Science.gov

Sample records for chisel plow shovel

  1. Mikkelson sweep/spike chisel plow shovel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Profitability comparisons are reported between the Mikkelson Sweep/Spike Chisel Plow Shovel standard sweeps. This evaluation covers the first year of testing of the new Sweep/Spike design. The data are not averaged over treatments due to significant interaction between treatments and environmental factors. The cost of fuel, fall and spring, to perform the various treatments ranged from $1.27 to $3.36 per acre. Use of the sweep/spike shovel always reduced total fuel cost. Savings varied from $0.11 to $0.71 per acre depending on prior treatment. This means there will be money saved, to off-set expenses, when converting present chisel plows or for special options on new chisel plows, needed for use of the sweep/spike shovel. A summary of 1991--1992 energy measurements. They indicate that more power will be required to pull a chisel plow equipped with the sweep/spike shovel. A larger tractor, narrower chisel plow and/or slower speed will be required to avoid the wheel slippage problems encountered on soft or wet field surfaces.

  2. Mikkelson sweep/spike chisel plow shovel. Economic summary of the 1992 crop season

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Profitability comparisons are reported between the Mikkelson Sweep/Spike Chisel Plow Shovel standard sweeps. This evaluation covers the first year of testing of the new Sweep/Spike design. The data are not averaged over treatments due to significant interaction between treatments and environmental factors. The cost of fuel, fall and spring, to perform the various treatments ranged from $1.27 to $3.36 per acre. Use of the sweep/spike shovel always reduced total fuel cost. Savings varied from $0.11 to $0.71 per acre depending on prior treatment. This means there will be money saved, to off-set expenses, when converting present chisel plows or for special options on new chisel plows, needed for use of the sweep/spike shovel. A summary of 1991--1992 energy measurements. They indicate that more power will be required to pull a chisel plow equipped with the sweep/spike shovel. A larger tractor, narrower chisel plow and/or slower speed will be required to avoid the wheel slippage problems encountered on soft or wet field surfaces.

  3. Pegasus plow

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1997-04-01

    The Pagasus plow is a new implement for one-pass cotton plowdown. The Pagasus is unique in that it is capable of burying the whole cotton stalk without shredding. A very simple and reliable machine, the Pagasus gives the cotton farmer the option of using controlled traffic tillage without sacrificing good residue burial of easy machine maintenance.

  4. Smarter shovels dig and load more efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-04-15

    Digital drive upgrades allow older shovels to power through the bank smoothly while improving safety and reliability. The Mine Technology Group of Flanders Electric has pioneered an effort to offer open architecture for shovel electrics by installing Power Performance Digital Drive controls to motors to ensure peak power is provided during the digging process. The new system also has a Smart Fault Recognition system to power down in a controlled fashion. The upgrades have been fitted to Asarco's shovel for use in coal mining operations. 1 fig., 1 photos. 4 figs.

  5. Smarter shovels dig and load more efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-03-15

    Digital drive upgrades allow older shovels to power through the bank smoothly while improving safety and reliability. Flanders Electric is currently working on the third of five electric shovel upgrades which consists of Flandex Electric manufactured motors, Allen-Bradley PLCs and the Power Performance Digital Drive upgrade. With an open system, or open architecture, mine operators can service and maintain machines where a close system would limit the electricians to work with the OEMs exclusively. Typically, upgrades replace the old analog or an older digital drive with a new Power Performance Digital Drive upgrade. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  6. Underwater hydraulic shock shovel control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, He-Ping; Luo, A.-Ni; Xiao, Hai-Yan

    2008-06-01

    The control system determines the effectiveness of an underwater hydraulic shock shovel. This paper begins by analyzing the working principles of these shovels and explains the importance of their control systems. A new type of control system’s mathematical model was built and analyzed according to those principles. Since the initial control system’s response time could not fulfill the design requirements, a PID controller was added to the control system. System response time was still slower than required, so a neural network was added to nonlinearly regulate the proportional element, integral element and derivative element coefficients of the PID controller. After these improvements to the control system, system parameters fulfilled the design requirements. The working performance of electrically-controlled parts such as the rapidly moving high speed switch valve is largely determined by the control system. Normal control methods generally can’t satisfy a shovel’s requirements, so advanced and normal control methods were combined to improve the control system, bringing good results.

  7. Blade size and weight effects in shovel design.

    PubMed

    Freivalds, A; Kim, Y J

    1990-03-01

    The shovel is a basic tool that has undergone only nominal systematic design changes. Although previous studies found shovel-weight and blade-size effects of shovelling, the exact trade-off between the two has not been quantified. Energy expenditure, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion and shovelling performance were measured on five subjects using five shovels with varying blade sizes and weights to move sand. Energy expenditure, normalised to subject weight and load handled, varied quadratically with the blade-size/shovel-weight (B/W) ratio. Minimum energy cost was at B/W = 0.0676 m2/kg, which for an average subject and average load would require an acceptable 5.16 kcal/min of energy expenditure. Subjects, through the ratings of perceived exertion, also strongly preferred the lighter shovels without regard to blade size. Too large a blade or too heavy a shovel increased energy expenditure beyond acceptable levels, while too small a blade reduced efficiency of the shovelling. PMID:15676758

  8. Electric shovels meet the demands for mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    Rugged, intelligent shovels offer better productivity and help mine operators avoid costly downtime in a very tight market. In 2007 P & H Mining Equipment began to produce a new breed of electric mining shovels designed to help reduce operating cost in coal and other mining operations. These were designated the P & H C-Series. All have an advanced communication, command and control system called the Centurion system. Coal mining applications for this series include 4100XPCs in Australia, China and Wyoming, USA. The Centurion system provides information on shovel performance and systems health which is communicated via graphic user interface terminals to the operators cab. Bucyrus International is developing a hydraulic crowd mechanism for its electric shovels and is now field testing one for its 495 series shovel. The company has also added greater capability in the primary software in the drive system for troubleshooting and fault identification to quickly diagnose problems onboard or remotely. 4 photos.

  9. PLOW POWER REQUIREMENTS FOR FORESTRY SITE PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field study, data were collected to determine power requirements required by a trailing site preparation plow and the magnitudes of dynamic forces experienced by a plow during normal operation and during impact with stumps or other obstructions. Drawbar pull data were collected from five dif...

  10. 14. Photocopied August 1978. STEAM SHOVEL, SEPTEMBER 23, 1898. LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopied August 1978. STEAM SHOVEL, SEPTEMBER 23, 1898. LOADING ONE OF THE FIRST TRAINS OF DUMP CARS IN THE ROCK SECTION. (10) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN FROM LEDGE SO THAT DRAGLINE CAN CONTINUE REMOVING OVERBURDEN TO ACCESS LEVELS OF THE COAL SEAMS. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN FROM LEDGE TO ACCESS COAL SEAMS BELOW. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  13. An atypical clay shoveler's fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Victor B; Astri, Frank

    2001-01-01

    A case of an atypical clay shoveler's fracture with involvement of the spinolaminar line is described. Causative mechanisms of injury, radiographic appearances, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are reviewed. Classic clay shoveler's fractures are considered stable fractures. However, when the spinolaminar line is disrupted, spinal cord involvement must be ruled out. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4aFigure 4bFigure 5Figure 6

  14. RUNNER BOX MAINTENANCE. FRANK FEHER USES A COMPRESSED AIRPOWERED CHISEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RUNNER BOX MAINTENANCE. FRANK FEHER USES A COMPRESSED AIR-POWERED CHISEL TO CHIP OUT CONGEALED METAL IN PREPARATION FOR ANOTHER HEAT. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  15. HISTORY OF PLOWING OVER TEN THOUSAND YEARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historical lessons from plow-related erosion and soil degradation may contribute to present day social stability and sustainable agriculture. Agriculture originated 10 to 13 millennia ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, mostly along the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Indus and Yangtze River vall...

  16. Confessions of a Shoveler: STS Subcultures and Engineering Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herkert, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    Mainstream science, technology, and society scholars have shown little interest in engineering ethics, one going so far as to label engineering ethics activists as "shit shovelers." Detachment from engineering ethics on the part of most STS scholars is related to a broader and long-standing split between the scholar-oriented and activist-oriented…

  17. EVALUATION OF FORESTRY PLOW ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR SITE PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field study, data were collected to determine energy requirements of trailing site preparation plows and the magnitudes of dynamic forces experienced by a plow during normal operation and during impact with stumps or other obstructions. Drawbar pull data were collected from five different t...

  18. Soil translocation estimates calibrated for moldboard plow depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past century, one of the biggest culprits of tillage-induced soil erosion and translocation has been the moldboard plow. The distance soil will move by moldboard plow tillage has been shown to be correlated with slope gradient. Lindstrom et al. (1992) developed regression equations describi...

  19. [Test and gather data on sweep spike combination tillage tool]. Quarterly technical report, August 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lukach, J.

    1992-06-19

    This summary presents the data accumulated to date with only brief comment. It is prepared with the intent that the viewers will offer advice on terminology, data presentation, methods and other. The year end analysis will detail changes in the data due to the tillage treatments. The data is incomplete due to equipment problems and time limitations due to the wet fall and early freeze up. The trial was not completed due to our inability to get the Mikkelsen Chisel Plow Shovel (MCP), a 16 inch sweep with an anhydrous knife, to penetrate untilled land. The MCP shovel penetrated to deep on plowed ground and pulled so hard that the front wheels of our JD4440 tractor were jerked off the ground. The Standard Chisel Plow Shovels (SCP), a 16 inch sweep, worked well and the data is included.

  20. (Test and gather data on sweep spike combination tillage tool)

    SciTech Connect

    Lukach, J.

    1992-06-19

    This summary presents the data accumulated to date with only brief comment. It is prepared with the intent that the viewers will offer advice on terminology, data presentation, methods and other. The year end analysis will detail changes in the data due to the tillage treatments. The data is incomplete due to equipment problems and time limitations due to the wet fall and early freeze up. The trial was not completed due to our inability to get the Mikkelsen Chisel Plow Shovel (MCP), a 16 inch sweep with an anhydrous knife, to penetrate untilled land. The MCP shovel penetrated to deep on plowed ground and pulled so hard that the front wheels of our JD4440 tractor were jerked off the ground. The Standard Chisel Plow Shovels (SCP), a 16 inch sweep, worked well and the data is included.

  1. Post-trenching plow cuts ditch under offshore line

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.J.

    1980-06-01

    In a 15-day operation, a 68-ton, 60-ft-long underwater post-trenching plow successfully cut an approximately 4-ft-deep protective trench under the 23-mile-long, 24-in.-diameter gas-transmission pipeline connecting Esso Australia's Snapper A platform to shore in Australia's Bass Strait. Scale-model tests had provided towing-force data and proved the feasibility of split, butterfly-type shares that wrap around the pipe. A yoke on the pull-cable attachment, which places the pulling points on the shares rather than on the plow body, permitted the use of a much lighter body, thus saving about 30 tons of steel. Underwater television cameras monitored the plow's instrumentation panel, which received data on horizontal and vertical loads, the position of the shares, cutting depth and forward speed, and pull-cable horizontal and vertical departure angles from the plow. The soils encountered along the line included high-water-content quicksand, firm sand, cemented sandstone, and hard limestone.

  2. Long term effects of profile-modifying deep plowing on soil properties and crop yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient plant available soil water limits dryland crop yields on the semiarid Southern Great Plains. Deep plowing to eliminate dense subsoil layers may increase soil water by increased infiltration and rooting, but the duration of treatment effects must be sufficiently long to recoup plowing co...

  3. GRADE CONTROL CAPABILITY OF A PULL-BEHIND PLOW UNDER EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research objective was to test the grade control capability of the Liebrecht pull-behind plow. The plow's installation performance (i.e., grade control and deviations from grade) was compared to specifications in ASTM 449- 97 and selected other criteria. Field research was conducted at The Ohio ...

  4. Broken Ground: Plowing and America's Cultural Landscape in the 1930s

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Kate

    2011-05-31

    imagery. My second chapter considers Grant Wood's 1931 painting "Fall Plowing," a depiction of a steel walking plow, to focus on the function, history, and impact of the implement itself. The next two chapters focus on artistic products of the Dust Bowl...

  5. Molecular and phenotypic diversity in Chionactis occipitalis (Western Shovel-nosed Snake), with emphasis on the status of C. o. klauberi (Tucson Shovel-nosed Snake).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, D.A.; Meik, J.M.; Holycross, A.T.; Fisher, R.N.; Vandergast, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Chionactis occipitalis (Western Shovel-nosed Snake) is a small colubrid snake inhabiting the arid regions of the Mojave, Sonoran, and Colorado deserts. Morphological assessments of taxonomy currently recognize four subspecies. However, these taxonomic proposals were largely based on weak morphological differentiation and inadequate geographic sampling. Our goal was to explore evolutionary relationships and boundaries among subspecies of C. occipitalis, with particular focus on individuals within the known range of C. o. klauberi (Tucson Shovel-nosed snake). Population sizes and range for C. o. klauberi have declined over the last 25 years due to habitat alteration and loss prompting a petition to list this subspecies as endangered. We examined the phylogeography, population structure, and subspecific taxonomy of C. occipitalis across its geographic range with genetic analysis of 1100 bases of mitochondrial DNA sequence and reanalysis of 14 morphological characters from 1543 museum specimens. We estimated the species gene phylogeny from 81 snakes using Bayesian inference and explored possible factors influencing genetic variation using landscape genetic analyses. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses reveal genetic isolation and independent evolutionary trajectories for two primary clades. Our data indicate that diversification between these clades has developed as a result of both historical vicariance and environmental isolating mechanisms. Thus these two clades likely comprise 'evolutionary significant units' (ESUs). Neither molecular nor morphological data are concordant with the traditional C. occipitalis subspecies taxonomy. Mitochondrial sequences suggest specimens recognized as C. o. klauberi are embedded in a larger geographic clade whose range has expanded from western Arizona populations, and these data are concordant with clinal longitudinal variation in morphology. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Delayed plowing of forages within potato rotation reduces nitrate leaching losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Jamieson, T.; Nyiraneza, J.; Somers, G.; Thompson, B.; Murray, B.; Grimmett, M.

    2013-12-01

    The potato industry plays an important role in the economics in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Intensive potato production has been conducted on sandy soil underlain by a semi-confined or unconfined sandstone aquifer, which provides all the drinking water and a large majority of stream flow on the island. Typically, potato is grown in rotation with grain underseeded with forages, with the latter being plowed down in the fall of the third season. High levels of nitrate leaching losses from the potato production systems have adversely affected both groundwater and associated surface water quality. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) were proposed for maintaining optimal crop production while mitigating the nitrate contamination in PEI. But there is limited information on the environmental performance of the BMPs in commercial fields. The potentials of delayed forage plowing from fall to spring to reduce nitrate losses were evaluated in commercial fields at two separated sites in PEI during October 2010 and March 2013. At Site 1, two tile-drained fields were paired for spring vs. fall plowing treatments (with pre-plow herbicidal treatment); weekly tile-drainage samples were collected to evidence the effects of the treatments. At Site 2, a field was split in half for spring vs. fall plowing treatments (without pre-plow herbicidal treatment). Shallow piezometers were installed at the upper and lower ends of the field for water sampling, with the upper end one indicating the effects of shallow groundwater inflow and the lower ones evidencing the combined effects of groundwater inflow and drainage from plowing treatments. Soil drainage was estimated through coupled LEACHN and MODFLOW simulations. Nitrate leaching losses were calculated as the integration of measured leached nitrate concentrations and simulated drainage. Field monitoring showed that nitrate leaching mainly occurred during the offseason. Nitrate leaching during the forage phase were estimated to be 36 and 18 kg N/ha from the fall and spring plowed fields at Site 1, respectively. The differences of leached nitrate were mainly attributed to pre-plow herbicidal treatment associated with fall plowing. Respective nitrate leaching losses were estimated to be 54 and 32 kg N/ha from the fall and spring plowed fields at Site 2. The differences of leached nitrate at Site 2 were likely due to the different timing of tillage. The results suggested that postponing plowing of forages and associated herbicidal treatments until spring reduced nitrate leaching. Nitrate leaching losses derived exclusively from the decay of plow down forages were estimated to account for 16-21% of the overall N in the plants, implying that a significant amount of N in the forages were carried over into the subsequent crop phase. This large carried-over N pool creates an opportunity for the growers to save costs on fertilizer N by crediting some of the organic N while reducing the risk of nitrate leaching to groundwater.

  7. Application of DRAINMOD-Ks-STMAX to predict deep chiseling effects on a drained southern alluvial soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep chiseling in heavy soils can help increase infiltration and hence reduce erosion, potentially enhancing growth by reducing excess water in the root zone and reducing nutrient losses through the reduction of runoff to surface waters. This study was conducted to test the use of DRAINMOD-Ks-STMAX,...

  8. CARBON DIOXIDE AND NITROUS OXIDE FLUXES IN ORGANIC, NO-TILL, AND CHISEL-TILL CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic cropping systems may have the potential to increase soil C sequestration and reduce soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes compared to conventional systems but organic systems are not well studied. We are measuring greenhouse gas fluxes and soil C sequestration in no-till, chisel-till and organic ...

  9. Comparative ability of northern pintails, gadwalls, and northern shovelers to metabolize foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Feeding trials were used to compare the ability of northern pintails (Anas acuta), gadwalls (A. strepera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) to metabolize energy from a turkey starter ration, alfalfa pellets, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected among the three species for any of the three foods (kg body weight/day basis), for dry matter intake (DMI), body weight gain (BWG), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or metabolized energy (MEE) on any given diet consumed in quantities large enough to promote body weight gain. The AME content of alfalfa was 57% less than the value for turkey starter and 50% less than for barnyardgrass seeds. All three species metabolized more energy and gained weight faster when fed turkey starter. Energy modeling may be facilitated if additional research verifies that all species of dabbling ducks have equal ability to obtain energy from foods available to them in the wild. Behavioral and morphological factors may be more important in defining feeding niches than digestive physiology, at least for the three duck species tested, at the time of year of the experiments, and within the limits of the quality of foods used.

  10. Simulating carbon sequestration in plowed and no-tillage systems in Brazilian Oxisols using CQESTR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CQESTR simulates the effect of several management practices on soil organic carbon stocks. The model had been calibrated and validated in temperate regions. Our objective was to simulate carbon sequestration in Oxisols under plowed and no-tillage systems in northeastern and southeastern Brazil using...

  11. Progress report on the Pegasus plow, October--December 1996 and January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This is a progress report on a contract related to the invention of a plow which will bury organic waste from farm fields, either in the form of shredded stubble or as whole stalks. The report addresses completion of various tasks in the contract, primarily related to field testing and trying to move the product into the market place.

  12. Impact of deep plowing on groundwater recharge in a semiarid region

    E-print Network

    Scanlon, Bridget R.

    ) and natural ecosystems (three) to provide baseline controls. Soil samples were analyzed for water contentImpact of deep plowing on groundwater recharge in a semiarid region: Case study, High Plains, Texas September 2008; accepted 17 September 2008; published 20 December 2008. [1] Groundwater recharge is critical

  13. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available). PMID:26249380

  14. [Testing and commercialization of a cotton stalk shredder and plow]. Technical progress report, July--September, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1995-10-23

    The paper describes plans to field test several prototypes of plows that cut cotton stalks after harvesting and plows then back into the soil to prepare the field for the next planting. Modifications to the design have been made to allow the soil to more easily slide off the plow to reduce fuel consumption. A prototype has been shipped to Australia for testing in their fields and further product development. A farm machinery manufacturer has been selected to build two full-scale preproduction prototypes. Field testing will be done at sites in California and Arizona, since both have regulations specifying that cotton stalks must be shredded.

  15. Continuous dental replacement in a hyper-chisel tooth digging rodent

    PubMed Central

    Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Marangoni, Pauline; Šumbera, Radim; Tafforeau, Paul; Wendelen, Wim; Viriot, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to their reptilian ancestors, which had numerous dental generations, mammals are known to usually develop only two generations of teeth. However, a few mammal species have acquired the ability to continuously replace their dentition by the constant addition of supernumerary teeth moving secondarily toward the front of the jaw. The resulting treadmill-like replacement is thus horizontal, and differs completely from the vertical dental succession of other mammals and their extinct relatives. Despite the developmental implications and prospects regarding the origin of supernumerary teeth, this striking innovation remains poorly documented. Here we report another case of continuous dental replacement in an African rodent, Heliophobius argenteocinereus, which combines this dental system with the progressive eruption of high-crowned teeth. The escalator-like mechanism of Heliophobius constitutes an original adaptation to hyper-chisel tooth digging involving high dental wear. Comparisons between Heliophobius and the few mammals that convergently acquired continuous dental replacement reveal that shared inherited traits, including dental mesial drift, delayed eruption, and supernumerary molars, comprise essential prerequisites to setting up this dental mechanism. Interestingly, these dental traits are present to a lesser extent in humans but are absent in mouse, the usual biological model. Consequently, Heliophobius represents a suitable model to investigate the molecular processes leading to the development of supernumerary teeth in mammals, and the accurate description of these processes could be a significant advance for further applications in humans, such as the regeneration of dental tissues. PMID:21987823

  16. 1) The snow plow problem (R.P. Agnew): It began to snow early in the morning and the snow continued to fall throughout the

    E-print Network

    Prigozhin, Leonid

    1) The snow plow problem (R.P. Agnew): It began to snow early in the morning and the snow continued to fall throughout the day at a constant rate. Assume that the speed at which a snow plow is able to clear a road is inversely proportional to the height of the snow. The snow plow started at 5 a.m. and had

  17. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 5; Abrasion: Plowing and Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5 discusses abrasion, a common wear phenomenon of great economic importance. It has been estimated that 50% of the wear encountered in industry is due to abrasion. Also, it is the mechanism involved in the finishing of many surfaces. Experiments are described to help in understanding the complex abrasion process and in predicting friction and wear behavior in plowing and/or cutting. These experimental modelings and measurements used a single spherical pin (asperity) and a single wedge pin (asperity). Other two-body and three-body abrasion studies used hard abrasive particles.

  18. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA-80-073-1589, Marion Power Shovel, Marion, Ohio. [Core and mold areas (MDI binders)

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, R.L.; Liss, G.M.

    1985-04-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for methylene-bisphenyl-isocyanate (MDI), total reactive isocyanate groups (TRIG), triethylamine, mineral spirits, and metal fume at Marion Power Shovel Foundry, Marion, Ohio, in March and September, 1983. The evaluation was requested by the union to assess exposures in the core and mold areas where MDI binders were used. Interviews were conducted with 26 exposed and 13 nonexposed workers. Medical examinations that included pulmonary function and immunological testing, and chest x-rays were administered. All exposures were below the OSHA standards for TRIG. Previously obtained silica monitoring data was reviewed. Silica overexposure was indicated. Twenty-seven exposed workers reported lower respiratory tract symptoms consistent with occupational asthma. The authors conclude that significant exposures to isocyanates have occurred at the facility. A health hazard due to silica also exists. Recommendations include establishing a medical surveillance program for MDI and reducing silica exposures by appropriate engineering controls.

  19. Lift and drag forces on an inclined plow moving over a granular surface

    E-print Network

    Baptiste Percier; Sebastien Manneville; Jim N. McElwaine; Stephen Morris; Nicolas Taberlet

    2011-07-27

    We studied the drag and lift forces acting on an inclined plate while it is dragged on the surface of a granular media, both in experiment and numerical simulation. In particular, we investigated the influence of the horizontal velocity of the plate and its angle of attack. We show that a steady wedge of grains is moved in front of the plow and that the lift and drag forces are proportional to the weight of this wedge. These constants of proportionality vary with the angle of attack but not (or only weakly) on the velocity. We found a universal effective friction law which accounts for the dependence on all the above-mentioned parameters. The stress and velocity fields are calculated from the numerical simulations and show the existence of a shear band under the wedge and that the pressure is non-hydrostatic. The strongest gradients in stress and shear occur at the base of the plow where the dissipation rate is therefore highest.

  20. Properties of agricultural aerosol released during wheat harvest threshing, plowing and sowing.

    PubMed

    Telloli, Chiara; Malaguti, Antonella; Mircea, Mihaela; Tassinari, Renzo; Vaccaro, Carmela; Berico, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    This study shows for the first time a chemical and morphological characterization of agricultural aerosols released during three important agricultural operations: threshing, plowing and sowing. The field campaigns were carried out in the eastern part of the Po Valley, Italy, in summer and autumn 2009. The aerosol particles were sampled on quartz fiber filters and polytetrafluoroethylene membranes in order to allow Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDS) investigations, respectively. The organic carbon mass concentrations were measured with a Sunset Laboratory Dual-Optical Organic Carbone/Elemental Carbon (OCEC) Aerosol analyzer. The morphological and chemical analyses by SEM-EDS allowed recognizing four main particle classes: organic, silica, calcite and clay minerals. The organic particles contribute to both fine and coarse aerosol fractions up to ca. 50% for all three agricultural activities. This was also confirmed by OCEC analysis for fine fraction. Most of the agricultural aerosols, about 60%, were single particles and the remaining 40% were agglomerations of particles. The ICP-MS results showed that threshing and plowing produce more aerosol particles than sowing, which was characterized by important amounts of clay minerals produced from land soils. PMID:25193841

  1. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihua; Tan, Jun; Zou, Qingze; Jiang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the "writing" (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the "writing" speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 ?m in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be fabricated at a high speed of ~5 mm/s, with the line width and the line depth at ~95 nm and 2 nm, respectively. A fine pattern of the word "NANO" is also fabricated at the speed of ~5 mm/s. PMID:24289401

  2. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze; Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the “writing” (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the “writing” speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 ?m in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be fabricated at a high speed of ?5 mm/s, with the line width and the line depth at ?95 nm and 2 nm, respectively. A fine pattern of the word “NANO” is also fabricated at the speed of ?5 mm/s.

  3. GROUND BEETLE (COLEOPTERA: CARABIDAE) ASSEMBLAGES IN ORGANIC, NO-TILL, AND CHISEL-TILL CROPPING SYSTEMS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground beetle assemblages were compared in organic, no-till, and chisel-till cropping systems of the USDA Farming Systems Project in Maryland. The cropping systems consisted of three-year rotations of corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that were p...

  4. Macrophages lift off surface-bound bacteria using a filopodium-lamellipodium hook-and-shovel mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Jens; Lühmann, Tessa; Chabria, Mamta; Hall, Heike; Vogel, Viola

    2013-01-01

    To clear pathogens from host tissues or biomaterial surfaces, phagocytes have to break the adhesive bacteria-substrate interactions. Here we analysed the mechanobiological process that enables macrophages to lift-off and phagocytose surface-bound Escherichia coli (E. coli). In this opsonin-independent process, macrophage filopodia hold on to the E. coli fimbriae long enough to induce a local protrusion of a lamellipodium. Specific contacts between the macrophage and E. coli are formed via the glycoprotein CD48 on filopodia and the adhesin FimH on type 1 fimbriae (hook). We show that bacterial detachment from surfaces occurrs after a lamellipodium has protruded underneath the bacterium (shovel), thereby breaking the multiple bacterium-surface interactions. After lift-off, the bacterium is engulfed by a phagocytic cup. Force activated catch bonds enable the long-term survival of the filopodium-fimbrium interactions while soluble mannose inhibitors and CD48 antibodies suppress the contact formation and thereby inhibit subsequent E. coli phagocytosis. PMID:24097079

  5. Fuzzy Boundaries: Color and Gene Flow Patterns among Parapatric Lineages of the Western Shovel-Nosed Snake and Taxonomic Implication

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vandergast, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate delineation of lineage diversity is increasingly important, as species distributions are becoming more reduced and threatened. During the last century, the subspecies category was often used to denote phenotypic variation within a species range and to provide a framework for understanding lineage differentiation, often considered incipient speciation. While this category has largely fallen into disuse, previously recognized subspecies often serve as important units for conservation policy and management when other information is lacking. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic subspecies hypotheses within shovel-nosed snakes on the basis of genetic data and considered how evolutionary processes such as gene flow influenced possible incongruence between phenotypic and genetic patterns. We used both traditional phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analyses to infer range-wide genetic structure and spatially explicit analyses to detect possible boundary locations of lineage contact. Multilocus analyses supported three historically isolated groups with low to moderate levels of contemporary gene exchange. Genetic data did not support phenotypic subspecies as exclusive groups, and we detected patterns of discordance in areas where three subspecies are presumed to be in contact. Based on genetic and phenotypic evidence, we suggested that species-level diversity is underestimated in this group and we proposed that two species be recognized, Chionactis occipitalis and C. annulata. In addition, we recommend retention of two subspecific designations within C. annulata (C. a. annulata and C. a. klauberi) that reflect regional shifts in both genetic and phenotypic variation within the species. Our results highlight the difficultly in validating taxonomic boundaries within lineages that are evolving under a time-dependent, continuous process. PMID:24848638

  6. Fuzzy boundaries: color and gene flow patterns among parapatric lineages of the western shovel-nosed snake and taxonomic implication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vandergast, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate delineation of lineage diversity is increasingly important, as species distributions are becoming more reduced and threatened. During the last century, the subspecies category was often used to denote phenotypic variation within a species range and to provide a framework for understanding lineage differentiation, often considered incipient speciation. While this category has largely fallen into disuse, previously recognized subspecies often serve as important units for conservation policy and management when other information is lacking. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic subspecies hypotheses within shovel-nosed snakes on the basis of genetic data and considered how evolutionary processes such as gene flow influenced possible incongruence between phenotypic and genetic patterns. We used both traditional phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analyses to infer range-wide genetic structure and spatially explicit analyses to detect possible boundary locations of lineage contact. Multilocus analyses supported three historically isolated groups with low to moderate levels of contemporary gene exchange. Genetic data did not support phenotypic subspecies as exclusive groups, and we detected patterns of discordance in areas where three subspecies are presumed to be in contact. Based on genetic and phenotypic evidence, we suggested that species-level diversity is underestimated in this group and we proposed that two species be recognized, Chionactis occipitalis and C. annulata. In addition, we recommend retention of two subspecific designations within C. annulata (C. a. annulata and C. a. klauberi) that reflect regional shifts in both genetic and phenotypic variation within the species. Our results highlight the difficultly in validating taxonomic boundaries within lineages that are evolving under a time-dependent, continuous process.

  7. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  8. agbioresearch.msu.edu/centers/saginawvalley Picture Tour of Bean Growth Stages

    E-print Network

    1 agbioresearch.msu.edu/centers/saginawvalley Picture Tour of Bean Growth Stages Saginaw Valley · Bean pods PLOWING Ground is fall or spring moldboard or chisel plowed. Chisel plowing is a reasonable. Planting starts the first of June. Beans are planted in rows with a planter, or can be solid seeded

  9. Spatial variability of detrended soil plow layer penetrometer resistance transect in a sugarcane field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Luis D.; Cumbrera, Ramiro; Mato, Juan; Millán, Humberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variability of soil properties is relevant for identifying those zones with physical degradation. In this sense, one has to face the problem of identifying the origin and distribution of spatial variability patterns (Brouder et al., 2001; Millán et al., 2012). The objective of the present work was to quantify the spatial structure of soil penetrometer resistance (PR) collected from a transect data consisted of 221 points equidistant. In each sampling, readings were obtained from 0 cm till 70 cm of depth, with an interval of 5 cm (Pérez, 2012). The study was conducted on a Vertisol (Typic Hapludert) dedicated to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) production during the last sixty years (Pérez et al., 2010). Recently, scaling approach has been applied on the determination of the scaling data properties (Tarquis et al., 2008; Millán et al., 2012; Pérez, 2012). We focus in the Hurst analysis to characterize the data variability for each depth. Previously a detrended analysis was conducted in order to better study de intrinsic variability of the series. The Hurst exponent (H) for each depth was estimated showing a characteristic pattern and differentiating PR evolution in depth. References Brouder, S., Hofmann, B., Reetz, H.F., 2001. Evaluating spatial variability of soil parameters for input management. Better Crops 85, 8-11. Millán, H; AM Tarquís, Luís D. Pérez, Juan Mato, Mario González-Posada, 2012. Spatial variability patterns of some Vertisol properties at a field scale using standardized data. Soil and Tillage Research, 120, 76-84. Pérez, Luís D. 2012. Influencia de la maquinaria agrícola sobre la variabilidad espacial de la compactación del suelo. Aplicación de la metodología geoestadística-fractal. PhD thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Pérez, Luís D., Humberto Millán, Mario González-Posada 2010. Spatial complexity of soil plow layer penetrometer resistance as influenced by sugarcane harvesting: A prefractal approach. Soil and Tillage Research, 110(1), 77-86. Tarquis, A.M., N. Bird, M.C. Cartagena, A. Whitmore and Y. Pachepsky, 2008. Multiscale entropy-based analyses of soil transect data. Vadose Zone Journal, 7(2), 563-569.

  10. Changes in the soils of solonetzic associations in 30 years after their reclamation with the use of moldboard plowing, deep tillage with a three-tier plow, and deep rotary tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, V. P.; Sharshak, V. K.; Bezuglova, O. S.; Ladan, E. P.; Genev, E. D.; Illarionov, V. V.; Zinchenko, V. E.; Morkovskoi, N. A.; Chernenko, V. V.; Il'Ina, L. P.

    2011-08-01

    Changes in the properties of solonetzic soil associations (chestnut solonetzic soils and chestnut solonetzes) in the dry steppe after their reclamation have been studied for 30 years. The reclamation included the deep three-tier plowing and the approach of rotary tillage. A single rotary tillage operation resulted in the formation of fine aggregates of equal sizes in the plow layer; any morphological features of the restoration of solonetzic pedogenesis are absent. The atmospheric moisture easily penetrates into the soil, and soluble salts are leached off to a great depth. In 30 years since the soil amelioration with the use of a PMS-70 rotary tiller, the humus content has increased up to 3.3% in the upper 20-cm-thick layer and up to 2.4% in the layer of 20-40 cm. The content of adsorbed Na+ in the 20- to 30-cm-thick layer has decreased to 10.6% of the cation exchange capacity (in comparison with 19.8% in the nonreclaimed soil). The spatial heterogeneity of the soil cover has decreased in comparison with that prior to the reclamation. During the entire observation period, crop yields gained from the fields reclaimed with the use of the rotary tiller have been by 25-60% higher in comparison with those on the fields with traditional treatments.

  11. Bioavailability of metals and toxicity identification of the sediment pore waters from Plow Shop Pond, Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Jop, K.; Putt, A.; Shepherd, S.; Askew, A.; Bleiler, J.; Reed, S.; George, C.

    1995-12-31

    Plow Shop Pond is a shallow, 30-acre pond located at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. An ecological risk assessment was conducted at Plow Shop Pond as part of a remedial investigation. Preliminary analysis revealed high concentrations of arsenic, copper, chromium, lead, and mercury in the sediment. Therefore, a laboratory testing program was incorporated into this investigation to assess the toxicity of sediments to aquatic organisms. The screening testing program included short-term chronic exposure of Ceriodaphnia dubia to pore waters, 10-day exposures of Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca to bulk sediments and a bioaccumulation study with Lumbriculus variegatus. Survival and reproduction of C. dubia, growth of amphipods and reproduction of oligochaetes appeared to indicate sediment toxicity at some sites within the pond. Although high concentrations of arsenic, copper, mercury and lead were detected in the whole sediments and pore waters, the response could not be correlated to a particular element. Also, relatively low bioaccumulation of methyl mercury and high uptake of inorganic mercury was established for three sediment samples. To characterize and identify the source of toxicity, a toxicity identification evaluation program using sediments collected at several locations was performed. The pore water from these samples was used for fractionation coupled with a 10-day test using H. azteca. Survival and growth were evaluated as endpoints during the exposures. Partitioning of metals and their bioavailability was influenced primarily by organic carbon and AVS concentration. At least two constituents were responsible for the toxicity.

  12. ChISELS 1.0: theory and user manual :a theoretical modeler of deposition and etch processes in microsystems fabrication.

    SciTech Connect

    Plimpton, Steven James; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Ho, Pauline; Musson, Lawrence Cale

    2006-09-01

    Chemically Induced Surface Evolution with Level-Sets--ChISELS--is a parallel code for modeling 2D and 3D material depositions and etches at feature scales on patterned wafers at low pressures. Designed for efficient use on a variety of computer architectures ranging from single-processor workstations to advanced massively parallel computers running MPI, ChISELS is a platform on which to build and improve upon previous feature-scale modeling tools while taking advantage of the most recent advances in load balancing and scalable solution algorithms. Evolving interfaces are represented using the level-set method and the evolution equations time integrated using a Semi-Lagrangian approach [1]. The computational meshes used are quad-trees (2D) and oct-trees (3D), constructed such that grid refinement is localized to regions near the surface interfaces. As the interface evolves, the mesh is dynamically reconstructed as needed for the grid to remain fine only around the interface. For parallel computation, a domain decomposition scheme with dynamic load balancing is used to distribute the computational work across processors. A ballistic transport model is employed to solve for the fluxes incident on each of the surface elements. Surface chemistry is computed by either coupling to the CHEMKIN software [2] or by providing user defined subroutines. This report describes the theoretical underpinnings, methods, and practical use instruction of the ChISELS 1.0 computer code.

  13. 29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the courthouse steps would not...periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may...

  14. 29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the courthouse steps would not...periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may...

  15. 29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the courthouse steps would not...periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may...

  16. 29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the courthouse steps would not...periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may...

  17. 29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the courthouse steps would not...periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may...

  18. BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSI~N. 297 The hog-like character of carp in plowing up the bottoin and banks

    E-print Network

    sniolcod out 011 their holm with anlphur and saltpotor. Itliorl filled thorn up with onrth."--C. W. S. thoBULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSI~N. 297 The hog-like character of carp in plowing up by perforatin'g the banks and dams and thus letting off the `i\\atcr,but also by actually and devouring tile carp

  19. Derivation of soil-screening thresholds to protect the chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Linder, Greg; Otton, James K; Finger, Susan E; Little, Edward; Tillitt, Donald E

    2013-08-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes. PMID:23604138

  20. Spatial and temporal soil water variability in the plowing horizon of agriculturally used soils in two regions of Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltoradnev, Maxim; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Soil water dynamics plays an important role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. There is a lack of long-term continuous measurements of topsoil water content at the regional scale. The objective of the present study was to quantify and elucidate the seasonal dynamics of spatial soil water content variability in the plowing horizon (Ap) of agricultural soils at the regional scale. The study was conducted in the central part of the Kraichgau and the Mid Swabian Alb in Southwest Germany. In each region a soil water network embracing 21 stations was set up. All stations were installed on cropped agricultural sites and distributed across three spatial domains: an inner domain 3 km × 3 km (5 stations), a middle 9 km × 9 km (8 stations), and an outer domain 27 km × 27 km (8 stations). Each station consists of a TDT sensor (SI.99 Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor, Streat Instruments Ltd, New Zealand), which senses both soil water content and soil temperature, a rain gauge, and a remote transfer unit (RTU, datalogger + GSM modem), which stores and transfers data via GPRS modem to the central data server (Adcon Telemetry GmbH, Austria) located at the University of Hohenheim. The TDT sensors were installed at 0.15 m depth. A sensor consists of a three meter long and three centimeter wide flat transmission line. The relationship between the standard deviation (??) of the soil water content (SWC) and mean spatial soil water content () formed combinations of concave and convex hyperbolas. However, it strongly depended on SWC state and season. Generally, ?? was found to be changing along a convex trend during dry out and rewetting phases with a maximum in the intermediate SWC range. At the rain event scale, ??() was either ascending or converging with decreasing . A concave shape was observed when approached to dry state. The majority of ??() hysteresis loops were observed in intermediate and intermediate/wet state of SWC. All hysteretic loops were clockwise oriented. Rainfall intensity and distribution were identified as main factors driving SWC variability at the regional scale.

  1. TILLAGE EROSION: TERRACE RELATIONSHIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All tillage moves soil. Implements drawn by animals or a tractor move soil in the direction of travel and, to a lesser extent, sideways. While a moldboard plow throws soil to only one side, most tillage implements—including tandem disks, chisel plows, harrows, and cultivators—throw soil to both side...

  2. Tillage and rotation effect on corn - soybean energy balances in eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from a field experiment conducted in eastern Nebraska over 16 yr (1986-2001) were used to determine the energy balance of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) as affected by tillage treatments and rotation. Tillage treatments included chisel plow, tandom disk, moldboard plow, ridge-t...

  3. Thirty-year tillage effects on crop yield and soil fertility indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term studies are crucial for quantifying tillage system effects on crop productivity and soil fertility status. We examined 30 years of data for five tillage systems evaluated on two glacial till soils in central Iowa, USA from 1975 through 2006. Moldboard plow, chisel plow, spring disk, ridge-...

  4. 29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for several weeks on a special project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the..., may have significant periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may be able to accrue compensatory time to...

  5. 29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for several weeks on a special project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the..., may have significant periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may be able to accrue compensatory time to...

  6. Dirty Oil and Shovel-Ready Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Phail, Abby

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a role-playing activity on tar sands and the proposed TransCanada Keystone XL pipeline. In this activity, students take on the characters of six key stakeholders invited to an imaginary public hearing to discuss whether or not the State Department and President Obama should approve the Keystone XL pipeline.…

  7. Influence of the Plow Filling and Thread Angle onto the Plow Head Efficiency / Wp?yw Wspó?czynnika Wype?nienia Organu Oraz K?ta Nawini?cia P?ata ?limaka Na Sprawno?? ?adowania Frezuj?cymi Organami ?limakowymi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wydro, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory examinations on the plow heads at various filling rate and material grain-size, as well as various values of worm thread angle of the plow head have been executed. Influence of the worm thread angle and plow head filling onto optimal loading efficiency, has also been tested. Eksploatacja w?gla kamiennego w Polsce odbywa si? przy zastosowaniu kompleksów ?cianowych kombajnowych jak równie? kompleksów strugowych. Ten drugi z kompleksów jest znacznie mniej rozpowszechniony w Polsce i stosowany do pok?adów o mi??szo?ci poni?ej 1,5 m. Do g?ównych maszyn i urz?dze? ?cianowego kompleksu kombajnowego nale?y zaliczy? maszyn? urabiaj?co - ?aduj?c? jak? jest kombajn ?cianowy, obudow? zmechanizowan? oraz przeno?nik ?cianowy. Elementami roboczymi w kombajnie ?cianowym s? frezuj?ce organy ?limakowe, które mocowane s? na ramionach kombajnu. Zadaniem frezuj?cych organów ?limakowych jest realizacja jednocze?nie dwóch procesów. Pierwszym z procesów jest frezowanie czyli oddzielanie kawa?ków w?gla od calizny. Drugi proces to proces ?adowania urobku, polegaj?cy na ci?g?ym odprowadzaniu urobku na przeno?nik ?cianowy. Równoleg?o?? realizacji pracy tych dwóch procesów, uniemo?liwia w warunkach rzeczywistych przeprowadzenie obserwacji procesu ?adowania i dokonania jakichkolwiek pomiarów i analiz. Dlatego te?, przeprowadzane badania i pomiary opisywane w literaturze zwykle mia?y charakter modelowy lub stanowiskowy, gdy? tylko takie warunki umo?liwia?y rozdzia? tych funkcji organu (Chodura, 1992; Hyong Jong Gol, 1990; Jaszczuk & Tomaszewski, 2004; Krauze, 1997). W zwi?zku z powy?szym, chc?c bli?ej pozna? prawa rz?dz?ce procesem ?adowania, zdecydowano si? na rozdzielenie tych dwóch procesów i przeprowadzenie bada? laboratoryjnych. Przedmiotowe badania zosta?y przeprowadzone w laboratorium Katedry Maszyn Górniczych, Przeróbczych i Transportowych AGH. W badaniach uwzgl?dniono wp?yw jednego z parametrów konstrukcyjnych organu, a mianowicie k?ta nawini?cia p?ata ?limaka ?2 na sprawno?? ?adownia, a tak?e jaki wp?yw ma wspó?czynnik wype?nienia organu kw i wspó?czynnik rozluzowania urobku kr, na sprawno?? ?adowania (Wydro, 2011). Po przeprowadzonych badaniach wst?pnych przyj?to, ?e kryteria oceny procesu ?adowania b?d? ró?ne dla organu wyposa?onego w ?adowark? kryterium oceny procesu ?adowania b?dzie pobór mocy silnika organu i posuwu, natomiast dla organu bez ?adowarki kryterium jego oceny b?dzie sprawno?? ?adowania. Za sprawno?? ?adowania uznano stosunek pola przekroju pryzmy urobku za?adowanego do pola przekroju ca?kowitego pryzmy urobku przemieszczonego, co szerzej zosta?o opisane w dalszej cz??ci artyku?u (Wydro, 2011). Przedmiotowe badania mia?y na celu, sprawdzenie w jakim stopniu wybrany parametr konstrukcyjny, k?t nawini?cia p?atów ?limaka ?2 oraz wspó?czynnik wype?nienia organu kw i wspó?czynnik rozluzowania kr urobku maj? wp?yw na sprawno?? ?adowania i przy jakich ich warto?ciach organy ?limakowe uzyskuj? najwi?ksz? sprawno?? ?adowania. Warto?ci i zakresy tych wspó?czynników, zosta?y okre?lone na podstawie bada? empirycznych. Jak podaje literatura (Hamala & Wydro, 2005; Krauze, 1997) wspó?czynniki przyjmowane s? w granicach kw= 0÷1, kr > 1 na podstawie do?wiadczenia konstruktora dla nowo projektowanych organów ?limakowych. Parametr konstrukcyjny, który zosta? przyj?ty do bada?, to k?t nawini?cia p?atów ?limaka ?2 i wed?ug literatury (Bednarz, 2003; Krauze, 2000) przyjmuje optymaln? warto?? w zakresie 19°, a 23°. W zwi?zku z powy?szym, w przedmiotowych badaniach chciano sprawdzi? jaki wp?yw na proces ?adowania maj? k?ty poni?ej i powy?ej wspomnianego zakresu, a tak?e sprawdzenia, czy mo?na okre?li? jakie warto?ci wspó?czynników kw i kr nale?y przyjmowa? podczas okre?lania parametrów konstrukcyjnych i kinematycznych nowego organu nie opieraj?c si? tylko na do?wiadczeniu proj

  8. TILLAGE-INDUCED VARIATION IN TERRESTRIAL CARBON STOCKS AND CO2 LOSS ACROSS AN ERODED LANDSCAPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon (C) losses and soil translocation from tillage operations have been identified as causes of soil degradation and soil erosion. The objective of this work was to quantify the variability in terrestrial C stocks and tillage-induced CO2 loss by moldboard and chisel plowing across an eroded ...

  9. ROTATION AND TILLAGE EFFECTS ON CORN AND SOYBEAN YIELD AS AFFECTED BY RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year-to-year variation in crop yield response to tillage (plow, disk, chisel, subsoil, ridge-till, and no-till) and rotation (continuous corn, continuous soybean, and corn-soybean rotation) were evaluated over a 15-year period in southeastern Nebraska. Yield of corn and soybean was less in years wit...

  10. Anticipating Stimulus Money for Campus Projects, Colleges Get "Shovel Ready"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Help for colleges may be on the way in the $825-billion stimulus package being pressed by Congressional leaders. The bill that House Democrats introduced this month includes $7-billion for higher-education modernization, renovation, and repair that could kick-start projects like upgrading heating and cooling systems, fixing roofs, and doing…

  11. Evaluation of a new tillage tool; considering soil physical property, energy requirement and potato yield.

    PubMed

    Ghazavi, M A

    2007-11-15

    Two series of field experiments were conducted for this comparison study, one in the UK and the second in Iran. First, the effects of each implement on the soil structure were investigated. Then these implements were used in the preparation of a potato seedbed for a final evaluation. Soil physical changes were measured including soil aggregate size analysis, cone penetrometer resistance, bulk density, surface relief and soil moisture content before and after cultivation. The field experiments concluded that an overall improvement of about 40% in output (ha h(-1)) could be obtained when using the new plow (combination of disk and chisel) compared with a conventional plow. The aggregate analysis of the cultivated layer revealed that the performance of the two machines was largely similar and no significant differences were seen in potato production rates during two years of field experiments, indicating no disadvantage from using an alternative to the moldboard plow. PMID:19090278

  12. Teach Students to Dig for Understanding Using an Unexpected Technological Shovel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Susan E. L.

    2004-01-01

    Online genealogy tools is an unexpected resource as these tools not only serve valuable for genealogy research, but also can be used by students to learn about their country's past and learn to use primary materials to draw conclusions. Some of these Online sources like the 1880 census available at www.ancestry.com, www.thepastwhispers.com, which…

  13. Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Sand, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state–space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as ‘cryptic poaching’. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching. PMID:21849323

  14. Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N Thompson; Sand, Håkan

    2012-03-01

    Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state-space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as 'cryptic poaching'. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching. PMID:21849323

  15. Watermelon transplanted by chisel, strip-tillage, and bedding methods produce similar yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon plants grown in semi-arid, subtropical south Texas (Lat. 26° N) are subject to wind and high solar loads. In an effort to provide an environment that would reduce wind-related sand blasting, early transplant desiccation, and vine damage and reduced soil temperatures, watermelon seedlings...

  16. A New Model of Teaching Pedagogy in CHISEL for the 21th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-yi

    This paper describes and compares six models for teaching second languages developed and adopted since 1840 (grammar-translation, direct, structural, situational, audiolingual, and communicative methods), and proposes a seventh, the cognitive-linguistic method, incorporating Noam Chomsky's theory of learning. The model takes both extralinguistic…

  17. Divergence in male and female manipulative behaviors with the intensification of metallurgy in Central Europe

    E-print Network

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2014-11-12

    of tools. Its use in agricultural implements such as plows, scythes, shovels, and hoes also greatly increased the efficiency of food production and harvesting [89]. In addition, the ability to work iron freed communities from a dependence on more distant... of the upper limbs. Ore had to be hammered out of the rock by hand using stone hammers and antler picks, then crushed up using smaller hand-held hammers, pestles, and pebble tools, before being roasted, Figure 3. Percent directional asymmetry in humeral J...

  18. On the history of humans as geomorphic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leb. Hooke, Roger

    2000-09-01

    The human population has been increasing exponentially. Simultaneously, as digging sticks and antlers have given way to wooden plows, iron spades, steam shovels, and today's huge excavators, our ability and motivation to modify the landscape by moving earth in construction and mining activities have also increased dramatically. As a consequence, we have now become arguably the premier geomorphic agent sculpting the landscape, and the rate at which we are moving earth is increasing exponentially. As hunter-gatherer cultures were replaced by agrarian societies to feed this expanding population, erosion from agricultural fields also, until recently, increased steadily. This constitutes an unintended additional human impact on the landscape.

  19. Diverse No-Till Irrigated Cropping Systems Instead of Burning and Plowing Continuous Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field burning of stubble has long been used as a management tool for irrigated wheat in the Inland Pacific Northwest. Concerns about regional air quality and government regulations led growers and scientists to conduct a 6-year no-till field experiment to evaluate two cycles of a 3-year irrigated c...

  20. It's still true: plowing up alfalfa releases plenty of N for corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers and their advisors question the accuracy of published fertilizer N replacement values that alfalfa provides to first-year corn. Their skepticism has risen as corn yields have increased, but higher fertilizer prices have heightened the need to trim unproductive inputs. Recent Minnesota data c...

  1. The stork, the plow, rural social structure and tropical deforestation in poor countries?

    PubMed

    Rock, M T

    1996-01-01

    This study is an exploration of the relationships between income, demographic pressure, technological change in agriculture, and the structure of political economies in light of cross-country differences in deforestation. The study focuses on small farmers and shifting cultivation. The analysis is based on a model developed by Larson (1994) that accounts for rural poverty, rootlessness, and distribution of landholdings. Regression equations model the average annual rate of deforestation, the relative area under forests, and a recursive model that includes both the deforestation rate and the forested area. Deforestation was reasonably well explained by a dummy variable for Asia, a rank order variable of the amount of forested area in 1980, the gross domestic product per capita in 1990, the average annual population growth rate during 1981-90, and the percentage increase in value added to agriculture during 1981-90 in 1990 dollars. Findings indicate that a 10% increase in the population growth rate increased the rate of deforestation by 10.6%. A 10% increase in income per capita increased deforestation by 49.5%. The influence of income on deforestation followed Kuznet's U-shaped curve. The turning point for reduced deforestation was income of $3500 per capita. Only Central and South America are near this income level. An increase in 1 agricultural worker per household increased deforestation by 50%. A 10% increase in smallholders' share of agricultural land reduced deforestation by 3.4%. Countries with high rural rootlessness had 23.6% less relative area under forests, suggesting that rural rootlessness rather than poverty per se leads to deforestation. The recursive model shows that demographic pressures led to deforestation and were mediated by technological change. Political economy theories of deforestation received strong empirical support. PMID:12292273

  2. Assessment of absorbed dose rate in air over plowed arable lands in Sinnar State, central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Sam, A K; Elmahadi, Moawia M

    2008-01-01

    The absorbed gamma-dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above ground level was calculated from activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in arable soil samples collected from eight locations within Sinnar State using the published Dose Rate Conversion Factors. Measurements were carried out using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. On average, the activity concentrations obtained were 38 +/- 8 ((232)Th), 17 +/- 2 ((226)Ra), 174 +/- 19 ((40)K) and 0.9 +/- 0.2 Bq kg(-1) for the fallout radionuclide (137)Cs. The average value obtained here for (232)Th is slightly higher than the corresponding world-average. The calculated absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m for all sampled locations ranges from 31 to 47 nGy h(-1) with an average value of 39 +/- 7 nGy h(-1) which is characteristic of normal background radiation areas. The corresponding annual effective dose was 47.8 +/- 6 microSv y(-1). The major contribution to the total absorbed dose rate comes from (232)Th, which amounts to 61%. Recalculation of the absorbed dose rate-based gamma-energies of individual nuclides from uranium and thorium decay series and (40)K showed that the greater part of the absorbed dose from the uranium series is due to (214)Bi, whereas for the (232)Th series it is equally attributed to (228)Ac and (208)Tl. PMID:17951241

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of runoff as affected by moldboard plowing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The repeated excessive application of manure on cropland areas can cause nutrients to accumulate near the soil surface and increase nutrient transport by overland flow. Inverting soils with high surface nutrient content could reduce runoff nutrient transport. This study was conducted to measure the ...

  4. Determination of methyl bromide in air resulting from pre-plant fumigations of plowed fields

    SciTech Connect

    Woodrow, J.E.; Honaganahalli, P.; Seiber, J.N.

    1995-12-31

    A method for measuring residues of methyl bromide in air entails concentrating the fumigant on charcoal from an airstream at a flowrate of 100 ml/min, desorption of the trapped material with benzyl alcohol solvent in a sealed vial at 60-110{degrees}C for 10-15 min, and then sampling of the equilibrated vapor for gas chromatographic assay using electron-capture detection. The desorbed vapor is chromatographed on a 27 in x 0.32 mm (id) porous-layer open tubular column, on which methyl bromide has a retention time of about 6 min at 90{degrees}C and at a carrier gas flowrate of 3-3.5 ml/min. Using this method, standard curves were linear over at least three orders of magnitude and a practical limit of detection for field air was about 20 ng/m{sup 3} ({approximately}5 ppt). This method has been used in studies concerned with methyl bromide volatilization from fumigated fields and with ambient background levels.

  5. Influence of plow pan on the enrichment and depletion of heavy metals in the surface soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydropedology is a new discipline that uses pedological information to understand the soil water movement, and thus the storage, transformation, and transportation of heavy metals (HMs). However, limited studies have investigated how the hydropedological feature, for example the water-restrictive so...

  6. Quantification of Soil Physical Properties by Using X-Ray Computerized Tomography (CT) and Standard Laboratory (STD) Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Ambert Sanchez

    2003-12-12

    The implementation of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) on agricultural soils has been used in this research to quantify soil physical properties to be compared with standard laboratory (STD) methods. The overall research objective was to more accurately quantify soil physical properties for long-term management systems. Two field studies were conducted at Iowa State University's Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua, IA using two different soil management strategies. The first field study was conducted in 1999 using continuous corn crop rotation for soil under chisel plow with no-till treatments. The second study was conducted in 2001 and on soybean crop rotation for the same soil but under chisel plow and no-till practices with wheel track and no-wheel track compaction treatments induced by a tractor-manure wagon. In addition, saturated hydraulic (K{sub s}) conductivity and the convection-dispersion (CDE) model were also applied using long-term soil management systems only during 2001. The results obtained for the 1999 field study revealed no significant differences between treatments and laboratory methods, but significant differences were found at deeper depths of the soil column for tillage treatments. The results for standard laboratory procedure versus CT method showed significant differences at deeper depths for the chisel plow treatment and at the second lower depth for no-till treatment for both laboratory methods. The macroporosity distribution experiment showed significant differences at the two lower depths between tillage practices. Bulk density and percent porosity had significant differences at the two lower depths of the soil column. The results obtained for the 2001 field study showed no significant differences between tillage practices and compaction practices for both laboratory methods, but significant differences between tillage practices with wheel track and no-wheel compaction treatments were found along the soil profile for both laboratory methods. The K{sub s} measurements and CDE parameters revealed no significant differences between tillages and treatments. In essence, the CT method and CDE model both proved to be useful methods to quantify macropores and estimate solute transport parameters, respectively. Breakthrough curves were generated to observe the initial and final breakthrough of solute response along the soil matrix.

  7. Tillage and corn residue harvesting impact surface and subsurface carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Clay, David E; Reicks, Graig; Carlson, C Gregg; Moriles-Miller, Janet; Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Corn stover harvesting is a common practice in the western U.S. Corn Belt. This 5-yr study used isotopic source tracking to quantify the influence of two tillage systems, two corn ( L.) surface residue removal rates, and two yield zones on soil organic C (SOC) gains and losses at three soil depths. Soil samples collected in 2008 and 2012 were used to determine C enrichment during SOC mineralization, the amount of initial SOC mineralized (SOC), and plant C retained in the soil (PCR) and sequestered C (PCR - SOC). The 30% residue soil cover after planting was achieved by the no-till and residue returned treatments and was not achieved by the chisel plow, residue removed treatment. In the 0- to 15-cm soil depth, the high yield zone had lower SOC (1.49 Mg ha) than the moderate yield zone (2.18 Mg ha), whereas in the 15- to 30-cm soil depth, SOC was higher in the 60% (1.38 Mg ha) than the 0% (0.82 Mg ha) residue removal treatment. When the 0- to 15- and 15- to 30-cm soil depths were combined, (i) 0.91 and 3.62 Mg SOC ha were sequestered in the 60 and 0% residue removal treatments; (ii) 2.51 and 0.36 Mg SOC ha were sequestered in the no-till and chisel plow treatments, and (iii) 1.16 and 1.65 Mg SOC ha were sequestered in the moderate and high yield zone treatments, respectively. The surface treatments influenced C cycling in the 0- to 15- and 15- to 30-cm depths but did not influence SOC turnover in the 30- to 60-cm depth. PMID:26024260

  8. Dissolved organic C and N pools in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems and sampling depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro Angel; García López de Sa, Esther; Polo, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage practices exert a significant influence on the dynamic of soluble organic C and N pools, affecting nutrient cycling in agricultural systems by enhancing its mineralization through microbial activities or stabilization in soil microaggregates, which contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of the present research was to determine the influence of three different soil management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) obtained from wastewater treatment processes on dissolved organic C (water-soluble organic C -WSOC-, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds) and soluble N (total-N, NH4+, NO3-) pools in a long-term field experiment (27 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station "La Higueruela" (40° 03'N, 4° 24'W) under semi-arid conditions. Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 tonnes per hectare prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. Soil sampling was performed two months after tillage practices at the following depths for each treatment: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Results obtained for unamended soils showed that no-tillage management increased total-N, NH4+ and NO3- contents at the 0-10 cm depth samples, meanwhile WSC and carbohydrates contents were larger at 20-30 cm depth samples in both moldboard and no-tillage plots. CS and TSS-amended soils presented a general increase in soluble C and N compounds, being significantly higher in TSS-amended soils, as TSS contains a great amount of labile organic C and N substrates due to the lack of stabilization treatment. TSS-amended soils under no-tillage and chisel plowing showed larger N, NH4+ and NO3- content at the 0-10 cm samples, meanwhile moldboard management exhibited larger NH4+ and NO3- content at 10-20 and 20-30 cm samples, possibly due to the incorporation of TSS at deeper depths (20-40 cm). CS and TSS-amended soils in no-tillage system showed the largest content of organic C pools at 0-10 cm depth samples due to less soil disturbance and the input of organic substrates with CS and TSS on soil surface. CS and TSS-amended soils under chisel plowing exhibited similar contents of soluble organic C pools at 10-20 and 20-30 cm depth samples and only TSS-amended soils increased significantly WSOC content at 0-10 cm samples. Similarly, contents of WSOC and carbohydrates in moldboard plowing were distributed more uniformly throughout the soil profile due to the turnover of soil and CS and TSS amendments into the plow layer. Acknowledgements: this research was supported by the Spanish CICYT, Project no. CTM2011-25557.

  9. Modeling organic carbon dynamics under no-tillage and plowed systems in tropical soils of Brazil using CQESTR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CQESTR simulates the effect of several management practices on soil organic carbon stocks. The model had been calibrated and validated in temperate regions. Our objective was to calibrate the CQESTR model and evaluate its performance for simulating carbon dynamics as affected by tillage practices in...

  10. [Testing and commercialization of a cotton stalk shredder and plow]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1996-01-27

    This quarterly report describes work on Task 1: Field test and sell prototype to Ellis Equipment, Ltd; Task 2: Design, build, and field test two prototypes; and Task 3: Produce and sell Pegasus to farmers. The equipment has been built to shred stalks, deeply till the soil, and prepare seedbeds for cotton plants. The equipment has been field tested in Australia and is currently being field tested in California and Arizona. Unexpected problems appeared with hard dry soils and this report describes improvements made.

  11. Evolution of the plow over 10,000 years and the rationale for no-till farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture originated 10 to 13 millennia ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, mostly along the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Indus and Yangtze River valleys and was introduced into Greece and southeast Europe > 8000 years ago. Sumerian and other civilizations developed a wide variety of simple ...

  12. FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT APPROXIMATIONS OF NONLOCAL IN TIME ONE-DIMENSIONAL PLOWS IN POROUS MEDIA. (R825207)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Preferential bromide and pesticide movement to tile drains under different cropping practices.

    PubMed

    Fortin, J; Gagnon-Bertrand, E; Vézina, L; Rompré, M

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface drainage systems are useful tools to study chemical leaching in soils. Our objective was to compare the breakthrough behavior of bromide, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamid] to tile drains under two fall tillage practices (conventional tillage [CT] with a moldboard plow, and reduced tillage [RT] with a chisel plow) in field plots cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). Leachate volume were greater in RT than in CT, with no statistical differences. Soil analysis showed that bromide migrated deeper in the soil profile than both herbicides, with little tillage effect. All chemicals were detected in drainage water at the same time and followed an event-driven behavior. Tillage had no effect on atrazine and metolachlor found in drainage water, while bromide concentration peaks were higher in RT than in CT in 1999. Concentration peaks were recorded earlier for atrazine and metolachlor than for bromide. Plots of cumulative relative chemical mass (cumulative mass divided by total mass measured in drainage) as a function of cumulative drainage were mostly linear for bromide, while they were S-shaped for both herbicides. Drainage that corresponded to 50% of relative cumulative mass ranged from 40 to 55% for bromide and from 5 to 28% for both herbicides. Rapid chemical movement to tile drains suggested that preferential flow was important in both CT and RT, and that these tillage practices had little influence on this phenomena. PMID:12469844

  14. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  15. OpenSoC Fabric: On-Chip Network Generator Using Chisel to Generate a Parameterizable On-Chip Interconnect Fabric

    E-print Network

    - tel's straw-man exascale processor is expecting to have 2048 cores by 2018 in 7nm technology [9, Berkeley, California 94720 ABSTRACT Recent advancements in technology scaling have sparked a trend towards [4]. While technology scaling continues to enable greater chip densities, the leveling-off of clock

  16. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores was indicated by a rise in concentrations during or shortly after rainfall, but prior to any increase in tile flow. Macropores located above the tile lines were observed during smoke tests in 2012 confirming significantly greater macropore densities above tile lines in the no-till plots (average 23.2 macropores/m^2) as compared to the chisel-plowed plots (average 1.6 macropores/m^2). Identifiable macropores were generally within a 0.4m-wide zone above the tile lines. While bacterial loading to tile lines was dominated by rainfall-driven events, transport of bacteria to tile lines was observed less than a day after application under unsaturated conditions in 2012. Indicator bacteria concentrations were poorly correlated to Salmonella spp. throughout the study period, with water sample concentrations as high as 4x10^3 cfu/100 ml Salmonella spp. in samples where no E. coli or enterococci were detected. The differences in precipitation from year-to-year had the greatest effect on E. coli concentrations which averaged between 331 - 2140 cfu/100ml under the PL1 and PL2 treatments in 2010, and rarely exceeded 10 cfu/100ml in the month after litter application during dry years. Enterococci were similarly affected, while dry conditions did not result in lower average Salmonella spp. counts.

  17. Strength Properties and Organic Carbon of Soils in the North Apalachian Region

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Owen, L B.; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2005-04-01

    Soil strength influenced by management and soil properties controls plant growth, root development, and soil-moisture relations. The impact of textural and structural parameters on soil strength is moderated by soil organic C (SOC) concentration. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess differences in soil strength and SOC concentration in watersheds under long-term (>15 yr) management practices in the North Appalachian region on a predominantly Typic Hapludults on undulating slopes (>6% slope). Seven watersheds without field replication under moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow, disk with beef cattle manure (DiskM), no-till with beef cattle manure (NTm), no-till with no beef cattle manure (NTnm), pasture, and forest were studied. Cone index (CI), shear strength, bulk density (b), volumetric moisture content (v), and SOC concentration were determined at the summit, backslope, and footslope landscape positions at the 0- to 10-, 10- to 20-, and 20- to 30-cm depths. The SOC concentration was slightly higher at the footslope than at the summit position in the cultivated watersheds. The b was lower at the footslope than at the summit in NTm (1.22 vs. 1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) and chisel (1.34 vs. 1.47 Mg m{sup -3}) treatments. Forest had the lowest CI (0.19 MPa), shear strength (6.11 kPa), and b (0.93 Mg m{sup -3}) and the highest SOC concentration (62.7 g kg{sup -1}), whereas MP had the highest CI (0.67 MPa), shear strength (25.5 kPa), b (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}), and the lowest SOC concentration (13.6 g kg{sup -1}) in the 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). The SOC concentration in NTm was 1.7 times higher than that in NTnm, and both no-till treatments had lower b (<1.21 Mg m{sup -3}) than MP (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}) at 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). Manuring decreased both CI and shear strength, but increased SOC concentration. The b, v, and SOC concentration were potential predictors of CI; whereas b and SOC concentration were of shear strength (r2 > 0.42; P < 0.01). Results show that landscape positions had small effect, but management, particularly manuring, had large and significant effects on soil strength and SOC concentration.

  18. Tillage, Mulch and N Fertilizer Affect Emissions of CO2 under the Rain Fed Condition

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    A two year (2010–2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010–11 relative to the year 2011–12. During cropping year 2010–11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011–12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options. PMID:24086256

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1400 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...paragraph (a) of this section while it has been converted or adapted for a non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps. (2) Power shovels,...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1400 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...paragraph (a) of this section while it has been converted or adapted for a non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps. (2) Power shovels,...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1400 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...paragraph (a) of this section while it has been converted or adapted for a non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps. (2) Power shovels,...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1400 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...paragraph (a) of this section while it has been converted or adapted for a non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps. (2) Power shovels,...

  3. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33° 57' S; 60° 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33° 46' S; 60° 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23±1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (<0.5%) were similar in the three sites. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates were minimal due to the low crop response. The results are expressed in Mg ha-1 for an A soil horizon mass of 2500 Mg ha-1. The introduction of agriculture decreased SOC stock: 31Y varied from 68.3 to 40.1 Mg ha-1 (41.3% loss) and 80Y from 68.3 to 47.2 Mg ha-1 (30% loss). The SOC loss was the result of the mineralization of a large amount labile SOC present in the pristine soil and low annual additions of carbon issued from crop residue (3.5 and 3.3 Mg ha-1 corresponding to 31Y and 80Y, respectively). The lower loss of carbon in 80Y compared to 30Y can be explained by the accumulation of stable SOC fractions produced by the burnt stubble. We conclude that current agricultural systems of the Rolling Pampas are not sustainable.

  4. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fieldsof eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Allison; Ruark, Matthew; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Laura W; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn–soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66–96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L?1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  5. Comparison of Surface Water Quality and Yields from Organically and Conventionally Produced Sweet Corn Plots with Conservation and Conventional Tillage.

    PubMed

    Edgell, Joshua; Osmond, D L; Line, D E; Hoyt, G D; Grossman, J M; Larsen, E M

    2015-11-01

    Organic agricultural systems are often assumed to be more sustainable than conventional farming, yet there has been little work comparing surface water quality from organic and conventional production, especially under the same cropping sequence. Our objective was to compare nutrient and sediment losses, as well as sweet corn ( L. var. ) yield, from organic and conventional production with conventional and conservation tillage. The experiment was located in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Four treatments, replicated four times, had been in place for over 18 yr and consisted of conventional tillage (chisel plow and disk) with conventional production (CT/Conven), conservation no-till with conventional production (NT/Conven), conventional tillage with organic production (CT/Org), and conservation no-till with organic production (NT/Org). Water quality (surface flow volume; nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment concentrations) and sweet corn yield data were collected in 2011 and 2012. Sediment and sediment-attached nutrient losses were influenced by tillage and cropping system in 2011, due to higher rainfall, and tillage in 2012. Soluble nutrients were affected by the nutrient source and rate, which are a function of the cropping system. Sweet corn marketable yields were greater in conventional systems due to high weed competition and reduced total nitrogen availability in organic treatments. When comparing treatment efficiency (yield kg ha /nutrient loss kg ha ), the NT/Conven treatment had the greatest sweet corn yield per unit of nutrient and sediment loss. Other treatment ratios were similar to each other; thus, it appears the most sustainably productive treatment was NT/Conven. PMID:26641338

  6. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fields of eastern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madison, Allison M.; Ruark, Matthew D.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Lara W.; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric T.

    2014-11-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn-soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66-96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L-1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  7. Comparative losses of glyphosate and selected residual herbicides in surface runoff from conservation-tilled watersheds planted with corn or soybean.

    PubMed

    Shipitalo, Martin J; Owens, Lloyd B

    2011-01-01

    Residual herbicides regularly used in conjunction with conservation tillage to produce corn ( L.) and soybean [ (L.) Merr] are often detected in surface water at concentrations that exceed their U.S. maximum contaminant levels (MCL) and ecological standards. These risks might be reduced by planting glyphosate-tolerant varieties of these crops and totally or partially replacing the residual herbicides alachlor, atrazine, linuron, and metribuzin with glyphosate, a contact herbicide that has a short half-life and is strongly sorbed to soil. Therefore, we applied both herbicide types at typical rates and times to two chisel-plowed and two no-till watersheds in a 2-yr corn/soybean rotation and at half rates to three disked watersheds in a 3-yr corn/soybean/wheat-red clover ( L.- L.) rotation and monitored herbicide losses in surface runoff for three crop years. Average dissolved glyphosate loss for all tillage practices, as a percentage of the amount applied, was significantly less ( ? 0.05) than the losses of atrazine (21.4x), alachlor (3.5x), and linuron (8.7x) in corn-crop years. Annual, flow-weighted, concentration of atrazine was as high as 41.3 ?g L, much greater than its 3 ?g L MCL. Likewise, annual, flow-weighted alachlor concentration (MCL = 2 ?g L) was as high as 11.2 and 4.9 ?g L in corn- and soybean-crop years, respectively. In only one runoff event during the 18 watershed-years it was applied did glyphosate concentration exceed its 700 ?g L MCL and the highest, annual, flow-weighted concentration was 3.9 ?g L. Planting glyphosate-tolerant corn and soybean and using glyphosate in lieu of some residual herbicides should reduce the impact of the production of these crops on surface water quality. PMID:21712598

  8. Manure composition and incorporation effects on phosphorus in runoff following corn biomass removal.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, María R; Andraski, Todd W; Laboski, Carrie A M

    2011-01-01

    Greater demand for corn ( L.) stover for bioenergy use may lead to increased corn production acreage with minimal surface residue cover, resulting in greater risk for soil erosion and phosphorus (P) losses in runoff. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to determine the effects of spring-applied dairy cow () manure (none, in-barn composted, and exterior walled-enclosure pit) with >200 g kg organic solids content following fall corn biomass removal with and without incorporation (chisel plow [CP] and no-till [NT]) on sediment and P in runoff. Runoff was collected from a 0.83-m area for 60 min following the onset of rainfall simulation (76 mm h), once in spring and once in fall. Runoff dissolved reactive P (DRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations were positively correlated with manure P rate and were higher in NT compared with CP. Conversely, sediment and particulate P (PP) concentrations in runoff were inversely correlated with manure P rate (and manure solids) and were higher in CP compared with NT. Runoff volume where no manure was applied was higher in NT than in CP in spring but similar in fall. The addition of manure reduced runoff volumes by an average of 82% in NT and 42% in CP over spring and fall. Results from this study indicate that surface application of dairy manure with relatively high solids content may reduce sediment and PP losses in runoff without increasing the risk of increased DRP and DOP losses in the year of application where corn biomass is harvested. PMID:22031580

  9. Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; López-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0.03-0.10 m3m-3, 0-11-0.21 m3m-3, 0.22-0.30 m3m-3). In general, Q10 values were lower at elevated temperatures when soil moisture contents decreased, confirming that SCE is less sensitive to soil temperature during drought periods. Q10 values were higher in moldboard and chisel tilled soils, possibly due to the incorporation of residues into soil and the increase of soil C substrate, meanwhile in no-tillage part of the organic C pools are likely protected from microorganisms by physico-chemical mechanisms. TSS-amended soils exhibited higher Q10 values than CS, pointing that the biochemical lability of the organic C added with amendments exerts an influence on SCE. Acknowledgements: this research was supported by the Spanish CICYT, Project no. CTM2011-25557.

  10. NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

    2005-05-01

    Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design features, construct a field ready prototype and perform field testing at the surface mining sites. It is anticipated that 10% in energy savings including electricity (cable shovel) and fuel (hydraulic shovel) will be achieved by implementation of ISE technology.

  11. 44 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 323 - List of Essential Survival Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sterilization. Chisel, bone. Drain, Penrose. Dusting powder. Forceps, dressing. Forceps, hemostatic. Forceps... disinfectants. Toilet tissue. 3. Household Equipment: Bedding. Canned heat. Cots. Hand sewing equipment....

  12. 44 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 323 - List of Essential Survival Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sterilization. Chisel, bone. Drain, Penrose. Dusting powder. Forceps, dressing. Forceps, hemostatic. Forceps... disinfectants. Toilet tissue. 3. Household Equipment: Bedding. Canned heat. Cots. Hand sewing equipment....

  13. 44 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 323 - List of Essential Survival Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sterilization. Chisel, bone. Drain, Penrose. Dusting powder. Forceps, dressing. Forceps, hemostatic. Forceps... disinfectants. Toilet tissue. 3. Household Equipment: Bedding. Canned heat. Cots. Hand sewing equipment....

  14. 44 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 323 - List of Essential Survival Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sterilization. Chisel, bone. Drain, Penrose. Dusting powder. Forceps, dressing. Forceps, hemostatic. Forceps... disinfectants. Toilet tissue. 3. Household Equipment: Bedding. Canned heat. Cots. Hand sewing equipment....

  15. 44 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 323 - List of Essential Survival Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sterilization. Chisel, bone. Drain, Penrose. Dusting powder. Forceps, dressing. Forceps, hemostatic. Forceps... disinfectants. Toilet tissue. 3. Household Equipment: Bedding. Canned heat. Cots. Hand sewing equipment....

  16. 21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bone and soft tissue. Accessories or attachments may include a bur, chisel (osteotome), dermabrasion brush, dermatome, drill bit, hammerhead, pin driver, and saw blade. (b) Classification. Class I...

  17. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria ) (2) Redhead (Aythya americana ) (3) Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris ) (4) Greater Scaup (Aythya marila )...

  18. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria ) (2) Redhead (Aythya americana ) (3) Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris ) (4) Greater Scaup (Aythya marila )...

  19. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria ) (2) Redhead (Aythya americana ) (3) Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris ) (4) Greater Scaup (Aythya marila )...

  20. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria ) (2) Redhead (Aythya americana ) (3) Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris ) (4) Greater Scaup (Aythya marila )...

  1. 50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria ) (2) Redhead (Aythya americana ) (3) Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris ) (4) Greater Scaup (Aythya marila )...

  2. 12/11/12 Could the Farm Bill Devastate America's Birds? -NYTimes.com 1/3www.nytimes.com/2012/12/11/opinion/could-the-farm-bill-devastate-americas-birds.html?hp

    E-print Network

    important breeding grounds for upland birds like grouse and pheasants, along with waterfowl like mallards, gadwall, bluewinged teal, northern pintail, redheads, northern shovelers, and canvasback ducks. Since 1985

  3. Reserves Project Breeding information is important

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    ...... Lesser Flamingo 00874 ...... Spur-winged Goose 00885 ...... Egyptian Goose 00893 ...... Comb Duck 00918 ...... African Pygmy-Goose 00925 ...... Cape Shoveler 00944 ...... African Black Duck 00956 ...... Yellow

  4. Reserves Project Breeding information is important

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    ...... Spur-winged Goose 00885 ...... Egyptian Goose 00893 ...... South African Shelduck 00903 ...... Comb Duck 00918 ...... African Pygmy-Goose 00925 ...... Cape Shoveler 00944 ...... African Black Duck 00956

  5. We thank the Michigan Grape and Wine Industry Council and the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station for financial support that made this work possible.

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    and an adjustable depth wheel. The coulter helps to reduce the torque created during plowing and the depth wheel gives better control of the overall pattern of plowing. We also added a counter-weight bracket

  6. 76 FR 43370 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...plow vehicle and snow plows. Snow removal equipment broom. Acquire aircraft rescue and firefighting vehicle and rehabilitate aircraft rescue and firefighting building. Wildlife study. Update airport layout plan/geographic information...

  7. Performance of a Modified Cylinder Cleaner, Part I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chisel-shape grid bar with a sharp cutting edge was designed and installed in a modified cylinder cleaner. The cleaner’s seed cotton and lint cleaning performances were evaluated in two tests. Results indicated that a cylinder cleaner with narrowly spaced chisel-shape grid bars connected in seri...

  8. Real promise or false hope: DOE's title XVII loan Guarantee

    SciTech Connect

    Massouh, Jennifer F.; Cannon, George D. Jr.; Logan, Suzanne M.; Schwartz, David L.

    2009-05-15

    While the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 expanded the DOE loan guarantee program to include certain ''shovel-ready'' projects, and appropriated $6 billion to cover the credit subsidy cost associated with these projects, it failed to resolve some of the most pressing problems facing the program. Here are some recommendations that may finally get some shovels in the ground. (author)

  9. Nitrogen fertilizer rate and crop management effects on nitrate leaching from an agricultural field in central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Fox, R H; Zhu, Y; Toth, J D; Jemison, J M; Jabro, J D

    2001-10-01

    Eighteen pan lysimeters were installed at a depth of 1.2 m in a Hagerstown silt loam soil in a corn field in central Pennsylvania in 1988. In 1995, wick lysimeters were also installed at 1.2 m depth in the same access pits. Treatments have included N fertilizer rates, use of manure, crop rotation (continuous corn, corn-soybean, alfalfa-corn), and tillage (chisel plow-disk, no-till). The leachate data were used to evaluate a number of nitrate leaching models. Some of the highlights of the 11 years of results include the following: 1) growing corn without organic N inputs at the economic optimum N rate (EON) resulted in NO3--N concentrations of 15 to 20 mg l(-1) in leachate; 2) use of manure or previous alfalfa crop as partial source of N also resulted in 15 to 20 mg l(-1) of NO3--N in leachate below corn at EON; 3) NO3--N concentration in leachate below alfalfa was approximately 4 mg l(-1); 4) NO3--N concentration in leachate below soybeans following corn was influenced by fertilizer N rate applied to corn; 5) the mass of NO3--N leached below corn at the EON rate averaged 90 kg N ha(-1) (approx. 40% of fertilizer N applied at EON); 6) wick lysimeters collected approximately 100% of leachate vs. 40-50% collected by pan lysimeters. Coefficients of variation of the collected leachate volumes for both lysimeter types were similar; 7) tillage did not markedly affect nitrate leaching losses; 8) tested leaching models could accurately predict leachate volumes and could be calibrated to match nitrate leaching losses in calibration years, but only one model (SOILN) accurately predicted nitrate leaching losses in the majority of validation treatment years. Apparent problems with tested models: there was difficulty estimating sizes of organic N pools and their transformation rates, and the models either did not include a macropore flow component or did not handle macropore flow well. PMID:12805869

  10. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L.

    2012-10-25

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of very large pores associated with former root channels in NT and NS aggregates. Our findings indicate that mechanisms of macro-aggregate formation might differ in their importance in different land use and management practices.

  11. Distribution of organic carbon in physical fractions of soils as affected by agricultural management

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhu, Jagadamma; Lal, Dr. Rattan

    2010-08-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed heterogeneously among different-sized primary particles and aggregates. Further, the SOC associated with different physical fractions respond differently to managements. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective to quantify the SOC associated with all the three structural levels of SOC (particulate organic matter, soil separates and aggregate-size fractions) as influenced by long-term change in management. The study also aims at reevaluating the concept that the SOC sink capacity of individual size-fractions is limited. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on distribution of SOC among fractions were compared with soil from adjacent undisturbed area under native vegetation for the mixed, mesic, Typic Fragiudalf of Wooster, OH. Forty five years of no-till (NT) management resulted in more SOC accumulation in soil surface (0 7.5 cm) than in chisel tillage and plow tillage (PT) treatments. However, PT at this site resulted in a redistribution of SOC from surface to deeper soil layers. The soils under continuous corn accumulated significantly more SOC than those under corn soybean rotation at 7.5 45 cm depth. Although soil texture was dominated by the silt-sized particles, most of the SOC pool was associated with the clay fraction. Compared to PT, the NT treatment resulted in (i) significantly higher proportion of large macroaggregates (>2,000 m) and (ii) 1.5 2.8 times higher SOC concentrations in all aggregate-size classes. A comparative evaluation using radar graphs indicated that among the physical fractions, the SOC associated with sand and silt fractions quickly changed with a land use conversion from native vegetation to agricultural crops. A key finding of this study is the assessment of SOC sink capacity of individual fractions, which revealed that the clay fraction of agricultural soils continues to accumulate more SOC, albeit at a slower rate, with progressive increase in total SOC concentration. However, the clay fraction of soil under native woodlot showed an indication for SOC saturation. The data presented in this study from all the three structural levels of SOC would be helpful for refining the conceptual pool definitions of the current soil organic matter prediction models.

  12. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...spreader, surgical osteotome chisel, endodontic broach, dental wax carver, endodontic pulp canal file, hand instrument for calculus removal, dental depth gauge instrument, plastic dental filling instrument, dental instrument handle, surgical...

  13. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...spreader, surgical osteotome chisel, endodontic broach, dental wax carver, endodontic pulp canal file, hand instrument for calculus removal, dental depth gauge instrument, plastic dental filling instrument, dental instrument handle, surgical...

  14. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...spreader, surgical osteotome chisel, endodontic broach, dental wax carver, endodontic pulp canal file, hand instrument for calculus removal, dental depth gauge instrument, plastic dental filling instrument, dental instrument handle, surgical...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...spreader, surgical osteotome chisel, endodontic broach, dental wax carver, endodontic pulp canal file, hand instrument for calculus removal, dental depth gauge instrument, plastic dental filling instrument, dental instrument handle, surgical...

  16. Antarctic Peninsula Journal by Sheldon Bart

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    without direction. A whiteness that could swallow New York. Dr. Bulat Mavlyudov drew a shovel from his backpack and quickly excavated a rectangular hole in the snow about a yard deep. A tall, pleasant man, he

  17. A Cultural Resources Survey for the Smith Point 3-D Seismic Project in Chambers County Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William; Baxter, William

    2015-07-24

    Exploration and Production Company of Houston, Texas in high probability areas were shovel tested. No archaeological sites were found, and no artifacts were collected. Copies of this report are on file at the Texas Historical Commission (THC), United States...

  18. 30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

  19. 30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

  20. An archaeological survey for McLennan County Electric Cooperative, Inc. 1990-1991 Work Plan System: Phase I: Two utility lines in McLennan County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-03

    An archaeological survey was conducted along two sections of county right-of-way in McLennan County, Texas by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA). Fieldwork was performed on October 1, 1990. A pedestrian survey accompanied by shovel testing...

  1. An archaeological survey of a forty acre tract of land for the Texas State Technical College Development Project in Harrison County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-04

    . Fieldwork was conducted on May 11 and 12, 1992 by Brazos Valley Research Associates with William E. Moore acting as Principal Investigator. A pedestrian survey accompanied by shovel testing and probing located the disturbed remains of a historic house site...

  2. An archaeological survey of the Olney Water Line Project in Archer County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-04

    Valley Research Associates with William E. Moore acting as Principal Investigator and Farmers Home Administration the federal regulatory agency. A pedestrian survey accompanied by shovel testing and use of a mechanical auger located five prehistoric...

  3. Research Article High dispersal capacity of a broad spectrum of aquatic

    E-print Network

    Figuerola, Jordi

    collected in the field at different times during winter. Faeces were collected from four duck species (Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Mallard A. platyrhynchos, Shoveler A. clypeata, Eurasian Teal A. crecca

  4. a difference Please help us plant trees!

    E-print Network

    , and make better homes and food for animals. Location: Lowell/Roosevelt Ave., Dover, NH Directions, gardening/work gloves, sunscreen, bug spray, spade or shovel, buckets Wear: work clothes and boots Contact

  5. G. Richard Scott and Dennis O'Rourke Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 121

    E-print Network

    ), morphological (cf. shovel- shaped incisors, fingerprint patterns), and genetic traits (red blood cell antigens and Scott and Turner (1997) for tooth crown and root trait frequencies of the New World, genetic differentiation among Siberians in a broader Asian context

  6. Old Socorro Mission: an osteobiological analysis of the skeletal remains from the 1982-1985 field excavations 

    E-print Network

    Raisor, Michelle Jeanette

    1993-01-01

    of the dentition revealed numerous pathological conditions. The OSM population displayed a high frequency of cariogenic activity, enamel hypoplasia, abscessing, antemortem tooth loss, alveolar resorption, and periodontal infection. Dental anomalies, shoveling...

  7. 155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  8. Gifts to the Department, 2007 New! We have made arrangements so that our alumni now have the option of giving on-line

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    a shovel pushes snow). He's talking to his 455 structure class, November 2006. (Photos by Mary Diman) #12 from the sale of this book are donated to the Department of Geology and Geophysics. Visa and MasterCar

  9. Saturday, September 21, 2002 4th floor Scaife Hall; Lecture room 2

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    on the web. www.psy.cmu.edu/bulletin Christi Adams Took Labor Day very seriously this year. ChristiWhinney # # Sewer Inspector Jay McClelland # # Short Order Fry Cook David Plaut # # Shoveled Elephant Poop, Held

  10. McKenize Terminal - 3 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2009-01-01

    An archaeological survey was conducted along two sections of county right-of-way in McLennan County, Texas by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA). Fieldwork was performed on October 1, 1990. A pedestrian survey accompanied by shovel testing...

  11. Elbow replacement - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... elbow over and over, such as shoveling or shooting basketballs Do jamming or pounding activities, such as ... have a temperature higher than 101 °F (38.3°C) Your new elbow joint feels loose, like ...

  12. University of Sussex Manual Handling Policy April 2013 Manual Handling Policy

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    2013 position, a lawn mower, pushing a car, and material supported on a shovel or fork. An implement a significant risk of injury could occur; Design and provide safe and ergonomically suitable workplace

  13. 75 FR 53598 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Shovelnose Sturgeon Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...55 FR 36641, September 6, 1990). The pallid sturgeon has a flattened, shovel-shaped snout, possesses a long and slender and completely armored caudal peduncle, and lacks a spiracle and belly scutes (Forbes and Richardson 1905, pp....

  14. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

  15. High biomass removal limits carbon sequestration potential of mature temperate pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of plowing have depleted organic carbon stocks in many agricultural soils. Conversion of plowed fields to pasture has the potential to reverse this process, recapturing organic matter that was lost under more intensive cropping systems. Temperate pastures in the northeast USA are highly prod...

  16. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The U-2 underflight photography has shown that the critical stages in cotton plow down (defoliation, shredding, and plowing) can be identified. This result will prove invaluable to a user agency whose purpose is to monitor the cotton season for compliance with California State law.

  17. The Construction of Equipment for Hilling-up and Taking-out Soil Around Grafted Grapevines

    E-print Network

    and an adjustable depth wheel. The coulter helps to reduce the torque created during plowing and the depth wheel gives better control of the overall pattern of plowing. We also added a counter-weight bracket180269 Coulter bracket 1 AN131843 Coulter hub 1 AN212394 Coulter blade (18") 1 N130051 Gauge wheel hub 1

  18. Picture Tour: Growing Sugarbeets Saginaw Valley Research and Extension Center

    E-print Network

    .msu.edu Images of: Plowing · Planting · Crop emergence · Growth · Fields · Harvest PLOWING Most beet ground and incorporate fertilizer, usually the day before or the day of planting. #12;2 Sugar beets are typically planted from March 31 to May 15. PLANTING Beets are planted in rowspacings from 15-30". Rows are planted

  19. Is Deep Zone Tillage Agronomically Viable in Minnesota?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep zone tillage is a strategy used to alleviate compaction problems, such as plow pans, and improve drainage. Midwestern soils rarely have a clearly defined plow-pan. Yields were measured for two seasons after zone tilling replications in a field. Zone till failed to increase corn yields and incre...

  20. Determinants of tillage frequency among smallholder farmers in two semi-arid areas in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temesgen, Melesse; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Alemu, Dawit

    Traditional tillage systems practiced by farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia are characterized by repeated and cross plowing with an indigenous plow called Maresha. Repeated and cross plowing have led to land degradation. Conservation tillage systems that advocate minimum soil disturbance can alleviate land degradation problems. However, before introducing reduced tillage systems, it was found necessary to study why farmers undertake repeated plowing. The study was undertaken in two semi-arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity located in the central rift valley of Ethiopia and on two major crops; Tef ( Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.)) and maize ( Zea mays XX). Fifty farmers from each area were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that farmers in the study area plow repeatedly in order to completely disturb unplowed strips of land left between adjacent furrows. Unplowed strips are the results of the V-shaped furrows created by the Maresha plow. Farmers generally do not plow before the soil is wetted by rainfall. Wetting and drying cycles due to dry spells occurring between rainfall events force farmers to plow frequently to avoid moisture losses through surface runoff, evaporation and weed transpiration. Tef fields are plowed 4-5 times while maize fields are plowed 3-4 times. Tillage frequency increased with the education level and experience of farmers; with their perception about the purpose of tillage such as moisture conservation, weed control and soil warming; and with resource availability such as area of land and family labor. Tillage frequency was higher for Tef than for maize and in heavy soils than in light soils.

  1. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (Córdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the Anderson-Darling test at each horizon or a combination of horizons for each soil type. RESULTS The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, reducing the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). The reduction of SOC by LUC, can be explained by a degraded process (due to vegetation losses and unsustainable soil management, which result in progressive impoverishment in the soil organic matter (OM) content, causing low productivity, which derived in unsuitable chemical properties) and by the reduced input of OM in cultivated soils, which reduced physical protection of soil and increased water erosion. However, 46 years of LUC had a positive effect in the soil, increasing the SR (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). REFERENCES Parras-Alcántara, L., Martín-Carrillo, M., Lozano-García, B. 2013. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain). Solid Earth, 4: 167-177.

  2. Peas and Peanuts. 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, J. Oscar; Burns, J. C.; Newal, Wilmon; Leidigh, A. H.; Eliot, H. M.

    1915-01-01

    . When grown as stock foods, how- ever, the color of the shell is of no importance and high yields are often obtained from the heaviest clay soils. Preparing the Seed-bed.—Clay soils or soils on which there is con- siderable vegetable matter... that an excessive amount of inert subsoil is not plowed up at any one time. Clays that have been plowed shallow in previous years should be deepended gradually by plowing from one to one and a half inches deeper each year than was practiced the pre- ceding year...

  3. White Flame Energy switches to backhoes

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2005-06-01

    The mountaintop coal operator, White Flame Energy has switched to different truck-shovel arrangement. Along with many surface mining operations throughout central Appalachia, the company is using hoe-configured hydraulic excavators as opposed to the traditional front-shovel arrangements. Located in Varney, WV, White Flame Energy uses two Terex O & K mining shovels, an RH170 and an RH 200, which have the capacity to move 2 million cu yards per month from five seams, primarily the Coalburg, Stockton, and No 5 Block and associated rider seams. The article records conversations on the operations with Mike Vines, the general manager, and Don Nicewonder, the owner of White Flame Energy. 2 photos.

  4. Relationship between waterfowl nutrition and condition on agricultural drainwater ponds in the Tulare Basin, California: waterfowl body composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    We examined carcass composition and proximate food composition of ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), and northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering on agricultural drainwater ponds in California during 1983-84. Lipids varied seasonally in northern shovelers and northern pintails. Protein did not fluctuate except in ruddy ducks whose protein mass increased over winter, suggesting that some protein was catabolized prior to arrival on wintering areas or that a buildup of protein occurred prior to spring migration. Waterfowl diets varied among species and time, but the nutritional composition of the diets was relatively stable. Ruddy ducks and shovelers consumed mostly animal foods rich in protein (53-60%) and low in Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE)(1-7%). Pintail diets contained more NFE (23-38%) and less protein (14-38%) because of greater consumption of plant foods. Nutritional composition of pintail diets varied with lower protein consumption occurring from November through January.

  5. Feeding ecology of waterfowl wintering on evaporation ponds in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), Northern Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) wintering on drainwater evaporation ponds in California from 1982 through 1984. Pintails primarily consumed midges (Chironomidae) (39.3%) and widegeongrass (Ruppia maritima) nutlets (34.6%). Shovelers and Ruddy Ducks consumed 92.5% and 90.1% animal matter, respectively. Water boatmen (Corixidae) (51.6%), rotifers (Rotatoria) (20.4%), and copepods (Copepoda) (15.2%) were the most important Shoveler foods, and midges (49.7%) and water boatmen (36.0%) were the most important foods of Ruddy Ducks. All three species were opportunistic foragers, shifting their diets seasonally to the most abundant foods given their behavioral and morphological attributes.

  6. Integrated management of wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations by tillage.

    PubMed

    Jaunard, D; Monty, A; Henriet, F; De Proft, M; Mahy, G; Bodson, B

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, environmental, health and economic concerns encourage reviewing our weed management in agriculture. Integrated pest management is one key element in the development of weed management strategies less dependent from herbicides. To reach this goal, impact of different methods of tillage (Combinations of stubble cultivator and moldboard plow) on biology and dynamic of wild chamomile populations was studied in experimental plots of experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech. In summer 2012, wild chamomile densities were significantly lower in plots tilled with a moldboard plow. The use of a stubble cultivator did not significantly affect M. chamomilla density. In addition, we found higher wheat yields in plowed plots, indicating that the decrease in M. chamomilla densities reduces competition for wheat. These results show well long run impact of plowing and his effect on densities of wild chamomile and the seedbank. PMID:25151843

  7. 76 FR 31906 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Special Rule for the Utah Prairie Dog

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...consistent with past UDWR practice. Slight modifications...standard agricultural practices from incidental take...described above. Allowable practices would include plowing...intended to eradicate Utah prairie dogs. Finally, the...Review The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  8. 7 CFR 301.85-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...attachments for farm tractors, e.g., tractors, disks, plows, harrows, planters, and subsoilers; mechanized equipment used for harvesting purposes, e.g., combines, potato conveyors, and harvesters and hay balers. Mechanized...

  9. 7 CFR 301.85-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...attachments for farm tractors, e.g., tractors, disks, plows, harrows, planters, and subsoilers; mechanized equipment used for harvesting purposes, e.g., combines, potato conveyors, and harvesters and hay balers. Mechanized...

  10. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report EMPOWERING EATERS TO MAKE CLIMATE-FRIENDLY CHOICES: A PUBLIC EDUCATION

    E-print Network

    .....................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.7 P.L.O.W. Definition and Justification of Carbon Smart Food.....................................................................11 Justification of Carbon Label...............................................................................................17 Findings Related to the Impact of Personal Food Choices on Climate Change............18 References

  11. 23 CFR 658.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH...response vehicles, including those loaded with salt, sand, chemicals or a combination thereof, with or without a plow or...

  12. 23 CFR 658.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH...response vehicles, including those loaded with salt, sand, chemicals or a combination thereof, with or without a plow or...

  13. 23 CFR 658.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH...response vehicles, including those loaded with salt, sand, chemicals or a combination thereof, with or without a plow or...

  14. 23 CFR 658.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH...response vehicles, including those loaded with salt, sand, chemicals or a combination thereof, with or without a plow or...

  15. 23 CFR 668.109 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...such as mowing, maintaining drainage, pavement signing, snow plowing, etc.; (5) Replacement of damaged or lost material...maintenance and operation functions on the highway system including snow and ice removal; and (9) Reimbursing loss of toll...

  16. 23 CFR 668.109 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...such as mowing, maintaining drainage, pavement signing, snow plowing, etc.; (5) Replacement of damaged or lost material...maintenance and operation functions on the highway system including snow and ice removal; and (9) Reimbursing loss of toll...

  17. 23 CFR 668.109 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...such as mowing, maintaining drainage, pavement signing, snow plowing, etc.; (5) Replacement of damaged or lost material...maintenance and operation functions on the highway system including snow and ice removal; and (9) Reimbursing loss of toll...

  18. 26 CFR 48.6420-4 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...considered to be operations for “farming purposes” within the meaning of this paragraph include plowing, seeding, fertilizing, weed killing, corn or cotton picking, threshing, combining, baling, silo filling, and chopping silage. (e) Gasoline...

  19. Lift and drag forces in washboard road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taberlet, Nicolas; Percier, Baptiste; Manneville, Sebastien; McElwaine, Jim; Morris, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    When a wheel of plow is dragged at a constant velocity on a granular bed, a ripple pattern known as washboard road forms if the velocity is above a critical value. Although much work has been recently devoted to this topic the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have studied the phenomenon using both an experimental setup consisting of a circular track on which a wheel or plow is dragged and 2D DEM simulations. Here we focus on the lift and drag forces exerted by the sand onto the wheel or plow. We found that these forces do not seem to depend on the velocity. We also found a linear relation between the lift and drag forces. These results are typical of static friction which is somewhat surprising considering the complexity of the granular flow advected by the wheel of plow. These results are a first step to the development of a stability analysis of washboard roads.

  20. 23 CFR 668.109 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...primarily of eroded shoulders, filled ditches and culverts, pavement settlement, mud and debris deposits off the traveled way...increased traffic volumes, such as mowing, maintaining drainage, pavement signing, snow plowing, etc.; (5) Replacement of...

  1. 23 CFR 668.109 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...primarily of eroded shoulders, filled ditches and culverts, pavement settlement, mud and debris deposits off the traveled way...increased traffic volumes, such as mowing, maintaining drainage, pavement signing, snow plowing, etc.; (5) Replacement of...

  2. River and Stream Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    ... washing into lakes and streams comes from exposed earth. This exposed earth includes plowed fields, construction sites, and areas that ... using new methods to reduce the amount of earth they disturb. Bacteria Bacteria are also a big ...

  3. 76 FR 28078 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...skeletal remains were heavily disturbed due to plowing and the effects of previous intrusive pits, which were likely dug by amateurs. After recovery, the remains were transferred to Western Michigan University for further study and curation. No known...

  4. Scott G. Olsen e-mail: olsensg@gmail.com

    E-print Network

    Bone, Gary

    with their environment, such as robotic tractors, bulldozers, loaders, and snow plows. Forces and motions are inherently in task execution. A few papers have presented high- level artificial intelligence approaches

  5. MODELLING OF ROBOTIC BULLDOZING OPERATIONS FOR AUTONOMOUS CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Bone, Gary

    with their environment, such as tractors, bulldozers, loaders and snow plows. Forces and motions are inherently coupled and robustness in task execution. A few papers have presented high-level artificial intelligence approaches

  6. OPTIMAL COVERING TOURS WITH TURN COSTS # ESTHER M. ARKIN + , MICHAEL A. BENDER # , ERIK D. DEMAINE ,

    E-print Network

    Arkin, Estie

    ­link watchman tours) and in various arc routing problems, such as snow plowing or street sweeping with turn@cs.sunysb.edu. § Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

  7. 76 FR 12405 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ...Projects Approved for Collection and Use: Tractor with snow blower and snow plow. Airport security and access control upgrades--design. Airport security and access control upgrades--construction. PFC application, amendments, and...

  8. 49 CFR 325.1 - Scope of the rules in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Agency, 40 CFR part 202. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the rules in this part... police van, or a rescue van, when it is responding to an emergency call; (5) A snow plow in operation;...

  9. 4. CORNICE AND PARAPET DETAIL. IN THE CENTER IS AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CORNICE AND PARAPET DETAIL. IN THE CENTER IS AN ANVIL AND A PLOW, SYMBOLIC TOOLS OF THE FARMERS AND MECHANICS - Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank, 427 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 49 CFR 325.1 - Scope of the rules in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Agency, 40 CFR part 202. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the rules in this part... police van, or a rescue van, when it is responding to an emergency call; (5) A snow plow in operation;...

  11. 77 FR 27537 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    .... Runway high speed snow removal broom. Taxiway R extension and road relocation--construction. PFC... rehabilitation, phase I. Purchase airport snow removal truck/plow. Design and construct noise mitigation...

  12. 49 CFR 325.1 - Scope of the rules in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Agency, 40 CFR part 202. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the rules in this part... police van, or a rescue van, when it is responding to an emergency call; (5) A snow plow in operation;...

  13. Keys To Profitable Cotton Production in the Coastal Bend. 

    E-print Network

    Ashlock, Lanny; Metzer, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    in this region face a number of management problems including insects, diseases, sa linity, fertility, weeds and untimely rains during the harvest season. This fact sheet includes some recom mendations to minimize production problems and improve net profit... the number of overwintering boll weevils. Thorough shredding of high-residue crops aids in plowing under crop residue, precision planting, weed control, fertilizer application, bed shaping and culti vation with rotary hoes or sleds. Plow all cotton stalks...

  14. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - Non-mandatory Compliance Guidelines for Hazard Assessment and Personal Protective Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., grinding machining, masonry work, woodworking, sawing, drilling, chiseling, powered fastening, riveting...). Class C helmets provide impact and penetration resistance (they are usually made of aluminum which...) Generally, any “chemical resistant” glove can be used for dry powders; (C) For mixtures and...

  15. Phenology and Abundance of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eastern South Dakota on Alfalfa and Soybean Relative to Tillage, Fertilization and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without a...

  16. TILLAGE, COVER CROPS, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON SOIL NITROGEN AND COTTON AND SORGHUM YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable soil and crop management practices that reduce soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching, conserve soil organic matter, and optimize cotton and sorghum yields still remain a challenge. We examined the influence of three tillage practices (no-till, strip till, and chisel till ), four cover c...

  17. Long and short-term tillage effects on Heterodera glycines reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigations were conducted to determine the long and short-term effects of tillage on Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode (SCN), reproduction. Tillage plots were established in 1979 representing six tillage/no-tillage regimes. A portion of each plot was changed from no-tillage to chisel or...

  18. 76 FR 73670 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...stones; 3 flint cores; 13 stone flakes; 3 bone chisels; 3 harpoon heads; 2 small bone awls; 2 large bone awls; 1 otter skull with soil; 1 lot consisting of a strike-a-light kit--iron pyrite, flint, and ``skitaagin; '' 1 copper awl;...

  19. Empirical relationships for soil organic carbon transport from agricultural watersheds in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved quantification is needed for long-term soil organic carbon (SOC) transport in runoff at watershed scales. Coshocton wheel samplers were used to collect runoff samples from no-till and chisel-till watersheds in corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) rotations over 13 years. Samples were a...

  20. ACCUMULATION AND CROP UPTAKE OF SOIL MINERAL NITROGEN AS INFLUEMCED BY TILLAGE, COVER CROPS, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secaele cereale L.)]...

  1. Kenneth J. Turner. Formalising Graphical Behaviour Descriptions, Proc. 10th. International Conference on Algebraic Methodology and Software Technology,

    E-print Network

    Turner, Ken

    and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK Abstract. CRESS (Chisel Representation Employing in science and engineering. For example, soft- ware engineering uses flowcharts, entity-relationship diagrams-specialists and industrial engineers ­ a precise interpretation that allows rigorous analysis and development ­ a portable

  2. Evaluation of strip-tillage and fertilizer placement in Southern Idaho corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strip tillage (ST) and associated nutrient placement can potentially help producers reduce fuel and machinery costs, increase yield, and reduce soil erosion compared to chisel tillage (CT). This study was initiated to evaluate corn production (Zea mays L.) under ST and CT, and various nitrogen (N) ...

  3. COMPARISON OF TILLAGE TYPE AND FREQUENCY FOR COTTON ON PIEDMONT SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-row chisel (IC) and paratill (PT) tillages disrupt consolidated soil zones and improve rooting capacity. Compaction disrupting tillages increase costs of farm operations because of the need for more powerful tractors and greater fuel use. The need for continuous or less frequent disrupting tilla...

  4. Basic Hand Tools for Bricklaying and Cement Masonry [and] Basic Hand Tools of the Carpenter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Intended for student use, this unit discusses and illustrates the tools used in brick and masonry and carpentry. Contents of the brick and masonry section include informative materials on bricklaying tools (brick trowels, joint tools, levels, squares, line and accessories, rules, hammers and chisels, tool kits) and cement masonry tools (tampers,…

  5. Soil and crop nitrogen as influenced by tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)],...

  6. Describing Polygonum aviculare emergence in different tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of four tillage systems (direct drill, subsoiler, chisel plough and mouldboard plough) on the dynamics of Polygonum aviculare populations were studied over three growing seasons. Densities before and after herbicide application and cumulative emergence on a weekly basis were determined in ea...

  7. 52 SE Biology, Vol. 56, No. 1, January, 2009 INVITED RESEARCH PAPER

    E-print Network

    Everhart, Sydney E.

    -foot and chisel and drove a self-propelled combine for custom cutting wheat and milo. I was also a "grease monkey Service and was hired to work as part of a trail crew in the Lolo National Forest (this area is now part 1958 I was part of a trail crew clearing trails along the road to Elk Summit Guard Station. Snow

  8. Global Warming Potential of Organic and Conventional Grain Cropping Systems in the mid-Atlantic Region of the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global warming potential (GWP) of a cropping system is the balance between the net exchange of the greenhouse gases CO2, N2O and CH4 that result from on-farm practices and the production and transport of inputs. We report here on GWP calculations for no-till (NT), chisel till (CT) and organic (O...

  9. A New Grid Bar Design for a Modified Cylinder Cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grid bars having a chisel shape and sharp cutting edge were designed and installed in a modified cylinder cleaner. The modified cleaner’s seed cotton and lint cleaning performances were evaluated in two tests. Results indicated that seed-cotton cleaning efficiency of the modified cylinder cleaner ...

  10. Annual Research Review: Parenting and Children's Brain Development--The End of the Beginning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; de Haan, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    After questioning the practical significance of evidence that parenting influences brain development--while highlighting the scientific importance of such work for understanding "how" family experience shapes human development--this paper reviews evidence suggesting that brain structure and function are "chiselled" by parenting. Although the…

  11. Kenneth J. Turner. Modelling SIP Services. In Moshe Vardi and Doron Peled, editors, Proc. Formal Techniques for Networked and Distributed Systems (FORTE

    E-print Network

    Turner, Ken

    and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Scotland FK9 4LA kjt@cs.stir.ac.uk Abstract. CRESS (CHISEL Representation services. The CRESS notation is introduced for root diagrams, service diagrams, and rules governing Language) or CGI (Common Gateway Interface). The structure of the portable CRESS toolset is explained. 1

  12. 76 FR 73670 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... identified. There are 71 associated funerary objects including: 1 medicine bundle containing 2 stone points; 1 red ground stone or palette; 2 ground stones; 3 flint cores; 13 stone flakes; 3 bone chisels; 3... bone lot with beaver incisors, black bear maxilla, bird and mammal bones; 8 stone fragments...

  13. Influence of Subsurface Irrigation and Organic Additions on Top and Root Growth of Field Corn'

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Influence of Subsurface Irrigation and Organic Additions on Top and Root Growth of Field Corn' W. H Quartzipsamments) soil from Delaware to determine the effect of organic additions and type of irrigation on corn was made to superimpose corn rows di- rectly above the chisel openings. Irrigation types were subsurface

  14. TILLAGE-INDUCED CO2 LOSS ACROSS A LANDSCAPE AFTER 30 YEARS OF INTENSIVE TILLAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon (C)losses and soil translocation from tillage operations have been identified as causes of soil degradation and soil erosion that may contribute to global climate change. The objective of this work was to quantify the variability in tillage-induced CO2 loss by moldboard and chisel plowin...

  15. Synthesising Glue Logic Transactors, Multiplexors and

    E-print Network

    Greaves, David J.

    Killed dead by receiving component - Set live by driving component - Chiseled at a serialisor until dead (e.g. holding register is dead/live) Form full cross productcross product of all participants>forward let ioaddr = xi_bitor(ad_lo, lshift(predicate(kill ad_hi, xi_deqd(ad_hi, xi_num 17

  16. HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE THE JACKET AND WEIGHTS. A PNEUMATIC SHOVEL PUSHES THE MORE RECENTLY POURED MOLD INTO THE COOLED MOLD, FORCING THE LATTER ONTO THE VIBRATING SHAKEOUT CONVEYOR AND LEAVING A SPACE UNDER THE RAISED JACKET AND WEIGHTS FOR A FRESHLY MADE UNPOURED MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Big Jobs: Planning for Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nancy P.

    2005-01-01

    Three- to five-year-olds grow emotionally participating in meaningful and challenging physical, social, and problem-solving activities outdoors in an early childhood program on a farm. Caring for animals, planting, raking, shoveling, and engaging in meaningful indoor activities, under adult supervision, children learn to work collaboratively,…

  18. Punchy, Munchy...Culinary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Carolee; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Eating involves--and offers--a lot more than merely shoveling food into your mouth. It can be used in innumerable ways in your room. Here is a multitude of food experiences, all designed for kids' heads as well as their stomachs. You can use cooking and food throughout your curriculum. Here's how! (Editor)

  19. Sampling Mud in the Elwha River Estuary

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologic technician Andrew Spanjer shovels Elwha River mud into a bucket for latter analysis in the lab. The USGS is monitoring turbidity at several locations in the Elwha River during the largest dam-removal project in United States history. The mud will be mixed with water to assess how dif...

  20. Prevalence of aberrant dental morphological details in 6-10 year old school children in an Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kirthiga, M.; Manju, M.; Praveen, R.; Umesh, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variations in the structure of teeth have always been a great curiosity to the dentist from the scientific and practical point of view. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of a few aberrant morphological features namely, cusp of Carabelli in primary maxillary second molar and in permanent first molar, five cusp in primary maxillary second molar and permanent first molar, shoveling and double shoveling with respect to permanent maxillary central incisors, four cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar, six cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar and seven cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar in 6–10 year old children belonging to the East Bengaluru, a City in India. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2111 children by two stage sampling method. Type III examination was performed. The findings were subjected to Chi-square test. Results: 83.8% of the studied population had one or more of the variations checked for, as mentioned above. The variation most commonly seen was double shoveling (66.6%) followed by shoveling (65.7%). No significant results were observed in any trait with respect to gender. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind, providing a baseline data of the prevalence of morphological details in the pediatric Indian population. PMID:26604571

  1. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  2. An Archaeological Survey for the Eastham State Prison Farm 5-1 Well Location and Clay Pond in Houston County Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-07-30

    Research Associates (BVRA) on March 28, 2008 under antiquities permit 4870. The two areas were investigated through a 100% Pedestrian Survey, shovel testing, and backhoe trenching. The 5-1 well site is located on a slightly elevated area containing sandy...

  3. F A C T S H E E T A major winter storm can be lethal. Preparing for cold weather conditions and responding to them

    E-print Network

    Adhar, Gur Saran

    supplies on hand, in case the power goes out. · Flashlight and extra batteries · Portable, battery-operated radio and extra batteries · First aid kit · One-week supply of food (include items that do not require weather puts an added strain on the heart. Unaccustomed exercise such as shoveling snow or pushing a car

  4. vol. 169, no. 3 the american naturalist march 2007 Predicting Resource Partitioning and Community Organization

    E-print Network

    Organization of Filter-Feeding Dabbling Ducks from Functional Morphology D. Brent Gurd* Centre for Wildlife mechanistic models that combine bill mor- phology and kinetics, I show that filter-feeding dabbling ducks face is absent, mallards (Anas platy- rhynchos) and northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) should maximize

  5. Arch. Hydrobiol. 156 1 1122 Stuttgart, December 2002 Effect of passage through duck gut on germination

    E-print Network

    Green, Andy J.

    of the effects of digestion by ducks (mallard Anas platyrhyn- chos, shoveler A. clypeata and wigeon A. penelopeArch. Hydrobiol. 156 1 11­22 Stuttgart, December 2002 Effect of passage through duck gut in the length of the preceding stratification period, two to three individuals per duck species were force

  6. Observer Name(s) & contact info Date/Time: Friday 16 Sept: to // Saturday 17 Sept: to

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope + 24 Mallard A. platyrhynchos 25 American Black Duck A. rubripes 26 Sharp Shoveler A. clypeata 11 Ring-necked Duck A. collaris 12 Cooper's Hawk A. cooperii 13 Green-winged Teal A 17 Tufted Duck A. fuligula (A) 18 Northern Goshawk A. gentilis 19 Henslow's Sparrow A. henslowii + 20

  7. 75 FR 53598 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Shovelnose Sturgeon Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) (55 FR 36641, September 6, 1990). The pallid sturgeon has a flattened, shovel... under the Act (55 FR 36641). At the time of listing, the primary threats and vulnerabilities for pallid... recruitment, commercial harvest, pollution and contaminants, and hybridization (55 FR 36641, September 6,...

  8. 17. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION II, NEAR ASHMUN STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION II, NEAR ASHMUN STREET, LOOKING WEST, DECEMBER 7, 1900. ONE OF THE CITY'S NEW BRIDGES OVER THE CANAL IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TEMPORARY DUMP TRACKS, DUMP TRAINS AND DUMP TRAIN LOCOMOTIVES, AND STEAM SHOVELS ARE ALL SHOWN IN OPERATION. (106) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  9. 15. Photocopied August 1978. LOCOMOTIVE CRANE IN THE ROCK CUT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopied August 1978. LOCOMOTIVE CRANE IN THE ROCK CUT, AUGUST 21, 1900. LOADING DUMP CARS. A STEAM SHOVEL LOADING DUMP CARS IS VISIBLE IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. (61) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  10. 16. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, AUGUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, AUGUST 21, 1900. NOTE THE DUMP TRAIN ENGINES PUSHING THE TRAIN OF DUMP CARS AWAY FROM THE STEAM SHOVEL. (62) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and augers, shall be equipped with at least one portable fire extinguisher. (2) Power shovels.... 77.1109 Section 77.1109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS...

  12. 56. Photographic copy of historic photo, 1911 (original print filed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographic copy of historic photo, 1911 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). STEAM SHOVEL EXCAVATING GRAVEL FOR FACING LOWER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  13. 28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE 'GEORGE M. CARL.' THE END OF UNLOADING, TRACTOR SCRAPERS ARE LOWERED INTO THE HOLD TO 'CLEAN UP.' PRIOR TO ABOUT 1953, MEN WITH SHOVELS DID THE JOB. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. 19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, WITH SEVERAL PARTIALLY SUBMERGED STEAM SHOVELS SHOWN IN THE FLOODED CANAL. ONE OF THE TEMPORARY BRIDGES CONSTRUCTED OVER THE CANAL RIGHT -OF-WAY IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. (39) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  15. SMOKEY THE BEAR SUTRA Gary Snyder

    E-print Network

    Alexander, Roger K.

    SMOKEY THE BEAR SUTRA Gary Snyder Once in the Jurassic about 150 million years ago, the Great Sun THE BEAR. A handsome smokey­colored brown bear standing on his hind legs, show­ ing that he is aroused and watchful. Bearing in his right paw the Shovel that digs to the truth beneath ap­ pearances; cuts the roots

  16. Cognitive Development 35 (2015) 114 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    preschool children learn vocabulary, thereby benefiting their lan- guage and school readiness skills not differ across conditions. However, children who engaged in stories and play with a fantastical theme Development Shovels and swords: How realistic and fantastical themes affect children's word learning Deena

  17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE TRASH GRATE THAT REPLACED THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE TRASH GRATE THAT REPLACED THE LOCK GATES TO LOCK 71 WHEN THE FLIGHT OF FIVE WAS CONVERTED TO A SPILLWAY AFTER THE LARGER LOCKS, 34 AND 35, WERE PUT INTO OPERATION. THE SHOVEL TRUCK IN THE VIEW IS USED TO CLEAR DEBRIS. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  18. 30 CFR 77.1607 - Loading and haulage equipment; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shovel dipper unless cable slings or sleds are used. (r) Equipment which is to be hauled shall be loaded...) Railroad cars shall be kept under control at all times by the car dropper. Cars shall be dropped at a safe rate and in a manner that will insure that the car dropper maintains a safe position while working...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1607 - Loading and haulage equipment; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shovel dipper unless cable slings or sleds are used. (r) Equipment which is to be hauled shall be loaded...) Railroad cars shall be kept under control at all times by the car dropper. Cars shall be dropped at a safe rate and in a manner that will insure that the car dropper maintains a safe position while working...

  20. Over the Fence: Learning about Education for Sustainability with New Tools and Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClam, Sherie; Diefenbacher, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The metaphor of talking "over the fence" underscores the neutrality of tools. Shovels and hoes do the job, but the gardener creates the transformation of earth to food. Each garden requires a unique approach. Such are the tools of education for sustainable development (ESD). Pre-packaged textbooks and toolkits provide definitions and…

  1. Dental Anthropology G. RICHARD SCO-TT

    E-print Network

    Dental Anthropology G. RICHARD SCO-TT University of Alaska, Fairbanks 1. The Human Dentition II phenotypicsimilarities Quadrant One half of the upper or lower dentition Shoveling Mesial and distal marginal ridges within the province of dental anthro- pology. 1. THE HUMAN DENTITION A. Terms and Concepts Atooth has

  2. 18 CFR 367.51 - Components of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other expenses incurred in the maintenance, operation and use of special machines, such as steam shovels... work on account of injuries to persons and damages to the property of others; also the cost of... on account of compensation paid for injuries to persons incident to construction must be credited...

  3. 18 CFR 367.51 - Components of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other expenses incurred in the maintenance, operation and use of special machines, such as steam shovels... work on account of injuries to persons and damages to the property of others; also the cost of... on account of compensation paid for injuries to persons incident to construction must be credited...

  4. 18 CFR 367.51 - Components of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other expenses incurred in the maintenance, operation and use of special machines, such as steam shovels... work on account of injuries to persons and damages to the property of others; also the cost of... on account of compensation paid for injuries to persons incident to construction must be credited...

  5. 18 CFR 367.51 - Components of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other expenses incurred in the maintenance, operation and use of special machines, such as steam shovels... work on account of injuries to persons and damages to the property of others; also the cost of... on account of compensation paid for injuries to persons incident to construction must be credited...

  6. Making a Big Deal about Everyday Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Don

    2010-01-01

    Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, who have been married over 30 years, take items from popular culture and transform them into giant sculptures that are on display all over the world. Their installations include clothespins, baseball bats, garden shovels and ice cream cones, to name a few. This transformation of everyday things is a great…

  7. An Archaeological Survey for the Upper Leon River Municipal Water District Proposed Wastewater Treatment System Improvements Project in Eastern Comanche County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-07-10

    contained approximately 15 modern (20th century) clear glass bottles and jars, several tin cans and other containers, and a few pieces of unidentified metal. It is located in a small gully area and is restricted to the surface. One shovel test...

  8. The Dendroarchaeology of the Swaggerty Blockhouse, Cocke County, Tennessee

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    of artifacts recovered during excavations? Second, can dendrochronological processes be used to verify in July of 2001. A total of 42 shovel tests were excavated, resulting in the recovery of 167 artifacts and establish more precise dating of artifact assemblages developed at sites in which wood or wooden artifacts

  9. Eglin Archaeology Day 2013 Eglin Archaeology Day 2013 Summary

    E-print Network

    history of British West Florida, a summary of the excavations, and a small artifact display. The Florida Matthews provided expertise on prehistoric ceramics and historic artifacts; PTA provided a children's activity that was a mock excavation with plastic shovels they could take with them. The official count

  10. 76 FR 18218 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...project waiver to Salt Lake City for the purchase of three...used as part of Salt Lake City's Water Reclamation Facility's...shovel ready'' by requiring cities such as Salt Lake City to...needed to be rehabilitated as well, which included...

  11. Technology for Institutional Enrollment, Communication, and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Grace; Alexander, Julie S.

    2008-01-01

    Regardless of whether an institution is a reluctant passenger on the racing technology train or itching to throw another shovel of coal on the fire, continuing advancements in technology make it a formidable factor in life on college campuses today. While students are updating their most recent social networking sites, faculty, staff, and…

  12. 78 FR 43223 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Sonoran Valley Parkway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare an EIS on April 2, 2008, in the Federal Register (73 FR 17995... Sonoran Desert tortoise and the Tucson shovel-nosed snake. There are also two designated wildlife movement..., desert tortoise, Gila monster, javelina, and mule deer as designated in the Arizona Wildlife...

  13. 78 FR 25469 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of South Alabama Center for Archaeological Studies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...consisting of 9 molars, 2 molar fragments, 8 pre-molars, 4 canines, 2 shovel-shaped incisors, 1 proximal tibia shaft, 1 ulna...individuals, consisting of 16 molars, 10 premolars, 9 incisors, 7 canines, 61 unidentifiable tooth fragments, 1 rib fragment,...

  14. A Gene Scrapbook A Tribute to Gene Loh

    E-print Network

    A Gene Scrapbook A Tribute to Gene Loh on the Occasion of His Retirement Feb 22, 2003 #12;The Early of Technology, 1961 #12;The Missing Years Not much is known about Gene's whereabouts between 1961 until his (probably kelp) for transport by sea. #12;Why did Gene leave Cornell? He got tired of shoveling all

  15. Isolation of Phyllosilicate–Iron Redox Cycling Microorganisms from an Illite–Smectite Rich Hydromorphic Soil

    PubMed Central

    Shelobolina, Evgenya; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Wu, Tao; Blöthe, Marco; Roden, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate–Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite–smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate–Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicate–Fe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II) in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II) source, and O2 as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp. and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II) with O2, each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II) in reduced NAu-2 smectite with NO3- as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III) oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to Geobacter toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicate–Fe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil. PMID:22493596

  16. Soil Respiration Controls Ionic Nutrient Concentration In Percolating Water In Rice Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.

    2004-12-01

    Soil water in the plow layer in rice fields contains various kinds of cations and anions, and they are lost from the plow layer by water percolation. Some portions of CO2 produced by respirations of rice roots and soil microorganisms are also leached by water percolation to the subsoil layer as HCO3-. As the electrical neutrality of inorganic substances in percolating water is maintained when they are assumed to be in the form of simple cations and anions, soil respiration accelerates the leaching of ionic nutrients from the plow layer by water percolation. The proportion of inorganic carbon (? CO2) originated from photosynthates in the total ? CO2 in soil solution in the plow layer was from 28 to 36 % in the rice straw amended soil and from 16 to 31 % in the soil without rice straw amendment in a soil pot experiment with rice plant after the maximum tillering stage. Most of ? CO2 in percolating water from the plow layer accumulates in the subsoil layer. Periodical measurement of ? CO2 in percolating water at 13 and 40 cm soil depths indicated that 10 % of total soil organic C in the plow layer was leached down from the plow layer (13 cm), and that about 90 % of it was retained in the subsoil layer to the depth of 40 cm. Water soluble organic materials are also leached from the plow layer by water percolation, and the leaching is accelerated by soil reduction. Soil reduction decreased the content of organic materials that were bound with ferric iron in soil (extractable by 0.1M Na4P2O7 + NaBH4) and increased the content of organic materials that were extractable by the neutral chelating solution (0.1M Na4P2O7). In addition, water percolation transformed the latter organic materials to those that were extractable by water and a neutral salt. Considerable portions of organic materials in percolating water are adsorbed in the subsoil layer, and then partially decomposed and polymerized to specific soil organic materials in the subsoil. Organic materials that were leached from the plow layer by percolating water amounted to 170 kgC ha-1 in a Japanese rice field, among which 120 kgC of organic materials were adsorbed in the subsoil layer between 13 and 40 cm depth.

  17. Analysis of water movement in paddy rice fields (I) experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Liu, Chen Wuing

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of increasing the amount of ground water recharge, we investigated the hydraulic characteristics of water infiltration in a flooded paddy rice field in Ten-Chung, Chung-Hwa county, Taiwan. Experimental results based on mini-tensiometers and double ring infiltrometer measurements indicated that the least permeable layer occurred at the interface of the puddled topsoil and non-puddled subsoil. The average thickness of this layer was about 7.5 cm and saturated hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.034 to 0.083 cm/day. Vertical infiltration flow was saturated within the plow sole layer and became unsaturated in the subsoil below the plow sole layer. The hydraulic conductivity of the subsoil, 20-30 times greater than that of the plow sole layer, revealed that the subsoil was more permeable than the plow sole layer. In situ measurements also demonstrated that breakage of the plow sole layer increased infiltration rate by a factor of 3.7. Increasing ponded water depth from 6 to 16 cm increased infiltration 1.5 fold. It is suggested that using the fallow paddy rice fields without puddling is a feasible way to enhance groundwater recharge, but for cultivated paddy rice fields, breaking the plow sole needs further study in terms of its recoverability and because of the potential contamination of the shallow aquifer by agrochemicals. The experimental data can be applied in numerical simulation models to quantify detailed water movement mechanisms and accurately estimate the amount of ground water recharge in paddy rice fields.

  18. Autoerotic fatalities with power hydraulics.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, R L; Dietz, P E

    1993-03-01

    We report two cases in which men used the hydraulic shovels on tractors to suspend themselves for masochistic sexual stimulation. One man developed a romantic attachment to a tractor, even giving it a name and writing poetry in its honor. He died accidentally while intentionally asphyxiating himself through suspension by the neck, leaving clues that he enjoyed perceptual distortions during asphyxiation. The other man engaged in sexual bondage and transvestic fetishism, but did not purposely asphyxiate himself. He died when accidentally pinned to the ground under a shovel after intentionally suspending himself by the ankles. We compare these cases with other autoerotic fatalities involving perceptual distortion, cross-dressing, machinery, and postural asphyxiation by chest compression. PMID:8454997

  19. Brazing Alloys Indicate Turbomachinery Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlaff, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Foils serve as consumable thermometers. Stainless-steel tab with circular window holds brazing-foil sample in place. Tab tacked to object to be tested with capacitive-discharge spot welder operating in range 10 + 1 joules. After measurements, tabs and samples chiseled off, leaving tested object fairly well intact. Technique used on objects made of alloys with iron, nickel, or cobalt as principal ingredients.

  20. Scanning electron microscopy of egg hatching of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M H; Orozco, A; Chavez, B; Martinez-Palomo, A

    1992-09-01

    Scanning electron and light microscopic observations showed that egg hatching in Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann is aided by a chisel-shaped spine. This hatching tooth is surrounded by a thin flexible membrane fixed to a groove in the head of the larvae. Increased intracranial pressure may force the spine against the egg shell until a fissure is produced. Further opening of the egg is achieved by movements of the head and the entire body of the larva. PMID:1404271

  1. The Effects of Certain Precision Practices on the Efficiency of Cotton Production. 

    E-print Network

    Wilkes, Lambert H.; Hobgood, Price.

    1968-01-01

    with the micro-environments to which the seed are exposed during the germination and emergence periods are principal factors contributing to variability in emer- gence, growth, maturity and yields. Department of Agricultural Engineering field experiments... IF the chisel type opener. As with most nplements, moisture content and soil type ~ffect the performance of the opener. Scour- t ant1 sticky soils is the most difficult problem openers. It is difficult to form a clearly tlel~n~ti seed trench. Measurements...

  2. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  3. 17. A closeup detail, looking east from the northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. A close-up detail, looking east from the northeast corner of the roadbed. This image shows the concrete commemorative inscription which is let into the inside of the eastern balustrade at the north end of the bridge. The name of one of the county commissioners has been chiselled out of the inscription. The parting fault between the parapet and its coping is evident. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  4. Best Management Practices for Conservation/Reduced Tillage 

    E-print Network

    Abrameit, Archie; Stichler, Charles; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-08-02

    tillage does not mean never till. Some tillage is not bad if it is necessary, but un- necessary trips across the field are costly ? often in more ways than one. Maintaining residue on the soil surface increases water infiltration, reduces erosion... to the success of this system. ? Mulch-till disturbs the soil before planting with chisels, field cultivators, disks or sweeps. Weeds are controlled by cultivation/and or herbicides. Best Management Practices for Conservation/Reduced Charles Stichler, Archie...

  5. High Island Blues: the Sport of Birding in the Novels of Ann Cleeves

    E-print Network

    Wedge, Philip

    2005-09-01

    on the suspect list. Somewhat ironically, Mick was clubbed with one of the trail boundary stakes and then stabbed with a wood chisel used to carve wooden birds (253), fairly unusual murder weapons to say the least. Rather than a baseball bat or hockey stick... terns, petrels, shearwaters and jaegers (7). Ann Cleeves' detective, retired Home Office investigator George Palmer-Jones, typically solves murders linked to the core of competitive birders, or "twitchers," who pursue rare sightings of species...

  6. Frequency and variability of dental morphology in deciduous and permanent dentition of a Nasa indigenous group in the municipality of Morales, Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eider; García, Lorena; Hernández, Michelle; Palacio, Lesly; Ruiz, Diana; Velandia, Nataly; Villavicencio, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency, variability, sexual dimorphism and bilateral symmetry of fourteen dental crown traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition of 60 dental models (35 women and 25 men) obtained from a native, indigenous group of Nasa school children of the Musse Ukue group in the municipality of Morales, Department of Cauca, Colombia. Methods: This is a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study that characterizes dental morphology by means of the systems for temporary dentition from Dahlberg (winging), and ASUDAS (crowding, reduction of hypocone, metaconule and cusp 6), Hanihara (central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and cusp 7), Sciulli (double bit, layered fold protostylid, cusp pattern and cusp number) and Grine (Carabelli trait); and in permanent dentition from ASUDAS (Winging, crowding, central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and double shovel-shape, Carabelli trait, hypocone reduction, metaconule, cusp pattern, cusp number, layered fold protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7). Results: The most frequent dental crown features were the shovel-shaped form, grooved and fossa forms of the Carabelli trait, metaconule, cusp pattern Y6, layered fold, protostylid (point P) and cusp 6. Sexual dimorphism was not observed and there was bilateral symmetry in the expression of these features. Conclusions: The sample studied presented a great affinity with ethnic groups belonging to the Mongoloid Dental Complex due to the frequency (expression) and variability (gradation) of the tooth crown traits, upper incisors, the Carabelli trait, the protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7. The influence of the Caucasoide Dental Complex associated with ethno-historical processes cannot be ruled out. PMID:24970955

  7. Aridlands Ecology Lab Protocol Modified: 2009.08.21, C.D. Morrison

    E-print Network

    Barger, Nichole

    Materials: Sledge hammer (3-5 lbs.) 4 ft. U-posts 3 ft. tall Welded Wire 3 ft. tall Chicken Wire (half the length of welded wire: i.e. 3x50ft WW and 3x25ft CW) 16-gauge wire Wire cutters Shovel Pliers Tape measure Numbered aluminum tag Preparation: 1. Cut welded wire into lengths of 3.5 meters (11.5 feet). 2

  8. On-Farm Storage and Disposal of Sorghum Grain. 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Charles W.; Moore, Clarence A.

    1963-01-01

    commercial storage space to farmers will be keen. About four-fifths of the producers in all areas use a portable auger or elevator to put grain into farm storage. Hand shovels were used by almost one-fifth of the proclucers in the High Plains and North... industry in the 1950's showed tremendous increases in production, utilization, carry- over stocks and storage space. Utilization increases resulted from an increased awareness and acceptance by feeders and millers of its relative feeding value...

  9. An Archaeological Survey of a Proposed 24" Water Main Alignment in Central Brazos County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-07-03

    area along Leonard Road consists of the upper reaches of tributaries of Turkey Creek, many of which are gullies created by erosion and not actual stream channels. 9 Disturbance to the project area along Leonard Road and Chick Lane has.... This area is heavily wooded with dense undergrowth. At the beginning of this part of the project area, the route passes closely to a very deeply incised tributary (or gully) of Turkey Creek. Shovel tests were placed at approximate 30 meter intervals...

  10. 59. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. STEAM SHOVEL NO. 1 AT WORK ON EASTERLY BORROW PIT. CLASS OF MATERIAL BEING EXCAVATED IS LARGELY SAND AND GRAVEL, WITH ENOUGH CLAY TO FORM A BOND BETWEEN SAND AND GRAVEL. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  11. 62. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. VIEW FROM EASTERLY END OF EMBANKMENT UNDER CONSTRUCTION. TRAIN IN FOREGROUND RETURNING TO EASTERLY BORROW PIT. STEAM SHOVEL NO.2 IN DISTANCE AT WORK IN WESTERLY BORROW PIT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  12. An Archaeological Survey for the City of Sonora Water Improvement Project in Sutton County Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William; Frederick, Charles

    2015-07-30

    Holocene soils that have the potential to contain buried cultural materials. 12 Figure 6. Plan View of Area 2 13 Figure 7. Photograph of Area 2 (looking north). 14... been greatly disturbed by agricultural activities, no shovel tests or backhoe trenches were excavated. The southern end of this area consists of Holocene age soils that have the potential to contain cultural materials. In this area, two backhoe...

  13. 60. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. STEAM SHOVEL NO. 1 LOADING CARS IN EASTERLY BORROW PIT. CARS IN THIS TRAIN OF 12 NEARLY ALL LOADED. EAIGHT MINUTES REQUIRED TO LOAD 12 CARS EQUAL TO 42 CU YDS. PLACE MEASUREMENT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  14. Using Flexible Pipe (poly-pipe) with Surface Irrigation 

    E-print Network

    Peries, Xavier; Enciso, Juan

    2005-10-05

    ? Poly-pipe rolls ? Pump or valve for connection ? Clamps, rubber straps, or duct tape ? Shovel ? PVC connectors (if more than one roll is used) ? Hole puncher with plugs Prior to poly-pipe installation, fields should be leveled. Poly-pipe should.... Advantages of Using Pipes to Deliver Irrigation Water Using pipe systems (rather than earthen ditches) to convey and distribute water to fields has several advantages: ? Increases in on-farm irrigation efficiency, by avoiding water loss due to deep...

  15. 13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  16. An Archaeological Survey for the Polonia Water Supply Corporation in Caldwell County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-07-10

    plottings were taken at the location of each test for more accurate plotting on the topographic map (Appendix II). In all, 27 shovel tests were excavated. The floodplains of Plum Creek, Tenney Creek, and Daniels Creek were examined through backhoe... trench met or exceeded the four foot APE as planned for the water line. Specific information regarding each backhoe trench is presented in Appendix III. Six backhoe trenches (1-6) were excavated within the floodplain of Plum Creek with five...

  17. Strip-tillage: A conservation alternative to full-width tillage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkowski, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Historically no-till management has been a challenge for maize production in the Midwestern USA because crop residue slows the warming of the soil in the spring and can physically impair planting by plugging the planter. After trying no-till, producers often return to more aggressive tillage operations to address residue concerns; however these systems can cause soil erosion and can increase the cost of production. An alternative system known as strip-tillage has been suggested as a compromise between no-till and full-width tillage. This practice utilizes implements that loosen the soil and allow warming in the row area, yet maintain nearly as much residue as no-till. Strip-tillage is generally understood to be a single pass with a separate implement in the fall, although spring strip-tillage is possible if soil moisture and conditions permit. Strip-tillage can be accomplished in a shorter time, with lower energy and equipment inputs compared to full-width tillage. The first of two studies that examined the merits of strip-tillage was conducted the University of Wisconsin Lancaster Agricultural Research Station (42.84, -90.80). Natural runoff collectors were installed in a field having a silt loam soil with an 8% slope in fall chisel and fall strip-tillage system. The measured soil loss in a year that experienced substantial rainfall prior to canopy closure was 10.6 Mg ha-1 in chisel vs. 0.64 Mg ha-1 in strip-tillage. Soil loss was much less for both systems in the second year when early season rainfall was minimal. A second, ten year study was conducted at the University of Wisconsin Arlington Agricultural Research Station (43.30, -89.36) that compared fall strip-tillage with fall chisel/spring field cultivator and no-till systems in both a continuous maize and soybean-maize rotation. This work showed equal maize grain yield in maize after soybean when comparing chisel and strip-tillage. No-till yield was about 5 % lower. Yield in continuous maize was highest in the chisel system, being about 4 % greater than strip-tillage and 8 % greater than no-till. An economic analysis of this data showed that the benefit to strip-tillage is greatest in maize following soybean. Strip-tillage is a system that can optimize both economic and environmental return for maize production and should be implemented more widely, especially on erosive soils.

  18. The KU Geologic Record Volume 4, 2006

    E-print Network

    of the Department of Geology watched what was to come, a storm with a microburst that brought 80 mile-per-hour winds," said Depart- ment Chair Bob Goldstein. "I watched the microburst plow through my back yard and saw was comparatively light, it still was significant. Most of its vehicles were damaged dur- ing the microburst

  19. A Brick-Sorting LEGO Robot Arturo Perez and Michael R. W. Dawson

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Michael

    creating, programming, and testing a new robot designed to sort ele-ments in an arena. The purpose. An ultrasonic sensor mounted on its top detects obstacles, and causes the robot to steer away from them detected by a lower ultrasonic sen- sor. When captured by the robot's `plow', a light sensor determines

  20. 29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...11/2 (3.8) 7 8 9 (22.9) Table 2—Natural Fiber Rope and Rope Slings—Load Capacity in Pounds (lbs...37 Classification Improved Plow Steel Grade Rope With Fiber Core (FC) [Rated loads [note 1], tons...

  1. WATER AND SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A CULTIVATED SILT LOAM SOIL: 1. FIELD OBSERVATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vadose zone flow and transport processes are known to be strongly affected by both soil structure and soil texture. We conducted a field experiment to explore the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by agricultural operations such as wheel traffic, plowing and surface tillage on water ...

  2. 2015RegentsoftheUniversityofMinnesota.UniversityofMinnesotaExtension isan equalopportunityeducatorandemployer.Thispublication/materialisavailable in

    E-print Network

    Less road salt application Less plowing expense to roadway Reduces road closures and allows traffic-624-2116. Standing Corn Rows Improve Winter Travel Farmer leadership and community service help keep roads open HOW of corn rows, bales or bags, set back distance from road and compensation. Farm operators leave standing

  3. Ready for Action

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photo shows a snow plow and road salt application truck that is used to clear snow and ice from roadways for improving traffic and pedestrian safety. The use of salt to deice pavement can be harmful to aquatic life in urban streams. The USGS is involved in studies that focus on the influence of...

  4. AHP15: Rgyal rong Tibetan Life, Language, and Folklore in Rgyas bzang Village

    E-print Network

    G.yu 'brug; Stuart, C K

    for medical and educational expenses. Villagers dig manure from the livestock quarters and put it in the pigsty for about ten days to ferment before plowing fields in the first lunar month. About 250 kilograms of manure is put on each mu of field. Women...                                                                                                                           40 Pickled turnip leaves are put in hot water. The water...

  5. Dilemmas in Introducing Applied Technology: The Plough and the Cattlelords in Timor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mary

    1990-01-01

    An effort to introduce the plow to Timor farmers faced following barriers: nature of the land and climate, strongly demarcated traditional system, tensions among ethnic groups, cattlelords system, necessary time to place/retain trainers in villages. Positive factors were concrete results, use of small groups and native trainers, age of adopters,…

  6. Spring 2011 | volume 3 issue 2 Also Inside: Academic Programs p. 4 OARDC p. 7 ATI p. 10 Development p. 12 Alumni p. 14

    E-print Network

    GUIdAnCE On KITCHEn SAnITIzInG Fairfield County farmer dave Brandt yanks an oilseed radish from his-sized burrito. "Oilseed radish is nature's plow," said Brandt, who's been growing cover crops for 32 years to it. OSU Extension and OArdC are two of the event's sponsors. "I first learned about oilseed radish

  7. Long-term effects of rootplowing on shrubland succession in Southern Texas 

    E-print Network

    Wheeler, Cody Shawn

    2000-01-01

    after rootplowing. Density and canopy cover were estimated for huisache, honey mesquite, and other shrub or tree species at 11 root-plowed sites ranging from 13 to 36 years old and two undisturbed sites on the King Ranch, Jim Wells and Kleberg counties...

  8. Nitrogen, Tillage, and Crop Rotation Effects On Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes from Irrigated Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: a) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; b...

  9. Arsenic Fate And Transport In Red Cove, Fort Devens

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of a discharging arsenic plume on sediment contamination in a cove (Red Cove) within Plow Shop Pond adjacent to Shepley's Hill Landfill at the Fort Devens Superfund Site in Massachusetts. Site characterization included a...

  10. Arsenic Fate, Transport And Stability Study: Groundwater, Surface Water, Soil And Sediment Investigation At Fort Devens Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in groundwater, surface water, and sediments at the Fort Devens Superfund Site. The study area encompassed a portion of plow Shop Pond (Red Cove), which receives groundwater discharge from the aquifer und...

  11. Devens 2008 Monitoring Update

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents results from site monitoring activities during calendar year 2008 at the EPA/ORD Red Cove Study Area relative to site characterization activities under Operable Units 01 (Shepley's Hill Landfill) and 11 (Plow Shop Pond) at the Fort Devens Superfund site. T...

  12. Trends and patterns of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems in lands of agricultural afforestation within the territory of forest-steppe in the center of eastern Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anthropogenic evolution of chernozems as a result of plowing and the creation of forest shelterbelts on three meadow-steppe areas of forest-steppe were studied. It was established, that in all areas there are similar patterns, caused by the transformation of virgin soils into arable soils and vi...

  13. North Carolina Coastal Plain savannas rank among the most species rich communities in the

    E-print Network

    Krings, Alexander

    North Carolina Coastal Plain savannas rank among the most species rich communities in the world floristic inventory of a North Carolina savanna: Big Savannah (Pender Co.) (Shelingoski et al. 2005). Unfortunately, the savanna remained un- protected and was lost to "plow and bulldozer" by the 1950s (Shelingoski

  14. 75 FR 22424 - Avalotis Corp.; Grant of a Permanent Variance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... for the hoist system (i.e., ``hoist rope'') that consists of extra-improved plow steel, an equivalent... proposed alternatives (see 38 FR 8545 (April 3, 1973), 44 FR 51352 (August 31, 1979), 50 FR 20145 (May 14, 1985), 50 FR 40627 (October 4, 1985), 52 FR 22552 (June 12, 1987), 68 FR 52961 (September 8, 2003),...

  15. At Paul Quinn, Students Till the Soil to Cultivate a Better College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In autumn, most colleges' football fields are covered with a thick carpet of grass or artificial turf and are adorned with yard lines. But the football field at Paul Quinn College was carved up by plowing and planting. This past fall, portions of the college's gridiron were covered with sweet potatoes, watermelons, peppers, rosemary, and sugar…

  16. WATER AND SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A CULTIVATED SILT LOAM SOIL: 2. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was performed to study the effects of soil structure heterogeneity generated by farming practices (i.e., compaction by wheel traffic, plowing, surface tillage) on plot-scale water flow and solute transport. The experiment involved a 4m by 2 m field plot that was uniformly sprinkle...

  17. Transactions of the ASAE Vol. 48(5): 2005 American Society of Agricultural Engineers ISSN 0001-2351 1

    E-print Network

    to ero- sion and runoff. Under wet conditions, roots above the hard- pan layer may suffocate due to water) changes pore size distribution, (3) in- creases soil strength, (4) reduces air and water permeability, (5" or "plow soles." Hardpans im- pede plant roots from uptake of nutrients and soil water re- serves

  18. SOIL-PROFILE ORGANIC CARBON AND TOTAL NITROGEN UNDER BERMUDAGRASS MANAGEMENT IN THE SOUTHERN PIEDMONT USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of potential carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sequestration at depths below the traditional plow layer (0-30 cm) are limited, but are needed to improve our understanding of management influences on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient cycling. Soil samples were collected under `Coastal' bermud...

  19. 26 CFR 20.2032A-3 - Material participation requirements for valuation of certain farm and closely-held business real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...materially participated in the tree farm operation. During the...had been reforested and the trees were in the beginning stages...making important management decisions, such as where and whether...to be plowed around the new trees, and whether boundary...

  20. 26 CFR 20.2032A-3 - Material participation requirements for valuation of certain farm and closely-held business real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...materially participated in the tree farm operation. During the...had been reforested and the trees were in the beginning stages...making important management decisions, such as where and whether...to be plowed around the new trees, and whether boundary...

  1. EarthTransformed EarthTransformed

    E-print Network

    Cox, Rónadh

    and its human inhabitants. About the Author William F. Ruddiman was initially trained as a marine the Cover Image Terraced rice paddies climbing steep hillsides in southeast Asia represent a dramatic into constructing these terraces. Intensive labor is also required to plow, level, and repair them, and to plant

  2. Long-term tillage impacts on soil aggregation and carbon dynamics under wheat-fallow in the central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional tillage (CT) winter wheat (Tritucum aestivum L.) with summer fallow (WF) is the predominant cropping system in the central Great Plains. We investigated the effect of 39 yr of different tillage intensities, conventional tillage (CT); moldboard plow (MP); no-tillage (NT); and reduced ti...

  3. Soil Carbon Dynamics for Irrigated Corn under Two Tillage Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional plow tillage (CT) with high N rates is commonly used to grow irrigated, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) in the central Great Plains. Less common than CT is to instead use continuous no-till (NT). Both systems, with optimum irrigation and N fertilization, produce similar corn stover yields...

  4. Winter Maintenance Guidelines for Porous Asphalt Maintenance

    E-print Network

    Winter Maintenance Guidelines for Porous Asphalt General Maintenance · Plow after every storm · Up to ~75% net salt reductions for porous asphalt have been documented. USE SALT REDUCTION NUMBERS Asphalt Pavement Association (PAPA) Porous Asphalt Pavements Guide: http://www.pahotmix.org/PDF/porous1

  5. Center for Native Grasslands Management

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    as of 2006 "The Ax, the Plow, the Fire, and the... ... Cow" #12;9/16/2009 4 Rolling Red Plains & Bobwhites Typical Grassland Bird Population Response Post-Grazing 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 0 2 4 6 8 10 Bobwhite Pr @ Ames, HR, & RECG (42 paddocks total) Establish in '08-'09 (14 replanted), stock '09 ­ `11 Research

  6. Redeposited Neoproterozoic (?) glacial deposits on the winter coast (Winter Mountains, White Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumakov, N. M.; Ivantsov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Large dolomite fragments, part of which contain lonestones, while others look like cap dolomites, were found on the Winter coast of the White Sea. It is assumed that these rocks were plowed by the Late Quaternary glacier from Neoproterozoic glacial deposits lying probably on the White Sea bottom.

  7. VARIATION OF SURFACE SOIL QUALITY BY INTENSIVE DONKEY-DRAWN TILLAGE ON A STEEP SLOPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The progressive but relatively rapid redistribution of soil from uplands to field depressions or lower field boundaries by tillage has the potential to modify soil properties. However, few direct measurements have been made for this effect. We conducted 50 plowing operations using a donkey-drawn mol...

  8. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many…

  9. America's First Government Documentary Films as Teaching Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Kenneth E.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews two documentaries produced by the U.S. government: "The Plow That Broke the Plains" (1936) and "The River" (1937). The first examines soil erosion in the Great Plains; the second considers Mississippi River usage. Narrates storylines and explains initial film criticism. Highlights the films' effectiveness for teaching about the New Deal…

  10. BEEF FEEDYARD EFFLUENT APPLICATION EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT MASS BALANCES FOR THREE CROPPING ROTATIONS OF SORGHUM AND WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedlot runoff was applied to 27 plots of winter wheat and forage sorghum over 24 months at the Agriculture Research Station located at Bushland, TX, 12 miles west of Amarillo. Each plot measured 16 m x 4.5 m to allow for access of farming implements. All plots were plowed with an offset disc, chi...

  11. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability David R. Montgomery*

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, David R.

    conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1­2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production civilizations, no-till agriculture produces erosion rates much closer to soil production rates and therefore recognized that erosion in excess of soil production would eventually result in decreased agricultural

  12. The Blueweed and its Eradication. 

    E-print Network

    Karper, R. E. (Robert Earl)

    1922-01-01

    was selected which had a thick ancl uniform stand of blue- and was divided into one-twentieth acre plats to receive treatment lows : Pla Pla - - Pla Pla Pla Dl, t 1. Cut weeds with weeder-blade attached to cultivator. t 2. Plowing and replowing seven...

  13. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Project Title: Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology

    E-print Network

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, plowe@ksu.edu, 785 532-6804 Other Project Team Members Samantha M, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, lmhunt@k-state.edu, 785-532-6653 Project Oversight from National Wind Coordinatingi FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Project Title: Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development

  14. List of Texas Fuel Mitigation Vendors This list of fuel mitigation vendors that offer services in Texas is divided into two groups

    E-print Network

    in Texas is divided into two groups: Mechanical site preparation Prescribed burning These listings do Technology Way, Suite 1281, College Station, TX 778453424 979/4586650 Mechanical Site Preparation Mu Sh Ra = Mulch = Shear = Rake Be CP SR = Bed = Combination plow = Subsoil/Rip Sc DC Di = Scalp = Drum

  15. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.11.023 Extracts of impact breccia samples from Sudbury, Gardnos, and Ries impact craters and

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    impact craters and the effects of aggregation on C60 detection JAMIE E. ELSILA,1 NATHALIE P. DE LEON,1 FIONA L. PLOWS,2 PETER R. BUSECK,3 and RICHARD N. ZARE 1, * 1 Department of Chemistry, Stanford., 1996; Heymann, 1997; Becker et al., 2000; Taylor and Abdul-Sada, 2000; Becker et al., 2001

  16. Crop rotation and tillage effects on a thermic ustalf on the Southern High Plains of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable research has indicated that changing from plow tillage to no-, minimum- or conservation-tillage will, for many soils, result in improved soil physical, chemical, and biochemical quality. Recently however, some researchers have reported that for sandy soils in warm temperature regimes, ...

  17. Effect of deep vs. shallow tillage on onion stunting and onion bulb yield, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted at a site inoculated with R. solani AG 8 at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, OR to determine the effect of plowing (deep tillage) vs. rototilling (shallow tillage) on onion stunting caused by R. solani AG ...

  18. 26 CFR 20.2032A-3 - Material participation requirements for valuation of certain farm and closely-held business real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...materially participated in the tree farm operation. During the...had been reforested and the trees were in the beginning stages...making important management decisions, such as where and whether...to be plowed around the new trees, and whether boundary...

  19. 26 CFR 20.2032A-3 - Material participation requirements for valuation of certain farm and closely-held business real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...materially participated in the tree farm operation. During the...had been reforested and the trees were in the beginning stages...making important management decisions, such as where and whether...to be plowed around the new trees, and whether boundary...

  20. 26 CFR 20.2032A-3 - Material participation requirements for valuation of certain farm and closely-held business real...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...materially participated in the tree farm operation. During the...had been reforested and the trees were in the beginning stages...making important management decisions, such as where and whether...to be plowed around the new trees, and whether boundary...

  1. Nitrogen fertilizer effects on irrigated conventional tillage corn yields and soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional plow tillage (CT) is a common soil management practice under irrigated continuous corn (Zea mays L.) in the semiarid central Great Plains that requires a relatively high nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate to optimize grain yield and economic returns. This study investigated how four rates of ...

  2. Online Submission ID: vis-1177 Analyzing Terrain Surfaces to Synthesize and Visualize

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Mike

    to analyze a farm field represented by a topologically organized neural network characterized by a shunting-Coverage Tractor Paths for Conservation Farming Category: Research Abstract-- There are competing economic goals when plowing a farm field. The rows must be level, to reduce erosion. The rows should also perfectly

  3. 75 FR 44047 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... runway 1/19 and runway safety area, phase I. Snow removal equipment. Crack seal and repair. Rehabilitate... Projects Approved for Collection and Use: Snow removal equipment--runway sweeper. Snow removal equipment--runway plow. Airfield friction tester. Snow removal equipment--airfield snow blower. PFC application...

  4. Where does Strip Tillage Fit in Montana and Wyoming Sugarbeet Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet in Montana and Wyoming is often grown in a two year rotation alternating with spring grains. Normally, a sugarbeet grower will make five or more passes across a field for fertilizer application, disking, plowing or ripping, leveling, mulching and hilling. The high price of diesel fuel is m...

  5. REACTIONS OF FUEL NITROGEN COMPOUNDS UNDER CONDITIONS OF INERT PYROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the pyrolysis of fossil fuels and model nitrogen compounds in helium in a small quartz plow reactor, as part of a study of the chemical mechanisms involved in the conversion of fuel-nitrogen compounds to nitric oxide (NO) during combustion. Hydrogen cyanide (H...

  6. 75 FR 13340 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... reorientation--design. Concourse D restroom renovation--design. Gate D52 design and construction. Cargo deicer... for snow plows--design. Acquire snow removal equipment. Cargo ramp gate 3D. Decision Date: December 31..., 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bill Bell, Arkansas/Oklahoma Airports Development Office,...

  7. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPERVARIABLE DOMAINS OF THE 16S RRNA GENES FOR THEIR VALUE IN DETERMINING MICROBIAL COMMUNITY DIVERSITY: THE PARADOX OF TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL INDICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amplicon length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR) was investigated for its ability to distinguish between microbial community patterns from the same soil type under different land management practices. Natural sagebrush (NSB) and irrigated moldboard plowed (IMP) soils from Idaho were queried as to which h...

  8. ARSENIC TRANSPORT ACROSS THE GROUNDWATER – SURFACE WATER INTERFACE AT A SITE IN CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plow Shop Pond, located in central Massachusetts within the New England ‘arsenic belt,’ receives water from a series of interconnected upstream ponds as well as from upward-discharging groundwater. A small, shallow embayment on the southwest side of the pond is known as Red Cove...

  9. Nudging toward Inquiry: Awakening and Building upon Prior Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    "Prior knowledge" (sometimes called schema or background knowledge) is information one already knows that helps him/her make sense of new information. New learning builds on existing prior knowledge. In traditional reporting-style research projects, students bypass this crucial step and plow right into answer-finding. It's no wonder that many…

  10. Principal Paper Sessions Cultivating Ecosystem Services from Agriculture (Scott M. Swinton, Michigan

    E-print Network

    Landis, Doug

    SUSPECTS SCOTT M. SWINTON, FRANK LUPI, G. PHILIP ROBERTSON, AND DOUGLAS A. LANDIS The concept of ecosystem. Douglas Landis is profes- sor, Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 In the midst of a century marked by the westward expansion of the plow across North America, George Perkins

  11. LONG-TERM CORN RESIDUE EFFECTS: HARVEST ALTERNATIVES, SOIL CARBON TURNOVER AND ROOT-DERIVED CARBON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of carbon (C) turnover, with estimates of root-derived C, is needed to manage soil C sequestration. Stover and fertilizer treatments (in a 2 X 2 factorial) and a control were imposed on 29 yr of continuous corn (Zea mays L.) with moldboard plow tillage with silage (stover) rem...

  12. Changing Agricultural Education to Meet Needs of Emerging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rick; Brase, Terry; Dewsnup, Mel; Anderson, Mandi; Collins, Ashley; Klopp, Deborah; Johnson, Brian; Feldmann, Holly

    2009-01-01

    With less than 2% of Americans involved in traditional production agriculture (cows, plows, and sows), agricultural programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels must change to address the workforce of the future. AgrowKnowledge works at the national level to provide tools for changing agriculture, food, and natural resource educational…

  13. 77 FR 55645 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... typically travel at speeds of up to 19.5 kn (36.1 km/hr). When approaching the vicinity of the DWP (i.e.... Please see Figure 1-1 in Port Dolphin's application for a conceptual diagram of the DWP. Offshore... application for a conceptual diagram of this process). In areas that cannot be plowed (e.g., due to...

  14. A Science Service Feature-Released upon receipt but intended f o r use

    E-print Network

    A Science Service Feature-Released upon receipt but intended f o r use July 17, 1934 ? WHY THE V the highxay:: it has been necessary t o use snow-plows, graders and other equipment for removal.l! (A11 rights reserved by Science Service, Inc.) SCIENCE SERVICE 21st and Constitution Rve. mashington, D.C. #12;

  15. Challenges and Strategies Related to Hearing Loss among Dairy Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass-Slavin, Louise; McColl, Mary Ann; Pickett, William

    2005-01-01

    Context: Farming is often imagined to be a serene and idyllic business based on historical images of a man, a horse, and a plow. However, machinery and equipment on farms, such as older tractors, grain dryers, and vacuum pumps, can have noise levels, which may be dangerous to hearing with prolonged, unprotected exposure. Purpose: This qualitative…

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...has been used for severe duty (trailer towing for passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4. The vehicle has a...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...has been used for severe duty (trailer towing for passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4. The vehicle has a...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...has been used for severe duty (trailer towing for passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4. The vehicle has a...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...has been used for severe duty (trailer towing for passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4. The vehicle has a...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...has been used for severe duty (trailer towing for passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4. The vehicle has a...

  1. The Navajo Agricultural Projects Industry: Subsistence Farming to Corporate Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Originally designed to create small farms for individual Navajos, the irrigation project has grown into a single 110,000-acre corporate agribusiness, the land's management has fallen out of the grasp of individual Navajos, and the idea of subsistence farming has been plowed under for the planting of major money-making crops. (NQ)

  2. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    E-print Network

    Sinha, Tushar

    the plow." Early stewards of freshwater resources--like John Wesley Powell-- warned that the American WestReclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert John L. Saboa,1 , Tushar Sinhaa,2 , Laura C. Bowlingb , Gerrit H. W. Schoupsc , Wesley W. Wallenderd,e , Michael E. Campanaf , Keith A

  3. Selecting Tasks for Evaluating Human Performance as a Function of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J. R.; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge in understanding human performance as a function of gravity is determining which tasks to research. Initial studies began with treadmill walking, which was easy to quantify and control. However, with the development of pressurized rovers, it is less important to optimize human performance for ambulation as rovers will likely perform gross translation for them. Future crews are likely to spend much of their extravehicular activity (EVA) performing geology, construction and maintenance type tasks, for which it is difficult to measure steady-state-workloads. To evaluate human performance in reduced gravity, we have collected metabolic, biomechanical and subjective data for different tasks at varied gravity levels. Methods: Ten subjects completed 5 different tasks including weight transfer, shoveling, treadmill walking, treadmill running and treadmill incline walking. All tasks were performed shirt-sleeved at 1-g, 3/8-g and 1/6-g. Off-loaded conditions were achieved via the Active Response Gravity Offload System. Treadmill tasks were performed for 3 minutes with reported oxygen consumption (VO2) averaged over the last 2 minutes. Shoveling was performed for 3 minutes with metabolic cost reported as ml O2 consumed per kg material shoveled. Weight transfer reports metabolic cost as liters O2 consumed to complete the task. Statistical analysis was performed via repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Statistically significant metabolic differences were noted between all 3 gravity levels for treadmill running and incline walking. For the other 3 tasks, there were significant differences between 1-g and each reduced gravity, but not between 1/6-g and 3/8-g. For weight transfer, significant differences were seen between gravities in both trial-average VO2 and time-to-completion with noted differences in strategy for task completion. Conclusion: To determine if gravity has a metabolic effect on human performance, this research may indicate that tasks should be selected that require the subject to work vertically against the force of gravity.

  4. Technology and methods of making decorated balusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauinsh, D.; Selivanova, A.

    2015-10-01

    Woodworking companies looking for a simple solution to simplify and speed up the whole process of making a carved balusters. Tech solution is the replacement of threaded elements solid wood balusters on plastic threaded overhead items secured by adhesive to the surface of the workpiece chiseled. This solution allows to reduce the cost of manufacturing carved balusters, without resorting to a woodcarver and using expensive equipment. Through further improvements, such as painting, patina, it turns out a product that is difficult to distinguish from solid carved balusters.

  5. Ultrasonic/Sonic Jackhammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Herz, Jack

    2005-01-01

    An ultrasonic/sonic jackhammer (USJ) is the latest in a series of related devices. Each of these devices cuts into a brittle material by means of hammering and chiseling actions of a tool bit excited with a combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations. A small-scale prototype of the USJ has been demonstrated. A fully developed, full-scale version of the USJ would be used for cutting through concrete, rocks, hard asphalt, and other materials to which conventional pneumatic jackhammers are applied, but the USJ would offer several advantages over conventional pneumatic jackhammers.

  6. Vertical ridge augmentation of the atrophic posterior mandible with a 2-stage inlay technique: a case report.

    PubMed

    Felice, Pietro; Piana, Laura; Checchi, Luigi; Pistilli, Roberto; Pellegrino, Gerardo

    2012-06-01

    The use of a 2-stage inlay technique in atrophic posterior mandibles with more than 10-mm thickness and less than 5-mm height above the inferior alveolar nerve is described. The first surgical procedure was a basic corticotomy of the buccal and lingual bone. One month later, a complete inlay procedure was performed. Computed tomography and conventional radiography showed a mean vertical bone gain of 11.5 mm. This 2-stage inlay technique avoids the use of chisels to complete bone osteotomy and reduces postsurgical nerve disturbances in atrophic posterior mandibles. This technique reduces intraprocedure and postoperative patient discomfort. PMID:22584421

  7. Modified lingual split technique for extraction of impacted mandibular third molars.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J E

    1980-08-01

    Critical evaluation of existing chisel and bur techniques for removal of impacted mandibular third molars reveals a high incidence of complications. Both approaches require creation of a buccal defect immediately distal to the second molar for the insertion of an elevator, which may cause pocketing to occur postoperatively. The method described here minimizes periosteal reflection, almost completely avoids loss of bone, and effectively reduces the use of rotary instrumentation. The planning of the soft tissue flaps and bony cuts assists in primary wound closure, obliteration of dead space, and reduction of postoperative morbidity. PMID:6930459

  8. A study of hand vibration on chipping and grinding operators, part I: Vibration acceleration levels measured on pneumatic tools used in chipping and grinding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. D.; Basel, R.; Wasserman, D. E.; Taylor, W.

    1984-08-01

    This paper describes the acceleration measurements and data analysis aspect of a comprehensive multidisciplined field study of several hundred chipper and grinder workers using pneumatic hand-held tools. Engineering testing of a sampling of these tools indicated that for a frequency range of 6·3 Hz to 1000 Hz, overall acceleration levels between 2000 m/s 2 and 24 000 m/s 2 were measured on the chisels and levels between 37 m/s 2 and 350 m/s 2 were measured on the handles of chipping hammers. Hand grinder acceleration levels ranged from 6 m/s 2 to 21 m/s 2.

  9. An Archaeological Survey of the Proposed A-15 Pipeline in Central Jasper County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-23

    of the pipeline is on the slopes of these hills. The field survey crew viewed the slopes as low probability areas for prehistoric sites. The field survey crew walked the entir e route excavating shovel tests along the way. Since the project area does... documented by professional studies such as those at McGee Bend. The field survey followed a route that passed through thick woods along the slopes of hills and an area that has been extensively disturbed through logging activities. At the west end...

  10. An Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Vastar A-109 Pipeline Western Jasper County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-25

    . The projected depth along the pipeline route is four feet. The tract to be surveyed parallels traverses uplands through a recently clear-cut pine forest and a small segment of hardwood bottomland. The terrain along the route is hilly with elevations ranging... and a surface inspection of exposed areas. The field survey crew walked the entire route excavating shovel tests along the way. Since the project area does not exceed 30 feet (9.15 meters) in width, parallel survey transects were not necessary...

  11. An Archaeological Survey for the Vidor Pipeline Project in Jefferson and Orange Counties Texas 

    E-print Network

    moore, William

    2015-07-28

    inspection of all exposed areas due to erosion and or human disturbance. On the high ground above the river, a larger area was examined because the crew was told that the route of the pipeline may deviate from what is depicted in this report... and filled during installation of the existing pipelines to the south plus others that converge from another right-of-way, the area was shovel tested because of its proximity to Anderson Gully to the south. In all, 10 tests were excavated. They were dug...

  12. The Nature and Extent of Indian Agriculture in North America

    E-print Network

    Dodge, Faye

    1911-05-01

    savages on a leve l with the Chinese, Japanese and other nations which are per fect ly c i v i l i z ed , but only to put them above the condition of beasts, to which the opinion of some has reduced them, to give them rank among men and to show... of corn which they had previously selected, culled and soaked for several days in water. And every year they thus planted corn in the same spots and places which they renovated with their small wood- en shovels. 1 1 In V i r g in i a , The Indian tr ibe...

  13. Texas Rice, Volume IV, Number 3 

    E-print Network

    2004-01-01

    of their childhood, when on stress-free afternoons, they would cast hopeful hooks into lively waters or draw a bead on a fast-moving duck. The Mintons - Davis, his father, Keith, mother, Betty, and brother, Bradley - began their quest to cre- ate a mitigation bank... re- members, although shovelers, blue-wing teal, a few pairs of nesting mallards, Canada geese and bald eagles inhabit the area already. “What you see is the first step in the reclamation of the landscape back to what it originally was - a cypress...

  14. Geologic data for blasting at the Minntac Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Eloranta, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is a case study showing the assembly of available rock property parameters for the purpose of blast design. Blast optimization now includes subsequent milling and requires a full knowledge of the rock mass. Individual blast holes should be designed using all available data. The parameters include: geologic layer from diamond drilling, shovel performance, crushing plant experience from that area, drill monitoring, magnetic susceptibility from a downhole probe, size analysis history from digital image analysis, compressive strength tests of problem areas and cross hole sonic testing. Bedding thickness observed from drill core appear to have a strong influence on fragmentation.

  15. LBNL Computational Research & Theory Facility Groundbreaking - Full Press Conference. Feb 1st, 2012

    ScienceCinema

    Yelick, Kathy

    2013-05-29

    Energy Secretary Steven Chu, along with Berkeley Lab and UC leaders, broke ground on the Lab's Computational Research and Theory (CRT) facility yesterday. The CRT will be at the forefront of high-performance supercomputing research and be DOE's most efficient facility of its kind. Joining Secretary Chu as speakers were Lab Director Paul Alivisatos, UC President Mark Yudof, Office of Science Director Bill Brinkman, and UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgeneau. The festivities were emceed by Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences, Kathy Yelick, and Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates joined in the shovel ceremony.

  16. LBNL Computational Research and Theory Facility Groundbreaking. February 1st, 2012

    ScienceCinema

    Yelick, Kathy

    2013-05-29

    Energy Secretary Steven Chu, along with Berkeley Lab and UC leaders, broke ground on the Lab's Computational Research and Theory (CRT) facility yesterday. The CRT will be at the forefront of high-performance supercomputing research and be DOE's most efficient facility of its kind. Joining Secretary Chu as speakers were Lab Director Paul Alivisatos, UC President Mark Yudof, Office of Science Director Bill Brinkman, and UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgeneau. The festivities were emceed by Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences, Kathy Yelick, and Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates joined in the shovel ceremony.

  17. NASA Shared Services Center breaks ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA officials and elected leaders were on hand for the groundbreaking ceremony of the NASA Shared Services Center Feb. 24, 2006, on the grounds of Stennis Space Center. The NSSC provides agency centralized administrative processing, human resources, procurement and financial services. From left, Louisiana Economic Development Secretary Mike Olivier, Stennis Space Center Director Rick Gilbrech, Computer Sciences Corp. President Michael Laphen, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Rep. Gene Taylor, Sen. Trent Lott, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Shared Services Center Executive Director Arbuthnot use golden shovels to break ground at the site.

  18. An Archaeological Survey for the Coleman County Special Utility District Phase 7 Water Line Project in Coleman County Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-07-30

    to the Frio series that consists of calcareous, nearly level soils on the floodplains of streams. In a representative profile, the surface layer is clay loam that is dark grayish-brown in the upper 12 inches and brown in the lower 14 inches. Below this... dug on the east bank, which is the floodplain side of the creek. The depth of these tests varied from 30 cm to 100 cm, and they were 50 cm in diameter. The soil was not screened due to the presence of firm clay at Shovel Test 1 and creek gravels...

  19. The influence of complex compost on the aggregate composition and water and air properties of an ordinary chernozem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyuchenko, I. S.; Antonenko, D. A.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of complex compost composed of the waste products of the agriculture (semi-rotted cattle manure and plant residues) and chemical industries (phosphogypsum) on the agrophysical properties of an ordinary chernozem (Haplic Chernozem) was studied in the western Ciscaucasian region. In the field experiment, the compost was applied to the plow layer (0-20 cm) in 2007. In five years, the content of agronomically valuable aggregates increased by 7-9%, and their water stability became higher. This resulted in a better aggregation of the plow layer; its bulk density decreased by about 0.1 g/cm3 in comparison with the control plot treated with mineral fertilizers according to traditional technology. The water and air properties of the soil were optimized, which was seen from an increase in the field and total water capacity, total porosity, and soil water storage.

  20. Effect of the historical land use on the structure of forest soils in European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovskii, M. V.

    2010-12-01

    The morphological structure of the soils in the forest areas of European Russia was analyzed. It was shown that most of the soils were formed under the impact of both biotic and anthropogenic factors. Soils with poorly differentiated profiles without podzolization features are typical for the least disturbed forest ecosystems. The presence of an eluvial (EL) horizon is associated with the signs of old plowing and (or) fires. The character and rate of the soil cover transformation under various impacts of the historical land use (felling, plowing, pasturing, burning, etc.) are discussed. The technologies of the main traditional farming systems in the forest zone of European Russia (slash-and-burn, fallow, and shifting farming systems) are considered; their effect on the long-term dynamics of the soil cover is estimated. Farming and the related impacts of historical land use can be a major reason for the formation of degraded soils in the forest zone of European Russia.

  1. The study of preferential water flows and convective heat transfer using the method of temperature labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umarova, A. B.; Samoilov, O. A.

    2011-06-01

    The proposed method of temperature labeling makes it possible to study the convective heat transfer by fast water flows. A filtration experiment on the transfer of heated moisture in the plow layer of a light loamy soddy-podzolic soil of Moscow region has been performed. The high unevenness of the front of the water migration in the experiment is related to the spatial distribution of the major pores and leads to sharp changes in the soil temperature. Temperature measurements in large lysimeters of Moscow State University filled with soddy-podzolic soils indicate that there are short periods of rapid changes in the soil temperature during the snowmelt season and upon heavy showers. These changes are related to intense gravitational water flows. In the soils with a distinct blocky structure of the upper horizon, the convective transfer of heat is better expressed than that in the soils with a crumb or granular structure of the plow layer.

  2. Habitat use by Swainson's Hawks on their austral winter grounds in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canavelli, Sonia B.; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, B.; Kochert, Michael N.; Maceda, Juan J.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the use of agricultural habitats by Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni)in La Pampa and Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. We found an association of foraging Swainson's Hawks with permanent pastures such as fallow, natural, and alfalfa fields. The hawks also used plowed fields for sunning, resting, and preening. Fields planted with annual crops and pastures were used very little, except when they were cut for hay, plowed, and harvested, or when low crop height and cover allowed the hawks to land in fields. The availability of abundant, yet widely-spaced and transient food-sources, such as insect outbreaks, appeared to be the principal factor influencing habitat use by the hawks. Their reliance on agricultural habitats makes Swainson's Hawks highly vulnerable to pesticide contamination and has contributed to the occurrence of significant mortality events on their wintering grounds.

  3. Friction and wear behavior of single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single crystal silicon carbide in sliding contact with titanium. Results indicate that the friction coefficient is greater in vacuum than in argon and that this is due to the greater adhesion or adhesive transfer in vacuum. Thin films of silicon carbide transferred to titanium also adhered to silicon carbide both in argon at atmospheric pressure and in high vacuum. Cohesive bonds fractured on both the silicon carbide and titanium surfaces. The wear debris of silicon carbide created by fracture plowed the silicon carbide surface in a plastic manner. The friction characteristics of titanium in contact with silicon carbide were sensitive to the surface roughness of silicon carbide, and the friction coefficients were higher for a rough surface of silicon carbide than for a smooth one. The difference in friction results was due to plastic deformation (plowing of titanium).

  4. Depth profile study of Ti implanted Si at very high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olea, J.; Pastor, D.; Toledano-Luque, M.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.

    2011-09-01

    A detailed study on the resulting impurity profile in Si samples implanted with high doses of Ti and subsequently annealed by pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is reported. Two different effects are shown to rule the impurity profile redistribution during the annealing. During the melting stage, the thickness of the implanted layer increases while the maximum peak concentration decreases (box-shaped effect). On the contrary, during the solidifying stage, the thickness of the layer decreases and the maximum peak concentration increases (snow-plow effect). Both effects are more pronounced as the energy density of the annealing increases. Moreover, as a direct consequence of the snow-plow effect, part of the impurities is expelled from the sample through the surface.

  5. Waiting for Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamson-Nussbaum, Jorie

    2013-01-01

    The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the Rum…

  6. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  7. Legumes for Soil Improvement for Cotton and Corn. 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, E. B.; Rea, H. E.; Whitney, Eli; Rich, P. A.; Roberts, J. E.

    1958-01-01

    College Station; and Substation No. 6, Denton, to develop more practi- cal systems of managing legumes for soil im- provement, Hairy vetch, Willamette vetch and Dixie Wonder peas as winter green-manure crops be- tween annual corn corps produced only... on the corn yield. There was no differential response of plant spacing to irrigation, Irrigation produced a marked increase in the yield of corn in 1954. Plowing under Hairy vetch, Willamette vetch, Dixie Wonder peas, Austrian Winter peas and Singletary...

  8. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.; Lewis, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    The use of satellite data from the ERTS-1 satellite for mapping the cotton acreage in the southern deserts of California is discussed. The differences between a growing, a defoliated, and a plowed down field can be identified using an optical color combiner. The specific application of the land use maps is to control the spread of the pink bollworms by establishing planting and plowdown dates.

  9. Control and Management of Mesquite on Rangeland. 

    E-print Network

    Hoffman, Garlyn O.

    1981-01-01

    for mesquite control include hand grubbing, use of rolling choppers, root cutters, anchor chains, bulldozers, stackers, shredders, rakes, tree or stinger dozers, root plows or specialized adaptations of these methods. Mechani cal treatments should... be applied when conditions are such that existing grassland forage plants can make the fastest recovery and obtain the highest degree of mesquite reduction. Seeding with adapted, high producing forage grasses to achieve fast range re covery is necessary...

  10. Surface Roughness Parameter Uncertainties on Radar Based Soil Moisture Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, A. T.; vanderVelde, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Lang, R.; Su, Z.; Gish, T.

    2012-01-01

    Surface roughness variations are often assumed to be negligible for the retrieval of sol moisture. Although previous investigations have suggested that this assumption is reasonable for natural vegetation covers (i.e. Moran et al. 2002), in-situ measurements over plowed agricultural fields (i.e. Callens et al. 2006) have shown that the soil surface roughness can change considerably due to weathering induced by rain.

  11. ERIP invention 637. Technical progress report 2nd quarter, April 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1997-07-22

    This technical report describes progress in the development of the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus. Prototype testing is reported, and includes the addition of precision tillage. Disease data, organic matter, and nitrogen levels results are very briefly described. Progress in marketing is also reported. Current marketing issues include test use by cotton and wheat growers, establishment of dealer relationships, incorporation of design modifications, expansion of marketing activities, and expansion of loan and lease program.

  12. Application of water jet assisted drag bit and pick cutter for the cutting of coal measure rocks. Final technical report. [Tests of combination in different rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ropchan, D.; Wang, F.D.; Wolgamott, J.

    1980-04-01

    A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of high pressure water jets on the cutting forces of drag bit cutters in sedimentary rocks. A hard and soft sandstone, shale and limestone were tested with commercially obtainable conical and plow type drag bits on the EMI linear cutting machine. About 1200 cuts were made at different bit penetration, jet orientation, and water pressure to determine the reduction of cutting forces on the bit from the use of the water jet. Both independent and interactive cutting was used. The greatest reduction in cutting forces were with both of the sandstones; the drag forces were reduced about 30 percent and the normal forces about 60 percent at 5000 psi water pressure with the nozzle behind the bit. The method was less effective in the shale, except at 10,000 psi water pressure the reduction in drag force was about 55 percent. Of the rocks tested, the limestone was least affected by the water jet. The cutting forces for the plow bit showed continuous change with wear so a machined conical bit was used for most of the testing. Tests with the plow bit did show a large reduction in cutting forces by using the water jet with worn bits. An economic analysis of equipping a drag bit tunnel boring machine indicated that the water jet system could reduce costs per foot in sandstone by up to 40 percent.

  13. Changes in the status of harvested rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California: Implications for wintering waterfowl.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.; Garr, Jay D.; Coates, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Harvested rice fields provide critical foraging habitat for wintering waterfowl in North America, but their value depends upon post-harvest treatments. We visited harvested ricefields in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winters of 2007 and 2008 (recent period) and recorded their observed status as harvested (standing or mechanically modified stubble), burned, plowed, or flooded. We compared these data with those from identical studies conducted during the 1980s (early period). We documented substantial changes in field status between periods. First, the area of flooded rice increased 4-5-fold, from about 15% to >40% of fields, because of a 3-4-fold increase in the percentage of fields flooded coupled with a 37-41% increase in the area of rice produced. Concurrently, the area of plowed fields increased from 35% of fields, burned fields declined from about 40% to 1%, and fields categorized as harvested declined from 22-54% to <15%. The increased flooding has likely increased access to food resources for wintering waterfowl, but this benefit may not be available to some goose species, and may be at least partially countered by the increase of plowed fields, especially those left dry, and the decrease of fields left as harvested.We encourage waterfowl managers to implement a rice field status survey in the Sacramento Valley and other North American rice growing regions as appropriate to support long-term monitoring programs and wetland habitat conservation planning for wintering waterfowl.

  14. [A paratibial fasciotomy technic in chronic venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Horný, J

    1996-01-01

    From extensive paratibial fasciectomies on account of crural ulcers W. Hach changed to subcutaneous fasciotomy from an incision 30 to 40 mm long with digital severing of the perforating veins. Its main effect is the creation of wide communication between the subfascial and suprafascial space. The subcutaneous tissue affected with lipodermatosclerosis rest on muscles well supplied with blood which can improve the trophics of surface tissues. The reduction of the surgical approach to 10 mm calls for special instruments. Instruments designed by the author proved useful. The author operated eight patients with advanced varicosis of the saphena maior with incompetence of two to three Cockett veins and with developed lipodermatosclerosis. After stripping of the saphena maior the smaller varicosities were extracted by dented strippers, haemostasis was ensured by tamponade by means of an applicator. Cockett's veins were interrupted in the subfascial layer from a paratibial incision in the middle of the leg by means of a 10 mm L-shaped chisel and straight chisel. This was followed by prolongation of fasciotomy by means of a fasciotome to the inner ankle. The postoperative course was devoid of complications with minimal pain, the cosmetic effect was excellent. PMID:8768957

  15. Effects of Application Methods and Plastic Covers on Distribution of Cis- and Trans-1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin in Root Zone

    PubMed Central

    Ou, L.-T.; Thomas, J. E.; Allen, L. H.; McCormack, L. A.; Vu, J. C.; Dickson, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three application methods (chisel injection, Avenger coulter injection, and drip irrigation) and two plastic films (polyethylene film [PE] and virtually impermeable film [VIF]) on distribution of cis- and trans- 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in a Florida sandy soil after application of Telone C35 or Telone In-Line. Regardless of application method, VIF retained greater amounts of cis- and trans-1,3-D and CP in the root zone with longer residential time than PE. There was better retention of the three compounds in the root zone when applied with the Avenger coulter injection rig than chisel injection, especially in combination with VIF. Distribution of the three compounds in the root zone was less predictable when applied by drip irrigation. Following drip irrigation, more than 50% of the three compounds in the PE and VIF-covered beds was found near the end of the drip tapes in one experiment, whereas the distribution was much more uniform in the root zone in a second experiment. Among the three biologically active compounds, CP disappeared from the root zone more rapidly than cis- and trans-1,3-D, especially in the PE-covered beds. PMID:19262895

  16. Powder-Collection System for Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Blake, David; Bryson, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A system for collecting samples of powdered rock has been devised for use in conjunction with an ultrasonic/sonic drill/corer (USDC) -- a lightweight, lowpower apparatus designed to cut into, and acquire samples of, rock or other hard material for scientific analysis. The USDC includes a drill bit, corer, or other tool bit, in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are excited by an electronically driven piezoelectric actuator. The USDC advances into the rock or other material of interest by means of a hammering action and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, a negligible amount of axial force is needed to make the USDC advance into the material. Also unlike a conventional twist drill, the USDC operates without need for torsional restraint, lubricant, or a sharp bit. The USDC generates powder as a byproduct of the drilling or coring process. The purpose served by the present samplecollection system is to remove the powder from the tool-bit/rock interface and deliver the powder to one or more designated location(s) for analysis or storage

  17. EDARV370A associated facial characteristics in Uyghur population revealing further pleiotropic effects.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qianqian; Li, Jinxi; Tan, Jingze; Yang, Yajun; Zhang, Manfei; Wu, Sijie; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Juan; Qin, Pengfei; Guan, Yaqun; Jiao, Yi; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Sabeti, Pardis C; Tang, Kun; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Wang, Sijia

    2016-01-01

    An adaptive variant of human Ectodysplasin receptor, EDARV370A, had undergone strong positive selection in East Asia. In mice and humans, EDARV370A was found to affect ectodermal-derived characteristics, including hair thickness, hair shape, active sweat gland density and teeth formation. Facial characteristics are also largely ectodermal derived. In this study, taking advantage of an admixed population of East Asian and European ancestry-the Uyghur, we aim to test whether EDARV370A is affecting facial characteristics and to investigate its pleiotropic nature and genetic model. In a sample of 1027 Uyghurs, we discover that EDARV370A is significantly associated with several facial characteristics, in particular shape of earlobe (P = 3.64 × 10 (-6) ) and type of chin (P = 9.23 × 10 (-5) ), with successful replication in other East Asian populations. Additionally, in this Uyghur population, we replicate previous association findings of incisors shoveling (P = 1.02 × 10 (-7) ), double incisors shoveling (P = 1.86 × 10 (-12) ) and hair straightness (P = 3.99 × 10 (-16) ), providing strong evidence supporting an additive model for the EDARV370A associations. Partial least square path model confirms EDARV370A systematically affect these weakly related ectodermal-derived characteristics, suggesting the pleiotropic effect of EDARV370A mainly plays roles in early embryo development. This study extends our knowledge about the pleiotropic nature of EDARV370A and provides potential clues to its adaptation fitness in human evolution. PMID:26603699

  18. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  19. Slickenside formation by surface melting during the mechanical excavation of rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spray, John G.

    This work discusses the nature and origin of slickensides generated by the impingement of high-carbon steel teeth on sandstone during the mechanical excavation of boulders by back shovel and front loader. The slickensides show a number of morphological features that can be related to the direction and sense of tooth displacement, including striations, carrot-shaped grooves, curved fractures and steps. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the slickensides comprise a layer of Fe-enriched, glass-bonded gouge (?150 ?m thick). The estimated shear stresses and velocities realized at the tooth-rock interface (175 MPa at 1 m s -1 for the back shovel and 100 MPa at 2 m s -1 for the front loader) indicate that a heat production of 150-200 MW m -2 and mean surface temperature of 1400-1700°C were achieved. XRF and microprobe analyses confirm that localized bulk melting and Fe-enrichment of the surface occurred during slip. The excavator-generated slickensides provide an analogue for the effects of a single co-seismic event in the evolution of a shallow, relatively dry fault surface. From a simple consideration of energetics under these conditions, it is apparent that localized surface melting should be commonplace. Such an analogue may be useful as a guide for recognizing melt features in natural slickensides, features that would otherwise tend to be obscured during lengthier periods of interseismic surface modification.

  20. A new marine reptile from the Triassic of China, with a highly specialized feeding adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Long; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Shang, Qing-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The Luoping fauna (Anisian, Middle Triassic) is probably the oldest of Triassic faunas in Guizhou-Yunnan area, China. The reptilian assemblage is comprised of ichthyosaurs, a number of sauropterygians (pachypleurosaur-like forms), saurosphargids, protorosaurs, and archosauriforms. Here, we report on a peculiar reptile, newly found in this fauna. Its dentition is fence or comb-like and bears more than 175 pleurodont teeth in each ramus of the upper and lower jaws, tooth crown is needle-like distally and blade-shaped proximally; its rostrum strongly bends downward and the anterior end of its mandible expands both dorsally and ventrally to form a shovel-headed structure; and its ungual phalanges are hoof-shaped. The specializations of the jaws and dentition indicate that the reptile may have been adapted to a way of bottom-filter feeding in water. It is obvious that such delicate teeth are not strong enough to catch prey, but were probably used as a barrier to filter microorganisms or benthic invertebrates such as sea worms. These were collected by the specialized jaws, which may have functioned as a shovel or pushdozer (the mandible) and a grasper or scratcher (the rostrum). Our preliminary analysis suggests that the new reptile might be more closely related to the Sauropterygia than to other marine reptiles.

  1. History of reclamation: the times - they are a changin'

    SciTech Connect

    Cardwell, S.P.; Sanz, L.O.

    1985-12-09

    Surface mining in Kentucky and the US has risen from rather sporadic beginnings in the late 1800's to a full fledged, heavily regulated industry in the 1980's. The industry has undergone a more traumatic regulatory metamorphosis in the past twenty-five years than any other single industry in the US. Reclamation requirements have gone from supplying a simple mine registration with the appropriate agency immediately prior to beginning operations to spending as much as 18-24 months collecting data for what amounts to a mini-environmental impact statement which must be submitted as part of a lengthy application several months prior to actual start-up of the operation itself. Increasingly stringent laws have been the result of two main forces: (1) Increasing citizen concern to save the environment and (2) Increasingly efficient technology which can both mine more coal (and as a result disturb more ground). This paper will follow the evolution of the coal mining and reclamation industry, from its beginning in the late nineteenth century when surface mining was conducted with a pick-and-shovel and a mule-drawn scraper to the present day, when a 100 cu.yd. stripping shovel is almost commonplace. Particular attention will be given to the relationship between the evolving technology and the increasingly stringent laws. 33 references.

  2. The effects of body properties on sand-swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Koehler, Stephan; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Numerous animals locomote effectively within sand, yet few studies have investigated how body properties and kinematics contribute to subsurface performance. We compare the movement strategies of two desert dwelling subsurface sand-swimmers exhibiting disparate body forms: the long-slender limbless shovel-nosed snake (C. occipitalis) and the relatively shorter sandfish lizard (S. scincus). Both animals ``swim'' subsurface using a head-to-tail propagating wave of body curvature. We use a previously developed granular resistive force theory to successfully predict locomotion of performance of both animals; the agreement with theory implies that both animal's swim within a self-generated frictional fluid. We use theory to show that the snake's shape (body length to body radius ratio), low friction and undulatory gait are close to optimal for sand-swimming. In contrast, we find that the sandfish's shape and higher friction are farther from optimal and prevent the sandfish from achieving the same performance as the shovel-nosed snake during sand-swimming. However, the sandfish's kinematics allows it to operate at the highest performance possible given its body properties. NSF PoLS

  3. Quantification of forces required for stabbing with screwdrivers and other blunter instruments.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Kiran; Hainsworth, Sarah Victoria; Rutty, Guy Nathan

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, stabbing is the most common cause of homicide. The weapons used include knives, swords, screwdrivers and glass shards. Quantifying the exact force used in a stabbing incident is considered to be a difficult area due to the large number of variables present, such as sharpness of weapon, angle of attack and relative movements of the people involved. Having quantifiable data would allow a forensic pathologist to make a more informed decision when it comes to answering the commonly posed question in court "what was the degree of force involved in the stabbing incident?" The answer to this question is considered significant in determining an alleged assailant's intent to cause harm. This paper presents results of the first detailed study relating geometry of screwdrivers to the forces required for penetration. Additionally, a range of other blunt weapons such as pens and chisels have also been studied. A silicone rubber-foam analogue has been used as the main skin simulant owing to it having similar mechanical properties to that of human skin and giving highly repeatable results. Different screwdrivers of varying shape and size have been tested (i.e. slotted, Phillips, posidriv and Torx), along with other implements including chisels and pens. The weapon geometry was characterised and related to the peak force required for penetration. Our results show that there is a direct correlation between the cross-sectional area of a screwdriver head and the amount of force required for penetration. Screwdrivers with larger cross-sectional areas require a significantly greater force to penetrate (forces in the region of 100-120 N) but "sharper" slotted screwdrivers penetrate with much lower forces (~30 N). The forces required for penetrating the rubber-foam analogue with screwdrivers are higher than for "sharp" knives, but in some cases similar to the forces required for stabbing with "blunt" knives. For the other weapons such as chisels and biros, the force required for penetration was again high and there was found to be a good relationship between area of the implement making contact and penetration force. PMID:21465182

  4. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual and flyway differences in remigial measurements and reduced performance of age classification models as evidence of high variability in size of blue-winged ducks' remiges. Variability in remigial size of these and other small-bodied waterfowl may be related to nutrition during molt.

  5. Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring water levels and movement was much weaker for young females than for adults. 7. Young female diving ducks exhibited much stronger (compared to adults) asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water locations than away from these locations. 8. Local survival of day-old ducklings during the first year of life was time-specific and very low (means for different strata/states 0?01-0?08) because of high rates of emigration and prefledging mortality.

  6. The Use of Soil in Criminal Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Lorna; Fitzpatrick, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Forensic soil science, as a newly developed discipline of soil science, has matured to the extent that well-defined questions and successful crime scene investigations are being addressed in increasingly refined ways to assist law enforcement agencies. Soils, rocks, regolith, minerals and man-made mineral particles such as bricks (i.e. referred to "human-made" soil materials) are being used in specialised forensic investigations to associate/disassociate a sample taken from an item, such as shoes, clothing, shovel or vehicle, with a specific location. The majority of forensic cases involving soil materials are usually overwhelmingly complex, and the challenges of associating relevant information from one source with another, often requires the use and development of sophisticated field and laboratory methods. Through examples from case studies, this presentation will demonstrate how advanced field and laboratory approaches have been critical in developing coherent, predictive, soil models, from landscape to microscopic scales, to help contribute to soil-based criminal investigations in both Australia and Scotland. To demonstrate the critical importance of soil materials in forensic investigations, the following 2 case studies, which tackle difficult problems at a range of scales involving highly complex issues, will be presented: •The use of soil evidence to help solve a double murder case. This investigation used morphological, chemical, physical and mineralogical properties to identify similarities between soil-regolith found on a shovel taken from the suspect's vehicle and wetland soil-regolith subsequently located in the bottom of a quarry (Fitzpatrick and Raven, 2012). •The use of soil and related material to help search and to provide evidence in a murder case. This investigation used soil mineralogical and organic properties to identify similarities between sand found on a shovel and sand subsequently located at a beach. Results illustrate the benefit of using a complementary approach and consideration of the two way transfer of materials (Dawson and Hillier, 2010). References Fitzpatrick R.W. and Raven M.D. (2012) How Pedology and mineralogy helped solve a double murder case: Using forensics to inspire future generations of soil scientists. Soil Horizons. 53 (5) doi:10.2136/sh12-05-0016. Dawson, L.A. Hillier, S. (2010) Measurement of soil characteristics for forensic applications. Surface and Interface Analysis, 42, 363-377.

  7. Effects of management of ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes in grassland ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    Grasslands represent a large land-use footprint and have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for land managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack robust understanding of C sequestration in grasslands. Previous research has shown that management approaches such as organic amendments or vertical subsoiling can lead to larger soil C pools. These management approaches can both directly and indirectly affect soil C pools. We used well-replicated field experiments to explore the effects of these management strategies on ecosystem C pools and fluxes in two bioclimatic regions of California (Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) and Nicasio Ranch). Our treatments included an untreated control, compost amendments, plowed (vertical subsoil), and compost + plow. The experiment was conducted over two years allowing us to compare dry (360 mm) and average (632 mm) rainfall conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured weekly using a LI-8100 infrared gas analyzer. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured monthly using static flux chambers. Aboveground and belowground biomass were measured at the end of the growing season as an index of net primary productivity (NPP) in the annual plant dominated system. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously and averaged on hourly and daily timescales. Soil organic C and N concentrations were measured prior to the application of management treatments and at the ends of each growing season. Soils were collected to a 10 cm depth in year one and at four depth increments (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm) in year two. Soil C and N concentrations were converted to content using bulk density values for each plot. During both growing seasons, soil respiration rates were higher in the composted plots and lower in the plowed plots relative to controls at both sites. The effects on C loss via soil respiration were stronger in the first year, with compost soils experiencing a 21 ± 1 % greater cumulative loss at SFREC and 16 ± 3 % more at Nicasio. The second year showed a similar trend, but with a lower magnitude loss. Aboveground NPP responded positively to compost additions and negatively to plowing at both sites. At SFREC, we measured 58 % more ANPP in composted relative to control plots in year one (369 vs 230 g C/m2) and 56 % more in year two (327 vs 209 g C/m2). Aboveground NPP on plowed plots was 129 g C/m2 in year one, and 185 g C/m2 in year two. Plowed soils also showed a significant decline in soil C and N concentrations (C= 2.67 ± 0.13%, N = 0.20 ± 0.01%). Compost additions increased soil C and N concentrations (C= 3.92 ± 0.29%, N = 0.32 ± 0.02%) relative to control soils (C= 3.52 ± 0.20%, N = 0.27 ± 0.07%). Throughout the experiment, we did not detect significant treatment differences in CH4 or N2O fluxes, nor did we detect significant differences at any individual sampling point. These results suggest that compost addition can lead to an increase in ecosystem C storage, with a small offset from elevated soil respiration.

  8. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  9. Effects of Different Tillage and Straw Return on Soil Organic Carbon in a Rice-Wheat Rotation System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

    2014-01-01

    Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0–7, 7–14 and 14–21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0–7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7–14 cm depth. However, at 14–21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:24586434

  10. Soil radiocesium distribution in rice fields disturbed by farming process after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Harada, Naoki; Nonaka, Masanori

    2012-11-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent large tsunami hit the northeastern coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. This resulted in serious damage to the reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. Large amounts of radionuclides were released from the FDNPP, a proportion of which were deposited onto the ground. In this study, we investigated soil radiocesium contamination of rice fields in Aga and Minamiuonuma, Niigata, ~130 and 200 km away from the FDNPP, respectively, as Niigata is one of the largest rice growing regions in Japan. Soil samples were collected from the plow layer of five rice fields in August and September, 5-6 months after the FDNPP accident. Results showed that radiocesium concentrations (the sum of Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the rice soil samples were ~300 Bq (kg dry soil)(-1). All samples contained a Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratio of 0.68-0.96 after correction to March 11, 2011, showing that the radiocesium released from the FDNPP were deposited on these areas. Although the rice fields had been disturbed by farming processes after the FDNPP accident, the depth distribution of radiocesium concentrations in the plow layers showed higher concentrations in the upper soil layers. This suggests that spring tillage, flooding and puddling performed before rice transplantation may not disperse radiocesium deposited on the surface through the whole plow layer. In addition, the planar distribution of radiocesium concentrations was examined near the water inlet in one of the rice fields. Highest activities were found aligned with the direction of irrigation water discharge, indicating that radioactivity levels in rice fields may be elevated by an influx of additional radionuclides, probably in irrigation water, during farming. PMID:23000550

  11. Peach Growing in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Kyle, E. J. (Edwin Jackson)

    1905-01-01

    OF THINNING. The fruit is picked off with the hand and dropped on the ground. It is often convenient to hold the limb, especially if small, with the left hand and pick the fruit off with the right. ORCHARD PESTS. The Crown Gall:-Figure 15, shows one... at some distance on the lateral roots. The disease is very contagious, being easily communicated by mere contact of a diseased with a healthy tree, and also by galls being broken off and scattered through- out the orchard by means of the plow and harrow...

  12. Design Considerations For Aerial, Duct, And Direct Burial Optical Fiber Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. C.; Glavas, X. G.

    1980-09-01

    Significant improvements have been achieved in recent years in the transmission characteristics and the mechanical performance and environmental performance of optical fibers and cables which have broadened the applications of fiber optic systems. Fiber optic cables are finding increasing acceptance in a wide variety of applications such as tactical field (military), computer interconnect, telecommunications, antisubmarine warfare, submarine, airborne, and missile guidance. This paper describes the mechanical and environmental design considerations in order to meet the multitudinous requirements for fiber optic cable installation in ducts, plowed-in and aerially strung.

  13. Stubble Mulch Management for Water Conservation and Erosion Control on Hardlands of the Southern Great Plains. 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Wendell C. (Wendell Clifford); Van Doren, C. E.; Whitfield, Charles J. (Charles James)

    1949-01-01

    moisture content to a depth of 3 feet of stubble mulch plots, October 1948 and March 1949 I I Tillage method Oneway Subtillage Oneway Subtillage Moldboard plow Oneway Subtillage Land in: Moisture content, percent Oct. 1948 I Mar. 1949....3 18.1 21.5 18.1 17.2 20.1 19.0 20.1 17.3 18.9 10 BULLETIN 711, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION moisture reserves in the stubble mulch plots in late March 1949, about 5 months after the October sampling. It is apparent...

  14. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  15. Friction and wear of metals with a single-crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide: Effect of shear strength of metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with spherical, single-crystal silicon carbide riders in contact with various metals and with metal riders in contact with silicon carbide flats. Results indicate that: (1) the friction force in the plowing of metal and (2) the groove height (corresponding to the volume of the groove) are related to the shear strength of the metal. That is, they decrease linearly as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases. Grooves are formed in metals primarily from plastic deformation, with occasional metal removal. The relation between the groove width D and the load W can be expressed by W = kD, superscript n which satisfies Meyer's law.

  16. More Grass from Controlling Trees and Brush with Chemicals. 

    E-print Network

    Walker, A. H.

    1955-01-01

    growth conditions. Another spray- ing 1 or 2 years later is , probably advisable. t More Grass From Controlling Trees and Brush With Chemicals* A. H. Walker, Extension Range Specialist Texas A. & M. College System the ran1 wat lrush and weeds..., reseeding and fertilization, -1ot result in permanent benefits to the re. Mechanical methods such as bull- s, anchor chains, brush and weed cutters auu rb0ot plows have a definite place in brush control and maintenance work. Often a com- bination...

  17. Frictional disturbances in superconducting magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kensley, R. S.; Iwasa, Y.; Maeda, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is reported that uses a liner-friction apparatus to study the frictional and sliding behavior of metal/insulator pairs commonly used in superconducting magnet windings. Both copper G-10 and CDIF-G-10 pairs show similar friction behavior: first-run slips (and sometimes second runs) are very fast, while subsequent runs are slow. The fast slip is attributed to the plowing effect of the glass fibers. Coating with a thin layer of soft material or sanding the surface have been found effective in eliminating slip.

  18. Self-revegetation of disturbed ground in the deserts of Nevada and Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Sauer, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Plant cover established without purposeful soil preparation or seeding was measured on ground disturbed by plowing in Washington and by aboveground nuclear explosions in Nevada. After a time lapse of three decades in Washington and two decades in Nevada, fewer species were self-established on the disturbed ground than the nearby undisturbed ground. Alien annual plants were the dominants on the disturbed ground. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominated abandoned fields in Washington, and filaree (Erodium cicutarium) dominated disturbed ground in Nevada. Perennial grasses and shrubs appeared to be more successful as invaders in Nevada than in Washington. This distinction is attributed to the superior competitive ability of cheatgrass in Washington.

  19. Cropping management using color and color infrared aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. Solving this equation yields the long-term average annual soil loss that can be expected from rill and inter-rill erosion. In this study, manual interpretation of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at the scale of 1:60,000 is used to determine the cropping management factor in the USLE. Accurate information was collected about plowing practices and crop residue cover (unharvested vegetation) for the winter season on agricultural land in Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  20. Delayed complete heart block secondary to jailed first septal perforator.

    PubMed

    Nee, Lisa M; Guttormsen, Brian; Gimelli, Giorgio

    2007-11-01

    Partial or total occlusion of septal perforator branches can occur during stenting of the proximal and mid portion of the left anterior descending artery, secondary to plaque snow plowing and/or stent "jailing". Flow compromise in a sizeable septal branch can result in a myocardial infarction or in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities. Complete heart block has been described at the time of the procedure, and though it is usually transient, it may require temporary pacing. We report a case of delayed, symptomatic and permanent complete atrio-ventricular block that occurred 2 days after the index procedure, requiring implantation of a permanent pacemaker. PMID:17986733

  1. Paddy soil cracks: characteristics and their impact on preferential flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongbin; Peng, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    Paddy soils with harrowing and puddling easily crack under alternate flooding and drying cycles (AFD). These cracks in paddy field may become pathways of preferential flow, improving water infiltration and increasing the pollution risk of groundwater. The objectives of this study were to investigate the 2D and 3D characteristics of soil cracks in paddy fields; and to determine their impacts on preferential flow. Two paddy fields, one cultivated for 20 years (YPF) and the other cultivated for more than 100 years (OPF), were subjected to either alternate flooding and drying (AFD) or continuous flooding (CF) during rice growing season. After the harvest of late rice crop, soil surface cracks were recorded using digital camera; and 3D structure of soil cracks was scanned by computed tomography (CT). The characteristics of 2D and 3D soil cracks were quantified with the aid of image analysis. The influence of soil cracks on preferential flow was characterized by tension infiltrometer, dye tracer and ion breakthrough curve. Our main results in this study were summed up as follows: under AFD condition, for the 2D soil cracks, the YPF presented 10 fold more cracks in quantity but these cracks were finer and more complicated as compared to those generated in the OPF. The results of CT scanning showed that the presence of soil cracks under the AFD increased average macropore length but decreased the number of macropores significantly, and it also changed macropore size distribution and macropore area density distribution with soil depth. The 3D structures of soil cracks were complicated but can be quantified using CT. The depth of soil cracks in young paddy field (7.58 cm) was smaller than that in old paddy field (9.34 cm), but soil cracks in both fields did not reach the plough pan (about 15 cm). Soil cracks significantly increased soil hydraulic conductivity. They serviced as pathways for preferential flow only in plow layer, as evidenced by a large dyed area above plough pan but a small area below it. Both the shape of BTCs and fitting parameters demonstrated that soil cracks did not increase preferential flow below plow pan because they did not perforate through the dense plow pan. This study demonstrates that soil cracks in paddy fields significantly affect macropore structure but their impact on preferential flow may be poor when they do not penetrate through the plow pan.

  2. Experimental Study of Implosion Dynamics of Multi-Shell Z-Pinches at Microsecond Implosion Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishlov, Alexander V.; Chaikovsky, Stanislav A.; Fedunin, Anatoly V.; Fursov, Fedor I.; Kokshenev, Vladimir A.; Kurmaev, Nikolai E.; Labetsky, Aleksey Yu.; Oreshkin, Vladimir I.; Rousskikh, Alexander G.; Zhidkova, Natalia A.

    2006-01-01

    A set of experiments has been conducted on the GIT-12 generator (4.7 MA, 1.7 ?s) operating at microsecond mode. The experiments were carried out with multi-shell gas puffs. Dynamics of current-carrying plasma was registered by a set of B-dots monitors placed at different radii inside a multi-shell gas puff. The experimental data obtained with the help of B-dots monitors are compared with 0D snow-plow simulations of implosion dynamics and discussed taking into consideration the data from other Z-pinch diagnostics.

  3. Ecological factors affecting growth and formation of sclerotia in Sclerotium rolfsii 

    E-print Network

    Flados, Norman D.

    1958-01-01

    there is an excessive amount of litter, cutting with a disk and plowing may be necessary. The land should then be prepared for planting just as it would be for planting cotton, corn, or peanuts, by listing in low, flat beds. Row widths should be 40 inches...- tive along the Gulf Coast, with its frequent periods of high humidity, to eliminate this section from commercial castor bean production unless disease-resistant varieties are develop- ed. The castor bean plant is affected by cotton root rot...

  4. Applications of ERTS-1 data to landscape change in eastern Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The analysis of landscape change in eastern Tennessee from ERTS-1 data is being derived from three avenues of experimentation and analysis: (1) a multi-stage sampling procedure utilizing ground and aircraft imagery for ground truth and control; (2) a densitometric and computer analytical experiment for the analysis of gray tone signatures and comparisons for landscape change detection and monitoring; and (3) an ERTS image enhancement procedure for the detection and analysis of photomorphic regions. Significant results include: maps of strip mining changes and forest inventory, watershed identification and delimitation, and agricultural regions derived from spring plowing patterns appearing on the ERTS-1 imagery.

  5. Ground control failures. A pictorial view of case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2007-07-01

    The book shows, in pictorial views, many forms and/or stages of types of failures in mines, for instance, cutter, roof falls, and cribs. In each case, the year of occurrence is stated in the beginning so that the environment or technological background under which it occurred are reflected. The narrative than begins with the mining and geological conditions, followed by a description of the ground control problems and recommended solutions and results, if any. The sections cover failure of pillars, roof falls, longwall, roof bolting, multiple-seam mining, floor heave, longwall, flooding and weathering of coal, old workings, and shortwall and thin-seam plow longwall.

  6. Timing of x-ray burst from X-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shen; Zhang, Ran; Zhu, Xinlei; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-06-01

    The x-ray burst timings of X-pinches, TXB, made using eight different wires for different current were measured. The results showed that a higher current makes a shorter TXB for a given X-pinch wire. In other words, TXB scales linearly with the line mass density for a given current. Based on the snow-plow model for Z-pinch plasma, it was derived that for a given X-pinch wire the integral of the current over time from zero to TXB is constant, i.e., ?0TXBi (t ) ?d t =const. . This theoretically derived relation was confirmed by our experiments.

  7. Impact of conservation agriculture on harnessing sustainability and building resilience against land degradation in the northern Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Tesfay; Cornelis, Wim M.; Govaerts, Bram; Bauer, Hans; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Conservation Agriculture (CA) aims at improving soil quality and crop yield whilst reducing runoff and topsoil erosion which raises the soil resilience to combat soil degradation. Different chemical, physical, and biological properties of a soil interact in complex ways that determine the crop productivity potential of the soil. Hence, a medium-term tillage experiment was carried out (2005 to 2011) on a Vertisol to evaluate changes in soil quality, runoff and soil loss due to CA-based field conservation practices in northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was implemented in a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, plowed once at planting by refreshing the furrow and with 30% standing crop residue retention, terwah+ (TER+) with plowing once at planting with 30% standing crop residue retention and contour furrows made at 1.5 m distance interval, and conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three tillage operations and removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plow mahresha. Local crop rotation practices followed during the seven years sequentially from the first to the seventh year included wheat-teff-wheat-barley-wheat-teff-grass pea. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weed in DER+ and TER+. Significantly different (p<0.05) mean runoff coefficients (%) in 7-yrs of 13, 20 and 27 were recorded for DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Mean soil losses of 7-yrs were 4.4, 12.5 and 18 t ha-1 y-1 in DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Among the several assessed soil properties, SOM, N, P, soil microbial biomass carbon, aggregate stability index, consistency index, cone index, air capacity and macroporosity were shown to significantly increase in soils subjected to DER+ planting system compared to CT, specifically at 0-10 cm depth. Aggregate instability index, crack size at harvest, relative water capacity and plastic limit were significantly larger in CT compared to CA treatments. Adoption of improved local practices of DER+ and TER+ planting systems that employ conservation agriculture principles can reduce runoff, soil loss and improve crop yield and soil quality and thus, sustainability in Vertisols. Keywords: Soil resilience, Vertisol, conservation agriculture, field conservation practices, soil quality

  8. Lorenz Heister's handbook of surgery in the Franciscan monastery in Pazin.

    PubMed

    Tomi?, Danijela; Laginja, Stanislava

    2014-02-01

    The oldest library in Istria (Croatia) is located in the Franciscan Monastery of Pazin, with a rich fund of worthy old books. Our attention was attracted by the book "Chirurgie" written by the German physician, surgeon and anatomist Lorenz Heister in the first half of the 18th century. This worthy book is relatively scanty known in Croatian history of surgery. By studying the contents of the book written in the 18th century, numerous surgical instruments, as well as surgical operations may be found, many of them being used even today with little modifications. Among the instruments different types of pincers, needles, scissors, knives, saws, hammers, chisels and others can be found. The description of different surgical procedures reveals great advancement in the surgical technique. The book was very popular in Europe for a century. PMID:24496369

  9. Were Viking Dry-dock methods in the Americas used earlier to Build Pyramids, with Outflow Eroding the Sphinx, and were Stonehenge, the Obelisks, and Moas Similarly Erected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Edward; McLeod, Roger

    2006-03-01

    Chisel-quarried recycled granite in MA is datable by runes to 1069 CE; it could corroborate dating by a LIDAR. Associated sites, possibly used by Vikings to dry-dock their ships, could have exploited lock-like controls, possibly a continued technology. Site-leveling at the Giza Pyramids proves water was used. `Locks' and body-immersion worked for building, moving, erecting, or watering, at sites like Stonehenge, The Hanging Gardens at Babylon, the Moas of Easter Island, or The Pyramids, where the eroding water discharge was deliberately flushed over the Sphinx complex. It enhance the electromagnetically excited blue light signals we can detect, especially at sites frequented by Molocket of ME. Information, as at America's Stonehenge, in NH, and constructions at Acton MA, at Giza or at Rumford ME proves that the Pyramids and Sphinx were engineered and built about 4500 BP.

  10. A study of hand vibration on chipping and grinding operators, part III: Power levels into the hands of operators of pneumatic tools used in chipping and grinding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. D.; Basel, R.; Wasserman, D. E.; Taylor, W.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating power transmitted to the hands of operators who use vibrating hand tools. Results that relate to a comprehensive multidisciplined NIOSH field study of several hundred chipper and grinder workers who used pneumatic hand tools are presented. The results of this study indicated that the power in the frequency range of 6·3 Hz to 1000 Hz transmitted to the hand ranged from 1·08 × 10 3 to 7·23 × 10 3 J/s for the chisel and from 8·52 × 10 -1 to 1·57 × 10 2 J/s for the handle of chipping hammers. For pneumatic grinders the power transmitted to the hands of the tool operators was in the range of 6·58 × 10 -3 to 2·35 × 10 -3 J/s over the same frequency range.

  11. Revealing the Hidden Value that the Federal Investment Tax Credit and Treasury Cash Grant Provide To Community Wind Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2009-12-14

    Although the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 has slowed wind power development in general, the crisis has, in several respects, been a blessing in disguise for community wind project development in the United States. For xample, the crisis-induced slowdown in the broader commercial wind market has, for the first time since 2004, created slack in the supply chain, creating an opportunity for shovel-ready community wind projects to finally proceed towards onstruction. Many such projects had been forced to wait on the sidelines as the commercial wind boom of 2005-2008 consumed virtually all available resources needed to complete a wind project (e.g., turbines, cranes, contractors).

  12. Waterfowl ecology and avian influenza in california: Do host traits inform us about viral occurrence?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, N.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Cardona, C.J.; Ackerman, J.T.; Schultz, A.K.; Spragens, K.A.; Boyce, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether host traits influenced the occurrence of avian influenza virus (AIV) in Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans) at wintering sites in California's Central Valley. In total, 3487 individuals were sampled at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge and Conaway Ranch Duck Club during the hunting season of 2007-08. Of the 19 Anatidae species sampled, prevalence was highest in the northern shoveler (5.09%), followed by the ring-necked duck (2.63%), American wigeon (2.57%), bufflehead (2.50%), greater white-fronted goose (2.44%), and cinnamon teal (1.72%). Among host traits, density of lamellae (filtering plates) of dabbling ducks was significantly associated with AIV prevalence and the number of subtypes shed by the host, suggesting that feeding methods may influence exposure to viral particles. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  13. Study of Internal Dump Stability of Dudhichua Open Cast Project, Northern Coalfields Limited, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, S.; Roy, I.

    2015-04-01

    Dudhichua Open Cast Project is one of the prestigious projects of Northern Coalfields Limited, India; with total mineable coal reserves of approximately 400 million tonnes and corresponding 1,700 million m3 volume of waste rock i.e. overburden material. Accommodating this waste dump masses in the limited space of the de-coaled portion of the quarry is considered as one of the major challenges to the mine operators. It has been reported that this mine is facing frequent slope failures of waste rock dumps which is of great concern to the mine management in view of unsafe working condition. To tackle the above problem, a detailed investigation was carried out to propose a stable dump profile which will cater to the land economics and safety aspects of the mine. A detailed investigation along with recommendation of optimum design for dragline dump profile along with shovel-dumper-dump profile is presented in this paper.

  14. T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, H.M. ); Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K. . Aero and Naval Systems)

    1993-01-01

    There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

  15. Maxillary and mandibular first premolars showing three-cusp pattern: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ramakant; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi; Nayak, Aarati; Patil, Viraj; Kulkarni, Mayuri; Somannavar, Pradeep; Hosmani, Jagadish

    2013-01-01

    Dental anatomy is the study of morphology of various teeth in human dentitions. The application of dental anatomy in clinical practice is important, and dentist should have a thorough knowledge regarding the morphology of the teeth. At times as a result of genetic variation, environmental factors, diet of an individual and race, variations in the morphology of the teeth can be observed. These variations have been extensively studied by the researcher in the field of anthropology to define a particular race. The most commonly observed changes include peg-shaped laterals, shovel-shaped incisors, and extra cusp on molar. Common variations documented with regard to maxillary and mandibular first premolars are the variation in the number of roots. But the variations with respect to crown morphology are few. We report a first documented unusual presentation of maxillary and mandibular first premolars with three-cusps pattern in a female patient. PMID:23476817

  16. Relation priming in established compounds: facilitation?

    PubMed

    Spalding, Thomas L; Gagné, Christina L

    2011-11-01

    Gagné and Spalding (Brain and Language, 90, 478-486, 2004, Journal of Memory and Language, 60, 20-35, 2009) have shown that the difficulty of interpreting an established compound (e.g., snowball) can be influenced by recent exposure to a compound with the same modifier and that this influence depends on the relation linking the constituents of the compound. For example, snowball (a ball made of snow) was processed more quickly following snowfort (a fort made of snow; same relation) than following snowshovel (a shovel for snow; different relation). In three experiments, we investigated the basis of this relation-priming effect. The results indicated that the relation-priming effect in established compounds is due to slower processing in the different-relation condition rather than to faster processing in the same-relation condition. These results pose a challenge for most models of compound-word processing. PMID:21598087

  17. Later Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Almonda Karstic system, Torres Novas, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Marks, Anthony E; Brugal, Jean Philip; Bailey, Shara E; Rink, W Jack; Richter, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    Later Middle Pleistocene archeological deposits of the Galeria Pesada (Gruta da Aroeira), Almonda Karstic System, Torres Novas, Portugal, yielded two archaic human teeth, a mandibular canine and a maxillary third molar. The C(1)presents moderate and asymmetrical shoveling with a stout root. The slightly worn M(3)exhibits at least four cusps with a large hypocone, three roots with large radicular plates, and an absence of taurodontism. They are moderately large for later Middle Pleistocene humans in their buccolingual crown diameters, although the M(3)mesiodistal diameter is modest. The C(1)exhibits labial calculus and multiple linear hypoplastic defects, but the M(3)is lesion free. Both teeth are morphologically similar to those of other Middle Pleistocene European humans and reinforce a pattern of dental hypertrophy among these archaic Homo. PMID:14580591

  18. T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones. Transuranic storage area-retrieval enclosure program

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, H.M.; Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

  19. Dental anthropology of a Brazilian sample: Frequency of nonmetric traits.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Lima, Laíse Nascimento Correia; Delwing, Fábio; Francesquini, Luiz; Daruge, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Dental elements are valuable tools in a study of ancient populations and species, and key-features for human identification; among the dental anthropology field, nonmetric traits, standardized by ASUDAS, are closely related to ancestry. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of six nonmetric traits in a sample from Southeast Brazil, composed by 130 dental casts from individuals aged between 18 and 30, without foreign parents or grandparents. A single examiner observed the presence or absence of shoveling, Carabelli's cusp, fifth cusp, 3-cusped UM2, sixth cusp, and 4-cusped LM2. The frequencies obtained were different from the ones shown by other researches to Amerindian and South American samples, and related to European and sub-Saharan frequencies, showing the influence of this groups in the current Brazilian population. Sexual dimorphism was found in the frequencies of Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped UM2, and sixth cusp. PMID:26628292

  20. Impacts of changing irrigation practices on waterfowl habitat use in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnum, D.A.; Euliss, N. H ., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    We used diurnal aerial census data to examine habitat use patterns of ducks wintering in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California from 1980-87. We calculated densities (birds/ha) for the northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), green-winged teal (A. crecca), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), shoveler (A. clypeata), ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), and total ducks in each of 5 habitats. Densities of pintail and total ducks were greater in September than in other months. From October through January, density of teal and total ducks was greatest on Kern National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Densities of ruddy duck and pintail were greatest on agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds and preirrigated cropland, respectively.

  1. Accidental decapitation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-09-01

    We report a case of an accidental decapitation of an agriculture worker in a field. The scene investigation revealed that the worker had loosely tied a scarf tied over his face in an attempt to diminish his exposure to barley dust, to which he was allergic, while distributing the barley loads with a shovel upon a trailer. The trailer was simultaneously being loaded by a helix elevator machine and its rotating shaft suddenly caught the victim's scarf and pulled it down to the victim's neck. The rotating motion immediately tightened the scarf around the neck resulting in hanging/strangulation noose that, by continued tightening, caused decapitation of the victim. The victim's body was found on the ground by the trailer and the victim's head was discovered in the barley load in the trailer. Examination revealed that the neck was severed at the level of the second and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:19696584

  2. Dust control for draglines

    SciTech Connect

    Grad, P.

    2009-09-15

    Monitoring dust levels inside draglines reveals room for improvement in how filtration systems are used and maintained. The Australian firm BMT conducted a field test program to measure airflow parameters, dust fallout rates and dust concentrations, inside and outside the machine house, on four draglines and one shovel. The study involved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The article describes how the tests were made and gives results. It was not possible to say which of the two main filtration systems currently used on Australian draglines - Dynavane or Floseps - performs better. It would appear that more frequent maintenance and cleaning would increase the overall filtration performance and systems could be susceptible to repeat clogging in a short time. 2 figs., 1 photos.

  3. Ergonomics evaluation of a foam rubber grip for tool handles.

    PubMed

    Fellows, G L; Freivalds, A

    1991-08-01

    An important consideration in tool design is the avoidance of hand discomfort and a reduction of work efficiency by using proper grip designs. To measure grip force distribution on a tool handle, Force Sensing Resistors were calibrated, placed on two different types of grip (wood and foam) and interfaced to a personal computer. The results, using six common garden tools - loppers, hedge shears, shovels, leaf rakes, hoes, garden rakes - indicated a very uneven distribution in grip force, but with the foam grip providing a more uniform distribution. Unfortunately, in most cases, the tool grip force was greater for the foam grip due to the deformation of the foam and a 'loss of control' feeling in the subjects. However, most subjects strongly preferred the foam grips. PMID:15676818

  4. Mining in low coal. Volume 1. Biomechanics and work physiology. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.; Caddel, D.K.

    1981-11-01

    The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the job demands associated with low coal mining, (2) to survey the anthropometry, strength, and aerobic capacity of low coal miners to determine if they differ from the U.S. population, and (3) to recommend, on the basis of available information, optimal job and work station design for low coal mining. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. Back strength for male and female miners was significantly lower than the industrial worker population. This can be one of the contributing factors of low back problems in mining. Shoveling, timbering, and helpers tasks were physiologically demanding activities. However, because of the frequent stoppage of work, adequate rest was usually available. If work stoppage is corrected, then better work and rest schedules are essential.

  5. Backcountry snowmobilers' risk perceptions, avalanche related information seeking behaviours, preparedness and decision-making processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Jennifer

    Although there has been substantial research on the avoidance of risk, much less has been completed on voluntary risk. This study examined backcountry snowmobilers' risk perceptions, avalanche related information seeking behaviours, and decision-making processes when dealing with avalanches and backcountry risk in Canada. To accomplish this, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 participants who were involved in backcountry snowmobiling. Interviews were done both in person and by telephone. The results of this study show that, unlike previous research on snowmobilers, the participants of this study were well prepared and knowledgeable about backcountry risks. All 17 participants stated that they carried a shovel, probe, and transceiver with them on each backcountry trip, and 10 participants had taken an avalanche safety course. Group dynamics and positive peer pressure were influential in promoting safe backcountry behaviour. KEYWORDS: Backcountry snowmobiling, Avalanches, Voluntary Risk, Preparedness, Decision-Making.

  6. Geographical gradients in the population dynamics of North American prairie ducks.

    PubMed

    Saether, Bernt-Erik; Lillegård, Magnar; Grøtan, Vidar; Drever, Mark C; Engen, Steinar; Nudds, Thomas D; Podruzny, Kevin M

    2008-09-01

    1. Geographic gradients in population dynamics may occur because of spatial variation in resources that affect the deterministic components of the dynamics (i.e. carrying capacity, the specific growth rate at small densities or the strength of density regulation) or because of spatial variation in the effects of environmental stochasticity. To evaluate these, we used a hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate parameters characterizing deterministic components and stochastic influences on population dynamics of eight species of ducks (mallard, northern pintail, blue-winged teal, gadwall, northern shoveler, American wigeon, canvasback and redhead (Anas platyrhynchos, A. acuta, A. discors, A. strepera, A. clypeata, A. americana, Aythya valisineria and Ay. americana, respectively) breeding in the North American prairies, and then tested whether these parameters varied latitudinally. 2. We also examined the influence of temporal variation in the availability of wetlands, spring temperature and winter precipitation on population dynamics to determine whether geographical gradients in population dynamics were related to large-scale variation in environmental effects. Population variability, as measured by the variance of the population fluctuations around the carrying capacity K, decreased with latitude for all species except canvasback. This decrease in population variability was caused by a combination of latitudinal gradients in the strength of density dependence, carrying capacity and process variance, for which details varied by species. 3. The effects of environmental covariates on population dynamics also varied latitudinally, particularly for mallard, northern pintail and northern shoveler. However, the proportion of the process variance explained by environmental covariates, with the exception of mallard, tended to be small. 4. Thus, geographical gradients in population dynamics of prairie ducks resulted from latitudinal gradients in both deterministic and stochastic components, and were likely influenced by spatial differences in the distribution of wetland types and shapes, agricultural practices and dispersal processes. 5. These results suggest that future management of these species could be improved by implementing harvest models that account explicitly for spatial variation in density effects and environmental stochasticity on population abundance. PMID:18631261

  7. Dust exposure during small-scale mining in Tanzania: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bratveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Mashalla, Yohana J S; Maalim, Hatua

    2003-04-01

    Small-scale mining in developing countries is generally labour-intensive and carried out with low levels of mechanization. In the Mererani area in the northern part of Tanzania, there are about 15000 underground miners who are constantly subjected to a poor working environment. Gemstones are found at depths down to 500 m. The objectives of this pilot study were to monitor the exposure to dust during work processes, which are typical of small-scale mining in developing countries, and to make a rough estimation of whether there is a risk of chronic pulmonary diseases for the workers. Personal sampling of respirable dust (n = 15) and 'total' dust (n = 5) was carried out during three consecutive days in one mine, which had a total of 50 workers in two shifts. Sampling started immediately before the miners entered the shaft, and lasted until they reappeared at the mine entrance after 5-8 h. The median crystalline silica content and the combustible content of the respirable dust samples were 14.2 and 5.5%, respectively. When drilling, blasting and shovelling were carried out, the exposure measurements showed high median levels of respirable dust (15.5 mg/m(3)), respirable crystalline silica (2.4 mg/m(3)), respirable combustible dust (1.5 mg/m(3)) and 'total' dust (28.4 mg/m(3)). When only shovelling and loading of sacks took place, the median exposures to respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica were 4.3 and 1.1 mg/m(3). This study shows that the exposure to respirable crystalline silica was high during underground small-scale mining. In the absence of personal protective equipment, the miners in the Mererani area are presumably at a high risk of developing chronic silicosis. PMID:12639837

  8. Saving energy in mining

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, J.R.

    1982-03-01

    The struggle to reduce power costs is relentless in the world of mining. One of the most significant trends has been the use of electric instead of diesel power in such mining vehicles as large capacity dump trucks, hydraulic excavators, and articulated trucks. The hydraulic excavator, due to its selectivity, high breakout force, and maneuverability, has become increasingly popular as the loading unit in conventional shovel and truck operations. However, hydraulic shovels were originally only available as diesel powered units. Electric power for the prime mover is now offered as an option by most manufacturers. This is particularly cost effective with the larger machines. In surface mines, the transport of coal and overburden consumes the most energy. The application of such technology as in-pit crushers and conveyor systems are all aimed at reducing operating costs. A major development in reducing ventilation energy consumption is the Ventcon system based on the idea of distributing ventilation air more effectively around the mine. Ventcon controls the mine's fans and ventilation doors so that airflow is highest where most is required. The use of continuous haulage from the face to the surface is another energy-saving development. In many areas of Appalachia, United States, coal is cut by a continuous miner and hauled directly to the surface by a series of conveyors. The use of aluminum in cage and skip manufacturehas also been proven as an energy-saving technique. All-aluminum man cages are already in use. For the tougher application of hoisting coal, aluminum can be substituted for heavier materials in the construction of skips. In both cases, significant energy savings, and thus reduced hoisting costs, are the result. There is a power saving of more than 100 kilowatts (134 horsepower) for every one ton reduction of skip mass. The energy efficiencies of hydraulic rock drills are higher than pneumatic drills.

  9. Real-Time Electrical Impedance Variations in Women With and Without Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartov, Alex; Poplack, Steven P.; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Wells, Wendy A.; Rosenkranz, Kari M.; Barth, Richard J.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    The chaotic vascular network surrounding malignant tumors leads to pulsatile blood flow patterns that differ from those in benign regions of the breast. This study aimed to determine if high-speed electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is able to detect conductivity changes associated with cyclic blood-volume changes and to gauge the potential of using these signatures to differentiate malignant from benign regions within the breast. EIT imaging of pulsating latex membranes submerged in saline baths provided initial validation of its use for tracking temporally varying conductivities. Nineteen women (10 with cancer, nine without) were imaged with EIT over the course of several heartbeats in synchrony with pulse-oximetry acquisition. Eight parameters (rs, ?(rt,max), rt,max, Plow:full, Phigh:full, Plow:high) relating the conductivity images and pulse-oximeter signatures were extracted and used as a means of comparing malignant and benign regions of the breast. Significant differences (p < 0.01) between malignant and benign regions of interest were noted in seven of the eight parameters. The maximum correlation between conductivity and pulse-oximeter signals, rt,max, was observed to be the optimal discriminating parameter with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.8 and a specificity of 81% at a sensitivity of 77%. Assessing the dynamic conductivity of breast may provide additional clinical utility to that of standard imaging modalities, but further investigation is necessary to better understand the biophysical mechanisms leading to the observed conductivity changes. PMID:25073168

  10. Specific features of bacterial communities in floodplain agrocenoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'Skaya, T. G.; Leont'evskaya, E. A.; Sneg, A. A.; Balabko, P. N.

    2010-04-01

    The analysis of the taxonomic structure of the bacterial complexes in the alluvial soils of the Oka River valley allowed revealing the distinct differences in the spectrum of the bacterial dominants in the virgin and cultivated soils. Arthrobacter and pigment coryneform bacteria are shown to predominate in the virgin soil; bacilli and pseudomonades are common in the soil under vegetables. On cabbage leaves and carrot roots (both healthy and rotten), the spectrum of dominants is composed of two genera of enterobacteria: Pantoea and Erwinia. As a result of the plowing in of vegetables into the soil, enterobacteria accumulate; among them, phytopathogenic species are present. Within a year after this plowing in and the new yield, the enterobacteria practically disappeared, but myxobacteria and cytophages developed. Since these bacteria belong to the cellulose-destroying prokaryotes, the increase in their contents in the soil testified to their participation in the decomposition of the buried vegetable residues. Weeds are known to concentrate various bacterial forms in the phylloplane; they enter from different ecological niches: soil, water, meadow, and agricultural plants. Representatives of phytopathogenic bacteria as minor components were found on weeds.

  11. Bacterial Community Diversity in Soil Under two Tillage Practices as Determined by Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Aditi; Dick, Warren A

    2015-10-01

    The ability of soil to provide ecosystem services is dependent on microbial diversity, with 80-90 % of the processes in soil being mediated by microbes. There still exists a knowledge gap in the types of microorganisms present in soil and how soil management affects them. However, identification of microorganisms is severely limited by classical culturing techniques that have been traditionally used in laboratories. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly becoming common, with current high-throughput sequencing approaches allowing for more in-depth analysis. We conducted a preliminary analysis of bacterial diversity in soils from the longest continuously maintained no-till (NT) plots in the world (52 years) and in adjacent plow-till (PT) plots in Ohio, USA managed similarly except for tillage. Bacterial diversity was determined using a culture-independent approach of high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were predominant in both samples but the NT soil had a higher number of reads, bacterial richness, and five unique phyla. Four unique phyla were observed in PT and 99 % of the community had relative abundance of <1 %. Plowing and secondary tillage tend to homogenize the soil and reduces the unique (i.e., diverse) microenvironments where microbial populations can reside. We conclude that tillage leads to fewer dominant species being present in soil and that these species contribute to a higher percentage of the total community. PMID:25930203

  12. Geographic applications of ERTS-1 imagery to landscape change. [Mississippi River and Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 has proven to be an effective earth-orbiting monitor of landscape change. Its regional coverage for large areal monitoring has been effective for the detection and mapping of agricultural plowing regions, for general forest cover mapping, for flood mapping, for strip mine mapping, and for short-lived precipitation mapping patterns. Paramount to the entire study has been the temporal coverage provided by ERTS. Without the cyclic coverage on an 18 day basis, temporal coverage would have been inadequate for the detection and mapping of strip mining landscape change, the analysis of agricultural landscape change based on plowing patterns, the analysis of urban-suburban growth changes, and the mapping of the Mississippi River floods. Cost benefits from ERTS are unquestionably superior to aircraft systems in regard to large regional coverage and cyclic temporal parameters. For the analysis of landscape change in large regions such as statewide areas or even areas of 10,000 square miles, ERTS is of cost benefit consideration. Not only does the cost of imagery favor ERTS but the reduction of man-hours using ERTS has been in the magnitude of 1:10.

  13. Scaling and dynamics of washboard road

    E-print Network

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Morris, Stephen W; McElwaine, Jim N

    2009-01-01

    Granular surfaces subjected to forces due to rolling wheels develop ripples above a critical speed. The resulting pattern, known as "washboard" or "corrugated" road, is common on dry, unpaved roads. We investigated this phenomenon theoretically and experimentally, using laboratory-scale apparatus and beds of dry sand. A thick layer of sand on a circular track was forced by a rolling wheel on an arm whose weight and moment of inertia could be varied. No spring and dashpot suspension system was used. We compared the ripples made by the rolling wheel to those made using a simple inclined plow blade. We investigated the dependence of the critical speed on various parameters, and describe a scaling argument which leads to a dimensionless ratio, analogous to the hydrodynamic Froude number, which controls the instability. This represents the crossover between conservative, dynamic forces and dissipative, static forces. Above onset, wheel-driven ripples move in the direction of motion of the wheel, but plow-driven ri...

  14. Scaling and dynamics of washboard roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen W.; McElwaine, Jim N.

    2009-06-01

    Granular surfaces subjected to forces due to rolling wheels develop ripples above a critical speed. The resulting pattern, known as washboard or corrugated road, is common on dry unpaved roads. We investigated this phenomenon theoretically and experimentally using laboratory-scale apparatus and beds of dry sand. A thick layer of sand on a circular track was forced by a rolling wheel on an arm whose weight and moment of inertia could be varied. We compared the ripples made by the rolling wheel to those made using a simple inclined plow blade. We investigated the dependence of the critical speed on various parameters and described a scaling argument that leads to a dimensionless ratio, analogous to the hydrodynamic Froude number, which controls the instability. This represents the crossover between conservative dynamic forces and dissipative static forces. Above onset wheel-driven ripples move in the direction of motion of the wheel, but plow-driven ripples move in the reverse direction for a narrow range of Froude numbers.

  15. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

  16. In vitro investigation of skin damage due to microscale shearing.

    PubMed

    Jee, Taekwon; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2014-11-01

    Despite several studies dealing with the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, the majority of these investigations have been performed at macroscopic levels. However, because of the multilayer structure of skin, it is necessary to perform studies at microscopic scales to reveal the effect of individual layer constituents on the overall skin response to mechanical stimuli. To bridge the gap in knowledge of the micromechanical behavior of skin, a custom-made mechanical tester, optical microscopy, and cross-sectional histology were used to examine the deformation and tribological behavior of porcine skin subjected to various normal and shear loadings. Representative friction and wear results of skin tested under unidirectional and reciprocating (cyclic) shearing (scratching) conditions are interpreted in terms of the scratching speed, normal load, and number of scratch cycles to illustrate the effects of stratum corneum, cellular epidermis, and dermis on the friction and wear characteristics of skin. Depending on the normal load and scratch time (cycles), different friction mechanisms (i.e., adhesion, plowing, and squeeze-film lubrication) and wear mechanisms (i.e., surface plasticity/plowing, bulk shearing, cohesive failure, tearing, and delamination) were found to control shear-induced skin damage. The results of this study provide insight into microscale friction and wear processes influencing the mechanical response of skin subjected to normal and shear surface tractions. PMID:24323557

  17. Verification of radiocesium decontamination from farmlands by plants in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Shinano, Takuro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify radiocesium decontamination from Fukushima farmland by plants and to screen plants useful for phytoremediation. Thirteen species from three families (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) of crops were grown in shallow and deeply cultivated fields (0-8 and 0-15 cm plowing, respectively). To change plowing depth was expected to make different contacting zone between root system and radiocesium in soil. The radioactivity values of the plants due to the radiocesium ¹³?Cs and ¹³?Cs were 22-179 and 29-225 Bq kg dry weight?¹, respectively. The ¹³?Cs and ¹³?Cs transfer factors for plants grown in the shallow field ranged from 0.021 to 0.12 and fro 0.019 to 0.13, respectively, with the geometric means of 0.051 and 0.057, respectively. The ¹³?Cs and ¹³?Cs transfer factors for plants grown in the deep field ranged from 0.019 to 0.13 and from 0.022 to 0.13, respectively, with the geometric means of 0.045 and 0.063, respectively. Although a reducing ratio was calculated to evaluate the decrease in radiocesium from contaminated soil during cultivation (i.e., phytoremediation ability), no plant species resulted in a remarkable decrease in radiocesium in soil among the tested crops. These results should be followed up for several years and further analyses are required to evaluate whether the phytoremediation technique is applicable to radioactively contaminated farmlands. PMID:24292804

  18. Probability of Globodera rostochiensis Spread on Equipment and Potato Tubers.

    PubMed

    Brodie, B B

    1993-06-01

    The probability of spreading cysts of Globodera rostochiensis on farming equipment and potato tubers was investigated in naturally infested field plots. The number of cysts recovered from soil that adhered to equipment differed significantly between different pieces of equipment. These differences were related to initial nematode density and, in most cases, to the volume of soil that adhered to the equipment. At an initial density of 0.04 egg/cm(3) of soil, significantly more cysts were recovered from a potato digger than from a potato hiller, cultivator, or plow. At an initial density of 0.90 egg/cm(3) of soil, significantly more cysts were recovered from the plow than from the other equipment. Although the population density was 22 times greater, only 10 times more cysts adhered 3 to equipment used in soil with a density of 0.90 egg/cm(3) of soil than when used in soil infested at 0.04 egg/cm(3). The number of potato tuber samples (4.5 kg) that contained cysts with viable eggs was positively correlated with the initial densities of G. rostochiensis in soil in which they were produced. The percentage of tuber samples with cysts containing viable eggs was 10-12% for tubers harvested from soil with densities less than 1 egg/cm(3) and 30-76% for tubers harvested from soil with densities greater than 4 eggs/cm(3) of soil. PMID:19279771

  19. [Functions of different cultivation modes in oasis agriculture on soil wind erosion control and soil moisture conservation].

    PubMed

    Su, Peixi; Zhao, Aifen; Du, Mingwu

    2004-09-01

    During 2001-2002, the effects of different cultivation modes including winter irrigation and zero tillage, crop-grass intercropping, and early spring film mulching on sand entrainment, wind velocity gradient and soil moisture conservation were studied in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in the Hexi Corridor region. The results showed that all these modes could reduce soil wind erosion and halt sand entrainment to different degrees. Compared with the bare fields exposed by spring plowing, early spring film mulching could increase soil moisture storage by 35.6%. At present, spring plowing and sowing was a main factor responsible to the occurrence of sand storms and the increase in suspended dust content. Farmlands in the upper and middle reaches of the Heihe River generally produced a dust transport up to 4.8-6.0 million tons per year, which was higher than that of sandy desert in the same region. In the Hexi Corridor region, the suspended dust amount produced from 1 hm2 farmland was equivalent to that of 1.5 hm2 desert. PMID:15669480

  20. Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow. PMID:25398196

  1. Affects of different tillage managements on soil physical quality in a clayey soil.

    PubMed

    Sa?lam, Mustafa; Selvi, Kemal Ça?atay; Dengiz, Orhan; Gürsoy, Fatma Esra

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted in 2011, researches the effects of different tillage practices on the physical soil quality of clayey soil. This soil quality index (SQI) assessment was made by studying the changes in physical soil functions such as suitability for root development, facilitation for water entry, movement and storage, and resistance against surface degradation based on tillage management. When compared with the control parcel, statistically significant decreases were seen in the SQI with different tillage practices (p?plow?+?rotary tiller?+?direct seeding machine, while the lowest SQI was seen with the direct drilling practice. On the other hand, the statistically insignificant effects of tillage practices on the soil quality of the study area were considered to be a result of either the study period or the joint effect of soil texture and climatic features. Thus, long-term tillage practices were recommended in order to get healthier information about soil quality by considering soil and climatic conditions. In addition, for heavy clayey soils, reduced tillage practices, which included plowing, were thought to develop physical soil qualities of root development and water movement. PMID:25467416

  2. Biochar reduces short-term nitrate leaching from a horizon in an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M; Sorrenti, G; Panzacchi, P; George, E; Tonon, G

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen leaching in croplands is a worldwide problem with implications both on human health and on the environment. Efforts should be taken to increase nutrient use efficiency and minimize N losses from terrestrial to water ecosystems. Soil-applied biochar has been reported to increase soil fertility and decrease nutrient leaching in tropical soils and under laboratory conditions. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of biochar addition on short-term N leaching from A soil horizon in a mature apple orchard growing on subalkaline soils located in the Po Valley (Italy). In spring 2009, 10 Mg of biochar per hectare was incorporated into the surface 20-cm soil layer by soil plowing. Cumulative nitrate (NO) and ammonium (NH) leaching was measured in treated and control plots 4 mo after the addition of biochar and the following year by using ion-exchange resin lysimeters installed below the plowed soil layer. Cumulative NO leaching was not affected by biochar after 4 mo, whereas in the following year it was significantly ( < 0.05) reduced by 75% over the control (from 5.5 to 1.4 kg ha). Conversely, NH leaching was very low and unaffected by soil biochar treatment. The present study shows that soil biochar addition can significantly decrease short-term nitrate leaching from the surface layer of a subalkaline soil under temperate climatic conditions. PMID:23673741

  3. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    PubMed

    Filipovi?, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA-Veolia partnership 1998-2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat-maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (?), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (?), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy. PMID:24958010

  4. Assessment of vertical soil solid phase transport (pedoturbations) in different types of land use by magnetic tracer method (Belgorod region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    New method of quantitative assessments of vertical soil solid phase transport (pedoturbations) is based on redistribution of spherical magnetic particles (SMP) in soil profiles. SMP - are fly ash components, which mainly produce during coal burning. The main sources of SMP on studied object were locomotives on the railroads, which used coal at the turn of the XIX century. SMP income into the soil only from the atmosphere, very stable for destructions, can be preserved in soils for centuries, and have the same size and weight as the soil matter. So SMP redistribution reflects soil solid phase transport. SMP used as tracers of soil erosion (Olson et.al., 2013), but for the first time applied for quantitative assessments of pedoturbations. In Belgorod region of Russia studied vertical distribution of SMP in soils in different types of land use: a) arable chernozem about 160-year plowing, b) arable chernozem 120-year plowing, c) dark-gray forest soil, which didn't plow at least last 150 years. All three sites are located nearby for the same physical-geography conditions. Distribution of SMP studied layer by layer (thickness of the layer 7 cm) from the top to 70 cm depth, in triplicate soil columns in every land use type (totally 90 soil samples). The period of SMP kept in studied soils is about 115 years. Revealed the different depth of SMP penetration (burial) in soil profiles for this period: 49 cm in the soil of 160-year arable land, 58 cm in the soil of 120-year arable land and 68 cm in the virgin forest soil. Different depth of SMP penetration is connected with different activity of pedoturbations, which differs according to the composition of soil flora and fauna, root activity, and animal mixing work. It is supposed that in the arable land single cropping can reduce the thickness of the active layer and as a result the zone of active pedoturbation depth. Based on SMP distribution counted rates of vertical soil solid phase transport, which are equaled: 31 t/ha/year in the soil of 160-year arable land, 28 t/ha/year in the soil of 120-year arable land, 24 t/ha/year in the virgin forest soil. Certainly raised rates of vertical transport in arable land relative to forest is connected with agricultural plowing. Revealed the connection between the period of plowing and rates of vertical soil transport. Also worth noting is that the rates of pedoturbation in virgin forest soils are rather high and only 1,2-1,3 times less than on arable land uses. This research is funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research - Project 14-05-31141. 1. Olson K.R., Gennadiyev A.N., Zhidkin A.P., Markelov M.V., Golosov V.N., Lang J.M. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates // Catena. - 2013. - V. 104 - P. 103-110.

  5. Tabletop Tectonics: Diverse Mountain Ranges Using Flour and Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the frontal deformation zones where plates converge (foreland fold- and-thrust belts on continents and accretionary wedges at subduction zones) involve shortening over a decoupling layer, or decollement. A simple but successful way of explaining many aspects of their behavior is called the critical Coulomb wedge model, which regards these contractional wedges as analogous to the wedge-shaped mass of soil accreted in front of a bulldozer, or the wedge of snow that piles up in front of a snow plow. The shape and deformation history of the accreted wedge of soil or snow will depend upon the frictional strength of the material being plowed up and the surface over which it is being plowed. The same is true of `bulldozer' wedges consisting of many km thick piles of sediment at convergent plate margins. Using flour (or powdered milk), sandpaper, graphite, transparency sheets, and athletic field marker chalk, manipulated with sieves, brushes, pastry bags and blocks and sheets of wood, it is possible to demonstrate a wide variety of processes and tectonic styles observed at convergent plate boundaries. Model fold-and-thrust belts that behave like natural examples with a decollement that is strong (e.g., in rock without high pore fluid pressure) or weak (e.g., in a salt horizon or with elevated pore fluid pressure) can be generated simply by placing wither sandpaper or graphite beneath the flour that is pushed across the tabletop using a block of wood (the strong basement and hiterland rocks behind the fold-thrust belt). Depending upon the strength of the decollement, the cross-sectional taper of the deforming wedge will be thin or broad, the internal deformation mild or intense, and the structures either close to symmetric or strongly forward-vergent, just as at the analogous natural fold-thrust belts. Including a horizontal sheet of wood or Plexiglas in front of the pushing block allows generation of an accretionary wedge, outer-are high, and forearc basin, just as over a subduction zone. Any dark material emplaced (a pastry bag works well) atop the experiment before deformation in the form of football-field `hash marks' every 10 cm allows for easy calculation of strain distribution at any time during or after the experiment. Finally, the entire orogen can be excavated using a plastic photocopier transparency sheet. If the original set-up included occasional thin layers of red and blue field marker chalk within sedimentary column (the rest of which consists of white flour or powdered milk), excavation reveals (quite colorfully) many internal details of the fold-thrust belts that have been generated.

  6. Fault Wear and Friction Evolution: Experimental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boneh, Y.; Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Wear is an inevitable product of frictional sliding of brittle rocks as evidenced by the ubiquitous occurrence of fault gouge and slickenside striations. We present here experimental observations designed to demonstrate the relationship between wear and friction and their governing mechanisms. The experiments were conducted with a rotary shear apparatus on solid, ring-shaped rock samples that slipped for displacements up to tens of meters. Stresses, wear and temperature were continuously monitored. We analyzed 86 experiments of Kasota dolomite, Sierra White granite, Pennsylvania quartzite, Karoo gabbro, and Tennessee sandstone at slip velocities ranging from 0.002 to 0.97 m/s, and normal stress from 0.25 to 6.9 MPa. We conducted two types of runs: short slip experiments (slip distance < 25 mm) primarily on fresh, surface-ground samples, designed to analyze initial wear mechanisms; and long slip experiments (slip distance > 3 m) designed to achieve mature wear conditions and to observe the evolution of wear and friction as the fault surfaces evolved. The experiments reveal three wear stages: initial, running-in, and steady-state. The initial stage is characterized by (1) discrete damage striations, the length of which is comparable to total slip , and local pits or plow features; (2) timing and magnitude of fault-normal dilation corresponds to transient changes of normal and shear stresses; and (3) surface roughness increasing with the applied normal stress. We interpret these observations as wear mechanisms of (a) plowing into the fresh rock surfaces; (b) asperity breakage; and (c) asperity climb. The running-in stage is characterized by (1) intense wear-rate over a critical wear distance of Rd = 0.3-2 m; (2) drop of friction coefficient over a weakening distance of Dc = 0.2-4 m; (3) Rd and Dc display positive, quasi-linear relation with each other. We interpret these observations as indicating the organizing of newly-created wear particles into a 'three-body' structure that acts to lubricate the fault (Reches & Lockner, 2010). The steady-state stage is characterized by (1) relatively low wear-rate (approximately 10% of running-in wear-rate) and (2) quasi-constant friction coefficient. These observations suggest only small changes in the gouge layer in term of thickness (100 to 200 microns) and strength in this final stage. The present study indicates that (1) wear by plowing and asperity failure initiate early, during the first few millimeters of slip; and (2) wear and associated gouge formation appear as the controlling factors of friction evolution and fault weakening.

  7. Lateral Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Spherical Magnetic Particles within Soil Catenas of the Arable Watershed (Tver Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshovskii, Timur; Zhidkin, Andrei; Gennadiev, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very dangerous substances because of their carcinogenic properties. It is important to know the features of PAHs transport and accumulation in soils, especially on agricultural lands. Unfortunately this scientific problem is studied not enough. It is known that predominantly PAHs in soils are sorbed on solid phase particles [2], so redistribution of PAHs should be carried out with transport of soil solid phase matter. For the purpose of assessment of connections between PAHs and soil solid phase transport the lateral distribution of PAHs and spherical magnetic particles (SMP) as tracers of soil solid phase migration has been compared. SMP is the component of fly ash which is used last two decades for quantitative assessment of soil erosion [1]. Studies were conducted in small watershed of south-taiga zone in European part of Russia in Tver region. The watershed has 53 ha, steep slopes, less 50, convex and convexo-concave shapes with ridges and runnels. The watershed lands were plowed up for the last 350-400 years until 1995 year. Predominant soils are Umbric Albeluvisols. Soil samples were selected at four soil catenas (30 points with average distance about 70 meters). Two catenas were on opposite slopes near the road, and other two catenas were located on the opposite slopes (250-400 m from the road). It is revealed that average concentration of PAHs in studied soils are 105 ng/g, and varies from 11 to 770 ng/g, with coefficient of variation 143%. Lateral distribution of PAHs and SMP differs within different catenas, because of various factors influence on PAHs concentrations: 1) amounts of PAHs income, depending on the distance from the source; 2) homogenization of PAHs concentrations within arable layer because of mixing the soil matter due to plowing; 3) vertical transport of PAHs in subarable layers is also connected with plowing and bioturbation; 4) rates of decomposition of PAHs in arable layer, depending on photodestruction and biological activity; 5) transport of PAHs caused by soil erosion. Depending on these factors in different parts of the watershed occurred specific lateral and vertical distribution of PAHs. This research is funded by Russian Scientific Foundation - Project 14-17-00193. 1. Olson K.R., Gennadiyev A.N., Zhidkin A.P., Markelov M.V., Golosov V.N., Lang J.M. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates // Catena. - 2013. - V. 104 - P. 103-110. 2. Tsibart A.S., Gennadiev A.N. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils: Sources, behavior, and indication significance (a review) // Eurasian Soil Sci. - 2013. - V. 46. ?7 - P. 728-741.

  8. Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio depending on soil depth and agrogenic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Manucharova, Natalia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Archaeal communities and their potential roles in the soil ecosystem are affected by a number of soil proprerties and environmental factors. Competitive interactions between Archaea and Bacteria play a particular role in spread and abundance of these two domains. Therefore, the goal of the study was to evaluate the Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio in different soils. The research was carried out at field and natural ecosystems of European part of Russia. Samples were collected within the soil profiles (3-6 horizons) of chernozem and kastanozem with distinctly different agrogenic impact. In situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes (FISH) was used to determine the abundance of metabolically active cells of Archaea and Bacteria. The Cmic, Corg, C/N, DNA content and growth characteristics have been analyzed as well. Determination of number of metabolically active cells in chernozem under arable land and forest revealed that abundance of Archaea in topsoil under forest was higher more than 2 times comparing with arable land, but leveled off in the deeper horizons. Plowing of Chernozem decreased amount of archaeal and bacterial active cells simultaneously, however, Bacteria were more resistant to agrogenic impact than Archaea. Determination of the taxonomic composition within Bacteria domain showed a significant decrease in the abundance of phylogenetic groups Firmicutes and Actinobacteria in the topsoil under arable land comparing to the forest, which is the main reason for the declining of the total amount of prokaryotic cells. In kastanozem significant change in the number of metabolically active cells due to plowing was detected only within 40 cm soil layer, and this effect disappeared in lower horizons. The number of Archaea was higher in the upper horizons of arable as compared to virgin soil. Conversely, the number of Bacteria in the upper layers of the soil after plowing kastanozem decreased. Relationship between soil organic carbon content and the amount of soil metabolically active Bacteria and Archaea cells revealed that distribution of both Bacteria and Archaea throughout the soil profile was governed by organic matter content. Thus, the organic matter content seemed to be the main factor of declining Bacteria-to- Archaea ratio down the profile (from 7.1 to 4.2 for virgin soil and from 5 to 3.9 for arable soil). In conclusion, Archaea out-compete Bacteria under conditions of reduced energy supply.

  9. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three vegetated treatments, CT, MT and NT showed a lower efficiency in reducing water losses than soil losses. Water losses by runoff during a number of events were of the same order of magnitude for all the management systems studied here; which was mainly true when the volume of rainfall was high and the lag between successive events was small. In general, soil losses in the autumn-winter seasons were lower than under the spring-summer seasons. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity. However, the degree of dependence between these two variables decreased as the efficiency of soil management in controlling soil erosion increased. The large soil and water losses in the BS and CT treatments suggest that there is a need to implement soil conservation measures in the study region. In this context soil conservation would take advantage from soil cover by previous crop residue as well as from terrace building. Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

  10. Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a gopher, it periodically stops advancing at the end of the hole to bring excavated material (in this case, a core sample) to the surface, then re-enters the hole to resume the advance of the end of the hole. By use of a cable suspended from a reel on the surface, the gopher is lifted from the hole to remove a core sample, then lowered into the hole to resume the advance and acquire the next core sample.

  11. Effects of chipping, grinding, and heat on survival of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in chips.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Cappaert, David; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor; Smith, Sarah; Pell, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding, chipping, and heat treatment on survival of A. planipennis prepupae in ash material. Heavily infested ash bolts containing roughly 8,700 prepupae were processed by a horizontal grinder with either a 2.5- or 10-cm screen. There was no evidence of A. planipennis survival in chips processed with the 2.5-cm screen, but eight viable prepupae were recovered from chips processed with the 10-cm screen. We chiseled additional sentinel chips with prepupae from ash logs and buried 45 in each chip pile. In total, six prepupae in sentinel chips survived the winter, but we found no sign of adult A. planipennis emergence from the processed chips. Subsequently, we assessed prepupal survival in chips processed by a chipper or a horizontal grinder fit with 5-, 10-, or 12.7-cm screens. An estimated 1,565 A. planipennis prepupae were processed by each treatment. Chips from the chipper were shorter than chips from the grinder regardless of the screen size used. No live prepupae were found in chips produced by the chipper, but 21 viable prepupae were found in chips from the grinder. Infested wood and bark chips chiseled from logs were held in ovens at 25, 40, or 60 degrees C for 8, 24, or 48 h. Prepupal survival was consistently higher in wood chips than bark chips at 40 degrees C, whereas no prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for eight or more hours. In a second study, prepupae in wood chips were exposed to 40, 45, 50, 55, or 60 degrees C for 20 or 120 min. Some prepupae survived 20 min of exposure to all temperatures. No prepupae survived exposure to 60 degrees C for 120 min, but 17% survived exposure to 55 degrees C for 120 min, suggesting that some fraction of the population may survive internationally recognized phytosanitary standards (ISPM-15) for treatment of wood packing material. PMID:17849884

  12. Evaluating TerraSAR-X for the identification of tillage occurrence over an agricultural area in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Anna M.; McNairn, Heather; Merzouki, Amine

    2010-10-01

    Tillage practices can affect the long term sustainability of agricultural soils as well as a variety of soil processes that impact the environment. The benefits of reduced tillage and no-till practices over agriculture fields are well documented and include: (1) significant reductions in wind and water erosion mitigating nutrient and pesticide runoff into waterways; (2) increasing and/or maintaining soil organic matter; (3) increasing biological activity and improving soil structure; and (4) increasing soil carbon and its sequestration. Information on tillage activities assists in implementing policies and programs to promote beneficial management practices (BMPs), and in monitoring the success of these initiatives. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada supports environmentally responsible agriculture and has identified this as one of their priorities. Thus, tillage information requirements have become increasingly important to a number of programs and policies within the department. Rapid, accurate and objective methods are required to map and monitor tillage activities. Earth observing satellites can assist with targeting and monitoring land management activities. For the last decade, research has clearly demonstrated that complementary information provided by both optical and radar satellite sensors are fundamental in developing an agricultural land management monitoring system. Launched in June 2007, the TerraSAR-X is a radar satellite acquiring data at the X-band frequency (9.6 GHz). The application of TerraSAR-X data for conservation tillage mapping has been somewhat limited, and thus this study investigates its use in determining tillage occurrence. An HH-HV TerraSAR-X image was acquired on November 4, 2009 and ground data were also collected characterizing tillage conditions at the time of acquisition. Backscatter responses were analyzed to identify tillage occurrence and to differentiate between untilled, chiseled and moldboard ploughed fields. Preliminary analysis showed that HH polarization can better contribute to tillage discrimination than compared to HV polarization and that the backscatter response can be used to discriminate untilled fields from ones that are moldboard ploughed. However, chiseled fields were often confused with highroughness (rms height~1.30 cm) untilled fields and moldboard ploughed fields. Fully polarimetric X-band radar datasets could potentially contribute more information to mapping tillage conditions.

  13. Dental morphology of early Holocene foragers of North India: non-metric trait frequencies and biological affinities.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, John R; Pal, J N

    2013-12-01

    The biological affinities of semi-nomadic, early to mid-Holocene foragers of the mid-Ganga Plain, North India are undetermined, yet understanding their place in the population history of South Asia is important. Non-metric tooth trait frequencies are reported for three broadly contemporary, bio-culturally similar, and geographically proximate samples, collectively known as Mesolithic Lake Culture (MLC). The Arizona State University - Dental Anthropology System was used to score 43 tooth-trait combinations (23 maxillary; 21 mandibular). Non-metric trait frequencies are used to determine biological affinities of MLC to a global sample of living populations and to prehistoric and living groups of South Asia. The MLC dental pattern includes lightly sculpted upper incisors in which labial curvature, lingual shoveling, and tuberculum dentale exhibit low grades of expression and low-moderate frequencies. First molars have full-sized hypocones with slight reduction in M2 and M3. Accessory cusps are infrequent and small. Mandibular teeth are morphologically simple and retain conservative attributes. Incisors and canines exhibit weak shoveling. Molar accessory cusps are infrequent, though C-6 attains moderate grades in M3. The molar series (M1:M2:M3) has an Y:X:X groove pattern and 5:4:4 cusp number. Upper M3 agenesis (5%) is less common than lower M3 agenesis (10.0%). Smith's Mean Measure of Divergence (MMD) and Ward's minimum variance cluster methods are used to assess inter-group bio-distance in global and regional South Asian settings. In the global comparison, multi-dimensionally scaled MMD values reveal three groups: African, Asian, and a third group composed of MLC, prehistoric South Asians, and European samples. Within South Asia, MMD and cluster analysis find MLC's closest affinities to the Chenchu, a living tribal group of Andhra Pradesh. This result contradicts earlier assertions based on osteological assessment that descendants of Mesolithic foragers of North India (MLC) cannot be identified in the Indian subcontinent. The next closest affinity is with Chalcolithic and Neolithic groups of Pakistan and with a late Chalcolithic group (INM) of west central India. As knowledge of the dental morphology of living and prehistoric South Asians increases, the population history of the subcontinent and its role in understanding world-wide patterns of migration will be clarified. PMID:24050393

  14. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

    2014-03-01

    Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism plays an import role in avalanche formation. When gradients based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, faceting close to a crust can be observed. Recent studies that visualised small-scale (< 10 cm) thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR) camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large-scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within these studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or shovel produced small concavities (holes) even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which was only observed at times during a strong cooling/warming of the exposed pit wall. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed more slowly compared with convex areas (bumps) when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative and/or turbulent energy transfer at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of using a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly during windy conditions, clear skies and large temperature differences between air and snow. At crusts or other heterogeneities, we were unable to create a sufficiently planar snow pit surface and non-internal gradients appeared at the exposed surface. The immediate adjustment of snow pit temperature as it reacts with the atmosphere complicates the capture of the internal thermal structure of a snowpack with thermal videos. Instead, the shown structural dependency of the IR signal may be used to detect structural changes of snow caused by kinetic metamorphism. The IR signal can also be used to measure near surface temperatures in a homogenous new snow layer.

  15. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

    2013-10-01

    Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism is important for avalanche formation. Even when gradients appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart, faceting close to a~crust can still be observed. Recent studies that visualized small scale (< 10 cm) thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR) camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within the studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and at artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or a shovel produced small concavities (holes) even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which is only observed at times with large temperature differences between air and snow. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed slower compared with convex areas (bumps) when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative transfer or convection by air at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of the use of a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly in scenarios where large gradients exist between air and snow and the interaction of snow pit and atmospheric temperatures are enhanced. At crusts or other heterogeneities, we were unable to create a sufficiently homogenous snow pit surface and non-internal gradients appeared at the exposed surface. The immediate adjustment of snow pit temperature as it reacts with the atmosphere complicates the capture of the internal thermal structure of a snowpack even with thermal videos. Instead, the shown structural dependency of the IR signal may be used to detect structural changes of snow caused by kinetic metamorphism. The IR signal can also be used to measure near surface temperatures in a homogenous new snow layer.

  16. Ultrarelativistic electromagnetic pulses in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Tajima, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Kennel, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The physical processes of a linearly polarized electromagnetic pulse of highly relativistic amplitude in an underdense plasma accelerating particles to very high energies are studied through computer simulation. An electron-positron plasma is considered first. The maximum momenta achieved scale as the square of the wave amplitude. This acceleration stops when the bulk of the wave energy is converted to particle energy. The pulse leaves behind as a wake a vacuum region whose length scales as the amplitude of the wave. The results can be explained in terms of a snow plow or piston-like action of the radiation on the plasma. When a mass ratio other than unity is chosen and electrostatic effects begin to play a role, first the ion energy increases faster than the electron energy and then the electron energy catches up later, eventually reaching the same value.

  17. Tribological behavior of Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings deposited by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Guizhi; Ma Shengli; Xu Kewei; Chu, Paul K

    2012-03-15

    Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings are deposited on high speed steel by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering, and the hardness, adhesion, and tribological behavior are studied. On account of the nanocomposite structure, the coatings possess hardness of more than 30 GPa. Failure of the coating during the scratch test is due to the buckling and wedge spallation failure mechanism. Compared to Ti-Al-Si-N, the presence of C in the Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings leads to reduced friction coefficient and wear rate, indicating effective lubrication rendered by amorphous C. According to the wear tracks examined by scanning electron microscopy, the wear mechanism can be explained by plowing abrasion.

  18. Effects of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and its influence on the topography of the Fe thin film grown in pulsed laser deposition facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, S.; Rawat, R. S.; Wang, Y.; Lee, S.; Tan, T. L.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, P.; Zakaullah, M.

    2012-10-15

    The effect of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in laser induced Fe plasma is investigated using time-resolved fast gated imaging. The snow plow and shock wave models are fitted to the experimental results and used to estimate the ablation parameters and the density of gas atoms that interact with the ablated species. It is observed that RT instability develops during the interface deceleration stage and grows for a considerable time for higher laser energy fluence. The effects of RT instabilities formation on the surface topography of the Fe thin films grown in pulsed laser deposition system are investigated (i) using different laser energy fluences for the same wavelength of laser radiation and (ii) using different laser wavelengths keeping the energy fluence fixed. It is concluded that the deposition achieved under turbulent condition leads to less smooth deposition surfaces with bigger sized particle agglomerates or network.

  19. Dry Sliding Wear Characteristics of Gravity Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, Palash; Das, Arpan; Sahoo, K. L.

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with the wear behavior of conventional cast Mg-Sn-based alloys. The alloys were studied through pin- on- disk wear test under four different loading conditions; namely, 9.8, 19.6, 29.4, and 39.2 N. The study highlights the cumulative wear loss, volumetric wear loss, dry sliding wear rate, and coefficient of friction of the alloys. The volumetric wear increased with increasing applied load. The wear mechanism was studied with scanning electron microscope. The wear occurs mainly by plowing mechanism and also by delamination. During wear, extensive plastic deformation and work hardening occurred. Microstructural analysis has been carried out for all the alloys at different loading conditions.

  20. Multidimensional Simulations of Colliding Outbursts from very Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan

    2015-08-01

    Massive stars that end their lives with helium cores in the range of 35 to 65 solar masses are known to produce repeated thermonuclear outbursts due to a recurring pair-instability. In some of these events, solar masses of material are ejected in repeated outbursts of several times 1050 erg each. Such models can be used to explain the strong mass loss rates at the last moment before the massive stars die. Collisions between these shells can sometimes produce very luminous transients. Previous 1D studies of these events produce thin,high-density shells as one ejection plows into another. We present the first multidimensional simulations of these collisions, we show that the development of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability truncates the growth of the high density spike and drives mixing between the shells.

  1. [Effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and quality and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency].

    PubMed

    Ma, Fu-Liang; Song, Fu-Peng; Gao, Yang; Zou, Peng

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers on wheat yield and its quality, plow layer soil inorganic nitrogen (N) contents, and fertilizer N use efficiency. Compared with traditional urea fertilizer, both sulfur- and polymer-coated controlled release urea fertilizers increased the grain yield by 10.4%-16.5%, and the grain protein and starch contents by 5.8%-18.9% and 0.3%-1.4%, respectively. The controlled release urea fertilizers could maintain the topsoil inorganic N contents to meet the N requirement for the wheat, especially during its late growth stage. In the meantime, the fertilizer N use efficiency was improved by 58.2%-101.2%. Polymer-coated urea produced better wheat yield and higher fertilizer N use efficiency, compared with sulfur-coated controlled release urea. PMID:22489481

  2. The uses of ERTS-1 imagery in the analysis of landscape change. [agriculture, strip mining forests, urban-suburban growth, and flooding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The analysis of strip mining from ERTS-1 data has resulted in the mapping of landscape changes for the Cumberland Plateau Test Site. Several mapping experiments utilizing ERTS-1 data have been established for the mapping of state-wide land use regions. The first incorporates 12 frames of ERTS-1 imagery for the generalized thematic mapping of forest cover for the state of Tennessee. In another mapping effort, 14 ERTS-1 images have been analyzed for plowed ground signatures to produce a map of agricultural regions for Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern portions of Mississippi and Alabama. Generalized urban land use categories and transportation networks have been determined from ERTS-1 imagery for the Knoxville Test Site. Finally, through the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery, short-lived phenomena such as the 1973 spring floods on the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, have been detected, monitored, and mapped.

  3. Application of magnetic tracer method for quantification of pedoturbations in soils under different land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkin, Andrey; Gennadiyev, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Pedoturbations are widely known and good classified by scientists. It is known 10 types of pedoturbations, allocated by F.D. Hole (1961) and supplemented by D.L. Johnson and collaborators (1987). They influence on many soil properties and also on migration substances (including pollutants). But there is a lack of data of quantitative assessments of pedoturbations especially in soils under different land use. In this paper are shown approaches for the use of magnetic tracer method for assessments of pedoturbation processes. This method is widely spread for study lateral solid phase soil matter (soil erosion), but first use for study pedoturbations. Magnetic tracer method is based on study of spherical magnetic particles (SMP) in soils. Origin of SMP is mainly connected with atmospheric deposition of fly ash, resulting from coal burning in steam engines of locomotives and thermal electric power stations. The period of active emission of SMP is the last 150 years. Magnetic spherules are stable and resistant to soil weathering and can be preserved in soils for decades without any clear signs of destruction. In European part of Russia and Middle West USA were analyzed 63 soil profiles under virgin forest and steppe vegetation and croplands. Vertical distribution of SMP in the upper 30 cm divided into 5 types: a) residually accumulative, b) not uniform with maximum in the upper 10 cm, c) not uniform with maximum in the 10-20 cm, d) not uniform with maximum in the 20-30 cm, e) gomogeneous. Vertical distribution of SMP reflects intensity of pedoturbations, because SMP migrate into the soils only from the atmospheric depositions. Labeled types of SMP vertical distribution are listed in order of increasing intensity of the pedoturbation. Most intensive pedoturbations are detected in arable soils. Depending on the region arable soils characterized by highest percentage of soil profiles with homogenous type of SMP distribution (up to 17%) and lowest percentage of soil profiles with residually accumulative SMP distribution (15-75%). Revealed the important role of type of plowing. On two sites in Russia with depleted type of plowing detected very high intensity of pedoturbation - homogenous type of SMP distribution was in 8-17% of soils and accumulative type - in 15-25%. Otherwise on two sites in the Middle West USA with moldboard type of plowing, homogenous type was much less (in 0-8% of soils) and accumulative type was 2-3 times more (55-75%). In virgin soils intensity of pedoturbations is much less, homogenous type of SMP distribution is not detected in any soil profiles. Furthermore on two virgin forest sites in USA and Russia percentage of soils with initial accumulative type of SMP distribution was 100%. On site in virgin steppe region of Russia - 85% of soils characterized by initial accumulative type and other 15% by not uniform with maximum in the upper 10 cm. Only on one site in forest region of Russia percentage of initial accumulative type of SMP distribution was rather low and even less than on arable soils with moldboard type of plowing - 67%.

  4. Brine release based on structural calculations of damage around an excavation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Jensen, A.L.; Webb, S.W.; DeVries, K.L.

    1996-02-01

    In a large in situ experimntal circular room, brine inflow was measured over 5 years. After correcting for evaporation losses into mine ventilation air, the measurements gave data for a period of nearly 3 years. Predicted brine accumulation based on a mechanical ``snow plow`` model of the volume swept by creep-induced damage as calculated with the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model was found to agree with experiment. Calculation suggests the damage zone at 5 years effectively exends only some 0.7 m into the salt around the room. Also, because the mecahnical model of brine release gives an adequate explanation of the measured data, the hydrological process of brine flow appears to be rapid compared to the mechanical process of brine release.

  5. Investigation of Spatial Distribution of Radiocesium in a Paddy Field as a Potential Sink

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Surface soils, under various land uses, were contaminated by radionuclides that were released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Because paddy fields are one of the main land uses in Japan, we investigated the spatial distribution of radiocesium and the influence of irrigation water in a paddy field during cultivation. Soil core samples collected at a paddy field in Fukushima showed that plowing had disturbed the original depth distribution of radiocesium. The horizontal distribution of radiocesium did not show any evidence for significant influence of radiocesium from irrigation water, and its accumulation within the paddy field, since the original amount of radiocesium was much larger than was added into the paddy field by irrigation water. However, it is possible that rainfall significantly increases the loading of radiocesium. PMID:24260481

  6. Aerodynamic roughness length related to non-aggregated tillage ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardous, M.; Bergametti, G.; Marticorena, B.

    2005-11-01

    Wind erosion in agricultural soils is dependent, in part, on the aerodynamic roughness length (z0) produced by tillage ridges. Although previous studies have related z0 to ridge characteristics (ridge height (RH) and spacing (RS)), these relationships have not been tested for tillage ridges observed in the North African agricultural fields. In these regions, due to climate and soil conditions, small plowing tools are largely used. Most of these tools produce non-aggregated and closely-spaced small ridges. Thus, experiments were conducted in a 7-m long wind tunnel to measure z0 for 11 ridge types covering the range of geometric characteristics frequently observed in south Tunisia. Experimental results suggest that RH2/RS is the first order parameter controlling z0. A strong relationship between z0 and RH2/RS is proposed for a wide range of ridge characteristics.

  7. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Southern California deserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main objective is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (i.e., crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to data has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

  9. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  10. Impact of reclamation treatment on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, L. V.; Khamova, O. F.; Paderina, E. V.; Gindemit, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The abundance and activity of the soil microflora were studied in a field experiment with the use of green manure crops to assess the impact of reclamation measures on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex. The number of microorganisms in the plow soil horizon increased in the background of the green fallows as compared to the black ones. Coefficients of mineralization, immobilization, and transformation of organic compounds were calculated for different variants of the soil treatment. The value of the mineralization coefficient indicates the intense decomposition of the green manure that entered the soil. In the first year, peas were actively decomposed, while oats, in the second year (aftereffect). The activity of the soil enzymes (invertase, urease, and catalase) was determined. A close relationship between the catalase activity and the intensity of the microbiological processes in the soils was revealed.

  11. Language Technologies: Question Answering in Speech Transcripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmo, Jordi; Surdeanu, Mihai; Galibert, Olivier; Rosset, Sophie

    The question answering (QA) task consists of providing short, relevant answers to natural language questions. Most QA research has focused on extracting information from text sources, providing the shortest relevant text in response to a question. For example, the correct answer to the question, “How many groups participate in the CHIL project?” is “15”, whereas the response to “Who are the partners in CHIL?” is a list of them. This simple example illustrates the two main advantages of QA over current search engines: First, the input is a natural-language question rather a keyword query; and second, the answer provides the desired information content and not simply a potentially large set of documents or URLs that the user must plow through.

  12. A physically-based abrasive wear model for composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gun Y.; Dharan, C.K.H.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2001-05-01

    A simple physically-based model for the abrasive wear of composite materials is presented based on the mechanics and mechanisms associated with sliding wear in soft (ductile) matrix composites containing hard (brittle) reinforcement particles. The model is based on the assumption that any portion of the reinforcement that is removed as wear debris cannot contribute to the wear resistance of the matrix material. The size of this non-contributing portion of the reinforcement is estimated by modeling the three primary wear mechanisms, specifically plowing, interfacial cracking and particle removal. Critical variables describing the role of the reinforcement, such as its relative size and the nature of the matrix/reinforcement interface, are characterized by a single contribution coefficient, C. Predictions are compared with the results of experimental two-body (pin-on drum) abrasive wear tests performed on a model aluminum particulate-reinforced epoxy matrix composite material.

  13. A summary of Viking sample-trench analyses for angles of internal friction and cohesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Clow, G. D.; Hutton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Analyses of sample trenches excavated on Mars, using a theory for plowing by narrow blades, provide estimates of the angles of internal friction and the cohesions of the Martian surface materials. Angles of internal friction appear to be the same as those of many terrestrial soils because they are generally between 27 degrees and 39 degrees. Drift material, at the Lander 1 site, has a low angle of internal friction (near 18 degrees). All the materials excavated have low cohesions, generally between 0.2 and 10 kPa. The occurrence of cross bedding, layers of crusts, and blocky slabs shows that these materials are heterogeneous and that they contain planes of weakness. The results reported here have significant implications for future landed missions, Martian eolian processes, and interpretation of infrared temperatures.

  14. Timing of x-ray burst from X-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shen; Zhang, Ran; Zhu, Xinlei; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-06-15

    The x-ray burst timings of X-pinches, T{sub XB}, made using eight different wires for different current were measured. The results showed that a higher current makes a shorter T{sub XB} for a given X-pinch wire. In other words, T{sub XB} scales linearly with the line mass density for a given current. Based on the snow-plow model for Z-pinch plasma, it was derived that for a given X-pinch wire the integral of the current over time from zero to T{sub XB} is constant, i.e., ?{sub 0}{sup T{sub X}{sub B}}i(t)?dt=const.. This theoretically derived relation was confirmed by our experiments.

  15. Slurry Erosion Performance Study of Detonation Gun-Sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr Coatings on CF8M Steel Under Hydro-Accelerated Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Sanjeev; Singh, Harpreet; Kumar, Harmesh; Rastogi, Vikas

    2012-09-01

    In the current investigation, cermet coatings (WC-10Co-4Cr) were deposited on CF8M steel by detonation gun (D-gun) thermal spraying process. Subsequently, the slurry erosion behaviors of the coated and bare steels were investigated using a high-speed erosion test rig. Slurry collected from an actual hydro power plant was used as the abrasive media. Effects of concentration (ppm), average particle sizes and rotational speed on the slurry erosion behaviors of coated and bare steels under different experimental conditions were studied. The analysis of eroded samples was done using SEM and stylus profilometry. Signatures of microcutting, fracture of well-bonded WC grains, and fragmentations were observed on the eroded surface of WC-10Co-4Cr coating, while signatures of formation of plowing, lips, shearing of platelet, formation of crater, and micro-cutting were observed on the eroded surface of CF8M steel.

  16. An Unremembered Diversity: Mixed Husbandry and the American Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    SYLVESTER, KENNETH; CUNFER, GEOFF

    2009-01-01

    The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about a dramatic rise in global crop yields. But, as most observers acknowledge, this has come at a considerable cost to biodiversity. Plant breeding, synthetic fertilizers, and mechanization steadily narrowed the number of crop varieties commercially available to farmers and promoted fencerow-to-fencerow monocultures. Many historians trace the origins of this style of industrialized agriculture to the last great plow-up of the Great Plains in the 1920s. In the literature, farms in the plains are often described metaphorically as wheat factories, degrading successive landscapes. While in many ways these farms were a departure from earlier forms of husbandry in the American experience, monocultures were quite rare during the early transformation of the plains. Analysis of a large representative sample, based on manuscript agricultural censuses and involving twenty-five townships across the state of Kansas, demonstrates that diverse production reached even the most challenging of plains landscapes. PMID:19839113

  17. [Advances in studies on accumulation and leaching of nitrate in farming soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingzhong; Chen, Xin; Shen, Shanmin

    2002-02-01

    Nitrate leaching in farming soil is the main reason resulting in ground water pollution of nitrate. The main factors, which can affect nitrate accumulation and leaching greatly, include fertilization, precipitation, irrigation, soil characteristics, and cultivation system. Superfluous nitrogen in soil caused either by using chemical fertilizer and manure solely or compost will result in nitrate accumulation. Cultivation and plow systems also can affect the process of nitrate accumulating and leaching. Down flows due to irrigation or precipitation are the necessary condition and carrier for transference and leaching of accumulated nitrate in soil. Great pores are the main channels for down flows. These factors always work corporately. Mathematical model, which has been developed quickly and used widely, may be a good method to study and predict nitrate leaching in farming land. PMID:11993135

  18. Hydrologic modeling to screen potential environmental management methods for malaria vector control in Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L.; Bomblies, Arne; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the first use of Hydrology-Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a physically based distributed hydrology model, to investigate environmental management methods for malaria vector control in the Sahelian village of Banizoumbou, Niger. The investigation showed that leveling of topographic depressions where temporary breeding habitats form during the rainy season, by altering pool basin microtopography, could reduce the pool persistence time to less than the time needed for establishment of mosquito breeding, approximately 7 days. Undertaking soil surface plowing can also reduce pool persistence time by increasing the infiltration rate through an existing pool basin. Reduction of the pool persistence time to less than the rainfall interstorm period increases the frequency of pool drying events, removing habitat for subadult mosquitoes. Both management approaches could potentially be considered within a given context. This investigation demonstrates that management methods that modify the hydrologic environment have significant potential to contribute to malaria vector control in water-limited, Sahelian Africa.

  19. A method for sampling waste corn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  20. Control of Structure in Conventional Friction Stir Welds through a Kinematic Theory of Metal Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubisoff, H.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Nunes, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating pin is translated along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. Metal is prevented from flowing up the pin, which would result in plowing/cutting instead of welding, by a shoulder on the pin. In conventional FSW, the weld metal rests on an "anvil", which supports the heavy "plunge" load on the tool. In this study, both embedded tungsten wires along and copper plating on the faying surfaces were used to trace the flow of AA2219 weld metal around the C-FSW tool. The effect of tool rotational speed, travel speed, plunge load, and pin thread pitch on the resulting weld metal flow was evaluated. Plan, longitudinal, and transverse section x-ray radiographs were examined to trace the metal flow paths. The results are interpreted in terms of a kinematic theory of metal flow in FSW.

  1. The Kansas Plains

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Karen P.

    1973-01-01

    to them as it bore g r e a t e r r e s e m b l a n c e to the land back e a s t . T h e s e t r a v e l l e r s a l s o wrote bleak d e s c r i p t i o n s of the region. Some s e t t l e m e n t , however , gradual ly spi l led out of the wood­ ed r i... with a plow, could be used to c o n s t r u c t houses and f e n c e s . In some regions stone instead of t i m b e r could be used. Someone l earned through the s c a r c i t y of wood that buffalo chips would burn. Gradual ly these people applied...

  2. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Imperial Valley, Coachella Valley, and Palo Verde Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to date has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

  3. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (principal investigator); Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Davis, G. R.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from twelve successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay have been analyzed with special emphasis on coastal vegetation, land use, current circulation, water turbidity and pollution dispersion. Secchi depth, suspended sediment concentration and transmissivity as measured from helicopters and boats were correlated with ERTS-1 image radiance. Multispectral signatures of acid disposal plumes, sediment plumes and slick were investigated. Ten vegetative cover and water discrimination classes were selected for mapping: (1) forest-land; (2) Phragmites communis; (3) Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata; (4) Spartina alterniflora; (5) cropland; (6) plowed cropland; (7) sand and bare sandy soil; (8) bare mud; (9) deep water; and (10) sediment-laden and shallow water. Canonical analysis predicted good classification accuracies for most categories. The actual classification accuracies were very close to the predicted values with 8 of 10 categories classified with greater than 90% accuracy indicating that representative training sets had been selected.

  4. Soil inorganic carbon sequestration as a result of cultivation in the mollisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailova, Elena; Post, Christopher; Cihacek, Larry; Ulmer, Michael

    Soil inorganic carbon stock and its response to land use in grassland ecosystems are poorly understood. A detailed examination of soil organic and inorganic carbon distribution at depth in Mollisols of the U.S. Northern Great Plains and the Russian Chernozem shows that cultivation of these soils decreased soil organic stock and increased soil inorganic carbon stock. The global significance of these results is that one of the most fertile and productive agricultural soils in the world that was initially native grasslands incorporated massive amounts of organic matter into the soil during cultivation. This dramatic event (going from equilibrium native grassland state to being plowed) caused a loss of organic carbon, and our analysis indicates that there may have been a corresponding gain of soil inorganic carbon in fertile calcium rich soils in the temperate grassland ecosystem. Mollisols may be a significant sink of inorganic carbon through pedogenic carbonate formation, which may partially offset carbon loss from soil organic matter decomposition.

  5. Responses of Active Bacterial and Fungal Communities in Soils under Winter Wheat to Different Fertilizer and Pesticide Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Girvan, Martina S.; Bullimore, Juliet; Ball, Andrew S.; Pretty, Jules N.; Osborn, A. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The composition of the active microbial (bacterial and fungal) soil community in an arable wheat field subjected to different management practices was examined at five times during a 1-year period. Field sections were fertilized either at good agricultural practice (GAP) levels or at reduced levels (0.5× GAP) and were inoculated with vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) at the same time. Field subsections were treated either with or without pesticides. Changes in the active microbial communities were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of reverse transcription-PCR-amplified 16S and 18S rRNA. Microbial community structure was primarily determined by season, and the seasonal trends were similar for the fungal and bacterial components. Between-sample microbial heterogeneity decreased under a mature crop in the summer but increased following harvesting and plowing. Although similar overall trends were seen for the two microbial components, sample variability was greater for the fungal community than for the bacterial community. The greatest management effects were due to GAP fertilization, which caused increases in the bacterial numbers in the total and culturable communities. Microbial biomass similarly increased. GAP fertilization also caused large shifts in both the active bacterial community structure and the active fungal community structure and additionally resulted in a decrease in the heterogeneity of the active bacterial community. Pesticide addition did not significantly affect bacterial numbers or heterogeneity, but it led to major shifts in the active soil bacterial community structure. PCR primers specific for Glomales 25S rRNA genes were used to monitor the VAM population following inoculation. Glomales were detected initially only in VAM-inoculated field sections but were subsequently detected in noninoculated field sections as the season progressed. After plowing, the level of Glomales was reduced in noninoculated field sections but remained high in VAM-inoculated field sections. Inoculation of VAM correlated with elevated soil phosphate and carbon levels. PMID:15128520

  6. Effects of agricultural land-management practices on water quality in northeastern Guilford County, North Carolina, 1985-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different agricultural land- management practices on sediment, nutrients, and selected pesticides in surface water, and on nutrients and pesticides in ground water were studied in four small basins in the Piedmont of North Carolina. The basins included two adjacent basins in row-crop fields, a mixed land-use basin, and a forested basin. One of the row-crop fields was farmed using conservation land-management practices, including strip cropping, contour plowing, field borders, and grassed waterways. The other field was farmed using standard land- management practices, including continuous cropping, straight-row plowing, and ungrassed waterways. The sediment yield for the standard land-management basin was 2.3 times that for the conservation land-management basin, 14.1 times that for the mixed land-use basin, and 19.5 times that for the forested basin. Nutrient concentra- tions in surface water from the row-crop and mixed land-use basins were higher than those in surface water for the forested basin. Nutrient concentra- tions in soil water and ground water beneath the row-crop basins were lower than those in surface- water runoff for these basins. The lowest nutrient concentrations measured in the row-crop basins generally were in soil-water samples collected just below the root zone (3-foot depth) and in ground water. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were identified between the surface-water runoff from the standard land- management basin and that from the conservation land-management basin. Concentrations of the soil pesticides isopropalin and flumetralin were higher in the standard land-management basin than in the conservation land-management basin.

  7. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  8. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, K. W. Jr.; Kobrick, R. L.; Klaus, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume- displacement metrics was systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to denote statistically the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction. From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the plowed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof-of-concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. When reviewing existing data analysis techniques for conducting two-body abrasive scratch tests, it was found that the ASTM International Standard G 171 specified a generic metric based only on visually determined scratch width as a way to compare abraded materials. A limitation to this method was identified in that the scratch width is based on optical surface measurements, manually defined by approximating the boundaries, but does not consider the three-dimensional volume of material that was displaced. With large, potentially irregular deformations occurring on softer materials, it becomes unclear where to systematically determine the scratch width. Specifically, surface scratches on different samples may look the same from a top view, resulting in an identical scratch width measurement, but may vary in actual penetration depth and/or plowing deformation. Therefore, two different scratch profiles would be measured as having identical abrasion properties, although they differ significantly.

  9. Stellar Interlopers Caught Speeding Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Click on individual image for larger view

    Resembling comets streaking across the sky, these four speedy stars are plowing through regions of dense interstellar gas and creating brilliant arrowhead structures and trailing tails of glowing gas.

    These bright arrowheads, or bow shocks, can be seen in these four images taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The bow shocks form when the stars' powerful stellar winds, streams of matter flowing from the stars, slam into surrounding dense gas. The phenomenon is similar to that seen when a speeding boat pushes through water on a lake.

    The stars in these images are among 13 runaway stars spotted by Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys. The stars appear to be young, just millions of years old. Their ages are based on their colors and the presence of strong stellar winds, a signature of youthful stars.

    Depending on their distance from Earth, the bullet-nosed bow shocks could be 100 billion to a trillion miles wide (the equivalent of 17 to 170 solar system diameters, measured out to Neptune's orbit). The bow shocks indicate that the stars are moving fast, more than 180,000 kilometers an hour (more than 112,000 miles an hour) with respect to the dense gas they are plowing through. They are traveling roughly five times faster than typical young stars, relative to their surroundings.

    The high-speed stars have traveled far from their birth places. Assuming their youthful phase lasts only a million years and they are moving at roughly 180,000 kilometers an hour, the stars have journeyed 160 light-years.

    The Hubble observations were taken between October 2005 and July 2006.

  10. New hydrologic instrumentation in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, V.J.; Shope, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    New water-level sensing and recording instrumentation is being used by the U.S. Geological Survey for monitoring water levels, stream velocities, and water-quality characteristics. Several of these instruments are briefly described. The Basic Data Recorder (BDR) is an electronic data logger, that interfaces to sensor systems through a serial-digital interface standard (SDI-12), which was proposed by the data-logger industry; the Incremental Shaft Encoder is an intelligent water-level sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12; the Pressure Sensor is an intelligent, nonsubmersible pressure sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12 and monitors water levels from 0 to 50 feet; the Ultrasonic Velocity Meter is an intelligent, water-velocity sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12 and measures the velocity across a stream up to 500 feet in width; the Collapsible Hand Sampler can be collapsed for insertion through holes in the ice and opened under the ice to collect a water sample; the Lighweight Ice Auger, weighing only 32 pounds, can auger 6- and 8-inch holes through approximately 3.5 feet of ice; and the Ice Chisel has a specially hardened steel blade and 6-foot long, hickory D-handle.

  11. Improvised source of water coolant for ultrasonic scaler: an appropriate technology in underserved communities.

    PubMed

    Ibiyemi, Olushola; Taiwo, Juliana O; Oke, Gbemisola A

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally dental plaque, calculus and stains have been removed by scaling and polishing manually with hand instruments such as curettes, chisels, hoes and scalers. However, ultrasonic scaling is becoming the preferred method of initial periodontal treatment and maintenance, due to improved patient and operator comfort. Ultrasonic scaling can be performed effectively using pipe-borne water as coolant. However, such a water supply is unavailable in many rural dental clinics, especially in underserved communities in Nigeria. This article reports on an improvised source of water coolant, designed and fabricated to make modern, easy and effective plaque control available to people in communities where there is no pipe-borne water. The device will improve operator efficiency in tooth cleaning and patient compliance with treatment. Due to its simple design but effective function, the device is ideal for use in Nigeria's primary healthcare delivery program, offering enhanced preventive and curative services to remote, rural and semi-urban populations. In doing so oral health can be improved with a reduction in the incidence of oral diseases. PMID:23276120

  12. Skirted projectiles for railguns

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, R.S.; Susoeff, A.R.

    1994-01-04

    A single skirt projectile (20) having an insulating skirt (22) at its rear, or a dual trailing skirt projectile (30, 40, 50, 60) having an insulating skirt (32, 42, 52, 62) succeeded by an arc extinguishing skirt (34, 44, 54, 64), is accelerated by a railgun accelerator 10 having a pair of parallel conducting rails (1a, 1b) which are separated by insulating wall spacers (11). The insulating skirt (22, 32, 42, 52, 62) includes a plasma channel (38). The arc extinguishing skirt (34, 44, 54, 64) interrupts the conduction that occurs in the insulating skirt channel (38) by blocking the plasma arc (3) from conducting current from rail to rail (1a, 1b) at the rear of the projectile (30, 40, 50, 60). The arc extinguishing skirt may be comprised of two plates (36a, 36b) which form a horseshoe wherein the plates are parallel to the rails (1a, b); a chisel-shape design; cross-shaped, or it may be a cylindrical (64). The length of the insulating skirt channel is selected such that there is sufficient plasma in the channel to enable adequate current conduction between the rails (1a, 1b).

  13. Laser Scanning of a Monolithic Column during Processing in Middle Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajioka, O.; Hori, Y.

    2011-09-01

    From ancient quarries around Akoris in Middle Egypt, which belong to the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, the stone blocks could be carried to the working area located in the outside of the city. Those blocks included a giant monolithic column measured approximately 14m in length, which had been cracked for reasons unknown and must have contributed to disuse of monolith. The first deal is a comparison of plans drawn by the point clouds by laser scanning with those coming from plane-tabling, which had been one of popular methods for measuring in the last century. This part shows how the laser scanning technology is useful in far better measuring and documentation of the site. The second discuss is about a detailed assessment of the procedure of processing through the observation of chisel marks and the detail analysis about the 3 dimensional data. In the result, we are succeed to show the restoration of the procedure of the proceedings using guidelines and a wooden curve since we concentrate attention on the point of abstracting the centre line and shaving the surface into the round shape.

  14. Chewing through the Miocene: an examination of the feeding musculature in the ground sloth Hapalops from South America (Mammalia: Pilosa)

    PubMed Central

    Naples, Virginia L.; McAfee, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Hapalops, a smaller-sized and early sloth of the Megatheroidea, appeared in the middle Miocene Santa Cruz formation of Argentina. This genus is part of the group from which later, larger megatheroids arose, i.e., Nothrotheriops and Megatherium. Many cranial characters support this idea; however Hapalops is not merely a smaller antecedent of the later forms. Specifically, Hapalops retains short anterior caniniform teeth, and a temporomandibular joint elevated above the cheek tooth row; a combination distinct among sloths. An elevated temporomandibular joint occurs in Bradypus, a tree sloth with anterior chisel-shaped teeth instead of caniniforms, and the tree sloth Choloepus, which is aligned with the megalonychids, has anterior caniniforms. Hapalops has an elongated zygomatic ascending process that is reminiscent of that in Bradypus; however, the Bradypus skull is extremely foreshortened while that of Hapalops is elongated, as in nothrotheres, but not deepened as in megatheres. Previous work identified many sloth cranial character complexes, and functional limitations on skull feature combinations. The unique Hapalops character patterns indicate a selective feeder with a mediolaterally oriented grinding stroke during mastication. PMID:25075299

  15. Acoustic microscopy of internal structure of resistance spot welds.

    PubMed

    Chertov, Andrey M; Maev, Roman G; Severin, Fedar M

    2007-08-01

    Acoustic microscopy, although relatively new, has many advantages within the industrial quality control process. Its high degree of sensitivity, resolution, and reliability make it ideal for use in resistance spot weld analysis, aiding in visualization of small-scale nugget failures, as well as other defects, at various depths. Acoustic microscopy makes it possible to inspect fine detail of internal structures, providing reliable inspection and characterization of weld joints. Besides weld size measurements, this technique is able to provide high resolution, three-dimensional images of the weld nuggets, revealing possible imperfections within its microstructure that may affect joint quality. The high degree of accuracy allows one to consider the results of acoustic microscopy an authoritative measure of weld size, particularly in the case of high strength steels, dual phase steel, USIBOR steel, etc. Indeed, this technique is effective even when both conventional ultrasound and hammer and chisel methods are not. In this paper, the potential of scanning acoustic microscopy as a means to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the internal microstructure of the resistance spot welds is demonstrated. Thus, acoustic microscopy is shown to be a unique and effective laboratory instrument for the evaluation and calibration of weld quality. PMID:17703655

  16. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  17. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains: RZWQM simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shipitalo, Martin J.; Malone, Robert W.; Ma, Liwang; Nolan, Bernard T.; Kanwar, Rameshwar S.; Shaner, Dale L.; Pederson, Carl H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Crop residue removal for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties and the movement of agrochemicals to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), previously calibrated using measured flow and atrazine concentrations in drainage from a 0.4 ha chisel-tilled plot, was used to investigate effects of 50 and 100% corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest and the accompanying reductions in soil crust hydraulic conductivity and total macroporosity on transport of atrazine, metolachlor, and metolachlor oxanilic acid (OXA). RESULTS The model accurately simulated field-measured metolachlor transport in drainage. A 3-yr simulation indicated that 50% residue removal decreased subsurface drainage by 31% and increased atrazine and metolachlor transport in drainage 4 to 5-fold when surface crust conductivity and macroporosity were reduced by 25%. Based on its measured sorption coefficient, ~ 2-fold reductions in OXA losses were simulated with residue removal. CONCLUSION RZWQM indicated that if corn stover harvest reduces crust conductivity and soil macroporosity, losses of atrazine and metolachlor in subsurface drainage will increase due to reduced sorption related to more water moving through fewer macropores. Losses of the metolachlor degradation product OXA will decrease due to the more rapid movement of the parent compound into the soil.

  18. Development of a tungsten heavy alloy that fails by an adiabatic shear mechanism. Phase 1. Final report, 1 January-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Guha, S.; Kyriacou, C.; Withers, J.C.; Loutfy, R.O.

    1993-04-01

    Kinetic Energy penetrators made from Depleted Uranium (DU) alloys have consistently performed better than equi-density and geometrically similar penetrators made from conventional tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) during ballistic penetration tests into semi-infinite Rolled Homogeneous Armor (RHA) steel targets. The superior penetration behavior of DU penetrators is presently attributed to these penetrators maintaining a chisel nose by failure along adiabatic shear bands which is in contrast to the mushroom head observed in WHA penetrators; the mushroom head decreases the energy density at the target thereby leading to reduced penetration. The radiological hazard of DU combined with chemical corrosion during storage provides an impetus to improving the state-of-the-art in WHA with respect to ballistic penetration behavior. Interestingly, WHA penetrators with DU matrix (instead of the conventional Ni-Fe, Ni-Co, or Ni-Fe-Co matrices) also fail by adiabatic shear indicating that shear localization is probably influenced greatly by matrix material properties. Hence, an investigation into alternative matrix materials for WHA that will support shear localization is warranted.

  19. Chewing through the Miocene: an examination of the feeding musculature in the ground sloth Hapalops from South America (Mammalia: Pilosa).

    PubMed

    Naples, Virginia L; McAfee, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Hapalops, a smaller-sized and early sloth of the Megatheroidea, appeared in the middle Miocene Santa Cruz formation of Argentina. This genus is part of the group from which later, larger megatheroids arose, i.e., Nothrotheriops and Megatherium. Many cranial characters support this idea; however Hapalops is not merely a smaller antecedent of the later forms. Specifically, Hapalops retains short anterior caniniform teeth, and a temporomandibular joint elevated above the cheek tooth row; a combination distinct among sloths. An elevated temporomandibular joint occurs in Bradypus, a tree sloth with anterior chisel-shaped teeth instead of caniniforms, and the tree sloth Choloepus, which is aligned with the megalonychids, has anterior caniniforms. Hapalops has an elongated zygomatic ascending process that is reminiscent of that in Bradypus; however, the Bradypus skull is extremely foreshortened while that of Hapalops is elongated, as in nothrotheres, but not deepened as in megatheres. Previous work identified many sloth cranial character complexes, and functional limitations on skull feature combinations. The unique Hapalops character patterns indicate a selective feeder with a mediolaterally oriented grinding stroke during mastication. PMID:25075299

  20. Under-ice noise generated from diamond exploration in a Canadian sub-arctic lake and potential impacts on fishes.

    PubMed

    Mann, D; Cott, P; Horne, B

    2009-11-01

    Mineral exploration is increasing in Canada, particularly in the north where extensive diamond mining and exploration are occurring. This study measured the under-ice noise produced by a variety of anthropogenic sources (drilling rigs, helicopters, aircraft landing and takeoff, ice-road traffic, augers, snowmobiles, and chisels) at a winter-based diamond exploration project on Kennady Lake in the Northwest Territories, Canada to infer the potential impact of noise on fishes in the lake. The root-mean-square noise level measured 5 m from a small diameter drill was approximately 46 dB greater (22 kHz bandwidth) than ambient noise, while the acoustic particle velocity was approximately 40 dB higher than ambient levels. The loudest sounds at the exploration site were produced by ice cracking, both natural and during landing and takeoff of a C130 Hercules aircraft. However, even walking on the snow above the ice raised ambient sound levels by approximately 30 dB. Most of the anthropogenic sounds are likely detectable by fishes with hearing specializations, such as chubs and suckers. Other species without specialized hearing adaptations will detect these sounds only close to the source. The greatest potential impact of noise from diamond exploration is likely to be the masking of sounds for fishes with sensitive hearing. PMID:19894802