged teal (A. crecca), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), shoveler (A. clypeata), ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), and total ducks in each of 5 habitats. Densities of pintail and total ducks were greater in September than in other months. From October through January, density of teal and total ducks was greatest on Kern National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Densities of ruddy duck and pintail were greatest on agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds and preirrigated cropland, respectively.

Barnum, D. A.; Euliss, N. H ., Jr.

1991-01-01

475

Mining in low coal. Volume 1. Biomechanics and work physiology. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the job demands associated with low coal mining, (2) to survey the anthropometry, strength, and aerobic capacity of low coal miners to determine if they differ from the U.S. population, and (3) to recommend, on the basis of available information, optimal job and work station design for low coal mining. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. Back strength for male and female miners was significantly lower than the industrial worker population. This can be one of the contributing factors of low back problems in mining. Shoveling, timbering, and helpers tasks were physiologically demanding activities. However, because of the frequent stoppage of work, adequate rest was usually available. If work stoppage is corrected, then better work and rest schedules are essential.

Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.; Caddel, D.K.

1981-11-01

476

Assessment and determination of illumination needs for operators of mobile surface-mining equipment. Information Circular/1987  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted one of the most-extensive studies on surface mine illumination to date to assess the illumination needs of mobile surface-mining machinery with respect to the visual tasks required of machinery operators. Field investigations were performed at 22 surface-mining operations (coal and metal-nonmetal) within several mining regions of the United States. Visibility and illumination were measured for 159 visual tasks performed by equipment operators on or near 57 surface-mining machines, including draglines, shovels, blasthole drills, bulldozers, loaders, haul trucks, graders, scrapers, and several service-type vehicles. The report shows that illumination and/or visibility could be improved for various visual tasks and makes recommendations for these improvements. Moreover, the report describes the various equipment studied, gives details of the instruments and measuring techniques used, and presents equations to calculate the luminance and illuminance levels suggested for performing mining tasks.

Mayton, A.G.

1986-11-01

477

Waterfowl ecology and avian influenza in california: Do host traits inform us about viral occurrence?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined whether host traits influenced the occurrence of avian influenza virus (AIV) in Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans) at wintering sites in California's Central Valley. In total, 3487 individuals were sampled at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge and Conaway Ranch Duck Club during the hunting season of 2007-08. Of the 19 Anatidae species sampled, prevalence was highest in the northern shoveler (5.09%), followed by the ring-necked duck (2.63%), American wigeon (2.57%), bufflehead (2.50%), greater white-fronted goose (2.44%), and cinnamon teal (1.72%). Among host traits, density of lamellae (filtering plates) of dabbling ducks was significantly associated with AIV prevalence and the number of subtypes shed by the host, suggesting that feeding methods may influence exposure to viral particles. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

Hill, N. J.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Cardona, C. J.; Ackerman, J. T.; Schultz, A. K.; Spragens, K. A.; Boyce, W. M.

2010-01-01

478

T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones  

SciTech Connect

There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

Kline, H.M. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K. (Martin Marietta Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States). Aero and Naval Systems)

1993-01-01

479

T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones. Transuranic storage area-retrieval enclosure program  

SciTech Connect

There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

Kline, H.M. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K. [Martin Marietta Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States). Aero and Naval Systems

1993-04-01

480

The dental morphology of Pima Indians.  

PubMed

Fourteen morphologic crown traits were observed in a sample of 1528 Pima Indians of south-central Arizona. Pima dentitions are characterized by high frequencies of shoveling, incisor winging, the hypocone, the lower canine distal accessory ridge, cusp 6, and the protostylid. They exhibit low frequencies of the metaconule and lower premolar multiple lingual cusps and moderate frequencies of the canine tubercle, Carabelli's trait, cusp 7, and lower second molars with four cusps and X groove patterns. When Pima crown trait frequencies were compared to those of 13 Southwest Indian samples, their closest affinities were to other Uto-Aztecan groups, the Papago and Hopi. The Pima are most divergent from Athapaskans and are also clearly removed from Yuman speaking groups and the Zuni. In general, the pattern of dental morphologic variation in the Southwest corresponds closely to linguistic divisions. PMID:6869510

Scott, G R; Potter, R H; Noss, J F; Dahlberg, A A; Dahlberg, T

1983-05-01

481

Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eastern South Dakota on alfalfa and soybean relative to tillage, fertilization, and yield.  

PubMed

Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Frster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without added nitrogen (N). Populations were also sampled early and late season in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Beetles were present in alfalfa by late May and most were reproductively active within a week, but their presence in alfalfa did not always precede soybean emergence. Most beetles taken from alfalfa in late fall were teneral; all were previtellogenic and unmated. Reproductively active beetles were detected in soybeans as soon as seedlings emerged. A partial second generation apparently occurred each year. First-generation beetles started to emerge in soybean fields during the first or third week of July but, whether emergence started early or late, most beetles emerging after July seemingly failed to mature their eggs and started leaving soybeans within several weeks of eclosion. This pattern suggested that any second generation arose from only the earliest emerging beetles of the first generation, with later emerging individuals having to overwinter before reproducing. Thus, any factors delaying emergence of the first generation, such as delayed soybean planting, could potentially limit its reproductive capacity through winter mortality. Cumulative seasonal beetle counts were lower in N-treated subplots and in ridge-tilled compared with chisel-tilled plots. Soybean grain yield increased with decreases in peak abundance of first-generation beetles and with N fertilization. PMID:20550786

Hammack, Leslie; Pikul, Joseph L; West, Mark S

2010-06-01

482

Geographical gradients in the population dynamics of North American prairie ducks.  

PubMed

1. Geographic gradients in population dynamics may occur because of spatial variation in resources that affect the deterministic components of the dynamics (i.e. carrying capacity, the specific growth rate at small densities or the strength of density regulation) or because of spatial variation in the effects of environmental stochasticity. To evaluate these, we used a hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate parameters characterizing deterministic components and stochastic influences on population dynamics of eight species of ducks (mallard, northern pintail, blue-winged teal, gadwall, northern shoveler, American wigeon, canvasback and redhead (Anas platyrhynchos, A. acuta, A. discors, A. strepera, A. clypeata, A. americana, Aythya valisineria and Ay. americana, respectively) breeding in the North American prairies, and then tested whether these parameters varied latitudinally. 2. We also examined the influence of temporal variation in the availability of wetlands, spring temperature and winter precipitation on population dynamics to determine whether geographical gradients in population dynamics were related to large-scale variation in environmental effects. Population variability, as measured by the variance of the population fluctuations around the carrying capacity K, decreased with latitude for all species except canvasback. This decrease in population variability was caused by a combination of latitudinal gradients in the strength of density dependence, carrying capacity and process variance, for which details varied by species. 3. The effects of environmental covariates on population dynamics also varied latitudinally, particularly for mallard, northern pintail and northern shoveler. However, the proportion of the process variance explained by environmental covariates, with the exception of mallard, tended to be small. 4. Thus, geographical gradients in population dynamics of prairie ducks resulted from latitudinal gradients in both deterministic and stochastic components, and were likely influenced by spatial differences in the distribution of wetland types and shapes, agricultural practices and dispersal processes. 5. These results suggest that future management of these species could be improved by implementing harvest models that account explicitly for spatial variation in density effects and environmental stochasticity on population abundance. PMID:18631261

Saether, Bernt-Erik; Lillegrd, Magnar; Grtan, Vidar; Drever, Mark C; Engen, Steinar; Nudds, Thomas D; Podruzny, Kevin M

2008-07-08

483

Residue Removal Affects the Carbon Content of No-Till Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No-till crop management often results in increased soil organic carbon contents. However, the effect of residue removal for fuel or animal fodder on soil carbon content is not well understood, especially with no-till management practices. We utilized a multiyear study at six locations in central Mexico, with a wide range of soil and climatic conditions to determine the effect of varying rates of residue removal and no-till management on soil carbon content. Treatments consisted of annual moldboard plowing and no-till management practices with 100%, 67%, 33% and none of the corn (Zea mays) crop residue retained on the no-till soil surface. Even when all crop residues were removed, no-till practices maintained carbon levels above that of moldboard plowing at five of the six locations. Retaining crop residues affected the soil carbon content differently depending on climatic conditions. Retaining crop residues on the soil surface increased soil carbon content at a much faster rate in cool conditions than in warm tropical conditions. Carbon content was greater in regions with higher amounts of rainfall than in drier regions. Retaining crop residues on the soil surface with no-till will usually increase soil carbon content, but climatic conditions should be considered to determine if crop residue would be more effectively utilized for energy production or animal fodder.

Potter, K. N.; Torbert, H. A.

2003-12-01

484

The Effect of surface morphology on the friction of Electrogalvanized sheet steel in forming processes  

SciTech Connect

The effect in the drawbead simulator test were evaluated for a set of commercially coated steels and a set of laboratory coated steels with underlying surfaces produced by laser textured, shot blast, and electro-discharge textured rolls. In general, surfaces with higher roughness (R{sub a} parameter) measured lower friction in the DBS tests. The requisite roughness amplitude necessary for low friction was moderated somewhat by having a more closely spaced roughness as described by the median wavelength, {lambda}m, of the power spectrum. This effect is due to interaction with the lubricant by the micro-roughness imparted by the galvanizing process. The lubricant tends to be retained better by the surfaces with the micro-roughness, thereby increasing the amount of elasto- and plasto-hydrodynamic support of the load. Other variables, such as large variations in thickness of the sheet can mask the effect of the surface by changing the actual distance of sliding contact during the DBS test. For tests where the amount of sliding is similar, the effect of roughness is significant. The friction measured for EG steels in the DBS test is dominated by deformation of the surface with plowing by the asperities of the tooling adding to that caused by the deformation. The size of the plow marks in the deformed surfaces corresponds to the roughness of the tooling and no significant evidence of wear particles was observed.

Skarpelos, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

1993-12-01

485

BotEC: The Magnitude of the India-Asia Collision  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question: The story of the Himalayas can be traced back to the breakup of the supercontinent, called Pangaea, about 200 million years ago, when India began its rapid movement northward towards Asia. Asia was a much smaller continent then. Then, between 45 and 55 million years ago, India and Asia collided. Before collision, India moved northward at about 7-10 centimeters per year. Remarkably, India's northward movement was slowed only a little after the collisionâit continues to plow into Asia at a rate of 5-6 centimeters per year. We can measure the present northward movement of India into Asia using GPS measurements over a period of time. So, there is little doubt of the continued movement of India. There is much debate about how the northward march of India into Asia is being accommodated. Of course, the high Himalayan Plateau is a manifestation of this collision between two continents. Now refer to a map of the USA. For the sake of comparison, if India were to have collided with North America near Washington, D.C. and continued to plow westward into North America at 6 centimeters per year for 55 million years, then where would the "front" of the collision zone be presently? Name a major city in the USA that is at the correct approximate distance from Washington, D.C.

Kresan, Peter

486

Waterbird communities in rice fields subjected to different post-harvest treatments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In California's Sacramento Valley, the potential value of rice fields as habitat for waterbirds may vary with harvest method, post-harvest treatment of rice straw (chopped, burned, plowed), and extent of flooding. Recent changes in rice harvesting methods (i.e., use of stripper-headers) and a legislative mandate to decrease burning of rice straw after harvest may alter habitat availability and use. Thus, we investigated species richness and community composition of nonbreeding waterbirds during October-March 1993-94 and 1994-95 in rice fields of the northern Sacramento Valley. Most (85-91% of land area) rice was conventionally harvested (i.e., cutter bar), and the remainder was stripped. Rice straw was left untreated in more than half of fields (52% in 1994 and 54% in 1995), especially in stripped fields (56-70%). In fields where farmers treated straw, the most common management methods were plowing (15-21%), burning (19-24%), and chopping (3-5%). Fields became increasingly wet from October through March as seasonal precipitation accumulated and farmers flooded fields to facilitate straw decomposition and provide habitat for ducks. Species richness of waterbirds was greater (P 0.23). Species richness in stripped fields probably was low because foraging opportunities were limited by tall dense straw, decreased grain density, and infrequent flooding. We recommend that land managers wishing to provide habitat for a diverse waterbird community harvest rice using conventional methods and flood fields shallowly.

Day, J. H.; Colwell, M. A.

1998-01-01

487

Dynamical evolution of substucture in molecular clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is abundant and diverse evidence that clumping is a common feature of molecular clouds. These observations have motivated a dynamical model of molecular clouds which views them as an ensemble of interacting clumps of gas. The primitive forms of clump interaction were studied through the technique of hydrodynamical simulation. The simplest interaction is that of a single clump plowing through an ambient medium. Plowing clumps in both subsonic and supersonic regimes were studied with particular emphasis on the physics of shock compression and rarefaction, vorticity, and drag. The infrared emission spectra of the shock-heated gas associated with supersonic clumps was also calculated. It is found that an ensemble of clumps will emit radiation, primarily in clump wake, sufficient to be observable. The observation of this infrared radiation is proposed as a consistency test of clumpy models of molecular clouds. Gravitational instability and clump coalescence were studied in simulations of clump collisions. The thermal stability of molecular gas was also studied, and unstable condensation modes in secularly cooling gas were found. These modes damp before reaching nonlinearity, but provide a continual source of acoustic perturbation.

Gilden, D. L.

1982-03-01

488

Experimental evidence that human impacts drive fire ant invasions and ecological change  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions are often closely associated with human impacts and it is difficult to determine whether either or both are responsible for the negative impacts on native communities. Here, we show that human activity, not biological invasion, is the primary driver of negative effects on native communities and of the process of invasion itself. In a large-scale experiment, we combined additions of the exotic fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, with 2 disturbance treatments, mowing and plowing, in a fully crossed factorial design. Results indicate that plowing, in the absence of fire ants, greatly diminished total native ant abundance and diversity, whereas fire ants, even in the absence of disturbance, diminished some, but not all, native ant abundance and diversity. Transplanted fire ant colonies were favored by disturbance. In the absence of disturbance and on their own, fire ants do not invade the forest habitats of native ants. Our results demonstrate that fire ants are passengers rather than drivers of ecological change. We propose that fire ants may be representative of other invasive species that would be better described as disturbance specialists. Current pest management and conservation strategies should be reassessed to better account for the central role of human impacts in the process of biological invasion.

King, Joshua R.; Tschinkel, Walter R.

2008-01-01

489

Bird use of agricultural fields under reduced and conventional tillage in the Texas Panhandle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted bird surveys in reduced-tillage and conventional tillage fields in spring, summer, fall, and winter from 1987 to 1991 in the Texas Panhandle. Eastern meadowlarks, longspurs, and savannah sparrows were more common in reduced-tillage (sorghum and wheat stubble) fields than in conventionally tilled (plowed) fields in at least 1 season. Other species also had patterns suggestive of greater abundance in reduced-tillage fields. Hornedlarks, which prefer habitat with sparse vegetation, were more abundant in plowed fields in all seasons except summer. Bird diversity was greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields in summer. Cover density and height were greater in reduced tillage fields in all seasons except spring. Cover density and height rather than cover composition (e.g.,grain stubble or live plants) seemed to be the important factors affecting bird distribution. Patterns of bird abundance between sorghum and wheat stubble fields also were dependent on cover. Herbicide use was not greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields. Reduced-tillage agriculture for sorghum and wheat farming should be encouraged in the southern Great Plains as a means of improving the attractiveness of agricultural land to many bird species.

Flickinger, E.L.; Pendleton, G.W.

1994-01-01

490

Radiation MHD modeling of a proposed dynamic hohlraum  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a dynamic hohlraum target designed to be driven by the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque New Mexico. Z generates currents up 20 MA with a rise time of 100 ns and peak electrical power of 40 TW. In this design we attempt to reduce the effects of magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (RT) modes by using a distributed initial density profile. Earlier work showed that ``tailoring`` the initial density profile could reduce the sheath acceleration and the number of e-foldings that the RT instability grows during the implosion . As the sheath moves in radially, fresh material is swept up or ``snow plowed``, providing a back pressure that counters the J x B force. A special profile can be found in which the unstable outer surface of the sheath implodes at constant velocity, reducing the classical growth rate to zero, although residual Richtmeyer-Meshkov type instability (instability of the snow-plow shock front) may be present. In practice, it is hard to create tailored initial density profiles due to the difficulty of machining and otherwise manipulating very low density materials. It becomes easier to manufacture these complex targets as the current, energy and load mass increase with large drivers. Z is the first fast pulse power device with enough energy to consider loads of this type.

Hammer, J.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); De Groot, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)|California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Tabak, M.; Toor, A.; Zimmerman, G.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01

491

Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second year of a three year study comparing the Pegasus to conventional tillage. So far, no downside has been with the Pegasus and the following benefits have been documented: (1) Energy savings of 65.0 kilowatt hours per hectare over conventional tillage. This is when the Pegasus plow is used to bury whole stalks, and represents a 70% savings over conventional tillage (92.5 kilowatt hours per hectare). (2) Four to seven fewer passes of tillage, depending on the particular situation. This represents a substantial time savings to farmers. (3) So far, no differences in cotton yields. Recent cotton boll counts in one study indicate a higher yield potential with the Pegasus. (4) No disease problems. (5) Significantly higher levels of organic matter in the soil. A hypothesis of the study is that whole stalk burial may reduce plant disease problems. This hypothesis has not yet been proven. (6) Significantly higher levels of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen trended higher but were not significantly different. This shows that whole stalk burial does not adversely affect the nitrogen cycle in the soil and may actually improve it. The marketing support stage of the project is also described in the report.

NONE

1997-07-31

492

The pool of pedogenic carbon in the soils of different types and durations of use as croplands in the forest-steppe of the Central Russian Upland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on studying five agrochronoseries, including recent forest (dark) gray soils and soils plowed for 100, 150, and 200-240 and more years in the forest-steppe zone of the Central Russian Upland, the dynamics of the pedogenic carbon pool, including the Corg and Ccarb, are considered. In the 2-m-thick layer of the agrogenic soils studied, the pedogenic carbon pool was shown to increase by 15-30% (up to 50%) mainly due to the changes in the Ccarb content. The insignificant (by 10%) growth of the Corg content was found in the soils that were plowed for more than 200-250 years. As the hydrothermal regime changed when passing from the forest to croplands, the Ccarb reserves increased due to the ascending of carbonates from the parent rock through the capillary pores, probably, in colloid solution-suspensions. This process proceeded without exchange with the soil CO2, since the 14C age and the content of the newly formed carbonates became higher. These carbonates may be called pedogenic-lithogenic agrocarbonates, since they appear in soils as a result of the (agro-) pedogenesis. In this case, their additional source is the lithogenic carbonates, which bring in the "old" carbon. The process of carbonates ascending could be referred to the rapid soil-forming ones with their implementation time being close to ?50 years.

Khokhlova, O. S.; Chendev, Yu. G.; Myakshina, T. N.; Shishkov, V. A.

2013-05-01

493

Air supply grate and ash removal system for wood gasifier  

SciTech Connect

In a solid fuel gasifier, a reactor vessel containing a fixed bed of fuel and ash supported by the floor of the vessel and the hot ash moving downwardly toward the floor during the operation of the gasifier, an air supply grid is described including spaced parallel grid tubes spanning the interior of the reactor vessel at an elevation above the floor and being substantially within the hot ash of the fixed bed. The opposite ends of the grid tubes are supported by the side wall of the reactor vessel and being rotationally and axially adjustable. The spacing of the grid tubes is such that their collective horizontal surface area equals less than one-third of the horizontal surface area across the reactor vessel chamber, whereby the grid tubes offer little resistance to the downward movement of ash in the reactor vessel, and cooperative ash removal means within the reactor vessel chamber near the floor and below the air supply grid. The ash removal means include an ash plow operating within the reactor vessel chamber near and above the floor and an ash extraction auger below the ash plow and near the floor. The auger is in communication with the chamber.

McGowan, T.F.; Tessner, R.L.; Cassanova, R.A.; Bulpitt, W.S.

1986-07-22

494

[Effects of tillage and mulching on orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage system (no-tillage, rotary tillage, and plow tillage) and mulching (straw mulch, sod mulch, and film mulch) on the orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau. Under different tillage system, the soil moisture content in 0-1 m layer differed significantly in May, with the sequence of no-tillage (14.28%) > rotary tillage (14.13%) > plow tillage (13.57%), but had less difference in September. Straw mulch induced significantly higher soil moisture content than sod mulch, film mulch, and no-mulch. Among the treatments tillage plus mulching, no-tillage plus straw mulch resulted in the greatest soil water storage. The average soil temperature at daytime was in order of film mulch > no-mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch, and the change range of soil temperature was no-mulch > film mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch. Soil water storage under different mulching treatments was not always negatively correlated with soil temperature, but depended on the water conservation effect and heat-preserved capacity of mulching material. Above all, the main conservation tillage system for the orchards in Loess Plateau would be no tillage plus straw mulch. PMID:20135996

Huang, Jin-Hui; Liao, Yun-Cheng; Gao, Mao-Sheng; Yin, Rui-Jing

2009-11-01

495

Transformation and sorption of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine in two soils: a short-term batch study.  

PubMed

The worldwide use of veterinary antibiotics poses a continuous threat to the environment. There is, however, a lack of mechanistic studies on sorption and transformation processes for environmental assessment in soils. Two-week batch sorption experiments were performed with the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the plow layer and the subsoil of a loamy sand and a silty loam. The sorption and transformation parameters of SDZ and its main transformation products N1-2-(4-hydroxypyrimidinyl) benzenesulfanilamide (4-OH-SDZ) and 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)aniline (An-SDZ) were estimated using a global optimization algorithm. A two-stage, one-rate sorption model combined with a first-order transformation model adequately described the batch data. Sorption of SDZ was nonlinear, time-dependent, and affected by pH, with a higher sorption capacity for the loamy sand. Transformation of SDZ into 4-OH-SDZ occurred only in the liquid phase, with half-life values of 1 month in the plow layers and 6 months in the subsoils. Under the exclusion of light, An-SDZ was formed in substantial amounts in the silty loam only, with liquid phase half-life values of 2 to 3 weeks. Despite the rather large parameter uncertainties, which may be reduced using additional information obtained from sequential solid phase extraction, the proposed method provides a framework to assess the fate of antibiotics in soils. PMID:20465301

Kasteel, Roy; Mboh, Cho Miltin; Unold, Myriam; Groeneweg, Joost; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

2010-06-15

496

Specific features of bacterial communities in floodplain agrocenoses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the taxonomic structure of the bacterial complexes in the alluvial soils of the Oka River valley allowed revealing the distinct differences in the spectrum of the bacterial dominants in the virgin and cultivated soils. Arthrobacter and pigment coryneform bacteria are shown to predominate in the virgin soil; bacilli and pseudomonades are common in the soil under vegetables. On cabbage leaves and carrot roots (both healthy and rotten), the spectrum of dominants is composed of two genera of enterobacteria: Pantoea and Erwinia. As a result of the plowing in of vegetables into the soil, enterobacteria accumulate; among them, phytopathogenic species are present. Within a year after this plowing in and the new yield, the enterobacteria practically disappeared, but myxobacteria and cytophages developed. Since these bacteria belong to the cellulose-destroying prokaryotes, the increase in their contents in the soil testified to their participation in the decomposition of the buried vegetable residues. Weeds are known to concentrate various bacterial forms in the phylloplane; they enter from different ecological niches: soil, water, meadow, and agricultural plants. Representatives of phytopathogenic bacteria as minor components were found on weeds.

Dobrovol'Skaya, T. G.; Leont'evskaya, E. A.; Sneg, A. A.; Balabko, P. N.

2010-04-01

497

Tabletop Tectonics: Diverse Mountain Ranges Using Flour and Graphite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been recognized for some time that the frontal deformation zones where plates converge (foreland fold- and-thrust belts on continents and accretionary wedges at subduction zones) involve shortening over a decoupling layer, or decollement. A simple but successful way of explaining many aspects of their behavior is called the critical Coulomb wedge model, which regards these contractional wedges as analogous to the wedge-shaped mass of soil accreted in front of a bulldozer, or the wedge of snow that piles up in front of a snow plow. The shape and deformation history of the accreted wedge of soil or snow will depend upon the frictional strength of the material being plowed up and the surface over which it is being plowed. The same is true of `bulldozer' wedges consisting of many km thick piles of sediment at convergent plate margins. Using flour (or powdered milk), sandpaper, graphite, transparency sheets, and athletic field marker chalk, manipulated with sieves, brushes, pastry bags and blocks and sheets of wood, it is possible to demonstrate a wide variety of processes and tectonic styles observed at convergent plate boundaries. Model fold-and-thrust belts that behave like natural examples with a decollement that is strong (e.g., in rock without high pore fluid pressure) or weak (e.g., in a salt horizon or with elevated pore fluid pressure) can be generated simply by placing wither sandpaper or graphite beneath the flour that is pushed across the tabletop using a block of wood (the strong basement and hiterland rocks behind the fold-thrust belt). Depending upon the strength of the decollement, the cross-sectional taper of the deforming wedge will be thin or broad, the internal deformation mild or intense, and the structures either close to symmetric or strongly forward-vergent, just as at the analogous natural fold-thrust belts. Including a horizontal sheet of wood or Plexiglas in front of the pushing block allows generation of an accretionary wedge, outer-are high, and forearc basin, just as over a subduction zone. Any dark material emplaced (a pastry bag works well) atop the experiment before deformation in the form of football-field `hash marks' every 10 cm allows for easy calculation of strain distribution at any time during or after the experiment. Finally, the entire orogen can be excavated using a plastic photocopier transparency sheet. If the original set-up included occasional thin layers of red and blue field marker chalk within sedimentary column (the rest of which consists of white flour or powdered milk), excavation reveals (quite colorfully) many internal details of the fold-thrust belts that have been generated.

Davis, D. M.

2006-12-01

498

Fault Wear and Friction Evolution: Experimental Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wear is an inevitable product of frictional sliding of brittle rocks as evidenced by the ubiquitous occurrence of fault gouge and slickenside striations. We present here experimental observations designed to demonstrate the relationship between wear and friction and their governing mechanisms. The experiments were conducted with a rotary shear apparatus on solid, ring-shaped rock samples that slipped for displacements up to tens of meters. Stresses, wear and temperature were continuously monitored. We analyzed 86 experiments of Kasota dolomite, Sierra White granite, Pennsylvania quartzite, Karoo gabbro, and Tennessee sandstone at slip velocities ranging from 0.002 to 0.97 m/s, and normal stress from 0.25 to 6.9 MPa. We conducted two types of runs: short slip experiments (slip distance < 25 mm) primarily on fresh, surface-ground samples, designed to analyze initial wear mechanisms; and long slip experiments (slip distance > 3 m) designed to achieve mature wear conditions and to observe the evolution of wear and friction as the fault surfaces evolved. The experiments reveal three wear stages: initial, running-in, and steady-state. The initial stage is characterized by (1) discrete damage striations, the length of which is comparable to total slip , and local pits or plow features; (2) timing and magnitude of fault-normal dilation corresponds to transient changes of normal and shear stresses; and (3) surface roughness increasing with the applied normal stress. We interpret these observations as wear mechanisms of (a) plowing into the fresh rock surfaces; (b) asperity breakage; and (c) asperity climb. The running-in stage is characterized by (1) intense wear-rate over a critical wear distance of Rd = 0.3-2 m; (2) drop of friction coefficient over a weakening distance of Dc = 0.2-4 m; (3) Rd and Dc display positive, quasi-linear relation with each other. We interpret these observations as indicating the organizing of newly-created wear particles into a 'three-body' structure that acts to lubricate the fault (Reches & Lockner, 2010). The steady-state stage is characterized by (1) relatively low wear-rate (approximately 10% of running-in wear-rate) and (2) quasi-constant friction coefficient. These observations suggest only small changes in the gouge layer in term of thickness (100 to 200 microns) and strength in this final stage. The present study indicates that (1) wear by plowing and asperity failure initiate early, during the first few millimeters of slip; and (2) wear and associated gouge formation appear as the controlling factors of friction evolution and fault weakening.

Boneh, Y.; Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

2011-12-01

499

Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Laser Clad Fe-Cr3C2 Composite Coating on 35CrMo Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe-Cr3C2 hard coatings with varying Cr3C2 content were produced on 35CrMo steel substrates by laser cladding. The experimental results showed that the coatings were uniform, continuous, and free of cracks. High adhesions between all produced coatings and their corresponding substrates were obtained due to the metallurgical interfaces between them. The microstructures of the coatings were mainly composed of austenitic dendrites and M7C3. The microhardness gradually increased from the bottom to the top of the coating, and increased with elevation of Cr3C2 content. The Fe-Cr3C2 coatings improved the sliding wear resistance of the 35CrMo steel substrates obviously, and the dominant wear mechanism was spalling fatigue, with plowed grooves on the worn surfaces.

Han, Bin; Li, Meiyan; Wang, Yong

2013-10-01

500

Supra-bubble regime for laser acceleration of coldelectron beams in tenuous plasma  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic electrons can be accelerated by an ultraintense laser pulse in the "supra-bubble" regime, that is, in the blow-out regime ahead of the plasma bubble (as opposed to the conventional method, when particles remain inside the bubble). The acceleration is caused by the ponderomotive force of the pulse, via the so-called snow-plow mechanism. The maximum energy gain, ?? ~ ?g a, is attained when the particle Lorentz factor ? is initially about ?g/a, where ?g is the pulse group speed Lorentz factor, and a is the laser parameter, proportional to the laser field amplitude. The scheme operates at a ? ?g, yielding ?? of up to that via wakefield acceleration for the same plasma and laser parameters, ?? ~ ?2g. The interaction length is shorter than that for the wake field mechanism but grows with the particle energy, hindering acceleration in multiple stages.

V.I. Geyko, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch G.M. Fraiman

2009-01-18