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1

Mikkelson sweep/spike chisel plow shovel  

SciTech Connect

Profitability comparisons are reported between the Mikkelson Sweep/Spike Chisel Plow Shovel standard sweeps. This evaluation covers the first year of testing of the new Sweep/Spike design. The data are not averaged over treatments due to significant interaction between treatments and environmental factors. The cost of fuel, fall and spring, to perform the various treatments ranged from $1.27 to $3.36 per acre. Use of the sweep/spike shovel always reduced total fuel cost. Savings varied from $0.11 to $0.71 per acre depending on prior treatment. This means there will be money saved, to off-set expenses, when converting present chisel plows or for special options on new chisel plows, needed for use of the sweep/spike shovel. A summary of 1991--1992 energy measurements. They indicate that more power will be required to pull a chisel plow equipped with the sweep/spike shovel. A larger tractor, narrower chisel plow and/or slower speed will be required to avoid the wheel slippage problems encountered on soft or wet field surfaces.

Not Available

1992-01-01

2

Mikkelson sweep/spike chisel plow shovel. Economic summary of the 1992 crop season  

SciTech Connect

Profitability comparisons are reported between the Mikkelson Sweep/Spike Chisel Plow Shovel standard sweeps. This evaluation covers the first year of testing of the new Sweep/Spike design. The data are not averaged over treatments due to significant interaction between treatments and environmental factors. The cost of fuel, fall and spring, to perform the various treatments ranged from $1.27 to $3.36 per acre. Use of the sweep/spike shovel always reduced total fuel cost. Savings varied from $0.11 to $0.71 per acre depending on prior treatment. This means there will be money saved, to off-set expenses, when converting present chisel plows or for special options on new chisel plows, needed for use of the sweep/spike shovel. A summary of 1991--1992 energy measurements. They indicate that more power will be required to pull a chisel plow equipped with the sweep/spike shovel. A larger tractor, narrower chisel plow and/or slower speed will be required to avoid the wheel slippage problems encountered on soft or wet field surfaces.

Not Available

1992-12-31

3

Plowing Speech  

E-print Network

. Sman shad plowing speech 1.WAV Length of track 00:01:18 Related tracks (include description/relationship if appropriate) Title of track Plowing Speech Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) This file contains a... plowing speech and a discussion about the speech. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Plowing speech Name of recorder (if different from collector) Zla ba sgrol ma Date of recording November 10th 2009. Place of recording Ci jo Village, Phu...

Zla ba sgrol ma

2009-11-10

4

Pegasus plow  

SciTech Connect

The Pagasus plow is a new implement for one-pass cotton plowdown. The Pagasus is unique in that it is capable of burying the whole cotton stalk without shredding. A very simple and reliable machine, the Pagasus gives the cotton farmer the option of using controlled traffic tillage without sacrificing good residue burial of easy machine maintenance.

Thacker, G.W.

1997-04-01

5

CANTILEVER DRAINAGE PLOWS UNDER EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To evaluate the quality of installation of pull-behind drainage plows, forty-four subsurface drains were installed under experimental conditions by three different drainage plows; a Soil-Max Gold Digger 3-point hitch drainage plow, a Liebrecht drawbar-pull drainage plow, and a Hoes self-propelled ca...

6

Long-term foraging optimization in northern shovelers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I attempt to explain the seasonal foraging strategy employed by male northern shovelers (Anas clypeata). Through the use of dynamic-optimization modeling I demonstrate that male shovelers are optimizing total foraging time over the entire summer by foraging heavily when resources (cladocerans) are abundant and utilizing endogenous reserves during times when resources are in short supply. Additionally, I

Paul J. DuBowy

1997-01-01

7

GRADE CONTROL CAPABILITY OF CANTILEVER DRAINAGE PLOWS UNDER EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The main objective of the research was to evaluate multiple pull-behind drainage plows under the same experimental conditions while including a self-propelled drainage plow. The study included a Soil-Max Gold Digger 3-point mounted drainage plow, a Liebrecht drawbar-pull drainage plow and a Hoes can...

8

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN FROM LEDGE TO ACCESS COAL SEAMS BELOW. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

9

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, 395 BUCYRUS ERIE SHOVEL CLEANING OVERBURDEN FROM LEDGE SO THAT DRAGLINE CAN CONTINUE REMOVING OVERBURDEN TO ACCESS LEVELS OF THE COAL SEAMS. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

10

A Wii-related clay-shoveler's fracture.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of severe neck pain. This had started immediately after swinging his Wii game console control during a rather vigorous game. An X-ray demonstrated a clay-shoveler's fracture of C7. This had radiological features to suggest an acute injury. This is the first report of a clay-shoveler's fracture strongly suggestive of being related to the use of a Wii console. PMID:19882086

Brown, Christopher N; McKenna, Patrick

2009-01-01

11

An atypical clay shoveler's fracture: a case report  

PubMed Central

A case of an atypical clay shoveler's fracture with involvement of the spinolaminar line is described. Causative mechanisms of injury, radiographic appearances, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are reviewed. Classic clay shoveler's fractures are considered stable fractures. However, when the spinolaminar line is disrupted, spinal cord involvement must be ruled out. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4aFigure 4bFigure 5Figure 6

Feldman, Victor B; Astri, Frank

2001-01-01

12

HISTORY OF PLOWING OVER TEN THOUSAND YEARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historical lessons from plow-related erosion and soil degradation may contribute to present day social stability and sustainable agriculture. Agriculture originated 10 to 13 millennia ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, mostly along the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Indus and Yangtze River vall...

13

International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery show. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.

14

Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

Hartley, Larry

15

Rotylenchulus reniformis below Plow Depth Suppresses Cotton Yield and Root Growth.  

PubMed

Damage to cotton by Rotylenchulus reniformis below plow depth was evaluated in a sandy clay loam soil at Weslaco, Texas. In December 1999, 14 holes on 51-cm centers were dug 91 cm deep along the planting bed and adjacent furrow and 2 ml of 1,3-dichloropropene was placed 91, 61, and 30 cm deep as each hole was refilled and packed. This technique eliminated 96%, 81%, and 74% of R. reniformis down to 107 cm at distances 0, 25, and 51 cm laterally from the point of application (P chisel fumigation at 168 liters/ha 43 cm deep reduced nematode numbers only in the top 61 cm (P chisel fumigation increased yield 88% (P

Robinson, A F; Cook, C G; Westphal, A; Bradford, J M

2005-09-01

16

EVALUATION OF FORESTRY PLOW ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR SITE PREPARATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this field study, data were collected to determine energy requirements of trailing site preparation plows and the magnitudes of dynamic forces experienced by a plow during normal operation and during impact with stumps or other obstructions. Drawbar pull data were collected from five different t...

17

[Test and gather data on sweep spike combination tillage tool]. Quarterly technical report, August 1991--March 1992  

SciTech Connect

This summary presents the data accumulated to date with only brief comment. It is prepared with the intent that the viewers will offer advice on terminology, data presentation, methods and other. The year end analysis will detail changes in the data due to the tillage treatments. The data is incomplete due to equipment problems and time limitations due to the wet fall and early freeze up. The trial was not completed due to our inability to get the Mikkelsen Chisel Plow Shovel (MCP), a 16 inch sweep with an anhydrous knife, to penetrate untilled land. The MCP shovel penetrated to deep on plowed ground and pulled so hard that the front wheels of our JD4440 tractor were jerked off the ground. The Standard Chisel Plow Shovels (SCP), a 16 inch sweep, worked well and the data is included.

Lukach, J.

1992-06-19

18

(Test and gather data on sweep spike combination tillage tool)  

SciTech Connect

This summary presents the data accumulated to date with only brief comment. It is prepared with the intent that the viewers will offer advice on terminology, data presentation, methods and other. The year end analysis will detail changes in the data due to the tillage treatments. The data is incomplete due to equipment problems and time limitations due to the wet fall and early freeze up. The trial was not completed due to our inability to get the Mikkelsen Chisel Plow Shovel (MCP), a 16 inch sweep with an anhydrous knife, to penetrate untilled land. The MCP shovel penetrated to deep on plowed ground and pulled so hard that the front wheels of our JD4440 tractor were jerked off the ground. The Standard Chisel Plow Shovels (SCP), a 16 inch sweep, worked well and the data is included.

Lukach, J.

1992-06-19

19

Cheatgrass communities: effect of plowing on species composition and productivity  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-year-old cheatgrass communities were disturbed by experimentally plowing small plots, Cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum L., promptly invaded the plowed plots. Plowing enhanced plant production at the high elevation site, 520 m, but depressed production at the low elevation site, 320 m, during a year of near normal precipitation in 1976. During the 1977 drought, plant production was very low at both study sites, but productivity was most depressed at the low elevation site. Possible factors in the explanation of results are discussed.

Rickard, W.H.; Cline, J.F.

1980-01-01

20

The p-Shovelers Problem (Computing with Time-Varying Data)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a winter morning one man shovels the snow from his driveway. When the job is finished he can get out with the car. In the neighbouring driveway p men remove the same amount of snow in one p-th of time. The next morning is snowy. As the single shoveler goes on, new snow falls making his job harder. The

Fabrizio Luccio; Linda Pagli

1992-01-01

21

BIOENERGETICS OF BREEDING NORTHERN SHOVELERS: DIET, NUTRIENT RESERVES, CLUTCH SIZE, AND INCUBATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed food habits, digestive organs, and nutrient reserves (lipid, protein, and mineral) of male and female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata) nesting in southern Manitoba. We studied shovelers because, on an annual basis, they consume more animal matter than do other Anas spp. Thus, they are ideal subjects for testing the hypothesis that the inability of female ducks to obtain

C. DAVISON ANKNEY; ALAN D. AFTON

1988-01-01

22

Clay-shoveler's fracture during indoor rock climbing.  

PubMed

Indoor rock climbing is becoming more popular for people of all ages. Despite the tremendous interest in this competitive sport, participants are made aware of the dangers associated with participating. The authors present the first reported case of a clay-shoveler's fracture at the T1 spinous process during indoor rock climbing. They describe the management and natural history of this fracture and discuss management strategies for this increasingly popular recreational sport.A 14-year-old competitive indoor rock climber presented with acute-onset midline thoracic pain at T1 while indoor rock climbing. He reported no recent falls or trauma but stated that the pain came on abruptly while rock climbing. On examination, he was neurologically intact except for significant tenderness to palpation at the T1 spinous process. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a minimally displaced T1 spinous process fracture with evidence of significant surrounding muscular edema, suggesting an acute fracture. He was treated conservatively with anti-inflammatory drugs, complete climbing restriction, and rest. He continued to have focal upper back pain at the level of the fracture over the next 4 months. He was unable to climb for 4 months until his pain resolved after conservative treatment of climbing restriction, pain control, and rest.This is the first documented case of a clay-shoveler's fracture sustained in a pediatric patient directly attributable to indoor rock climbing. PMID:23464962

Kaloostian, Paul E; Kim, Jennifer E; Calabresi, Peter A; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy

2013-03-01

23

A northern shoveler swims in the waters of KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The broad, distinctive bill is a primary feature of this northern shoveler, paddling in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. Typically found in western Canada, Alaska, Colorado and Southern California, it can also be found farther east and south, wintering in the United States along the southeast coast. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

1999-01-01

24

Seasonal variations of steroid hormones and triiodothyronine concentrations in migratory northern shovelers.  

PubMed

Endogenous serum testosterone, estradiol, and triiodothyronine concentrations were measured in the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata, n = 20) during different stages of migratory condition at their wintering grounds to look at how these hormones may be linked to the development of migratory condition. These hormones were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in hormones concentrations were parallel to each other and correspond to the increasing day lengths of spring. Furthermore, the northern shovelers showed a distinct seasonal cycle in serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, estradiol, and testosterone. It is suggested that these seasonal cycles in the northern shovelers are endogenously programmed and their entrainment to the environmental photoperiod ensures the occurrence of different physiological functions at temporally fixed time of the year. The results of this study offer a captive model of the seasonal changes in physiology and behavior that occur in the months preceding and including vernal migration of the northern shovelers. PMID:22331661

Elarabany, N F; Abdallah, G A; Said, A E

2012-04-01

25

Natural preservation mechanisms at play in a Bronze Age wooden shovel found in the copper mines of Alderley Edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wooden shovel, dating from the Early Bronze Age, has survived in a remarkable state of preservation in the copper mines of Alderley Edge, Cheshire UK. Other historic timbers recovered from the mines, whilst still intact, have fared less well. An X-ray investigation into the distribution of minerals through the shovel using portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) along with the use

A. D. Smith; D. I. Green; J. M. Charnock; E. Pantos; S. Timberlake; A. J. N. W. Prag

2011-01-01

26

Ingestion of lead and nontoxic shot by Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) and Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata) from the mid-Gulf Coast of Texas, USA.  

PubMed

Ninety-eight Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) and 84 Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) gizzards were examined for ingested shot. One Northern Shoveler had lead and three had steel shot; 24 teal and 17 shovelers had composite nontoxic shot or nonlead metal fragments. Prevalence of ingested lead appears minimal and consistent with other studies conducted after lead-shot bans. PMID:21719854

Garrison, Drew A; Fedynich, Alan M; Smith, Autumn J; Ferro, Pamela J; Butler, David A; Peterson, Markus J; Lupiani, Blanca

2011-07-01

27

PARASITES OF WATERFOWL FROM SOUTHWEST TEXAS: II. THE SHOVELER, Anas clypeata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight shoveler ducks, Anas clypeata, were collected in the Rio Grande Valley, Hudspeth County, Texas. Nineteen species of helminths, six species of lice and a sarcosporidian, Sancocystis nileyi, were recorded. Seventeen of the nine- teen species of helminths were observed in fall migrants and twelve species were recorded from spring migrants. The nematode A\\/if ilania pochandi Au, 1969, is a

DOROTHY BRODERSON; ALBERT G. CANARIS; JOHN R. BRISTOL

28

Distribution and status of wintering Shovelers Anas clypeata in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and status of Shovelers using British wetlands in autumn and winter was examined using ringing recoveries and National Waterfowl Count data. Maximum counts have been around 8500 and suggest a total population of c. 10 000. Some of these birds originate from north-west continental Europe, eastern Scandinavia and the Western former USSR, whilst others originate from British breeding

J. S. Kirkby; C. Mitchell

1993-01-01

29

Enhancing carbon and nitrogen sequestration in reclaimed soils through organic amendments and chiseling  

SciTech Connect

The choice of reclamation techniques could affect restoration success, ecosystem productivity, and the capacity of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC). A field experiment was conducted at three reclaimed coal mine sites across eastern Ohio to assess the impact of several reclamation techniques on biomass production, soil properties, and temporal changes in SOC and N pools. Amendments and reclamation practices tested were: normal reclamation practice (NRP, control), cow (Bos taurus) manure (10 Mg ha{sup -1}), mulching with oat straw (15 Mg hat), and chiseling (30-cm depth). At each site, all treatments were applied in triplicate to experimental plots in accord with a randomized complete block design. After 5 yr of restoration, results showed no effect of mulching on any of the soil properties investigated but significant effects of manuring and chiseling. During that period, SOC sequestration rates ranged between 0.6 and 2.8 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, with the highest rates recorded in the manure-treated plots. Aboveground biomass production, biomass N content, and soil N and SOC pools were also significantly higher in the manure and chiseling treatments, probably due to greater exploration of the soil volume by plant roots and more efficient uptake of water and available nutrients. Ecosystem C (SOC + biomass C) in these two treatments also exceeded that in the NRP by 25 to 27 Mg C ha{sup -}. Thus, manure application and chiseling are effective reclamation practices for restoring RMS.

Shrestha, R.K.; Lal, R.; Jacinthe, P.A. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

2009-05-15

30

PARASITES OF WATERFOWL FROM SOUTHWEST TEXAS: II. THE SHOVELER, Anas clypeata.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight shoveler ducks, Anas clypeata , were collected in the Rio Grande Valley, Hudspeth County, Texas. Nineteen species of helminths, six species of lice and a sarcosporidian, Sarcocystis rileyi , were recorded. Seventeen of the nineteen species of helminths were observed in fall migrants and twelve species were recorded from spring migrants. The nematode Alifilaria pochardi Ali, 1969, is a new host and American record. PMID:24228969

Broderson, D; Canaris, A G; Bristol, J R

1977-10-01

31

Molecular and phenotypic diversity in Chionactis occipitalis (Western Shovel-nosed Snake), with emphasis on the status of C. o. klauberi (Tucson Shovel-nosed Snake).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chionactis occipitalis (Western Shovel-nosed Snake) is a small colubrid snake inhabiting the arid regions of the Mojave, Sonoran, and Colorado deserts. Morphological assessments of taxonomy currently recognize four subspecies. However, these taxonomic proposals were largely based on weak morphological differentiation and inadequate geographic sampling. Our goal was to explore evolutionary relationships and boundaries among subspecies of C. occipitalis, with particular focus on individuals within the known range of C. o. klauberi (Tucson Shovel-nosed snake). Population sizes and range for C. o. klauberi have declined over the last 25 years due to habitat alteration and loss prompting a petition to list this subspecies as endangered. We examined the phylogeography, population structure, and subspecific taxonomy of C. occipitalis across its geographic range with genetic analysis of 1100 bases of mitochondrial DNA sequence and reanalysis of 14 morphological characters from 1543 museum specimens. We estimated the species gene phylogeny from 81 snakes using Bayesian inference and explored possible factors influencing genetic variation using landscape genetic analyses. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses reveal genetic isolation and independent evolutionary trajectories for two primary clades. Our data indicate that diversification between these clades has developed as a result of both historical vicariance and environmental isolating mechanisms. Thus these two clades likely comprise 'evolutionary significant units' (ESUs). Neither molecular nor morphological data are concordant with the traditional C. occipitalis subspecies taxonomy. Mitochondrial sequences suggest specimens recognized as C. o. klauberi are embedded in a larger geographic clade whose range has expanded from western Arizona populations, and these data are concordant with clinal longitudinal variation in morphology. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Wood, D.A.; Meik, J.M.; Holycross, A.T.; Fisher, R.N.; Vandergast, A.G.

2008-01-01

32

Comparison between dynamic plowing lithography and nanoindentation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different methods of nanolithography, namely dynamic plowing lithography (DPL) and indentation by means of force-displacement curves (FDI), have been compared by performing them on two different polymers, poly (methylmethacrylate) and polystyrene. No fundamental differences can be found out in the efficiency of the two methods, i.e., in the depth of the lithographed structure as a function of the scanning parameters. The main drawback of FDI is that it is much more time consuming than DPL. On the other hand, when the sample is lithographed with DPL, the border walls that surround the lithographed structure are very much bigger than the border walls created through FDI. The physicochemical properties of the border walls created through DPL have been investigated. Several experimental data reveal that such border walls are very much softer and looser than unmodified polymers and suggest that during DPL the fast oscillating tip is able to break polymer chains. This does not happen with FDI, where border walls are simply made up of the material carved out by the tip. A method to eliminate these undesirable border walls is suggested.

Cappella, B.; Sturm, H.

2002-01-01

33

The relation between the feeding activity of wintering shovelers (Anas clypeata) and the horizontal distribution of zooplankton in Lake Teganuma, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated seasonal changes in the number and feeding activity of Shovelers wintering in Lake Teganuma in connection with temporal and horizontal fluctuations of zooplankton, and analyzed esophageal contents of a captured Shoveler. Zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers followed by copepods during the study period. Horizontal distribution of both invertebrate taxa differed; rotifers most abundant in the western and

Takeshi Matsubara; Fumio Sugimori; Kiyoshi Iwabuchi; Kanji Aoyama

1994-01-01

34

Metallurgical Investigation of a Steel Miner's Chisel From Ponte Val Gabbia III Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research on ancient ferrous artefacts belonging to different historical periods has indicated significant differences in various parameters characterizing the slags entrapped in these artefacts, in cases where they were obtained by using different production methods. Such differences have been observed by comparing "ancient period" artefacts with "subsequent period" artefacts. "Ancient period" products were obtained by direct reduction of iron ore, without carburizing and at temperatures below the melting point of the reduced sponge iron. In the "subsequent period", the indirect process started to be introduced, with the production, in a first reduction stage, of a liquid cast iron that had to be converted to wrought iron during a second fining operation. The understanding of the characterizing parameters of the slags has in fact progressed to the point where they represent a useful tool not only for inferring the origins of the starting ore but also for distinguishing between direct or indirect production. In the present research work, an accurate study of the entrapped slags has been carried out on an artefact from the Val Gabbia III site, identified in previous studies as a miner's chisel. This study aims to carry out further metallurgical investigation into the miner's chisel microstructure and the entrapped slags in order to help ascertain which production method was in use at the Val Gabbia III site; in fact, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the chisel, and the fact that the site where it was found, i.e. layers of the V-VI cent AD in Val Gabbia III site, was characterized by the presence of an almost 3.5 kg cast iron block, previous investigators were led to suppose that it may be a very early site of indirect iron smelting. While the slag characterizing parameters obtained in the present investigation appear to be consistent with published results related to the direct method, the discussion on the relationship between the indirect method production effects on entrapped slag and the experimental findings substantiate, although not definitively, the hypothesis that the production method of the miner's chisel is indirect.

Cornacchia, Giovanna; Faccoli, Michela; Roberti, Roberto

2015-01-01

35

Delayed plowing of forages within potato rotation reduces nitrate leaching losses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potato industry plays an important role in the economics in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Intensive potato production has been conducted on sandy soil underlain by a semi-confined or unconfined sandstone aquifer, which provides all the drinking water and a large majority of stream flow on the island. Typically, potato is grown in rotation with grain underseeded with forages, with the latter being plowed down in the fall of the third season. High levels of nitrate leaching losses from the potato production systems have adversely affected both groundwater and associated surface water quality. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) were proposed for maintaining optimal crop production while mitigating the nitrate contamination in PEI. But there is limited information on the environmental performance of the BMPs in commercial fields. The potentials of delayed forage plowing from fall to spring to reduce nitrate losses were evaluated in commercial fields at two separated sites in PEI during October 2010 and March 2013. At Site 1, two tile-drained fields were paired for spring vs. fall plowing treatments (with pre-plow herbicidal treatment); weekly tile-drainage samples were collected to evidence the effects of the treatments. At Site 2, a field was split in half for spring vs. fall plowing treatments (without pre-plow herbicidal treatment). Shallow piezometers were installed at the upper and lower ends of the field for water sampling, with the upper end one indicating the effects of shallow groundwater inflow and the lower ones evidencing the combined effects of groundwater inflow and drainage from plowing treatments. Soil drainage was estimated through coupled LEACHN and MODFLOW simulations. Nitrate leaching losses were calculated as the integration of measured leached nitrate concentrations and simulated drainage. Field monitoring showed that nitrate leaching mainly occurred during the offseason. Nitrate leaching during the forage phase were estimated to be 36 and 18 kg N/ha from the fall and spring plowed fields at Site 1, respectively. The differences of leached nitrate were mainly attributed to pre-plow herbicidal treatment associated with fall plowing. Respective nitrate leaching losses were estimated to be 54 and 32 kg N/ha from the fall and spring plowed fields at Site 2. The differences of leached nitrate at Site 2 were likely due to the different timing of tillage. The results suggested that postponing plowing of forages and associated herbicidal treatments until spring reduced nitrate leaching. Nitrate leaching losses derived exclusively from the decay of plow down forages were estimated to account for 16-21% of the overall N in the plants, implying that a significant amount of N in the forages were carried over into the subsequent crop phase. This large carried-over N pool creates an opportunity for the growers to save costs on fertilizer N by crediting some of the organic N while reducing the risk of nitrate leaching to groundwater.

Jiang, Y.; Jamieson, T.; Nyiraneza, J.; Somers, G.; Thompson, B.; Murray, B.; Grimmett, M.

2013-12-01

36

Impact of deep plowing on groundwater recharge in a semiarid region: Case study, High Plains, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge is critical in semiarid regions where aquifers are currently being mined for intensive irrigation. Land use management related to agriculture can be used to control partitioning of water near the land surface and to potentially manage water resources. The purpose of this study was to quantify impacts of deep plowing in rainfed (nonirrigated) agriculture in a semiarid region on groundwater recharge, which had not been previously evaluated. Deep (0.7 m) plowing was conducted once in 1971 to remove low-permeability soil layers (0.15-0.70 m deep) in Pullman clay loam (20,000 km2 area) in a bench terrace system in the semiarid High Plains in Texas (USA). Deep plowing was followed by conventional tillage. Boreholes were drilled in deep plowed cropland (three boreholes) and also beneath conventionally tilled cropland (four) and natural ecosystems (three) to provide baseline controls. Soil samples were analyzed for water content, chloride concentrations, and matric potentials to quantify subsurface water movement. Bulges of chloride that accumulated beneath natural ecosystems during the past 9,000-14,000 years (Holocene period) provided a marker to quantify time-integrated response of subsurface drainage to hydrologic forcing in deep-plowed cropland. Displacement of chloride bulges to depths of 10.7, 12.3, and 13.7 m beneath deep-plowed cropland indicate minimum drainage rates of 58, 60, and 81 mm/a, whereas drainage beneath conventionally tilled cropland ranged from 0 (nonterraced) to 9 and 14 mm/a (bench terraced). Deep plowing slightly increased crop yield during wet years by reducing waterlogging. If deep plowing were applied to 10% of the Pullman soils, it could increase regional volumetric recharge by 0.1 km3/a, which is similar to the current regional volumetric recharge. Low-permeability soil layers are widespread in cropland areas globally, and deep plowing could greatly enhance groundwater recharge in such areas, which is critical in semiarid regions where recharge is negligible.

Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Baumhardt, R. L.; Strassberg, G.

2008-07-01

37

EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF Sarcocystis sp. (PROTOZOA: SARCOCYSTIDAE) BETWEEN THE SHOVELER (Anas clypeata) DUCK AND THE STRIPED SKUNK (Mephitis mephitis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle containing macroscopic cysts of Sarcocystis sp. from naturally infected wild shoveler (Anas clypeata) ducks was fed to two captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The skunks passed sporocysts in their feces beginning 19 and 22 days post-infection, and continued to pass small numbers of sporocysts sporadically to 63 and 51 days post-infection, respectively. Sporocysts from the skunks were administered orally

R. J. CAWTHORN; D. RAINNIE; G. WOBESER

38

Impact of deep plowing on groundwater recharge in a semiarid region  

E-print Network

Impact of deep plowing on groundwater recharge in a semiarid region: Case study, High Plains, Texas September 2008; accepted 17 September 2008; published 20 December 2008. [1] Groundwater recharge is critical in rainfed (nonirrigated) agriculture in a semiarid region on groundwater recharge, which had not been

Scanlon, Bridget R.

39

Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) between the shoveler (Anas clypeata) duck and the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).  

PubMed

Muscle containing macroscopic cysts of Sarcocystis sp. from naturally infected wild shoveler (Anas clypeata) ducks was fed to two captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The skunks passed sporocysts in their feces beginning 19 and 22 days post-infection, and continued to pass small numbers of sporocysts sporadically to 63 and 51 days post-infection, respectively. Sporocysts from the skunks were administered orally to four laboratory-reared shovelers. No cysts were found in ducks examined 56 and 84 days post-infection. One duck examined at 85 days post-infection had many microscopic cysts in its skeletal muscle. The remaining duck had numerous small macroscopic cysts in muscle at 154 days post-infection. A skunk fed muscle from this duck began to pass sporocysts on day 18 post-infection. All cysts in muscle (natural and experimental infection) had irregular cauliflower-like projections of the primary cyst wall. PMID:6796702

Cawthorn, R J; Rainnie, D; Wobeser, G

1981-07-01

40

Comparative ability of northern pintails, gadwalls, and northern shovelers to metabolize foods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Feeding trials were used to compare the ability of northern pintails (Anas acuta), gadwalls (A. strepera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) to metabolize energy from a turkey starter ration, alfalfa pellets, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected among the three species for any of the three foods (kg body weight/day basis), for dry matter intake (DMI), body weight gain (BWG), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or metabolized energy (MEE) on any given diet consumed in quantities large enough to promote body weight gain. The AME content of alfalfa was 57% less than the value for turkey starter and 50% less than for barnyardgrass seeds. All three species metabolized more energy and gained weight faster when fed turkey starter. Energy modeling may be facilitated if additional research verifies that all species of dabbling ducks have equal ability to obtain energy from foods available to them in the wild. Behavioral and morphological factors may be more important in defining feeding niches than digestive physiology, at least for the three duck species tested, at the time of year of the experiments, and within the limits of the quality of foods used.

Miller, M.R.

1984-01-01

41

[Testing and commercialization of a cotton stalk shredder and plow]. Technical progress report, July--September, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes plans to field test several prototypes of plows that cut cotton stalks after harvesting and plows then back into the soil to prepare the field for the next planting. Modifications to the design have been made to allow the soil to more easily slide off the plow to reduce fuel consumption. A prototype has been shipped to Australia for testing in their fields and further product development. A farm machinery manufacturer has been selected to build two full-scale preproduction prototypes. Field testing will be done at sites in California and Arizona, since both have regulations specifying that cotton stalks must be shredded.

Thacker, G.W.

1995-10-23

42

Biting performance and skull biomechanics of a chisel tooth digging rodent (Ctenomys tuconax; Caviomorpha; Octodontoidea).  

PubMed

Biting performance is a key factor in vertebrate groups possessing particular food habits. In subterranean rodents that use the incisors as a digging tool, apart from requirements related to gnawing abrasive diets, the force exerted at the incisors tips must be sufficient to break down soils that are often exceedingly compact. The subterranean genus Ctenomys diversified in the southern portion of South America closely associated with the relatively open environments that characterize that region. This genus is considered a "claw and chisel tooth digger," that is, during the excavation of their galleries, the animals break down the soil with both the fore-claws and the incisors. We report here measurements of in vivo bite force in one of the largest species of the genus, C. tuconax, which occupies highland grasslands with compacted soils. We document the combined use of claws and incisors observed under field conditions, also providing measurements of soil compaction in the habitat occupied by this species. We report estimates of bite force at the level of the incisors and cheek teeth calculated from the physiological cross-sectional area of jaw muscles. To this aim, anatomical and biomechanical analyses of the mandibular apparatus were performed in preserved specimens. We found that C. tuconax bites with a higher force than expected for a mammal of its size. To assess anatomical correlates of biting performance, the morphology of the skull and jaw, and incisor second moment of area were compared with those of other caviomorph rodents with different lifestyle. PMID:23203312

Becerra, Federico; Casinos, Adrià; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

2013-02-01

43

Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 5; Abrasion: Plowing and Cutting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chapter 5 discusses abrasion, a common wear phenomenon of great economic importance. It has been estimated that 50% of the wear encountered in industry is due to abrasion. Also, it is the mechanism involved in the finishing of many surfaces. Experiments are described to help in understanding the complex abrasion process and in predicting friction and wear behavior in plowing and/or cutting. These experimental modelings and measurements used a single spherical pin (asperity) and a single wedge pin (asperity). Other two-body and three-body abrasion studies used hard abrasive particles.

Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

2001-01-01

44

1) The snow plow problem (R.P. Agnew): It began to snow early in the morning and the snow continued to fall throughout the  

E-print Network

1) The snow plow problem (R.P. Agnew): It began to snow early in the morning and the snow continued to fall throughout the day at a constant rate. Assume that the speed at which a snow plow is able to clear a road is inversely proportional to the height of the snow. The snow plow started at 5 a.m. and had

Prigozhin, Leonid

45

Shoveling Snow I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m Ve r m o n t  

E-print Network

Anyone with a history of heart disease. Anyone with high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels rate and cause your blood vessels to constrict. This places extra stress on the heart. Drink plenty While Shoveling Snow If you have any of the risk factors (heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood

Hayden, Nancy J.

46

Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the “writing” (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the “writing” speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 ?m in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be fabricated at a high speed of ?5 mm/s, with the line width and the line depth at ?95 nm and 2 nm, respectively. A fine pattern of the word “NANO” is also fabricated at the speed of ?5 mm/s.

Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze, E-mail: qzzou@rci.rutgers.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2013-11-15

47

Design, development and performance of a disk plow combined with rotary blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disk plow combined with rotary blades, defined as comboplow, is used for soil preparation for planting. The comboplow includes four units: Chassis, concave disk, transmission system and rotary blades. A multiple tillage operation is reduced in a single pass resulting in a potential reduction of soil compaction, labor, fuel cost and saving in time. The comboplow was tested at University Putra Malaysia Research Park, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, on three different plots of 675 m2 in the year 2010/2011. The treatments were three types of blade [(straight (S),curved (c) and L-shaped)] and three rotary speeds (130,147and 165 rpm). The parameters were Mean Weight Diameter Dry Basis (MWDd), Mean weight Diameter Wet Basis (MWDW), Aggregate Stability Index (SI) and Instability Index (II).

Hashemi, A.; Ahmad, D.; Othman, J.; Sulaiman, S.

2012-09-01

48

Macrophages lift off surface-bound bacteria using a filopodium-lamellipodium hook-and-shovel mechanism  

PubMed Central

To clear pathogens from host tissues or biomaterial surfaces, phagocytes have to break the adhesive bacteria-substrate interactions. Here we analysed the mechanobiological process that enables macrophages to lift-off and phagocytose surface-bound Escherichia coli (E. coli). In this opsonin-independent process, macrophage filopodia hold on to the E. coli fimbriae long enough to induce a local protrusion of a lamellipodium. Specific contacts between the macrophage and E. coli are formed via the glycoprotein CD48 on filopodia and the adhesin FimH on type 1 fimbriae (hook). We show that bacterial detachment from surfaces occurrs after a lamellipodium has protruded underneath the bacterium (shovel), thereby breaking the multiple bacterium-surface interactions. After lift-off, the bacterium is engulfed by a phagocytic cup. Force activated catch bonds enable the long-term survival of the filopodium-fimbrium interactions while soluble mannose inhibitors and CD48 antibodies suppress the contact formation and thereby inhibit subsequent E. coli phagocytosis. PMID:24097079

Möller, Jens; Lühmann, Tessa; Chabria, Mamta; Hall, Heike; Vogel, Viola

2013-01-01

49

Macrophages lift off surface-bound bacteria using a filopodium-lamellipodium hook-and-shovel mechanism.  

PubMed

To clear pathogens from host tissues or biomaterial surfaces, phagocytes have to break the adhesive bacteria-substrate interactions. Here we analysed the mechanobiological process that enables macrophages to lift-off and phagocytose surface-bound Escherichia coli (E. coli). In this opsonin-independent process, macrophage filopodia hold on to the E. coli fimbriae long enough to induce a local protrusion of a lamellipodium. Specific contacts between the macrophage and E. coli are formed via the glycoprotein CD48 on filopodia and the adhesin FimH on type 1 fimbriae (hook). We show that bacterial detachment from surfaces occurrs after a lamellipodium has protruded underneath the bacterium (shovel), thereby breaking the multiple bacterium-surface interactions. After lift-off, the bacterium is engulfed by a phagocytic cup. Force activated catch bonds enable the long-term survival of the filopodium-fimbrium interactions while soluble mannose inhibitors and CD48 antibodies suppress the contact formation and thereby inhibit subsequent E. coli phagocytosis. PMID:24097079

Möller, Jens; Lühmann, Tessa; Chabria, Mamta; Hall, Heike; Vogel, Viola

2013-01-01

50

Investigation of the influence of mallet and chisel techniques on the lingual fracture line and comparison with the use of splitter and separators during sagittal split osteotomy in cadaveric pig mandibles.  

PubMed

In bilateral sagittal split osteotomy the proximal and distal segments of the mandible are traditionally separated using chisels. Modern modifications include prying and spreading the segments with splitters. This study investigates the lingual fracture patterns and status of the nerve after sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) using the traditional chisel technique and compares these results with earlier studies using the splitter technique. Lingual fractures after SSO in cadaveric pig mandibles were analysed using a lingual split scale and split scoring system. Iatrogenic damage to the inferior alveolar nerve was assessed. Fractures started through the caudal cortex more frequently in the chisel group. This group showed more posterior lingual fractures, although this difference was not statistically significant. Nerve damage was present in three cases in the chisel group, but was not observed in the splitter group. A trend was apparent, that SSO using the chisel technique instead of the splitter technique resulted in more posterior lingual fracture lines, although this difference was not statistically significant. Both techniques resulted in reliable lingual fracture patterns. Splitting without chisels could prevent nerve damage, therefore we propose a spreading and prying technique with splitter and separators. However, caution should be exercised when extrapolating these results to the clinic. PMID:25697050

Verweij, Jop P; Mensink, Gertjan; Houppermans, Pascal N W J; Frank, Michael D; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

2015-04-01

51

Fuzzy boundaries: color and gene flow patterns among parapatric lineages of the western shovel-nosed snake and taxonomic implication  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate delineation of lineage diversity is increasingly important, as species distributions are becoming more reduced and threatened. During the last century, the subspecies category was often used to denote phenotypic variation within a species range and to provide a framework for understanding lineage differentiation, often considered incipient speciation. While this category has largely fallen into disuse, previously recognized subspecies often serve as important units for conservation policy and management when other information is lacking. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic subspecies hypotheses within shovel-nosed snakes on the basis of genetic data and considered how evolutionary processes such as gene flow influenced possible incongruence between phenotypic and genetic patterns. We used both traditional phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analyses to infer range-wide genetic structure and spatially explicit analyses to detect possible boundary locations of lineage contact. Multilocus analyses supported three historically isolated groups with low to moderate levels of contemporary gene exchange. Genetic data did not support phenotypic subspecies as exclusive groups, and we detected patterns of discordance in areas where three subspecies are presumed to be in contact. Based on genetic and phenotypic evidence, we suggested that species-level diversity is underestimated in this group and we proposed that two species be recognized, Chionactis occipitalis and C. annulata. In addition, we recommend retention of two subspecific designations within C. annulata (C. a. annulata and C. a. klauberi) that reflect regional shifts in both genetic and phenotypic variation within the species. Our results highlight the difficultly in validating taxonomic boundaries within lineages that are evolving under a time-dependent, continuous process.

Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vandergast, Amy G.

2014-01-01

52

An assessment of heavy metal bioaccumulation in Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, during plowing stages of a paddy cycle.  

PubMed

Livers and muscles of swamp eels (Monopterus albus) were analyzed for bioaccumulation of heavy metals during the plowing stage of a paddy cycle. Results showed heavy metals were bioaccumulated more highly in liver than muscle. Zinc (Zn) was the highest bioaccumulated metal in liver (98.5 ± 8.95 ?g/g) and in muscle (48.8 ± 7.17 ?g/g). The lowest bioaccumulated metals were cadmium (Cd) in liver (3.44 ± 2.42 ?g/g) and copper (Cu) in muscle (0.65 ± 0.20 ?g/g). In sediments, Zn was present at the highest mean concentration (52.7 ± 2.85 ?g/g), while Cd had the lowest mean concentration (1.04 ± 0.24 ?g/g). The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, Cd and nickel (Ni) in liver tissue was greater than the corresponding BSAF for muscle tissue. For the three plowing stages, metal concentrations were significantly correlated between liver and muscle tissues in all cases, and between sediment and either liver or muscle in most cases. Mean measured metal concentrations in muscle tissue were below the maximum permissible limits established by Malaysian and U.S. governmental agencies, and were therefore regarded as safe for human consumption. PMID:23666324

Sow, Ai Yin; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

2013-07-01

53

Bioavailability of metals and toxicity identification of the sediment pore waters from Plow Shop Pond, Fort Devens, Massachusetts  

SciTech Connect

Plow Shop Pond is a shallow, 30-acre pond located at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. An ecological risk assessment was conducted at Plow Shop Pond as part of a remedial investigation. Preliminary analysis revealed high concentrations of arsenic, copper, chromium, lead, and mercury in the sediment. Therefore, a laboratory testing program was incorporated into this investigation to assess the toxicity of sediments to aquatic organisms. The screening testing program included short-term chronic exposure of Ceriodaphnia dubia to pore waters, 10-day exposures of Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca to bulk sediments and a bioaccumulation study with Lumbriculus variegatus. Survival and reproduction of C. dubia, growth of amphipods and reproduction of oligochaetes appeared to indicate sediment toxicity at some sites within the pond. Although high concentrations of arsenic, copper, mercury and lead were detected in the whole sediments and pore waters, the response could not be correlated to a particular element. Also, relatively low bioaccumulation of methyl mercury and high uptake of inorganic mercury was established for three sediment samples. To characterize and identify the source of toxicity, a toxicity identification evaluation program using sediments collected at several locations was performed. The pore water from these samples was used for fractionation coupled with a 10-day test using H. azteca. Survival and growth were evaluated as endpoints during the exposures. Partitioning of metals and their bioavailability was influenced primarily by organic carbon and AVS concentration. At least two constituents were responsible for the toxicity.

Jop, K.; Putt, A.; Shepherd, S.; Askew, A. [Springborn Labs., Inc., Wareham, MA (United States); Bleiler, J.; Reed, S. [ABB Environmental Services, Wakefield, MA (United States); George, C. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

54

Chiseled in Stone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the Virginia Tech (Blacksburg) building boom that has made up for the shortcomings in outdated facilities while preserving the best of existing building traditions. Details of several building designs are provided, including information on the architectural firms involved. (GR)

Goff, Lisa

1999-01-01

55

29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the courthouse steps would not...periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may...

2013-07-01

56

29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the courthouse steps would not...periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may...

2014-07-01

57

29 CFR 553.24 - “Public safety”, “emergency response”, and “seasonal” activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...project or assigned to an afternoon of shoveling snow off the courthouse steps would not...periods of peak demand, for instance during the snow plowing season or road construction season. The snow plow operator/road crew employee may...

2012-07-01

58

Spatial variability and temporal changes in the heavy metal content of soils with a deep furrow-and-ridge microrelief formed by an afforestation plowing.  

PubMed

An appropriate sampling method that provides for the representation of the collected material and the reliability of results plays a crucial role in environmental monitoring. This is especially important in soil quality investigations on sites with a differentiated surface microrelief, as in the case of afforested post-arable soils that have a specific, deep furrow-and-ridge microrelief. The present research was carried out on three sites afforested with pine (4-, 8-, and 15-year-old stands) located near a large tailings pond collecting the wastes from copper ore enrichment. Soils were sampled at depths of 0-10 and 0-30 cm, separately in the furrows and ridges. The "wide-furrow plow" contributed to the spatial variation in soil properties, including higher pH, organic carbon, and Cu content in soils of the ridges. The difference in Cu content in the ridges and furrows initially reached 300 %, and decreased with the decline of the furrow-and-ridge microrelief to 60 % at 15 years after the plowing. Observed rate of the furrow shallowing allows for an estimation of the time necessary for the complete disappearance of the furrow-and-ridge microrelief and associated variability in soil properties to at least 30-40 years after the plowing. Afforestation plowing had little impact on the Zn variability which was not influenced by the emissions from the tailings pond. Soil sampling in contaminated sites with furrow-and-ridge microrelief must collect equal quantities of soil samples from both furrows and ridges to allow a reliable estimation of the mean trace elements' concentration. PMID:23079794

Kabala, Cezary; Bojko, Oskar; Medynska, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Agnieszka

2013-06-01

59

Derivation of soil-screening thresholds to protect the chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona.  

PubMed

Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes. PMID:23604138

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Linder, Greg; Otton, James K; Finger, Susan E; Little, Edward; Tillitt, Donald E

2013-08-01

60

Management Practice Effects on Surface Total Carbon: Differences in Spatial Variability Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of information about the spatial variability of soil C in dif- ferent management systems limits accurate extrapolation of C seques- tration findings to large scales. The objectives of this study were to: (i) describe and quantify variability of total C in three management sys- tems, chisel-plow (CT) and no-till (NT) with conventional chemical inputs and a chisel-plow organic management

A. N. Kravchenko; G. P. Robertson; X. Hao; D. G. Bullock

2006-01-01

61

Application method: impacts on atrazine and alachlor movement, weed control, and corn yield in three tillage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banding herbicides reduces the agrochemical input compared to broadcast applications, and thereby reduces negative environmental impacts of herbicides. This study evaluated the impact of three tillage systems (ridge tillage, chisel plow, and moldboard plow) and two preemergence herbicide application methods (band and broadcast) on atrazine and alachlor movement, weed control, and corn (Zea mays L.) yield on two soils, one

S. A. Clay; D. E. Clay; W. C. Koskinen; R. K. Berg

1998-01-01

62

Tillage and rotation effect on corn - soybean energy balances in eastern Nebraska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data from a field experiment conducted in eastern Nebraska over 16 yr (1986-2001) were used to determine the energy balance of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) as affected by tillage treatments and rotation. Tillage treatments included chisel plow, tandom disk, moldboard plow, ridge-t...

63

Carbon dioxide emissions after application of tillage systems for a dark red latosol in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil tillage may influence CO2 emissions in agricultural systems. Agricultural soils are managed in several ways in Brazil, ranging from no tillage to intensive land preparation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of common soil tillage treatments (disk harrow, reversible disk plow, rotary tiller and chisel plow tillage systems) on the intermediate CO2 emissions of a

N La Scala; A Lopes; J Marques; G. T Pereira

2001-01-01

64

Dirty Oil and Shovel-Ready Jobs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a role-playing activity on tar sands and the proposed TransCanada Keystone XL pipeline. In this activity, students take on the characters of six key stakeholders invited to an imaginary public hearing to discuss whether or not the State Department and President Obama should approve the Keystone XL pipeline.…

Mac Phail, Abby

2012-01-01

65

The effect of tillage practices on the yield of Irish cobbler potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1 \\u000a \\u000a Various types of tillage implements including the killifer sub-soil chisel, the jostler subsoil cultivator, the TNT subsoil\\u000a plow, the conventional moldboard plow and the disk harrow were evaluated as to their influence on the yield of Irish Cobbler\\u000a potatoes over a four-year period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2 \\u000a \\u000a Disking only consistently reduced the yield of potatoes compared to plowing, or TNT plowing.

Walter C. Jacob; M. B. Russell

1952-01-01

66

Site Tamper and Material Plow Tool - STAMP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-actuated tool has been developed for preparing regolith for in situ measurement by smoothing uneven surfaces and excavating fresher subsurface material for planetary exploration. The STAMP tool contains two tools to prepare regolith for in situ measurement: a tamper to smooth uneven surfaces, and a blade to excavate fresher subsurface material.

Aisen, Norman M.; Collins, Curtis L.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

2012-01-01

67

Twin Oaks Landscape, Inc. is seeking additional highly-qualified green industry professionals to manage and operate our growing business; such candidates shall possess attributes of accountability, integrity, passion,  

E-print Network

Twin Oaks Landscape, Inc. is seeking additional highly-qualified green industry professionals Experienced Snow Plow Skid and/or Truck Drivers Snow Shovelers Executive Summary Twin Oaks Landscape, Inc. (Twin Oaks) is a company created to revolutionize the landscape industry in southeast Michigan. "We

Isaacs, Rufus

68

Rill density prediction and flow velocity distributions on agricultural areas in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focused on rill formation, rill density, and associated flow velocity distribution in rills at the field level and with different tillage treatments in the inland Pacific Northwest. The study was conducted by applying flow at three different rates under winter conditions, which provides the greatest potential for rill formation. The following tillage treatments were tested: chisel plow, moldboard

G. A. Mancilla; S. Chen; D. K. McCool

2005-01-01

69

Weed seed bank affected by tillage intensity for barley in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weed seed bank of a long-term tillage study in subarctic Alaska was studied at the end of 10 years of continuous spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Tillage treatments were: no-till, disked once (spring), disked twice (spring and fall), and chisel plow (fall). Soil cores were obtained from each tillage treatment and seeds were manually separated from soil after washing

Jeffery S. Conn

2006-01-01

70

TILLAGE-INDUCED CO2 LOSS FROM AN ERODED LANDSCAPE IN THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT PLAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil carbon (C) losses and soil translocation from tillage operations have been identified as causes of soil degradation and soil erosion. The objective of this work was to quantify the variability in tillage-induced carbon dioxide (CO2) loss by moldboard (MP) and chisel (CP) plowing across an erod...

71

Effects of tillage and fertilization on physiological profiles of soil microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work evaluated the ability of a rapid physiological profiling method to determine the long term effects of alternative tillage practices (no till vs. chisel plow) and nitrogen fertilization on soil microbial activity. Community respiratory response (i.e., O2 consumption) to carbon and mineral nutrient (N and P) amendments was examined in soil samples (Typic Argiudoll) from a tillage and

E. Gomez; J. L. Garland

72

Anticipating Stimulus Money for Campus Projects, Colleges Get "Shovel Ready"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Help for colleges may be on the way in the $825-billion stimulus package being pressed by Congressional leaders. The bill that House Democrats introduced this month includes $7-billion for higher-education modernization, renovation, and repair that could kick-start projects like upgrading heating and cooling systems, fixing roofs, and doing…

Carlson, Scott

2009-01-01

73

Piezoosteotomy in orthognathic surgery versus conventional saw and chisel osteotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Piezoosteotomy was assessed as alternative osteotomy method in orthognathic surgery regarding handling, time requirement,\\u000a nerve and vessel impairment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  In this comparative clinical experience, 90 patient’s orthognathic surgery procedures were performed in typical distribution\\u000a prospectively by piezoosteotomy: 34 (38%) monosegment, 47 (52%) segmented LeFortI osteotomies, 94 (52%) sagittal split osteotomies,\\u000a 11 (12%) symphyseal, and 4 (2%) mandibular body osteotomies.

C. A. Landes; S. Stübinger; A. Ballon; R. Sader

2008-01-01

74

Tillage and crop residue effects on soil carbon and carbon dioxide emission in corn-soybean rotations.  

PubMed

Soil C change and CO2 emission due to different tillage systems need to be evaluated to encourage the adoption of conservation practices to sustain soil productivity and protect the environment. We hypothesize that soil C storage and CO2 emission respond to conservation tillage differently from conventional tillage because of their differential effects on soil properties. This study was conducted from 1998 through 2001 to evaluate tillage effects on soil C storage and CO2 emission in Clarion-Nicollet-Webster soil association in a corn [Zea mays L.]-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation in Iowa. Treatments included no-tillage with and without residue, strip-tillage, deep rip, chisel plow, and moldboard plow. No-tillage with residue and strip-tillage significantly increased total soil organic C (TC) and mineral fraction C (MFC) at the 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-cm soil depths compared with chisel plow after 3 yr of tillage practices. Soil CO2 emission was lower for less intensive tillage treatments compared with moldboard plow, with the greatest differences occurring immediately after tillage operations. Cumulative soil CO2 emission was 19 to 41% lower for less intensive tillage treatments than moldboard plow, and it was 24% less for no-tillage with residue than without residue during the 480-h measurement period. Estimated soil mineralizable C pool was reduced by 22 to 66% with less intensive tillage treatments compared with moldboard plow. Adopting less intensive tillage systems such as no-tillage, strip-tillage, deep rip, and chisel plow and better crop residue cover are effective in reducing CO2 emission and thus improving soil C sequestration in a corn-soybean rotation. PMID:15758095

Al-Kaisi, Mahdi M; Yin, Xinhua

2005-01-01

75

Earthworm additions increased short-term nitrogen availability and leaching in two grain-crop agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms were added to enclosures in two agroecosystems to determine their influence on soil nitrogen availability and microbial activity, and to quantify their effect on the leaching of water and nitrogen through the surface soil. The two agroecosystems were a corn-soybean rotation with chisel-plow-disk tillage following corn (CS), and a corn-soybean-wheat-vetch rotation with ridge-tillage (CSW). In both agroecosystems, earthworm additions

Scott Subler; Christina M. Baranski; Clive A. Edwards

1997-01-01

76

The plowing erosion of organic coatings by spherical particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erosion of a thin coating on a steel substrate due to the impact of individual steel spheres was analyzed with the purpose of predicting crater size, shape, and rebound parameters as a function of incident velocity and angle. A rigid-plastic theory due to Hutchings et. al. [I.M. Hutchings, R.E. Winter, J.E. Field, Solid particle erosion of metals: the removal

M Papini; J. K Spelt

1998-01-01

77

Design for optimum performance of a furrow opener to plant cottonseed in humid areas  

E-print Network

. An illustration of these recommendations appears in Fig. 31. 59 SCALE: I 6 OPEN CENTER SO I L PRE SS WHEEL SEED TUBE OPENER I Wi~ LJ SEED PRESS WHEQL Fig. 31 Recommended Modification for Planter Using Experimental Opener. 60 LIST OF REFERENCES LIST... to the conventional wide-shovel chisel opener. In addition the seed row width was reduced from 2-1/2 inches to l-l/2 inches which was highly desirable for subsequent mechanized cultural practices. Performance comparisons between 1949 and 1961 in clay loam soil...

Wiedemann, Harold Theodore

1969-01-01

78

Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe.  

PubMed

Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state-space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as 'cryptic poaching'. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching. PMID:21849323

Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N Thompson; Sand, Håkan

2012-03-01

79

Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe  

PubMed Central

Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state–space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as ‘cryptic poaching’. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching. PMID:21849323

Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Sand, Håkan

2012-01-01

80

Cyber Shovels in High School: An Online Soil Science Resource for Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Declining enrolment in soil science courses at post-secondary institutions in Canada and around the world tells us that fewer high school students are considering a career in this discipline than ever before. This may be due to soil science programs losing visibility as they are incorporated into other, larger programs; a lack of awareness of what opportunities exist for soil science professionals; or a disinclination of high school educators to use soil science scenarios as examples in their science curriculum. In 2010, we initiated a three-year, multi-institutional project aimed at introducing soil science concepts into high school curricula across Canada. The goals of this project are to promote learning about the importance of soil as a natural resource, provide useful tools that high school educators can incorporate into their lesson plans, and encourage students to pursue soil science in their higher education. The tool (http://soilweb.landfood.ubc.ca/youth/) features five main themes: (1) descriptions of soil research projects currently undertaken by faculty at five universities across Canada; (2) links to age-appropriate soil related resources that provide exercises and examples teachers can easily use; (3) profiles of soil scientists "at work" in a diverse range of careers to motivate future soil scientists; (4) examples of recent news stories about soil to highlight its relevance in our day to day lives; and (5) a soil forum for students and teachers to ask questions. This tool will be further refined by incorporating feedback obtained from high school teachers and students.

Krzic, M.; Basiliko, N.; Bedard-Haughn, A.; Humphreys, E.; Price, G.; Dampier, L.; Grand, S.; Dynatkar, S.; Crowley, C.

2012-04-01

81

From dirt to shovels: fully automatic tool generation from ad hoc data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ad hoc data sourceis any semistructured data source for which useful data analysis and transformation tools are not readi ly avail- able. Such data must be queried, transformed and displayed by systems administrators, computational biologists, financ ial analysts and hosts of others on a regular basis. In this paper, we demon- strate that it is possible to generate a

Kathleen Fisher; David Walker; Kenny Qili Zhu; Peter White

2008-01-01

82

Modeling the effects of deep chiseling with DRAINMOD for alluvial soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DRAINMOD is a drainage model that has been widely used in the shallow water table regions of the US including southeastern US. Therefore, it is important that DRAINMOD realistically simulate surface runoff, infiltration and drainage volume for the surface-seal-formation prone alluvial soils that are...

83

Watermelon transplanted by chisel, strip-tillage, and bedding methods produce similar yield and quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon plants grown in semi-arid, subtropical south Texas (Lat. 26° N) are subject to wind and high solar loads. In an effort to provide an environment that would reduce wind-related sand blasting, early transplant desiccation, and vine damage and reduced soil temperatures, watermelon seedlings...

84

A New Model of Teaching Pedagogy in CHISEL for the 21th Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and compares six models for teaching second languages developed and adopted since 1840 (grammar-translation, direct, structural, situational, audiolingual, and communicative methods), and proposes a seventh, the cognitive-linguistic method, incorporating Noam Chomsky's theory of learning. The model takes both extralinguistic…

Huang, Li-yi

85

The Culture of Cigar Leaf Tobacco in Texas.  

E-print Network

" qualities of the leaf. It has been shown that a crop yield- ing 1000 lbs. of leaf per acre contaills about 67 lbs. of nitrogen, 9 lbs. of phosphoric acid, and 83 lbs. of potash and, consequently. the fields must be heavily fertilized in order to secure... shovel plow shoi~ld be run thronch the fertilizer so as to mix it with the soil, afterwards throwin ,o t~~~o furrom~s hack over the fertilizer.. which forms a slightly elevated rid~e for planting. The ridge left between the ron7s is i broken out Rat...

Olson, Otto

1912-01-01

86

Changes in soil organic carbon contents and nitrous oxide emissions after introduction of no-till in Pampean agroecosystems.  

PubMed

We reviewed published results to estimate no-till effects on SOC and denitrification in the Argentine Pampas and the potential of no-till to mitigate the global warming effect. On an equivalent mass basis, 42 paired data sets were used for SOC comparisons of no-till vs. plow till (moldboard plow or disk plow), 18 paired data for comparison of no-till vs. reduced till (chisel plow or harrow disk), and 20 paired data for comparison of plow till vs. reduced till. Twenty-six denitrification data sets were used for evaluation of tillage system and fertilization effects on N2O emission. Changes in SOC under no-till were not correlated to time since initiation of experiments. Averaged over years a 2.76 Mg ha(-1) SOC increase (P = 0.01) was observed in no-till systems compared with tilled systems, but no differences were detected between plow and reduced till. The SOC under tillage explained most of the SOC variation under no-till (R2= 0.94, P = 0.01). The model had a positive intercept and predicted a relatively higher increase of SOC in areas of low organic matter level. The conversion of the whole pampean cropping area to no-till would increase SOC by 74 Tg C, about twice the annual C emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Argentina. Emissions of N2O were greater under no-till with a mean increase of 1 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in denitrification rate for humid pampean scenarios. The increased emissions of N2O might overcome the mitigation potential of no-till due to C sequestration in about 35 yr, and therefore no-till might produce global warming. PMID:16391272

Steinbach, Haydée S; Alvarez, Roberto

2006-01-01

87

ROTYLENCHULUS RENIFORMIS BELOW PLOW DEPTH SUPPRESSES COTTON YIELD AND ROOT GROWTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to Rotylenchulus reniformis is absent in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and could be introduced from G. barbadense, G. arboretum, or G. herbaceum, but resistant accessions identified in pots need field confirmation. In 2001, six accessions suppressed nematode populations 70 to 98% in...

88

Diverse no-till irrigated crop rotations instead of burning and plowing continuous wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field burning of residue is a traditional management tool for irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States (PNW) that can result in reduced air quality. A 6-year no-till field experiment to evaluate two complete cycles of a 3-year irrigated crop rotation of winter wheat–spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)–winter canola (Brassica napus L.)

William F. Schillinger; Douglas L. Young; Ann C. Kennedy; Timothy C. Paulitz

2010-01-01

89

Broken Ground: Plowing and America's Cultural Landscape in the 1930s  

E-print Network

and advocated practical solutions to the agricultural crisis. This tendency is best demonstrated by John Steuart Curry's work as artist-in-residence for the College of Agriculture at the University of Wisconsin. This investigation of human cultural engagement...

Meyer, Kate

2011-05-31

90

Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of runoff as affected by moldboard plowing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The repeated excessive application of manure on cropland areas can cause nutrients to accumulate near the soil surface and increase nutrient transport by overland flow. Inverting soils with high surface nutrient content could reduce runoff nutrient transport. This study was conducted to measure the ...

91

Force and flow at the onset of drag in plowed granular media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the transient drag force FD on a localized intruder in a granular medium composed of spherical glass particles. A flat plate is translated horizontally from rest through the granular medium to observe how FD varies as a function of the medium's initial volume fraction, ?. The force response of the granular material differs above and below the granular critical state, ?c, the volume fraction which corresponds to the onset of grain dilatancy. For ? ?c, FD rapidly rises to a maximum and then decreases over further displacement. The maximum force for ? >?c increases with increasing drag velocity. In quasi-two-dimensional drag experiments, we use granular particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure time resolved strain fields associated with the horizontal motion of a plate started from rest. PIV experiments show that the maxima in FD for ? >?c are associated with maxima in the spatially averaged shear strain field. For ? >?c the shear strain occurs in a narrow region in front of the plate, a shear band. For ? ?c, surface particles move only during the formation of the shear band, coincident with the maxima in FD, after which the particles remain immobile until the sheared region reaches the measurement region.

Gravish, Nick; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Goldman, Daniel I.

2014-04-01

92

A Biphasic Finite Element Model of In   Vitro Plowing Tests of the Temporomandibular Joint Disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) afflict 3–29% of people aged 19–40 years. Degenerative joint disease (DJD)\\u000a of the TMJ generally occurs 15 years earlier than in other human joints and 1.5–2 times more often in women than men. The\\u000a TMJ disc is the primary stress distribution mechanism within the joint. Mechanical failure of the TMJ disc precedes clinical\\u000a signs of DJD.

R. L. Spilker; J. C. Nickel; L. R. Iwasaki

2009-01-01

93

Vegetation of plowed and unplowed playa lake wetlands in southwestern Kansas  

SciTech Connect

Playa lakes are shallow, circular basins within the High Plains that were formed by wind during the Pleistocene Era. These basins are often referred to as {open_quotes}buffalo wallows{close_quotes} by local residents. When rainfall occurs, playas pond water, allowing formation of hydric soils and wetland vegetation. Playa provide excellent waterfowl habitat and are second only to the Gulf Coast in importance as winter habitat for birds in the Central Flyway. Highly variable climatic conditions along with extensive changes in surrounding hydrology on agricultural lands contribute to alternating wet and dry cycles within the playas. As a result, the vegetative mixture of the playas can change drastically from one season to another.

Wilson, S.L.; Buckley, J.E. [SCS Engineers, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1995-12-01

94

Influence of plow pan on the enrichment and depletion of heavy metals in the surface soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydropedology is a new discipline that uses pedological information to understand the soil water movement, and thus the storage, transformation, and transportation of heavy metals (HMs). However, limited studies have investigated how the hydropedological feature, for example the water-restrictive so...

95

Diverse No-Till Irrigated Cropping Systems Instead of Burning and Plowing Continuous Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field burning of stubble has long been used as a management tool for irrigated wheat in the Inland Pacific Northwest. Concerns about regional air quality and government regulations led growers and scientists to conduct a 6-year no-till field experiment to evaluate two cycles of a 3-year irrigated c...

96

Scanning electron microscopic study of the otolithic organs in the bichir (Polypterus bichir) and shovel-nose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus).  

PubMed

The anatomy and ultrastructure of the sacculus, lagena, and utriculus of the ear of Polypterus bichir and Scaphirhynchus platorynchus were studied using the scanning electron microscope. The otolithic organs each contain a single dense calcareous otolith in close contact with a sensory epithelium (macula). The maculae have sensory hair cells typical of those found in other vertebrates, surrounded by microvilli-covered supporting cells. The hair cells on each macula are divided into several groups, with all of the cells in each group morphologically polarized in the same direction. The cells of the utricular macula in both species are divided into opposing groups in a pattern similar to that found in other vertebrates. The saccular and lagenar maculae are located in a single large chamber in both species. In Scaphirhychus the two maculae are on the same plane, while in Polypterus they are at right angles to one another. The hair cells on the saccular maculae of both species are divided into two oppositely oriented groups. In Scaphirhynchus the cells on the posterior half of the macula are oriented dorsally on the dorsal half of the macula and ventrally on the ventral half. The anterior region of the macula is rotated and the cells of the dorsal and ventral groups are shifted so that they are oriented on the animal's horizon plane. A similar pattern is found in Polypterus, except that this macula is shaped like a "J" with the vertical portion of the J having horizontal cells and the bottom portion vertical cells. The lagenar maculae in both species have dorsally oriented cells on the anterior side of the macula and ventrally oriented cells on the posterior half of the macula. While these data are not sufficient for clarifying the taxonomic relationship between the two species studied, it is clear that the ears in these species have a number of significant differences from the teleost ear that could have functional and/or taxonomic significance. PMID:681554

Popper, A N

1978-09-01

97

Quantification of Soil Physical Properties by Using X-Ray Computerized Tomography (CT) and Standard Laboratory (STD) Methods  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) on agricultural soils has been used in this research to quantify soil physical properties to be compared with standard laboratory (STD) methods. The overall research objective was to more accurately quantify soil physical properties for long-term management systems. Two field studies were conducted at Iowa State University's Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua, IA using two different soil management strategies. The first field study was conducted in 1999 using continuous corn crop rotation for soil under chisel plow with no-till treatments. The second study was conducted in 2001 and on soybean crop rotation for the same soil but under chisel plow and no-till practices with wheel track and no-wheel track compaction treatments induced by a tractor-manure wagon. In addition, saturated hydraulic (K{sub s}) conductivity and the convection-dispersion (CDE) model were also applied using long-term soil management systems only during 2001. The results obtained for the 1999 field study revealed no significant differences between treatments and laboratory methods, but significant differences were found at deeper depths of the soil column for tillage treatments. The results for standard laboratory procedure versus CT method showed significant differences at deeper depths for the chisel plow treatment and at the second lower depth for no-till treatment for both laboratory methods. The macroporosity distribution experiment showed significant differences at the two lower depths between tillage practices. Bulk density and percent porosity had significant differences at the two lower depths of the soil column. The results obtained for the 2001 field study showed no significant differences between tillage practices and compaction practices for both laboratory methods, but significant differences between tillage practices with wheel track and no-wheel compaction treatments were found along the soil profile for both laboratory methods. The K{sub s} measurements and CDE parameters revealed no significant differences between tillages and treatments. In essence, the CT method and CDE model both proved to be useful methods to quantify macropores and estimate solute transport parameters, respectively. Breakthrough curves were generated to observe the initial and final breakthrough of solute response along the soil matrix.

Maria Ambert Sanchez

2003-12-12

98

Dissolved organic C and N pools in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems and sampling depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil tillage practices exert a significant influence on the dynamic of soluble organic C and N pools, affecting nutrient cycling in agricultural systems by enhancing its mineralization through microbial activities or stabilization in soil microaggregates, which contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of the present research was to determine the influence of three different soil management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) obtained from wastewater treatment processes on dissolved organic C (water-soluble organic C -WSOC-, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds) and soluble N (total-N, NH4+, NO3-) pools in a long-term field experiment (27 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station "La Higueruela" (40° 03'N, 4° 24'W) under semi-arid conditions. Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 tonnes per hectare prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. Soil sampling was performed two months after tillage practices at the following depths for each treatment: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Results obtained for unamended soils showed that no-tillage management increased total-N, NH4+ and NO3- contents at the 0-10 cm depth samples, meanwhile WSC and carbohydrates contents were larger at 20-30 cm depth samples in both moldboard and no-tillage plots. CS and TSS-amended soils presented a general increase in soluble C and N compounds, being significantly higher in TSS-amended soils, as TSS contains a great amount of labile organic C and N substrates due to the lack of stabilization treatment. TSS-amended soils under no-tillage and chisel plowing showed larger N, NH4+ and NO3- content at the 0-10 cm samples, meanwhile moldboard management exhibited larger NH4+ and NO3- content at 10-20 and 20-30 cm samples, possibly due to the incorporation of TSS at deeper depths (20-40 cm). CS and TSS-amended soils in no-tillage system showed the largest content of organic C pools at 0-10 cm depth samples due to less soil disturbance and the input of organic substrates with CS and TSS on soil surface. CS and TSS-amended soils under chisel plowing exhibited similar contents of soluble organic C pools at 10-20 and 20-30 cm depth samples and only TSS-amended soils increased significantly WSOC content at 0-10 cm samples. Similarly, contents of WSOC and carbohydrates in moldboard plowing were distributed more uniformly throughout the soil profile due to the turnover of soil and CS and TSS amendments into the plow layer. Acknowledgements: this research was supported by the Spanish CICYT, Project no. CTM2011-25557.

García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro Angel; García López de Sa, Esther; Polo, Alfredo

2013-04-01

99

Soil quality differences among long-term no-till irrigated crop rotations to replace burning and plowing continuous wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heavy residue in irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States (PNW) is a problem often resolved by burning. We investigated the soil quality benefits of a diversified no-till crop rotation with various residue management practices compared t...

100

Evolution of the plow over 10,000 years and the rationale for no-till farming  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture originated 10 to 13 millennia ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, mostly along the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Indus and Yangtze River valleys and was introduced into Greece and southeast Europe > 8000 years ago. Sumerian and other civilizations developed a wide variety of simple ...

101

Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

2014-08-01

102

Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores was indicated by a rise in concentrations during or shortly after rainfall, but prior to any increase in tile flow. Macropores located above the tile lines were observed during smoke tests in 2012 confirming significantly greater macropore densities above tile lines in the no-till plots (average 23.2 macropores/m^2) as compared to the chisel-plowed plots (average 1.6 macropores/m^2). Identifiable macropores were generally within a 0.4m-wide zone above the tile lines. While bacterial loading to tile lines was dominated by rainfall-driven events, transport of bacteria to tile lines was observed less than a day after application under unsaturated conditions in 2012. Indicator bacteria concentrations were poorly correlated to Salmonella spp. throughout the study period, with water sample concentrations as high as 4x10^3 cfu/100 ml Salmonella spp. in samples where no E. coli or enterococci were detected. The differences in precipitation from year-to-year had the greatest effect on E. coli concentrations which averaged between 331 - 2140 cfu/100ml under the PL1 and PL2 treatments in 2010, and rarely exceeded 10 cfu/100ml in the month after litter application during dry years. Enterococci were similarly affected, while dry conditions did not result in lower average Salmonella spp. counts.

Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

2012-12-01

103

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSI~N. 297 The hog-like character of carp in plowing up the bottoin and banks  

E-print Network

fish upon tho borders of the Eiarshes aloug the Hudson. He has shot thein while so engaged. `1 in capturing these animals. Mr. William H. Dall, the well-known Alaskan explorer, now of the Coast Siirvey the shell of a common mucl-turtle so gnawed and iri the same situation. I did not see the animal in the act

104

Tillage, Mulch and N Fertilizer Affect Emissions of CO2 under the Rain Fed Condition  

PubMed Central

A two year (2010–2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010–11 relative to the year 2011–12. During cropping year 2010–11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011–12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options. PMID:24086256

Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

2013-01-01

105

Rev 11/25/2013 FY2014 Snow Removal & Deicing Routes by Zone  

E-print Network

Plow & Deice - HIGH PRIORITY M13 Med Inn Simpson Circle Dr Grounds Plow & Deice M16 Old Women UH Dock V E Medical Center Dr Grounds Plow & Deice M70 Simpson Dock Simpson Circle Dr Grounds Plow & Deice M73 CVC Service Center Simpson Circle Dr Grounds Plow & Deice M83 Restricted Parking E Medical

Kirschner, Denise

106

Edaphic and crop production changes resulting from pipeline installation in semiarid agricultural ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The effects of pipeline installation on soil properties and crop production are being documented on three transects (pipe ditch, working side, and control) at four sites (dryland row crop, native pasture, dryland wheat, and irrigated cropland) in Beaver County, Oklahoma. Plant-cover data from the native pasture site show a 37% increase in cover on the pipe ditch during the initial growth season; no significant differences in cover were observed when the control and working side transects were compared. Wheat yield on the pipe ditch at the irrigated crop site was significantly higher, a fact attributed to increased moisture-retention capacity and lower bulk density of the pipe ditch soil. The significantly higher grain sorghum yield on the right-of-way at the dryland row crop site may have resulted from the reclamation practice of chisel plowing the right-of-way on croplands following pipeline construction. Data from the initial sampling and first year of monitoring of the Beaver County sites indicate pipeline installations in semiarid agro-ecosystems have either positive or negligible impacts on soil properties and crop production. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Zellmer, S.D.; Taylor, J.D.; Carter, R.P.

1985-01-01

107

Don't Become a Blizzard Casualty  

MedlinePLUS

... insulated boots with thick wool socks while shoveling snow. Also, pay special attention to the head and ... Glatter said he also recommends using a smaller snow shovel or consider using a snow blower if ...

108

Effects of changes in land use on soil physical properties and soil organic carbon content in a wheat-corn-sunflower crop sequence, in a loam soil of Argentina.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Argentinean Humid Pampas extend over about 60 million hectares, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The Southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampas, it covers over 1,206,162 hectares, the mean annual temperature is 13.3 °C and the climate is sub-humid. At the present only 6% of the lands are used for pasture. The main activities are agriculture and cattle production. The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The tillage systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP generates decreases in the levels of soil organic carbon (SOC). The magnitude of such decrease depends on the intensity of the tillage system, the tillage timeliness and the amount and quality of the residues. Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, there are evidences that, under NT, the bulk density (?b) in the superficial layers of the soil increases. The soil compaction causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. With this scenario and the tendency to increase the surface under NT in the Southeast Humid Pampas, we evaluated the evolution of some soil physical properties and the SOC in a 10-year experiment with a wheat-corn-sunflower rotation. The experiment was carried out in four localities at farmer? fields under three different tillage systems: MP, CP and NT in a randomized complete block design, considering each locality as a block. Each plot had 50 m in width by 100 m length and the treatments were: NT, MP and CP. The results of this experiment have allowed us to verify that: i) the wheat-corn-sunflower crop sequence showed a tendency to reduce the values of bulk density (?b) but NT increased ?b in the superficial soil layers; ii) the more intensive the tillage system, the higher the change in the mean weight diameter (MP > CP > NT); iii) the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) showed interaction with time and only was significantly different between the tillage systems in the year 2007; iv) the SOC was statistically higher in NT than in MP and CP, time had no significant effect on SOC, and vi) the tillage system did not affect the yields of the wheat-corn-sunflower crop rotation.

Aparicio, V.; Costa, J. L.

2012-04-01

109

Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33° 57' S; 60° 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33° 46' S; 60° 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23±1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (<0.5%) were similar in the three sites. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates were minimal due to the low crop response. The results are expressed in Mg ha-1 for an A soil horizon mass of 2500 Mg ha-1. The introduction of agriculture decreased SOC stock: 31Y varied from 68.3 to 40.1 Mg ha-1 (41.3% loss) and 80Y from 68.3 to 47.2 Mg ha-1 (30% loss). The SOC loss was the result of the mineralization of a large amount labile SOC present in the pristine soil and low annual additions of carbon issued from crop residue (3.5 and 3.3 Mg ha-1 corresponding to 31Y and 80Y, respectively). The lower loss of carbon in 80Y compared to 30Y can be explained by the accumulation of stable SOC fractions produced by the burnt stubble. We conclude that current agricultural systems of the Rolling Pampas are not sustainable.

Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

2012-04-01

110

Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fields of eastern Wisconsin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn-soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66-96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L-1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

Madison, Allison M.; Ruark, Matthew D.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Lara W.; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric T.

2014-11-01

111

Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems in a semi-arid agroecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid agricultural soils, seasonal dynamic of soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is highly variable. Based on soil respiration measurements the effects of different management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) was investigated in a long-term field experiment (28 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station 'La Higueruela' (40o 03'N, 4o 24'W). Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 Mg ha-1 prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. SCE was moderate in late spring (2.2-11.8 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) when amendments were applied and tillage was performed, markedly decreased in summer (0.4-3.2 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1), following a moderate increase in autumn (3.4-14.1 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1), rising sharply in October (5.6-39.8 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 ). In winter, SCE was low (0.6-6.5 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1). In general, SCE was greater in chisel and moldboard tilled soils, and in CS and particularly TSS-amended soils, due to the addition of labile C with these amendments, meanwhile no-tillage soils exhibited smaller increases in C efflux throughout the seasons. Soil temperature controlled the seasonal variations of SCE. In summer, when drought occurs, a general decrease of SCE was observed due to a deficit in soil water content. After drought period SCE jumped to high values in response to rain events ('Birch effect') that changed soil moisture conditions. Soil drying in summer and rewetting in autumn may promotes some changes on the structure of soil microbial community, affecting associated metabolic processes, and enhancing a rapid mineralization of water-soluble organic C compounds and/or dead microbial biomass that acts as an energy source for soil microorganisms. To assess the effects of tillage and amendments on SCE, Q10 values were calculated. Data were grouped into three groups according to soil moisture (0.03-0.10 m3m-3, 0-11-0.21 m3m-3, 0.22-0.30 m3m-3). In general, Q10 values were lower at elevated temperatures when soil moisture contents decreased, confirming that SCE is less sensitive to soil temperature during drought periods. Q10 values were higher in moldboard and chisel tilled soils, possibly due to the incorporation of residues into soil and the increase of soil C substrate, meanwhile in no-tillage part of the organic C pools are likely protected from microorganisms by physico-chemical mechanisms. TSS-amended soils exhibited higher Q10 values than CS, pointing that the biochemical lability of the organic C added with amendments exerts an influence on SCE. Acknowledgements: this research was supported by the Spanish CICYT, Project no. CTM2011-25557.

García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; López-de-Sa, Esther G.; Polo, Alfredo

2014-05-01

112

NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING  

SciTech Connect

Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design features, construct a field ready prototype and perform field testing at the surface mining sites. It is anticipated that 10% in energy savings including electricity (cable shovel) and fuel (hydraulic shovel) will be achieved by implementation of ISE technology.

Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

2005-05-01

113

Diagnosis and Management of Salinity Problems In Irrigated Pecan Productions  

E-print Network

should be adjusted accordingly. Soil Management: Chiseling and trenching are two of the most frequently used methods of improving water infiltration. Deep chiseling (90 cm) helps improve water infiltration and salt leaching in silty clay loam... and coarser textured soils (e.g., Helmers and Miyamoto, 1990: Kaddah, 1976). Trenching is more suited in clay or silty clay, especially when stratified, as it helps mix soil profile (Miyamoto and Storey, 1995). Chiseling and trenching also work well...

Miyamoto, S.

114

WATERFOWL USE OF WASTEWATER PONDS ON THE IDAHO NATIONAL  

E-print Network

including ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), redheads (Aythya americana), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), northern pintail (A.. acuta), American wigeon (A.. americana), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and green

115

vol. 169, no. 3 the american naturalist march 2007 Predicting Resource Partitioning and Community Organization  

E-print Network

is absent, mallards (Anas platy- rhynchos) and northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) should maximize of separating prey from detritus. Keywords: filter feeding, resource partitioning, ecomorphology, Anas, bill

116

21 CFR 882.4535 - Nonpowered neurosurgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tissue. It includes specialized chisels, osteotomes, curettes, dissectors, elevators, forceps, gouges, hooks, surgical knives, rasps, scissors, separators, spatulas, spoons, blades, blade holders, blade breakers, probes, etc. (b)...

2010-04-01

117

Integrating CAD and Nano-Indentation for Complex Lithograph  

E-print Network

a certain angle to the cantilever axis [10] [6]. In dynamic plowing lithography (DPL), a vibrating tip, it was shown that DPL makes a deep hole early in the process of dynamic plowing, Correspondence can be sent via

Qian, Xiaoping

118

Real promise or false hope: DOE's title XVII loan Guarantee  

SciTech Connect

While the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 expanded the DOE loan guarantee program to include certain ''shovel-ready'' projects, and appropriated $6 billion to cover the credit subsidy cost associated with these projects, it failed to resolve some of the most pressing problems facing the program. Here are some recommendations that may finally get some shovels in the ground. (author)

Massouh, Jennifer F.; Cannon, George D. Jr.; Logan, Suzanne M.; Schwartz, David L.

2009-05-15

119

BEHIND THE SCENES: TAKE A LOOK AT THE CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

BEHIND THE SCENES: TAKE A LOOK AT THE CALIFORNIA NATIVE PLANT GATEWAY GARDEN IN DEVELOPMENT features of the new garden, even before the fences come down. The garden should be open to the public to. 1. The "SHOVEL GATEWAY" SCULPTURE visible up ahead, crafted from over 400 community-donated shovels

Pasternack, Gregory B.

120

Feeding methods, visual fields and vigilance in dabbling ducks (Anatidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Visual fields were determined in two species of dabbling ducks (Anatini): Shoveler Anas clypeata L. (planktivore whose foraging is guided mainly by tactile cues) and Wigeon A. penelope L. (herbivore whose foraging is guided mainly by visual cues). 2. The binocular fields of Shoveler and Wigeon are of similar maximum width (20 ° ), but they differ in

M. Guillemain; G. R. Martin; H. Fritz

2002-01-01

121

Performance of a Modified Cylinder Cleaner, Part I  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A chisel-shape grid bar with a sharp cutting edge was designed and installed in a modified cylinder cleaner. The cleaner’s seed cotton and lint cleaning performances were evaluated in two tests. Results indicated that a cylinder cleaner with narrowly spaced chisel-shape grid bars connected in seri...

122

Incinerator ash removal systems  

SciTech Connect

An incinerator is disclosed which includes apparatus for removing ash from an incinerating chamber and which comprises hydraulically operated plows that slide along the floor of the chamber to push the ash towards an ash trough. Ash removal efficiency is improved in accordance with the present invention by the hinged suspension of a brush from the plow face. An auxiliary plow is added to the waste material loading device to clear ash from the highest of several stepped floor levels even in the absence of no new load being entered. The auxiliary plow further includes a clevis assembly which pivots the brush away from the incinerator floor during reverse plow travel.

Sakash, G.; Dada, A. G.; Grier Jr., R. K.; McKeel, D. W.; Stern, H.

1985-08-13

123

Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of very large pores associated with former root channels in NT and NS aggregates. Our findings indicate that mechanisms of macro-aggregate formation might differ in their importance in different land use and management practices.

Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L. (MSU); (UC)

2012-10-25

124

33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Non-sparking hand scoops, shovels, and buckets; (3) Containers suitable for holding recovered waste; (4) Emulsifiers for deck cleaning; (5) Protective clothing; (6) A minimum of one non-sparking portable pump with hoses;...

2010-07-01

125

33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Non-sparking hand scoops, shovels, and buckets; (3) Containers suitable for holding recovered waste; (4) Emulsifiers for deck cleaning; (5) Protective clothing; (6) A minimum of one non-sparking portable pump with hoses;...

2010-07-01

126

33 CFR 155.220 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels carrying oil as secondary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Non-sparking hand scoops, shovels, and buckets; (3) Containers suitable for holding recovered waste; (4) Emulsifiers for deck cleaning; and (5) Protective clothing (c) The equipment and supplies must be ready for immediate use...

2010-07-01

127

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

128

CGISS Seismic Field Equipment Check List Version 1.4, Seismograph  

E-print Network

# = [ ] [ ] [ ] 28. 8-gauge elc. PVC capsules # = [ ]. [ ] [ ] 29. 12-gauge shells # = [ ] [ ] [ ] 30. Wire for shot [ ]. Other Tools [ ] [ ] 35. Shovels [ ], rake [ ], and pick [ ]. [ ] [ ] 36. Tamping rod (PVC with cap). [ ] [ ] 37. PVC pipes (to keep holes open). [ ] [ ] 38. Geophone planters; small [ ] large [ ] [ ] [ ] 39

Barrash, Warren

129

Chicago and Illinois, Leading the Pack in Corruption  

E-print Network

in Operation Incubator, a major FBI investigation into Chicago corruption. The convictions included bribery convicted as part of Operation Silver Shovel, another major FBI investigation into corruption in Chicago

Illinois at Chicago, University of

130

GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

131

Old Socorro Mission: an osteobiological analysis of the skeletal remains from the 1982-1985 field excavations  

E-print Network

of the dentition revealed numerous pathological conditions. The OSM population displayed a high frequency of cariogenic activity, enamel hypoplasia, abscessing, antemortem tooth loss, alveolar resorption, and periodontal infection. Dental anomalies, shoveling...

Raisor, Michelle Jeanette

1993-01-01

132

77 FR 59646 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Defense, Army Garrison, Redstone Arsenal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...cave. In January of 1980, human remains representing, at minimum...18 fragmentary pieces of human bone representing one adult of indeterminate sex were recovered from a shovel...During the spring of 1987, human remains representing, at...

2012-09-28

133

3. Producer pitch trap (producer #1), mezzanine level, with workers ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Producer pitch trap (producer #1), mezzanine level, with workers shoveling pitch from trap; looking N. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

134

50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (8) Northern Pintail (Anas acuta ) (9) Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors ) (10) Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera ) (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria...

2014-10-01

135

50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (8) Northern Pintail (Anas acuta ) (9) Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors ) (10) Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera ) (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria...

2013-10-01

136

50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (8) Northern Pintail (Anas acuta ) (9) Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors ) (10) Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera ) (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria...

2012-10-01

137

Habitat Use and Availability of Wintering Waterfowl in Habitat Use and Availability of Wintering Waterfowl in Western TennesseeWestern Tennessee  

E-print Network

)Dabbling Ducks (Anatini) Anas platyrhynchos A. strepera g A. carolinensis A. acuta American Wigeon A. americana American Black Duck A. rubripes Northern Shoveler A. clypeata Cornell Lab of Ornithology 2011 Diving Ducks

Gray, Matthew

138

50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (8) Northern Pintail (Anas acuta ) (9) Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors ) (10) Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera ) (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria...

2011-10-01

139

50 CFR 91.4 - Eligible species.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (8) Northern Pintail (Anas acuta ) (9) Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors ) (10) Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera ) (11) Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata ) (f) Diving Ducks. (1) Canvasback (Aythya valisineria...

2010-10-01

140

30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

2011-07-01

141

30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

2014-07-01

142

Relationship between waterfowl nutrition and condition on agricultural drainwater ponds in the Tulare Basin, California: Waterfowl body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined carcass composition and proximate food composition of ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), and northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering on agricultural drainwater ponds in California during 1983–84. Lipids varied seasonally in northern shovelers\\u000a and northern pintails. Protein did not fluctuate except in ruddy ducks whose protein mass increased over winter, suggesting\\u000a that some protein was catabolized

Ned H. Euliss; Robert L. Jarvis; David S. Gilmer

1997-01-01

143

Curved periacetabular osteotomy for the dysplastic hip: cadaveric and radiological analyses of safe procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curved periacetabular osteotomy is a modified Ganz's procedure and requires an intrapelvic osteotomy. In order to establish\\u000a the osteotomy line and the chisel inserting angles during the procedure, 32 cadavers and 28 three-dimensional computed tomographs\\u000a were utilized. The guidepoints for the osteotomy line were obtained from the cadaveric analysis and the inserting angles of\\u000a the chisel were measured from the

K. Shiramizu; M. Naito; I. Asayama; M. Yatsunami

2003-01-01

144

Curved periacetabular osteotomy for the dysplastic hip: cadaveric and radiological analyses of safe procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curved periacetabular osteotomy is a modified Ganz’s procedure and requires an intrapelvic osteotomy. In order to establish the osteotomy line and the chisel inserting angles during the procedure, 32 cadavers and 28 three-dimensional computed tomographs were utilized. The guide-points for the osteotomy line were obtained from the cadaveric analysis and the inserting angles of the chisel were measured from the

K. Shiramizu; M. Naito; I. Asayama; M. Yatsunami

2003-01-01

145

Methyl bromide alternatives in a bell pepper–squash rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were conducted to evaluate potential methyl bromide alternatives against multiple pests in a bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) – squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cropping sequence. Early in the growing season, the most effective treatments in suppressing purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) emergence through the polyethylene mulch were methyl bromide, methyl iodide, and chisel-injected 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin [1,3-D+C35 (chisel)].

T. M. Webster; A. S. Csinos; A. W. Johnson; C. C. Dowler; D. R. Sumner; R. L. Fery

2001-01-01

146

Fertilizer Facts: January 2001, Number 27 Fertilizer Use on Dryland Perennial Forages  

E-print Network

from 3.1 ppm to 39 ppm and soil pH levels ranged from 5.6 to 8.0. The ranges are shown to demonstrate levels of soil P (soil plow layer (0-6" depth). The Belt, Geyser and Moore sites were soil. Results and Discussion Plow layer soil nitrogen (NO3-N) levels of the potential study sites

Lawrence, Rick L.

147

Soil Compaction and Root Growth under Field Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While plow pans (a thin layer of compacted soil at the bottom of the normal tillage depth) in the Central and Southern US tend to be genetic in origin, they were believed to be wheel-induced in the upper Midwest by running the rear tractor wheel in the plow furrow. But it was also believed that annu...

148

Ryegrass Cover Crop Effects on Nitrate Leaching in Spring Barley Fertilized with 15 NH4 15 NO3  

Microsoft Academic Search

vated in early autumn and plowed in the spring (Lewan, 1994). However, during the fourth year, after the rye- Cover crops are a management option to reduce NO3 leaching grass was plowed under and not replaced by another under cereal grain production. A 2-yr field lysimeter study was estab- lished in Uppsala, Sweden, to evaluate the effect of a perennial

Lars F. Bergstrom; William E. Jokela

149

Tillage impacts on soil microbial biomass C, N and P, earthworms and agronomy after two years of cropping following permanent pasture in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of pasture land to crop rotation by plow tillage and reversion to pasture for replenishment of nutrients is a common practice in New Zealand. It is known that plow tillage decreases soil organic matter and causes biological degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tillage practices on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass

T Aslam; M. A Choudhary; S Saggar

1999-01-01

150

Winter brings Tech a flurry of problems Students out and about yesterday  

E-print Network

Denise Linkenhoker, program support techni- Icy roads affect BT, student drivers Health officials worried rent more." The Physical Plant keeps a minimum amount of salt on hand and trucks transport additional trucks with spreaders and plows d winter storms, Matt said. They plow around clock in the form of tw hour

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

151

Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The U-2 underflight photography has shown that the critical stages in cotton plow down (defoliation, shredding, and plowing) can be identified. This result will prove invaluable to a user agency whose purpose is to monitor the cotton season for compliance with California State law.

Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.

1973-01-01

152

Rev 11/25/2013 FY2014 Snow Removal & Deicing Routes by Zone  

E-print Network

Rev 11/25/2013 FY2014 Snow Removal & Deicing Routes by Zone Lot # Location Street Name Pay Station Bus Shelter Comments SC1 Athletic Dept Area Kipke Dr Contractor Plow & Deice SC2 Greene St @ Hill St19 Student Arts Dock Kipke Dr Contractor Plow & Deice SC32 Administrative Services Bldg Hoover St 1

Kirschner, Denise

153

Tillage Frequency, Soil Compaction and N-Fertilizer Rate Effects on Yield of Teff (Eragrostis Tef (Zucc) Trotter) in Central Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ethiopia, teff is grown for its grain and straw. There is a dearth of information with respect to plowing, compaction and fertilization on vertisols in central zone of Tigray. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of plowing frequency, soil compaction and N on teff yields. The experimental design was a split-split plot where main plot was

Haftamu Gebretsadik; Mitiku Haile; Charles F. Yamoah

154

Picture Tour: Growing Sugarbeets Saginaw Valley Research and Extension Center  

E-print Network

.msu.edu Images of: Plowing · Planting · Crop emergence · Growth · Fields · Harvest PLOWING Most beet ground and incorporate fertilizer, usually the day before or the day of planting. #12;2 Sugar beets are typically planted in search of water and nutrients. During July the root enlarges and stores sugar created by photosynthesis

155

Feeding ecology of waterfowl wintering on evaporation ponds in California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the feeding ecology of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), Northern Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) wintering on drainwater evaporation ponds in California from 1982 through 1984. Pintails primarily consumed midges (Chironomidae) (39.3%) and widegeongrass (Ruppia maritima) nutlets (34.6%). Shovelers and Ruddy Ducks consumed 92.5% and 90.1% animal matter, respectively. Water boatmen (Corixidae) (51.6%), rotifers (Rotatoria) (20.4%), and copepods (Copepoda) (15.2%) were the most important Shoveler foods, and midges (49.7%) and water boatmen (36.0%) were the most important foods of Ruddy Ducks. All three species were opportunistic foragers, shifting their diets seasonally to the most abundant foods given their behavioral and morphological attributes.

Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

1991-01-01

156

Relationship between waterfowl nutrition and condition on agricultural drainwater ponds in the Tulare Basin, California: waterfowl body composition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined carcass composition and proximate food composition of ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), and northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering on agricultural drainwater ponds in California during 1983-84. Lipids varied seasonally in northern shovelers and northern pintails. Protein did not fluctuate except in ruddy ducks whose protein mass increased over winter, suggesting that some protein was catabolized prior to arrival on wintering areas or that a buildup of protein occurred prior to spring migration. Waterfowl diets varied among species and time, but the nutritional composition of the diets was relatively stable. Ruddy ducks and shovelers consumed mostly animal foods rich in protein (53-60%) and low in Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE)(1-7%). Pintail diets contained more NFE (23-38%) and less protein (14-38%) because of greater consumption of plant foods. Nutritional composition of pintail diets varied with lower protein consumption occurring from November through January.

Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

1997-01-01

157

Visualization of Stress Distribution on Ultrasonic Vibration Aided Drilling Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrasonically assisted machining is suitable to achieve sub-millimeter drilling on difficult-to-cut materials such as ceramics, hardened steel, glass and heat-resistant steel. However, it is difficult to observe the high-frequency and micron-scale phenomenon of ultrasonic cutting. In this report, high speed camera based on photoelastic analysis realized the visualization of stress distribution on drilling process. For the conventional drilling, the stress distribution diagram showed the intensive stress occurred under the chisel because the chisel edge of drill produces large plastic deformation. On the other hand, the ultrasonic drilling produced spread stress distribution and stress boundary far away from the chisel. Furthermore, chipping or cracking of inner wall of silica glass was influenced considerably by cutting fluid.

Isobe, Hiromi; Uehara, Yusuke; Okada, Manabu; Horiuchi, Tomio; Hara, Keisuke

158

Made in Germany  

SciTech Connect

This supplement was prepared in collaboration with the Association of German Mining Machine Manufacturers within VDMA to give an overview of German manufacturers' contribution to the coal industry. It has 18 short papers and a VDMA vendor matrix and directory. Papers include details of MAN Takraf's surface mining equipment, hydraulic shovels and excavators from Komatsu, Liebherr and Terex O & K, Siemens motors and electric control technology in trucks, shovels etc., new technology from DBT, IBS and Wirth, and low emission engines and drives from Deutz and DaimlerCrysler. 2 figs.

NONE

2005-09-01

159

Blood and water; the archaeological excavation and historical analysis of the Wreck of the Industry, a North-American transport sloop chartered by the British army at the end of the Seven Years' War: British colonial navigation and trade to supply Spanish Florida in the eighteenth century  

E-print Network

. Associations: other shovel blades (No.29) & bundle of files (No.03). Excavated in lab: 05/12/00. Texas A&M-CRL. Standard Electrolytic Reduction. Electrolyte: 2%NaOH. Anode: mild steel. Begin 05/16/00. Medium current density 10 amp.3Volt 05... near cascabel of gun in situ. Associations: other shovel blades (No.29) & bundle of files (No.03). Excavated in lab: 05/12/00. Texas A&M-CRL. Standard Electrolytic Reduction. Electrolyte: 2%NaOH. Anode: mild steel. Begin 05/16/00. Medium current...

Franklin, Marianne

2006-04-12

160

G-MG A Ton of Snow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Eric and Julianne are shoveling snow. After an hour of hard work, Eric remarks ''I bet we have shoveled more than a ton of snow.'' Explain what measure...

161

[The influence of tobacco-smoke toxic components on glucosaminoglycans in biologic tissues].  

PubMed

The aim of the work is detailed analysis of glucosaminoglikans and glukuronic acid in chisel tooth and molars of tobacco-smokers and non-smokers. The total number of 140 patients (tobacco-smokers - 60) by acute serous pulpit is investigated. The conducted quantative and qualitative analyzes show that tobacco-smokers tooth contains les glucosaminoglikans (chondroitinsulfats A and C) and more glucuronic acid than non-smokers individuals. The chisel tooth pulp contained considerably more glucuronic acid as compared with molars. These studies support the hypothesis of important role of cigarette smoke toxical components in the tooth support mechanisms. The studies are necessary to be held in different directions. PMID:20495222

Zurabashvili, D Z; Chanturiia, I R; Kapanadze, L R; Kikalishvili, B Iu; Daneliia, G G

2010-04-01

162

European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

, mainly wing pattern. Signs of infestation Brown rotten spots on infested cherry fruits may be noticeable). Suggested control options include soil plowing in the fall or spring to destroy fly pupae and timed

163

Water Quality Hydrology of Lands Receiving Farm Animal Wastes  

E-print Network

, to determine the chemical quality of surface runoff and groundwater from plots receiving large manure applications, to evaluate techniques of deep plowing large amounts of manure into the soil, and to determine the crop quality and yields on field plots...

Reddell, R. D.; Wise, G. G.; Peters, R. E.; Lyerly, P. J.

164

40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4. The vehicle has a history of extensive collision damage or major engine repair (piston, crank, cylinder head, engine block). 5. The vehicle exhibits ominous noises or serious fluid leaks from the...

2013-07-01

165

40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4. The vehicle has a history of extensive collision damage or major engine repair (piston, crank, cylinder head, engine block). 5. The vehicle exhibits ominous noises or serious fluid leaks from the...

2012-07-01

166

40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...passenger cars, snow plowing, racing) 4. The vehicle has a history of extensive collision damage or major engine repair (piston, crank, cylinder head, engine block). 5. The vehicle exhibits ominous noises or serious fluid leaks from the...

2014-07-01

167

78 FR 76389 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...equipment--replace plow vehicles and spreaders. Acquire security equipment--security system card readers and security surveillance cameras. Replace security vehicles and equipment. Extend and rehabilitate apron (airline). Demolish...

2013-12-17

168

Integrating Cover Crops into Strip-Till Cropping Systems in a Semi-Arid Environment  

E-print Network

species (Medicago polymorpha ‘Armadillo’; M. minima ‘Devine’; M. lupulina ‘BEEBLK’; or Trifolium hirtum ‘Hykon’), or control (plow-tilled/winter fallow). At the Beeville site, the split-split plot treatment was cutting and removal of the cover crops from...

Noland, Reagan Lee

2014-05-02

169

River and Stream Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... washing into lakes and streams comes from exposed earth. This exposed earth includes plowed fields, construction sites, and areas that ... using new methods to reduce the amount of earth they disturb. Bacteria Bacteria are also a big ...

170

Illinois reclaimed soil productivity: Restoration techniques  

SciTech Connect

Consolidation Coal Co. (Consol) has nearly 8,000 acres of high capability and prime farmland reclamation responsibility in Illinois. It has been involved in research in the area of restored soil productivity since 1976 with the University of Illinois and Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Consol maintains an intensive program to demonstrate and test deep tillage equipment. The research and in-house demonstrations identified soil physical strength (compaction) as the main limiting factor to restoring a soil`s productive capacity. There are two primary ways to address this issue, prevention and amelioration. The former was not an option for Consol because many acres were already reclaimed and the company had a major scraper fleet. Along with other operators in Illinois, Consol started an aggressive search for equipment and techniques that could loosen compacted soils. In 1987 Consol was the first to use the D.M.I.-Super Tiger deep soil plow, originally developed and manufactured by D.M.I., Inc. of Goodfield, Illinois. This plow is composed of a single parabolic, static shank with a 44-inch wide sweep weighing 1,200 pounds. It is capable of plowing 48 inches deep while leaving the top soil in place. A Caterpillar D9L tractor with 460 horsepower is used to pull the plow. In 1990 the decision was made to commit to this equipment as the best technology currently available. In 1994 Consol received a patent waiver from D.M.I. to build its own plow. The Consol built plow has been in use since the summer of 1995. To date, Consol has plowed over 3,900 acres with a D.M.I. plow.

Smout, G. [Consolidation Coal Co., Sesser, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

171

Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.  

PubMed

Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated. PMID:23500104

O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

2013-05-15

172

Seasonal variation of root distribution of irrigated, field-grown Russet Burbank potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root density of irrigated, field-grown Russet Burbank potatoes grown on Plainfield loamy sand was determined periodically\\u000a from soil core samples during the 1973 growing season. Total root length and weight also were measured.\\u000a \\u000a Under these growing conditions, the roots essentially were restricted to the plow layer in this soil, decreasing rapidly below\\u000a this depth. The root density in the plow

D. B. Lesczynski; C. B. Tanner

1976-01-01

173

Soil microbial activity, nitrogen cycling, and long-term changes in organic carbon pools as related to fallow tillage management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were established in 1969 and 1970 near Sidney, NE, to determine the effect of moldboard plow (plow), sub-tillage (sub-till), and no-tillage (no-till) fallow management on soil properties, biological activities, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. One experiment was on land which had been broken from sod in 1920, seeded to crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] from 1957 to

J. W Doran; E. T Elliott; K Paustian

1998-01-01

174

Normatives of changes in the physical properties of chernozems in the forest-steppe zone of European Russia under conditions of their intensive agricultural use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normatives of changes in the physical properties of plowed typical and leached heavy loamy and light clayey chernozems under their intensive agricultural use are developed for two major provinces of the forest-steppe zone of European Russia. The limits of the optimal, permissible, and critical values of the physical properties of the plow layer for crop growth are determined. It is shown that the variation in the physical properties of the plow layer of chernozems is determined not only by the zonal-provincial features but also by the period and type of their use and the farming standards. In the plow layer, the natural differences in the physical properties of chernozems at the subtype level are significantly leveled by agrotechnical measures and the similar requirements of cultivated crops. Upon high farming standards, the physical properties of plowed chernozems on fields with high and moderate fertility levels remain close to the optimum or permissible values. The technogenic compaction of the plow layer of chernozems of different textures in the forest-steppe zone and the corresponding decrease in the yield of cereals are predicted on the basis of known models. The developed normatives of changes in the physical properties of cultivated chernozems can be applied to assess the modern state of the physical conditions of these soils and the tendencies of their alteration; they can serve as a basis for improving regional systems of land use.

Kuznetsova, I. V.; Utkaeva, V. F.; Bondarev, A. G.

2013-12-01

175

Complete Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H14N2 Avian Influenza Virus from California  

PubMed Central

We report the complete genome sequence of a reassortant H14N2 avian influenza virus isolated in 2011 from a northern shoveler in California. This introduced Eurasian subtype acquired seven segments from North American viruses and circulated in the Pacific Flyway 1 year after its detection in the Mississippi Flyway. PMID:23908286

Schobel, Seth; Dugan, Vivien G.; Halpin, Rebecca; Lin, Xudong; Wentworth, David E.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Mertens, Eva; Plancarte, Magdalena

2013-01-01

176

Diesel Engine Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

Tech Directions, 2010

2010-01-01

177

2012 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University BSE-51NP Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or  

E-print Network

and State University, Virginia State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Edwin J Hand tool care and safe use Introduction Many hand tools such as rakes, shovels, pruners are used Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSU) show nationwide over 28,000 receiving hospital treatment

Liskiewicz, Maciej

178

28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE 'GEORGE M. CARL.' THE END OF UNLOADING, TRACTOR SCRAPERS ARE LOWERED INTO THE HOLD TO 'CLEAN UP.' PRIOR TO ABOUT 1953, MEN WITH SHOVELS DID THE JOB. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

179

CANAL AUTOMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canals have been used to distribute water for irrigation for several millennia. The practices gradually evolved from a shovel to open gaps in a berm to fixed structures to movable structures such as gates. Regulation of water in canals is still by manual labor in most parts of the world. A few hydra...

180

Inside this issue: Green Holiday Tips 2  

E-print Network

it with paint, crayons, glitter or stamps! Give a gift with no waste! Shovel someone's driveway or mow someone of plastic called polyvinyl chloride (PVC) which is derived from petroleum. Electricity is used to melt the plastic, and approximately 85% of the fake trees sold in the US are shipped here from China. Much of China

Kidd, William S. F.

181

A stochastic optimization approach to mine truck C. H. TA{, J. V. KRESTA{, J. F. FORBES*{ and H. J. MARQUEZ  

E-print Network

A stochastic optimization approach to mine truck allocation C. H. TA{, J. V. KRESTA{, J. F. FORBES, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G-2V4, Canada In the mining industry, truck assignment is an important and complex; Chance-constrained; Oilsand mining 1. Introduction In the open-pit mining industry, trucks and shovels

Marquez, Horacio J.

182

Technology for Institutional Enrollment, Communication, and Student Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of whether an institution is a reluctant passenger on the racing technology train or itching to throw another shovel of coal on the fire, continuing advancements in technology make it a formidable factor in life on college campuses today. While students are updating their most recent social networking sites, faculty, staff, and…

Salas, Grace; Alexander, Julie S.

2008-01-01

183

Sampling Mud in the Elwha River Estuary  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologic technician Andrew Spanjer shovels Elwha River mud into a bucket for latter analysis in the lab. The USGS is monitoring turbidity at several locations in the Elwha River during the largest dam-removal project in United States history. The mud will be mixed with water to assess how dif...

184

Beach Hopper Bonanza Grade Level: Second Grade  

E-print Network

Beach Hopper Bonanza Grade Level: Second Grade Developers: Jan Ward, Merry Lojkovic, Kara Davidson the characteristics, behavior, and anatomy of beach hoppers. !" Examine the relationships between the beach hopper (transparent) !" 1-2 buckets !" sieves !" shovel !" small plastic container with lid to hold beach hoppers

185

Behavior Genetics, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1983 Elucidating the Behavioral Phenotype of Drosophila  

E-print Network

by shoveling food with its mouth hooks and moves by alter- nately extending its anterior and retracting its larvae have reached their minimum weight for pupation (late third instar), they begin to search factors on pupation site choice were tested in a study of Sokal et al. (1960). They concluded

Sokolowski, Marla

186

Texas State University-San Marcos Ingram School of Engineering  

E-print Network

access to potable water ·5 million die every year due to drinking non-potable water and becoming sick #12 and test #12;Shovel Adaptor Kelly Kincaid Zach Hanson Slade Kusy John Sparks #12;Sponsor and Problem · Csarst Design = 5.34 lbs. #12;Save the Planet Clean Water Travis Hilbig Ben Butler David Doughty Eduardo

Asiabanpour, Bahram - Department of Engineering and Technology, Texas State University

187

Comparing Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) Techniques in 18th-Century Yard Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yards surrounding historical homesteads are the liminal space between private houses and public space, and contain artifactural and structural remains that help us understand how the residents interfaced with the world. Comparing different yards means collecting reliable evidence, and what is missing is just as important as what is found. Excavations can rely on randomly placed 50-cm shovel test pits

Christiane Marie Carducci

2012-01-01

188

Official BirdLife South Africa "Bird list for South Africa" Common Name Scientific Name Endemic? Introduced? Migrant? Vagrant?  

E-print Network

acuta vagrant Garganey Anas querquedula vagrant Hottentot Teal Anas hottentota Southern Pochard Netta Teal Anas capensis African Black Duck Anas sparsa Mallard Anas platyrhynchos introduced Yellow-billed Duck Anas undulata Cape Shoveler Anas smithii Red-billed Teal Anas erythrorhyncha Northern Pintail Anas

de Villiers, Marienne

189

Characteristics of dental morphology in the Xinjiang Uyghurs and correlation with the EDARV370A variant.  

PubMed

Teeth are one of the most important materials for anthropological studies because they are likely to be preserved in ancient remains. While the frequencies of dental characteristics can provide clues to the phylogeny of populations, genetic studies at the individual level can further reveal the biological mechanisms and evolutionary context of dental characteristics. In this study, by analyzing 38 dental characteristics of 242 Xinjiang Uyghur individuals, we found that (i) the dental characteristics of the Uyghurs showed evidence of admixture between European and East Asian populations. The admixture proportions were in line with those previously reported in population genetic studies; (ii) the Xinjiang Uyghur dental characteristics formed three clusters in pairwise correlation analysis. One of the main clusters consisted of characteristics including incisor shoveling, double shoveling and mesial ridge; and (iii) all the characteristics in this cluster were significantly correlated with the genetic variant EDARV370A. The extracted composite phenotypic factor was also significantly associated with EDARV370A, which explained 18% of the total phenotypic variance. This indicated a pleiotropic effect, i.e., the same genetic factor affects a number of dental characteristics at the same time. Our results confirmed that EDARV370A, a genetic variant that first originated in East Asia about 30000 years ago, played an important role in incisor shoveling in East Asia. This finding suggested that incisor shoveling in modern humans in East Asia is likely to have appeared after the late Pleistocene. PMID:24752358

Tan, JingZe; Peng, QianQian; Li, JinXi; Guan, YaQun; Zhang, LiPing; Jiao, Yi; Yang, YaJun; Wang, SiJia; Jin, Li

2014-05-01

190

78 FR 25469 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of South Alabama Center for Archaeological Studies...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...consisting of 9 molars, 2 molar fragments, 8 pre-molars, 4 canines, 2 shovel-shaped incisors, 1 proximal tibia shaft, 1 ulna...individuals, consisting of 16 molars, 10 premolars, 9 incisors, 7 canines, 61 unidentifiable tooth fragments, 1 rib fragment,...

2013-05-01

191

From Policing to Participation: Overturning the Rules and Creating Amiable Classrooms Carol Anne Wien Four early childhood educators and two professors took part in the discussions that form  

Microsoft Academic Search

We were playing outside after a rainy day, and there was a huge mud puddle the size of a large table and of course a rule about no playing in the mud—children get dirty. The children played around the perimeter of the puddle, digging with shovels and throwing rocks in and watching them splash. Then some started tapping their toes

Karyn Callaghan; Bobbie Jo Gramigna; Brenda Gardiner; Laurie Jeandron

192

A six sigma review of miniature optics alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key to high quality optics is a set of guidelines. Create an understanding of the Criteria for Quality. Focus on understanding and controlling process variation. Examine verification and validation of methods. Take a view of the horizon as well as drilling down so you know when to put down the shovel.

Tesar, John

2009-08-01

193

BIOL 427 species list, Page 1 Biology 427: List of main species to learn  

E-print Network

Wigeon Anas americana 30 Northern Pintail Anas acuta 30 Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata 32 Anas platyrhynchos 26 Gadwall Anas strepera 28 Green-winged Teal Anas crecca 28 American perspicillata 42 Black Scoter Melanitta americana 42 White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca 42 Bufflehead

Irwin, Darren

194

HISTORICAL CHANGES IN VERTEBRATE SPECIES COMPOSITION APPENDIX J  

E-print Network

sponsa X X X Northern Pintail Anas acuta X X American Wigeon Anas americana X X X Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata X X X Green-winged Teal Anas crecca X X X Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera X X Mallard Anas platyrhynchos X X X Gadwall Anas strepera X X American Pipit Anthus rubescens X Western Scrub Jay Aphelocoma

Standiford, Richard B.

195

FOCAL VERTEBRATES OF THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN APPENDIX N  

E-print Network

phoeniceus X Wood Duck Aix sponsa X X Northern Pintail Anas acuta X Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata X Mallard Anas platyrhynchos X X American Pipit Anthus rubescens X Western Scrub Jay Aphelocoma coerulescens X Creeper Certhia americana O Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon X X Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus X Marsh

Standiford, Richard B.

196

Common Waterfowl in the Southeast Common name1,2  

E-print Network

discors gadwall Anas strepera American wigeon Anas americana northern pintail Anas acuta northern shoveler Anas clypeata canvasback Aythya valisineria redhead Aythya americana ring-necked duck Aythya collaris albifrons snow goose Chen caerulescens Canada goose Branta canadensis wood duck Aix sponsa mallard Anas

Gray, Matthew

197

LABORATORY STUDY OF UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTHS BETWEEN UNDISTURBED AND REMOLDED SAMPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples are taken using a variety of samplers, some provide only disturbed samples, while others can provide relatively undisturbed samples. Samples can be obtained by digging out soil from the site using shovel or Split- spoon or SPT Sampler, samples taken this way are considered disturbed. Other type of samplers is using Piston samplers. Soil sampled in this manner

Norshakila Muhamad Rawai; Hisham Mohamad

198

Large mobile mining equipment operating on soft ground T.G. Joseph  

E-print Network

and hydraulic shovels is high with structural lives often half that expected. With a move to ever bigger-board information systems, which report to the mine data management system, which in turn report production figures substantially different. Recognizing that the on-board system determines payload at the transition from first

Joseph, Tim Grain

199

March/April 2006 1 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

March/April 2006 1 INTRODUCTION Electric cable shovels are the most extensively used high on updating mechanical and elec- trical components and optimizing utilization and operational approaches for a number of years. An integrated simula- tion model and methodology has been developed to investigate

Joseph, Tim Grain

200

Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 75M05761, Marion Power Shovel Company, October 1963. CRAWLER TRUCK ASSEMBLY-SIDE VIEW. Sheet 3 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

201

Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 75M05761, Marion Power Shovel Company, October 1963. CRAWLER TRUCK ASSEMBLY-PLAN VIEW. Sheet 2 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

202

Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of drawing. LAUNCH COMPLEX 39, CRAWLER TRANSPORTER. NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Drawing 75M05761, Marion Power Shovel Company, October 1963. CRAWLER TRUCK ASSEMBLY-FIELD WELDMENT SECTIONS & DETAILS. Sheet 4 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

203

Challenging Gifted Learners through Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gifted learners can be challenged by extending and enriching the mandated curriculum through the use of children's literature. Demonstrated is the use of the book "Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel" as a mechanism for learning about authorship, research skills, story evaluation, simple machines, problem solving, and technological change. (PB)

Bryant, Margaret A.

1989-01-01

204

Punchy, Munchy...Culinary Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating involves--and offers--a lot more than merely shoveling food into your mouth. It can be used in innumerable ways in your room. Here is a multitude of food experiences, all designed for kids' heads as well as their stomachs. You can use cooking and food throughout your curriculum. Here's how! (Editor)

Schmidt, Carolee; And Others

1977-01-01

205

These slides are updated on a monthly basis as soon as data are reasonably final for the preceding month. Hours worked are  

E-print Network

of lumbar spine · The Truck Driver strained the lower back while repositioning packages that had shifted in the back of the delivery truck. 3 Environment / Health / Safety / Security DIVISION Material Handling static stresses and forces (use of shovel, weed eater, leaf blower). 2 Environment / Health / Safety

Eisen, Michael

206

On Monday, July 16th, in the midst of a heat wave, fifteen volunteers from Columbia Business School arrived at Round the Clock Nursery to help us set up  

E-print Network

On Monday, July 16th, in the midst of a heat wave, fifteen volunteers from Columbia Business School and shovels the volunteers worked in the heat of the morning. When Barbara Taylor, the manager of 3333 that the volunteers brought helped us to forget the heat (99° and felt like 110°), and brought great happiness to our

Lazar, Aurel A.

207

HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HUNTER 10, TRUFLO GONDOLA WEIGHTS AND JACKET. PIVOTING ARMS RAISE THE JACKET AND WEIGHTS. A PNEUMATIC SHOVEL PUSHES THE MORE RECENTLY POURED MOLD INTO THE COOLED MOLD, FORCING THE LATTER ONTO THE VIBRATING SHAKEOUT CONVEYOR AND LEAVING A SPACE UNDER THE RAISED JACKET AND WEIGHTS FOR A FRESHLY MADE UNPOURED MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

208

Steve Kropper WindPole Ventures, LLC  

E-print Network

On Wind Is More Valuable Than Wind Power "The Bloomberg of Wind" #12;PROBLEM 300 MW wind needs backupSteve Kropper WindPole Ventures, LLC Lexington, MA 617-306-9312 kropper@windpole.com Information 580 will cover 85% US Picks & shovels- Bloomberg of Wind The "Bloomberg of Wind" #12;Broad

209

Lunar cycle on an Eneolithic bone artifact from the town of Karnobat, Southeast Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a well preserved bone artifact found in a prehistoric settlement mound near Karnobat, Bulgaria, and dated to the end of the V millennium BC. It has the shape of a shovel or shallow spoon with a short handle decorated with holes and notches (Figs.3,4). The author assumes that this is not a utilitarian object but rather a

Vesselina Koleva

2010-01-01

210

Robust bucket position tracking for a large hydraulic excavator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The device we study is the excavation arm of a large hydraulic mining shovel having a multi-loop kinematic form. We describe an iterative algorithm that allows the position of the bucket to be tracked from measurements of the linear actuator extensions. The important characteristic of this algorithm is that it is numerically well-behaved when the linkage is close to singular

A. S. Hall; P. R. McAree

2005-01-01

211

Surveys of wetlands and waterbirds in Cagayan valley, Luzon, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2001 and January 2002, we searched the entire Cagayan valley, north-east Luzon, Philippines for wetlands and congre- gations of waterbirds. Five wetlands were identified that held substantial numbers of waterbirds. Important numbers of the endemic Philippine Duck Anas luzonica (Vulnerable) were observed at two lakes, as well as large numbers of Wandering Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arcuata, Northern Shoveler Anas

MERLIJN VAN WEERD; JAN VAN DER PLOEG

2004-01-01

212

AN EPIZOOTIC OF AVIAN BOTULISM IN A PHOSPHATE MINE SETTLING POND IN NORTHERN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type C botulism was determined to be the cause of an epizootic among waterfowl and shorebirds in a phosphate mine settling pond in northern Florida during May and June of 1979. Several hundred birds, the most common of which were American coots (Fulica americana), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), common gallinules (Gallinula chloropus), and northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) were afflicted over

J. FORRESTER; LLKARL C. WENNER; FRANKLIN H. WHITE; C. GREINER; L WAYNE R. MARION; JAMES E. THUL; GERMAN A. BERKHOFF

213

How far can the freshwater bryozoan Cristatella mucedo disperse in duck guts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statoblasts of Cristatella mucedo were fed to two duck species, pintail (Anas acuta) and shoveler (A. clypeata), to assess whether endozoochorous dispersal is responsible for the metapopulation structure of this bryozoan. Eight individuals (four per duck species) were force-fed 500 statoblasts each. The number of intact statoblasts retrieved from the ducks faeces up to 48 hours after ingestion and their

Iris Charalambidou; Luis Santamaría; Jordi Figuerola

2003-01-01

214

The importance of protected areas as nocturnal feeding grounds for dabbling ducks wintering in western France  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the diurnal and nocturnal habitat use of wintering dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in two protected areas of an internationally important winter quarter in western France. The waterbodies of the reserves are heavily used by ducks during daylight hours, and 3–55% of these birds used the reserves at night: >50% of shoveler (A. clypeata), 20% of granivorous ducks (mallard

Matthieu Guillemain; Hervé Fritz; Patrick Duncan

2002-01-01

215

192 Yellow-billed Pintail neck ring Wildfowl (2006) 56: 192-196Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust  

E-print Network

related species (Harrison 1953, 1955). For example, Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata males in eclipse plumage in the Yellow-billed Pintail Anas georgica ROBERT E. WILSON1, THOMAS H. VALQUI2 & KEVIN G phylogenetic information. A partial white neck ring was observed in Yellow-billed Pintail Anas georgica

McCracken, Kevin G.

216

TRANSMISSION OF Sarcocystis rileyi TO THE STRIPED SKUNK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musculature containing grossly visible cysts of Sarcocystis rileyi from northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) ducks was fed to the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). Skunks used were determined to be Sarcocystis free,thechallengedskunk became infected and shed both sporulated oocysts and free sporocysts in the feces. The prepatent period was 15 days and the patent period 50 days. Oocysts were fully sporulated when

ROBERT J. WICHT

217

19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, WITH SEVERAL PARTIALLY SUBMERGED STEAM SHOVELS SHOWN IN THE FLOODED CANAL. ONE OF THE TEMPORARY BRIDGES CONSTRUCTED OVER THE CANAL RIGHT -OF-WAY IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. (39) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

218

A Gene Scrapbook A Tribute to Gene Loh  

E-print Network

A Gene Scrapbook A Tribute to Gene Loh on the Occasion of His Retirement Feb 22, 2003 #12;The Early of Technology, 1961 #12;The Missing Years Not much is known about Gene's whereabouts between 1961 until his (probably kelp) for transport by sea. #12;Why did Gene leave Cornell? He got tired of shoveling all

219

Making a Big Deal about Everyday Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, who have been married over 30 years, take items from popular culture and transform them into giant sculptures that are on display all over the world. Their installations include clothespins, baseball bats, garden shovels and ice cream cones, to name a few. This transformation of everyday things is a great…

Masse, Don

2010-01-01

220

Synthesis of Tactical Plans for Robotic Excavation  

E-print Network

. The testbed robot has a hydraulically manipulated shovel and sensors that measure both contact forcesSynthesis of Tactical Plans for Robotic Excavation Sanjiv Singh Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Robotics The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon

Singh, Sanjiv

221

THE EFFECTS ON IRRIGATED RATOON CANE OF RIPPING THE INTERROW AFTER HARVEST IN A RANGE OF SOILS IN SWAZILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from nine experiments to test the effects of ripping or chiselling the interrow ofirrigated ratoon cane grown on five Swaziland lowveld soils are reported. There were no statisti­ cally significant yield benefits from the treatments and in one experiment, deep ripping resulted in a statistically significant yield reduction.

N. B. LEIBBRANDT

222

Phenology and Abundance of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eastern South Dakota on Alfalfa and Soybean Relative to Tillage, Fertilization and Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without a...

223

WORKPLACE HAZARD ASSESSMENT Location: Task  

E-print Network

Sanding Riveting Flying Particles Vibration Propelled Devices Chiseling Falling/Dropped Objects Moving Propelled Devices Grinding Other . Body Part Affected Head Face/Eyes Hands Foot Body 5. COMPRESSION HAZARD/NON-IONIZING RADIATION HAZARD DOES NOT EXIST DOES EXIST SOURCE OF HAZARD Heat Treating Brazing Welding Oxygen Cutting

Rubloff, Gary W.

224

Listening for Students' Voices through Positional Writing Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writing is a powerful social tool that offers students opportunities to chisel their identities as they position themselves and others on issues and beliefs (Dyson, 1992). This article presents the story of how Mark, a fifth-grade student who resisted writing in certain classroom contexts, used positional writing practices to shape his identities.…

Lassonde, Cynthia A.

2006-01-01

225

TILLAGE, COVER CROPS, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON SOIL NITROGEN AND COTTON AND SORGHUM YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustainable soil and crop management practices that reduce soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching, conserve soil organic matter, and optimize cotton and sorghum yields still remain a challenge. We examined the influence of three tillage practices (no-till, strip till, and chisel till ), four cover c...

226

Basic Hand Tools for Bricklaying and Cement Masonry [and] Basic Hand Tools of the Carpenter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for student use, this unit discusses and illustrates the tools used in brick and masonry and carpentry. Contents of the brick and masonry section include informative materials on bricklaying tools (brick trowels, joint tools, levels, squares, line and accessories, rules, hammers and chisels, tool kits) and cement masonry tools (tampers,…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

227

Tillage and Water Deficit Stress Effects on Corn (Zea mays, L.) Root Distribution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One goal of soil management is to provide optimum conditions for root growth. Corn root distributions were measured in 2004 from a crop rotation – tillage experiment that was started in 2000. Corn was grown either following corn or following sunflower with either no till or deep chisel tillage. Wate...

228

Empirical relationships for soil organic carbon transport from agricultural watersheds in Ohio  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improved quantification is needed for long-term soil organic carbon (SOC) transport in runoff at watershed scales. Coshocton wheel samplers were used to collect runoff samples from no-till and chisel-till watersheds in corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) rotations over 13 years. Samples were a...

229

Annual Research Review: Parenting and Children's Brain Development--The End of the Beginning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After questioning the practical significance of evidence that parenting influences brain development--while highlighting the scientific importance of such work for understanding "how" family experience shapes human development--this paper reviews evidence suggesting that brain structure and function are "chiselled" by parenting. Although the…

Belsky, Jay; de Haan, Michelle

2011-01-01

230

AGRONOMIC AND TEST INFORMATION: LEONARD TEST: 2009 Rainfed Sunflower Hybrid Trial, Leonard, TX  

E-print Network

AGRONOMIC AND TEST INFORMATION: LEONARD TEST: 2009 Rainfed Sunflower Hybrid Trial, Leonard, TX LAND PREPARATION: Chiseled, disked, and field cultivated DATE PLANTED: April 7, 2009 SEEDING RATE: Oilseed, ~21,800 seeds/A (1.25 seeds/ft.) Confectionary, ~17,400 seeds/A (1.00 seeds/ft.) PLOT LENGTH: 4

Mukhtar, Saqib

231

Soil and crop nitrogen as influenced by tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)],...

232

NO-TILL COTTON YIELD RESPONSE TO A WHEAT COVER CROP IN MISSISSIPPI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers need cost-effective production methods that maintain or improve environmental quality. Experiment station research has shown that no-tillage (NT) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop can increase yields about 100 kg lint/ha compared to chisel/disk-ti...

233

Saltbush Leaves: Excision of Hypersaline Tissue by a Kangaroo Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped

G. J. Kenagy

1972-01-01

234

Global Warming Potential of Organic and Conventional Grain Cropping Systems in the mid-Atlantic Region of the U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The global warming potential (GWP) of a cropping system is the balance between the net exchange of the greenhouse gases CO2, N2O and CH4 that result from on-farm practices and the production and transport of inputs. We report here on GWP calculations for no-till (NT), chisel till (CT) and organic (O...

235

Short-term stover, tillage, and nitrogen management affect near-surface soil organic matter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for biofuel or forage has implications on soil organic C (SOC). The objective of this study was to evaluate short-term (3-yr) stover management (retained or removed [79 removed, across treatments and years]), tillage system (chisel tillage, strip-tillage, and no-til...

236

Woodworking. A Bilingual Text = Carpinteria. Un Texto Bilingue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is a course of instruction in woodworking in a two-column, English-Spanish format. Following an introduction to woodworking and a lesson on safety, the booklet contains 19 units covering the following topics: wood; planning; laying out project parts; hand saws; planes; chisels and gouges; wood files and forming tools; boring holes in…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

237

EUROGRAPHICS '99 / P. Brunet and R. Scopigno (Guest Editors)  

E-print Network

The Digital Michelangelo Project Marc Levoy Computer Science Department, Stanford University, USA EXTENDED standpoint, the Digital Michelangelo Project contains two components: a collection of 3D scan- ners-Y sample spacing of 0.25mm - sufficient to capture Michelangelo's chisel marks. The scanner head also

Stanford University

238

Identifying and Visualizing Surface Detail on Michelangelo's David John Rugis, Department of Computer Science, University of Auckland  

E-print Network

Identifying and Visualizing Surface Detail on Michelangelo's David John Rugis, Department of Computer Science, University of Auckland Figure 1: Michelangelo's David: (a) chisel marks, (b) graffiti on Michelangelo's David statue. Starting with avail- able raw scan data [Levoy et al. 2000], we have applied

Goodman, James R.

239

A New Grid Bar Design for a Modified Cylinder Cleaner  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grid bars having a chisel shape and sharp cutting edge were designed and installed in a modified cylinder cleaner. The modified cleaner’s seed cotton and lint cleaning performances were evaluated in two tests. Results indicated that seed-cotton cleaning efficiency of the modified cylinder cleaner ...

240

\\Villiam Congreve. This 0 oer caused them to be  

E-print Network

?lled, the fuse left at its full length, and the plug replaced. If at the .... be of a suitable quality; its combustion must be as slow as possible, a ..... measure, but a more elaborate system of protecting the. Ft .... chisel, knife, or other instrument. 895.

241

Describing and modelling Polygonum aviculare emergence in different tillage systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effects of four tillage systems (direct drill, subsoiler, chisel plough and mouldboard plough) on the dynamics of Polygonum aviculare populations were studied over three growing seasons. Densities before and after herbicide application and cumulative emergence on a weekly basis were determined in ea...

242

Evaluation of strip-tillage and fertilizer placement in Southern Idaho corn production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Strip tillage (ST) and associated nutrient placement can potentially help producers reduce fuel and machinery costs, increase yield, and reduce soil erosion compared to chisel tillage (CT). This study was initiated to evaluate corn production (Zea mays L.) under ST and CT, and various nitrogen (N) ...

243

Microbial Responses to Wheel-Traffic in Conventional and No-Tillage Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic-induced soil compaction and tillage systems can impact the productivity and sustainability of agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial populations to wheel-traffic in two tillage systems on a Norfolk loamy sand (Typic Kandiudults; FAO classification Luxic Ferralsols). Experimental variables were with and without traffic under conventional tillage (disk harrow twice, chisel

G. B. Runion; S. A. Prior; D. W. Reeves; H. H. Rogers; D. C. Reicosky; A. D. Peacock; D. C. White

2004-01-01

244

Isolation of Phyllosilicate–Iron Redox Cycling Microorganisms from an Illite–Smectite Rich Hydromorphic Soil  

PubMed Central

The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate–Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite–smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate–Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicate–Fe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II) in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II) source, and O2 as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp. and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II) with O2, each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II) in reduced NAu-2 smectite with NO3- as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III) oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to Geobacter toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicate–Fe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil. PMID:22493596

Shelobolina, Evgenya; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Wu, Tao; Blöthe, Marco; Roden, Eric

2012-01-01

245

Isolation of phyllosilicate-iron redox cycling microorganisms from an illite-smectite rich hydromorphic soil.  

PubMed

The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate-Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite-smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate-Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicate-Fe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II) in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II) source, and O(2) as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp. and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II) with O(2), each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II) in reduced NAu-2 smectite with [Formula: see text] as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III) oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to Geobacter toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicate-Fe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil. PMID:22493596

Shelobolina, Evgenya; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Wu, Tao; Blöthe, Marco; Roden, Eric

2012-01-01

246

[Effects of tillage mode on water use efficiency and yield of summer maize under different simulated rainfalls].  

PubMed

Based on the tillage practices of summer maize and the rainfall pattern in Northwest China, and by using self-made simulated rainfall device, a field experiment was conducted on the effects of plowing, no-tillage, and no-tillage plus mulching on the water use efficiency (WUE) and yield of summer maize under rainfalls 250, 350 and 450 mm from June to September, 2010. Compared with plowing, no-tillage increased the WUE and yield under rainfall 250 mm by 26% and 16.5% and under rainfall 350 mm by 17.6% and 6.1%, respectively. Under rainfall 450 mm, the water storage was smaller in treatment no-tillage than in treatment plowing, and the WUE and yield in treatment no-tillage were 1.1% and 0.6% lower than those in treatment plowing, respectively. No-tillage plus mulching overcame the disadvantage of no-tillage in lesser water-storing under sufficient rainfall than plowing. Under the three rainfalls, no-tillage plus mulching could effectively inhibit the soil evaporation between plants, decrease the invalid water consumption of bare soil, and increase the soil water storage and the rate of evapotranspiration to water consumption. Compared with plowing, no-tillage plus mulching increased the WUE and yield under rainfall 250 mm by 48.6% and 32.9%, under rainfall 350 mm by 51.6% and 27.1%, and under 450 mm rainfall by 23.7% and 13.1%, respectively. In sum, relative to plowing, no-tillage showed its superiority in increasing WUE and yield under rainfalls 250 and 350 mm, whereas no-tillage plus mulching increased the WUE and yield significantly under rainfalls 250 and 450 mm. PMID:24380340

Chen, Yu; Wen, Xiao-xia; Liao, Yun-cheng

2013-08-01

247

Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability  

PubMed Central

Data drawn from a global compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long-articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. The general equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-based agriculture increases erosion rates enough to prove unsustainable. In contrast to how net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields (?1 mm/yr) can erode through a typical hillslope soil profile over time scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations, no-till agriculture produces erosion rates much closer to soil production rates and therefore could provide a foundation for sustainable agriculture. PMID:17686990

Montgomery, David R.

2007-01-01

248

Effect of urban waste compost application on soil near-saturated hydraulic conductivity.  

PubMed

Compost application tends to increase soil fertility and is likely to modify soil hydrodynamic properties by acting on soil structural porosity. Two composts, a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW), have been applied every other year for 6 yr to cultivated plots located on a silt loam soil in the Parisian Basin, France. Four soil zones were defined in the topsoil after plowing: the plowpan located at the base of the plowed layer, compacted (Delta) or noncompacted (Gamma) zones located within the plowed layer, and interfurrows created by plowing and containing a large quantity of crop residues together with the recently-applied compost. To assess the effect of compost application on the near-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, infiltration rates were measured using a tension disc infiltrometer at three water pressure potentials -0.6, -0.2, and -0.05 kPa in the various zones of the soil profile. Compost addition decreased K((sat)) in the interfurrows after plowing by almost one order of magnitude with average values of 5.6 x 10(-5) m.s(-1) in the MSW plot and 4.1 x 10(-5) m.s(-1) in the SGW plot, against 2.2 x 10(-4) m.s(-1) in the control plot. This effect had disappeared 6 mo after plowing when the average K((sat)) in the control plot had decreased to 1.9 x 10(-5) m.s(-1) while that in the compost-amended plots remained stable. PMID:19244499

Schneider, S; Coquet, Y; Vachier, P; Labat, C; Roger-Estrade, J; Benoit, P; Pot, V; Houot, S

2009-01-01

249

A long-term infiltrometer study in southern Idaho, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine years of infiltration measurements were made over a 12-yr. period on a big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata) site in southern Idaho that was plowed and seeded in the fall of 1968. Results of the study thus far indicate that plowing caused an initial significant decline in infiltration rates. Grazing, started in 1970, did not further reduce infiltration but seasonal trends were eliminated and there was no recovery of infiltration. Exclosures indicate it would take at least six years for complete recovery of infiltration rates, assuming no grazing. Suggestions are given for the use of deterministic models in predicting infiltration rates based on grazing intensity.

Gifford, Gerald F.

1982-09-01

250

Sealing Ponds and Lakes with Bentonite  

E-print Network

and vegetation from the bottom of the pond. For best results, have the soil just moist enough to be plowed or disked easily. Plow or disk the pond bottom and drag the surface until it is smooth. This preparation makes the top 4 to 6 inches of soil uniform so...-resistant layer that forms reduces the seepage from these areas. Figure 4 shows one way of apply- ing bentonite in this manner. igure 4. Sprinkle method. The sprinkle method is less effective than other methods. Accurate, uniform placement of ben- tonite...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2003-04-01

251

Pink Bollworm Management in Texas  

E-print Network

Mate PBW Fibers 5-15 grams NoMate PBW MEC 1/3 - 5/6 oz Methyl Parathion Penncap M 2lb 2-4 pt Permethrin Ambush 2 lb 6.4 - 12.8 oz Do not use more than 10 applications of any pyrethroid per Pounce 3.2 lb 4-8 oz season. Do not use near lakes, streams, rivers... is complete the field should be plowed. A turning plow which buries surface residue 6 inches or deeper is best for pink boll- worm control. A light disking which covers residue only 1 to 2 inches normally improves the survival of pink bollworms. Cropping...

Allen, Charles T.

1995-01-12

252

Tillage energy savings from zone burial of shredded and whole cotton stalks  

SciTech Connect

Two prototypes of a stalk burial implement were tested for energy requirements at the University of California, Shafter Research Station. Both versions of the implement are designed to bury the cotton stalks in a concentrated Zone and reform the bed in the same location. To plow under shredded stalks, both versions of the implement required less energy than a conventional tillage systems typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Both stalk burial implements were also used to plow under whole cotton stalks. This offers additional energy savings by eliminating the stalk shredding operation.

Carter, L.; Chesson, J.; Thacker, G.; Penner, V.

1996-04-01

253

59. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. STEAM SHOVEL NO. 1 AT WORK ON EASTERLY BORROW PIT. CLASS OF MATERIAL BEING EXCAVATED IS LARGELY SAND AND GRAVEL, WITH ENOUGH CLAY TO FORM A BOND BETWEEN SAND AND GRAVEL. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

254

Twelve Contiguous Spinous Process Fracture of Cervico-Thoracic Spine  

PubMed Central

The clay-shoveler's fracture is an isolated avulsion fracture of the lower cervical or upper thoracic spinous process. Among them, multiple spinous process fractures are very rare. We present 34-year-old male patient who have multiple spinous process fractures with twelve contiguous levels of cervico-thoracic spine (from C4 to T8) after motorcycle accident. This case is multiple isolated spinous process fractures with good clinical outcome. PMID:25346773

Sohn, Moon Jun

2014-01-01

255

Age-specific survival and philopatry in three species of European ducks: a long-term study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Capture-recapture and band recovery models were used to estimate age-specific survival probabilities for female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata), Common Pochards (Aythya ferina), and Tufted Ducks (Aythya.fuligula) at Engure Marsh, Latvia, in 1964-1993. We banded more than 65,100 day-old ducklings of both sexes and captured 10,211 incubating females (3,713 new bandings and 6,498 recaptures). We developed a set of 3-age capture-recapture models to estimate annual survival rates for female ducklings, yearlings (SY), and adults (ASY) using programs SURGE and SURVIV and selected parsimonious models using a method developed bv Akaike (1973). Survival rates of SY and ASY females were highest-for Tufted Ducks intermediate for Common Pochards, and lowest for Northern Shovelers. Survival rates of SY and ASY females varied in parallel for shovelers and pochards. We believe that much of the difference in survival estimates between SY and ASY birds was caused by mortality rather than permanent emigration. Estimates of day-old duckling survival, reflecting both mortality and permanent emigration, were 0.12 for shoveler, 0.06 for pochard, and 0.03 for Tufted Duck. For all species, duckling survival varied over years, but the pattern of variation was not similar to that of the other age classes. Estimates of survival using band recovery data for SY + ASY female pochards and Tufted Ducks were similar to the capture-recapturee stimates, suggestingt hat surviving females returned to the breeding marsh with probabilities approaching 1.

Blums, P.; Mednis, A.; Bauga, I.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

1996-01-01

256

Wonder Underground  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners engage in the joy of discovery as they dig to uncover the wonders that can be found underground. Learners use tools (gardening shovels and sifters) to find natural items like twigs and litter like bottle caps buried in topsoil. Learners use scientific skills to collect, classify, describe and record their findings. Use this activity to talk about the difference between non-living and living things and/or littering.

2012-03-04

257

Frequency and variability of dental morphology in deciduous and permanent dentition of a Nasa indigenous group in the municipality of Morales, Cauca, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the frequency, variability, sexual dimorphism and bilateral symmetry of fourteen dental crown traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition of 60 dental models (35 women and 25 men) obtained from a native, indigenous group of Nasa school children of the Musse Ukue group in the municipality of Morales, Department of Cauca, Colombia. Methods: This is a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study that characterizes dental morphology by means of the systems for temporary dentition from Dahlberg (winging), and ASUDAS (crowding, reduction of hypocone, metaconule and cusp 6), Hanihara (central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and cusp 7), Sciulli (double bit, layered fold protostylid, cusp pattern and cusp number) and Grine (Carabelli trait); and in permanent dentition from ASUDAS (Winging, crowding, central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and double shovel-shape, Carabelli trait, hypocone reduction, metaconule, cusp pattern, cusp number, layered fold protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7). Results: The most frequent dental crown features were the shovel-shaped form, grooved and fossa forms of the Carabelli trait, metaconule, cusp pattern Y6, layered fold, protostylid (point P) and cusp 6. Sexual dimorphism was not observed and there was bilateral symmetry in the expression of these features. Conclusions: The sample studied presented a great affinity with ethnic groups belonging to the Mongoloid Dental Complex due to the frequency (expression) and variability (gradation) of the tooth crown traits, upper incisors, the Carabelli trait, the protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7. The influence of the Caucasoide Dental Complex associated with ethno-historical processes cannot be ruled out. PMID:24970955

Díaz, Eider; García, Lorena; Hernández, Michelle; Palacio, Lesly; Ruiz, Diana; Velandia, Nataly; Villavicencio, Judy

2014-01-01

258

Defensive burying in rodents: ethology, neurobiology and psychopharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defensive burying refers to the typical rodent behavior of displacing bedding material with vigorous treading-like movements of their forepaws and shoveling movements of their heads directed towards a variety of noxious stimuli that pose a near and immediate threat, such as a wall-mounted electrified shock-prod. Since its introduction 25 years ago by Pinel and Treit [J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 92

Sietse F. De Boer; Jaap M. Koolhaas

2003-01-01

259

A shipping crate from the 1865 California shipwreck Brother Jonathan: hardware from the Russell and Erwin Manufacturing Company  

E-print Network

Sheaves ????????????.. 90 Door Knobs ??????????????????... 92 Window Locks ?????????????????.. 95 Tap Borers ???????????????????. 96 Coal Shovels ??????????????????. 99 Sheaths ????????????????????.. 100 Belts... and screw head?????????. 93 4.32 Completed doorknobs, BJ-17-92????????????????... 94 4.33 X-ray of BJ-17-68 with five French window locks?????????... 95 xi FIGURE age 4.34a BJ-17-76, tap borer package??????????????????.. 97 4.34b X...

Sowden, Carrie Elizabeth

2006-08-16

260

Engineering geologic feasibility of lignite mining in alluvial valleys by hydraulic dredging methods  

E-print Network

on samples with varying percentages of sand 54 33 Ultimate percent swell v. highwall height for varying percentages of sand in the overburden spoil . . . . . . . 55 34 Area lignite surface mining with a walking dragline and truck/shovel operations... SHALLOW AQUIFER COAL CLAY AQUIFER SANDS DEEP AQUIFER Figure 23. Shallow and subsurface aquifer positioning in the overburden with respect to a lignite seam. 42 Aquifer sands occurring beneath the mine floor may have a significant effect...

Cason, Cynthia Lynn

1982-01-01

261

13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

262

Trace Element Concentrations in Wintering Waterfowl from the Great Salt Lake, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is an important region for millions of migratory waterbirds. However, high concentrations of some\\u000a trace elements, including Hg and Se, have been detected within the GSL, and baseline ecotoxicological data are lacking for\\u000a avian species in this system. We collected common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), and green-winged teal (A. crecca) from the

J. L. Vest; M. R. Conover; C. Perschon; J. Luft; J. O. Hall

2009-01-01

263

Correlates of lifetime reproductive success in three species of European ducks.  

PubMed

Number of breeding attempts is a strong correlate of lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in birds, but the relative importance of potentially interacting factors affecting LRS has rarely been fully evaluated. We considered simultaneously five main factors hypothesized to influence LRS (age at first breeding, nesting date, number of breeding attempts, female traits, brood parasitism) by analyzing with path analysis 22-year data sets for 1,279 individually marked females and their offspring in tufted duck ( Aythya fuligula), common pochard ( A. ferina) and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). We recaptured marked offspring as breeding adults (n=496 females) and obtained more complete estimates of LRS by incorporating information about banded ducklings of both sexes shot by hunters > or =12 months after banding (n=138). In tufted ducks and especially pochard (both diving duck species), late-hatched females tended to delay nesting until 2-years old. Most females (tufted duck, 74%; pochard, 71%; shoveler, 59%) apparently produced no breeding-age offspring. Number of breeding attempts (i.e., longevity) was the strongest correlate of LRS in all species, after controlling effects of age at first breeding, relative nest initiation date, wing length and body mass. Percentage of females producing recruits increased gradually with number of breeding attempts for all three species. Also, as expected, females nesting early in the breeding season had higher LRS than late-nesting individuals. In shoveler, female-specific characteristics of relatively longer wings and heavier late incubation body mass had positive effects on LRS, the latter feature being more common in 2-year-old nesters. In diving ducks, no relationships were detected between LRS and female-specific traits like wing length or body mass, and nor did acceptance of parasitic eggs have any deleterious impact on fitness estimates. Overall, number of fledged ducklings and LRS were related in tufted duck, weakly associated in pochard and unrelated in shoveler, implying that fledging success is not always a reliable measure of LRS. PMID:15138877

Blums, Peter; Clark, Robert G

2004-06-01

264

60. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. STEAM SHOVEL NO. 1 LOADING CARS IN EASTERLY BORROW PIT. CARS IN THIS TRAIN OF 12 NEARLY ALL LOADED. EAIGHT MINUTES REQUIRED TO LOAD 12 CARS EQUAL TO 42 CU YDS. PLACE MEASUREMENT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

265

Endoscopically-assisted subcondylar and vertical ramus osteotomies for the treatment of symmetrical mandibular prognathism.  

PubMed

The author describe the endoscopically-assisted intraoral vertical ramus (IVRO) and subcondylar (ISCO) osteotomies for the treatment of symmetric mandibular prognathism. The use of the saw and the bone chisel under the continuous control of the endoscope provides a safer approach since the osteotomy is controlled during the whole process. The introduction of the endoscope to provide complete visualization of the osteotomy site may overcome the traditional limitations of direct visualization in IVRO and ISCO. PMID:21885292

González-García, Raúl

2012-07-01

266

Glossary of Construction Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Need to know what a cantilever is? Curious about screeding and Type II Moderate cement or cape chisels? Look no further than the Glossary of Construction Terms, provided by the National/California Contractor Referral and License Bureau. While by no means a definitive collection of construction terms, the glossary is fairly comprehensive in terms of the basics, offering short, clear explanations of tools, materials, and concepts. Topics include Carpentry, Concrete, Electrical, Heating and Air Conditioning, Painting, Plumbing, and Roofing, among others.

267

Carbon accumulation in cotton, sorghum, and underlying soil as influenced by tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and crop management practices may influence biomass growth and yields of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolorL.) and sequester significant amount of atmospheric CO2in plant biomass and underlying soil, thereby helping to mitigate the undesirable effects of global warming. This study examined the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)],

U. M. Sainju; W. F. Whitehead; B. P. Singh

2005-01-01

268

17. A closeup detail, looking east from the northeast corner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. A close-up detail, looking east from the northeast corner of the roadbed. This image shows the concrete commemorative inscription which is let into the inside of the eastern balustrade at the north end of the bridge. The name of one of the county commissioners has been chiselled out of the inscription. The parting fault between the parapet and its coping is evident. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

269

Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

2012-04-01

270

Circumventing Control  

E-print Network

has become crucial in my quest to circumvent the controlling mind. Utilizing and integrating several software programs, I apply various filters and blending tools to digital images, which foster ‘happy accidents.’ It takes a certain amount... fabric remnants, and acrylic paint left over from previous projects. I adhere these studio mementos into multiple layers of visual information. Once this process begins, the impulse to delineate structure creates a meditative state. I hand- chisel...

Pospichal, Todd

2011-04-13

271

Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities.

None

2000-06-01

272

Integrating Economic Analysis Wiith Biophysical Simulation: Appraising Blackland Corn Production.  

E-print Network

of insecticide. NOTE: A chisel-type flat planting conventional tillage system for the Blackland area is depicted. Preharvest custom operations are excluded because they are not performed by the production management decision maker. Harvest is also performed... for the Blackland area is depicted. Preharvest custom operations are excluded because ,,--., they are not performed by the production management decision maker. Harvest is also performed on a custom basis but is included as it influences timing of preparation...

Dillon, Carl R.; Mjelde, James W.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cothren, J. Tom; Martin, J. Rod; Rister, M. Edward; Stockle, Claudio

1990-01-01

273

Biomechanical modelling and evaluation of construction jobs for performance improvement.  

PubMed

Occupational risk factors, such as awkward posture, repetition, lack of rest, insufficient illumination and heavy workload related to construction-related MMH activities may cause musculoskeletal disorders and poor performance of the workers, ergonomic design of construction worksystems was a critical need for improving their health and safety wherein a dynamic biomechanical models were required to be empirically developed and tested at a construction site of Tata Steel, the largest steel making company of India in private sector. In this study, a comprehensive framework is proposed for biomechanical evaluation of shovelling and grinding under diverse work environments. The benefit of such an analysis lies in its usefulness in setting guidelines for designing such jobs with minimization of risks of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and enhancing correct methods of carrying out the jobs leading to reduced fatigue and physical stress. Data based on direct observations and videography were collected for the shovellers and grinders over a number of workcycles. Compressive forces and moments for a number of segments and joints are computed with respect to joint flexion and extension. The results indicate that moments and compressive forces at L5/S1 link are significant for shovellers while moments at elbow and wrist are significant for grinders. PMID:22317733

Parida, Ratri; Ray, Pradip Kumar

2012-01-01

274

Nitrogen, Tillage, and Crop Rotation Effects On Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes from Irrigated Cropping Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: a) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; b...

275

FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Project Title: Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology  

E-print Network

University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, plowe@ksu.edu, 785 532-6804 Other Project Team Members Samantha M, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, lmhunt@k-state.edu, 785-532-6653 Project Oversight from National Wind Coordinatingi FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Project Title: Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development

Sandercock, Brett K.

276

Restoration of Disturbed Lands: The Hole-in-the-Donut Restoration in the Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hole-in-the-Donut (HID) wetland restoration project was established on former agricultural land inside Everglades National Park, where rock plowing and fertilization had altered the hydrology, structure, depth, aeration, and nutrient content of soils. Following the cessation of farming, highly disturbed HID soils were invaded by dense, nearly monospecific stands of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Initial efforts to restore Brazilian

Craig S. Smith; Lauren Serra; Yuncong Li; Patrick Inglett; Kanika Inglett

2011-01-01

277

The influence of long-term tillage systems on symbiotic N 2 fixation of pea ( Pisum sativum L.) and red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pea as a grain legume and red clover as a forage legume in the seeding year were cultivated in two long-term differentiated tillage systems on a loess soil in Germany. A continuous conventional tillage system (plow; CT) and a continuous minimum tillage system (rotary harrow; MT) were established in 1970. With pea and red clover dry matter accumulation and N

Karin Reiter; Knut Schmidtke; Rolf Rauber

2002-01-01

278

MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date  

E-print Network

of phosphorus occurs on the surface, which results in increased availability. Also higher soil moisture levels by the soil pH, it may be advisable to lime more frequently with smaller amounts of lime or plow every 3 or 4.D. Warncke, Crop and Soils Sciences November 1981 2 pages The PDF file was provided courtesy of the Michigan

279

THE USE OF FIRE IN RIGHT-OF-WAY MAINTENANCE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed burning as a maintenance technique on utility line rights-of-way (ROW) has largely been ignored. Research at Mississippi State University has shown that on ROW in extensively forested areas where plowing of fire lanes is feasible, fire can be economically competitive with those maintenance techniques now in common use. Plant com- munities of high value to upland game animals have

Dale H. Arner

1978-01-01

280

Tests validate fiberglass cement to protect subsea FBE coating  

SciTech Connect

Rock-shield coating on subsea pipelines is a viable alternative to concrete coating when protection against rock dumping is required. Tests and installation experience indicates this use, providing that special attention is paid to the priming process, cleanliness of the coating applicator, handling of the line pipe, and selection of a suitable plow for trenching.

Traulsen, C.; Nielsen, N.J.R.; Nielsen, T.S. (Maersk Oil and Gas AS, Copenhagen (DK))

1990-09-17

281

Tests validate fiberglass cement to protect subsea FBE coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock-shield coating on subsea pipelines is a viable alternative to concrete coating when protection against rock dumping is required. Tests and installation experience indicates this use, providing that special attention is paid to the priming process, cleanliness of the coating applicator, handling of the line pipe, and selection of a suitable plow for trenching.

C. Traulsen; N. J. R. Nielsen; T. S. Nielsen

1990-01-01

282

Trends and patterns of anthropogenic evolution of chernozems in lands of agricultural afforestation within the territory of forest-steppe in the center of eastern Europe  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The anthropogenic evolution of chernozems as a result of plowing and the creation of forest shelterbelts on three meadow-steppe areas of forest-steppe were studied. It was established, that in all areas there are similar patterns, caused by the transformation of virgin soils into arable soils and vi...

283

Geophys. J. Int. (2008) 172, 10491054 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03686.x GJISeismology  

E-print Network

in a setting of arc-continent collision (Tsai et al. 1977; Wu 1978). This collision is produced with the continental margin. In response to this collision, mountain ranges are plowed upwards from the sea bottom and subsequently emerge as the island of Taiwan. Here, the critical wedge theory has been structurally proposed

Wu, Yih-Min

2008-01-01

284

RIS-M-2554 NKA/AKTU-245(86)3  

E-print Network

pro- cedures, it is important to evaluate them in terms of their cost and effect. This study, howeverRISØ-M-2554 NKA/AKTU-245(86)3 RECLAMATION OP URBAN AREAS Jørn Roed Abstract. A literature study . 5 . 2 . Plowing 15 2.6. Decontamination in cold weather 15 3 . SOPHISTICATED METHODS 16 3.1. Sand

285

Test method development for evaluating the freeze-thaw performance of segmental retaining wall blocks  

E-print Network

, there have been reports of SRW systems failing after only five years in service. Suspected causes of the SRW failures are freeze-thaw damage while exposed to deicing salts sprayed by snow plows from highways. The current standard test method used...

Hoelscher, Aaron Kindall

2007-04-25

286

The Basics of Agricultural Erosion and Sedimentation Requirements  

E-print Network

The Basics of Agricultural Erosion and Sedimentation Requirements On November 19, 2010, additions and changes to long-standing PA Chapter 102 regulations addressing Erosion and Sediment (E&S) Control erosion when plowing and tilling (includes no-till cropping). Chapter 102 always (since 1972) stated

Guiltinan, Mark

287

Fundamental Scratch Behavior of Styrene-Acrylonitrile Random Copolymers  

E-print Network

Software ................................... 20 3.2 Model PP and PVC Systems ................................................................ 21 3.3 Scratch Testing and Analysis ............................................................... 22... of model PP and PVC. (Resolution = 300 dpi) ................................................................................ 24 3.2 Summary of critical load values for visibility and plowing for model PP and PVC...

Browning, Robert Lee

2011-10-21

288

Devens 2008 Monitoring Update  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents results from site monitoring activities during calendar year 2008 at the EPA/ORD Red Cove Study Area relative to site characterization activities under Operable Units 01 (Shepley's Hill Landfill) and 11 (Plow Shop Pond) at the Fort Devens Superfund site. T...

289

Managing Intensively Grazed Pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forage production during periods of summer drought can be increased by including additional species in the pasture mixture, especially if those species have desirable attributes such as improved water use efficiency or deep root systems. Conversion of plowed fields to pasture also has the potential ...

290

Availability of soil organic phosphorus and fertilizer phosphorus applied to coastal bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon l.) on Houston black clay  

E-print Network

1t was hypothesized that plowing stimulated mineral1zation and plant uptake of organic soil P. The effect of grinding on aerobic N mineralization in ten soils of widely different properties was studied by Craswell and Waring (1972). It was found...

Krautmann, Jolly Yang

1978-01-01

291

SOIL-PROFILE ORGANIC CARBON AND TOTAL NITROGEN UNDER BERMUDAGRASS MANAGEMENT IN THE SOUTHERN PIEDMONT USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Estimates of potential carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sequestration at depths below the traditional plow layer (0-30 cm) are limited, but are needed to improve our understanding of management influences on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient cycling. Soil samples were collected under `Coastal' bermud...

292

JEPSON PRAIRIE Self Guided Nature Trail  

E-print Network

of California Natural Reserve System for public education, research and grazing. To protect the Prairie pool and grassland habitats, is preserved and managed by the Solano Land Trust and University in the Delta breeze. 2. Jepson Prairie was spared from the plow and the land speculator by the nature of its

Ferrara, Katherine W.

293

Effects of tillage and winter cover cropping on microbial substrate-induced respiration and soil aggregation in two Japanese fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that cover cropping could increase soil microbial activities under various tillage systems and that increased microbial activities would improve soil properties. Soil sampling was conducted at two fields in Japan in 2009. At the Ibaraki field (Andosol, clay loam), three tillage practices (no-tillage, plowing to 30?cm, and rotary tillage to 15?cm) and three types of winter cover cropping

Tomomi Nakamoto; Masakazu Komatsuzaki; Toshiyuki Hirata; Hajime Araki

2012-01-01

294

Martha A. Hartmans & Edgar L. Michalson the Economic & Environmental Impacts of  

E-print Network

, contour plowing, or contour strip cropping to reduce erosion (Carlson et al., 1994). Crop residues are rou and federal laws. #12;3 SOIL EROSION The Palouse region includes over two million acres of rich agricultural land in northern Idaho and eastern Washington. The area has dune-shaped, steeply rolling hills covered

O'Laughlin, Jay

295

Soil physical responses to cattle grazing cover crops under conventional and no tillage in the Southern Piedmont USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing of cover crops in grain cropping systems can increase economic return and diversify agricultural production systems, but the environmental consequences of this intensified management have not been well documented, especially under different tillage systems. We conducted a multiple-year investigation of how cover crop management (grazed and ungrazed) and tillage system [conventional (CT; initial moldboard plowing and thereafter disk tillage)

Alan J. Franzluebbers; John A. Stuedemann

2008-01-01

296

Ready for Action  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This photo shows a snow plow and road salt application truck that is used to clear snow and ice from roadways for improving traffic and pedestrian safety. The use of salt to deice pavement can be harmful to aquatic life in urban streams. The USGS is involved in studies that focus on the influence of...

297

TILLAGE AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION: WHAT DO WE REALLY KNOW?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is widely accepted that substantial amounts of carbon can be sequestered in agricultural soils by changing tillage practices from conventional plowing to less intensive methods, loosely known as conservation tillage. This view is based on experiments in which relative carbon changes have been est...

298

Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert  

E-print Network

the plow." Early stewards of freshwater resources--like John Wesley Powell-- warned that the American WestReclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert John L. Saboa,1 , Tushar Sinhaa,2 , Laura C. Bowlingb , Gerrit H. W. Schoupsc , Wesley W. Wallenderd,e , Michael E. Campanaf , Keith A

Sinha, Tushar

299

ARSENIC TRANSPORT ACROSS THE GROUNDWATER ? SURFACE WATER INTERFACE AT A SITE IN CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Plow Shop Pond, located in central Massachusetts within the New England ?arsenic belt,? receives water from a series of interconnected upstream ponds as well as from upward-discharging groundwater. A small, shallow embayment on the southwest side of the pond is known as Red Cove...

300

Arsenic Fate And Transport In Red Cove, Fort Devens  

EPA Science Inventory

A field investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of a discharging arsenic plume on sediment contamination in a cove (Red Cove) within Plow Shop Pond adjacent to Shepley's Hill Landfill at the Fort Devens Superfund Site in Massachusetts. Site characterization included a...

301

Arsenic Fate, Transport And Stability Study: Groundwater, Surface Water, Soil And Sediment Investigation At Fort Devens Superfund Site  

EPA Science Inventory

A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in groundwater, surface water, and sediments at the Fort Devens Superfund Site. The study area encompassed a portion of plow Shop Pond (Red Cove), which receives groundwater discharge from the aquifer und...

302

Composting with Worms Worm composting (or vermicomposting) is a natural and efficient way to recycle your  

E-print Network

Composting with Worms Worm composting (or vermicomposting) is a natural and efficient way to recycle your organic kitchen scraps. And it sure beats plowing through knee-high snowdrifts to the compost project to do with kids; it's easy to make compost using worms as long as you have the right container

New Hampshire, University of

303

UNDERSTANDING AND MISUNDERSTANDING THE MIGRAnON OF THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY (NYMPHALIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA: 1857-1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1857, amateurs and professionals have woven a rich tapestry of biological information about the monarch butterfly's migration in North America. Huge fall migrations were first noted in the midwestern states, and then eastward to the Atlantic coast. Plowing of the prairies together with clearing of the eastern forests promoted the growth of the milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, and probably extended

LINCOLN P. BROWER

304

The Navajo Agricultural Projects Industry: Subsistence Farming to Corporate Agribusiness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Originally designed to create small farms for individual Navajos, the irrigation project has grown into a single 110,000-acre corporate agribusiness, the land's management has fallen out of the grasp of individual Navajos, and the idea of subsistence farming has been plowed under for the planting of major money-making crops. (NQ)

Barry, Tom

1979-01-01

305

29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Splice attachment. Table G-6—Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire Rope Clips Improved plow steel, rope diameter, inches Number of clips Drop forged Other...United States. Table G-8—Alloy Steel Chain (In tons of 2,000...

2010-07-01

306

29 CFR 1917.42 - Miscellaneous auxiliary gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall be used to determine the number and spacing of the clips. “U...the rope. Table C-1—Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire Rope Clips Improved plow steel, rope diameter (inches/(cm)) Minimum number of clips Drop forged...

2010-07-01

307

Ephemeral Gullies: To Till or Not to Till?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ephemeral gully erosion is now recognized as a significant, if not dominant source of sediment from agricultural lands worldwide. Ephemeral gullies are typically plowed in and tilled across annually or more frequently, thus restoring the original swale and allowing erosion processes to become reacti...

308

Types of Carbon Compounds That Accumulate Under No-Tillage In Rice-Based Rotations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a long-term field experiment of rice-based rotations near Stuttgart, AR, no-tillage promoted carbon and nitrogen sequestration in the plow layer compared to conventional tillage. The increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen sequestered with no-tillage varied by crop rotation, ranging from about 1...

309

Ponderomotive acceleration of hot electrons in tenuous plasmas V. I. Geyko and G. M. Fraiman  

E-print Network

. In this case, the Lorentz factor of hot electrons does not exceed a g after acceleration, assuming its initial value also satisfies 0 . Yet is attained within a wide range of initial conditions; hence, a cutoff in plasma has been formulated 5 , so far, the snow-plow acceleration was studied analytically only in spe

310

Effects of residual biomass burning on the methane emission from a paddy field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) is generated by organic matter decomposition in anaerobic soil. It is said that about 20% of CH4 sources is paddy fields. At some paddy fields, residual biomass left after the harvest is burned and plowed into soil. And at the other fields, unburned residue is directly plowed. It is an unsolved problem what impact is brought on CH4 budget during following cultivated period by the difference in the plowed biomass amount in soil after the harvest. In this study, an experimental paddy field was divided into two areas. At one area biomass residue is burned and at the other area residue is directly plowed. On that basis, long-term continuous measurements of micrometeorological CH4 flux were conducted in both areas. Experimental site is located reclaimed land in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Single rice cropping cultivation has continued in a similar way every year. Intermittent irrigation water managements, or 3-days flooded and 4-days drained conditions, were carried out during almost all the period of rice cultivated term. CH4 flux was calculated by aerodynamic gradient technique. The open biomass burning experiment was conducted at one area in November 29, 2011. We illustrate some results for the control term before the burning experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.

Kunishio, A.; Akaike, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Murakami, H.; Ono, K.; Iwata, T.

2012-12-01

311

Crop rotation and tillage effects on a thermic ustalf on the Southern High Plains of Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Considerable research has indicated that changing from plow tillage to no-, minimum- or conservation-tillage will, for many soils, result in improved soil physical, chemical, and biochemical quality. Recently however, some researchers have reported that for sandy soils in warm temperature regimes, ...

312

WILDLIFE RESPONSES TO MOTORIZED WINTER RECREATION IN YELLOWSTONE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We monitored the behavioral responses of bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), and trumpeter swans (Olor buccinator) to motorized winter recreation by repeatedly surveying seven groomed,or plowed road segments in Yellowstone National Park during December 2004 through March 2005. We sampled >2,100 interactions between vehicles and wildlife groups and used multinomial logits models to identify conditions leading to behavioral

P. J. White; Troy Davis

2005-01-01

313

Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by

D. R. Montgomery

2009-01-01

314

REACTIONS OF FUEL NITROGEN COMPOUNDS UNDER CONDITIONS OF INERT PYROLYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the pyrolysis of fossil fuels and model nitrogen compounds in helium in a small quartz plow reactor, as part of a study of the chemical mechanisms involved in the conversion of fuel-nitrogen compounds to nitric oxide (NO) during combustion. Hydrogen cyanide (H...

315

Magic Tutorial #7: Netlists and Routing John Ousterhout  

E-print Network

Magic Tutorial #7: Netlists and Routing John Ousterhout Computer Science Division Electrical.) This tutorial corresponds to Magic version 6. Tutorials to read first: Magic Tutorial #1: Getting Started Magic Tutorial #2: Basic Painting and Selection Magic Tutorial #3: Advanced Painting (Wiring and Plowing) Magic

Martin, Alain

316

A Variational Formulation of Kinematic Waves 1 A VARIATIONAL FORMULATION OF  

E-print Network

bottlenecks -- even if the character of the road changes in space-time; e.g., due to snow-plows. The gradual problems with any number of moving point bottlenecks. Basic Facts Consider a one-directional road on which vehicles are conserved, and let x, t, q and k respectively denote the distance along the road (increasing

Daganzo, Carlos F.

317

Response of Tridens Flavus (l.) A. S. Hitchc. to Soil Nutrients and Disturbance in an Early Successional Old Field 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

experimental plots to various combinations of fertilizer and mowing treatments for eight years after initially plowing the field. The performance of T. flavus was measured by estimating percent cover for 8 years (1996-2003) and both density of flowering tillers and reproductive output (panicle length and number of branches per panicle) for three years (2001-2003). The pattern of canopy cover of

Yohanes A. K. Honu; David J. Gibson; Beth A. Middleton

2006-01-01

318

VARIATION OF SURFACE SOIL QUALITY BY INTENSIVE DONKEY-DRAWN TILLAGE ON A STEEP SLOPE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The progressive but relatively rapid redistribution of soil from uplands to field depressions or lower field boundaries by tillage has the potential to modify soil properties. However, few direct measurements have been made for this effect. We conducted 50 plowing operations using a donkey-drawn mol...

319

May 10, 2014 Commencement  

E-print Network

, Athletics Les Johnson, EdD, Director, Human Resources Barbara Keinath, PhD, Vice Chancellor, Academic. The telescope represents the physical sciences. The plow represents the industrial arts, and the palette of commencement ceremonies. The University of Minnesota Crookston entered the next stages of its evolution

Amin, S. Massoud

320

Changing Agricultural Education to Meet Needs of Emerging Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With less than 2% of Americans involved in traditional production agriculture (cows, plows, and sows), agricultural programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels must change to address the workforce of the future. AgrowKnowledge works at the national level to provide tools for changing agriculture, food, and natural resource educational…

Parker, Rick; Brase, Terry; Dewsnup, Mel; Anderson, Mandi; Collins, Ashley; Klopp, Deborah; Johnson, Brian; Feldmann, Holly

2009-01-01

321

222Radon Concentration Measurements biased to Cerro Prieto Fault for Verify its Continuity to the Northwest of the Mexicali Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to know the exact location in the field of the fault traces in Mexicali has been an important affair due that the topography in this valley is almost flat and fault traces are hidden by plow zone, for this reason, the southern and northern ends of the San Jacinto and Cerro Prieto fault zones, respectively, are not well

O. Lazaro-Mancilla; D. L. Lopez; J. A. Reyes-Lopez; C. Carreón-Diazconti; J. Ramirez-Hernandez

2009-01-01

322

Metaphor Understanding --A Cognitive Science Perspective Raluca Vasilescu  

E-print Network

in the natural language, but researchers claim that they actually influence our way of thinking). The vehicle (source) is that to which we make reference (i.e. the sun, plow, money). The ground is made) speakers make use of metaphors on a regular base. Moreover, metaphors are not only an ubiquitous phenomenon

323

Impacts of Historical Land Use on Soil Nitrogen Cycles in Falmouth, MA and the Threat of Chronic N Amendment Demonstrated at the  

E-print Network

Impacts of Historical Land Use on Soil Nitrogen Cycles in Falmouth, MA and the Threat of Chronic N is an important aspect of soil nitrogen cycling. Historic agriculture land use and modern atmospheric nitrogen deposition both impact soil nitrogen cycles. To evaluate agricultural land use I compared plowed fields

Vallino, Joseph J.

324

Rainfall and tillage effects on soil structure after alfalfa conversion to maize on a clay loam soil in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil degradation is accelerated when perennial crops are converted to annual row crops, primarily due to increased soil disturbance from tillage. Subsequent heavy rainfall may induce soil settling, reduce macroporosity and increase hardsetting upon drying. An experiment involving plow and no-tillage and two simulated rainfall treatments (‘wet’ and ‘dry’) was conducted on Kingsbury clay loam soil in northern New York

U. P. Karunatilake; H. M van Es

2002-01-01

325

America's First Government Documentary Films as Teaching Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews two documentaries produced by the U.S. government: "The Plow That Broke the Plains" (1936) and "The River" (1937). The first examines soil erosion in the Great Plains; the second considers Mississippi River usage. Narrates storylines and explains initial film criticism. Highlights the films' effectiveness for teaching about the New Deal…

Hendrickson, Kenneth E.

1991-01-01

326

Winter brings Tech a flurry of problems Students out and about yesterday  

E-print Network

Linkenhoker, program support techni- Icy roads affect BT, student drivers Health officials worried about flu rent more." The Physical Plant keeps a minimum amount of salt on hand and trucks transport additional. The town sends out 10 dump trucks with salt spreaders and plows during winter storms, Mattingly said

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

327

N E W S AN D V I E W S NATURE MEDICINE VOLUME 13 | NUMBER 3 | MARCH 2007 253  

E-print Network

­377 (2005). A plague upon fibrin Richard W Titball & Petra C F Oyston A surface protease helps Yersinia pestis plow its way through the body during pneumonic plague. The authors are in the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK. e-mail: rwtitball@mail.dstl.gov.uk Bubonic plague

Cai, Long

328

50 CFR 622.432 - Anchoring restriction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...system that recovers the anchor by its crown, thereby preventing the anchor from...rode to reverse and slip back toward the crown. For a fluke- or plow-type anchor, a trip line consisting of a line from the crown of the anchor to a surface buoy would...

2014-10-01

329

50 CFR 622.432 - Anchoring restriction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...system that recovers the anchor by its crown, thereby preventing the anchor from...rode to reverse and slip back toward the crown. For a fluke- or plow-type anchor, a trip line consisting of a line from the crown of the anchor to a surface buoy would...

2013-10-01

330

Control of Mesquite on Grazing Lands.  

E-print Network

heavy stands of sunflower (Hrlt. anthus annus) , Russian thistle (Salsola kali var. ~~IIII. folia) and other undesirable weeds developed on the root-plowed areas soon after treatment and persistetl on the land for several years. Results obtained at...

Fisher, C. E.; Meadors, C. H.; Behrens, R.; Robinson, E. D.; Marion, P. T.; Morton, H. L.

1959-01-01

331

The University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension is an equal opportunity educator and employer. UNH, U.S. Department of Agriculture and the N.H. counties cooperating.  

E-print Network

,blackraspberriesandblackberries. Temperatures below - 5o F will kill blackberry and most purple and black raspberry canes, so these should only sheltered sites in southern Maine and New Hampshire. Selecting a Planting Site To get the most out of your, and to kill out perennial weeds, sow a cover crop, such as buckwheat, rye, millet or oats, and plow

New Hampshire, University of

332

Where does Strip Tillage Fit in Montana and Wyoming Sugarbeet Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarbeet in Montana and Wyoming is often grown in a two year rotation alternating with spring grains. Normally, a sugarbeet grower will make five or more passes across a field for fertilizer application, disking, plowing or ripping, leveling, mulching and hilling. The high price of diesel fuel is m...

333

Sediment losses and gains across a gradient of livestock grazing and plant invasion in a cool, semi-arid grassland, Colorado Plateau, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large sediment fluxes can have significant impacts on ecosystems. We measured incoming and outgoing sediment across a gradient of soil disturbance (livestock grazing, plowing) and annual plant invasion for 9years. Our sites included two currently ungrazed sites: one never grazed by livestock and dominated by perennial grasses\\/well-developed biocrusts and one not grazed since 1974 and dominated by annual weeds with

Jayne Belnap; Richard L. Reynolds; Marith C. Reheis; Susan L. Phillips; Frank E. Urban; Harland L. Goldstein

2009-01-01

334

Challenges and Strategies Related to Hearing Loss among Dairy Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Farming is often imagined to be a serene and idyllic business based on historical images of a man, a horse, and a plow. However, machinery and equipment on farms, such as older tractors, grain dryers, and vacuum pumps, can have noise levels, which may be dangerous to hearing with prolonged, unprotected exposure. Purpose: This qualitative…

Hass-Slavin, Louise; McColl, Mary Ann; Pickett, William

2005-01-01

335

Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared polyphagous, known to feed on more than 70 plant species from 22 families. Caterpillars prefer to feed/pheronet/ins/mamesbrass.html). Control measures include autumn plowing, eradication of weeds, release of Trichogramma parasitoids

336

A Brick-Sorting LEGO Robot Arturo Perez and Michael R. W. Dawson  

E-print Network

creating, programming, and testing a new robot designed to sort ele-ments in an arena. The purpose. An ultrasonic sensor mounted on its top detects obstacles, and causes the robot to steer away from them detected by a lower ultrasonic sen- sor. When captured by the robot's `plow', a light sensor determines

Dawson, Michael

337

Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Colonization of Pig Carrion in South Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data

Jeffery K. Tomberlin; D. Craig Sheppard; John A. Joyce

2005-01-01

338

Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: Effects on grain yield, water balance and water productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maresha, the traditional Ethiopian plow, requires repeated cross-plowing which causes increased surface runoff, less infiltration and hence lower water availability to crops. The main reasons for increased surface runoff and reduced infiltration are plowing along the slope and the formation of a plow pan at shallow depths. Conservation tillage is seen as a way to alleviate these problems. The widely advocated zero-tillage, however, is not feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining adequate soil cover, the practice of communal grazing, and high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems, on the other hand, may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems and to evaluate the impacts of new tillage systems on the water balance and grain yields of maize. Experiments have been conducted in a semi-arid area called Melkawoba in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003-2005. Strip tillage systems involved cultivation along planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS) or without subsoiling (ST). Results have been compared with traditional tillage involving 3-4 overpasses with the Maresha plow (CONV). Soil moisture has been monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) while surface runoff has been measured using a specially designed rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs = 18 mm season-1) and the highest grain yields (Y = 2130 kg ha-1) followed by ST (Qs = 26 mm season-1, Y = 1840 kg ha-1) and CONV (Qs = 43 mm season-1, Y = 1720 kg ha-1) provided sowing was carried out within a week after subsoiling. Thus, STS resulted in the highest water productivity, WP = 0.60 kg m-3, followed by ST (WP = 0.52 kg m-3) and CONV (WP = 0.48 kg m-3). The main conclusion of the paper is that even in dry areas reasonable yields can be obtained provided moisture conservation in the root zone is guaranteed. In this regard subsoiling is essential. Moreover, it is concluded that the time between subsoiling and planting is a key factor and should not exceed one week.

Temesgen, Melesse; Savenije, H. H. G.; Rockström, J.; Hoogmoed, W. B.

339

Trace element concentrations in wintering waterfowl from the Great Salt Lake, Utah.  

PubMed

The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is an important region for millions of migratory waterbirds. However, high concentrations of some trace elements, including Hg and Se, have been detected within the GSL, and baseline ecotoxicological data are lacking for avian species in this system. We collected common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), and green-winged teal (A. crecca) from the GSL during the winters of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 to evaluate sources of variation in liver trace element concentrations. Hg concentrations were among or exceeded the highest values reported in the published literature for common goldeneye, northern shoveler, and green-winged teal. Average Hg (total) concentrations of common goldeneye peaked in midwinter, whereas average Se concentrations peaked during late winter. During late winter, 100% and 88% of female goldeneye contained elevated concentrations of Hg [>or=1.0 microg/g wet weight (ww)] and Se (>or=3.0 microg/g ww), respectively, and 5% and 14% contained potentially harmful amounts of Hg (>or=30.0 microg/g ww) and Se (>10.0 microg/g ww), respectively. Similarly, 30% and 16% of male goldeneye contained potentially harmful concentrations of Hg and Se, respectively. Concentrations of Hg and Se were elevated in 100% and 79%, respectively, of northern shoveler samples (sexes combined) collected during February. We suggest that waterfowl contain biologically concerning amounts of Hg and Se during winter while on the GSL and further research is needed to evaluate the effect of these elements on GSL waterbirds. PMID:18560923

Vest, J L; Conover, M R; Perschon, C; Luft, J; Hall, J O

2009-02-01

340

Structural details of proteinase entrapment by human alpha2-macroglobulin emerge from three-dimensional reconstructions of Fab labeled native, half-transformed, and transformed molecules.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional electron microscopy reconstructions of native, half-transformed, and transformed alpha2-macroglobulins (alpha2Ms) labeled with a monoclonal Fab Fab offer new insight into the mechanism of its proteinase entrapment. Each alpha2M binds four Fabs, two at either end of its dimeric protomers approximately 145 A apart. In the native structure, the epitopes are near the base of its two chisel-like features, laterally separated by 120 A, whereas in the methylamine-transformed alpha2M, the epitopes are at the base of its four arms, laterally separated by 160 A. Upon thiol ester cleavage, the chisels on the native alpha2M appear to split with a separation and rotation to give the four arm-like extensions on transformed alpha2M. Thus, the receptor binding domains previously enclosed within the chisels are exposed. The labeled structures further indicate that the two protomeric strands that constitute the native and transformed molecules are related and reside one on each side of the major axes of these structures. The half-transformed structure shows that the two Fabs at one end of the molecule have an arrangement similar to those on the native alpha2M, whereas on its transformed end, they have rotated. The rotation is associated with a partial untwisting of the strands and an enlargement of the openings to the cavity. We propose that the enlarged openings permit the entrance of the proteinase. Then cleavage of the remaining bait domains by a second proteinase occurs with its entrance into the cavity. This is followed by a retwisting of the strands to encapsulate the proteinases and expose the receptor binding domains associated with the transformed alpha2M. PMID:10075716

Qazi, U; Gettins, P G; Strickland, D K; Stoops, J K

1999-03-19

341

LBNL Computational Research and Theory Facility Groundbreaking. February 1st, 2012  

SciTech Connect

Energy Secretary Steven Chu, along with Berkeley Lab and UC leaders, broke ground on the Lab's Computational Research and Theory (CRT) facility yesterday. The CRT will be at the forefront of high-performance supercomputing research and be DOE's most efficient facility of its kind. Joining Secretary Chu as speakers were Lab Director Paul Alivisatos, UC President Mark Yudof, Office of Science Director Bill Brinkman, and UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgeneau. The festivities were emceed by Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences, Kathy Yelick, and Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates joined in the shovel ceremony.

Yelick, Kathy

2012-01-01

342

IMPERILMENT AND VULNERABILITY OF LAKE TAHOE BASIN TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES  

E-print Network

.285 3 3 2 3 Northern Pintail Anas acuta 3 3 4 0.117 3 3 2 3 American Wigeon Anas americana 3 4 4 0.076 3 2 2 3 Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata 2 3 4 0.072 3 2 3 3 Green-winged Teal Anas crecca 3 4 4 0.126 3 2 2 3 Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera 5 4 4 0.104 3 2 2 3 Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 4 4 4 0.175 3 3

Standiford, Richard B.

343

An epizootic of avian botulism in a phosphate mine settling pond in northern Florida.  

PubMed

Type C botulism was determined to be the cause of an epizootic among waterfowl and shorebirds in a phosphate mine settling pond in northern Florida during May and June of 1979. Several hundred birds, the most common of which were American coots (Fulica americana), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), common gallinules (Gallinula chloropus), and northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), were afflicted over about a three-week period. A second smaller outbreak occurred in the same pond in early December of 1979. This is apparently the first time that botulism has been reported in waterbirds of Florida. PMID:6997514

Forrester, D J; Wenner, K C; White, F H; Greiner, E C; Marion, W R; Thul, J E; Berkhoff, G A

1980-07-01

344

LBNL Computational Research & Theory Facility Groundbreaking - Full Press Conference. Feb 1st, 2012  

ScienceCinema

Energy Secretary Steven Chu, along with Berkeley Lab and UC leaders, broke ground on the Lab's Computational Research and Theory (CRT) facility yesterday. The CRT will be at the forefront of high-performance supercomputing research and be DOE's most efficient facility of its kind. Joining Secretary Chu as speakers were Lab Director Paul Alivisatos, UC President Mark Yudof, Office of Science Director Bill Brinkman, and UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgeneau. The festivities were emceed by Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences, Kathy Yelick, and Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates joined in the shovel ceremony.

Yelick, Kathy

2013-05-29

345

Out of the sandbox - cohesive dragline planning  

SciTech Connect

Since 1983, Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC), through the Coal Research Center in Carterville, Illinois, has been engaged in operator, engineer, supervisor and manager training in the foundations, plan formulation, iteration and improvement in efficiency of dragline planning and operations. 3d-Dig is a 3-D modeling package used in SIUC's training program to simulate digging and dumping from truck-shovel, dozer-push and dragline operations. SIUC has a scale model dragline and dragline simulator available to assist course attendees with standard dig progressions and optimizing operator technique. 1 fig., 6 photos.

Cobcroft, T. [Marston & Marston Inc., St Louis, MO (United States)

2008-01-15

346

LBNL Computational Research and Theory Facility Groundbreaking. February 1st, 2012  

ScienceCinema

Energy Secretary Steven Chu, along with Berkeley Lab and UC leaders, broke ground on the Lab's Computational Research and Theory (CRT) facility yesterday. The CRT will be at the forefront of high-performance supercomputing research and be DOE's most efficient facility of its kind. Joining Secretary Chu as speakers were Lab Director Paul Alivisatos, UC President Mark Yudof, Office of Science Director Bill Brinkman, and UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgeneau. The festivities were emceed by Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences, Kathy Yelick, and Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates joined in the shovel ceremony.

Yelick, Kathy

2013-05-29

347

NASA Shared Services Center breaks ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA officials and elected leaders were on hand for the groundbreaking ceremony of the NASA Shared Services Center Feb. 24, 2006, on the grounds of Stennis Space Center. The NSSC provides agency centralized administrative processing, human resources, procurement and financial services. From left, Louisiana Economic Development Secretary Mike Olivier, Stennis Space Center Director Rick Gilbrech, Computer Sciences Corp. President Michael Laphen, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Rep. Gene Taylor, Sen. Trent Lott, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Shared Services Center Executive Director Arbuthnot use golden shovels to break ground at the site.

2006-01-01

348

The use of blood in Anas clypeata as an efficient and non-lethal method for the biomonitoring of mercury.  

PubMed

Hg was analyzed in seven tissues of 52 common shoveler Anas clypeata collected from the coast of SE Gulf of California. Mean Hg concentrations were highest in the liver (2,885 ng g?¹) and lowest in the gizzard (621 ng g?¹); they followed the order: liver, feathers > muscle tissue and tissues of the circulatory system > digestive organs. Hg levels were similar or higher than birds of the same trophic level and feeding habits. Considering the relationships of Hg among tissues and blood we recommend the use of blood as an efficient method to monitor Hg. PMID:23595347

Raygoza-Viera, J R; Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Páez-Osuna, F

2013-07-01

349

Use of remote sensing and geographic information systems to study the epidemiology of oak wilt in Dallas, Texas  

E-print Network

mats are formed under the bark on the surface of the sapwood of diseased red oaks and represent the climax of the saprophytic growth of the pathogen in the dead/dying part of the tree (26). In Texas, fungal mats can be expected to occur in March..., were taken from an infected tree to isolate (. '. fu);ui. estrum. Bole samples werc obtained by removing an area of bark approximately 30cm x 30cm and chiseling 4-5 sapwood strips (2. 5cm x 10cm) from the outermost sapwood. This sampling technique...

Camilli, Kim Suzanne

2001-01-01

350

Casualties of Heritage Distancing: Children, Ch’orti’ Indigeneity, and the Copán Archaeoscape  

E-print Network

global renown. Formerly a seat o f Classic Maya dynastic power, the remains o f its royal court include soaring pyramids, stone- chiseled naturalistic sculpture, and hieroglyphic texts that bear test imony to an ancient heritage (Fash 2 0 0 1 ) . T h e... t i ' Mayan likely was the spoken language o f Classic Maya royal courts and was also the language in which hieroglyphic texts were written (Houston, Robertson, and Stuart 2 0 0 0 ; Law et al. 2 0 0 9 ) . T h e Maya Area Cultural Heritage...

McAnany, Patricia A.; Parks, Shoshaunna; Metz, Brent

2012-01-01

351

Ultrasonic/Sonic Jackhammer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultrasonic/sonic jackhammer (USJ) is the latest in a series of related devices. Each of these devices cuts into a brittle material by means of hammering and chiseling actions of a tool bit excited with a combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations. A small-scale prototype of the USJ has been demonstrated. A fully developed, full-scale version of the USJ would be used for cutting through concrete, rocks, hard asphalt, and other materials to which conventional pneumatic jackhammers are applied, but the USJ would offer several advantages over conventional pneumatic jackhammers.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Herz, Jack

2005-01-01

352

Habitat use by Swainson's Hawks on their austral winter grounds in Argentina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the use of agricultural habitats by Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni)in La Pampa and Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. We found an association of foraging Swainson's Hawks with permanent pastures such as fallow, natural, and alfalfa fields. The hawks also used plowed fields for sunning, resting, and preening. Fields planted with annual crops and pastures were used very little, except when they were cut for hay, plowed, and harvested, or when low crop height and cover allowed the hawks to land in fields. The availability of abundant, yet widely-spaced and transient food-sources, such as insect outbreaks, appeared to be the principal factor influencing habitat use by the hawks. Their reliance on agricultural habitats makes Swainson's Hawks highly vulnerable to pesticide contamination and has contributed to the occurrence of significant mortality events on their wintering grounds.

Canavelli, Sonia B.; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, B.; Kochert, Michael N.; Maceda, Juan J.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.

2003-01-01

353

Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a randomly perturbed quasiperiodic surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromagnetic-wave scattering by a quasi-periodic surface with random perturbations (as in the remote sensing of plowed fields) is investigated analytically, applying the Kirchhoff approximation and modeling the plowed fields by means of Gaussian random variation, sinusoidal variation, and Gaussian random variation about the spatial frequency. Coherent and incoherent bistatic scattering coefficients are derived in closed form by evaluating the physical-optics integral and shown to be proportional, in the geometric-optics limit, to the occurrence probability of slopes which reflect the incident wave specularly in the direction of the scattered wave. Backscattering cross sections are plotted as functions of incidence angle for a number of cases, demonstrating the strong effect of row direction.

Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.

1984-01-01

354

Mineralization of organic matter and the carbon sequestration capacity of zonal soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of soil organic matter (SOM) to mineralization decreases in the following sequence of zonal soils: tundra\\u000a soil > soddy-podzolic soil > gray forest soil > chestnut soil > dark chestnut soil > chernozem. The content of potentially\\u000a mineralizable organic matter in the plowed soils is 1.9–3.9 times lower than that in their virgin analogues. The highest soil\\u000a carbon

V. M. Semenov; L. A. Ivannikova; T. V. Kuznetsova; N. A. Semenova; A. S. Tulina

2008-01-01

355

Climate Change: Natural Water and Fertilization Effects on Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.) Yield in Monoculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction of rainfall on crop fertilization factors, such as macronutrients and yield, were studied during a long-term field experiment on a calcareous sandy soil with a low humus content in north Hungary at Örbottyán Experimental Station of RISSAC-HAS from 1961 to 2004. When the experiment was commenced (1959) the plowed portion of experimental soil (top soil) had a pH (H2O)

2009-01-01

356

A supersonic nozzle for gas-puff Z-pinch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. In this paper Z-pinch plasma implosion was numerically simulated based on one-dimensional snow-plow model with differently presumed gas shells. An equivalent circuit of Z-pinch discharge was also established for calculating Z-pinch current. In the circuit model the plasma column of Z-pinch was considered as an inductor with variable inductance depending on the decreasing radius of the

Wei Li; Xinxin Wang; Xiaobing Zou; Ruili Ma; Min Han; Guixin Zhang

2004-01-01

357

Changes in the Status of Harvested Rice Fields in the Sacramento Valley, California: Implications for Wintering Waterfowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvested rice fields provide critical foraging habitat for wintering waterfowl in North America, but their value depends\\u000a upon post-harvest treatments. We visited harvested ricefields in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winters of\\u000a 2007 and 2008 (recent period) and recorded their observed status as harvested (standing or mechanically modified stubble),\\u000a burned, plowed, or flooded. We compared these data with those

Michael R. Miller; Jay D. Garr; Peter S. Coates

2010-01-01

358

Organic matter addition, N, and residue burning effects on infiltration, biological, and physical properties of an intensively tilled silt-loam soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy years of different management treatments have produced significant differences in runoff, erosion, and ponded infiltration rate in a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–summer fallow experiment in OR, USA. We tested the hypothesis that differences in infiltration are due to changes in soil structure related to treatment-induced biological changes. All plots received the same tillage (plow and summer rod-weeding). Manure

Stewart B. Wuest; T. C. Caesar-TonThat; Sara F. Wright; John D. Williams

2005-01-01

359

The ecological role of ants in two Mexican agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the ant communities and their foraging dynamics were studied in two annual agroecosystems of the Mexican tropical lowlands: a “forest milpa” of corn, beans, and squash made by cutting and buring 40-year-old forest, and a “field milpa” of corn, beans, and squash made by plowing 1-year-old second growth. The ant community was sampled using tuna fish baits

Stephen J. Risch; C. Ronald Carroll

1982-01-01

360

The effects of flow rate and pressure on breakthrough times and permeation rates through an impermeable membrane  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF FLOW RATE AND PRESSURE ON BREAKTHROUGH TIMES AND PERMEATION RATES THROUGH AN IMPERMEABLE MEMBRANE A Thesis by PETER LEE GILMORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AaM Univereity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECTS OF PLOW RATE AND PRESSURE ON BREAKTHROUGH TIMES AND PERMEATION RATES THROUGH AN IMPERMEABLE MEMBRANE A Thesis by PETER LEE GILMORE Approved...

Gilmore, Peter Lee

1986-01-01

361

Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

McIntosh, Phyllis

2014-01-01

362

Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of satellite data from the ERTS-1 satellite for mapping the cotton acreage in the southern deserts of California is discussed. The differences between a growing, a defoliated, and a plowed down field can be identified using an optical color combiner. The specific application of the land use maps is to control the spread of the pink bollworms by establishing planting and plowdown dates.

Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.; Lewis, L. N.

1973-01-01

363

Waiting for Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the Rum…

Lamson-Nussbaum, Jorie

2013-01-01

364

Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels  

E-print Network

(Figure 10). UMPIIATUII D"nIlNTIAL ACIOSS PANIL 0,. WAnl PLOW IAU ca.IM. HIAT IICOVIIiD I.T.UJHIX10 6 DillON P,.IAMlTlas 10 412 2'1 UST NO 1 11 426 3" nn NO 2 25 343 4'3 nn NO 3 29 335 4" nn NO 4 22 307 3'3 TilT NO 5 , 27 264 3...

Darby, D. F.

365

Hairy Vetch, Bur Clover and Oats as Soil-Building Crops for Cotton and Corn in Texas.  

E-print Network

yields of cotton than the use of 400 pounds of a 4-8-4 fertilizer per acre at Tyler and Nacog- doches. Hairy vetch was a better green-manure crop than oats at Tyler and oats or bur clover at Nacogdoches. The effects of plowing under hairy vetch lasted.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Yields of Green-manure Crops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Yield of Cotton.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Residual Effect of Green Manure on the Yield of Cotton 14 [ 1 Methods...

Morris, H. F. (Harry Forest); Johnson, P. R. (Paul Rufus); Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1950-01-01

366

Increase rate if: Decrease Rate if: Compaction occurs & cannot be removed mechanically Light snow or light freezing rain  

E-print Network

or light freezing rain There is a lot of snow left behind Pavement temperature is rising, treat inter- sections only 0.75 0.5 0.75 not recom- mended Frz. Rain Apply chemical 1.25 1.0 1.5 not recom- mended 30º Snow Plow & apply chemical 1.25 1.0 1.5 not recom- mended Frz. Rain Apply chemical 1

Minnesota, University of

367

Application of Centrifugal Elutriation for aqueous suspension  

E-print Network

, bottom sediments, and suspended matter (Mackay and Powers, 1987). Also, the existence of these organic pollutants in the environment greatly increases the degree of bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain (Krauss et al. , 1983...Uon Porl Leading lo the Sedunan JE-5 Rotor (via Gbun Syttnge) Paructes cuter lhe JE-3 Rotor and became ~ m tha zquubtutsm chsmbsr Suspension is Espcssm to s Clean Aqueous Plow lor Designated Time Period Suspension is Butratad lrom Equglbratam Chamber...

Ayers, Jeffrey Thomas

1993-01-01

368

Mercury in Tree Swallow Food, Eggs, Bodies, and Feathers at Acadia National Park, Maine, and an EPA Superfund Site, Ayer, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We monitored nest boxes during 1997–1999 at Acadia National Park, Mt. Desert Island, ME and at an old-field site in Orono,\\u000a ME to determine mercury (Hg) uptake in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs, tissues, and food boluses. Also, in 1998–1999 we monitored nest boxes at Grove Pond and Plow Shop Pond at a U.S. Environmental\\u000a Protection Agency Superfund site in

Jerry R. Longcore; Terry A. Haines; William A. Halteman

2007-01-01

369

The development of a flood routing model for the flow analyses of mine tailings materials  

E-print Network

Flood, West Virginia Aberfsn Flow Slide, Wales Mochikoshi Tailings Dam, Japan A LITERATURE REVIEW OF EXISTING FLOOD ROUTING MODELS Theoretical Flood Routing Analysis Models Models Developed for Turbulent Flow Analysis U. S. Army Corps of Engineers... of this research. The results of this literature survey are presented in detail in the following paragraphs. Theoretical Flood Routin Anal sis Models Plow of liquefied tailings through a non-prismatic channel can be either turbulent or laminar depending upon...

Rokohl, Don Richard

1984-01-01

370

ERIP invention 637. Technical progress report 2nd quarter, April 1997--June 1997  

SciTech Connect

This technical report describes progress in the development of the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus. Prototype testing is reported, and includes the addition of precision tillage. Disease data, organic matter, and nitrogen levels results are very briefly described. Progress in marketing is also reported. Current marketing issues include test use by cotton and wheat growers, establishment of dealer relationships, incorporation of design modifications, expansion of marketing activities, and expansion of loan and lease program.

Thacker, G.W.

1997-07-22

371

Succession and resilience in boreal mixedwood plant communities 15–16 years after silvicultural site preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-native plant abundance, vascular and non-vascular diversity and plant community succession were studied 10 and 15–16 years after stand initiation at two mixedwood boreal sites in northwestern Canada. At Inga Lake, five silvicultural treatments (untreated, plowed-and-inverted, rotocleared-and-mixed, burned-windrow, repeated vegetation control) created a gradient from pure broadleaf to pure white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) overstories. At Iron Creek, four

Sybille Haeussler; Paula Bartemucci; Lorne Bedford

2004-01-01

372

Effects of Road De-icing Salts in Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2003, a 4-lane highway and 6 mitigation wetlands were opened across the Penn State campus, Erie, Pennsylvania. Road runoff overflows into 1 wetland (T3), and another (R3) receives salt spray and plowed snow. I have logged conductivity and temperature hourly at the sediment-water interface in R3 and T3 since January 2004, and I measure conductivity, temperature, and chironomid

P. Silver

2005-01-01

373

Microbial Distributions And Their Potential Controlling Factors In Terrestrial Subsurface Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial subsurface environments (below the plow layer) contain an enormous amount of the earth’s biomass, yet are relatively\\u000a undersampled compared to topsoil, aquatic, and marine environments. Depth emerges as a primary axis for relating distributions\\u000a of microorganisms and the factors controlling their distribution. There is generally a sharp drop in microbial biomass, diversity,\\u000a and activity as organic-rich topsoils deepen to

R. Michael Lehman

374

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Small Grains  

E-print Network

resistance to greenbug. 6 Tillage and other management factors Tillage has long been recognized as important for insect control. It not only destroys host plants, but also may bury some insects too deep for survival. Plowing under stubble reduces... when used with other compatible pest control practices in an integrated pest management program. These practices include cultural control, host plant resistance and the selective use of insecticides when other practices fail to keep pest numbers...

Patrick, Carl D.; Knutson, Allen E.

2006-07-05

375

Surface Roughness Parameter Uncertainties on Radar Based Soil Moisture Retrievals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface roughness variations are often assumed to be negligible for the retrieval of sol moisture. Although previous investigations have suggested that this assumption is reasonable for natural vegetation covers (i.e. Moran et al. 2002), in-situ measurements over plowed agricultural fields (i.e. Callens et al. 2006) have shown that the soil surface roughness can change considerably due to weathering induced by rain.

Joseph, A. T.; vanderVelde, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Lang, R.; Su, Z.; Gish, T.

2012-01-01

376

Extractable trace elements in the soil profile after years of biosolids application  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and some state agencies regulate trace element additions to soil from land application of biosolids. The authors generally consider trace elements added in biosolids (sewage sludge) to accumulate in the soil surface without significant transport below the plow layer. They used 11 yr of field-study information from biosolids addition to dryland hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Vona or TAM107) to determine the distribution of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn in 0 to 20 (plow layer), 20 to 60, 60 to 100, and 100 to 150 cm depth increments. This study is unique since it involves multiple biosolids application in a dryland summer fallow agroecosystem. The authors applied five or six applications of biosolids from the cities of Littleton and Englewood, CO, to Weld loam or Platner loam at four locations. This paper focuses on the 0 (control), the 56 or 67 kg of N ha{sup {minus}1} fertilizer rates, and the 6.7 and 26.8 dry Mg of biosolids ha{sup {minus}1} rates that they added every crop year. The authors observed significant (P < 0.10) accumulations of the trace elements in the plow layer of the biosolids-amended soils. Only Zn showed consistent increases in extractable levels below the plow layer at all four sites. The biosolids Zn concentration was larger than any other trace element resulting in larger loading of this element.

Barbarick, K.A.; Ippolito, J.A.; Westfall, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences

1998-07-01

377

Succession and phylogenetic profile of eukaryotic communities in rice straw incorporated into a rice field: Estimation by PCR-DGGE and sequence analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succession and the phylogenetic profile of eukaryotic communities associated with rice straw decomposition in a rice field were studied using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis followed by 18S rDNA sequencing. Nylon mesh bags containing leaf sheaths or blades were buried in the plow layer of a rice field under flooded conditions after transplanting (Experiment 1) and under

Atsuo Sugano; Hidetaka Tsuchimoto; Cho Cho Tun; Susumu Asakawa; Makoto Kimura

2007-01-01

378

THE HEATED AND THE BROKEN: THERMALLY ALTERED STONE, HUMAN BEHAVIOR, AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally altered stone is commonly found in archaeological contexts, but it remains an under-appreciated artifact class for deciphering many aspects of site formation. Thermally altered stone can be used to provide information about site-use intensity and the sorting effects of natural processes and modern plowing. Different types of thermally altered stone arrangements may be conceptualized, including single- and multi-state evident

MICHAEL D. PETRAGLIA

2002-01-01

379

30Exploring the Solar Wind and Coronal Mass Ejections This pair of computed images shows the spiral pattern of the solar wind inside  

E-print Network

the cavity? Answer: The CME traveled through the gas and swept it up like a snow-plow in front of the CME the high-speed gas streams leaving the sun through coronal holes. The crescent shaped cloud is the coronal was the speed, in km/h, of the CME when it reached Earth? Problem 2 - The dark cavity behind the CME represents

380

Application of water jet assisted drag bit and pick cutter for the cutting of coal measure rocks. Final technical report. [Tests of combination in different rocks  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of high pressure water jets on the cutting forces of drag bit cutters in sedimentary rocks. A hard and soft sandstone, shale and limestone were tested with commercially obtainable conical and plow type drag bits on the EMI linear cutting machine. About 1200 cuts were made at different bit penetration, jet orientation, and water pressure to determine the reduction of cutting forces on the bit from the use of the water jet. Both independent and interactive cutting was used. The greatest reduction in cutting forces were with both of the sandstones; the drag forces were reduced about 30 percent and the normal forces about 60 percent at 5000 psi water pressure with the nozzle behind the bit. The method was less effective in the shale, except at 10,000 psi water pressure the reduction in drag force was about 55 percent. Of the rocks tested, the limestone was least affected by the water jet. The cutting forces for the plow bit showed continuous change with wear so a machined conical bit was used for most of the testing. Tests with the plow bit did show a large reduction in cutting forces by using the water jet with worn bits. An economic analysis of equipping a drag bit tunnel boring machine indicated that the water jet system could reduce costs per foot in sandstone by up to 40 percent.

Ropchan, D.; Wang, F.D.; Wolgamott, J.

1980-04-01

381

Hydrology of a groundwater-irrigated rice field in Bangladesh: Seasonal and daily mechanisms of infiltration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow through a groundwater-irrigated rice field in Bangladesh was characterized with data collected from a transect of tensiometers and time domain reflectometry sensors, novel tracer tests, infiltration tests, soil core analyses, and calculated water budgets. The combined data captured the dynamic hydrologic behavior of the rice field over an entire growing season, which included many irrigation events. Recharge to the aquifer flowed from the surface of the rice field through preferential flow paths located in the subsoil beneath the plowed surface of the field and in the bunds, the raised boundaries around the perimeter of the field. Water that remained within the soil matrix did not recharge the aquifer. Bund flow was the dominant loss for the field because the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the soil beneath the bunds was greater than that in the plowed and planted region of the rice field. Each year, farmers plow the rice fields, destroying cracks and decreasing the conductivity of the shallow soil, but leave the bunds unplowed because they follow property boundaries. We determined bund flow with a daily water balance and confirmed its importance by comparing irrigation losses among fields of different sizes and geometries and hence different ratios of perimeter to area. The perimeter-to-area ratio predicted the fraction of water lost down the bunds for these and other fields located throughout Southeast Asia. Finally, we determined the economic and environmental benefits of reducing bund flow.

Neumann, Rebecca B.; Polizzotto, Matthew L.; Badruzzaman, A. Borhan M.; Ali, M. Ashraf; Zhang, Zhongyuan; Harvey, Charles F.

2009-09-01

382

BotEC: The Himalayas and Continental Drift  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Queston: The story of the Himalayas can be traced back to the breakup of the supercontinent, called Pangaea, about 200 million years ago, when India began its rapid movement northward towards Asia. Asia was a much smaller continent then. Then, between 45 and 55 million years ago, India and Asia collided. Before collision, India moved northward at about 7-10 centimeters per year. Remarkably, India's northward movement was slowed only a little after the collisionâit continues to plow into Asia at a rate of 5-6 centimeters per year. We can measure the present northward movement of India into Asia using GPS measurements over a period of time. So, there is little doubt of the continued movement of India. There is much debate about how the northward march of India into Asia is being accommodated. Of course, the high Himalayan Plateau is a manifestation of this collision between two continents. Let's assume that India began to plow into the Asian continent 55 million years ago and that, since then, it has continued to uniformly move northward into the Asian continent at 6 centimeters per year (for 55 million years). Calculate the total distance (in kilometers) that India has plowed into Asia.

Peter Kresan

383

Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

1993-08-01

384

A new marine reptile from the Triassic of China, with a highly specialized feeding adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Luoping fauna (Anisian, Middle Triassic) is probably the oldest of Triassic faunas in Guizhou-Yunnan area, China. The reptilian assemblage is comprised of ichthyosaurs, a number of sauropterygians (pachypleurosaur-like forms), saurosphargids, protorosaurs, and archosauriforms. Here, we report on a peculiar reptile, newly found in this fauna. Its dentition is fence or comb-like and bears more than 175 pleurodont teeth in each ramus of the upper and lower jaws, tooth crown is needle-like distally and blade-shaped proximally; its rostrum strongly bends downward and the anterior end of its mandible expands both dorsally and ventrally to form a shovel-headed structure; and its ungual phalanges are hoof-shaped. The specializations of the jaws and dentition indicate that the reptile may have been adapted to a way of bottom-filter feeding in water. It is obvious that such delicate teeth are not strong enough to catch prey, but were probably used as a barrier to filter microorganisms or benthic invertebrates such as sea worms. These were collected by the specialized jaws, which may have functioned as a shovel or pushdozer (the mandible) and a grasper or scratcher (the rostrum). Our preliminary analysis suggests that the new reptile might be more closely related to the Sauropterygia than to other marine reptiles.

Cheng, Long; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Shang, Qing-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Chun

2014-03-01

385

Mx gene diversity and influenza association among five wild dabbling duck species (Anas spp.) in Alaska  

PubMed Central

Mx (myxovirus-resistant) proteins are induced by interferon and inhibit viral replication as part of the innate immune response to viral infection in many vertebrates. Influenza A virus appears to be especially susceptible to Mx antiviral effects. We characterized exon 13 and the 3’ UTR of the Mx gene in wild ducks, the natural reservoir of influenza virus and explored its potential relevance to influenza infection. We observed a wide range of intra- and interspecies variation. Total nucleotide diversity per site was 0.0014, 0.0027, 0.0044, 0.0051, and 0.0061 in mallards, northern shovelers, northern pintails, American wigeon, and American green-winged teals, respectively. There were 61 haplotypes present across all five species and four were shared among species. Additionally, we observed a significant association between Mx haplotype and influenza infection status in northern shovelers. However, we found no evidence of balancing or diversifying selection in this region of the Mx gene. Characterization of the duck Mx gene is an important step in understanding how the gene may affect disease resistance or susceptibility in wild populations. Furthermore, given that waterfowl act as a natural reservoir for influenza virus, the Mx gene could be an important determinant in the ecology of the virus. PMID:20621205

Dillon, Danielle; Runstadler, Jonathan

2010-01-01

386

Toxoplasma gondii in waterfowl: the first detection of this parasite in Anas crecca and Anas clypeata from Italy.  

PubMed

Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii in waterfowl is of interest for elucidating the potential involvement of these birds in maintaining the parasitic life cycle because birds are exposed to these parasites. Sera from 103 adult, free-range game birds, representing 13 different species living in the Italian wetlands, were examined using modified agglutination tests for antibodies specific to T. gondii . In seropositive birds, the brain and heart were homogenized and DNA was extracted to perform nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and genotyping. Out of the 103 serum samples, 9 (8.7%) were scored as positive with titers ranging from 1/20 to 1/160. The seropositive animals corresponded to 4 of the species: Anas platyrhynchos (mallard; 2/17), Anas clypeata (northern shoveller; 2/11), Anas crecca (common teal; 3/41), and Gallinago gallinago (common snipe; 2/8). Parasite DNA was detected in 3 out of 9 brain samples, while the PCR results from the heart specimens were negative in all of the birds. The occurrence of non-clonal types of T. gondii was suggested in all cases. In conclusion, we describe the first documented detection of DNA of T. gondii in tissues from the northern shoveller and common teal, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite. PMID:23145510

Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Mugnaini, Linda; Poli, Alessandro

2013-06-01

387

[A paratibial fasciotomy technic in chronic venous insufficiency].  

PubMed

From extensive paratibial fasciectomies on account of crural ulcers W. Hach changed to subcutaneous fasciotomy from an incision 30 to 40 mm long with digital severing of the perforating veins. Its main effect is the creation of wide communication between the subfascial and suprafascial space. The subcutaneous tissue affected with lipodermatosclerosis rest on muscles well supplied with blood which can improve the trophics of surface tissues. The reduction of the surgical approach to 10 mm calls for special instruments. Instruments designed by the author proved useful. The author operated eight patients with advanced varicosis of the saphena maior with incompetence of two to three Cockett veins and with developed lipodermatosclerosis. After stripping of the saphena maior the smaller varicosities were extracted by dented strippers, haemostasis was ensured by tamponade by means of an applicator. Cockett's veins were interrupted in the subfascial layer from a paratibial incision in the middle of the leg by means of a 10 mm L-shaped chisel and straight chisel. This was followed by prolongation of fasciotomy by means of a fasciotome to the inner ankle. The postoperative course was devoid of complications with minimal pain, the cosmetic effect was excellent. PMID:8768957

Horný, J

1996-01-01

388

Differences in bill form of the oystercatcher haematopus ostralegus; a dynamic adaptation to specific foraging techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In wintering European oystercatchers 3 bill types: pointed, chisel-shaped, and blunt were found as well as their intermediates. The distribution of the different bill types varied widely in both time and space. Pointed bills had a larger mean length than both chisel-shaped and blunt bills, and occurred more often in young birds than in adults, and more often in females than in males. On an average, females had longer bills than males. In oystercatchers in the Wadden Sea area bill length was found to increase with age, but in the Delta area no increase was found. In semi-natural cage experiments each bill type proved to be most suitable for a specific manner of localization and handling of prey. Bills of individual oystercatchers were shown to change shape when the bird was forced to change its feeding method. A change in method accompanied by a gradual change in bill form only caused a temporary loss of feeding efficiency. It is concluded that differences in bill length influence prey choice and feeding method and hence induce different bill forms. Age- and sex-dependent differences in bill length and form, together with the ability of the individual to adapt bill form and feeding behaviour, enable the oystercatcher to lessen interspecific competition and to respond to changing environmental conditions.

Swennen, C.; De Bruijn, L. L. M.; Duiven, P.; Leopold, M. F.; Marteijn, E. C. L.

389

Primary stability of press-fit-implanted osteochondral grafts. Influence of graft size, repeated insertion, and harvesting technique.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fixation strength of press-fit-implanted osteochondral grafts with respect to graft size (length and diameter), the effect of repeated insertion after pullout, and harvesting technique. Experiments were performed using the Osteochondral Autograft Transfer System on porcine femoral condyles. Failure loads of 10-mm-long grafts (mean, 47 N) were significantly lower than failure loads of 15-mm-long grafts (mean, 93 N) and 20-mm-long grafts (mean, 110 N) (all grafts, 11 mm in diameter). Reinsertion of the 15-mm-long grafts after initial pullout resulted in a significant reduction of failure loads (mean, 93 N versus 44 N). Failure loads of 8-mm-diameter grafts (mean, 41 N) were significantly lower than those of 11-mm-diameter grafts (mean, 92 N) (all 15 mm long). Levering of the tubular chisel during graft harvest significantly decreased press-fit stability as compared with simple turning of the chisel (mean, 32 N versus 52 N) (8-mm diameter and 15-mm length). These results suggest that primary fixation strength of press-fit-inserted osteochondral grafts depends on the size of the grafts and that repeated pullout and reinsertion of grafts as well as a nonoptimal harvesting technique (levering) will reduce primary stability. PMID:10653539

Duchow, J; Hess, T; Kohn, D

2000-01-01

390

Powder-Collection System for Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for collecting samples of powdered rock has been devised for use in conjunction with an ultrasonic/sonic drill/corer (USDC) -- a lightweight, lowpower apparatus designed to cut into, and acquire samples of, rock or other hard material for scientific analysis. The USDC includes a drill bit, corer, or other tool bit, in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are excited by an electronically driven piezoelectric actuator. The USDC advances into the rock or other material of interest by means of a hammering action and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, a negligible amount of axial force is needed to make the USDC advance into the material. Also unlike a conventional twist drill, the USDC operates without need for torsional restraint, lubricant, or a sharp bit. The USDC generates powder as a byproduct of the drilling or coring process. The purpose served by the present samplecollection system is to remove the powder from the tool-bit/rock interface and deliver the powder to one or more designated location(s) for analysis or storage

Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Blake, David; Bryson, Charles

2005-01-01

391

Cascading effect of economic globalization on human risks of scrub typhus and tick-borne rickettsial diseases.  

PubMed

The increase in global travel and trade has facilitated the dissemination of disease vectors. Globalization can also indirectly affect vector-borne diseases through the liberalization of cross-border trade, which has far-reaching, worldwide effects on agricultural practices and may in turn influence vectors through the modification of the ecological landscape. While the cascading effect of economic globalization on vector-borne diseases, sometimes acting synergistically with regional agricultural policy, could be substantial and have significant economic, agricultural, and public health implications, research into this remains very limited. We evaluated how abandonment of rice paddies in Taiwan after joining the World Trade Organization, along with periodic plowing, an agricultural policy to reduce farm pests in abandoned fields can unexpectedly influence risks to diseases transmitted by ticks and chiggers (larval trombiculid mites), which we collected from their small-mammal hosts. Sampling was limited to abandoned (fallow) and plowed fields due to the challenge of trapping small mammals in flooded rice paddies. Striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) are the main hosts for both vectors. They harbored six times more ticks and three times more chiggers in fallow than in plowed plots. The proportion of ticks infected with Rickettsia spp. (etiologic agent of spotted fever) was three times higher in fallow plots, while that of Orientia tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus) in chiggers was similar in both treatments. Fallow plots had more ground cover and higher vegetation than plowed ones. Moreover, ticks and chiggers in both field types were dominated by species known to infest humans. Because ticks and chiggers should exhibit very low survival in flooded rice paddies, we propose that farm abandonment in Taiwan, driven by globalization, may have inadvertently led to increased risks of spotted fever and scrub typhus. However, periodic plowing can unintentionally mitigate vector burdens. Economic globalization can have unexpected consequences on disease risk through modification of the agricultural landscape, but the outcome may also be influenced by agricultural policies, calling for further research on vector-borne diseases and their control from broader perspectives. PMID:23092017

Kuo, Chi-Chien; Huang, Jing-Lun; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lee, Pei-Lung; Kelt, Douglas A; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

2012-09-01

392

Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring water levels and movement was much weaker for young females than for adults. 7. Young female diving ducks exhibited much stronger (compared to adults) asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water locations than away from these locations. 8. Local survival of day-old ducklings during the first year of life was time-specific and very low (means for different strata/states 0?01-0?08) because of high rates of emigration and prefledging mortality.

Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

2003-01-01

393

The Use of Soil in Criminal Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic soil science, as a newly developed discipline of soil science, has matured to the extent that well-defined questions and successful crime scene investigations are being addressed in increasingly refined ways to assist law enforcement agencies. Soils, rocks, regolith, minerals and man-made mineral particles such as bricks (i.e. referred to "human-made" soil materials) are being used in specialised forensic investigations to associate/disassociate a sample taken from an item, such as shoes, clothing, shovel or vehicle, with a specific location. The majority of forensic cases involving soil materials are usually overwhelmingly complex, and the challenges of associating relevant information from one source with another, often requires the use and development of sophisticated field and laboratory methods. Through examples from case studies, this presentation will demonstrate how advanced field and laboratory approaches have been critical in developing coherent, predictive, soil models, from landscape to microscopic scales, to help contribute to soil-based criminal investigations in both Australia and Scotland. To demonstrate the critical importance of soil materials in forensic investigations, the following 2 case studies, which tackle difficult problems at a range of scales involving highly complex issues, will be presented: •The use of soil evidence to help solve a double murder case. This investigation used morphological, chemical, physical and mineralogical properties to identify similarities between soil-regolith found on a shovel taken from the suspect's vehicle and wetland soil-regolith subsequently located in the bottom of a quarry (Fitzpatrick and Raven, 2012). •The use of soil and related material to help search and to provide evidence in a murder case. This investigation used soil mineralogical and organic properties to identify similarities between sand found on a shovel and sand subsequently located at a beach. Results illustrate the benefit of using a complementary approach and consideration of the two way transfer of materials (Dawson and Hillier, 2010). References Fitzpatrick R.W. and Raven M.D. (2012) How Pedology and mineralogy helped solve a double murder case: Using forensics to inspire future generations of soil scientists. Soil Horizons. 53 (5) doi:10.2136/sh12-05-0016. Dawson, L.A. Hillier, S. (2010) Measurement of soil characteristics for forensic applications. Surface and Interface Analysis, 42, 363-377.

Dawson, Lorna; Fitzpatrick, Robert

2013-04-01

394

Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual and flyway differences in remigial measurements and reduced performance of age classification models as evidence of high variability in size of blue-winged ducks' remiges. Variability in remigial size of these and other small-bodied waterfowl may be related to nutrition during molt.

Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, J.G.; Logerwell, E.

1995-01-01

395

Effects of management of ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes in grassland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grasslands represent a large land-use footprint and have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for land managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack robust understanding of C sequestration in grasslands. Previous research has shown that management approaches such as organic amendments or vertical subsoiling can lead to larger soil C pools. These management approaches can both directly and indirectly affect soil C pools. We used well-replicated field experiments to explore the effects of these management strategies on ecosystem C pools and fluxes in two bioclimatic regions of California (Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) and Nicasio Ranch). Our treatments included an untreated control, compost amendments, plowed (vertical subsoil), and compost + plow. The experiment was conducted over two years allowing us to compare dry (360 mm) and average (632 mm) rainfall conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured weekly using a LI-8100 infrared gas analyzer. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured monthly using static flux chambers. Aboveground and belowground biomass were measured at the end of the growing season as an index of net primary productivity (NPP) in the annual plant dominated system. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously and averaged on hourly and daily timescales. Soil organic C and N concentrations were measured prior to the application of management treatments and at the ends of each growing season. Soils were collected to a 10 cm depth in year one and at four depth increments (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm) in year two. Soil C and N concentrations were converted to content using bulk density values for each plot. During both growing seasons, soil respiration rates were higher in the composted plots and lower in the plowed plots relative to controls at both sites. The effects on C loss via soil respiration were stronger in the first year, with compost soils experiencing a 21 ± 1 % greater cumulative loss at SFREC and 16 ± 3 % more at Nicasio. The second year showed a similar trend, but with a lower magnitude loss. Aboveground NPP responded positively to compost additions and negatively to plowing at both sites. At SFREC, we measured 58 % more ANPP in composted relative to control plots in year one (369 vs 230 g C/m2) and 56 % more in year two (327 vs 209 g C/m2). Aboveground NPP on plowed plots was 129 g C/m2 in year one, and 185 g C/m2 in year two. Plowed soils also showed a significant decline in soil C and N concentrations (C= 2.67 ± 0.13%, N = 0.20 ± 0.01%). Compost additions increased soil C and N concentrations (C= 3.92 ± 0.29%, N = 0.32 ± 0.02%) relative to control soils (C= 3.52 ± 0.20%, N = 0.27 ± 0.07%). Throughout the experiment, we did not detect significant treatment differences in CH4 or N2O fluxes, nor did we detect significant differences at any individual sampling point. These results suggest that compost addition can lead to an increase in ecosystem C storage, with a small offset from elevated soil respiration.

Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

2010-12-01

396

Transformation and sorption of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine in two soils: a short-term batch study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide use of veterinary antibiotics poses a continuous threat to the environment. There is, however, a lack of mechanistic studies on sorption and transformation processes for environmental assessment in soils. Two-weeks batch sorption experiments were performed with the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the plow layer and the subsoil of a loamy sand and a silty loam. The sorption and transformation parameters of SDZ and its main transformation products N1-2-(4-hydroxypyrimidinyl) benzenesulfanilamide (4-OH-SDZ) and 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-aniline (An-SDZ) were estimated using a global optimization algorithm. A two-stage, one-rate kinetic sorption model combined with a first-order transformation model adequately described the batch data. Sorption of SDZ was nonlinear (Freundlich), time-dependent, and affected by pH (speciation), with a higher sorption capacity for the loamy sand. Transformation of SDZ into 4-OH-SDZ occurred only in the liquid phase, with half-life values of about 1 month in the plow layers and about 6 months in the subsoils. Both the faster transformation rate in the plow layer compared to the subsoil and negligible transformation in the solid phase point to a microbial process for the formation of 4-OH-SDZ. Under the exclusion of light, An-SDZ was formed in substantial amounts in the silty loam only, with liquid phase half-life values of about 2 to 3 weeks. Despite the rather large parameter uncertainties, which may be reduced after the inclusion of additional information obtained from sequential solid phase extraction, the proposed method allows us to quantify and predict the fate of antibiotics in soils.

Kasteel, Roy; Mboh, Cho; Unold, Myriam; Groeneweg, Joost; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

2010-05-01

397

Soil radiocesium distribution in rice fields disturbed by farming process after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.  

PubMed

A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent large tsunami hit the northeastern coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. This resulted in serious damage to the reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. Large amounts of radionuclides were released from the FDNPP, a proportion of which were deposited onto the ground. In this study, we investigated soil radiocesium contamination of rice fields in Aga and Minamiuonuma, Niigata, ~130 and 200 km away from the FDNPP, respectively, as Niigata is one of the largest rice growing regions in Japan. Soil samples were collected from the plow layer of five rice fields in August and September, 5-6 months after the FDNPP accident. Results showed that radiocesium concentrations (the sum of Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the rice soil samples were ~300 Bq (kg dry soil)(-1). All samples contained a Cs-134/Cs-137 activity ratio of 0.68-0.96 after correction to March 11, 2011, showing that the radiocesium released from the FDNPP were deposited on these areas. Although the rice fields had been disturbed by farming processes after the FDNPP accident, the depth distribution of radiocesium concentrations in the plow layers showed higher concentrations in the upper soil layers. This suggests that spring tillage, flooding and puddling performed before rice transplantation may not disperse radiocesium deposited on the surface through the whole plow layer. In addition, the planar distribution of radiocesium concentrations was examined near the water inlet in one of the rice fields. Highest activities were found aligned with the direction of irrigation water discharge, indicating that radioactivity levels in rice fields may be elevated by an influx of additional radionuclides, probably in irrigation water, during farming. PMID:23000550

Harada, Naoki; Nonaka, Masanori

2012-11-01

398

Effects of Different Tillage and Straw Return on Soil Organic Carbon in a Rice-Wheat Rotation System  

PubMed Central

Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0–7, 7–14 and 14–21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0–7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7–14 cm depth. However, at 14–21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:24586434

Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

2014-01-01

399

Longwall mining of thin seams  

SciTech Connect

Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

Curth, E A

1981-01-01

400

Cross-site soil microbial communities under tillage regimes: fungistasis and microbial biomarkers.  

PubMed

The exploitation of soil ecosystem services by agricultural management strategies requires knowledge of microbial communities in different management regimes. Crop cover by no-till management protects the soil surface, reducing the risk of erosion and nutrient leaching, but might increase straw residue-borne and soilborne plant-pathogenic fungi. A cross-site study of soil microbial communities and Fusarium fungistasis was conducted on six long-term agricultural fields with no-till and moldboard-plowed treatments. Microbial communities were studied at the topsoil surface (0 to 5 cm) and bottom (10 to 20 cm) by general bacterial and actinobacterial terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses. Fusarium culmorum soil fungistasis describing soil receptivity to plant-pathogenic fungi was explored by using the surface layer method. Soil depth had a significant impact on general bacterial as well as actinobacterial communities and PLFA profiles in no-till treatment, with a clear spatial distinction of communities (P < 0.05), whereas the depth-related separation of microbial communities was not observed in plowed fields. The fungal biomass was higher in no-till surface soil than in plowed soil (P < 0.07). Soil total microbial biomass and fungal biomass correlated with fungistasis (P < 0.02 for the sum of PLFAs; P < 0.001 for PLFA 18:2?6). Our cross-site study demonstrated that agricultural management strategies can have a major impact on soil microbial community structures, indicating that it is possible to influence the soil processes with management decisions. The interactions between plant-pathogenic fungi and soil microbial communities are multifaceted, and a high level of fungistasis could be linked to the high microbial biomass in soil but not to the specific management strategy. PMID:22983972

Sipilä, Timo P; Yrjälä, Kim; Alakukku, Laura; Palojärvi, Ansa

2012-12-01

401

[Modeling the Cd accumulation in agricultural soil irrigated with reclaimed water].  

PubMed

Recent years, soil pollution of heavy metal has affected human life seriously, especially in farmland. Heavy metal pollution in farmland is mainly caused by irrigation, fertilizing and atmospheric fallout. As the character of heavy metal input in farmland is chronic and low dosage, application of model would be more suitable than routine methods to illustrate the dynamic changes of heavy metals in soil. In this paper, we use the model of STEM-profile to analyze and predict Cd pollution in farmland in Tongzhou, Beijing, based on the data from field survey. The results showed that: the concentration of Cd in this land would exceed the national soil environment standard after 100 years under current situations, reaching 0.866 mg x kg(-1) in plow layer. Studies of the influence of the amount and the form of inputs and the amount of irrigation water on the distribution of Cd in soil showed that irrigated with reclaimed water or fertilized with organic manure could lead to accumulation of Cd in the soil, while groundwater irrigation with inorganic fertilization would not cause accumulation of Cd in soil. When Cd inputs changed from mineral to organic form, the concentration of Cd in plow layer would be 0.943 mg x kg(-1) after 100 year. When the amount of irrigation water increased from 0.8 ET to 1.5 ET and to 2.0 ET, the plow layer Cd content would be 0.952, 0.784 and 0.638 mg x kg(-1) respectively. PMID:23379131

Zhao, Zhong-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

402

Post-fire hydrologic response in Central Portugal. A four years study at microplot scale.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are a natural phenomenon in regions with a Mediterranean-type climate. However, their present-day widespread occurrence in southern Europe is unprecedented and strongly reflects human activity such as ignition, land-use changes, land abandonment and introduction of highly flammable plantations. Besides wildfires, post-fire management practices such as plowing, terracing, clearcutting and logging should also be considered, since their occurrence is getting increasingly common. And, in a long-term period these practices seem to be executed intercalated with repeated fire occurrences in the same site, sharing the impacts together with fire in an escalated degradational effect. In this sense, the work presented here concerns four years of runoff and erosion data at microplot scale after the wildfire, comparing different land management practices that occurred before the fire. Preliminary results indicate that in four years of monitoring, runoff is constantly higher in plowed sites than in the unplowed ones, with the exception of the first year. Regarding soil losses the plowed plots present always higher sediment rates than the unplowed ones. The comparison between two unplowed sites with different land uses, indicate higher runoff and erosion risk for pine comparatively to the eucalypt ones, however the reduced soil depth in the first can have an important role in these differences. Following these facts, the aim of the present work is to answer the following research questions: i) Do these four years of observations fit with the window of disturbance model presented by Prosser and Williams (1998). or the alternative version by Wittenberg and Inbar (2009)?; ii) Does pre-fire disturbances (wildfire, land use changes and land management practices) still have repercussions after wildfire?; In what sense does four years of intensive monitoring provides that one year couldn't provide?

Vieira, Diana; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; Machado, Ana; Nunes, João; Keizer, Jacob

2014-05-01

403

Study of Internal Dump Stability of Dudhichua Open Cast Project, Northern Coalfields Limited, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dudhichua Open Cast Project is one of the prestigious projects of Northern Coalfields Limited, India; with total mineable coal reserves of approximately 400 million tonnes and corresponding 1,700 million m3 volume of waste rock i.e. overburden material. Accommodating this waste dump masses in the limited space of the de-coaled portion of the quarry is considered as one of the major challenges to the mine operators. It has been reported that this mine is facing frequent slope failures of waste rock dumps which is of great concern to the mine management in view of unsafe working condition. To tackle the above problem, a detailed investigation was carried out to propose a stable dump profile which will cater to the land economics and safety aspects of the mine. A detailed investigation along with recommendation of optimum design for dragline dump profile along with shovel-dumper-dump profile is presented in this paper.

Sengupta, S.; Roy, I.

2015-01-01

404

Noise exposure profile among heavy equipment operators, associated laborers, and crane operators.  

PubMed

This study, conducted in 1987 and 1988, has made it possible to quantify exposure to noise among heavy equipment operators, associated laborers, and crane operators. The average daily noise exposure was 84 to 99 dBA for heavy equipment, 90 dBA for the laborer, and 74 to 97 dBA for the crane operator. The main sources of noise to which heavy equipment operators are exposed are vehicle engines and the muffler exhaust system, usually located near the operator. The presence of insulated cabs such as those found on power shovels, backhoes, wheel loaders, and graders help reduce noise exposure. The type of tasks carried out by the laborers, the sources of noise from heavy equipment around which they work, and the manual equipment they use determine the noise levels to which such workers are exposed. In the case of crane operators, an insulated cab significantly reduces the operator's exposure to engine noise. PMID:9830084

Legris, M; Poulin, P

1998-11-01

405

Revealing the Hidden Value that the Federal Investment Tax Credit and Treasury Cash Grant Provide To Community Wind Projects  

SciTech Connect

Although the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 has slowed wind power development in general, the crisis has, in several respects, been a blessing in disguise for community wind project development in the United States. For xample, the crisis-induced slowdown in the broader commercial wind market has, for the first time since 2004, created slack in the supply chain, creating an opportunity for shovel-ready community wind projects to finally proceed towards onstruction. Many such projects had been forced to wait on the sidelines as the commercial wind boom of 2005-2008 consumed virtually all available resources needed to complete a wind project (e.g., turbines, cranes, contractors).

Bolinger, Mark A.

2009-12-14

406

KSC-03PD-0578  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- -- Lifting their shovels for the groundbreaking of the Operations Support Building II are (left to right) Bill Pickavance, Vice President & Deputy Program Manager Florida Operations, United Space Alliance; Mike Wetmore, director of Shuttle Processing; Miguel Morales, chief, Facilities Division, Spaceport Services; Mike Sumner, chief of operations, Spaceport Services; David Wolfberg, designer of the facility, with Architect and Engineers Wolfberg, Alvarez and Partners of Coral Gables; Roy Bridges, KSC director; and Don Minderman, OSB II project manager, Spaceport Services. Not shown: David Boland, David Boland Inc.(construction company). The new building will replace modular housing constructed more than 20 years ago and house NASA and contractor support staff for shuttle operations. The demolition of the modular buildings has begun and construction will immediately follow. The new structure is projected to be ready in April 2005.

2003-01-01

407

T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones  

SciTech Connect

There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

Kline, H.M. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K. (Martin Marietta Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States). Aero and Naval Systems)

1993-01-01

408

T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones. Transuranic storage area-retrieval enclosure program  

SciTech Connect

There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

Kline, H.M. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K. [Martin Marietta Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States). Aero and Naval Systems

1993-04-01

409

Waterfowl ecology and avian influenza in california: Do host traits inform us about viral occurrence?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined whether host traits influenced the occurrence of avian influenza virus (AIV) in Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans) at wintering sites in California's Central Valley. In total, 3487 individuals were sampled at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge and Conaway Ranch Duck Club during the hunting season of 2007-08. Of the 19 Anatidae species sampled, prevalence was highest in the northern shoveler (5.09%), followed by the ring-necked duck (2.63%), American wigeon (2.57%), bufflehead (2.50%), greater white-fronted goose (2.44%), and cinnamon teal (1.72%). Among host traits, density of lamellae (filtering plates) of dabbling ducks was significantly associated with AIV prevalence and the number of subtypes shed by the host, suggesting that feeding methods may influence exposure to viral particles. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

Hill, N.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Cardona, C.J.; Ackerman, J.T.; Schultz, A.K.; Spragens, K.A.; Boyce, W.M.

2010-01-01

410

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Hydraulic Properties in the Russian River Streambed, Central Sonoma, County, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal and spatial variations of flux and vertical hydraulic conductivity were measured in the Russian River streambed in Sonoma County, California. In-situ vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements were made using a modified seepage meter, equipped with mini-piezometers and sediment was collected with a bucket and shovel. We sampled three different streambed (near bank, midpoint, and thalweg) locations at five different sample locales throughout the river system. Vertical hydraulic conductivity of the streambed ranged from 8.55X10-5 cm/sec to 1.52X10-1 cm/sec. Flux varied from -240 to 600 cm/day, which indicates both gaining and losing reaches of the stream occur in our study area. There was not a strong correlation (r=0.08) between particle size distribution and vertical hydraulic conductivity. Our findings will assist the Sonoma County Water Agency in managing water needs for the citizens of Sonoma County.

Laforce, M.; Gorman, P.; Constantz, J.

2004-12-01

411

Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Impairment in a Patient with Hypothyroidism: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 33-year-old male with hypothyroidism who developed acute renal impairment with rhabdomyolysis after strenuous physical activity (snow shoveling). His thyroid function test confirmed marked hypothyroidism. Severe elevation of serum CK consistent with rhabdomyolysis was noted and an elevated creatinine indicated acute renal impairment. Patient's condition improved significantly after starting him on thyroid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive hydration. Acute renal impairment with rhabdomyolysis in patients with hypothyroidism is quite rare and we expect that this case report adds to the existing literature on this subject. We also emphasize that thyroid status should be evaluated in patients with unexplained acute renal impairment and presenting with the symptoms of muscle involvement. PMID:24822067

Issa, Mayada

2014-01-01

412

Epizootiological features of avian cholera on the north coast of California.  

PubMed

An avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) epizootic was observed among wildfowl at the Centerville Gun Club, Humboldt County, California (USA) in January 1978. Compared to their live populations and use of the area, coots (Fulica americana) died in proportionately greater numbers than any other species. Coots collected by gunshot were evaluated for sex and age composition, and morphometry from November 1977 through mid-January 1978 at this site. There was no substantial difference in the sex, age or morphometry between birds dying of avian cholera and from those dying from gunshot. Assuming coots dying of gunshot are representative of the general population, it appears there was little selection among coots by P. multocida. There was evidence for a sequential mortality similar to that reported previously at this site: coots were the first birds to die, followed by American wigeon (Anas americana) and northern pintails (A. acuta acuta); northern shovelers (A. clypeata) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) died late in the epizootic. PMID:2716104

Mensik, J G; Botzler, R G

1989-04-01

413

Correlations of daily activity with avian cholera mortality among wildfowl.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that wildfowl activities can influence the risk of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida infection) for susceptible birds at Centerville, Humboldt County, California (USA). Avian cholera mortality characteristics from past epizootics were correlated with variations in flock size, habitat use and 11 feeding and nonfeeding behaviors among six empirically defined groups of wildfowl: American coots (Fulica americana), tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus), American wigeon (Anas americana), northern pintails (A. acuta), northern shovelers (A. clypeata)/mallards (A. platyrhynchos), and teal (A. discors, A. crecca, A. cyanoptera). The position of these wildfowl groups in past mortality sequences was directly correlated with mean flock size, time spent on land, and time spent grazing on land or in shallow water. We propose that variations in bird density, habitat use and frequency of grazing may serve as predisposing factors to avian cholera among wildfowl. PMID:1758019

Combs, S M; Botzler, R G

1991-10-01

414

Later Middle Pleistocene human remains from the Almonda Karstic system, Torres Novas, Portugal.  

PubMed

Later Middle Pleistocene archeological deposits of the Galeria Pesada (Gruta da Aroeira), Almonda Karstic System, Torres Novas, Portugal, yielded two archaic human teeth, a mandibular canine and a maxillary third molar. The C(1)presents moderate and asymmetrical shoveling with a stout root. The slightly worn M(3)exhibits at least four cusps with a large hypocone, three roots with large radicular plates, and an absence of taurodontism. They are moderately large for later Middle Pleistocene humans in their buccolingual crown diameters, although the M(3)mesiodistal diameter is modest. The C(1)exhibits labial calculus and multiple linear hypoplastic defects, but the M(3)is lesion free. Both teeth are morphologically similar to those of other Middle Pleistocene European humans and reinforce a pattern of dental hypertrophy among these archaic Homo. PMID:14580591

Trinkaus, Erik; Marks, Anthony E; Brugal, Jean Philip; Bailey, Shara E; Rink, W Jack; Richter, Daniel

2003-09-01

415

Study of Internal Dump Stability of Dudhichua Open Cast Project, Northern Coalfields Limited, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dudhichua Open Cast Project is one of the prestigious projects of Northern Coalfields Limited, India; with total mineable coal reserves of approximately 400 million tonnes and corresponding 1,700 million m3 volume of waste rock i.e. overburden material. Accommodating this waste dump masses in the limited space of the de-coaled portion of the quarry is considered as one of the major challenges to the mine operators. It has been reported that this mine is facing frequent slope failures of waste rock dumps which is of great concern to the mine management in view of unsafe working condition. To tackle the above problem, a detailed investigation was carried out to propose a stable dump profile which will cater to the land economics and safety aspects of the mine. A detailed investigation along with recommendation of optimum design for dragline dump profile along with shovel-dumper-dump profile is presented in this paper.

Sengupta, S.; Roy, I.

2015-04-01

416

Mortality of waterfowl on a hypersaline wetland as a result of salt encrustation  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 300 geese, primarily lesser Canada geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) were found unable to fly or dead on a small hypersaline lake (conductivity 77,000-90,000 mumhos/cm) in western Saskatchewan in September 1985. The birds were heavily encrusted with sodium sulfate crystals. Dead birds that were necropsied had aspirated lake water and had evidence of acute muscle degeneration. The live geese (155) were captured and moved to nearby freshwater wetlands where most apparently survived. Some birds died of severe myopathy after translocation. Five northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) were found encrusted with salt and unable to fly on the lake approximately 10 days later. Salt encrustation apparently occurred when rapid cooling of the lake resulted in supersaturation and crystallization of the dissolved salt. A local resident recalled similar events occurring on the lake in autumn on at least two other occasions during the past 50 yr.

Wobeser, G.; Howard, J.

1987-01-01

417

Avian influenza in wild waterfowl and shorebirds in the Donana National Park: Serological survey using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed

The indirect ELISA was used to detect antibodies to influenzavirus A in the sera of wildfowl from the Donana National Park. Of the 712 birds examined, 44 (6.2%) were seropositive. Positive birds belonged to 10 of the 13 species studied. Infection rates varied widely: spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, 32.2%), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, 9.9%), gadwall (Anas strepera, 8.6%), red-crested pochard (Netta rufina, 8.1%), pochard (Aythya ferina, 6.4%), shoveler (Anas clypeata, 5%), great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus, 4.3%), avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta, 3.1%), grey heron (Ardea cinerea, 3.1%) and coot (Fulica atra, 0.8%). Although infection rates were not high, the wide range of avian species susceptible to influenzavirus A suggests circulation of the virus amongst wildfowl at Donana. PMID:18671098

Astorga, R J; Leon, L; Cubero, M J; Arenas, A; Maldonado, A; Tarradas, M C; Perea, A

1994-06-01

418

Mortality of waterfowl on a hypersaline wetland as a result of salt encrustation.  

PubMed

Approximately 300 geese, primarily lesser Canada geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) were found unable to fly or dead on a small hypersaline lake (conductivity 77,000-90,000 mumhos/cm) in western Saskatchewan in September 1985. The birds were heavily encrusted with sodium sulfate crystals. Dead birds that were necropsied had aspirated lake water and had evidence of acute muscle degeneration. The live geese (155) were captured and moved to nearby freshwater wetlands where most apparently survived. Some birds died of severe myopathy after translocation. Five northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) were found encrusted with salt and unable to fly on the lake approximately 10 days later. Salt encrustation apparently occurred when rapid cooling of the lake resulted in supersaturation and crystallization of the dissolved salt. A local resident recalled similar events occurring on the lake in autumn on at least two other occasions during the past 50 yr. PMID:3820414

Wobeser, G; Howard, J

1987-01-01

419

Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.  

PubMed

Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control. PMID:17365634

Randler, Christoph

2007-03-01

420

Peach Growing in Texas.  

E-print Network

of cultivation is considerably greater on account of having to use the bull-tongue or sweep, or some such im- plement instead of the disc and spike-tooth harrow. Some of the largest orchards in the state have to be cultivated with a turning plow on account... from the firs vember until he middle of March. From experience on the grounds and observation at many points in the fruit belt, I bd~lsfied that the best time to plant the peach tree in Texas is during the month of December. Planting during...

Kyle, E. J. (Edwin Jackson)

1905-01-01

421

The Way of Grace  

E-print Network

straight whiskey, so I didn’t think for long. I took the money and immediately lost it all on number seven, Bob Barker’s Baby, who slipped in a puddle and whined while the other dogs ran right over him. 6 Larry was my neighbor when I lived... at a twenty-foot by twenty-foot patch of flat sand. Emily rolled her eyes. There were little ridges running lengthwise in the sand, like it had been plowed by a tiny tractor. It was mostly solid to the touch, but Kurt put his finger in it and began...

Petterson, Mark Robert

2012-05-31

422

Radiation Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radiation Balance challenges students to "become a meteorologist" and make predictions about the relationships among ground cover, time of day, altitude and temperature. It is a simulation of radiation processes in the earth's atmosphere caused by solar, terrestrial, and atmospheric radiation transfer. Students analyze temperature data measured by a balloon (radiosonde) that they "launch" both in the morning and evening over four types of terrain (sand, plowed field, grass or fresh snow). As the balloon is dragged and dropped to various heights in the simulated atmosphere, the temperatures at these altitudes are automatically plotted on a graph. Several temperature profiles may be plotted concurrently to compare differences before clearing the graph.

423

Prediction of soil loss with the CREAMS model  

SciTech Connect

Variations in soil loss as a function of certain land use and land management practices were investigated on a small watershed in the Texas Panhandle using CREAMS, a recently developed computer model capable of simulating dynamic rainfall, runoff, and erosion processes over the time-frame of decades. Simulations of different curve numbers, three types of cropping, and varying crop yield and plowing practices were made to determine the sensitivity of soil loss to these parameters. Comparisons were made to actual in-field measurements of soil loss on experimental plots. 8 references, 3 figures.

Becker, N.M.

1984-07-24

424

Self-revegetation of disturbed ground in the deserts of Nevada and Washington  

SciTech Connect

Plant cover established without purposeful soil preparation or seeding was measured on ground disturbed by plowing in Washington and by aboveground nuclear explosions in Nevada. After a time lapse of three decades in Washington and two decades in Nevada, fewer species were self-established on the disturbed ground than the nearby undisturbed ground. Alien annual plants were the dominants on the disturbed ground. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominated abandoned fields in Washington, and filaree (Erodium cicutarium) dominated disturbed ground in Nevada. Perennial grasses and shrubs appeared to be more successful as invaders in Nevada than in Washington. This distinction is attributed to the superior competitive ability of cheatgrass in Washington.

Rickard, W.H.; Sauer, R.H.

1982-01-01

425

Impact of conservation agriculture on harnessing sustainability and building resilience against land degradation in the northern Ethiopian highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation Agriculture (CA) aims at improving soil quality and crop yield whilst reducing runoff and topsoil erosion which raises the soil resilience to combat soil degradation. Different chemical, physical, and biological properties of a soil interact in complex ways that determine the crop productivity potential of the soil. Hence, a medium-term tillage experiment was carried out (2005 to 2011) on a Vertisol to evaluate changes in soil quality, runoff and soil loss due to CA-based field conservation practices in northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was implemented in a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, plowed once at planting by refreshing the furrow and with 30% standing crop residue retention, terwah+ (TER+) with plowing once at planting with 30% standing crop residue retention and contour furrows made at 1.5 m distance interval, and conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three tillage operations and removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plow mahresha. Local crop rotation practices followed during the seven years sequentially from the first to the seventh year included wheat-teff-wheat-barley-wheat-teff-grass pea. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weed in DER+ and TER+. Significantly different (p<0.05) mean runoff coefficients (%) in 7-yrs of 13, 20 and 27 were recorded for DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Mean soil losses of 7-yrs were 4.4, 12.5 and 18 t ha-1 y-1 in DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Among the several assessed soil properties, SOM, N, P, soil microbial biomass carbon, aggregate stability index, consistency index, cone index, air capacity and macroporosity were shown to significantly increase in soils subjected to DER+ planting system compared to CT, specifically at 0-10 cm depth. Aggregate instability index, crack size at harvest, relative water capacity and plastic limit were significantly larger in CT compared to CA treatments. Adoption of improved local practices of DER+ and TER+ planting systems that employ conservation agriculture principles can reduce runoff, soil loss and improve crop yield and soil quality and thus, sustainability in Vertisols. Keywords: Soil resilience, Vertisol, conservation agriculture, field conservation practices, soil quality

Araya, Tesfay; Cornelis, Wim M.; Govaerts, Bram; Bauer, Hans; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

2013-04-01

426

Cropping management using color and color infrared aerial photographs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. Solving this equation yields the long-term average annual soil loss that can be expected from rill and inter-rill erosion. In this study, manual interpretation of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at the scale of 1:60,000 is used to determine the cropping management factor in the USLE. Accurate information was collected about plowing practices and crop residue cover (unharvested vegetation) for the winter season on agricultural land in Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

1979-01-01

427

Growing Blackberries In Texas.  

E-print Network

economically in berry plant- ing~ is a spring tooth harrow with depth control. The mold board plow often is used in small opera- tions where tractor equipment is not available. The disk harrow that can be regulated by the power lift on a tractor can... be used to an ad- vantage; otherwise, it should not be used since the lack of depth control permits it to cut many large feeder roots. One man with tractor equipment should be able to do all the cultivation required for 100 acres of berries each...

Morris, H. F.; Garner, C. F.; Hancock, Bluefford; Smith, Harlan

1962-01-01

428

The Shelterbelt Project: a study of tree planting on the Great Plains, 1934-1942  

E-print Network

. It was discovered that honey locust, Russian Olive, red cedar, and Siberian pea tree were the most desirable shelterbelt trees. Experiments also involved 42 the spacing, location, and size of windbreaks. Research had also begun in 1913, at the Northern Great... be coated with red mud from Oklahoma dust in the 1 air. When farmers settled on the Great Plains, their plow- ing disrupted nature's carefully designed system. As com- pensation for the lack of trees in this region, erosion re- sistant sods had evolved...

Hilkemann, Virginia Violet

1978-01-01

429

Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton.  

E-print Network

only, the cowpeas receiving the residual effects of the fertilizer. The cowpeas have been harvested for seed and the vines plowed under for soil improvement. The average annual rainfall at Nacogdoehes during the 19 years, 1913 to 1931, inclusive... were not fertilized but received the.residual effects of the fertilizer. The average rainfall at Angleton for the 18 years, 1914 to 1931, inclu- sive, was 45.31 inches. The rainfall in 1930 and in 1931 was 43.16 and 40.18 inches, respectively. 16...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1932-01-01

430

Using a Stream Table to Investigate Erosion Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will introduce students to water-induced topsoil erosion and different ways to control it. Using a stream table (prepared by the teacher), they will vary the surface of the 'soil', and the height of the table, pour in water, and observe sheet, rill, and gully erosion. They can also investigate the effects of check dams (by plugging gullies with pebbles), observe the results of contour plowing, and test the effectiveness of different types of mulch (straw, shredded paper, pine needles, etc.) in preventing erosion. Instructions for constructing a stream table, a student worksheet, and discussion questions are provided.

2005-10-06

431

Brush Management Effects on Deer Habits  

E-print Network

and there are alternate food sources to sus- tain the deer herd when forbs are not present. Under proper environmental con- ditions, chaining is an effective method of knocking down, uproot- ing, and thinning moderate to dense stands of large woody species. Like root... production most years. Chaining may also result in ex- tremely dense stands of prick- Iypear. A stacker rake must be used (prior to plowing and after chaining) to avoid this problem. Pricklypear is an important food plant for deer, especially during...

Richardson, Calvin

1999-02-04

432

Characteristics of countercurrent vapor-liquid flow at a perforated plate  

E-print Network

CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNTERCURRENT VAPOR-LIQUID FLOW AT A PERFORATED PLATE A Thesis by ~mr?~ a( 64(. lt'o~ (SAM) SUTHERLAND, JR. Subm1tted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechan1cal College of Texas 1n partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE ~Zanusr19%8, MaJor subJect: Chemical Eng1neering CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNTERCURRENT VAPOR-LIQUID PLOW AT A PERFORATED PLATE A Thesis by SAN SUTHERLAND, JR. Approved as to style and content by: C a rman o...

Sutherland, Samuel Shelton

1958-01-01

433

Effects of conservation tillage and conventional tillage on selected physical and chemical properties of a Blackland Praire soil in Texas  

E-print Network

was in the row. Under no-tillage& moist bulk density values were similar in both furrow track and furrow no-track, and these values were greater than those in the rows. Prior to planting in spring 1989, when the conventionally tilled plots had been plowed... and grain sorghum, than in conventionally tilled plots (personal communication with B. L. Harris, Extension Soils Specialist). Also, during the last few years, lower corn and sorghum yields were recorded under no-tillage than under conventional tillage...

Mella, Welhelmus Isak Imanuel

1991-01-01

434

The Tibetan Tradition of Geography  

E-print Network

of Tibet and bordering art·as. The passport (lam-..v(f!,) type, although in­ volving international pilgrimage particularly to a Buddhist paradise) is adequately substarltiated in the pbic traditlun ; but the global-description (go-la'i kha-~vang ) e... passage: .' ...... [ in South America]. ..... due to the excessive warmth, there are many kinds of fruits and many kinds of crops ( obtained) without plowing, such as ma-kai (maize). Since there are a great many birds, such as domesticated fowls which...

Wylie, Turrell V.

1986-01-01

435

The effect of green manuring with winter legumes on some physical and chemical properties of Lufkin fine sandy loam  

E-print Network

of Soil EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS. 15 17 20 Pore Space . Moisture Equivalent. Stability of Aggregates. Organic Carbon . Total Nitrogen , Carbon-Nitrogen Ratio. Nitrate Nitrogen . Yield of Lint Cotton . Correlation of Yield and Physical and Chemical... pounds. Hale (25), in Georgia, obtained a yield of 931 pounds of seed cotton per acre from the use of 100 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre, and a yield oi' 1, 044 pounds of seed cotton from plowing under hairy vetch. McKee and McNair (46) reported...

Naqvi, Sibte Mehdi

1954-01-01

436

Comparative study of blood flow in microbore glass tubes  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE STUDY OP BLOOD PLOW IN MICROBORE GLASS TUBES A Thesis by JANE SLOAN MOSLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A%M University ln partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977... Major Subject: Bioengineering COMPARATIVE S'TUDY OF BLOOD FLOW IN MICROBORE GLASS TUBES A Thesis by JANE SLOAN MOSLEY Approved as to style and content by: rman om ee ea o epar men e e em r December 1977 ABSTRACT Comparative Study of Blood...

Mosley, Jane Sloan

1977-01-01

437

Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.  

PubMed

The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

2005-01-01

438

Flooding of the Missouri River. Before (Sept 1992) and during-after (Sept 1993)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The three river scenes shown here are from central Missouri near Gasconade, Rocheport, and the confluence of the Grand River. The first in each pair was in September, 1992, the second in September of 1993. Notice the farmland in the river flood plain. The data uses Landsat TM bands 5, 4, and 2 mapped to red, green, and blue respectively. Bare soil and plowed land appears red, vegetation (which reflects very strongly in the near infrared) appears green, and water is dark blue. The perspective in each of these images is looking aproximately westward, which is upstream.

Jesse Allen

1999-04-09

439

Late Bronze Age hoard studied by PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hoards of metallic objects belonging to the Late European Bronze Age can be interpreted differently depending on the type, number and composition of the artefacts. PIXE analysis has been performed in nine items from the Hoard of Freixanda in Portugal comprising four socket axes, a palstave axe, a ring, a chisel, a dagger, and a casting debris. Besides the composition of the main matrix elements, that is Cu and Sn, the amount of trace elements of interest like, As, Pb, Ni, and Ag has been determined using this ion beam technique. The high tin content alloy and the high purity of the metals from the Freixanda hoard are characteristic of the Portuguese and Spanish Late Bronze Age metallurgy, supporting the idea of a regional production.

Gutiérrez Neira, P. C.; Zucchiatti, A.; Montero-Ruiz, I.; Vilaça, R.; Bottaini, C.; Gener, M.; Climent-Font, A.

2011-12-01

440

Endoscopic transcanal removal of symptomatic external auditory canal exostoses.  

PubMed

Exostoses are bony outgrowths of the external auditory canal (EAC) that can lead to cerumen entrapment, recurrent infections, and conductive hearing loss. When surgical removal is indicated, a drill or osteotome may be used via a post-auricular, endaural, or transcanal approach. Studies suggest that exostoses removed by transcanal osteotome result in decreased morbidity when compared to open, drilled approaches; however, inadvertent injury to the facial nerve or inner ear is a theoretical concern given the restrictive geometry of the EAC and challenges of visualizing the tip of the chisel through the microscope. The endoscope provides superior visualization of the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane compared to the microscope. We sought to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic exostosis surgery with an osteotome. We find that the endoscope provides improved wide angled views without blind spots. There were no intraoperative complications. Endoscopic canaloplasty for exostoses may be readily applied. PMID:25459316

Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Shah, Parth V; Reardon, Edward; Lee, Daniel J

2015-01-01

441

[A cosmetic surgery technique for varices in the lower extremities].  

PubMed

The author describes a variant of a cosmetic operation of varicosities of the lower extremities which proved successful in the course of 17 years. The operation was performed in a total of 1823 patients. Minimalization of the size and number of surgical incisions is made possible by the use of very simple instruments comprising an elevator of the saphena magna, strippers for subsidiary varicosities (4 sizes), an applicator of temporary tamponade and two types of chisels for suprafascial and subfascial severing of perforating veins. The number of operations on account of relapses is 9.04% during a representative period in 1990 and 1991. The period of work incapacity is by one week shorter. The cosmetic results are excellent. The instruments and the described technique are at present used in 35 institutes. PMID:8211390

Horný, J

1993-02-01

442

Stability of fixation of diacapitular fractures of the mandibular condylar process by ultrasound-aided resorbable pins (SonicWeld Rx® System) in pigs.  

PubMed

To assess the stability of osteosynthesis in diacapitular condylar fractures we compared fixation using ultrasound-aided resorbable pins with poly-(D,L)-lactide (SonicWeld® Rx, KLS Martin, Tuttlingen, Germany) with that of titanium screws in 20 pig mandibles, 10 in each group. Isolated diacapitular fractures were created using a surgical chisel. Ten fractures were each repositioned and fixed by two pins (17 and 11 mm long, 2.1mm in diameter), and 10 fractures were fixed by two titanium screws of equal length, 2.0mm in diameter. Shear tests were done immediately after treatment to measure the maximum force to disrupt the fixation. Fixation with pins resisted mean shear forces of 310N until the pins fractured, whereas fixation with titanium screws failed at 918N when the screws pulled out of the bone. Long-term stability and resorption of pins will have to be analysed in an in vivo study. PMID:20627494

Schneider, Matthias; Eckelt, Uwe; Reitemeier, Bernd; Meissner, Heike; Richter, Gerd; Loukota, Richard; Stadlinger, Bernd

2011-06-01

443

Healey motorsports` amazing {open_quotes}1 valve{close_quotes} racing Healey  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the 22 foot, chisel shaped, electric racing vehicle {open_quotes}Powertron/QuickCable Spirit of San Antonio I{close_quotes} set a new world speed record in the class-3 under 1500 pound electric vehicle class. Lloyd Healey, the designer, builder, and driver of the streamlined electric car; set the record at the Bonneville Salt flats with an averaged speed of 129.354 mph. The car was built with a Cr-Mo frame, aluminum outer skin, and a handmade fiberglass nose piece. The car is capable of carrying twenty-four Type-31 truck lead acid batteries or thirty Type-34 car batteries. The car is powered by an 11 inch General Electric DC series wound motor that produces both high torque and horsepower. The racing team hopes to break the 200-mph mark, with some unofficial times already set above 150-mph.

NONE

1995-02-01

444

Recent developments in hydrologic instrumentation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The programs of the U.S. Geological Survey require instrumentation for collecting and monitoring hydrologic data in cold regions. The availability of space-age materials and implementation of modern electronics and mechanics is making possible the recent developments of hydrologic instrumentation, especially in the area of measuring streamflow under ice cover. Material developments include: synthetic-fiber sounding and tag lines; polymer (plastic) sheaves, pulleys, and sampler components; and polymer (plastic) current-meter bucket wheels. Electronic and mechanical developments include: a current-meter digitizer; a fiber-optic closure system for current-meters; non-contact water-level sensors; an adaptable hydrologic data acquisition system; a minimum data recorder; an ice rod; an ice foot; a handled sediment sampler; a light weight ice auger with improved cutter head and blades; and an ice chisel.

Latkovich, Vito J.; Futrell, James C., II

1986-01-01

445

Saltbush leaves: excision of hypersaline tissue by a kangaroo rat.  

PubMed

Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped (unlike those of other kangaroo rats, which are rounded and awl-shaped) and are used to shave off the hypersaline, peripheral tissue of the leaves so that the inner tissue can be eaten. This atypical feeding behavior should minimize the reliance of D. microps on the unpredictable seed crops of desert annuals, and also favor its coexistence with other species of Dipodomys, which are primarily granivorous. PMID:17741983

Kenagy, G J

1972-12-01

446

Geographical gradients in the population dynamics of North American prairie ducks.  

PubMed

1. Geographic gradients in population dynamics may occur because of spatial variation in resources that affect the deterministic components of the dynamics (i.e. carrying capacity, the specific growth rate at small densities or the strength of density regulation) or because of spatial variation in the effects of environmental stochasticity. To evaluate these, we used a hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate parameters characterizing deterministic components and stochastic influences on population dynamics of eight species of ducks (mallard, northern pintail, blue-winged teal, gadwall, northern shoveler, American wigeon, canvasback and redhead (Anas platyrhynchos, A. acuta, A. discors, A. strepera, A. clypeata, A. americana, Aythya valisineria and Ay. americana, respectively) breeding in the North American prairies, and then tested whether these parameters varied latitudinally. 2. We also examined the influence of temporal variation in the availability of wetlands, spring temperature and winter precipitation on population dynamics to determine whether geographical gradients in population dynamics were related to large-scale variation in environmental effects. Population variability, as measured by the variance of the population fluctuations around the carrying capacity K, decreased with latitude for all species except canvasback. This decrease in population variability was caused by a combination of latitudinal gradients in the strength of density dependence, carrying capacity and process variance, for which details varied by species. 3. The effects of environmental covariates on population dynamics also varied latitudinally, particularly for mallard, northern pintail and northern shoveler. However, the proportion of the process variance explained by environmental covariates, with the exception of mallard, tended to be small. 4. Thus, geographical gradients in population dynamics of prairie ducks resulted from latitudinal gradients in both deterministic and stochastic components, and were likely influenced by spatial differences in the distribution of wetland types and shapes, agricultural practices and dispersal processes. 5. These results suggest that future management of these species could be improved by implementing harvest models that account explicitly for spatial variation in density effects and environmental stochasticity on population abundance. PMID:18631261

Saether, Bernt-Erik; Lillegård, Magnar; Grøtan, Vidar; Drever, Mark C; Engen, Steinar; Nudds, Thomas D; Podruzny, Kevin M

2008-09-01

447

Rate Response of 1,3-Dichloropropene for Nematode Control in Spring Squash in Deep Sand Soils  

PubMed Central

The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) formulated with chloropicrin is viewed as a likely alternative for replacing methyl bromide in Florida when the latter is phased out in 2005. Therefore, it behooves us to learn more about using 1,3-D in deep, sand soils. Two trials were conducted on spring squash to determine the most effective rate of 1,3-D for the control of Meloidogyne spp. Rates tested included 0, 56, 84, 112, and 168 liters/ha of 1,3-D applied broadcast with conventional chisels 30 cm deep. The chisel traces were sealed by disking immediately after fumigant application. Cucurbita pepo cv. Sunex 9602 was sown 7 days after fumigation. The population density of plant-parasitic nematodes in soil and root-knot nematode galling severity was determined at 34 and 65 days after planting (DAP), and the number of marketable fruit and yield were determined. The number of fruit and yield were higher in all plots that received 1,3-D than in untreated controls. The number of Meloidogyne spp. second-stage juveniles was lower in all fumigated plots in trial 1 at both 34 and 65 DAP, and in trial 2 at 65 DAP, than in the untreated control. The severity of root galling was decreased with all treatments in both trials, with broadcast rates of 84, 112, and 168 liters/ha providing the best control of root-knot nematodes in spring squash grown in sandy soil. Satisfactory management of root knot on squash grown in early spring months in north Florida can be achieved with low rates of 1,3-D. PMID:19271005

Riegel, C.; Dickson, D. W.; Peterson, L. G.; Nance, J. L.

2000-01-01

448

Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eastern South Dakota on alfalfa and soybean relative to tillage, fertilization, and yield.  

PubMed

Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without added nitrogen (N). Populations were also sampled early and late season in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Beetles were present in alfalfa by late May and most were reproductively active within a week, but their presence in alfalfa did not always precede soybean emergence. Most beetles taken from alfalfa in late fall were teneral; all were previtellogenic and unmated. Reproductively active beetles were detected in soybeans as soon as seedlings emerged. A partial second generation apparently occurred each year. First-generation beetles started to emerge in soybean fields during the first or third week of July but, whether emergence started early or late, most beetles emerging after July seemingly failed to mature their eggs and started leaving soybeans within several weeks of eclosion. This pattern suggested that any second generation arose from only the earliest emerging beetles of the first generation, with later emerging individuals having to overwinter before reproducing. Thus, any factors delaying emergence of the first generation, such as delayed soybean planting, could potentially limit its reproductive capacity through winter mortality. Cumulative seasonal beetle counts were lower in N-treated subplots and in ridge-tilled compared with chisel-tilled plots. Soybean grain yield increased with decreases in peak abundance of first-generation beetles and with N fertilization. PMID:20550786

Hammack, Leslie; Pikul, Joseph L; West, Mark S

2010-06-01

449

The pool of pedogenic carbon in the soils of different types and durations of use as croplands in the forest-steppe of the Central Russian Upland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on studying five agrochronoseries, including recent forest (dark) gray soils and soils plowed for 100, 150, and 200-240 and more years in the forest-steppe zone of the Central Russian Upland, the dynamics of the pedogenic carbon pool, including the Corg and Ccarb, are considered. In the 2-m-thick layer of the agrogenic soils studied, the pedogenic carbon pool was shown to increase by 15-30% (up to 50%) mainly due to the changes in the Ccarb content. The insignificant (by ˜10%) growth of the Corg content was found in the soils that were plowed for more than 200-250 years. As the hydrothermal regime changed when passing from the forest to croplands, the Ccarb reserves increased due to the ascending of carbonates from the parent rock through the capillary pores, probably, in colloid solution-suspensions. This process proceeded without exchange with the soil CO2, since the 14C age and the content of the newly formed carbonates became higher. These carbonates may be called pedogenic-lithogenic agrocarbonates, since they appear in soils as a result of the (agro-) pedogenesis. In this case, their additional source is the lithogenic carbonates, which bring in the "old" carbon. The process of carbonates ascending could be referred to the rapid soil-forming ones with their implementation time being close to ?50 years.

Khokhlova, O. S.; Chendev, Yu. G.; Myakshina, T. N.; Shishkov, V. A.

2013-05-01

450

Geographic applications of ERTS-1 imagery to landscape change. [Mississippi River and Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 has proven to be an effective earth-orbiting monitor of landscape change. Its regional coverage for large areal monitoring has been effective for the detection and mapping of agricultural plowing regions, for general forest cover mapping, for flood mapping, for strip mine mapping, and for short-lived precipitation mapping patterns. Paramount to the entire study has been the temporal coverage provided by ERTS. Without the cyclic coverage on an 18 day basis, temporal coverage would have been inadequate for the detection and mapping of strip mining landscape change, the analysis of agricultural landscape change based on plowing patterns, the analysis of urban-suburban growth changes, and the mapping of the Mississippi River floods. Cost benefits from ERTS are unquestionably superior to aircraft systems in regard to large regional coverage and cyclic temporal parameters. For the analysis of landscape change in large regions such as statewide areas or even areas of 10,000 square miles, ERTS is of cost benefit consideration. Not only does the cost of imagery favor ERTS but the reduction of man-hours using ERTS has been in the magnitude of 1:10.

Rehder, J. B. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

451

Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.  

PubMed

Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow. PMID:25398196

Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

2015-01-01

452

Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.  

PubMed

Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

2014-09-01

453

The Ecology of Wrath  

E-print Network

ouses were shut tight, and cloth wedged around “Hdoors and windows, but the dust came in so thinly that it could not be seen in the air, and it settled like pollen on the chairs and tables, on the dishes, ” wrote John Steinbeck in The Grapes of Wrath. The same year, 1939, the author elaborated in a letter that his goal in writing the book was “to rip a reader’s nerves to rags ” by laying bare the life of the Dust Bowl migrants with whom he had spent time. Oklahoma Congressman Lyle Boren called the book “an infernal creation of a twisted distorted mind.” After Congress passed the Homestead Act in 1862, thousands of settlers moved to the semi-arid grasslands of the North American plains to farm and graze cattle. They plowed the fields and planted dryland wheat. High demand generated the promise of economic development and brought in more powerful plows, further expanding arable land. The grasses receded, leaving the ground exposed and vulnerable. When the drought came in 1930, strong winds whipping across the plains created severe dust storms, which continued for nearly a decade, moving millions of tons of topsoil and wiping out farms and ranches across 19 states in the heartland, which became known as the Dust Bowl. “And then the dispossessed were drawn west–from

454

Downhill turn techniques and associated physical characteristics in cross-country skiers.  

PubMed

Three dominant techniques are used for downhill turning in cross-country skiing. In this study, kinematic, kinetic, and temporal characteristics of these techniques are described and related to skier strength and power. Twelve elite female cross-country skiers performed six consecutive turns of standardized geometry while being monitored by a Global Navigation Satellite System. Overall time was used as an indicator of performance. Skiing and turning parameters were determined from skier trajectories; the proportional use of each technique was determined from video analysis. Leg strength and power were determined by isometric squats and countermovement jumps on a force plate. Snow plowing, parallel skidding, and step turning were utilized for all turns. Faster skiers employed less snow plowing and more step turning, more rapid deceleration and earlier initiation of step turning at higher speed (r?=?0.80-0.93; all P?

Bucher Sandbakk, S; Supej, M; Sandbakk, O; Holmberg, H-C

2013-03-20

455

Effects of residual biomass burning on the CO2 flux from a paddy field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paddy field is one of the most important eco-system in monsoon Asia, and takes a great important role in CO2 uptake. Carbon budget in agricultural field is influenced by some artificial management. After the harvest, residual biomass is burned on fields, brought out from fields, or remained and harrowed into the fields. If open burning was conducted in a field, one part of biomass carbon is emitted into atmosphere as CO2, and the other part is harrowed into soils. In this study, quantity of lost carbon according to burning of residual biomass were investigated at a single rice cropping field in western Japan, in which long-term continuous CO2 flux (NEE) measurement by the eddy-covariance technique was conducted. In addition, an experimental paddy field was divided into two areas to investigate what impact is brought on the annual CO2 flux by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. Residual biomass was burned and plowed into soil at the one area on Nov. 29th, 2011, and residue was not burned and directly plowed into soil at the other area as usual. We illustrate some results for the control term before the burning experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.

Murakami, H.; Kunishio, A.; Akaike, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ono, K.; Iwata, T.

2012-12-01

456

Effects of "open burning" on the greenhouse gas exchange from a single-rice paddy field in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paddy fields are artificially maintained wetland and are one of the large source of CH4. Besides, a large quantity of N2O is emitted from the soil surface due to the decomposition of inorganic fertilizer. A long term continuous measurement of GHG fluxes between atmosphere and paddy ecosystem is effective method to clarify the contribution of paddy fields to recent rapid increase of GHG concentration. In this study, three techniques for flux measurement (eddy covariance, aerodynamic gradient, and chamber techniques) were applied to investigate the annual variation of three GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) exchanges at a single-rice paddy field for two years. An observational site is located on reclaimed land in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, an experimental paddy field was divided into two areas to investigate what impact is brought on the annual GHG fluxes by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. Residual biomass was burned and plowed into soil at the one area on Nov. 29th, 2011, and residue was not burned and directly plowed into soil at the other area as usual. We illustrate some results for the control term before the burning experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.

Kawamoto, Y.; Akaike, Y.; Kunishio, A.; Murakami, H.; Ono, K.; Hayashi, K.; Iwata, T.

2012-12-01

457

Assessment of aliphatic-aromatic copolyester biodegradable mulch films. Part I: field study.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study the use of new biodegradable films in agriculture under open field conditions. Three biodegradable mulch films made from modified biodegradable polyester of different thicknesses and colors (black and white) and a conventional low density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch film were used to cover the beds of tomato plants. Changes in physical appearance of the films were recorded as well as changes in their mechanical, optical, and physical properties. Once tomato harvest was completed, the conventional LDPE mulch film was removed and all the tomato plants were cut using a mower. The biodegradable mulch films were plowed into the soil. The change in the appearance of the film was recorded and samples of each film after plowing were characterized according to the properties mentioned above. After the biodegradable films photodegraded, cross-link formation occurred within the films which promoted brittleness. Titanium dioxide, an additive used to produce white color in the films, catalyzed the photodegradation, while carbon black used for black color stabilized the photodegradation. The white films started to degrade after two weeks while it took about eight weeks for the black films to significantly degrade. The black biodegradable film seems to be a more promising alternative as a mulch film because of the comparable yields and weed suppression ability to conventional mulch film. PMID:18262221

Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Ngouajio, Mathieu; Fernandez, R Thomas

2008-03-01

458

Transformation and sorption of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine in two soils: a short-term batch study.  

PubMed

The worldwide use of veterinary antibiotics poses a continuous threat to the environment. There is, however, a lack of mechanistic studies on sorption and transformation processes for environmental assessment in soils. Two-week batch sorption experiments were performed with the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the plow layer and the subsoil of a loamy sand and a silty loam. The sorption and transformation parameters of SDZ and its main transformation products N1-2-(4-hydroxypyrimidinyl) benzenesulfanilamide (4-OH-SDZ) and 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)aniline (An-SDZ) were estimated using a global optimization algorithm. A two-stage, one-rate sorption model combined with a first-order transformation model adequately described the batch data. Sorption of SDZ was nonlinear, time-dependent, and affected by pH, with a higher sorption capacity for the loamy sand. Transformation of SDZ into 4-OH-SDZ occurred only in the liquid phase, with half-life values of 1 month in the plow layers and 6 months in the subsoils. Under the exclusion of light, An-SDZ was formed in substantial amounts in the silty loam only, with liquid phase half-life values of 2 to 3 weeks. Despite the rather large parameter uncertainties, which may be reduced using additional information obtained from sequential solid phase extraction, the proposed method provides a framework to assess the fate of antibiotics in soils. PMID:20465301

Kasteel, Roy; Mboh, Cho Miltin; Unold, Myriam; Groeneweg, Joost; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

2010-06-15

459

Real-time electrical impedance variations in women with and without breast cancer.  

PubMed

The chaotic vascular network surrounding malignant tumors leads to pulsatile blood flow patterns that differ from those in benign regions of the breast. This study aimed to determine if high-speed electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is able to detect conductivity changes associated with cyclic blood-volume changes and to gauge the potential of using these signatures to differentiate malignant from benign regions within the breast. EIT imaging of pulsating latex membranes submerged in saline baths provided initial validation of its use for tracking temporally varying conductivities. Nineteen women (10 with cancer, nine without) were imaged with EIT over the course of several heartbeats in synchrony with pulse-oximetry acquisition. Eight parameters ( rs, ?(rt,max), rt,max, Plow:full, Phigh:full, Plow:high) relating the conductivity images and pulse-oximeter signatures were extracted and used as a means of comparing malignant and benign regions of the breast. Significant differences between malignant and benign regions of interest were noted in seven of the eight parameters. The maximum correlation between conductivity and pulse-oximeter signals, rt,max , was observed to be the optimal discriminating parameter with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.8 and a specificity of 81% at a sensitivity of 77%. Assessing the dynamic conductivity of breast may provide additional clinical utility to that of standard imaging modalities, but further investigation is necessary to better understand the biophysical mechanisms leading to the observed conductivity changes. PMID:25073168

Halter, Ryan J; Hartov, Alex; Poplack, Steven P; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Wells, Wendy A; Rosenkranz, Kari M; Barth, Richard J; Kaufman, Peter A; Paulsen, Keith D

2015-01-01

460

Bird use of agricultural fields under reduced and conventional tillage in the Texas Panhandle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted bird surveys in reduced-tillage and conventional tillage fields in spring, summer, fall, and winter from 1987 to 1991 in the Texas Panhandle. Eastern meadowlarks, longspurs, and savannah sparrows were more common in reduced-tillage (sorghum and wheat stubble) fields than in conventionally tilled (plowed) fields in at least 1 season. Other species also had patterns suggestive of greater abundance in reduced-tillage fields. Hornedlarks, which prefer habitat with sparse vegetation, were more abundant in plowed fields in all seasons except summer. Bird diversity was greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields in summer. Cover density and height were greater in reduced tillage fields in all seasons except spring. Cover density and height rather than cover composition (e.g.,grain stubble or live plants) seemed to be the important factors affecting bird distribution. Patterns of bird abundance between sorghum and wheat stubble fields also were dependent on cover. Herbicide use was not greater in reduced-tillage fields than in conventionally tilled fields. Reduced-tillage agriculture for sorghum and wheat farming should be encouraged in the southern Great Plains as a means of improving the attractiveness of agricultural land to many bird species.

Flickinger, E.L.; Pendleton, G.W.

1994-01-01

461

Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second year of a three year study comparing the Pegasus to conventional tillage. So far, no downside has been with the Pegasus and the following benefits have been documented: (1) Energy savings of 65.0 kilowatt hours per hectare over conventional tillage. This is when the Pegasus plow is used to bury whole stalks, and represents a 70% savings over conventional tillage (92.5 kilowatt hours per hectare). (2) Four to seven fewer passes of tillage, depending on the particular situation. This represents a substantial time savings to farmers. (3) So far, no differences in cotton yields. Recent cotton boll counts in one study indicate a higher yield potential with the Pegasus. (4) No disease problems. (5) Significantly higher levels of organic matter in the soil. A hypothesis of the study is that whole stalk burial may reduce plant disease problems. This hypothesis has not yet been proven. (6) Significantly higher levels of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen trended higher but were not significantly different. This shows that whole stalk burial does not adversely affect the nitrogen cycle in the soil and may actually improve it. The marketing support stage of the project is also described in the report.

NONE

1997-07-31

462

[Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].  

PubMed

With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P < 0.05). After subsoiling and harvesting with heavy machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting. PMID:18464642

Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

2008-02-01

463

BotEC: The Magnitude of the India-Asia Collision  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question: The story of the Himalayas can be traced back to the breakup of the supercontinent, called Pangaea, about 200 million years ago, when India began its rapid movement northward towards Asia. Asia was a much smaller continent then. Then, between 45 and 55 million years ago, India and Asia collided. Before collision, India moved northward at about 7-10 centimeters per year. Remarkably, India's northward movement was slowed only a little after the collisionâit continues to plow into Asia at a rate of 5-6 centimeters per year. We can measure the present northward movement of India into Asia using GPS measurements over a period of time. So, there is little doubt of the continued movement of India. There is much debate about how the northward march of India into Asia is being accommodated. Of course, the high Himalayan Plateau is a manifestation of this collision between two continents. Now refer to a map of the USA. For the sake of comparison, if India were to have collided with North America near Washington, D.C. and continued to plow westward into North America at 6 centimeters per year for 55 million years, then where would the "front" of the collision zone be presently? Name a major city in the USA that is at the correct approximate distance from Washington, D.C.

Peter Kresan

464

Variation Of Soil Moisture Patterns In Response To Anthropogenic Land Disturbances In A Semiarid Regional Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project focuses on examination of the effects of various land management practices on soil moisture for semiarid regional landscapes. The project is at the Wellhausen Ranch Research Station located near Laredo, TX. This ranch has undergone various land disturbances such as root plowing and cattle overgrazing that have caused damage to the vegetation and natural communities. Two research sites were chosen within the ranch, one disturbed by root plowing and one undisturbed, to represent various land use environment. Soil moisture analysis was performed, using the WatchDog Irrigation System, to identify the effects of temperature, vegetation, diurnal, and seasonal effect on the soil moisture patterns. In addition, three soil moisture probes were placed on the same location at three different depths, 3, 5, and 8 inches, below the surface, to evaluate the soil moisture profile in vertical direction. Statistical analysis such as ANOVA, Friedman's test, and the sign test was conducted and the results suggested that soil moisture is influenced by land disturbances significantly in a semiarid regional landscape.

Camarena, C.; Ren, J.; Jones, K.; Hempel, A.

2005-12-01

465

Verification of radiocesium decontamination from farmlands by plants in Fukushima.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to verify radiocesium decontamination from Fukushima farmland by plants and to screen plants useful for phytoremediation. Thirteen species from three families (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) of crops were grown in shallow and deeply cultivated fields (0-8 and 0-15 cm plowing, respectively). To change plowing depth was expected to make different contacting zone between root system and radiocesium in soil. The radioactivity values of the plants due to the radiocesium ¹³?Cs and ¹³?Cs were 22-179 and 29-225 Bq kg dry weight?¹, respectively. The ¹³?Cs and ¹³?Cs transfer factors for plants grown in the shallow field ranged from 0.021 to 0.12 and fro 0.019 to 0.13, respectively, with the geometric means of 0.051 and 0.057, respectively. The ¹³?Cs and ¹³?Cs transfer factors for plants grown in the deep field ranged from 0.019 to 0.13 and from 0.022 to 0.13, respectively, with the geometric means of 0.045 and 0.063, respectively. Although a reducing ratio was calculated to evaluate the decrease in radiocesium from contaminated soil during cultivation (i.e., phytoremediation ability), no plant species resulted in a remarkable decrease in radiocesium in soil among the tested crops. These results should be followed up for several years and further analyses are required to evaluate whether the phytoremediation technique is applicable to radioactively contaminated farmlands. PMID:24292804

Kobayashi, Daisuke; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Shinano, Takuro

2014-01-01

466

Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.  

PubMed

Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA-Veolia partnership 1998-2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat-maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (?), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (?), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy. PMID:24958010

Filipovi?, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

2014-11-15

467

Fault Wear and Friction Evolution: Experimental Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wear is an inevitable product of frictional sliding of brittle rocks as evidenced by the ubiquitous occurrence of fault gouge and slickenside striations. We present here experimental observations designed to demonstrate the relationship between wear and friction and their governing mechanisms. The experiments were conducted with a rotary shear apparatus on solid, ring-shaped rock samples that slipped for displacements up to tens of meters. Stresses, wear and temperature were continuously monitored. We analyzed 86 experiments of Kasota dolomite, Sierra White granite, Pennsylvania quartzite, Karoo gabbro, and Tennessee sandstone at slip velocities ranging from 0.002 to 0.97 m/s, and normal stress from 0.25 to 6.9 MPa. We conducted two types of runs: short slip experiments (slip distance < 25 mm) primarily on fresh, surface-ground samples, designed to analyze initial wear mechanisms; and long slip experiments (slip distance > 3 m) designed to achieve mature wear conditions and to observe the evolution of wear and friction as the fault surfaces evolved. The experiments reveal three wear stages: initial, running-in, and steady-state. The initial stage is characterized by (1) discrete damage striations, the length of which is comparable to total slip , and local pits or plow features; (2) timing and magnitude of fault-normal dilation corresponds to transient changes of normal and shear stresses; and (3) surface roughness increasing with the applied normal stress. We interpret these observations as wear mechanisms of (a) plowing into the fresh rock surfaces; (b) asperity breakage; and (c) asperity climb. The running-in stage is characterized by (1) intense wear-rate over a critical wear distance of Rd = 0.3-2 m; (2) drop of friction coefficient over a weakening distance of Dc = 0.2-4 m; (3) Rd and Dc display positive, quasi-linear relation with each other. We interpret these observations as indicating the organizing of newly-created wear particles into a 'three-body' structure that acts to lubricate the fault (Reches & Lockner, 2010). The steady-state stage is characterized by (1) relatively low wear-rate (approximately 10% of running-in wear-rate) and (2) quasi-constant friction coefficient. These observations suggest only small changes in the gouge layer in term of thickness (100 to 200 microns) and strength in this final stage. The present study indicates that (1) wear by plowing and asperity failure initiate early, during the first few millimeters of slip; and (2) wear and associated gouge formation appear as the controlling factors of friction evolution and fault weakening.

Boneh, Y.; Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

2011-12-01

468

Relationship between molecular contact thermodynamics and surface contact mechanics.  

PubMed

Measurements have been made of the adhesion and friction forces between organic monolayers in heptane/acetone mixtures using an atomic force microscope (AFM). It has been found that the contact mechanics are best modeled by treating the friction force as the sum of a load-dependent term (attributed to "molecular plowing") and an area-dependent term attributed to shearing (adhesion). The relative contributions of plowing and shearing are determined by the coefficient of friction, ?, and the surface shear strength ?. The transition from adhesion- to load-determined friction is controlled by the solvation state of the surface: solvated surfaces represent a limiting case in which the shear term approaches zero, and the friction-load relationship is linear, while in other circumstances, the friction-load relationship is nonlinear and consistent with Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov mechanics. A striking correlation has been observed between the concentration-dependence of the association constant (K(a)) for the formation of 1:1 hydrogen-bonded complexes and the pull-off force F(a) and surface shear strength ? for the same molecules when one partner is immobilized by attachment to an AFM probe and the other is adsorbed to a surface. Analysis of the concentration-dependence of F(a) and ? enables the prediction of K(S) with remarkably high precision, indicating that for these hydrogen bonding systems, the tip-sample adhesion is dominated by the H-bond thermodynamics. For mixed monolayers, H-bond thermodynamics dominate the interaction even at very low concentrations of the H-bond acceptor. Even for weakly adhering systems, a nonlinear friction-load relationship results. The variation in ? with the film composition is correlated very closely with the variation in F(a). However, the coefficient of friction varies little with the film composition and is invariant with the strength of tip-sample adhesion, being dominated by molecular plowing and, for sufficiently large concentrations of hydroxyl terminated adsorbates, the disruption of intramonolayer hydrogen bonding interactions. PMID:23205529

Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Hunter, Christopher A; Leggett, Graham J

2012-12-21

469

Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio depending on soil depth and agrogenic impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeal communities and their potential roles in the soil ecosystem are affected by a number of soil proprerties and environmental factors. Competitive interactions between Archaea and Bacteria play a particular role in spread and abundance of these two domains. Therefore, the goal of the study was to evaluate the Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio in different soils. The research was carried out at field and natural ecosystems of European part of Russia. Samples were collected within the soil profiles (3-6 horizons) of chernozem and kastanozem with distinctly different agrogenic impact. In situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes (FISH) was used to determine the abundance of metabolically active cells of Archaea and Bacteria. The Cmic, Corg, C/N, DNA content and growth characteristics have been analyzed as well. Determination of number of metabolically active cells in chernozem under arable land and forest revealed that abundance of Archaea in topsoil under forest was higher more than 2 times comparing with arable land, but leveled off in the deeper horizons. Plowing of Chernozem decreased amount of archaeal and bacterial active cells simultaneously, however, Bacteria were more resistant to agrogenic impact than Archaea. Determination of the taxonomic composition within Bacteria domain showed a significant decrease in the abundance of phylogenetic groups Firmicutes and Actinobacteria in the topsoil under arable land comparing to the forest, which is the main reason for the declining of the total amount of prokaryotic cells. In kastanozem significant change in the number of metabolically active cells due to plowing was detected only within 40 cm soil layer, and this effect disappeared in lower horizons. The number of Archaea was higher in the upper horizons of arable as compared to virgin soil. Conversely, the number of Bacteria in the upper layers of the soil after plowing kastanozem decreased. Relationship between soil organic carbon content and the amount of soil metabolically active Bacteria and Archaea cells revealed that distribution of both Bacteria and Archaea throughout the soil profile was governed by organic matter content. Thus, the organic matter content seemed to be the main factor of declining Bacteria-to- Archaea ratio down the profile (from 7.1 to 4.2 for virgin soil and from 5 to 3.9 for arable soil). In conclusion, Archaea out-compete Bacteria under conditions of reduced energy supply.

Semenov, Mikhail; Manucharova, Natalia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

2014-05-01

470

Tabletop Tectonics: Diverse Mountain Ranges Using Flour and Graphite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been recognized for some time that the frontal deformation zones where plates converge (foreland fold- and-thrust belts on continents and accretionary wedges at subduction zones) involve shortening over a decoupling layer, or decollement. A simple but successful way of explaining many aspects of their behavior is called the critical Coulomb wedge model, which regards these contractional wedges as analogous to the wedge-shaped mass of soil accreted in front of a bulldozer, or the wedge of snow that piles up in front of a snow plow. The shape and deformation history of the accreted wedge of soil or snow will depend upon the frictional strength of the material being plowed up and the surface over which it is being plowed. The same is true of `bulldozer' wedges consisting of many km thick piles of sediment at convergent plate margins. Using flour (or powdered milk), sandpaper, graphite, transparency sheets, and athletic field marker chalk, manipulated with sieves, brushes, pastry bags and blocks and sheets of wood, it is possible to demonstrate a wide variety of processes and tectonic styles observed at convergent plate boundaries. Model fold-and-thrust belts that behave like natural examples with a decollement that is strong (e.g., in rock without high pore fluid pressure) or weak (e.g., in a salt horizon or with elevated pore fluid pressure) can be generated simply by placing wither sandpaper or graphite beneath the flour that is pushed across the tabletop using a block of wood (the strong basement and hiterland rocks behind the fold-thrust belt). Depending upon the strength of the decollement, the cross-sectional taper of the deforming wedge will be thin or broad, the internal deformation mild or intense, and the structures either close to symmetric or strongly forward-vergent, just as at the analogous natural fold-thrust belts. Including a horizontal sheet of wood or Plexiglas in front of the pushing block allows generation of an accretionary wedge, outer-are high, and forearc basin, just as over a subduction zone. Any dark material emplaced (a pastry bag works well) atop the experiment before deformation in the form of football-field `hash marks' every 10 cm allows for easy calculation of strain distribution at any time during or after the experiment. Finally, the entire orogen can be excavated using a plastic photocopier transparency sheet. If the original set-up included occasional thin layers of red and blue field marker chalk within sedimentary column (the rest of which consists of white flour or powdered milk), excavation reveals (quite colorfully) many internal details of the fold-thrust belts that have been generated.

Davis, D. M.

2006-12-01

471

Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three vegetated treatments, CT, MT and NT showed a lower efficiency in reducing water losses than soil losses. Water losses by runoff during a number of events were of the same order of magnitude for all the management systems studied here; which was mainly true when the volume of rainfall was high and the lag between successive events was small. In general, soil losses in the autumn-winter seasons were lower than under the spring-summer seasons. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity. However, the degree of dependence between these two variables decreased as the efficiency of soil management in controlling soil erosion increased. The large soil and water losses in the BS and CT treatments suggest that there is a need to implement soil conservation measures in the study region. In this context soil conservation would take advantage from soil cover by previous crop residue as well as from terrace building. Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

2010-05-01

472

Individual quality, survival variation and patterns of phenotypic selection on body condition and timing of nesting in birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Questions about individual variation in 'quality' and fitness are of great interest to evolutionary and population ecologists. Such variation can be investigated using either a random effects approach or an approach that relies on identifying observable traits that are themselves correlated with fitness components. We used the latter approach with data from 1,925 individual females of three species of ducks (tufted duck, Aythya fuligula; common pochard, Aythya ferina; northern shoveler, Anas clypeata) sampled on their breeding grounds at Engure Marsh, Latvia, for over 15 years. Based on associations with reproductive output, we selected two traits, one morphological (relative body condition) and one behavioral (relative time of nesting), that can be used to characterize individual females over their lifetimes. We then asked whether these traits were related to annual survival probabilities of nesting females. We hypothesized quadratic, rather than monotonic, relationships based loosely on ideas about the likely action of stabilizing selection on these two traits. Parameters of these relationships were estimated directly using ultrastructural models embedded within capture-recapture-band-recovery models. Results provided evidence that both traits were related to survival in the hypothesized manner. For all three species, females that tended to nest earlier than the norm exhibited the highest survival rates, but very early nesters experienced reduced survival and late nesters showed even lower survival. For shovelers, females in average body condition showed the highest survival, with lower survival rates exhibited by both heavy and light birds. For common pochard and tufted duck, the highest survival rates were associated with birds of slightly above-average condition, with somewhat lower survival for very heavy birds and much lower survival for birds in relatively poor condition. Based on results from this study and previous work on reproduction, we conclude that nest initiation date and body condition covary with both reproductive and survival components of fitness. These associations lead to a positive covariance of these two fitness components within individuals and to the conclusion that these two traits are indeed correlates of individual quality.

Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.; Mednis, A.

2005-01-01

473

Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism is important for avalanche formation. Even when gradients appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart, faceting close to a~crust can still be observed. Recent studies that visualized small scale (< 10 cm) thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR) camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within the studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and at artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or a shovel produced small concavities (holes) even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which is only observed at times with large temperature differences between air and snow. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed slower compared with convex areas (bumps) when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative transfer or convection by air at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of the use of a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly in scenarios where large gradients exist between air and snow and the interaction of snow pit and atmospheric temperatures are enhanced. At crusts or other heterogeneities, we were unable to create a sufficiently homogenous snow pit surface and non-internal gradients appeared at the exposed surface. The immediate adjustment of snow pit temperature as it reacts with the atmosphere complicates the capture of the internal thermal structure of a snowpack even with thermal videos. Instead, the shown structural dependency of the IR signal may be used to detect structural changes of snow caused by kinetic metamorphism. The IR signal can also be used to measure near surface temperatures in a homogenous new snow layer.

Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

2013-10-01

474

A rapid, controlled-environment seedling root screen for wheat correlates well with rooting depths at vegetative, but not reproductive, stages at two field sites  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Root length and depth determine capture of water and nutrients by plants, and are targets for crop improvement. Here we assess a controlled-environment wheat seedling screen to determine speed, repeatability and relatedness to performance of young and adult plants in the field. Methods Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and diverse genotypes were grown in rolled, moist germination paper in growth cabinets, and primary root number and length were measured when leaf 1 or 2 were fully expanded. For comparison, plants were grown in the field and root systems were harvested at the two-leaf stage with either a shovel or a soil core. From about the four-leaf stage, roots were extracted with a steel coring tube only, placed directly over the plant and pushed to the required depth with a hydraulic ram attached to a tractor. Key Results In growth cabinets, repeatability was greatest (r = 0·8, P < 0·01) when the paper was maintained moist and seed weight, pathogens and germination times were controlled. Scanned total root length (slow) was strongly correlated (r = 0·7, P < 0·01) with length of the two longest seminal axile roots measured with a ruler (fast), such that 100–200 genotypes were measured per day. Correlation to field-grown roots at two sites at two leaves was positive and significant within the RILs and cultivars (r = 0·6, P = 0·01), and at one of the two sites at the five-leaf stage within the RILs (r = 0·8, P = 0·05). Measurements made in the field with a shovel or extracted soil cores were fast (5 min per core) and had significant positive correlations to scanner measurements after root washing and cleaning (>2 h per core). Field measurements at two- and five-leaf stages did not correlate with root depth at flowering. Conclusions The seedling screen was fast, repeatable and reliable for selecting lines with greater total root length in the young vegetative phase in the field. Lack of significant correlation with reproductive stage root system depth at the field sites used in this study reflected factors not captured in the screen such as time, soil properties, climate variation and plant phenology. PMID:23821620

Watt, M.; Moosavi, S.; Cunningham, S. C.; Kirkegaard, J. A.; Rebetzke, G. J.; Richards, R. A.

2013-01-01

475

Selective mining and beneficiation at Grootegeluk coal mine Waterberg Coalfield, South Africa  

SciTech Connect

Grootegeluk Coal Mine, situated in the Waterberg Coalfield in the Northern Province of South Africa, ranks among the largest open pit coal mines in the world in terms of run of mine tonnage. Commissioned in 1980 to provide steel producer Iscor with coking coal, Grootegeluk currently produces 53 Mt of coking coal per annum. At present Iscor consumes 1.2 Mt of coking coal while Matimba, the world's largest direct dry cooled PowerStation consumes an additional 12.6 Mt. Fine washing and screening plants currently beneficiate the run of mine feed from this multi-seam multi-product mine. Although the Waterberg Coalfield contains approximately 50% of South Africa's coal reserves, Grootegeluk is the only operating mine in this coalfield. The coal seams of the Waterberg Coalfield occur in the Volksrust and Vryheids formations of the Karoo Sequence. Numerous coal seams ranging from a few millimeters up to 8 meters occur over a stratigraphic thickness of at least 120 meters. These coal seams are grouped into eleven coal bearing zones that can be correlated across the coalfield. The coal- and coalbearing strata in the Waterberg are of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. Coal from the Volksrust formation is autochthonous while the coal from the Vryheid formation is allochthonous. To ensure that sufficient geological and analytical data are obtained from exploration boreholes an extensive sampling procedure was established with washability data ranging from 1,35 to 2,20 g/cc. The analyses indicated that certain parts of the coalbearing strata is not suitable for the production of coking coal due to the high phosphorus content or the poor coking properties. This resulted in an open pit with 11 mining benches. The upper parts of the deposit is extracted by conventional shovel and truck operations while the coal seams of the lower part of the deposit are mined selectively with hydraulic shovels. At Grootegeluk down the hole geophysics (natural gamma) are used for grade control and also to quantify the effect of over- or undermining on the various mining benches. Reconciliation between the run of mine material dispatched to the various plants and their resulted yields/qualities are done regularly.

NONE

1999-07-01

476

Dental morphology of early Holocene foragers of North India: non-metric trait frequencies and biological affinities.  

PubMed

The biological affinities of semi-nomadic, early to mid-Holocene foragers of the mid-Ganga Plain, North India are undetermined, yet understanding their place in the population history of South Asia is important. Non-metric tooth trait frequencies are reported for three broadly contemporary, bio-culturally similar, and geographically proximate samples, collectively known as Mesolithic Lake Culture (MLC). The Arizona State University - Dental Anthropology System was used to score 43 tooth-trait combinations (23 maxillary; 21 mandibular). Non-metric trait frequencies are used to determine biological affinities of MLC to a global sample of living populations and to prehistoric and living groups of South Asia. The MLC dental pattern includes lightly sculpted upper incisors in which labial curvature, lingual shoveling, and tuberculum dentale exhibit low grades of expression and low-moderate frequencies. First molars have full-sized hypocones with slight reduction in M2 and M3. Accessory cusps are infrequent and small. Mandibular teeth are morphologically simple and retain conservative attributes. Incisors and canines exhibit weak shoveling. Molar accessory cusps are infrequent, though C-6 attains moderate grades in M3. The molar series (M1:M2:M3) has an Y:X:X groove pattern and 5:4:4 cusp number. Upper M3 agenesis (5%) is less common than lower M3 agenesis (10.0%). Smith's Mean Measure of Divergence (MMD) and Ward's minimum variance cluster methods are used to assess inter-group bio-distance in global and regional South Asian settings. In the global comparison, multi-dimensionally scaled MMD values reveal three groups: African, Asian, and a third group composed of MLC, prehistoric South Asians, and European samples. Within South Asia, MMD and cluster analysis find MLC's closest affinities to the Chenchu, a living tribal group of Andhra Pradesh. This result contradicts earlier assertions based on osteological assessment that descendants of Mesolithic foragers of North India (MLC) cannot be identified in the Indian subcontinent. The next closest affinity is with Chalcolithic and Neolithic groups of Pakistan and with a late Chalcolithic group (INM) of west central India. As knowledge of the dental morphology of living and prehistoric South Asians increases, the population history of the subcontinent and its role in understanding world-wide patterns of migration will be clarified. PMID:24050393

Lukacs, John R; Pal, J N

2013-12-01

477

Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism plays an import role in avalanche formation. When gradients based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, faceting close to a crust can be observed. Recent studies that visualised small-scale (< 10 cm) thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR) camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large-scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within these studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or shovel produced small concavities (holes) even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which was only observed at times during a strong cooling/warming of the exposed pit wall. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed more slowly compared with convex areas (bumps) when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative and/or turbulent energy transfer at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of using a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly during windy conditions, clear skies and large temperature differences between air and snow. At crusts or other heterogeneities, we were unable to create a sufficiently planar snow pit surface and non-internal gradients appeared at the exposed surface. The immediate adjustment of snow pit temperature as it reacts with the atmosphere complicates the capture of the internal thermal structure of a snowpack with thermal videos. Instead, the shown structural dependency of the IR signal may be used to detect structural changes of snow caused by kinetic metamorphism. The IR signal can also be used to measure near surface temperatures in a homogenous new snow layer.

Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

2014-03-01

478

Individual quality, survival variation and patterns of phenotypic selection on body condition and timing of nesting in birds.  

PubMed

Questions about individual variation in "quality" and fitness are of great interest to evolutionary and population ecologists. Such variation can be investigated using either a random effects approach or an approach that relies on identifying observable traits that are themselves correlated with fitness components. We used the latter approach with data from 1,925 individual females of three species of ducks (tufted duck, Aythya fuligula; common pochard, Aythya ferina; northern shoveler, Anas clypeata) sampled on their breeding grounds at Engure Marsh, Latvia, for over 15 years. Based on associations with reproductive output, we selected two traits, one morphological (relative body condition) and one behavioral (relative time of nesting), that can be used to characterize individual females over their lifetimes. We then asked whether these traits were related to annual survival probabilities of nesting females. We hypothesized quadratic, rather than monotonic, relationships based loosely on ideas about the likely action of stabilizing selection on these two traits. Parameters of these relationships were estimated directly using ultrastructural models embedded within capture-recapture-band-recovery models. Results provided evidence that both traits were related to survival in the hypothesized manner. For all three species, females that tended to nest earlier than the norm exhibited the highest survival rates, but very early nesters experienced reduced survival and late nesters showed even lower survival. For shovelers, females in average body condition showed the highest survival, with lower survival rates exhibited by both heavy and light birds. For common pochard and tufted duck, the highest survival rates were associated with birds of slightly above-average condition, with somewhat lower survival for very heavy birds and much lower survival for birds in relatively poor condition. Based on results from this study and previous work on reproduction, we conclude that nest initiation date and body condition covary with both reproductive and survival components of fitness. These associations lead to a positive covariance of these two fitness components within individuals and to the conclusion that these two traits are indeed correlates of individual quality. PMID:15657762

Blums, Peter; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Lindberg, Mark S; Mednis, Aivars

2005-04-01

479

Evaluating TerraSAR-X for the identification of tillage occurrence over an agricultural area in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tillage practices can affect the long term sustainability of agricultural soils as well as a variety of soil processes that impact the environment. The benefits of reduced tillage and no-till practices over agriculture fields are well documented and include: (1) significant reductions in wind and water erosion mitigating nutrient and pesticide runoff into waterways; (2) increasing and/or maintaining soil organic matter; (3) increasing biological activity and improving soil structure; and (4) increasing soil carbon and its sequestration. Information on tillage activities assists in implementing policies and programs to promote beneficial management practices (BMPs), and in monitoring the success of these initiatives. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada supports environmentally responsible agriculture and has identified this as one of their priorities. Thus, tillage information requirements have become increasingly important to a number of programs and policies within the department. Rapid, accurate and objective methods are required to map and monitor tillage activities. Earth observing satellites can assist with targeting and monitoring land management activities. For the last decade, research has clearly demonstrated that complementary information provided by both optical and radar satellite sensors are fundamental in developing an agricultural land management monitoring system. Launched in June 2007, the TerraSAR-X is a radar satellite acquiring data at the X-band frequency (9.6 GHz). The application of TerraSAR-X data for conservation tillage mapping has been somewhat limited, and thus this study investigates its use in determining tillage occurrence. An HH-HV TerraSAR-X image was acquired on November 4, 2009 and ground data were also collected characterizing tillage conditions at the time of acquisition. Backscatter responses were analyzed to identify tillage occurrence and to differentiate between untilled, chiseled and moldboard ploughed fields. Preliminary analysis showed that HH polarization can better contribute to tillage discrimination than compared to HV polarization and that the backscatter response can be used to discriminate untilled fields from ones that are moldboard ploughed. However, chiseled fields were often confused with highroughness (rms height~1.30 cm) untilled fields and moldboard ploughed fields. Fully polarimetric X-band radar datasets could potentially contribute more information to mapping tillage conditions.

Pacheco, Anna M.; McNairn, Heather; Merzouki, Amine

2010-10-01

480

Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a gopher, it periodically stops advancing at the end of the hole to bring excavated material (in this case, a core sample) to the surface, then re-enters the hole to resume the advance of the end of the hole. By use of a cable suspended from a reel on the surface, the gopher is lifted from the hole to remove a core sample, then lowered into the hole to resume the advance and acquire the next core sample.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

2009-01-01

481

Control of Structure in Conventional Friction Stir Welds through a Kinematic Theory of Metal Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating pin is translated along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. Metal is prevented from flowing up the pin, which would result in plowing/cutting instead of welding, by a shoulder on the pin. In conventional FSW, the weld metal rests on an "anvil", which supports the heavy "plunge" load on the tool. In this study, both embedded tungsten wires along and copper plating on the faying surfaces were used to trace the flow of AA2219 weld metal around the C-FSW tool. The effect of tool rotational speed, travel speed, plunge load, and pin thread pitch on the resulting weld metal flow was evaluated. Plan, longitudinal, and transverse section x-ray radiographs were examined to trace the metal flow paths. The results are interpreted in terms of a kinematic theory of metal flow in FSW.

Rubisoff, H.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Nunes, A.C.

2009-01-01

482

Vegetation dynamics of a native haymeadow, a grazed meadow, and an oldfield within the San Antonio Prairie of Texas  

E-print Network

investigated. ~tchizach 1 a~earl, A~dr o on 5 ra dii. 5~oh st m n ta s, d Panic ~it m wer p omine t in e a t pr iris plots t o y a s after plo i S (Rice and p fo nd le5a). Ambrosia ~silost ch s the domi ant species the f1rst grow1ng season but nearly... fetid ~oil a tha the dominant grass of plowed plots and an increase of Ambrosia ~ilosta h ~ I g*ly r sp lhl fo th I s f fo hs. A portion of the total flora of any plant community is contributed by the soil seed bank. The seed bank is the store...

Hightower, Terry Paul

1987-01-01

483

Investigation of Spatial Distribution of Radiocesium in a Paddy Field as a Potential Sink  

PubMed Central

Surface soils, under various land uses, were contaminated by radionuclides that were released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Because paddy fields are one of the main land uses in Japan, we investigated the spatial distribution of radiocesium and the influence of irrigation water in a paddy field during cultivation. Soil core samples collected at a paddy field in Fukushima showed that plowing had disturbed the original depth distribution of radiocesium. The horizontal distribution of radiocesium did not show any evidence for significant influence of radiocesium from irrigation water, and its accumulation within the paddy field, since the original amount of radiocesium was much larger than was added into the paddy field by irrigation water. However, it is possible that rainfall significantly increases the loading of radiocesium. PMID:24260481

Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi

2013-01-01

484

Impact of reclamation treatment on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex in Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance and activity of the soil microflora were studied in a field experiment with the use of green manure crops to assess the impact of reclamation measures on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex. The number of microorganisms in the plow soil horizon increased in the background of the green fallows as compared to the black ones. Coefficients of mineralization, immobilization, and transformation of organic compounds were calculated for different variants of the soil treatment. The value of the mineralization coefficient indicates the intense decomposition of the green manure that entered the soil. In the first year, peas were actively decomposed, while oats, in the second year (aftereffect). The activity of the soil enzymes (invertase, urease, and catalase) was determined. A close relationship between the catalase activity and the intensity of the microbiological processes in the soils was revealed.

Berezin, L. V.; Khamova, O. F.; Paderina, E. V.; Gindemit, A. M.

2014-11-01

485

Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Data from twelve successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay have been analyzed with special emphasis on coastal vegetation, land use, current circulation, water turbidity and pollution dispersion. Secchi depth, suspended sediment concentration and transmissivity as measured from helicopters and boats were correlated with ERTS-1 image radiance. Multispectral signatures of acid disposal plumes, sediment plumes and slick were investigated. Ten vegetative cover and water discrimination classes were selected for mapping: (1) forest-land; (2) Phragmites communis; (3) Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata; (4) Spartina alterniflora; (5) cropland; (6) plowed cropland; (7) sand and bare sandy soil; (8) bare mud; (9) deep water; and (10) sediment-laden and shallow water. Canonical analysis predicted good classification accuracies for most categories. The actual classification accuracies were very close to the predicted values with 8 of 10 categories classified with greater than 90% accuracy indicating that representative training sets had been selected.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator); Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Davis, G. R.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L.

1974-01-01

486

A method for sampling waste corn  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

1984-01-01

487

Application of magnetic tracer method for quantification of pedoturbations in soils under different land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pedoturbations are widely known and good classified by scientists. It is known 10 types of pedoturbations, allocated by F.D. Hole (1961) and supplemented by D.L. Johnson and collaborators (1987). They influence on many soil properties and also on migration substances (including pollutants). But there is a lack of data of quantitative assessments of pedoturbations especially in soils under different land use. In this paper are shown approaches for the use of magnetic tracer method for assessments of pedoturbation processes. This method is widely spread for study lateral solid phase soil matter (soil erosion), but first use for study pedoturbations. Magnetic tracer method is based on study of spherical magnetic particles (SMP) in soils. Origin of SMP is mainly connected with atmospheric deposition of fly ash, resulting from coal burning in steam engines of locomotives and thermal electric power stations. The period of active emission of SMP is the last 150 years. Magnetic spherules are stable and resistant to soil weathering and can be preserved in soils for decades without any clear signs of destruction. In European part of Russia and Middle West USA were analyzed 63 soil profiles under virgin forest and steppe vegetation and croplands. Vertical distribution of SMP in the upper 30 cm divided into 5 types: a) residually accumulative, b) not uniform with maximum in the upper 10 cm, c) not uniform with maximum in the 10-20 cm, d) not uniform with maximum in the 20-30 cm, e) gomogeneous. Vertical distribution of SMP reflects intensity of pedoturbations, because SMP migrate into the soils only from the atmospheric depositions. Labeled types of SMP vertical distribution are listed in order of increasing intensity of the pedoturbation. Most intensive pedoturbations are detected in arable soils. Depending on the region arable soils characterized by highest percentage of soil profiles with homogenous type of SMP distribution (up to 17%) and lowest percentage of soil profiles with residually accumulative SMP distribution (15-75%). Revealed the important role of type of plowing. On two sites in Russia with depleted type of plowing detected very high intensity of pedoturbation - homogenous type of SMP distribution was in 8-17% of soils and accumulative type - in 15-25%. Otherwise on two sites in the Middle West USA with moldboard type of plowing, homogenous type was much less (in 0-8% of soils) and accumulative type was 2-3 times more (55-75%). In virgin soils intensity of pedoturbations is much less, homogenous type of SMP distribution is not detected in any soil profiles. Furthermore on two virgin forest sites in USA and Russia percentage of soils with initial accumulative type of SMP distribution was 100%. On site in virgin steppe region of Russia - 85% of soils characterized by initial accumulative type and other 15% by not uniform with maximum in the upper 10 cm. Only on one site in forest region of Russia percentage of initial accumulative type of SMP distribution was rather low and even less than on arable soils with moldboard type of plowing - 67%.

Zhidkin, Andrey; Gennadiyev, Alexander

2014-05-01

488

Observations on the grinding of alumina with variations in belt speed, load, sample rotation, and grinding fluids  

SciTech Connect

The volume of material removed in the grinding of alumina on a diamond-impregnated grinding belt was studied. Four grinding process parameters were tested: belt speed, normal load at the pin's contact surface, sample rotation during grinding, and grinding fluid. The results showed that at low loads the belts speed did not have a significant effect on material removal rates; however, the material removal rate decreased at higher loads combined with higher speeds. It decreased, in particular, when the sample was also rotated. Of the fluids used, the 50% ethylene glycol--50% water mixture produced the highest material removal rates while the lowest were produced by biodegradable soybean oil. The test conditions that produced high temperatures at the contact surface contributed to plowing as opposed to cutting and resulted in reduced material removal rates. The reasons for these variations were investigated by scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces, which revealed evidence of plastic deformation and temperature rise during grinding.

Schwartz, C.J.; Bahadur, S.

1998-07-01

489

Effects of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and its influence on the topography of the Fe thin film grown in pulsed laser deposition facility  

SciTech Connect

The effect of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in laser induced Fe plasma is investigated using time-resolved fast gated imaging. The snow plow and shock wave models are fitted to the experimental results and used to estimate the ablation parameters and the density of gas atoms that interact with the ablated species. It is observed that RT instability develops during the interface deceleration stage and grows for a considerable time for higher laser energy fluence. The effects of RT instabilities formation on the surface topography of the Fe thin films grown in pulsed laser deposition system are investigated (i) using different laser energy fluences for the same wavelength of laser radiation and (ii) using different laser wavelengths keeping the energy fluence fixed. It is concluded that the deposition achieved under turbulent condition leads to less smooth deposition surfaces with bigger sized particle agglomerates or network.

Mahmood, S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Rawat, R. S.; Wang, Y.; Lee, S.; Tan, T. L.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, P. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

2012-10-15

490

Dry Sliding Wear Characteristics of Gravity Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the wear behavior of conventional cast Mg-Sn-based alloys. The alloys were studied through pin- on- disk wear test under four different loading conditions; namely, 9.8, 19.6, 29.4, and 39.2 N. The study highlights the cumulative wear loss, volumetric wear loss, dry sliding wear rate, and coefficient of friction of the alloys. The volumetric wear increased with increasing applied load. The wear mechanism was studied with scanning electron microscope. The wear occurs mainly by plowing mechanism and also by delamination. During wear, extensive plastic deformation and work hardening occurred. Microstructural analysis has been carried out for all the alloys at different loading conditions.

Poddar, Palash; Das, Arpan; Sahoo, K. L.

2014-04-01

491

Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.  

PubMed

The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. PMID:25771345

Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

2015-06-01

492

Circumstellar material around the massive close binary DH Cephei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expanding atmosphere of the massive close binary DH Cephei is analyzed on the basis of data from ground-based polarimetry and spaceborne UV observations obtained with the IUE satellite. The mass loss from the system is estimated to be about 2 x 10 to the -6th solar mass/yr. This material can be divided into three classes: (1) wind material, which is hot gas driven from the stars via radiation pressure and reaching terminal velocity at a distance of 5a or greater; (2) scattering material, which may be the result of colliding winds or instabilities in the wind flow; and (3) small (0.1 micron) dust grains. The latter may originate in the cold high-density boundary formed as the wind from the binary plows into the ambient interstellar medium or, alternatively, may be the residue of the formation of stellar components.

Corcoran, M. F.

1991-01-01

493

Soil Fumigation: Principles and Application Technology  

PubMed Central

The principal soil fumigants and their order of discovery are carbon disulfide, chloropicrin, methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, ethylene dibromide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and methyl isothiocyanate. Biological activity of soil fumigants ranges from limited to broad spectrum. Fumigants diffuse through the continuous soil air space as gases. Physical and chemical characteristics determine diffusion rates, distribution between the soil air and moisture, and sorption onto and into the soil particles. The principal soil factors affecting the efficacy of each treatment are the size and continuity of air space, moisture, temperature, organic matter, and depth of placement. Application can be made overall with tractor injection or plow-sole, or as a row or bed treatment. Treatment for trees is best made in conjunction with tree site backhoeing. PMID:19287772

Lembright, H. W.

1990-01-01

494

Supra-bubble regime for laser acceleration of coldelectron beams in tenuous plasma  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic electrons can be accelerated by an ultraintense laser pulse in the "supra-bubble" regime, that is, in the blow-out regime ahead of the plasma bubble (as opposed to the conventional method, when particles remain inside the bubble). The acceleration is caused by the ponderomotive force of the pulse, via the so-called snow-plow mechanism. The maximum energy gain, ?? ~ ?g a, is attained when the particle Lorentz factor ? is initially about ?g/a, where ?g is the pulse group speed Lorentz factor, and a is the laser parameter, proportional to the laser field amplitude. The scheme operates at a ? ?g, yielding ?? of up to that via wakefield acceleration for the same plasma and laser parameters, ?? ~ ?2g. The interaction length is shorter than that for the wake field mechanism but grows with the particle energy, hindering acceleration in multiple stages.

Geyko, V. I.; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.; Fraiman, G. M.

2009-01-18

495

Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

Robson, Stanley G.

1977-01-01

496

An Augmented Lagrangian Method for Sliding Contact of Soft Tissue  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of sliding contact in diarthrodial joints, only a limited number of studies have addressed this type of problem, with the result that mechanical behavior of articular cartilage in daily life remains poorly understood. In this paper, a finite element formulation is developed for the sliding contact of biphasic soft tissues. The Augmented Lagrangian method is used to enforce the continuity of contact traction and fluid pressure across the contact interface. The resulting method is implemented in the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics. The accuracy of the new implementation is verified using an example problem of sliding contact between a rigid, impermeable indenter and a cartilage layer for which analytical solutions have been obtained. The new implementation’s capability to handle a complex loading regime is verified by modeling plowing tests of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc. PMID:22938363

Guo, Hongqiang; Nickel, Jeffrey C.; Iwasaki, Laura R.; Spilker, Robert L.

2012-01-01

497

Tribological behavior of Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings deposited by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings are deposited on high speed steel by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering, and the hardness, adhesion, and tribological behavior are studied. On account of the nanocomposite structure, the coatings possess hardness of more than 30 GPa. Failure of the coating during the scratch test is due to the buckling and wedge spallation failure mechanism. Compared to Ti-Al-Si-N, the presence of C in the Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings leads to reduced friction coefficient and wear rate, indicating effective lubrication rendered by amorphous C. According to the wear tracks examined by scanning electron microscopy, the wear mechanism can be explained by plowing abrasion.

Wu Guizhi; Ma Shengli; Xu Kewei; Chu, Paul K [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2012-03-15

498

The influence of pine forests of different ages on the biological activity of layland soils in the middle Angara River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of pine forests of different ages (from 25 to 85 years) restoring on old plow land soils is reflected in the biological processes proceeding in them. The drastic decrease in the absolute and relative number of actinomycetes, along with an increase of the fungal population in the microbial complexes of the soils (within the whole profiles), indicates that the microbocenoses acquire “forest” properties. In the soils under the younger pine forests, the processes of microbiological mineralization and specific respiration activity are more active than in the soils under the older pine forests. With the age of the pine forests, the soil profiles become more differentiated according to the eluvial-illuvial type.

Sorokina, O. A.; Sorokin, N. D.

2007-05-01

499

Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Imperial Valley, Coachella Valley, and Palo Verde Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to date has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.

1974-01-01

500

A summary of Viking sample-trench analyses for angles of internal friction and cohesions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses of sample trenches excavated on Mars, using a theory for plowing by narrow blades, provide estimates of the angles of internal friction and the cohesions of the Martian surface materials. Angles of internal friction appear to be the same as those of many terrestrial soils because they are generally between 27 degrees and 39 degrees. Drift material, at the Lander 1 site, has a low angle of internal friction (near 18 degrees). All the materials excavated have low cohesions, generally between 0.2 and 10 kPa. The occurrence of cross bedding, layers of crusts, and blocky slabs shows that these materials are heterogeneous and that they contain planes of weakness. The results reported here have significant implications for future landed missions, Martian eolian processes, and interpretation of infrared temperatures.

Moore, H. J.; Clow, G. D.; Hutton, R. E.

1982-01-01