Sample records for chisel plow shovel

  1. Pegasus plow

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1997-04-01

    The Pagasus plow is a new implement for one-pass cotton plowdown. The Pagasus is unique in that it is capable of burying the whole cotton stalk without shredding. A very simple and reliable machine, the Pagasus gives the cotton farmer the option of using controlled traffic tillage without sacrificing good residue burial of easy machine maintenance.

  2. Smarter shovels dig and load more efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-04-15

    Digital drive upgrades allow older shovels to power through the bank smoothly while improving safety and reliability. The Mine Technology Group of Flanders Electric has pioneered an effort to offer open architecture for shovel electrics by installing Power Performance Digital Drive controls to motors to ensure peak power is provided during the digging process. The new system also has a Smart Fault Recognition system to power down in a controlled fashion. The upgrades have been fitted to Asarco's shovel for use in coal mining operations. 1 fig., 1 photos. 4 figs.

  3. Productivity considerations for shovels and excavators

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-09-15

    During Haulage and Loading 2007, the Engineering and Mining Journal organized an OEM round table discussion with the theme 'Reducing cycle times'. Seven panelists identified areas where they could improve cycle times for open-pit mining. Although the discussions focused mainly on haud trucks, two panelists discussed shovel productivity as it relates to cycle times. Topics ranged from truck-shovel pass matching to payload management. A clear message came through that all the minutes saved per cycle meant nothing if the mine did not have a properly trained operator. The article reports on the discussions. 4 figs.

  4. Smarter shovels dig and load more efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-03-15

    Digital drive upgrades allow older shovels to power through the bank smoothly while improving safety and reliability. Flanders Electric is currently working on the third of five electric shovel upgrades which consists of Flandex Electric manufactured motors, Allen-Bradley PLCs and the Power Performance Digital Drive upgrade. With an open system, or open architecture, mine operators can service and maintain machines where a close system would limit the electricians to work with the OEMs exclusively. Typically, upgrades replace the old analog or an older digital drive with a new Power Performance Digital Drive upgrade. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  5. Plowing Cables Under the Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Duncan

    1969-01-01

    The principal cause of submarine telephone cable failures has been fishing activities on the continental shelf, particularly in the Western Atlantic area. The Bell System has conducted extensive investigation of methods of burying these cables in the affected area to eliminate this hazard. This has culminated in the development of a unique underwater plow which was used successfully in July

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of the CHISEL flash memory cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff D. Bude; Mark R. Pinto; R. Kent Smith

    2000-01-01

    This work shows how physically-based hot carrier simulation was used to understand the importance of CHannel Initiated Secondary ELectron (CHISEL) injection in scaled MOSFETs, and how it was used to develop a powerful CHISEL-based technique for low voltage flash programming. Furthermore, it is shown how CHISEL flash addresses many of the disadvantages of CHE programming techniques, making it an ideal

  7. Performance, degradation monitors, and reliability of the CHISEL injection regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Driussi; David Esseni; Luca Selmi

    2004-01-01

    This work reviews recent results concerning the performance and reliability of the channel initiated secondary electron (CHISEL) injection regime, often used to boost the programming speed of Flash memories. In order to relate the CHISEL behavior to the physical conditions existing in the device, the injection efficiency of CHISEL is studied on single transistors. A comparison between the degradation in

  8. Long-term foraging optimization in northern shovelers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. DuBowy

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I attempt to explain the seasonal foraging strategy employed by male northern shovelers (Anas clypeata). Through the use of dynamic-optimization modeling I demonstrate that male shovelers are optimizing total foraging time over the entire summer by foraging heavily when resources (cladocerans) are abundant and utilizing endogenous reserves during times when resources are in short supply. Additionally, I

  9. OEM unveil new ideas for shovels and excavators

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-08-15

    From upgrades to new loading arrangements, vendors are looking at new ways to optimize the production process. The paper describes P & M equipment's new C series electric shovels equipped with the centurion system, Hitachi's super-sized excavator to Canadian oil sands, and Bucyrus and Siemens' engineer shovels. 3 figs., 1 photo.

  10. Electric shovels meet the demands for mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    Rugged, intelligent shovels offer better productivity and help mine operators avoid costly downtime in a very tight market. In 2007 P & H Mining Equipment began to produce a new breed of electric mining shovels designed to help reduce operating cost in coal and other mining operations. These were designated the P & H C-Series. All have an advanced communication, command and control system called the Centurion system. Coal mining applications for this series include 4100XPCs in Australia, China and Wyoming, USA. The Centurion system provides information on shovel performance and systems health which is communicated via graphic user interface terminals to the operators cab. Bucyrus International is developing a hydraulic crowd mechanism for its electric shovels and is now field testing one for its 495 series shovel. The company has also added greater capability in the primary software in the drive system for troubleshooting and fault identification to quickly diagnose problems onboard or remotely. 4 photos.

  11. GRADE CONTROL CAPABILITY OF CANTILEVER DRAINAGE PLOWS UNDER EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate multiple pull-behind drainage plows under the same experimental conditions while including a self-propelled drainage plow. The study included a Soil-Max Gold Digger 3-point mounted drainage plow, a Liebrecht drawbar-pull drainage plow and a Hoes can...

  12. An atypical clay shoveler's fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Victor B; Astri, Frank

    2001-01-01

    A case of an atypical clay shoveler's fracture with involvement of the spinolaminar line is described. Causative mechanisms of injury, radiographic appearances, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are reviewed. Classic clay shoveler's fractures are considered stable fractures. However, when the spinolaminar line is disrupted, spinal cord involvement must be ruled out. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4aFigure 4bFigure 5Figure 6

  13. International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery Show in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery show. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.

  14. HISTORY OF PLOWING OVER TEN THOUSAND YEARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historical lessons from plow-related erosion and soil degradation may contribute to present day social stability and sustainable agriculture. Agriculture originated 10 to 13 millennia ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, mostly along the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Indus and Yangtze River vall...

  15. Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Larry

    This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  16. RUNNER BOX MAINTENANCE. FRANK FEHER USES A COMPRESSED AIRPOWERED CHISEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RUNNER BOX MAINTENANCE. FRANK FEHER USES A COMPRESSED AIR-POWERED CHISEL TO CHIP OUT CONGEALED METAL IN PREPARATION FOR ANOTHER HEAT. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. Rotylenchulus reniformis below Plow Depth Suppresses Cotton Yield and Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A. F.; Cook, C. G.; Westphal, A.; Bradford, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Damage to cotton by Rotylenchulus reniformis below plow depth was evaluated in a sandy clay loam soil at Weslaco, Texas. In December 1999, 14 holes on 51-cm centers were dug 91 cm deep along the planting bed and adjacent furrow and 2 ml of 1,3-dichloropropene was placed 91, 61, and 30 cm deep as each hole was refilled and packed. This technique eliminated 96%, 81%, and 74% of R. reniformis down to 107 cm at distances 0, 25, and 51 cm laterally from the point of application (P ? 0.05), whereas chisel fumigation at 168 liters/ha 43 cm deep reduced nematode numbers only in the top 61 cm (P ? 0.001). Manual placement of fumigant increased yield 92%; chisel fumigation increased yield 88% (P ? 0.005). A second experiment in February 2001 placed fumigant 43 or 81 cm deep, or at both 43 and 81 cm. Holes alone had no significant effect on nematode density at planting, midseason or harvest, on root length density at midseason, or on cotton lint yield. Fumigant at 43 cm reduced nematode numbers above fumigant application depth at planting 94% (P ? 0.02), at midseason 37% (P ? 0.09), and at harvest 0%, increasing yield 57% (P ? 0.002). Fumigant at 81 cm reduced nematode numbers above fumigant application depth at planting 86% (P ? 0.02), at midseason 74% (P ? 0.02), and at harvest 48% (P ? 0.01), increasing yield 53% (P ? 0.002). Fumigating at both 43 and 81 cm reduced nematode numbers above 90 cm 94% at planting and 79% at midseason, increased midseason root-length density 14-fold below 76 cm, and doubled yield (P ? 0.02 in all cases). PMID:19262875

  18. Chisel: Reliability-and Accuracy-Aware Optimization of Approximate Computational Kernels

    E-print Network

    Suresh, Subra

    Chisel: Reliability- and Accuracy-Aware Optimization of Approximate Computational Kernels Sasa produces and the corre- sponding fully accurate result. The reliability of the computation performance, exhibit reduced reliability and/or accuracy. We present Chisel, a system for reliability

  19. EVALUATION OF FORESTRY PLOW ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR SITE PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this field study, data were collected to determine energy requirements of trailing site preparation plows and the magnitudes of dynamic forces experienced by a plow during normal operation and during impact with stumps or other obstructions. Drawbar pull data were collected from five different t...

  20. Hardware Construction in Chisel Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

    E-print Network

    Asanoviæ, Krste

    /EECS-2013-98.html May 17, 2013 #12;Copyright © 2013, by the author(s). All rights reserved. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted. All hardware design in Chisel boils down to writ

  1. Cutting and chiseling assembly for mining machine and method performed thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Mendola, C.F.

    1982-11-23

    An ore dislodging mechanism and a method are claimed for extracting ore from a vein which greatly increase productivity and reduce health hazards when compared with previous devices and methods. The ore dislodging mechanism includes a chisel bar which is forced into the ore vein to dislodge ore therefrom, and an elevated means for raising the chisel bar in a substantially vertical manner so that each extraction made by the chisel bar is parallel with previous extractions. Side cutters extend vertical kerfs along the sides of the chisel bar and the chisel bar breaks down the coal between the kerfs. The method includes the steps of undercutting a vein of ore, extending at least one vertical relief cut upwardly from the undercut, forcing a chisel bar into the vein of ore, thereby dislodging the ore therefrom, and raising the means for cutting the relief cuts and the chisel bar mechanism to make progressively higher extractions parallel with lower extractions.

  2. BIOENERGETICS OF BREEDING NORTHERN SHOVELERS: DIET, NUTRIENT RESERVES, CLUTCH SIZE, AND INCUBATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. DAVISON ANKNEY; ALAN D. AFTON

    1988-01-01

    We analyzed food habits, digestive organs, and nutrient reserves (lipid, protein, and mineral) of male and female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata) nesting in southern Manitoba. We studied shovelers because, on an annual basis, they consume more animal matter than do other Anas spp. Thus, they are ideal subjects for testing the hypothesis that the inability of female ducks to obtain

  3. Cheatgrass communities: effect of plowing on species composition and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-year-old cheatgrass communities were disturbed by experimentally plowing small plots, Cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum L., promptly invaded the plowed plots. Plowing enhanced plant production at the high elevation site, 520 m, but depressed production at the low elevation site, 320 m, during a year of near normal precipitation in 1976. During the 1977 drought, plant production was very low at both study sites, but productivity was most depressed at the low elevation site. Possible factors in the explanation of results are discussed.

  4. A northern shoveler swims in the waters of KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The broad, distinctive bill is a primary feature of this northern shoveler, paddling in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at Kennedy Space Center. Typically found in western Canada, Alaska, Colorado and Southern California, it can also be found farther east and south, wintering in the United States along the southeast coast. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds. The 92,000-acre refuge is also habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  5. [Test and gather data on sweep spike combination tillage tool]. Quarterly technical report, August 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lukach, J.

    1992-06-19

    This summary presents the data accumulated to date with only brief comment. It is prepared with the intent that the viewers will offer advice on terminology, data presentation, methods and other. The year end analysis will detail changes in the data due to the tillage treatments. The data is incomplete due to equipment problems and time limitations due to the wet fall and early freeze up. The trial was not completed due to our inability to get the Mikkelsen Chisel Plow Shovel (MCP), a 16 inch sweep with an anhydrous knife, to penetrate untilled land. The MCP shovel penetrated to deep on plowed ground and pulled so hard that the front wheels of our JD4440 tractor were jerked off the ground. The Standard Chisel Plow Shovels (SCP), a 16 inch sweep, worked well and the data is included.

  6. (Test and gather data on sweep spike combination tillage tool)

    SciTech Connect

    Lukach, J.

    1992-06-19

    This summary presents the data accumulated to date with only brief comment. It is prepared with the intent that the viewers will offer advice on terminology, data presentation, methods and other. The year end analysis will detail changes in the data due to the tillage treatments. The data is incomplete due to equipment problems and time limitations due to the wet fall and early freeze up. The trial was not completed due to our inability to get the Mikkelsen Chisel Plow Shovel (MCP), a 16 inch sweep with an anhydrous knife, to penetrate untilled land. The MCP shovel penetrated to deep on plowed ground and pulled so hard that the front wheels of our JD4440 tractor were jerked off the ground. The Standard Chisel Plow Shovels (SCP), a 16 inch sweep, worked well and the data is included.

  7. Seasonal variations of steroid hormones and triiodothyronine concentrations in migratory northern shovelers.

    PubMed

    Elarabany, N F; Abdallah, G A; Said, A E

    2012-04-01

    Endogenous serum testosterone, estradiol, and triiodothyronine concentrations were measured in the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata, n = 20) during different stages of migratory condition at their wintering grounds to look at how these hormones may be linked to the development of migratory condition. These hormones were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in hormones concentrations were parallel to each other and correspond to the increasing day lengths of spring. Furthermore, the northern shovelers showed a distinct seasonal cycle in serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, estradiol, and testosterone. It is suggested that these seasonal cycles in the northern shovelers are endogenously programmed and their entrainment to the environmental photoperiod ensures the occurrence of different physiological functions at temporally fixed time of the year. The results of this study offer a captive model of the seasonal changes in physiology and behavior that occur in the months preceding and including vernal migration of the northern shovelers. PMID:22331661

  8. PLOWING TO REDUCE SURFACE STRATIFICATION OF PHOSPHORUS IN MANURED SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continual applications of fertilizer and manure can lead to an accumulation of P at the soil surface, which in turn increases the potential for P loss in overland flow. To investigate the feasibility of redistributing surface stratified P within the soil profile by plowing, Mehlich-3 P rich surface...

  9. NMU plows plastic, aluminum pipe in Alberta rural gas program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1975-01-01

    A grant from the Alberta government and plastic and aluminum pipe plowing-in have allowed Northwestern Utilities Ltd., Edmonton, to extend natural gas service to outlying rural communities. One of the first areas to receive service under the new financing arrangement was a mixed farming district near Edmonton. The project, known as the Beaverhill Gas Coop, involved a 350 sq mile

  10. 2D/3D Topography Comparisons of 10 Consecutively Manufactured Chisels and Punches

    E-print Network

    Perkins, Richard A.

    2D/3D Topography Comparisons of 10 Consecutively Manufactured Chisels and Punches Through the Cross Manufactured Punches · Punch ­ Impression Toolmark Creation · Punch ­ Measurement and Analysis · Conclusions 3 (striated toolmarks) and punches (impression toolmarks). · Can consecutively manufactured tools still

  11. PARASITES OF WATERFOWL FROM SOUTHWEST TEXAS: II. THE SHOVELER, Anas clypeata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOROTHY BRODERSON; ALBERT G. CANARIS; JOHN R. BRISTOL

    Thirty-eight shoveler ducks, Anas clypeata, were collected in the Rio Grande Valley, Hudspeth County, Texas. Nineteen species of helminths, six species of lice and a sarcosporidian, Sancocystis nileyi, were recorded. Seventeen of the nine- teen species of helminths were observed in fall migrants and twelve species were recorded from spring migrants. The nematode A\\/if ilania pochandi Au, 1969, is a

  12. Distribution and status of wintering Shovelers Anas clypeata in Great Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Kirkby; C. Mitchell

    1993-01-01

    The distribution and status of Shovelers using British wetlands in autumn and winter was examined using ringing recoveries and National Waterfowl Count data. Maximum counts have been around 8500 and suggest a total population of c. 10 000. Some of these birds originate from north-west continental Europe, eastern Scandinavia and the Western former USSR, whilst others originate from British breeding

  13. Ingestion of lead and nontoxic shot by Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) and Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata) from the mid-Gulf Coast of Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Drew A; Fedynich, Alan M; Smith, Autumn J; Ferro, Pamela J; Butler, David A; Peterson, Markus J; Lupiani, Blanca

    2011-07-01

    Ninety-eight Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) and 84 Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) gizzards were examined for ingested shot. One Northern Shoveler had lead and three had steel shot; 24 teal and 17 shovelers had composite nontoxic shot or nonlead metal fragments. Prevalence of ingested lead appears minimal and consistent with other studies conducted after lead-shot bans. PMID:21719854

  14. PARASITES OF WATERFOWL FROM SOUTHWEST TEXAS: II. THE SHOVELER, Anas clypeata.

    PubMed

    Broderson, D; Canaris, A G; Bristol, J R

    1977-10-01

    Thirty-eight shoveler ducks, Anas clypeata , were collected in the Rio Grande Valley, Hudspeth County, Texas. Nineteen species of helminths, six species of lice and a sarcosporidian, Sarcocystis rileyi , were recorded. Seventeen of the nineteen species of helminths were observed in fall migrants and twelve species were recorded from spring migrants. The nematode Alifilaria pochardi Ali, 1969, is a new host and American record. PMID:24228969

  15. GRADE CONTROL CAPABILITY OF A PULL-BEHIND PLOW UNDER EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research objective was to test the grade control capability of the Liebrecht pull-behind plow. The plow's installation performance (i.e., grade control and deviations from grade) was compared to specifications in ASTM 449- 97 and selected other criteria. Field research was conducted at The Ohio ...

  16. Movement and Persistence of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in a Soil with a Plow-pan 1

    E-print Network

    Bernard, Ernest

    Movement and Persistence of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in a Soil with a Plow-pan 1 E. C. BERNARD Plain soil containing a sandy plow-pan were enhanced in each of 2 years by subsoiling, increased depth of reduced porosity, the plow-pan was impervious to the passage of DBCP unless disrupted by subsoiling. Key

  17. The relation between the feeding activity of wintering shovelers (Anas clypeata) and the horizontal distribution of zooplankton in Lake Teganuma, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Matsubara; Fumio Sugimori; Kiyoshi Iwabuchi; Kanji Aoyama

    1994-01-01

    We investigated seasonal changes in the number and feeding activity of Shovelers wintering in Lake Teganuma in connection with temporal and horizontal fluctuations of zooplankton, and analyzed esophageal contents of a captured Shoveler. Zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers followed by copepods during the study period. Horizontal distribution of both invertebrate taxa differed; rotifers most abundant in the western and

  18. Comparison of Drilling Performance of Chisel and Button Bits on the Electro Hydraulic Driller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Okan; Yarali, Olgay; Akcin, Nuri Ali

    2013-11-01

    Electro hydraulic drillers have been widely used in mining for drilling and roof-bolting. In the drilling process, the performance of the machine is predicted by selecting an appropriate bit type prior to drilling operations. In this paper, a series of field drilling studies were conducted in order to examine and compare the performance of chisel and button bits including wear on the bits. The effects of taper angle on chisel bits, which are at angles of 105°, 110° and 120°, were investigated in terms of rate of penetration, instantaneous drilling rate and specific energy. The results of drilling and abrasivity tests performed in the laboratory supported the outcome of the field studies. Based on laboratory studies and field observations, it was proven that the conglomerate encountered, though it is very abrasive, is easy to drill. The cutter life in the encountered series is also longer in sandstone formation compared to the conglomerate. Additionally, button bits resulted in lower specific energy and higher penetration rates relative to chisel bits, regardless of their taper angles. The results were also supported with statistical analyses.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF Sarcocystis sp. (PROTOZOA: SARCOCYSTIDAE) BETWEEN THE SHOVELER (Anas clypeata) DUCK AND THE STRIPED SKUNK (Mephitis mephitis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. CAWTHORN; D. RAINNIE; G. WOBESER

    Muscle containing macroscopic cysts of Sarcocystis sp. from naturally infected wild shoveler (Anas clypeata) ducks was fed to two captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The skunks passed sporocysts in their feces beginning 19 and 22 days post-infection, and continued to pass small numbers of sporocysts sporadically to 63 and 51 days post-infection, respectively. Sporocysts from the skunks were administered orally

  20. Contact laser transurethral surgery using a sapphire chisel probe firing Nd:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkash, Inder

    1995-05-01

    This is a report on a modified technique for use of a contact laser for transurethral surgery to improve voiding in spinal core injury patients. To produce a channel for voiding, chisel sapphire tips are used to deliver adequate Nd:YAG laser energy to vaporize tissue blocking the urethral passage. We present data on 51 spinal cord injury patients (range 29 - 76 years) who had contact laser surgery in the past 22 months. Urodynamic studies showed detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in 82% of patients. On cystoscopic examination prior to surgery, 39% had associated enlargement of the prostate and/or bladder-neck stenosis. Thirty-one percent also had associated strictures in the bulbous urethra. For transurethral resection of the sphincter, a 12 o'clock incision was made by passing the contact probe repeatedly and/or buttonholing and then cutting the overlying tissue. For vaporization of the prostate and eradication of urethral strictures, the contact chisel probe was passed repeatedly over the surface and also buttonholes were drilled. The overlying tissue was incised with the laser chisel. The buttonhole technique expedited the procedure for creation of an adequate urethral channel for voiding. During surgery, there was minimal blood loss of about 25 - 50 ml per procedure except in 2 patients who lost 100 to 150 ml. All except 4 patients voided satisfactorily within 1 to 8 days (mean 2.7 days) when the catheter was removed following surgery. The initial 4 patients who did not void well are also voiding satisfactorily following repeat surgery.

  1. Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) between the shoveler (Anas clypeata) duck and the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Cawthorn, R J; Rainnie, D; Wobeser, G

    1981-07-01

    Muscle containing macroscopic cysts of Sarcocystis sp. from naturally infected wild shoveler (Anas clypeata) ducks was fed to two captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The skunks passed sporocysts in their feces beginning 19 and 22 days post-infection, and continued to pass small numbers of sporocysts sporadically to 63 and 51 days post-infection, respectively. Sporocysts from the skunks were administered orally to four laboratory-reared shovelers. No cysts were found in ducks examined 56 and 84 days post-infection. One duck examined at 85 days post-infection had many microscopic cysts in its skeletal muscle. The remaining duck had numerous small macroscopic cysts in muscle at 154 days post-infection. A skunk fed muscle from this duck began to pass sporocysts on day 18 post-infection. All cysts in muscle (natural and experimental infection) had irregular cauliflower-like projections of the primary cyst wall. PMID:6796702

  2. Comparative ability of northern pintails, gadwalls, and northern shovelers to metabolize foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Feeding trials were used to compare the ability of northern pintails (Anas acuta), gadwalls (A. strepera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) to metabolize energy from a turkey starter ration, alfalfa pellets, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected among the three species for any of the three foods (kg body weight/day basis), for dry matter intake (DMI), body weight gain (BWG), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or metabolized energy (MEE) on any given diet consumed in quantities large enough to promote body weight gain. The AME content of alfalfa was 57% less than the value for turkey starter and 50% less than for barnyardgrass seeds. All three species metabolized more energy and gained weight faster when fed turkey starter. Energy modeling may be facilitated if additional research verifies that all species of dabbling ducks have equal ability to obtain energy from foods available to them in the wild. Behavioral and morphological factors may be more important in defining feeding niches than digestive physiology, at least for the three duck species tested, at the time of year of the experiments, and within the limits of the quality of foods used.

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE AND NITROUS OXIDE FLUXES IN ORGANIC, NO-TILL, AND CHISEL-TILL CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic cropping systems may have the potential to increase soil C sequestration and reduce soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes compared to conventional systems but organic systems are not well studied. We are measuring greenhouse gas fluxes and soil C sequestration in no-till, chisel-till and organic ...

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE AND NITROUS OXIDE FLUXES IN ORGANIC, NO-TILL AND CHISEL-TILL CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic cropping systems may have the potential to increase soil C sequestration and reduce soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes compared to conventional systems but organic systems are not well studied. We are measuring greenhouse gas fluxes and soil C sequestration in no-till, chisel-till and organic ...

  5. Plowing Speech

    E-print Network

    Zla ba sgrol ma

    2009-11-10

    of public access (fully closed, fully open) Open access. Notes and context (include reference to any related documentation, such as photographs) 1#24;#3;#31;#5;#3;#4;#7; #3;#14;#3;#8;#21;#15;#3;#7;#3;#16; #3; #3;#8; #5;#3;!#1;#1; 2#15;#3;#14;#3;#8... ;#21;#15;#3;#7;#3;#23;#15;#3;#29;#6;#3;#8; #5;#3;!#1; 3#8; #3;#14;#3;#8;#21;#15;#3;#7;#3;#28;#3;#4;#7;#15;#3;#8; #5;#3;!#1;#1; 4#8; #5;#3;#4; #3;#17;#3;#20;#7;#3;#11;#27;#14;#11;#18;#4;#2;#1;#1; 5#22;#6;#3;#19;#3;#4; #3;#19;#14;#3;#25;#30;#3;#11...

  6. Biting performance and skull biomechanics of a chisel tooth digging rodent (Ctenomys tuconax; Caviomorpha; Octodontoidea).

    PubMed

    Becerra, Federico; Casinos, Adrià; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2013-02-01

    Biting performance is a key factor in vertebrate groups possessing particular food habits. In subterranean rodents that use the incisors as a digging tool, apart from requirements related to gnawing abrasive diets, the force exerted at the incisors tips must be sufficient to break down soils that are often exceedingly compact. The subterranean genus Ctenomys diversified in the southern portion of South America closely associated with the relatively open environments that characterize that region. This genus is considered a "claw and chisel tooth digger," that is, during the excavation of their galleries, the animals break down the soil with both the fore-claws and the incisors. We report here measurements of in vivo bite force in one of the largest species of the genus, C. tuconax, which occupies highland grasslands with compacted soils. We document the combined use of claws and incisors observed under field conditions, also providing measurements of soil compaction in the habitat occupied by this species. We report estimates of bite force at the level of the incisors and cheek teeth calculated from the physiological cross-sectional area of jaw muscles. To this aim, anatomical and biomechanical analyses of the mandibular apparatus were performed in preserved specimens. We found that C. tuconax bites with a higher force than expected for a mammal of its size. To assess anatomical correlates of biting performance, the morphology of the skull and jaw, and incisor second moment of area were compared with those of other caviomorph rodents with different lifestyle. PMID:23203312

  7. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze, E-mail: qzzou@rci.rutgers.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the “writing” (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the “writing” speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 ?m in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be fabricated at a high speed of ?5 mm/s, with the line width and the line depth at ?95 nm and 2 nm, respectively. A fine pattern of the word “NANO” is also fabricated at the speed of ?5 mm/s.

  8. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihua; Tan, Jun; Zou, Qingze; Jiang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the "writing" (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the "writing" speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 ?m in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be fabricated at a high speed of ~5 mm/s, with the line width and the line depth at ~95 nm and 2 nm, respectively. A fine pattern of the word "NANO" is also fabricated at the speed of ~5 mm/s. PMID:24289401

  9. Macrophages lift off surface-bound bacteria using a filopodium-lamellipodium hook-and-shovel mechanism.

    PubMed

    Möller, Jens; Lühmann, Tessa; Chabria, Mamta; Hall, Heike; Vogel, Viola

    2013-01-01

    To clear pathogens from host tissues or biomaterial surfaces, phagocytes have to break the adhesive bacteria-substrate interactions. Here we analysed the mechanobiological process that enables macrophages to lift-off and phagocytose surface-bound Escherichia coli (E. coli). In this opsonin-independent process, macrophage filopodia hold on to the E. coli fimbriae long enough to induce a local protrusion of a lamellipodium. Specific contacts between the macrophage and E. coli are formed via the glycoprotein CD48 on filopodia and the adhesin FimH on type 1 fimbriae (hook). We show that bacterial detachment from surfaces occurrs after a lamellipodium has protruded underneath the bacterium (shovel), thereby breaking the multiple bacterium-surface interactions. After lift-off, the bacterium is engulfed by a phagocytic cup. Force activated catch bonds enable the long-term survival of the filopodium-fimbrium interactions while soluble mannose inhibitors and CD48 antibodies suppress the contact formation and thereby inhibit subsequent E. coli phagocytosis. PMID:24097079

  10. Spatial variability of detrended soil plow layer penetrometer resistance transect in a sugarcane field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Luis D.; Cumbrera, Ramiro; Mato, Juan; Millán, Humberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variability of soil properties is relevant for identifying those zones with physical degradation. In this sense, one has to face the problem of identifying the origin and distribution of spatial variability patterns (Brouder et al., 2001; Millán et al., 2012). The objective of the present work was to quantify the spatial structure of soil penetrometer resistance (PR) collected from a transect data consisted of 221 points equidistant. In each sampling, readings were obtained from 0 cm till 70 cm of depth, with an interval of 5 cm (Pérez, 2012). The study was conducted on a Vertisol (Typic Hapludert) dedicated to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) production during the last sixty years (Pérez et al., 2010). Recently, scaling approach has been applied on the determination of the scaling data properties (Tarquis et al., 2008; Millán et al., 2012; Pérez, 2012). We focus in the Hurst analysis to characterize the data variability for each depth. Previously a detrended analysis was conducted in order to better study de intrinsic variability of the series. The Hurst exponent (H) for each depth was estimated showing a characteristic pattern and differentiating PR evolution in depth. References Brouder, S., Hofmann, B., Reetz, H.F., 2001. Evaluating spatial variability of soil parameters for input management. Better Crops 85, 8-11. Millán, H; AM Tarquís, Luís D. Pérez, Juan Mato, Mario González-Posada, 2012. Spatial variability patterns of some Vertisol properties at a field scale using standardized data. Soil and Tillage Research, 120, 76-84. Pérez, Luís D. 2012. Influencia de la maquinaria agrícola sobre la variabilidad espacial de la compactación del suelo. Aplicación de la metodología geoestadística-fractal. PhD thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Pérez, Luís D., Humberto Millán, Mario González-Posada 2010. Spatial complexity of soil plow layer penetrometer resistance as influenced by sugarcane harvesting: A prefractal approach. Soil and Tillage Research, 110(1), 77-86. Tarquis, A.M., N. Bird, M.C. Cartagena, A. Whitmore and Y. Pachepsky, 2008. Multiscale entropy-based analyses of soil transect data. Vadose Zone Journal, 7(2), 563-569.

  11. SNOW REMOVAL BY FACILITIES OPERATION AT RESIDENT HALLS Housing will be responsible for their building entrances (including loading docks), up to

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    stair shoveling) Duncan / Dunn ­ Plow main walks, north (not diagonal walks to door steps) and west (no by Facilities Operation; Coman Hall ­ Plow S walk from lot toward west entry, shovel NW asphalt stairs to city of Goldsworthy from NE Kruegel to upper Rotunda entry level, shovel west end of Stadium Way overpass from Gannon

  12. Derivation of soil screening thresholds to protect chisel-toothed kangaroo rat from uranium mine waste in northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg; Otton, James K.; Finger, Susan E.; Little, Edward E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical data from soil and weathered waste material samples collected from five uranium mines north of the Grand Canyon (three reclaimed, one mined but not reclaimed, and one never mined) were used in a screening-level risk analysis for the Arizona chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps leucotis); risks from radiation exposure were not evaluated. Dietary toxicity reference values were used to estimate soil-screening thresholds presenting risk to kangaroo rats. Sensitivity analyses indicated that body weight critically affected outcomes of exposed-dose calculations; juvenile kangaroo rats were more sensitive to the inorganic constituent toxicities than adult kangaroo rats. Species-specific soil-screening thresholds were derived for arsenic (137 mg/kg), cadmium (16 mg/kg), copper (1,461 mg/kg), lead (1,143 mg/kg), nickel (771 mg/kg), thallium (1.3 mg/kg), uranium (1,513 mg/kg), and zinc (731 mg/kg) using toxicity reference values that incorporate expected chronic field exposures. Inorganic contaminants in soils within and near the mine areas generally posed minimal risk to kangaroo rats. Most exceedances of soil thresholds were for arsenic and thallium and were associated with weathered mine wastes.

  13. An assessment of heavy metal bioaccumulation in Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, during plowing stages of a paddy cycle.

    PubMed

    Sow, Ai Yin; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2013-07-01

    Livers and muscles of swamp eels (Monopterus albus) were analyzed for bioaccumulation of heavy metals during the plowing stage of a paddy cycle. Results showed heavy metals were bioaccumulated more highly in liver than muscle. Zinc (Zn) was the highest bioaccumulated metal in liver (98.5 ± 8.95 ?g/g) and in muscle (48.8 ± 7.17 ?g/g). The lowest bioaccumulated metals were cadmium (Cd) in liver (3.44 ± 2.42 ?g/g) and copper (Cu) in muscle (0.65 ± 0.20 ?g/g). In sediments, Zn was present at the highest mean concentration (52.7 ± 2.85 ?g/g), while Cd had the lowest mean concentration (1.04 ± 0.24 ?g/g). The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, Cd and nickel (Ni) in liver tissue was greater than the corresponding BSAF for muscle tissue. For the three plowing stages, metal concentrations were significantly correlated between liver and muscle tissues in all cases, and between sediment and either liver or muscle in most cases. Mean measured metal concentrations in muscle tissue were below the maximum permissible limits established by Malaysian and U.S. governmental agencies, and were therefore regarded as safe for human consumption. PMID:23666324

  14. Spatial and temporal soil water variability in the plowing horizon of agriculturally used soils in two regions of Southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltoradnev, Maxim; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Soil water dynamics plays an important role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. There is a lack of long-term continuous measurements of topsoil water content at the regional scale. The objective of the present study was to quantify and elucidate the seasonal dynamics of spatial soil water content variability in the plowing horizon (Ap) of agricultural soils at the regional scale. The study was conducted in the central part of the Kraichgau and the Mid Swabian Alb in Southwest Germany. In each region a soil water network embracing 21 stations was set up. All stations were installed on cropped agricultural sites and distributed across three spatial domains: an inner domain 3 km × 3 km (5 stations), a middle 9 km × 9 km (8 stations), and an outer domain 27 km × 27 km (8 stations). Each station consists of a TDT sensor (SI.99 Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor, Streat Instruments Ltd, New Zealand), which senses both soil water content and soil temperature, a rain gauge, and a remote transfer unit (RTU, datalogger + GSM modem), which stores and transfers data via GPRS modem to the central data server (Adcon Telemetry GmbH, Austria) located at the University of Hohenheim. The TDT sensors were installed at 0.15 m depth. A sensor consists of a three meter long and three centimeter wide flat transmission line. The relationship between the standard deviation (??) of the soil water content (SWC) and mean spatial soil water content (⟨?⟩) formed combinations of concave and convex hyperbolas. However, it strongly depended on SWC state and season. Generally, ?? was found to be changing along a convex trend during dry out and rewetting phases with a maximum in the intermediate SWC range. At the rain event scale, ??(⟨?⟩) was either ascending or converging with decreasing ⟨?⟩. A concave shape was observed when ⟨?⟩ approached to dry state. The majority of ??(⟨?⟩) hysteresis loops were observed in intermediate and intermediate/wet state of SWC. All hysteretic loops were clockwise oriented. Rainfall intensity and distribution were identified as main factors driving SWC variability at the regional scale.

  15. Ice sheet grounding and iceberg plow marks on the northern and central Yermak Plateau revealed by geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, A. C.; Jokat, W.; Niessen, F.; Matthiessen, J.; Geissler, W. H.; Schenke, H. W.

    2011-06-01

    We present new evidence for a grounded ice sheet and subsequent erosion by large fields of coherent icebergs for the central and northern Yermak Plateau (80.6°N to 82.2°N). Sediment echosounder and swath bathymetry data were combined with seismic reflection profiles and reveal at least three different glacial events marked by erosional unconformities: (i) An erosional unconformity was observed at ˜70-90 m below seafloor down to depths of more than 850 m present water depth, extending to ˜82°N. The erosional unconformity is overlain by an acoustically chaotic layer of ˜50 m thickness interpreted as a diamicton originating from a grounded ice sheet. The erosional unconformity and the overlying diamicton can be correlated to the overconsolidated sediments found at ODP Site 910 at a sediment depth between ˜19 and 70-95 m. The oldest sediments just above the overconsolidated sediments are of late Early Pleistocene age (MIS19/20) and provide a minimum age for the grounding event. (ii) Parallel to sub-parallel mega-scale lineations are observed on large parts of the plateau west and northeast of the Sverdrup Bank at water depths between 725 and 850 m. These lineations are mainly oriented NNE-SSW and were quite likely formed by the keels of deep-draft, mega-scale tabular icebergs entrapped in a coherent mass of icebergs and sea ice. The lineations are of late Middle Pleistocene age. (iii) Smaller-scale curvilinear plow marks were found in the southernmost part of our study area at water depths between 640 and 775 m. These were possibly caused by single icebergs and are of Late Pleistocene age. Iceberg scours are also found on three basement heights on the Yermak Plateau. These, however, cannot be assigned to specific events; they might as well originate from additional glacial phases. The western (at >850 m water depth) and eastern (at >1000-1200 m water depth) flanks of the Yermak Plateau are relatively featureless, and indicate the maximum depth of a grounded ice sheet and of iceberg armadas probably entrapped in sea ice.

  16. Sealcoatingyour Didyouknow...?

    E-print Network

    ., and Washington, D.C. The first state- wide ban in the U.S. recently occurred in Washington state. · Coal tar on the surface, snow shovel- ing and plowing, wind and rain. The sealcoat ends up in lakes, streams

  17. Dirty Oil and Shovel-Ready Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Phail, Abby

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a role-playing activity on tar sands and the proposed TransCanada Keystone XL pipeline. In this activity, students take on the characters of six key stakeholders invited to an imaginary public hearing to discuss whether or not the State Department and President Obama should approve the Keystone XL pipeline.…

  18. Influence of the Plow Filling and Thread Angle onto the Plow Head Efficiency / Wp?yw Wspó?czynnika Wype?nienia Organu Oraz K?ta Nawini?cia P?ata ?limaka Na Sprawno?? ?adowania Frezuj?cymi Organami ?limakowymi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wydro, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory examinations on the plow heads at various filling rate and material grain-size, as well as various values of worm thread angle of the plow head have been executed. Influence of the worm thread angle and plow head filling onto optimal loading efficiency, has also been tested. Eksploatacja w?gla kamiennego w Polsce odbywa si? przy zastosowaniu kompleksów ?cianowych kombajnowych jak równie? kompleksów strugowych. Ten drugi z kompleksów jest znacznie mniej rozpowszechniony w Polsce i stosowany do pok?adów o mi??szo?ci poni?ej 1,5 m. Do g?ównych maszyn i urz?dze? ?cianowego kompleksu kombajnowego nale?y zaliczy? maszyn? urabiaj?co - ?aduj?c? jak? jest kombajn ?cianowy, obudow? zmechanizowan? oraz przeno?nik ?cianowy. Elementami roboczymi w kombajnie ?cianowym s? frezuj?ce organy ?limakowe, które mocowane s? na ramionach kombajnu. Zadaniem frezuj?cych organów ?limakowych jest realizacja jednocze?nie dwóch procesów. Pierwszym z procesów jest frezowanie czyli oddzielanie kawa?ków w?gla od calizny. Drugi proces to proces ?adowania urobku, polegaj?cy na ci?g?ym odprowadzaniu urobku na przeno?nik ?cianowy. Równoleg?o?? realizacji pracy tych dwóch procesów, uniemo?liwia w warunkach rzeczywistych przeprowadzenie obserwacji procesu ?adowania i dokonania jakichkolwiek pomiarów i analiz. Dlatego te?, przeprowadzane badania i pomiary opisywane w literaturze zwykle mia?y charakter modelowy lub stanowiskowy, gdy? tylko takie warunki umo?liwia?y rozdzia? tych funkcji organu (Chodura, 1992; Hyong Jong Gol, 1990; Jaszczuk & Tomaszewski, 2004; Krauze, 1997). W zwi?zku z powy?szym, chc?c bli?ej pozna? prawa rz?dz?ce procesem ?adowania, zdecydowano si? na rozdzielenie tych dwóch procesów i przeprowadzenie bada? laboratoryjnych. Przedmiotowe badania zosta?y przeprowadzone w laboratorium Katedry Maszyn Górniczych, Przeróbczych i Transportowych AGH. W badaniach uwzgl?dniono wp?yw jednego z parametrów konstrukcyjnych organu, a mianowicie k?ta nawini?cia p?ata ?limaka ?2 na sprawno?? ?adownia, a tak?e jaki wp?yw ma wspó?czynnik wype?nienia organu kw i wspó?czynnik rozluzowania urobku kr, na sprawno?? ?adowania (Wydro, 2011). Po przeprowadzonych badaniach wst?pnych przyj?to, ?e kryteria oceny procesu ?adowania b?d? ró?ne dla organu wyposa?onego w ?adowark? kryterium oceny procesu ?adowania b?dzie pobór mocy silnika organu i posuwu, natomiast dla organu bez ?adowarki kryterium jego oceny b?dzie sprawno?? ?adowania. Za sprawno?? ?adowania uznano stosunek pola przekroju pryzmy urobku za?adowanego do pola przekroju ca?kowitego pryzmy urobku przemieszczonego, co szerzej zosta?o opisane w dalszej cz??ci artyku?u (Wydro, 2011). Przedmiotowe badania mia?y na celu, sprawdzenie w jakim stopniu wybrany parametr konstrukcyjny, k?t nawini?cia p?atów ?limaka ?2 oraz wspó?czynnik wype?nienia organu kw i wspó?czynnik rozluzowania kr urobku maj? wp?yw na sprawno?? ?adowania i przy jakich ich warto?ciach organy ?limakowe uzyskuj? najwi?ksz? sprawno?? ?adowania. Warto?ci i zakresy tych wspó?czynników, zosta?y okre?lone na podstawie bada? empirycznych. Jak podaje literatura (Hamala & Wydro, 2005; Krauze, 1997) wspó?czynniki przyjmowane s? w granicach kw= 0÷1, kr > 1 na podstawie do?wiadczenia konstruktora dla nowo projektowanych organów ?limakowych. Parametr konstrukcyjny, który zosta? przyj?ty do bada?, to k?t nawini?cia p?atów ?limaka ?2 i wed?ug literatury (Bednarz, 2003; Krauze, 2000) przyjmuje optymaln? warto?? w zakresie 19°, a 23°. W zwi?zku z powy?szym, w przedmiotowych badaniach chciano sprawdzi? jaki wp?yw na proces ?adowania maj? k?ty poni?ej i powy?ej wspomnianego zakresu, a tak?e sprawdzenia, czy mo?na okre?li? jakie warto?ci wspó?czynników kw i kr nale?y przyjmowa? podczas okre?lania parametrów konstrukcyjnych i kinematycznych nowego organu nie opieraj?c si? tylko na do?wiadczeniu proj

  19. Application method: impacts on atrazine and alachlor movement, weed control, and corn yield in three tillage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Clay; D. E. Clay; W. C. Koskinen; R. K. Berg

    1998-01-01

    Banding herbicides reduces the agrochemical input compared to broadcast applications, and thereby reduces negative environmental impacts of herbicides. This study evaluated the impact of three tillage systems (ridge tillage, chisel plow, and moldboard plow) and two preemergence herbicide application methods (band and broadcast) on atrazine and alachlor movement, weed control, and corn (Zea mays L.) yield on two soils, one

  20. TILLAGE EROSION: TERRACE RELATIONSHIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All tillage moves soil. Implements drawn by animals or a tractor move soil in the direction of travel and, to a lesser extent, sideways. While a moldboard plow throws soil to only one side, most tillage implements—including tandem disks, chisel plows, harrows, and cultivators—throw soil to both side...

  1. Thirty-year tillage effects on crop yield and soil fertility indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term studies are crucial for quantifying tillage system effects on crop productivity and soil fertility status. We examined 30 years of data for five tillage systems evaluated on two glacial till soils in central Iowa, USA from 1975 through 2006. Moldboard plow, chisel plow, spring disk, ridge-...

  2. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM CORN/SOYBEAN SYSTEMS IN THE MIDWEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil nitrous oxide emissions from corn/soybean cropping systems in central Iowa were measured from the spring of 2003 through February 2005. Two year corn-soybean rotations were established in plots subjected to plow tillage (fall chisel plow, spring disk) and no-till. A no-till corn/soybean/rye c...

  3. Tillage and rotation effect on corn - soybean energy balances in eastern Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from a field experiment conducted in eastern Nebraska over 16 yr (1986-2001) were used to determine the energy balance of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) as affected by tillage treatments and rotation. Tillage treatments included chisel plow, tandom disk, moldboard plow, ridge-t...

  4. Site Tamper and Material Plow Tool - STAMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aisen, Norman M.; Collins, Curtis L.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2012-01-01

    A non-actuated tool has been developed for preparing regolith for in situ measurement by smoothing uneven surfaces and excavating fresher subsurface material for planetary exploration. The STAMP tool contains two tools to prepare regolith for in situ measurement: a tamper to smooth uneven surfaces, and a blade to excavate fresher subsurface material.

  5. Metallic Nanostructures via Static Plowing Lithography

    E-print Network

    Porter Jr., Lon A.

    on exposed portions of the substrate, and the resist is subsequently removed to yield the desired metallic, a variety of geometries may be obtained.14 This technique has been previously utilized to produce etch fundamental operations: (1) application of a thin polymer resist onto a Ge(111) substrate (Figure 1b), (2

  6. Shoveling Up: The Impact of Substance Abuse on State Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents findings of a 3-year analysis conducted on the impact of substance abuse on state budgets. An advisory panel of public officials, researchers, and financial experts was convened to provide guidance. They conducted an extensive review of articles and publications linking substance abuse to public spending. Several studies were…

  7. A grand experiment in shovel-ready science.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Quinn

    2010-07-23

    The 2009 stimulus package released a burst of pent-up creativity in the applications submitted by US researchers, but there was a complicating factor with funding decisions: the need for quick results. Quinn Eastman provides a progress report. PMID:20655458

  8. TILLAGE-INDUCED VARIATION IN TERRESTRIAL CARBON STOCKS AND CO2 LOSS ACROSS AN ERODED LANDSCAPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon (C) losses and soil translocation from tillage operations have been identified as causes of soil degradation and soil erosion. The objective of this work was to quantify the variability in terrestrial C stocks and tillage-induced CO2 loss by moldboard and chisel plowing across an eroded ...

  9. Modeling water infiltration rate under conventional tillage systems on a clay soil using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulwahed Aboukarima; Khaled Ahmed; Abdulrahman Al-Janobi

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the application of artificial neural networks for modeling the parameters of Lewis-Kostiakov infiltration under conventional tillage systems on a clay soil. The conventional tillage systems were moldboard, chisel and rotary plows. Water infiltration rate was defined experimentally by double ring infiltrometer. Artificial neural network estimation indicated strong correlations (R2 = 0.999) between the parameters of Lewis-Kostiakov infiltration

  10. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Corn–Soybean Systems in the Midwest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy B. Parkin; Thomas C. Kaspar

    2006-01-01

    Soil N2O emissions from three corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) systems in central Iowa were measured from the spring of 2003 through February 2005. The three manage- ments systems evaluated were full-width tillage (fall chisel plow, spring disk), no-till, and no-till with a rye (Secale cereale L. 'Rymin') winter cover crop. Four replicate plots of each treatment

  11. N-Source Effects on Temporal Distribution of NO 3 -N Leaching Losses to Subsurface Drainage Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bakhsh; R. S. Kanwar; C. Pederson; T. B. Bailey

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the temporal distribution of NO3-N leaching losses from subsurface drained ‘tile’ fields as a function of climate and management practices can help develop\\u000a strategies for its mitigation. A field study was conducted from 1999 through 2003 to investigate effects of the most vulnerable\\u000a application of pig manure (fall application and chisel plow), safe application of pig manure (spring application

  12. Weed seedbank response to tillage and crop rotation in a semi-arid environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hani Ghosheh; Nawal Al-Hajaj

    2005-01-01

    Seedbanks of five weed species were monitored in response to tillage and crop rotations in a semi-arid location in northern Jordan. Tillage practices of mouldboard- or chisel-plowing and cropping patterns of barley (Hordeum vulgare) planting or fallow were evaluated on permanently established subplots. Soil samples were collected from the upper 10cm for three consecutive years, immediately after performing tillage and

  13. Suppression of adult lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) using soil incorporation of poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Reasor, Colleen; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2005-10-01

    The effectiveness of manure incorporation in reducing the numbers of adult lesser mealworms emerging from caged-layer poultry manure applied to agricultural fields was examined in summer 2002 and 2004. Incorporation treatments included control (no incorporation), disk (7-cm depth), harrow (15-cm depth), chisel plow (30-cm depth), and moldboard plow (33-cm depth) on silt loam soils in New York state. An estimated 55,192 and 183,500 live adult lesser mealworms were applied to the field in 2002 and 2004, respectively. Mortality due to the action of the manure spreader was 32.4% in 2002 and 6.5% in 2004. No significant differences were observed between treatments in 2002. However, moldboard plowing significantly reduced beetle emergence compared with no tillage in 2004. Peak beetle flight was observed 10 and 17 d after manure application in 2002 and 2004, respectively. PMID:16334348

  14. Evaluation of a new tillage tool; considering soil physical property, energy requirement and potato yield.

    PubMed

    Ghazavi, M A

    2007-11-15

    Two series of field experiments were conducted for this comparison study, one in the UK and the second in Iran. First, the effects of each implement on the soil structure were investigated. Then these implements were used in the preparation of a potato seedbed for a final evaluation. Soil physical changes were measured including soil aggregate size analysis, cone penetrometer resistance, bulk density, surface relief and soil moisture content before and after cultivation. The field experiments concluded that an overall improvement of about 40% in output (ha h(-1)) could be obtained when using the new plow (combination of disk and chisel) compared with a conventional plow. The aggregate analysis of the cultivated layer revealed that the performance of the two machines was largely similar and no significant differences were seen in potato production rates during two years of field experiments, indicating no disadvantage from using an alternative to the moldboard plow. PMID:19090278

  15. Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Sand, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state–space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as ‘cryptic poaching’. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching. PMID:21849323

  16. "Shovel-Ready" Data: The Stimulus Package and State Longitudinal Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act, commonly referred to simply as "the stimulus package," is poised to pump over $100 billion into U.S. public education in the next few years. This allocation reflects the Obama administration's new commitment to education as a public good, which is embodied in President Obama's ambitious goal of 60…

  17. Reducing adhesion of soil against loading shovel using bionic electro-osmosis method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luquan Ren; Qian Cong; Jin Tong; Bingcong Chen

    2001-01-01

    Bionic electro-osmosis, a new method of reducing soil adhesion to soil-engaging components or parts of terrain machines, is presented. It is based on the anti-adhesion mechanism of the body surfaces of soil burrowing animals. The key feature of bionic electro-osmosis is to arrange a series of electric pole plates to create a non-smooth working surface. The static and dynamic effects

  18. Teach Students to Dig for Understanding Using an Unexpected Technological Shovel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Susan E. L.

    2004-01-01

    Online genealogy tools is an unexpected resource as these tools not only serve valuable for genealogy research, but also can be used by students to learn about their country's past and learn to use primary materials to draw conclusions. Some of these Online sources like the 1880 census available at www.ancestry.com, www.thepastwhispers.com, which…

  19. Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N Thompson; Sand, Håkan

    2012-03-01

    Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state-space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as 'cryptic poaching'. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching. PMID:21849323

  20. Dear Shit-Shovellers: Humour, Censure and the Discourse of Complaint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHARON LOCKYER; MICHAEL PICKERING

    2001-01-01

    In this article we analyse letters of complaint about instances of comic discourse where the humour is regarded as overstepping the mark and causing offence. We are particularly interested in how this sense of offence is registered and how complainants articulate the offence for which they seek some form of redress. In pursuing this interest, we seek to bring together

  1. TO PLOW OR NOT TO PLOW: AN INVESTIGATION INTO LAND USE CHANGES AND CONSEQUENCES IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS USING SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    possible, especially Dr. Barry Dunn and the College of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, the late Dr Richmond Family; The National Cattlemen's Foundation and W.D. Farr Family; Mrs. Jane Dunn; Mr. Michael Goodman; Mr. Corey Peck; the faculty and staff at the West River Ag Center including Dan Oedecoven, Dr

  2. Irish Potatoes: Results of Experiments at Troupe Sub-station, Smith County.

    E-print Network

    Green, Edward C.

    1904-01-01

    . This plat was laid off with a "pony" plow,'the fertilizer worked , as in all plats, with a "buzzard wing" sweep and the seed anted 3 inches deep and covered as in Plat 1. Subsequent culti- ,tion was with the five-tooth cultivator, and when the tubers be...- L31 gan to form shovel teeth mere attached to throw a little loose earth on the row. PLAT 3. This plat was planted as No. 1, the seed being placed inches deep. Cultivation throughout the vas with the fourteen- tooth cultivator, and the ground...

  3. Producing - Harvesting - Marketing High Quality Upland Cotton in the El Paso Trade Territory. 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Charles A. (compiler)

    1963-01-01

    the growing season with mechanical support and ample soil moisture, soil oxygen and mineral nutrients. If the soil is stratified or has a hard-pan, , deep plowing (24 inches or more) or chiseling at or before bedding time may be necessary to permit good... of land preparation. The type of bedding depends on local prob- lems and individual preferences. Excessive soluble salts applied to the soil in irrigation water limit the growth of plants. With furrow- type irrigation, much of the salt moves laterally...

  4. Chisel: Reliability- and Accuracy-Aware Optimization of Approximate Computational Kernels

    E-print Network

    Misailovic, Sasa

    The accuracy of an approximate computation is the distance between the result that the computation produces and the corresponding fully accurate result. The reliability of the computation is the probability that it will ...

  5. Watermelon transplanted by chisel, strip-tillage, and bedding methods produce similar yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon plants grown in semi-arid, subtropical south Texas (Lat. 26° N) are subject to wind and high solar loads. In an effort to provide an environment that would reduce wind-related sand blasting, early transplant desiccation, and vine damage and reduced soil temperatures, watermelon seedlings...

  6. Chisel edge and cutting lip shape optimization for improved twist drill point design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anish Paul; Shiv G. Kapoor; Richard E. DeVor

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of twist drill point geometries in order to minimize thrust and torque in drilling. A point geometry parameterization based on the drill grinding parameters is used to ensure manufacturability of the optimized geometry. Three commonly used drill point geometries, namely, conical, Racon® and helical, are optimized for drilling forces while maintaining the inherent characteristics of

  7. Force and flow at the onset of drag in plowed granular media.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Goldman, Daniel I

    2014-04-01

    We study the transient drag force FD on a localized intruder in a granular medium composed of spherical glass particles. A flat plate is translated horizontally from rest through the granular medium to observe how FD varies as a function of the medium's initial volume fraction, ?. The force response of the granular material differs above and below the granular critical state, ?c, the volume fraction which corresponds to the onset of grain dilatancy. For ??c, FD rapidly rises to a maximum and then decreases over further displacement. The maximum force for ?>?c increases with increasing drag velocity. In quasi-two-dimensional drag experiments, we use granular particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure time resolved strain fields associated with the horizontal motion of a plate started from rest. PIV experiments show that the maxima in FD for ?>?c are associated with maxima in the spatially averaged shear strain field. For ?>?c the shear strain occurs in a narrow region in front of the plate, a shear band. For ??c, surface particles move only during the formation of the shear band, coincident with the maxima in FD, after which the particles remain immobile until the sheared region reaches the measurement region. PMID:24827236

  8. Influence of plow pan on the enrichment and depletion of heavy metals in the surface soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydropedology is a new discipline that uses pedological information to understand the soil water movement, and thus the storage, transformation, and transportation of heavy metals (HMs). However, limited studies have investigated how the hydropedological feature, for example the water-restrictive so...

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of runoff as affected by moldboard plowing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The repeated excessive application of manure on cropland areas can cause nutrients to accumulate near the soil surface and increase nutrient transport by overland flow. Inverting soils with high surface nutrient content could reduce runoff nutrient transport. This study was conducted to measure the ...

  10. It's still true: plowing up alfalfa releases plenty of N for corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers and their advisors question the accuracy of published fertilizer N replacement values that alfalfa provides to first-year corn. Their skepticism has risen as corn yields have increased, but higher fertilizer prices have heightened the need to trim unproductive inputs. Recent Minnesota data c...

  11. Scanning electron microscopic study of the otolithic organs in the bichir (Polypterus bichir) and shovel-nose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus).

    PubMed

    Popper, A N

    1978-09-01

    The anatomy and ultrastructure of the sacculus, lagena, and utriculus of the ear of Polypterus bichir and Scaphirhynchus platorynchus were studied using the scanning electron microscope. The otolithic organs each contain a single dense calcareous otolith in close contact with a sensory epithelium (macula). The maculae have sensory hair cells typical of those found in other vertebrates, surrounded by microvilli-covered supporting cells. The hair cells on each macula are divided into several groups, with all of the cells in each group morphologically polarized in the same direction. The cells of the utricular macula in both species are divided into opposing groups in a pattern similar to that found in other vertebrates. The saccular and lagenar maculae are located in a single large chamber in both species. In Scaphirhychus the two maculae are on the same plane, while in Polypterus they are at right angles to one another. The hair cells on the saccular maculae of both species are divided into two oppositely oriented groups. In Scaphirhynchus the cells on the posterior half of the macula are oriented dorsally on the dorsal half of the macula and ventrally on the ventral half. The anterior region of the macula is rotated and the cells of the dorsal and ventral groups are shifted so that they are oriented on the animal's horizon plane. A similar pattern is found in Polypterus, except that this macula is shaped like a "J" with the vertical portion of the J having horizontal cells and the bottom portion vertical cells. The lagenar maculae in both species have dorsally oriented cells on the anterior side of the macula and ventrally oriented cells on the posterior half of the macula. While these data are not sufficient for clarifying the taxonomic relationship between the two species studied, it is clear that the ears in these species have a number of significant differences from the teleost ear that could have functional and/or taxonomic significance. PMID:681554

  12. Quantification of Soil Physical Properties by Using X-Ray Computerized Tomography (CT) and Standard Laboratory (STD) Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Ambert Sanchez

    2003-12-12

    The implementation of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) on agricultural soils has been used in this research to quantify soil physical properties to be compared with standard laboratory (STD) methods. The overall research objective was to more accurately quantify soil physical properties for long-term management systems. Two field studies were conducted at Iowa State University's Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua, IA using two different soil management strategies. The first field study was conducted in 1999 using continuous corn crop rotation for soil under chisel plow with no-till treatments. The second study was conducted in 2001 and on soybean crop rotation for the same soil but under chisel plow and no-till practices with wheel track and no-wheel track compaction treatments induced by a tractor-manure wagon. In addition, saturated hydraulic (K{sub s}) conductivity and the convection-dispersion (CDE) model were also applied using long-term soil management systems only during 2001. The results obtained for the 1999 field study revealed no significant differences between treatments and laboratory methods, but significant differences were found at deeper depths of the soil column for tillage treatments. The results for standard laboratory procedure versus CT method showed significant differences at deeper depths for the chisel plow treatment and at the second lower depth for no-till treatment for both laboratory methods. The macroporosity distribution experiment showed significant differences at the two lower depths between tillage practices. Bulk density and percent porosity had significant differences at the two lower depths of the soil column. The results obtained for the 2001 field study showed no significant differences between tillage practices and compaction practices for both laboratory methods, but significant differences between tillage practices with wheel track and no-wheel compaction treatments were found along the soil profile for both laboratory methods. The K{sub s} measurements and CDE parameters revealed no significant differences between tillages and treatments. In essence, the CT method and CDE model both proved to be useful methods to quantify macropores and estimate solute transport parameters, respectively. Breakthrough curves were generated to observe the initial and final breakthrough of solute response along the soil matrix.

  13. Evolution of the plow over 10,000 years and the rationale for no-till farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture originated 10 to 13 millennia ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, mostly along the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Indus and Yangtze River valleys and was introduced into Greece and southeast Europe > 8000 years ago. Sumerian and other civilizations developed a wide variety of simple ...

  14. Tillage and corn residue harvesting impact surface and subsurface carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Clay, David E; Reicks, Graig; Carlson, C Gregg; Moriles-Miller, Janet; Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Corn stover harvesting is a common practice in the western U.S. Corn Belt. This 5-yr study used isotopic source tracking to quantify the influence of two tillage systems, two corn ( L.) surface residue removal rates, and two yield zones on soil organic C (SOC) gains and losses at three soil depths. Soil samples collected in 2008 and 2012 were used to determine C enrichment during SOC mineralization, the amount of initial SOC mineralized (SOC), and plant C retained in the soil (PCR) and sequestered C (PCR - SOC). The 30% residue soil cover after planting was achieved by the no-till and residue returned treatments and was not achieved by the chisel plow, residue removed treatment. In the 0- to 15-cm soil depth, the high yield zone had lower SOC (1.49 Mg ha) than the moderate yield zone (2.18 Mg ha), whereas in the 15- to 30-cm soil depth, SOC was higher in the 60% (1.38 Mg ha) than the 0% (0.82 Mg ha) residue removal treatment. When the 0- to 15- and 15- to 30-cm soil depths were combined, (i) 0.91 and 3.62 Mg SOC ha were sequestered in the 60 and 0% residue removal treatments; (ii) 2.51 and 0.36 Mg SOC ha were sequestered in the no-till and chisel plow treatments, and (iii) 1.16 and 1.65 Mg SOC ha were sequestered in the moderate and high yield zone treatments, respectively. The surface treatments influenced C cycling in the 0- to 15- and 15- to 30-cm depths but did not influence SOC turnover in the 30- to 60-cm depth. PMID:26024260

  15. Dissolved organic C and N pools in soils amended with composted and thermally-dried sludge as affected by soil tillage systems and sampling depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Soler-Rovira, Pedro Angel; García López de Sa, Esther; Polo, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage practices exert a significant influence on the dynamic of soluble organic C and N pools, affecting nutrient cycling in agricultural systems by enhancing its mineralization through microbial activities or stabilization in soil microaggregates, which contribute to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions. The objective of the present research was to determine the influence of three different soil management systems (moldboard plowing, chisel and no-tillage) and the application of composted sludge (CS) and thermally-dried sewage sludge (TSS) obtained from wastewater treatment processes on dissolved organic C (water-soluble organic C -WSOC-, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds) and soluble N (total-N, NH4+, NO3-) pools in a long-term field experiment (27 years) conducted on a sandy-loam soil at the experimental station "La Higueruela" (40° 03'N, 4° 24'W) under semi-arid conditions. Both organic amendments were applied at a rate of 30 tonnes per hectare prior to tillage practices. Unamended soils were used as control for each tillage system. Soil sampling was performed two months after tillage practices at the following depths for each treatment: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Results obtained for unamended soils showed that no-tillage management increased total-N, NH4+ and NO3- contents at the 0-10 cm depth samples, meanwhile WSC and carbohydrates contents were larger at 20-30 cm depth samples in both moldboard and no-tillage plots. CS and TSS-amended soils presented a general increase in soluble C and N compounds, being significantly higher in TSS-amended soils, as TSS contains a great amount of labile organic C and N substrates due to the lack of stabilization treatment. TSS-amended soils under no-tillage and chisel plowing showed larger N, NH4+ and NO3- content at the 0-10 cm samples, meanwhile moldboard management exhibited larger NH4+ and NO3- content at 10-20 and 20-30 cm samples, possibly due to the incorporation of TSS at deeper depths (20-40 cm). CS and TSS-amended soils in no-tillage system showed the largest content of organic C pools at 0-10 cm depth samples due to less soil disturbance and the input of organic substrates with CS and TSS on soil surface. CS and TSS-amended soils under chisel plowing exhibited similar contents of soluble organic C pools at 10-20 and 20-30 cm depth samples and only TSS-amended soils increased significantly WSOC content at 0-10 cm samples. Similarly, contents of WSOC and carbohydrates in moldboard plowing were distributed more uniformly throughout the soil profile due to the turnover of soil and CS and TSS amendments into the plow layer. Acknowledgements: this research was supported by the Spanish CICYT, Project no. CTM2011-25557.

  16. Shoveling Snow I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m Ve r m o n t

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    for Occupational Health and Safety North Dakota State University Extension Vermont Sports Medicine Center Be Safe rate and cause your blood vessels to constrict. This places extra stress on the heart. Drink plenty

  17. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores was indicated by a rise in concentrations during or shortly after rainfall, but prior to any increase in tile flow. Macropores located above the tile lines were observed during smoke tests in 2012 confirming significantly greater macropore densities above tile lines in the no-till plots (average 23.2 macropores/m^2) as compared to the chisel-plowed plots (average 1.6 macropores/m^2). Identifiable macropores were generally within a 0.4m-wide zone above the tile lines. While bacterial loading to tile lines was dominated by rainfall-driven events, transport of bacteria to tile lines was observed less than a day after application under unsaturated conditions in 2012. Indicator bacteria concentrations were poorly correlated to Salmonella spp. throughout the study period, with water sample concentrations as high as 4x10^3 cfu/100 ml Salmonella spp. in samples where no E. coli or enterococci were detected. The differences in precipitation from year-to-year had the greatest effect on E. coli concentrations which averaged between 331 - 2140 cfu/100ml under the PL1 and PL2 treatments in 2010, and rarely exceeded 10 cfu/100ml in the month after litter application during dry years. Enterococci were similarly affected, while dry conditions did not result in lower average Salmonella spp. counts.

  18. Nitrate leaching to shallow groundwater systems from agricultural fields with different management practices.

    PubMed

    Nila Rekha, P; Kanwar, R S; Nayak, A K; Hoang, C K; Pederson, C H

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring the concentration of NO(3)-N from agricultural fields to the subsurface and shallow ground water resources have received considerable interest worldwide, since agriculture has been identified as a major source of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) pollution of groundwater systems in intensively farmed watersheds. A study was conducted to quantify the impact of two tillage practices viz. chisel plow (CP) and no till (NT) with liquid swine manure application on nitrate leaching to the shallow ground water system under corn-soybean production system. This study is part of the long-term field experiments conducted at Iowa State University using completely randomized block design. The NO(3)-N concentrations in the shallow ground water were monitored at three depths viz., a network of subsurface drains at a depth of 1.2 m and piezometers at depths of 1.8 m and 2.4 m. Results of this study showed that the average NO(3)-N concentration during the study period was 16.1 mg l(-1), 14.4 mg l(-1) and 11.8 mg l(-1) at 1.2 m, 1.8 m and 2.4 m depths, respectively implying significant amount of NO(3)-N leaching past the subsurface drain depth of 1.2 m into the shallow groundwater but the NO(3)-N concentration decreases with the depth. The NO(3)-N concentrations in shallow groundwater were significantly higher under the chisel plow system in comparison with the no till method of tillage. Fall application of liquid swine manure caused more leaching in comparison with the spring application. Higher NO(3)-N concentration was observed under corn in comparison with the soybean plots. An in-depth analysis of the data showed a definite relationship between the NO(3)-N concentration in subsurface drain water at a depth of 1.2 m and shallow groundwater at depths of 1.8 m and 2.4 m depths. PMID:21785805

  19. Strength Properties and Organic Carbon of Soils in the North Apalachian Region

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Owen, L B.; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2005-04-01

    Soil strength influenced by management and soil properties controls plant growth, root development, and soil-moisture relations. The impact of textural and structural parameters on soil strength is moderated by soil organic C (SOC) concentration. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess differences in soil strength and SOC concentration in watersheds under long-term (>15 yr) management practices in the North Appalachian region on a predominantly Typic Hapludults on undulating slopes (>6% slope). Seven watersheds without field replication under moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow, disk with beef cattle manure (DiskM), no-till with beef cattle manure (NTm), no-till with no beef cattle manure (NTnm), pasture, and forest were studied. Cone index (CI), shear strength, bulk density (b), volumetric moisture content (v), and SOC concentration were determined at the summit, backslope, and footslope landscape positions at the 0- to 10-, 10- to 20-, and 20- to 30-cm depths. The SOC concentration was slightly higher at the footslope than at the summit position in the cultivated watersheds. The b was lower at the footslope than at the summit in NTm (1.22 vs. 1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) and chisel (1.34 vs. 1.47 Mg m{sup -3}) treatments. Forest had the lowest CI (0.19 MPa), shear strength (6.11 kPa), and b (0.93 Mg m{sup -3}) and the highest SOC concentration (62.7 g kg{sup -1}), whereas MP had the highest CI (0.67 MPa), shear strength (25.5 kPa), b (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}), and the lowest SOC concentration (13.6 g kg{sup -1}) in the 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). The SOC concentration in NTm was 1.7 times higher than that in NTnm, and both no-till treatments had lower b (<1.21 Mg m{sup -3}) than MP (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}) at 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). Manuring decreased both CI and shear strength, but increased SOC concentration. The b, v, and SOC concentration were potential predictors of CI; whereas b and SOC concentration were of shear strength (r2 > 0.42; P < 0.01). Results show that landscape positions had small effect, but management, particularly manuring, had large and significant effects on soil strength and SOC concentration.

  20. Tillage, Mulch and N Fertilizer Affect Emissions of CO2 under the Rain Fed Condition

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    A two year (2010–2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010–11 relative to the year 2011–12. During cropping year 2010–11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011–12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options. PMID:24086256

  1. Management factors affecting ammonia volatilization from land-applied cattle slurry in the Mid-Atlantic USA.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R B; Meisinger, J J

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization commonly causes a substantial loss of crop-available N from surface-applied cattle slurry. Field studies were conducted with small wind tunnels to assess the effect of management factors on NH3 volatilization. Two studies compared NH3 volatilization from grass sward and bare soil. The average total NH3 loss was 1.5 times greater from slurry applied to grass sward. Two studies examined the effect of slurry dry matter (DM) content on NH3 loss under hot, summer conditions in Maryland, USA. Slurry DM contents were between 54 and 134 g kg(-1). Dry matter content did not affect total NH3 loss, but did influence the time course of NH3 loss. Higher DM content slurries had relatively higher rates of NH3 volatilization during the first 12 to 24 h, but lower rates thereafter. Under the hot conditions, the higher DM content slurries appeared to dry and crust more rapidly causing smaller rates of NH3 volatilization after 12 to 24 h, which offset the earlier positive effects of DM content on NH3 volatilization. Three studies compared immediate incorporation with different tillage implements. Total NH3 loss from unincorporated slurry was 45% of applied slurry NH4+-N, while losses following immediate incorporation with a moldboard plow, tandem-disk harrow, or chisel plow were, respectively, 0 to 3, 2 to 8, and 8 to 12%. These ground cover and DM content data can be used to improve predictions of NH3 loss under specific farming conditions. The immediate incorporation data demonstrate management practices that can reduce NH3 volatilization, which can improve slurry N utilization in crop-forage production. PMID:12175054

  2. Does inorganic nitrogen fertilization improve soil aggregation? Insights from two long-term tillage experiments.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Canqui, Humberto; Ferguson, Richard B; Shapiro, Charles A; Drijber, Rhae A; Walters, Dan T

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between inorganic fertilization and soil aggregation is not well understood. We studied cumulative nitrogen (N) fertilization impacts on aggregation, soil organic C (SOC), pH, and their relationships under irrigated and rainfed experiments in Nebraska after 27 and 28 yr, respectively. The dominant soil series were Crete silt loam at the irrigated site, and Coleridge silty clay loam at the rainfed site. We studied irrigated continuous corn ( L.) in chisel plow (CP) and ridge till (RidgeT) receiving 0, 75, 150, and 300 kg N ha yr and rainfed continuous corn and corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] in moldboard plow (MP), reduced till (RT), and no-till (NT) with corn receiving 0, 80, and 160 kg N ha yr. Fertilization altered soil aggregation in all tillage systems under continuous corn. Mean weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWDA) increased in the upper 7.5-cm depth in NT but decreased in the 7.5- to 60-cm depth by 1.5 times with N application. Fertilization reduced pH but had little or no effect on SOC. Both MWDA and pH ( = 0.47***) decreased under irrigated corn, particularly in the 7.5- to 30-cm depth. No-till and RT had two to five times greater near-surface MWDA than MP. Continuous corn had greater MWDA than corn-soybean in the upper 30-cm depth except in MP. Long-term N fertilization improves near-surface soil aggregation in NT continuous corn but reduces aggregation in the subsoil. Results also suggest that, if fertilizers are applied at rates of about 80 kg N ha, deterioration of soil aggregation would be minimal. PMID:25602828

  3. Physical properties and spatial distribution of the plowpan in different arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    The morphology, water-physical properties, and spatial distribution of plowpans were studied. The presence of a plowpan in the root layer is most reliably detected from the macro- and micromorphometric indices and a reliable decrease in the interaggregate porosity and in the range of active moisture. As a rule, the plowpan does not have a continuous character; its appearance in the soil profile depends on the soil texture and wetting and is usually confined to the lower and wetter mesorelief elements. Loamy and clay loamy soils are more liable to form a plowpan. The current farming system favors the propagation of overcompaction deep into the soil profile. The areas with a plowpan within plowed fields vary in a wide range. The main reasons for the unfavorable physical properties of the subplow layer in a plowland are the natural extenuation of the soil-forming processes in this layer, which is manifested in a poorer aggregation, and the residual soil deformation under the long-term pressure of heavy machines. It is suggested that the plowpan can be destroyed via deep chiseling with the use of precision agriculture technologies.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1400 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...paragraph (a) of this section while it has been converted or adapted for a non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps. (2) Power shovels,...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1400 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...paragraph (a) of this section while it has been converted or adapted for a non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps. (2) Power shovels,...

  6. Cultural Heritage ApplicationsCultural Heritage Applications Vision and GraphicsVision and Graphics

    E-print Network

    Technology ­ Geometry: time-of-flight laser ­ Color: high-res camera * Custom Made by Cyberware * from Levoy a big statue · capture chisel marks · capture reflectance @ Luiz Velho - IMPA XI Congresso Brasileiro de Arqueologia 2001 12 Capturing Chisel MarksCapturing Chisel Marks 1/4 mm5 mts 20,000 : 1 20,0002 1 billion

  7. Manure composition and incorporation effects on phosphorus in runoff following corn biomass removal.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, María R; Andraski, Todd W; Laboski, Carrie A M

    2011-01-01

    Greater demand for corn ( L.) stover for bioenergy use may lead to increased corn production acreage with minimal surface residue cover, resulting in greater risk for soil erosion and phosphorus (P) losses in runoff. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to determine the effects of spring-applied dairy cow () manure (none, in-barn composted, and exterior walled-enclosure pit) with >200 g kg organic solids content following fall corn biomass removal with and without incorporation (chisel plow [CP] and no-till [NT]) on sediment and P in runoff. Runoff was collected from a 0.83-m area for 60 min following the onset of rainfall simulation (76 mm h), once in spring and once in fall. Runoff dissolved reactive P (DRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations were positively correlated with manure P rate and were higher in NT compared with CP. Conversely, sediment and particulate P (PP) concentrations in runoff were inversely correlated with manure P rate (and manure solids) and were higher in CP compared with NT. Runoff volume where no manure was applied was higher in NT than in CP in spring but similar in fall. The addition of manure reduced runoff volumes by an average of 82% in NT and 42% in CP over spring and fall. Results from this study indicate that surface application of dairy manure with relatively high solids content may reduce sediment and PP losses in runoff without increasing the risk of increased DRP and DOP losses in the year of application where corn biomass is harvested. PMID:22031580

  8. Soil phosphorus, management practices, and their relationship to phosphorus delivery in the Iowa Clear Lake agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Klatt, J G; Mallarino, A P; Downing, J A; Kopaska, J A; Wittry, D J

    2003-01-01

    Clear Lake is on Iowa's list of impaired water bodies because of high P concentration. This study assessed soil-test phosphorus (STP), management practices, and P loads from its agricultural watershed. Management practice histories and STP for eight basins were surveyed in 1999. Soil samples (15-cm depth) were analyzed for STP with agronomic [Bray P1 (BP), Olsen (OP), Mehlich 3 (M3P) and environmental [iron oxide-impregnated paper (FeP) and water extraction (WP)] tests. Total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in water discharge from five basins were measured during two years, and TP loads were measured for two basins. The agronomic P tests showed that 46 to 83% (depending on the test) of the area tested above optimum for crops. Correlations among tests were high for OP, M3P, and FeP (r > 0.96) and lower for BP and WP (r = 0.88-0.93). Moldboard- and chisel-plow tillage predominated (82% of the area). Applied P (mainly fertilizer) averaged 15 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1), and 40% of the high-testing area (M3P test) was being fertilized. The mean annual water TP concentration across five basins was 275 to 474 microg L(-1). The two-year mean TP loads for the two gauged basins were 1504 and 1510 g P ha(-1) yr(-1). Water TP concentration increased linearly with increasing STP. Relationships were stronger for M3P and FeP (R2 = 0.96-0.97 for annual means and 0.77-0.79 for storm-flow events) than for BP or WP (R2 = 0.88-0.91 and 0.59-0.69, respectively). Improving P and soil conservation practices in high-testing areas could reduce P loads to the lake. PMID:14674536

  9. vol. 169, no. 3 the american naturalist march 2007 Predicting Resource Partitioning and Community Organization

    E-print Network

    is absent, mallards (Anas platy- rhynchos) and northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) should maximize of separating prey from detritus. Keywords: filter feeding, resource partitioning, ecomorphology, Anas, bill

  10. WATERFOWL USE OF WASTEWATER PONDS ON THE IDAHO NATIONAL

    E-print Network

    including ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), redheads (Aythya americana), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), northern pintail (A.. acuta), American wigeon (A.. americana), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and green

  11. Feeding methods, visual fields and vigilance in dabbling ducks (Anatidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Guillemain; G. R. Martin; H. Fritz

    2002-01-01

    Summary 1. Visual fields were determined in two species of dabbling ducks (Anatini): Shoveler Anas clypeata L. (planktivore whose foraging is guided mainly by tactile cues) and Wigeon A. penelope L. (herbivore whose foraging is guided mainly by visual cues). 2. The binocular fields of Shoveler and Wigeon are of similar maximum width (20 ° ), but they differ in

  12. Real promise or false hope: DOE's title XVII loan Guarantee

    SciTech Connect

    Massouh, Jennifer F.; Cannon, George D. Jr.; Logan, Suzanne M.; Schwartz, David L.

    2009-05-15

    While the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 expanded the DOE loan guarantee program to include certain ''shovel-ready'' projects, and appropriated $6 billion to cover the credit subsidy cost associated with these projects, it failed to resolve some of the most pressing problems facing the program. Here are some recommendations that may finally get some shovels in the ground. (author)

  13. 30 CFR 77.1607 - Loading and haulage equipment; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...lowered to the ground when not in use. (q) Shovel trailing cables shall not be moved with the shovel dipper unless cable slings or sleds are used. (r) Equipment which is to be hauled shall be loaded and protected so as to prevent sliding or...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1607 - Loading and haulage equipment; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...lowered to the ground when not in use. (q) Shovel trailing cables shall not be moved with the shovel dipper unless cable slings or sleds are used. (r) Equipment which is to be hauled shall be loaded and protected so as to prevent sliding or...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1607 - Loading and haulage equipment; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...lowered to the ground when not in use. (q) Shovel trailing cables shall not be moved with the shovel dipper unless cable slings or sleds are used. (r) Equipment which is to be hauled shall be loaded and protected so as to prevent sliding or...

  16. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L. (MSU); (UC)

    2012-10-25

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of very large pores associated with former root channels in NT and NS aggregates. Our findings indicate that mechanisms of macro-aggregate formation might differ in their importance in different land use and management practices.

  17. Quantifying tillage translocation and deposition rates due to moldboard plowing in the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest, USA 1 Paper presented at International Symposium on Tillage Translocation and Tillage Erosion held in conjunction with the 52nd Annual Conference of the Soil and Water Conservation Society, Toronto, Canada, 24–25 July 1997 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A Montgomery; D. K McCool; A. J Busacca; B. E Frazier

    1999-01-01

    Most of the erosion research in the Palouse region of eastern Washington State, USA has focused on quantifying the rates and patterns of water erosion for purposes of conservation planing. Tillage translocation, however, has largely been overlooked as a significant geomorphic process on Palouse hillslopes. Tillage translocation and tillage deposition together have resulted in severe soil degradation in many steep

  18. A comparison of alternative tillage practices and machinery management strategies in the Texas Rolling Plains 

    E-print Network

    Maddox, Jim Dalton

    1987-01-01

    /Swap Chisel/Deep rreIn Drill Q?sp Cultivator Ta??P Disk Tandac Dfsk Roll fns Cuitivator Ralllna Cultivator Rotary Hao cotton, sorghum, and wheat. The basic farm implements such as tractors, planters, and chisels are used for both tillage... gweep Disk Redder Apply Tref lan Rodweeder/Fart. Bed Planter &seed) Diksr Harvest Chisel/Deep Tsndms D1sk sweep Cultivator Sweep Disk Redder Appli. Treflsn Appli. Fart. Rentd Bed PLanter (seed) Rotary Hoe Rolling Cultivator Harvest 10...

  19. Peanuts in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    McNess, George Thomas

    1928-01-01

    side of the row. Covering may be done with a cultivator fitted with two small plows, or with a cotton planter having the front plow removed, the small back plows and presser wheel covering the seed as well as regulating the depth at which... it is desired to have them covered. When planting is done by machinery, there is no need of opening a furrow as with hand planting, since all* makes of planters are fitted with either a front plow or opening blade. There are a number of makes of planters...

  20. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

  1. A Phase I Archaeological Survey of Lake Madison Park in Central Madison County, Texas

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-08

    . William E. Moore was the Principal Investigator and supervised the project. The area was investigated using the pedestrian survey method supported by shovel testing. No evidence of prehistoric or historic sites was found in the project area. A previous...

  2. 40. RETAINING WALL CONSTRUCTION SHOWING PORTION OF COMPLETED WALL. BACKFILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. RETAINING WALL CONSTRUCTION SHOWING PORTION OF COMPLETED WALL. BACKFILLING BY POWER SHOVEL IN PROGRESS. ZION NP NEGATIVE NO. 1490. PHOTOGRAPHER: PARKER, NO DATE - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  3. Energize Yourself and Your Family

    MedlinePLUS

    ... activities that strengthen your muscles. Examples include heavy gardening (digging and shoveling) and exercises that use hand ... them, too. Do things you enjoy, like biking, gardening, playing sports, or swimming. Get a friend to ...

  4. 30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar...

  6. Geoarchaeological Investigations into Paleoindian Adaptations on the Aucilla River, Northwest Florida 

    E-print Network

    Halligan, Jessi

    2012-07-16

    of hand-driven cores and surface survey, vibrocoring, underwater 1 x 1 m unit excavation, and controlled surface collection. Terrestrial fieldwork consisted of shovel and auger test pits. Seventeen cores were collected from five different submerged...

  7. An archaeological survey for McLennan County Electric Cooperative, Inc. 1990-1991 Work Plan System: Phase I: Two utility lines in McLennan County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-03

    An archaeological survey was conducted along two sections of county right-of-way in McLennan County, Texas by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA). Fieldwork was performed on October 1, 1990. A pedestrian survey accompanied by shovel testing...

  8. Required Tennessee Salamanders WFS 433/533

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Required Tennessee Salamanders WFS 433/533 Common Name Family Scientific Name spotted dusky salamander Plethodontidae Desmognathus conanti Santeetlah dusky salamander Desmognathus santeetlah seal salamander Desmognathus monticola black-bellied salamander Desmognathus quadramaculatus shovel

  9. Required Tennessee Salamanders WFS 433/533

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Required Tennessee Salamanders WFS 433/533 Common name Family Scientific name spotted dusky salamander Plethodontidae Desmognathus conanti Santeetlah dusky salamander Desmognathus santeetlah seal salamander Desmognathus monticola black-bellied salamander Desmognathus quadramaculatus shovel

  10. 30 CFR 77.1601 - Transportation of persons; restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...equipment whether loaded or empty: (a) Dippers, shovels, buckets, forks, and clamshells; (b) The cargo space of dump trucks or haulage equipment used to transport coal or other material; (c) Outside the cabs and beds of mobile...

  11. Entitlement advantage : the balance of local knowledge and capital access in real estate entitlements

    E-print Network

    Kelley, Scott Edward

    2007-01-01

    Development is risky. The process of getting a shovel in the ground, steel into the sky, and rent checks into the bank involves distinct phases, each with their own risk and return profile. Generally considered the most ...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.308 - Special systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...as substations, trailers, cars, mobile shovels, draglines...nonenergized metal parts of electric equipment and metal raceways...fitting with conductors of electric light, power, Class 1...fitting with conductors of electric light, power, Class 1,...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.308 - Special systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...as substations, trailers, cars, mobile shovels, draglines...nonenergized metal parts of electric equipment and metal raceways...fitting with conductors of electric light, power, Class 1...fitting with conductors of electric light, power, Class 1,...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.308 - Special systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...as substations, trailers, cars, mobile shovels, draglines...nonenergized metal parts of electric equipment and metal raceways...fitting with conductors of electric light, power, Class 1...fitting with conductors of electric light, power, Class 1,...

  15. An archaeological survey for McLennan County Electric Cooperative, Inc. 1990-1991 Work Plan System: Phase I: Two utility lines in McLennan County, Texas

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-03

    An archaeological survey was conducted along two sections of county right-of-way in McLennan County, Texas by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA). Fieldwork was performed on October 1, 1990. A pedestrian survey accompanied by shovel testing...

  16. Archaeological survey of the Gosling Road Extension Project in North Central Harris County Texas

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-04

    . William E. Moore acted as Principal Investigator, and the project was regulated by the Texas Antiquities Committee under permit number 1205. The fieldwork was preceded by a literature search of past work in the county and supported by shovel testing...

  17. Relationship between waterfowl nutrition and condition on agricultural drainwater ponds in the Tulare Basin, California: Waterfowl body composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ned H. Euliss; Robert L. Jarvis; David S. Gilmer

    1997-01-01

    We examined carcass composition and proximate food composition of ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), and northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering on agricultural drainwater ponds in California during 1983–84. Lipids varied seasonally in northern shovelers\\u000a and northern pintails. Protein did not fluctuate except in ruddy ducks whose protein mass increased over winter, suggesting\\u000a that some protein was catabolized

  18. Methyl bromide alternatives in a bell pepper–squash rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Webster; A. S. Csinos; A. W. Johnson; C. C. Dowler; D. R. Sumner; R. L. Fery

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate potential methyl bromide alternatives against multiple pests in a bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) – squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cropping sequence. Early in the growing season, the most effective treatments in suppressing purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) emergence through the polyethylene mulch were methyl bromide, methyl iodide, and chisel-injected 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin [1,3-D+C35 (chisel)].

  19. Large deformation modeling in soil-tillage tool interaction using advanced 3D nonlinear finite element approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Jafari; T. Tavakoli Hashjin; S. Minaee; M. H. Raoufat

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce a finite element model to investigate the performance of bent leg (BL) plow and investigate the performance of new design as compared to a conventional one using finite element method approach (FEM).The difference between the modified and conventional BL plows is the direction of angle between the projection of cutting blade on horizontal plane normal

  20. Picture Tour: Growing Sugarbeets Saginaw Valley Research and Extension Center

    E-print Network

    1 Picture Tour: Growing Sugarbeets Saginaw Valley Research and Extension Center agbioresearch.msu.edu Images of: Plowing · Planting · Crop emergence · Growth · Fields · Harvest PLOWING Most beet ground and incorporate fertilizer, usually the day before or the day of planting. #12;2 Sugar beets are typically planted

  1. Marine pipeline installation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bushnell; C. R. Gunn

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for simultaneously laying and burying underwater pipelines. The apparatus employs a rigid, structural frame having skids to contact the ocean floor as the device is propelled across it. A plow on the frame, having a knife edge shear blade at its frontal portion, cuts and parts the ocean floor to form a ditch. The plow is vertically

  2. Tillage impacts on soil microbial biomass C, N and P, earthworms and agronomy after two years of cropping following permanent pasture in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Aslam; M. A Choudhary; S Saggar

    1999-01-01

    Conversion of pasture land to crop rotation by plow tillage and reversion to pasture for replenishment of nutrients is a common practice in New Zealand. It is known that plow tillage decreases soil organic matter and causes biological degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tillage practices on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass

  3. Cutting Through Soil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students pretend they are agricultural engineers during the colonial period and design a miniature plow that cuts through a "field" of soil. They are introduced to the engineering design process and learn of several famous historical figures who contributed to plow design.

  4. High biomass removal limits carbon sequestration potential of mature temperate pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of plowing have depleted organic carbon stocks in many agricultural soils. Conversion of plowed fields to pasture has the potential to reverse this process, recapturing organic matter that was lost under more intensive cropping systems. Temperate pastures in the northeast USA are highly prod...

  5. Soil Compaction and Root Growth under Field Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While plow pans (a thin layer of compacted soil at the bottom of the normal tillage depth) in the Central and Southern US tend to be genetic in origin, they were believed to be wheel-induced in the upper Midwest by running the rear tractor wheel in the plow furrow. But it was also believed that annu...

  6. Made in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2005-09-01

    This supplement was prepared in collaboration with the Association of German Mining Machine Manufacturers within VDMA to give an overview of German manufacturers' contribution to the coal industry. It has 18 short papers and a VDMA vendor matrix and directory. Papers include details of MAN Takraf's surface mining equipment, hydraulic shovels and excavators from Komatsu, Liebherr and Terex O & K, Siemens motors and electric control technology in trucks, shovels etc., new technology from DBT, IBS and Wirth, and low emission engines and drives from Deutz and DaimlerCrysler. 2 figs.

  7. Some Relationships Between Stripping Machinery Mass and Overburden Volumes 

    E-print Network

    Rumfelt, Henry F.C

    1960-01-01

    are shown respectively in P1gures 13 and 14 ' The CQ Shifts in percentages of roller circle diameter are considered significant. Observation of those for shovels show only one to be as high as 24. 8$ of the roller circle diameter, The prevailing figure... seems to be about 2+. However, on the very large shovels the percentage seems to decline appreciably. Those figures representing the CG Shifts in percentages of roller circle diameters for draglines show, as in the case of NUPd - mass relationships...

  8. A Phase I Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Austin's Estates Sanitary Sewer Line in Central Brazos County, Texas

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-15

    thanks are extended to the lando wners, Mark Carraba, Johnny Rizzo, and Theresa Rizzo for allowing the field survey crew on their property. I am also grateful to the field crew James E. Warren, Art hur Romine, and Tom McMasters for their willingness..., Contract Report Number 62. Webb, Walter Prescott (Editor-in-Chief) 1952 The Handbook of Texas. (Volume I) The Texas State Historical Association. Austin. 11 APPENDIX I: SHOVEL TEST LOG Shovel Test 1 was dug through dark gray cl ay (10YR 4...

  9. Cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    polyphagous, known to feed on more than 70 plant species from 22 families. Caterpillars prefer to feed/pheronet/ins/mamesbrass.html). Control measures include autumn plowing, eradication of weeds, release of Trichogramma parasitoids

  10. Harvesting the Greenhouse: Comparing Biological Sequestration with Emissions Offsets

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    of the sequestered carbon. Replacing no-till agriculture with a mold board plowing system also quickly releases GHGs, then injecting the carbon into soils, aquifers, oceans or geological formations for permanent

  11. The Fate of Heavy Metals in Highway Stormwater Runoff: The Characterization of a Bioretention Basin in the Midwest

    E-print Network

    Lacy, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    from the paved surface in stormwater runoff or plowed onto shoulders where they are trapped in snow and ice. The metal contaminants carried in the stormwater runoff and eventual snowmelt often enter nearby surface waters and contribute...

  12. A Numeric Predictive Failure Model for Percussive Excavation

    E-print Network

    Green, Alex Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    to this system the attack angle and surface angle will notangle of attack from the plow blade, and the surface angleattack angle the associated shape of the boundary layer increases or decreases in surface

  13. 23 CFR 658.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE DESIGNATIONS-LENGTH...response vehicles, including those loaded with salt, sand, chemicals or a combination thereof, with or without a plow or...

  14. Divergence in male and female manipulative behaviors with the intensification of metallurgy in Central Europe

    E-print Network

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2014-11-12

    time. This suggests that the introduction of the ard and plow, metallurgical innovation, task specialization, and socioeconomic change through ~5400 years of agriculture impacted upper limb loading in Central European women to a greater extent than men....

  15. 47 CFR 90.7 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...services are used to protect safety of life, health, or property; and are not made commercially...forestry operations); or for the keeping, grazing or feeding of livestock for animal products...value enhancement; (2) Plowing, soil conditioning, seeding,...

  16. 4. CORNICE AND PARAPET DETAIL. IN THE CENTER IS AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CORNICE AND PARAPET DETAIL. IN THE CENTER IS AN ANVIL AND A PLOW, SYMBOLIC TOOLS OF THE FARMERS AND MECHANICS - Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank, 427 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Seasonal variation of root distribution of irrigated, field-grown Russet Burbank potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Lesczynski; C. B. Tanner

    1976-01-01

    Root density of irrigated, field-grown Russet Burbank potatoes grown on Plainfield loamy sand was determined periodically\\u000a from soil core samples during the 1973 growing season. Total root length and weight also were measured.\\u000a \\u000a Under these growing conditions, the roots essentially were restricted to the plow layer in this soil, decreasing rapidly below\\u000a this depth. The root density in the plow

  18. Soil microbial activity, nitrogen cycling, and long-term changes in organic carbon pools as related to fallow tillage management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W Doran; E. T Elliott; K Paustian

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments were established in 1969 and 1970 near Sidney, NE, to determine the effect of moldboard plow (plow), sub-tillage (sub-till), and no-tillage (no-till) fallow management on soil properties, biological activities, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. One experiment was on land which had been broken from sod in 1920, seeded to crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] from 1957 to

  19. Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2013-05-15

    Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated. PMID:23500104

  20. A study of the effects of casing perforations on the production rates of wells 

    E-print Network

    Sanderlin, James Lewis

    1958-01-01

    , Analogy Between Electrical and Pluid Syntone. . . . . 14 2A Diagran of Electrolytic Tash , 2B Diagrsn of Cased Role 2C Radial Distribution of Perforations ~ ~ 15 16 2D Vertical Distribution of Perforations . . . ~ The Effect of Well Sore Resistance... on tha Relative Productivity of a Well Using the Electric Analog Nodal ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ '16 The Ratio of Non-Steady State Plow ro Steady Stats Plow Versus Relative Depletion Tine for Various Well Bore Resistances...

  1. Effects of pulverization on soil bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Min; Devinny, J.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Paspalof, G.B. [Texaco E& P Inc., Ventura, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Bioremediation of oil contaminated soils is a cost-effective and widely used technology, but the time required is a major disadvantage. This time can be reduced by substituting pulverization for the traditional plowing. In laboratory experiments, soil respiration rates increased 3.44 times after the soil was pulverized. Field tests showed about 25% reduction in treatment time when a pulverizer was used to aerate and grind the soils instead of disc plowing. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Instantaneous angular speed monitoring of gearboxes under non-cyclic stationary load conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Stander; P. S. Heyns

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in the condition monitoring and asset management market have led to the commercialisation of online vibration-monitoring systems. These systems are primarily utilised to monitor large mineral mining equipment such as draglines, continuous miners and hydraulic shovels. Online monitoring systems make diagnostic information continuously available for asset management, production outsourcing and maintenance alliances with equipment manufacturers. However, most online

  3. J.J. Berezan is currently a M.Sc. graduate student

    E-print Network

    Joseph, Tim Grain

    Sands Monitoring whole body vibration effects on ultra-class haulers J.J. Berezan, T.G. Joseph, University of Alberta, and V.D. del Valle, Syncrude Canada Ltd. KEYWORDS: Vibration, Heavy hauler, Opera- tor with the occasional bump and poorly placed load from a shovel can create intense and sometimes serious vibration

  4. Prepared for: Virginia Commonwealth University Facilities Management

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Rodney J.

    , resulting in the identification of one archaeological location. The metal detector survey resulted outside the APE were identified as Civil War­era earthworks. At least one of the positive metal detector targets relates to that surface feature. Based on shovel test and metal detector survey results, no sites

  5. How Children Respond to Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodelman, Perry

    1984-01-01

    This essay discusses 13 pictorial devices with which one must be familiar to understand the illustrations in Virginia Lee Burton's "Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel." Color constancy, implied background, sharply drawn lines, abstractions of caricature, use of perspective, face on objects, and picture book narration are noted. (EJS)

  6. An Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Hurricane Creek Detention Facility Number 1 in Central Angelina County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-11

    by shovel testing and probing. No archaeological sites were found within the boundaries of the project area, and it is recommended that construction be allowed to proceed as planned. Copies of the final report are on file at the Archeology Division, Texas...

  7. A Gene Scrapbook A Tribute to Gene Loh

    E-print Network

    A Gene Scrapbook A Tribute to Gene Loh on the Occasion of His Retirement Feb 22, 2003 #12;The Early of Technology, 1961 #12;The Missing Years Not much is known about Gene's whereabouts between 1961 until his (probably kelp) for transport by sea. #12;Why did Gene leave Cornell? He got tired of shoveling all

  8. 192 Yellow-billed Pintail neck ring Wildfowl (2006) 56: 192-196Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust

    E-print Network

    McCracken, Kevin G.

    2006-01-01

    related species (Harrison 1953, 1955). For example, Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata males in eclipse plumage in the Yellow-billed Pintail Anas georgica ROBERT E. WILSON1, THOMAS H. VALQUI2 & KEVIN G phylogenetic information. A partial white neck ring was observed in Yellow-billed Pintail Anas georgica

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H14N2 Avian Influenza Virus from California

    PubMed Central

    Schobel, Seth; Dugan, Vivien G.; Halpin, Rebecca; Lin, Xudong; Wentworth, David E.; Lindsay, LeAnn L.; Mertens, Eva; Plancarte, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a reassortant H14N2 avian influenza virus isolated in 2011 from a northern shoveler in California. This introduced Eurasian subtype acquired seven segments from North American viruses and circulated in the Pacific Flyway 1 year after its detection in the Mississippi Flyway. PMID:23908286

  10. TRANSMISSION OF Sarcocystis rileyi TO THE STRIPED SKUNK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT J. WICHT

    Musculature containing grossly visible cysts of Sarcocystis rileyi from northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) ducks was fed to the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). Skunks used were determined to be Sarcocystis free,thechallengedskunk became infected and shed both sporulated oocysts and free sporocysts in the feces. The prepatent period was 15 days and the patent period 50 days. Oocysts were fully sporulated when

  11. Surveys of wetlands and waterbirds in Cagayan valley, Luzon, Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MERLIJN VAN WEERD; JAN VAN DER PLOEG

    2004-01-01

    In November 2001 and January 2002, we searched the entire Cagayan valley, north-east Luzon, Philippines for wetlands and congre- gations of waterbirds. Five wetlands were identified that held substantial numbers of waterbirds. Important numbers of the endemic Philippine Duck Anas luzonica (Vulnerable) were observed at two lakes, as well as large numbers of Wandering Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arcuata, Northern Shoveler Anas

  12. How far can the freshwater bryozoan Cristatella mucedo disperse in duck guts?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Charalambidou; Luis Santamaría; Jordi Figuerola

    2003-01-01

    Statoblasts of Cristatella mucedo were fed to two duck species, pintail (Anas acuta) and shoveler (A. clypeata), to assess whether endozoochorous dispersal is responsible for the metapopulation structure of this bryozoan. Eight individuals (four per duck species) were force-fed 500 statoblasts each. The number of intact statoblasts retrieved from the ducks faeces up to 48 hours after ingestion and their

  13. The importance of protected areas as nocturnal feeding grounds for dabbling ducks wintering in western France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthieu Guillemain; Hervé Fritz; Patrick Duncan

    2002-01-01

    We studied the diurnal and nocturnal habitat use of wintering dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in two protected areas of an internationally important winter quarter in western France. The waterbodies of the reserves are heavily used by ducks during daylight hours, and 3–55% of these birds used the reserves at night: >50% of shoveler (A. clypeata), 20% of granivorous ducks (mallard

  14. Punchy, Munchy...Culinary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Carolee; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Eating involves--and offers--a lot more than merely shoveling food into your mouth. It can be used in innumerable ways in your room. Here is a multitude of food experiences, all designed for kids' heads as well as their stomachs. You can use cooking and food throughout your curriculum. Here's how! (Editor)

  15. CANAL AUTOMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canals have been used to distribute water for irrigation for several millennia. The practices gradually evolved from a shovel to open gaps in a berm to fixed structures to movable structures such as gates. Regulation of water in canals is still by manual labor in most parts of the world. A few hydra...

  16. Response to ISRP Comments Project 35009

    E-print Network

    not collected (Task 1b). This will involve using shovels to expose the substrate just shocked, and a sieve objectives in future years (2003-05). Information from fish tagged in 2002 will not be complete until spring 2003. At that time we will be able to determine the number of tags needed to meet objectives. Projected

  17. Sampling Mud in the Elwha River Estuary

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologic technician Andrew Spanjer shovels Elwha River mud into a bucket for latter analysis in the lab. The USGS is monitoring turbidity at several locations in the Elwha River during the largest dam-removal project in United States history. The mud will be mixed with water to assess how dif...

  18. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  19. 19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, WITH SEVERAL PARTIALLY SUBMERGED STEAM SHOVELS SHOWN IN THE FLOODED CANAL. ONE OF THE TEMPORARY BRIDGES CONSTRUCTED OVER THE CANAL RIGHT -OF-WAY IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. (39) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  20. 15. Photocopied August 1978. LOCOMOTIVE CRANE IN THE ROCK CUT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopied August 1978. LOCOMOTIVE CRANE IN THE ROCK CUT, AUGUST 21, 1900. LOADING DUMP CARS. A STEAM SHOVEL LOADING DUMP CARS IS VISIBLE IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. (61) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. 28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE 'GEORGE M. CARL.' THE END OF UNLOADING, TRACTOR SCRAPERS ARE LOWERED INTO THE HOLD TO 'CLEAN UP.' PRIOR TO ABOUT 1953, MEN WITH SHOVELS DID THE JOB. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. Big Jobs: Planning for Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nancy P.

    2005-01-01

    Three- to five-year-olds grow emotionally participating in meaningful and challenging physical, social, and problem-solving activities outdoors in an early childhood program on a farm. Caring for animals, planting, raking, shoveling, and engaging in meaningful indoor activities, under adult supervision, children learn to work collaboratively,…

  3. Natural Resources: Digging Soil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Valynda Mayes

    2009-11-01

    It's not hard to captivate children with the world of soil--many of them already love "dirt." Plus, exploring soil requires no special equipment or field trips. Soil is everywhere, with only a shovel or trowel required. You just might need some help deciph

  4. 1 The New Social Operating System of Networked Individualism

    E-print Network

    much of that but we can provide some cash to reduce the stress of figuring out how to deal with the day Johnson-Lenz tripped on her front steps as she was walking to her door in a rain storm.1 She slammed her Peter healthy snacks to the hospital, shoveling their walk, filling the fridge, and doing whatever else

  5. Hydrol. Process. 26, 22062210 (2012) Published online 20 March 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9264

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2012-01-01

    to separate stones from gold-bearing sand, and a pan to separate heavy minerals from the sand. In the search. Similarly, gold miners search river sediments for gold flakes: they use a shovel to dig sand, a classifier potential parameter sets, just as gold mining can be looked at as one of sorting minerals. To implement

  6. Symptoms of contruction workers exposed to whole body vibration and local vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Miyashita; I. Morioka; T. Tanabe; H. Iwata; S. Takeda

    1992-01-01

    Summary To study the effects of construction machinery operation on subjective symptoms, a questionnaire survey was caried out among construction machinery operators by a self-reporting method. Subjects were 184 power shovel operators, 127 bulldozer operators, 44 forklift operators as operator groups, and 44 office workers as a control. Their ages were in a range of 30–49 years. The questionnaire contained

  7. What is your research about and how does it re-

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    was! In the re- search field, change is happen- ing all around us. The Federal Infrastructure monies have focused our collec- tive attention on what is "shovel ready". The federal granting councils, at The University of Winnipeg, we are creating a sustainable and prosperous future based in re- search

  8. 78 FR 30810 - Paleontological Resources Preservation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...sized-shovels or pick axes. Larger tools are more likely to create disturbance that is greater...have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy, nor would it adversely...compel the expenditure of $100 million or more by any State, local, or Tribal...

  9. 4. East portal of Tunnel 17, contextual view to southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. East portal of Tunnel 17, contextual view to southeast, 135mm lens. This end of the tunnel was badly damaged during construction in April 1909 by a disgruntled worker who set off a heavy powder charge, injuring fellow workers and destroying a steam shovel. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel No. 17, Milepost 408, Dorris, Siskiyou County, CA

  10. Fossil Humankind and Other Anthropoid Primates of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinzhi Wu

    2004-01-01

    More than 70 sites have yielded human fossils in China. They are attributed to Homo sapiens erectus and Homo sapiens sapiens. The earliest one is possibly about 1.7 Ma. A series of common morphological features, including shovel-shaped incisors and flatness of the face, characterize them. There is a morphological mosaic between H. s. erectus and H. s. sapiens in China.

  11. 56. Photographic copy of historic photo, 1911 (original print filed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographic copy of historic photo, 1911 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). STEAM SHOVEL EXCAVATING GRAVEL FOR FACING LOWER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  12. Page 1 of 4 Snow Response Guide

    E-print Network

    Kidd, William S. F.

    are encouraged to carry a shovel in the car as an added precaution during the winter months. Moreover, on snowy safety hazards are anticipated Salting done from outset of hazardous conditions until point where snow rules are highly likely Actions to sidewalks De-icer mixture when safety hazards are anticipated

  13. 6. AERATOR VIEWED UPSTREAM. DETAIL OF FLUSH VALVE AND VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERATOR VIEWED UPSTREAM. DETAIL OF FLUSH VALVE AND VIEW INTO BOX FLUME. NOTE WRENCH TO OPEN VALVE AND REMAINS OF OLD SHOVEL USED FOR MAINTENANCE. TRASH SCREEN MESH IS SEEN AT BOTTOM LEFT. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  14. RHIC Bulletin September 1995 1 BrookhavenNationalLaboratory

    E-print Network

    Llope, William J.

    supplies beam to the RHIC Blue (clockwise) ring, while the Y arc feeds the Yellow (counter-clockwise) ring Bulletin AGS to RHIC Transfer Line: Ready for Initial Beam Test The AGS To RHIC (ATR) transfer line, with shovels) are: Satoshi Ozaki (RHIC Project Head), Jay Marx (STAR Project Director), Nicholas Samios (BNL

  15. Barley Production in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Atkins, Irvin Milburn

    1941-01-01

    can be obtained if shovel covers are used with the runner openers. A homemade U-shaped "fish-tail" scraper covering device is widely used on the light soils in the low rainfall areas where planting is done in the furrow. The fish-tail, which weighs...

  16. A Phase I Archaeological Survey of the Brazos Fee Former Arrowhead Gun Club in Central Brazos County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-16

    thin mantle overlying clay with an average de pth of 34 cm. In several areas, small natural gravels were observed eroding from the surface, and they were found in shovel tests, usually directly over the underlying clay stratum. The poor drainage...

  17. Electrification of Large Open-Pit Copper Mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Birch

    1944-01-01

    The transportation problem of a large strip mine involves the loading, hauling, and dumping of both ore and waste. These materials are loaded with large electric shovels operating on benches along the slope of a hill or pit. The ore is transported over main-line tracks to the reduction plant, while the waste is hauled to suitable dumps. All main-line tracks

  18. Characteristics of dental morphology in the Xinjiang Uyghurs and correlation with the EDARV370A variant.

    PubMed

    Tan, JingZe; Peng, QianQian; Li, JinXi; Guan, YaQun; Zhang, LiPing; Jiao, Yi; Yang, YaJun; Wang, SiJia; Jin, Li

    2014-05-01

    Teeth are one of the most important materials for anthropological studies because they are likely to be preserved in ancient remains. While the frequencies of dental characteristics can provide clues to the phylogeny of populations, genetic studies at the individual level can further reveal the biological mechanisms and evolutionary context of dental characteristics. In this study, by analyzing 38 dental characteristics of 242 Xinjiang Uyghur individuals, we found that (i) the dental characteristics of the Uyghurs showed evidence of admixture between European and East Asian populations. The admixture proportions were in line with those previously reported in population genetic studies; (ii) the Xinjiang Uyghur dental characteristics formed three clusters in pairwise correlation analysis. One of the main clusters consisted of characteristics including incisor shoveling, double shoveling and mesial ridge; and (iii) all the characteristics in this cluster were significantly correlated with the genetic variant EDARV370A. The extracted composite phenotypic factor was also significantly associated with EDARV370A, which explained 18% of the total phenotypic variance. This indicated a pleiotropic effect, i.e., the same genetic factor affects a number of dental characteristics at the same time. Our results confirmed that EDARV370A, a genetic variant that first originated in East Asia about 30000 years ago, played an important role in incisor shoveling in East Asia. This finding suggested that incisor shoveling in modern humans in East Asia is likely to have appeared after the late Pleistocene. PMID:24752358

  19. GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-239 their hat band with which to wrap the gall. Consequently, the population of both

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    , the population of both these creatures decreased dramatically in the area for a time. One local fellow spent many a day prospecting deep in the wilderness. One time while lost, he stumbled on a small cabin in a remote. A miner found an old shovel and part of a firearm at the bottom of a deep natural shaft where the 19th

  20. Aridlands Ecology Lab Protocol Modified: 2010.01.08, S. Castle

    E-print Network

    Barger, Nichole

    diameter rebar (2 pieces per silt fence) Pocket knife Flat blade spade or shovel 3lb sledge hammer 3 x 3ft proceed to step 4 if sample mass is sweep material onto the trowel and empty/dd/yyyy): example: SF-SM-124 12/4/2009 7. Gently sweep material onto the trowel and place the contents on a plastic

  1. Long and short-term tillage effects on Heterodera glycines reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigations were conducted to determine the long and short-term effects of tillage on Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode (SCN), reproduction. Tillage plots were established in 1979 representing six tillage/no-tillage regimes. A portion of each plot was changed from no-tillage to chisel or...

  2. Global Warming Potential of Organic and Conventional Grain Cropping Systems in the mid-Atlantic Region of the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global warming potential (GWP) of a cropping system is the balance between the net exchange of the greenhouse gases CO2, N2O and CH4 that result from on-farm practices and the production and transport of inputs. We report here on GWP calculations for no-till (NT), chisel till (CT) and organic (O...

  3. TILLAGE-INDUCED CO2 LOSS ACROSS A LANDSCAPE AFTER 30 YEARS OF INTENSIVE TILLAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon (C)losses and soil translocation from tillage operations have been identified as causes of soil degradation and soil erosion that may contribute to global climate change. The objective of this work was to quantify the variability in tillage-induced CO2 loss by moldboard and chisel plowin...

  4. Debt servicing capacity of farmers in the blackland area of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Brandy, Othello Cecil

    1977-01-01

    I:a Chisel Disk Lister-bedder Planter Cultivator Roller Herb appl. Shredder Sprayer Drill Tractor Tractor Tractor T OTAL: '13 f t. 13 ft. 13 ft. 'l3 f t. 13 ft. 13 ft. 13 ft. 13 ft. 25 1i ft. 100 Hp 75 Hp 40 Hp 655. 28 685...

  5. Phenology and Abundance of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eastern South Dakota on Alfalfa and Soybean Relative to Tillage, Fertilization and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without a...

  6. 76 FR 72438 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel, and have a variety of finishes...turning the fastener using a tool that engages with the head...chisel and no point. Certain steel nails may be sold in...

  7. Accumulation and Crop Uptake of Soil Mineral Nitrogen as Influenced by Tillage, Cover Crops, and Nitrogen Fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Upendra M. Sainju; Bharat P. Singh; Wayne F. Whitehead; Shirley Wang

    2007-01-01

    Management practices may influence soil N levels due to crop up- take and leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices (no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)), four cover crops (hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), rye (Secale cereale L.), vetch 1 rye biculture, and winter weeds or no cover crop), and three N fertilization rates (0,

  8. Tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil nitrogen and cotton and sorghum yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Upendra M. Sainju; Wayne F. Whitehead; Bharat P. Singh; Shirley Wang

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable soil and crop management practices that reduce soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching, conserve soil organic matter, and optimize cotton and sorghum yields still remain a challenge. We examined the influence of three tillage practices (no-till, strip till and chisel till), four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secaele cereale L.)], vetch\\/rye biculture and winter

  9. Mammalogy Laboratory 6 -Rodents II: Castoridae, Geomyidae, Heteromyidae, Dipodidae, Muridae

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Jack

    Heteromyidae (Pocket mice, Kangaroo rats, Kangaroo mice) Diagnosis: External fur-lined cheek pouches (Desert pocket mouse)* Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat) D. microps (Chisel-toothed kangaroo rat) D. heermani (Heerman's kangaroo rat)* Microdipodops megacephalus (Dark kangaroo mouse) *Not an Idaho species

  10. Saltbush Leaves: Excision of Hypersaline Tissue by a Kangaroo Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Kenagy

    1972-01-01

    Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped

  11. INFORMATION NEEDED FOR COMMON COURSE NUMBERING The process for identifying a common course number for a new course is as follows

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Machine Shop 3 Gallatin College Gallatin College ·Identify and properly use hand and measuring tools cutting tools such as drills, taps, dies, reamers and basic hand tools. ·Measure properly using tapes, and assorted layout blocks. ·Demonstrate safe and proper use of hand tools such as files, hacksaws, chisels

  12. GLOMALIN IN AGGREGATE SIZE CLASSES FROM THREE DIFFERENT FARMING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chisel tilled (CT) and more intensively tilled organic (ORG) farming systems were compared with a no-till (NT) system for the distribution of glomalin in whole soil and macroaggregate size fractions of greater than 2.00, 0.50-2.00, 0.21-0.50 mm, microaggregates 0.05-0.21 mm, and fine material less t...

  13. Long-term tillage and maize monoculture effects on a tropical Alfisol in western Nigeria. I. Crop yield and soil physical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lal

    1997-01-01

    A wide range of tillage methods (e.g. mouldboard ploughing, discing, harrowing, chiselling, notill, ridge till, and their combinations) are used for continuous maize (Zea mays L.) cropping in western Nigeria without the benefits of experimental data on their comparative effects on soil properties and crop response. Therefore, the main objective of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of a

  14. Influence of different soil preparation techniques on organically grown strawberries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Eis

    From June 2005 till June 2007 different soil preparation techniques like chiselling and advance sowing of medicinal plants and green manuring were proofed for their influence on reducing plant losses of strawberries caused by root diseases like Phytophthora species and Verticillium dahliae. The variants were combined with potted plants and Frigos. The experiment took place on an organic fruit farm

  15. The first discovery of a brachiosaurid from the Asian continent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-D. Lim; L. D. Martin; K.-S. Baek

    2001-01-01

    Described here is a sauropod tooth from the Early Cretaceous of South Korea, similar to Brachiosaurus. The crown of the tooth is beveled off lingually so that when worn it presents a chisel-like edge. This find confirms the presence of a brachiosaurid in East Asia during the Early Cretaceous.

  16. The first discovery of a brachiosaurid from the Asian continent.

    PubMed

    Lim, J D; Martin, L D; Baek, K S

    2001-02-01

    Described here is a sauropod tooth from the Early Cretaceous of South Korea, similar to Brachiosaurus. The crown of the tooth is beveled off lingually so that when worn it presents a chisel-like edge. This find confirms the presence of a brachiosaurid in East Asia during the Early Cretaceous. PMID:11320893

  17. The first discovery of a brachiosaurid from the Asian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.-D.; Martin, L. D.; Baek, K.-S.

    2001-02-01

    Described here is a sauropod tooth from the Early Cretaceous of South Korea, similar to Brachiosaurus. The crown of the tooth is beveled off lingually so that when worn it presents a chisel-like edge. This find confirms the presence of a brachiosaurid in East Asia during the Early Cretaceous.

  18. Grain Handling What if "IT" happens to you?

    E-print Network

    Jones, Carol

    to be used as grain retainers. Cold grain may have effect of cold water drowning. If victim out within 5 air chisel, power saw, tractor loader, or cutting torch. Drain grain uniformly from 2, 3, or 4 holes from victim's chest area or higher. Build self-supporting box/brace walls to prevent collapse. Scoop

  19. Characterization of soil physical properties and organic matter under long-term primary tillage in a humid climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Carter

    1996-01-01

    Chisel ploughing is considered to be a potential conservation tillage method to replace mouldboard ploughing for annual crops in the cool-humid climate of eastern Canada. To assess possible changes in some soil physical and biological properties due to differences in annual primary tillage, a study was conducted for 9 years in Prince Edward Island on a Tignish loam, a well-drained

  20. Empirical relationships for soil organic carbon transport from agricultural watersheds in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved quantification is needed for long-term soil organic carbon (SOC) transport in runoff at watershed scales. Coshocton wheel samplers were used to collect runoff samples from no-till and chisel-till watersheds in corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) rotations over 13 years. Samples were a...

  1. Crop yield and soil fertility response to reduced tillage under organic management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Berner; I. Hildermann; A. Fließbach; L. Pfiffner; U. Niggli; P. Mäder

    2008-01-01

    Conservation tillage (no-till and reduced tillage) brings many benefits with respect to soil fertility and energy use, but it also has drawbacks regarding the need for synthetic fertilizers and herbicides. Our objective was to adapt reduced tillage to organic farming by quantifying effects of tillage (plough versus chisel), fertilization (slurry versus manure compost) and biodynamic preparations (with versus without) on

  2. Woodworking. A Bilingual Text = Carpinteria. Un Texto Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This booklet is a course of instruction in woodworking in a two-column, English-Spanish format. Following an introduction to woodworking and a lesson on safety, the booklet contains 19 units covering the following topics: wood; planning; laying out project parts; hand saws; planes; chisels and gouges; wood files and forming tools; boring holes in…

  3. Isolation of Phyllosilicate–Iron Redox Cycling Microorganisms from an Illite–Smectite Rich Hydromorphic Soil

    PubMed Central

    Shelobolina, Evgenya; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Wu, Tao; Blöthe, Marco; Roden, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate–Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite–smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate–Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicate–Fe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II) in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II) source, and O2 as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp. and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II) with O2, each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II) in reduced NAu-2 smectite with NO3- as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III) oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to Geobacter toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicate–Fe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil. PMID:22493596

  4. [Effects of management regime on soil respiration from agroecosystems].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-tao; Zhu, Da-wei; Niu, Chuan-po; Zou, Jian-wen; Wang, Chao; Sun, Wen-juan

    2009-10-15

    In order to examine the effects of management regime, such as nitrogen application and plowing method, on soil respiration from farmland, the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure soil CO2 fluxes in situ. The field measurement was carried out for 5 growing seasons, which were the 2002-2003 wheat, 2003 maize and soybean, 2003-2004 wheat, 2004 maize and 2004-2005 wheat seasons. Our results showed that soil respiration increased in fertilizer-applied treatments compared with no fertilizer treatment after 3 times of fertilizer application on 9 November 2002, 14 February and 26 March 2003. And the most obvious increase appeared following the third fertilizer application. No significant difference in soil respiration was found among several fertilizer application treatments. The effect of plowing depth on soil respiration was contingent on preceding cropping practice. Over the 2003-2004 wheat-growing seasons (its preceding cropping practice was rice paddy), mean soil respiration rates were not significant different (p > 0.05) between no plowing treatment and shallow plowing treatment. The shallow plowing treatment CT2 led to higher soil CO2 losses compared with no plowing treatment of NT2 in the 2004 maize-growing season, however, the significant higher (p < 0.05) soil respiration rates occurred with no plowing treatment of NT3 in the following 2004-2005 wheat-growing season. Intensive plowing (25 cm depth), compared with no plowing practice (NT4), increased soil respiration significantly during the 2004-2005 wheat-growing season. Regression analysis showed that the exponential function could be employed to fit the relationship between soil respiration and temperature. The exponential relationship yielded the Q10 values which were varied from 1.26 to 3.60, with a mean value of 2.08. To evaluate the effect of temperature on soil respiration, the CO2 emission fluxes were normalized for each treatment and each crop growing season. Plotting the normalized soil respiration against the temperature, the exponential relationship between these two parameters becomes obvious. The temperature coefficient Q10 was then evaluated as 1.66 according to the exponential relationship. Further investigation indicated that soil respiration could be well simulated by an empirical model in which the effects of both soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration were considered. This model described 54% variances of the measured 463 soil respiration rates, with a R2 of 0.54 and a p value less than 0.0001. PMID:19968098

  5. Effect of residual biomass burning on CO2 flux at a paddy field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Iwata, T.; Nakaya, K.

    2014-12-01

    Paddy field is one of the most important ecosystem in monsoon Asia, and takes a great important role in CO2 uptake. Carbon budget in agricultural fields is largely influenced by some artificial managements. After the harvest of crops, residual biomass is burned on fields, brought out from fields, or left and plowed into paddy soils. If the open burning is conducted on fields, one part of biomass carbon would be emitted to atmosphere as CO2, and the other part would be plowed into soils. In this study, an experimental paddy field was divided into two areas to investigate what impact is brought on the annual CO2 flux by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. At the one area, residual biomass was burned and plowed into soils after the harvest in late November 2011, 2012, and 2013. At the other area, residue was not burned and plowed into soils as usual. From three-years average of sampling surveys, carbon content of residue plowed into soils after the harvest was estimated 293±1 and 220±36 g C m-2 at no-burned and burned area, respectively. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes at each area were conducted for three years. A little bit of difference in CO2 flux between two areas was shown during rice season.

  6. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long-articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. The general equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-based agriculture increases erosion rates enough to prove unsustainable. In contrast to how net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields (?1 mm/yr) can erode through a typical hillslope soil profile over time scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations, no-till agriculture produces erosion rates much closer to soil production rates and therefore could provide a foundation for sustainable agriculture. PMID:17686990

  7. Hairy Vetch, Bur Clover and Oats as Soil-Building Crops for Cotton and Corn in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Morris, H. F. (Harry Forest); Johnson, P. R. (Paul Rufus); Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

    1950-01-01

    and seeded in the fall on a well-prepared seedbed and fertilized with what rere considered adequate amounts of superphosphate and pot- I ash. The legumes were plowed under in the spring and cotton I or corn was planted on the land. The yields of cotton.... No treatment. The fertilizer for the vetch was broadcast or drilled on or near the surface, and plowed under. The soil was then disked preparatory to planting the vetch. Hairy vetch was planted on the prepared seedbed in October or early November. The seed...

  8. Autoerotic fatalities with power hydraulics.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, R L; Dietz, P E

    1993-03-01

    We report two cases in which men used the hydraulic shovels on tractors to suspend themselves for masochistic sexual stimulation. One man developed a romantic attachment to a tractor, even giving it a name and writing poetry in its honor. He died accidentally while intentionally asphyxiating himself through suspension by the neck, leaving clues that he enjoyed perceptual distortions during asphyxiation. The other man engaged in sexual bondage and transvestic fetishism, but did not purposely asphyxiate himself. He died when accidentally pinned to the ground under a shovel after intentionally suspending himself by the ankles. We compare these cases with other autoerotic fatalities involving perceptual distortion, cross-dressing, machinery, and postural asphyxiation by chest compression. PMID:8454997

  9. The Long Way Home 

    E-print Network

    Dawn, M.; Bennett, J.

    2002-01-01

    moving hesitantly toward the back rooms, shepherded by Fraser. He breathed once, deep ly. Then again. Oh, God, he thought. It must be contagious. He threw the shovel and note away with both hands and rubbed them on his jeans. How was it transmitted? Could... as highly contagious. He checked the date. This was the last report, from the Whitehorse Gazette. He leafed determinedly through the rest of the papers, Edmonton, Vancouver, Fairbanks, Anchorage, but he could not find anything more specific. He...

  10. Trace Element Concentrations in Wintering Waterfowl from the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Vest; M. R. Conover; C. Perschon; J. Luft; J. O. Hall

    2009-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is an important region for millions of migratory waterbirds. However, high concentrations of some\\u000a trace elements, including Hg and Se, have been detected within the GSL, and baseline ecotoxicological data are lacking for\\u000a avian species in this system. We collected common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), and green-winged teal (A. crecca) from the

  11. Improving haul truck productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-06-15

    The paper reviews developments in payload management and cycle times. These were discussed at a roundtable held at the Haulage and Loading 2007 conference held in May in Phoenix, AZ, USA. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) explaind what their companies were doing to improve cycle times for trucks, shovels and excavators used in surface coal mining. Quotations are given from Dion Domaschenz of Liebherr and Steve Plott of Cat Global Mining. 4 figs.

  12. Pairs of related words in French (and their English equivalents) PRIME TARGET

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    gâteau (cake) bonbon (sweet) 7 6.6 6.7 3.1 2.8 13.92 3.72 6 6 Negative targets tempête (storm) vent (wind) pelle (shovel) 4.75 4.8 26.01 11.35 5 5 plat (dish) rasoir (razor) 5.3 3.9 44.26 15.61 4 6 cape (cape

  13. Frequency and variability of dental morphology in deciduous and permanent dentition of a Nasa indigenous group in the municipality of Morales, Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eider; García, Lorena; Hernández, Michelle; Palacio, Lesly; Ruiz, Diana; Velandia, Nataly; Villavicencio, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency, variability, sexual dimorphism and bilateral symmetry of fourteen dental crown traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition of 60 dental models (35 women and 25 men) obtained from a native, indigenous group of Nasa school children of the Musse Ukue group in the municipality of Morales, Department of Cauca, Colombia. Methods: This is a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study that characterizes dental morphology by means of the systems for temporary dentition from Dahlberg (winging), and ASUDAS (crowding, reduction of hypocone, metaconule and cusp 6), Hanihara (central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and cusp 7), Sciulli (double bit, layered fold protostylid, cusp pattern and cusp number) and Grine (Carabelli trait); and in permanent dentition from ASUDAS (Winging, crowding, central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and double shovel-shape, Carabelli trait, hypocone reduction, metaconule, cusp pattern, cusp number, layered fold protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7). Results: The most frequent dental crown features were the shovel-shaped form, grooved and fossa forms of the Carabelli trait, metaconule, cusp pattern Y6, layered fold, protostylid (point P) and cusp 6. Sexual dimorphism was not observed and there was bilateral symmetry in the expression of these features. Conclusions: The sample studied presented a great affinity with ethnic groups belonging to the Mongoloid Dental Complex due to the frequency (expression) and variability (gradation) of the tooth crown traits, upper incisors, the Carabelli trait, the protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7. The influence of the Caucasoide Dental Complex associated with ethno-historical processes cannot be ruled out. PMID:24970955

  14. 60. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. STEAM SHOVEL NO. 1 LOADING CARS IN EASTERLY BORROW PIT. CARS IN THIS TRAIN OF 12 NEARLY ALL LOADED. EAIGHT MINUTES REQUIRED TO LOAD 12 CARS EQUAL TO 42 CU YDS. PLACE MEASUREMENT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  15. 59. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. STEAM SHOVEL NO. 1 AT WORK ON EASTERLY BORROW PIT. CLASS OF MATERIAL BEING EXCAVATED IS LARGELY SAND AND GRAVEL, WITH ENOUGH CLAY TO FORM A BOND BETWEEN SAND AND GRAVEL. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  16. 62. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photographic copy of historic photo, April 25, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.). UPPER DEER FLAT EMBANKMENT. VIEW FROM EASTERLY END OF EMBANKMENT UNDER CONSTRUCTION. TRAIN IN FOREGROUND RETURNING TO EASTERLY BORROW PIT. STEAM SHOVEL NO.2 IN DISTANCE AT WORK IN WESTERLY BORROW PIT. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  17. Brazing Alloys Indicate Turbomachinery Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlaff, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Foils serve as consumable thermometers. Stainless-steel tab with circular window holds brazing-foil sample in place. Tab tacked to object to be tested with capacitive-discharge spot welder operating in range 10 + 1 joules. After measurements, tabs and samples chiseled off, leaving tested object fairly well intact. Technique used on objects made of alloys with iron, nickel, or cobalt as principal ingredients.

  18. Analysis of diatomite sediments from a paleolake in central Mexico using PIXE, X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Miranda; A. Oliver; G. Vilaclara; R. Rico-Montiel; V. M. Macías; J. L. Ruvalcaba; M. A. Zenteno

    1994-01-01

    Diatomite samples from paleolake Tlaxcala, in Central Mexico, have been analyzed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction. Chiseled blocks were scanned with a 0.7 MeV proton beam, 0.1 mm in diameter, in 0.25 mm steps across the sediments. X-ray tomography with the same step sizes was then applied, in order to compare the concentrations obtained

  19. Phosphorus and Potassium Distribution in Soil Following Long-Term Deep-Band Fertilization in Different Tillage Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio P. Mallarino; Rogerio Borges

    2006-01-01

    Tillage and fertilizer placement affect soil-test P (STP) and K (STK) distribution in topsoil but little is known about stratification after deep banding. This study investigated lateral and vertical STP and STK stratification after deep-banding fertilizers for corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) managed with no-till or chisel-disk tillage. Soil samples were collected from selected plots

  20. Pocket Gophers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Case; Bruce A. Jasch

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-four species of pocket gophers, represented by five genera, occupy the western hemisphere. In the United States there are 13 species and three genera. The major features differentiating these genera are the size of their forefeet, claws, and front surfaces of their chisel-like incisors. Thomomys have smooth-faced incisors and small forefeet with small claws. Northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) are

  1. Short communication Glomalin in aggregate size classes from three different farming systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Wright; V. S. Green; M. A. Cavigelli

    Glomalin was measured in soil from farming systems managed for 8 years by chisel tillage (CT), more intensive tillage for organic (ORG) production, and no tillage (NT) on Acrisols (FAO Soil Units) in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Whole soil and aggregate size classes of >2.00, 0.50-2.00 and 0.21-0.50 mm (macroaggregates), 0.05-0.21 mm (microaggregates), and <0.05 mm (fine material)

  2. 17. A closeup detail, looking east from the northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. A close-up detail, looking east from the northeast corner of the roadbed. This image shows the concrete commemorative inscription which is let into the inside of the eastern balustrade at the north end of the bridge. The name of one of the county commissioners has been chiselled out of the inscription. The parting fault between the parapet and its coping is evident. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  3. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Dow

    1992-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to image and modify the surfaces of III-V, II-VI and group IV semiconductors. A tip-simulator based on a photocode was developed. The simulator allows the development of ultra-sensitive electronics for controlling STM tip movement. Various forms of 'nano-machining', including chiselling, sanding, and sweeping of atoms on a surface, were developed. An STM design

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy. Final report, 1 Oct 87-30 Sep 90

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dow

    1992-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to image and modify the surfaces of III-V, II-VI and group IV semiconductors. A tip-simulator based on a photocode was developed. The simulator allows the development of ultra-sensitive electronics for controlling STM tip movement. Various forms of 'nano-machining,' including chiselling, sanding, and sweeping of atoms on a surface, were developed. An STM design

  5. Optical coherence tomography to evaluate the interaction of different edge designs of four different silicone hydrogel lenses with the ocular surface

    PubMed Central

    Turhan, Semra Akkaya; Toker, Ebru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the lens edge interaction with the ocular surface with different edge designs using optical coherence tomography and to examine the effect of lens power on the lens edge interactions. Methods Four types of silicone hydrogel lenses with different edge designs (round-, semi-round-, chisel-, and knife-edged) at six different powers (+5.0, +3.0, +1.0, ?1.0, ?3.0, and ?5.0 diopters) were fitted to both eyes of 20 healthy volunteers. Optical coherence tomography images were taken at the corneal center and at the limbus within 15–30 minutes after insertion. The images were evaluated with respect to two parameters: conjunctival indentation exerted by the lens edge; and the tear film gaps between the posterior surface of the lens and the ocular surface. The amount of conjunctival indentation was measured with the distortion angle of the conjunctiva at the lens edge. Results The degree of conjunctival indentation was highest with the chisel-edged design followed by the semi-round design (P<0.0001). Knife- and round-edged lenses exerted similar levels of conjunctival indentation that was significantly lower compared to chisel-edged lens (P<0.001). For each one of the tested lens edge designs, no significant difference was observed in the conjunctival indentation with respect to lens power. The chisel-edged lens produced the highest amount of conjunctival indentation for each one of the six lens powers (P<0.0001). Post-lens tear film gaps at the limbus were observed at most in the round-edge design (P=0.001). Conclusion The fitting properties of contact lenses may be influenced by their edge design but not by their lens power.

  6. The affect system has parallel and integrative processing components: Form follows function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Cacioppo; Wendi L. Gardner; Gary G. Berntson

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT The affect system has been shaped by the hammer,and chisel of adaptation and natural selection such that form follows function. The characteristics of the system thus differ across the nervous system as a function of the unique constraints existent at each level. For instance, although physical limitations constrain behavioral expressions and incline behavioral predispositions toward a bipolar (good—bad, approach—withdraw)

  7. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, P. Jr. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Cheyenne, WY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 {mu}g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 {mu}g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake`s closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

  8. Crop rotation and tillage effects on a thermic ustalf on the Southern High Plains of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable research has indicated that changing from plow tillage to no-, minimum- or conservation-tillage will, for many soils, result in improved soil physical, chemical, and biochemical quality. Recently however, some researchers have reported that for sandy soils in warm temperature regimes, ...

  9. MEMORANDUM TO RE-EVALUATE JURISDICTION FOR NWP-2007-428 For JD# NWP-2007-428, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S.

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    A" (~1 acre) by a low, man-made berm. The berm was created over multiple years from plow patterns by hydrophytic vegetation, sharing several of 1 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jurisdictional Determination Form" toward "wetland A." The proximity, landscape position, vegetation, soils and hydrologic conditions, all

  10. Subsoil ridge tillage and lime effects on soil microbial activity, soil pH, erosion, and wheat and pea yield in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F Bezdicek; T Beaver; D Granatstein

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion and the gradual acidification of soils are two major obstacles limiting crop productivity in the Palouse region of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. New tillage practices that replace the traditional moldboard plow are needed to maintain more surface cover to reduce erosion. Two tillage systems and lime were compared at two locations on silt loam soils. Treatment combinations

  11. Commercial Fertilizers in 1919-20. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

    1920-01-01

    Planters Fertilizer and ~h~nhi~;l'CbGp&;: : : : : : : : : : : : : .......................... Shreveport Fertilizer Works. . Sulphur Springs Acid and Fertilizer Company. .......... ................................... Swift ~k Company.. Tennessee Coal...-Guarantee ................. Planters Fertilizer and Chemical Co., Houston. Fort Worth. Texas. and New Orleans. La.- Planters' Plow Brand Blood and Bone With Potash- 28010 28011 28012 28284 28097 Guarantee ....................................... Analysis...

  12. SOIL SURFACE ROUGHNESS DECAY BY RAINFALL AMOUNT AND EROSIVITY INDEX (EI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALI SALEH

    ABSTRACT Rainfall amount,erosivity index (EI) decay soil aggregates and ridges at different rates. To evaluate the decay of soil aggregates and ridges by natural rainfall amount,and EI. Field and rainfall simulator experiments were conducted. One half of a field with fine sandy loam soil, located in West Texas, was tilled with a lister; the other half, with a moldboard plow.

  13. Tillage and soil carbon sequestration—What do we really know?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Rodney T. Venterea; Timothy J. Griffis

    2007-01-01

    It is widely believed that soil disturbance by tillage was a primary cause of the historical loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) in North America, and that substantial SOC sequestration can be accomplished by changing from conventional plowing to less intensive methods known as conservation tillage. This is based on experiments where changes in carbon storage have been estimated through

  14. Canadians Should Travel Randomly Erik D. Demaine1

    E-print Network

    Demaine, Erik

    of plowing or accident pile-ups). You have purchased a complete road map, modeled as a weighted graph G = (V.g., by snow) once reaching them. It is PSPACE-complete to achieve a bounded competitive ratio for this problem. Furthermore, if at most k roads can be blocked, then the optimal competitive ratio for a determin- istic

  15. The Navajo Agricultural Projects Industry: Subsistence Farming to Corporate Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Originally designed to create small farms for individual Navajos, the irrigation project has grown into a single 110,000-acre corporate agribusiness, the land's management has fallen out of the grasp of individual Navajos, and the idea of subsistence farming has been plowed under for the planting of major money-making crops. (NQ)

  16. Cottons Resistant to Wilt and Root Knot and the Effect of Potash Fertilizer in East Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Young, P. A. (Paul Allen)

    1943-01-01

    ~otalaria spectabilis, sorghum, and Velvet bean are practically immune to root knot and are recommended for starving the nematodes out of the soil. Although not a forage crop, crotalaria produces a large yield of nitrogenous organic matter for plowing into the soil...

  17. c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010 DOI: 10.1051/agro/2010022

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    their agricultural use unless conservation agricultural practices are adopted. Conservation agriculture is a key tool, and proper application of water- and soil-conserving tillage technology is critical. The area under plow. This is the starting point for inappropriate use of the agricultural land. The conservation agricultural technologies

  18. 3-D Graph Processor William S. Song, Jeremy Kepner, Huy T. Nguyen, Joshua

    E-print Network

    Kepner, Jeremy

    , garbage collection, snow plowing, and street cleaning · Planning for hospital, firehouse, police station, warehouse, shop, market, office and other building placements · Routing robotsRouting robots · Analyzing DNA-570* Custom HPC2* fixed problem size System PowerPC 1.5GHz Intel 3.2GHz IBM P5-570* Custom HPC2* fixed problem

  19. CropEcology&Physiology 972 Agronomy Journal Volume 103, Issue 4 2011

    E-print Network

    CropEcology&Physiology 972 Agronomy Journal · Volume 103, Issue 4 · 2011 Using Normalized doi:10.2134/agronj2010.0495 Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy, 5585 Guilford Road by sequestering C in the soil profile (Rotz et al., 2009). Decades of plowing have depleted organic C stocks

  20. Seyfert Galaxies E N CYC LO PE D IA O F AS T R O N O MY AN D AS T R O PHYS I C S Seyfert Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Whittle, Mark

    in being `radio- quiet', with radio luminosities 103 ­104 times weaker than the `radio loud' category, which includes RADIO GALAXIES and radio quasars. Over the past 20 years much effort has gone to a few thousand light years. In some cases, oppositely directed collimated jets of low density gas plow

  1. BEEF FEEDYARD EFFLUENT APPLICATION EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT MASS BALANCES FOR THREE CROPPING ROTATIONS OF SORGHUM AND WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedlot runoff was applied to 27 plots of winter wheat and forage sorghum over 24 months at the Agriculture Research Station located at Bushland, TX, 12 miles west of Amarillo. Each plot measured 16 m x 4.5 m to allow for access of farming implements. All plots were plowed with an offset disc, chi...

  2. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many…

  3. Impacts of contrasting land-use history on composition, soils, and development of mixed-oak, coastal plain forests on Shelter Island, New York

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc D. Abrams; Vanessa L. W. Hayes

    2008-01-01

    th and 19 th centuries and then abandoned after 1870. The upper soil profile was examined for soil nutrients and pH, the presence\\/absence of a plow layer (Ap) and for soil charcoal. Tree cores (N 5 130) were taken across both forest types to include the full range of species and diameter size classes to assess temporal and spatial variation

  4. TILLAGE AND WIND EFFECTS ON SOIL CO2 CONCENTRATIONS IN MUCK SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased CO2 concentrations from agricultural activities has prompted the need to quantify greenhouse gas emissions to better understand C cycling and its role in environmental quality. The specific objective of this work was to determine the effect of no-tillage, deep plowing and wind speeds on th...

  5. Devens 2008 Monitoring Update

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents results from site monitoring activities during calendar year 2008 at the EPA/ORD Red Cove Study Area relative to site characterization activities under Operable Units 01 (Shepley's Hill Landfill) and 11 (Plow Shop Pond) at the Fort Devens Superfund site. T...

  6. Self-revegetation of disturbed ground in the deserts of Nevada and Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Rickard; R. H. Sauer

    1982-01-01

    Plant cover established without purposeful soil preparation or seeding was measured on ground disturbed by plowing in Washington and by aboveground nuclear explosions in Nevada. After a time lapse of three decades in Washington and two decades in Nevada, fewer species were self-established on the disturbed ground than the nearby undisturbed ground. Alien annual plants were the dominants on the

  7. Evaluating the usefulness of phytoliths and starch grains found on survey artifacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Archaeologists use survey artifacts to study any number of interesting topics. The focus of this study is to test the usefulness of starch grains and phytoliths found on artifacts recovered during archaeological survey. Phytolith and starch grain analysis was used to determine the level of environmental contamination on three types of medieval ceramics collected during survey work from plowed fields

  8. Coefficient of Kinetic Friction of Snow Skis during Turning Descents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahashi, Toshio; Ichino, Shoji

    1998-02-01

    On a snow plane, descents were performed by snow plows, stem turns, parallel turns and wedelns. The descents were photographed in sequence and these were used to draw the loci of the skis. Coefficients of kinetic friction between the skis and the snow during the turns were obtained from the loci; their values were between 0.01 and 0.3.

  9. EARLY JOURNEYS OF ZEA MAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every spring in the Himalayan mountains of Nepal, farmers plow their terraced fields and plant maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), an American crop plant. Although Nepalese farmers are convinced that their maize, or "makai", is indigenous to the Himalayas, several independent lines of evidence indicate tha...

  10. Tillage and Crop Establishment in South Asian Rice-Wheat Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Hobbs

    2001-01-01

    Tillage is one of the primary activities for crop production. It is a major cost for crop production and has a strong influence on yield through its interaction with timely planting and good plant stand. In the South Asian rice-wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains the tillage for rice is unique in that wet plowing (locally called puddling) is most

  11. WeedControl Recommendations

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Figure 1.Feekes scale for the growth and development of cereals ........7 Table 1.Preplant herbicides.Herbicide restrictions and mode of action .........................16 Table 7.Herbicide efficacy for grasses plowing perennial weeds, take care to prevent the transport and spread of plant parts to other areas

  12. Test method development for evaluating the freeze-thaw performance of segmental retaining wall blocks 

    E-print Network

    Hoelscher, Aaron Kindall

    2007-04-25

    , there have been reports of SRW systems failing after only five years in service. Suspected causes of the SRW failures are freeze-thaw damage while exposed to deicing salts sprayed by snow plows from highways. The current standard test method used...

  13. (Lab Use Only) Before Last

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    2 3 Check Test Requested (plow layer sample) $15 $7 $12 $7 $7 $16 $7 $7 Nitrate Before selecting this test please read the section on nitrate on the BACK SIDE Sampling to 24" is required for this test/Mustard/Canola Sorghum Sudan Soybeans Sugarbeets Sunflowers Wild Rice VEGETABLES Asparagus, New Planting Asparagus

  14. 43. From Superintendent's Monthly Report, March 1936. Haleakala District Ranger ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. From Superintendent's Monthly Report, March 1936. Haleakala District Ranger J.A. Peck, Photographer. THIS IS HAWAII-CLEARING SNOW FROM HALEAKALA ROAD AFTER STORM. HOWEVER THIS IS NOT A PRELIMINARY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PURCHASE OF ROTARY PLOW. PHOTO PECK, FEB. 5. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  15. SOIL-PROFILE ORGANIC CARBON AND TOTAL NITROGEN UNDER BERMUDAGRASS MANAGEMENT IN THE SOUTHERN PIEDMONT USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of potential carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sequestration at depths below the traditional plow layer (0-30 cm) are limited, but are needed to improve our understanding of management influences on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient cycling. Soil samples were collected under `Coastal' bermud...

  16. Control of Mesquite on Grazing Lands.

    E-print Network

    Fisher, C. E.; Meadors, C. H.; Behrens, R.; Robinson, E. D.; Marion, P. T.; Morton, H. L.

    1959-01-01

    heavy stands of sunflower (Hrlt. anthus annus) , Russian thistle (Salsola kali var. ~~IIII. folia) and other undesirable weeds developed on the root-plowed areas soon after treatment and persistetl on the land for several years. Results obtained at...

  17. Differential Tolerances of Amaranthus Strains to High Levels of Aluminum and Manganese in Acid Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Foy; T. A. Campbell

    1984-01-01

    Species of Amaranthus are grown extensively as leafy green vegetables in tropical Africa and Asia and as high yielding grain crops in Western South America, Central America, Northern India, Western Nepal, and Pakistan. The crop is often grown on acid, marginal soils, under subsistence conditions, where liming even the soil plow layer may not be economically feasible. Hence, the identification

  18. INNOVATIVE ENGINEERING TO REDUCE INSTALLATION AND BURIAL COSTS OF SUBMARINE PIPELINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeed Khan

    1984-01-01

    The advances in offshore pipeline technology, in recent years, have been achieved by using innovative engineering to reduce construction risks and total capital costs. New design concepts and installation techniques namely: pipeline installation using the bottom tow method, pipe connections using the deflect-to-connect method and pipe trenching using marine plows have successfully been used in the North Sea, Canadian Arctic,

  19. Limb kinematics analysis of the cattle-like robot walking on soft ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yong

    2010-01-01

    The walking procedure of the cattle on a paddy field before spring plowing was captured by the high-speed photography. The properties of the paddy soil used for tests and the geometrical configurations of the hooves of the cattle were examined. Combined with the fitted curve, the graphs of joint angle were drawn. The changes of the joint angles and the

  20. Walking mechanism and simulation of cattle-like robot on soft ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yong

    2010-01-01

    The walking procedure of the cattle, Bostaurus, on a paddy field before spring plowing was captured with a high-speed video camera. The properties of the paddy soil used for tests and the geometrical configurations of the hooves of the cattle were examined. The geometrical configurations and motion postures of the cattle during walking on paddy field were analyzed, and the

  1. Theme: Educational Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Agricultural Education & School-to-Work" (Larson, Cox); Agricultural Opportunities with Home Schoolers" (Frick, Brennan); "Private Schools and Agricultural Education in North Carolina" (Forrest); "Career Pathways" (Sigar, Thompson); "Perkins and Plows" (Lovejoy); "Charter Schools" (Knight, Armstrong); "Telling the College Tech. Prep.…

  2. SOIL AGGREGATION, AGGREGATE CARBON AND NITROGEN, AND MOISTURE RETENTION INDUCED BY CONSERVATION TILLAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Problems generated by deficient soil organic matter (SOM) levels are often acute in the tropics and subtropics, where better soil and residue management methods are needed, but have not been much studied. Conservation tillage may ameliorate SOM losses. We studied the effects of 13 y of plow tillag...

  3. Bindweed Control in the Panhandle of Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Rea, H. E.; Wiese, A. F.

    1955-01-01

    at 3-week intervals under low soil moisture conditions; cultivations at 2-week intervals were required under good moisture conditions. Sweep-type plows severed all the bindweed tops from the roots and left, crop residues on the soil surface to aid... ............................................................................................................................................................................... Digest 2 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3 . . Descrlpt~on of Bindweed...

  4. Davallia trichomanoides (Cultivated) 3 

    E-print Network

    Robert W. Corbett

    2011-08-02

    at 3-week intervals under low soil moisture conditions; cultivations at 2-week intervals were required under good moisture conditions. Sweep-type plows severed all the bindweed tops from the roots and left, crop residues on the soil surface to aid... ............................................................................................................................................................................... Digest 2 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3 . . Descrlpt~on of Bindweed...

  5. Types of Carbon Compounds That Accumulate Under No-Tillage In Rice-Based Rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a long-term field experiment of rice-based rotations near Stuttgart, AR, no-tillage promoted carbon and nitrogen sequestration in the plow layer compared to conventional tillage. The increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen sequestered with no-tillage varied by crop rotation, ranging from about 1...

  6. LONG-TERM CORN RESIDUE EFFECTS: HARVEST ALTERNATIVES, SOIL CARBON TURNOVER AND ROOT-DERIVED CARBON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of carbon (C) turnover, with estimates of root-derived C, is needed to manage soil C sequestration. Stover and fertilizer treatments (in a 2 X 2 factorial) and a control were imposed on 29 yr of continuous corn (Zea mays L.) with moldboard plow tillage with silage (stover) rem...

  7. At Paul Quinn, Students Till the Soil to Cultivate a Better College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In autumn, most colleges' football fields are covered with a thick carpet of grass or artificial turf and are adorned with yard lines. But the football field at Paul Quinn College was carved up by plowing and planting. This past fall, portions of the college's gridiron were covered with sweet potatoes, watermelons, peppers, rosemary, and sugar…

  8. CUT FLOWER VARIETY TRIALS, ITHACA, NY, 2005 H. C. Wien, Department of Horticulture, Cornell University

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    additions of compost, to a depth of 4 in., in fall 2003 and 2004. The compost was obtained from Cornell Farm shortly after application, and the land was then plowed in spring. Compost application in the high tunnel was made by hand, and incorporation by rototiller. In spring, a complete fertilizer was applied

  9. Third annual platelet colloquium debuts awards for young, established investigators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. French

    2008-01-01

    Three bright and creative scientists in the early stages of career development received inaugural Young Investigator Awards (YIA) at the Third Annual Platelet Colloquium, held in San Antonio January 24–26, 2008. The Colloquium also awarded an Established Investigator Prize to Edward F. Plow, PhD (Photo 1) of The Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

  10. TILLAGE AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION: WHAT DO WE REALLY KNOW?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is widely accepted that substantial amounts of carbon can be sequestered in agricultural soils by changing tillage practices from conventional plowing to less intensive methods, loosely known as conservation tillage. This view is based on experiments in which relative carbon changes have been est...

  11. Changing Agricultural Education to Meet Needs of Emerging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rick; Brase, Terry; Dewsnup, Mel; Anderson, Mandi; Collins, Ashley; Klopp, Deborah; Johnson, Brian; Feldmann, Holly

    2009-01-01

    With less than 2% of Americans involved in traditional production agriculture (cows, plows, and sows), agricultural programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels must change to address the workforce of the future. AgrowKnowledge works at the national level to provide tools for changing agriculture, food, and natural resource educational…

  12. 29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (B)—Dressed lumber. Table G-1—Manila Rope [In pounds or tons of 2,000 pounds] Circumferences...Rated Capacities for Improved Plow Steel, Independent Wire Rope Core, Wire Rope and Wire Rope Slings [In tons of 2,000...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.118 - Tables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (B)—Dressed lumber. Table G-1—Manila Rope [In pounds or tons of 2,000 pounds] Circumferences...Rated Capacities for Improved Plow Steel, Independent Wire Rope Core, Wire Rope and Wire Rope Slings [In tons of 2,000...

  14. Environmental Radicalism: The Extremes and the Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Engler

    2010-01-01

    In the forest, a protestor U-locks her neck to a bulldozer set to plow a road through an immaculate Redwood grove. On the seas a small, agile boat chases after a much larger whaling vessel to interrupt its hunt. In the courtroom, a scrappy legal team demands an injunction to protect the habitat of an elusive, endangered panther. The extent

  15. Environmental Radicalism: The Extremes and the Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Engler

    2010-01-01

    :In the forest, a protestor U-locks her neck to a bulldozer set to plow a road through an immaculate Redwood grove. On the seas a small, agile boat chases after a much larger whaling vessel to interrupt its hunt. In the courtroom, a scrappy legal team demands an injunction to protect the habitat of an elusive, endangered panther. The extent

  16. Sharpened electron beam deposited tips for high resolution atomic force microscope lithography and imaging

    E-print Network

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    with an AFM, followed by selective etching,2 the direct modification of silicon surfaces and superconduct- ing and the creation of a liftoff mask by plowing the first of two resist layers with the following development of the resist to an optimal value, the resist is baked at 170 °C for about 1 h. To pattern the resist, the AFM

  17. Resistance of steel strength wires used in small fiber-optic cables to seawater corrosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin J. Sandwith; Robert L. Ruedisueli; Allan L. James; Gerald A. Gotthardt

    1996-01-01

    The corrosion rates of single strands of strength wire and the same wires assembled in small, fiber-optic cables with jacket damage that exposes the wire have been measured and used to predict the loss in wire and cable strength with time. The wires consisted of galvanized and ungalvanized extra improved plow steel. The results of laboratory measurements and of tensile

  18. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE METHODS ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELD OF WATERMELON (Citrullus Vulgaris)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majid Rashidi; Fereydoun Keshavarzpour

    A two year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods on soil physical properties and crop yield of watermelon. Tillage treatments in the study were moldboard plow + two passes of disk harrow as conventional tillage (CT), two passes of disk harrow as reduced tillage (RT), one pass of disk harrow as minimum tillage (MT)

  19. Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Colonization of Pig Carrion in South Georgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery K. Tomberlin; D. Craig Sheppard; John A. Joyce

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data

  20. WATER AND SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A CULTIVATED SILT LOAM SOIL: 1. FIELD OBSERVATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vadose zone flow and transport processes are known to be strongly affected by both soil structure and soil texture. We conducted a field experiment to explore the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by agricultural operations such as wheel traffic, plowing and surface tillage on water ...

  1. A MULTISENSORY APPROACH TO 3-D MAPPING OF UNDERGROUND UTILITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonhard E. Bernold

    The demand for new buried utilities, such as gas, power and fiber-optic communication lines is growing with new construction, re-construction, and the growth of the communication infrastructure worldwide. Because the machinery for placing the new utilities underground, such as backhoe excavators, trenchers, augers, drills, and plows, don't \\

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPERVARIABLE DOMAINS OF THE 16S RRNA GENES FOR THEIR VALUE IN DETERMINING MICROBIAL COMMUNITY DIVERSITY: THE PARADOX OF TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL INDICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amplicon length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR) was investigated for its ability to distinguish between microbial community patterns from the same soil type under different land management practices. Natural sagebrush (NSB) and irrigated moldboard plowed (IMP) soils from Idaho were queried as to which h...

  3. America's First Government Documentary Films as Teaching Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Kenneth E.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews two documentaries produced by the U.S. government: "The Plow That Broke the Plains" (1936) and "The River" (1937). The first examines soil erosion in the Great Plains; the second considers Mississippi River usage. Narrates storylines and explains initial film criticism. Highlights the films' effectiveness for teaching about the New Deal…

  4. ARSENIC TRANSPORT ACROSS THE GROUNDWATER ? SURFACE WATER INTERFACE AT A SITE IN CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plow Shop Pond, located in central Massachusetts within the New England ?arsenic belt,? receives water from a series of interconnected upstream ponds as well as from upward-discharging groundwater. A small, shallow embayment on the southwest side of the pond is known as Red Cove...

  5. Arsenic Fate, Transport And Stability Study: Groundwater, Surface Water, Soil And Sediment Investigation At Fort Devens Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of arsenic in groundwater, surface water, and sediments at the Fort Devens Superfund Site. The study area encompassed a portion of plow Shop Pond (Red Cove), which receives groundwater discharge from the aquifer und...

  6. Arsenic Fate And Transport In Red Cove, Fort Devens

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of a discharging arsenic plume on sediment contamination in a cove (Red Cove) within Plow Shop Pond adjacent to Shepley's Hill Landfill at the Fort Devens Superfund Site in Massachusetts. Site characterization included a...

  7. Tillage and wind effects on soil CO 2 concentrations in muck soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Reicosky; R. W. Gesch; S. W. Wagner; R. A. Gilbert; C. D. Wente; D. R. Morris

    2008-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from agricultural activities prompted the need to quantify greenhouse gas emissions to better understand carbon (C) cycling and its role in environmental quality. The specific objective of this work was to determine the effect of no-tillage, deep plowing and wind speeds on the soil CO2 concentration in muck (organic) soils of the Florida Everglades.

  8. 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Solution P Concentration (C, mg L

    E-print Network

    Barak, Phillip

    the soil sampling technique. If soil P concentrations in the plow layer are significantly stratified due monitoring must reevaluate the current methods as it has been shown that the soil subject to the greatest will be difficult without better knowledge of soil phosphorus levels to depth. Currently, Wisconsin agricultural

  9. Tillage and Forage System Effects on Forage Yields and Nutrient Uptake under Broiler Litter–Amended Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Whittington; C. W. Wood; B. H. Wood; R. L. Raper; D. W. Reeves; G. E. Brink

    2007-01-01

    Planting and harvesting high?yielding forage grasses may remove phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) from surface soils with a long history of broiler litter application. A study was conducted in Alabama's Sand Mountain region from 1998 to 2000 to determine tillage and forage systems best suited for removing nutrients from such overloaded soils. Tillage treatments included no?till, moldboard plowing,

  10. Strip-tillage: A conservation alternative to full-width tillage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkowski, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Historically no-till management has been a challenge for maize production in the Midwestern USA because crop residue slows the warming of the soil in the spring and can physically impair planting by plugging the planter. After trying no-till, producers often return to more aggressive tillage operations to address residue concerns; however these systems can cause soil erosion and can increase the cost of production. An alternative system known as strip-tillage has been suggested as a compromise between no-till and full-width tillage. This practice utilizes implements that loosen the soil and allow warming in the row area, yet maintain nearly as much residue as no-till. Strip-tillage is generally understood to be a single pass with a separate implement in the fall, although spring strip-tillage is possible if soil moisture and conditions permit. Strip-tillage can be accomplished in a shorter time, with lower energy and equipment inputs compared to full-width tillage. The first of two studies that examined the merits of strip-tillage was conducted the University of Wisconsin Lancaster Agricultural Research Station (42.84, -90.80). Natural runoff collectors were installed in a field having a silt loam soil with an 8% slope in fall chisel and fall strip-tillage system. The measured soil loss in a year that experienced substantial rainfall prior to canopy closure was 10.6 Mg ha-1 in chisel vs. 0.64 Mg ha-1 in strip-tillage. Soil loss was much less for both systems in the second year when early season rainfall was minimal. A second, ten year study was conducted at the University of Wisconsin Arlington Agricultural Research Station (43.30, -89.36) that compared fall strip-tillage with fall chisel/spring field cultivator and no-till systems in both a continuous maize and soybean-maize rotation. This work showed equal maize grain yield in maize after soybean when comparing chisel and strip-tillage. No-till yield was about 5 % lower. Yield in continuous maize was highest in the chisel system, being about 4 % greater than strip-tillage and 8 % greater than no-till. An economic analysis of this data showed that the benefit to strip-tillage is greatest in maize following soybean. Strip-tillage is a system that can optimize both economic and environmental return for maize production and should be implemented more widely, especially on erosive soils.

  11. Factors associated with duck nest success in the prairie pothole region of Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.; Sargeant, A.B.; Johnson, D.H.; Cowardin, L.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    Populations of some dabbling ducks have declined sharply in recent decades and information is needed to understand reasons for this. During 1982-85, we studied duck nesting for 1-4 years in 17 1.6 by 16.0-km, high-density duck areas in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of Canada, 9 in parkland and 8 in prairie. We estimated nest-initiation dates, habitat preferences, nest success, and nest fates for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwalls (A. strepera), blue-winged teals (A. discors), northern shovelers (A. clypeata), and northern pintails (A. acuta). We also examined the relation of mallard production to geographic and temporal variation in wetlands, breeding populations, nesting effort, and hatch rate.Average periods of nest initiation were similar for mallards and northern pintails, and nearly twice as long as those of gadwalls, blue-winged teals, and northern shovelers. Median date of nest initiation was related to presence of wet wetlands (contained visible standing water), spring precipitation, and May temperature. Length of initiation period was related to presence of wet wetlands and precipitation in May, June temperature, and nest success; it was negatively related overall to drought that prevailed over much of Prairie Canada during the study, especially in 1984.Mallards, gadwalls, and northern pintails nested most often in brush in native grassland, blue-winged teals in road rights-of-way, and northern shovelers in hayfields and small (<2 ha) untilled tracts of upland habitat (hereafter called Odd area). Among 8 habitat classes that composed all suitable nesting habitat of each study area, nest success estimates averaged 25% in Woodland, 19% in Brush, 18% in Hayland, 16% in Wetland, 15% in Grass, 11% in Odd area, 8% in Right-of-way, and 2% in Cropland. We detected no significant difference in nest success among species: mallard (11%), gadwall (14%), blue-winged teal (15%), northern shoveler (12%), and northern pintail (7%). Annual nest success (pooled by study area and averaged [unweighted] over all study areas) was 17% in 1982, 15% in 1983, 7% in 1984, and 14% in 1985.We estimated that predators destroyed 72% of mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, and northern shoveler nests and 65% of northern pintail nests. In prairie, average nest success decreased about 4 percentage points for every 10 percentage points increase in Cropland, suggesting that under conditions of 1982-85, local populations of these species probably were not stable when Cropland exceeded about 56% of available habitat. We found recent remains of 573 dead ducks during 1983-85; most were females (Anas spp.) apparently killed by predators. In some years, mallards and northern pintails were more numerous among dead ducks than we expected. More females than males were found dead among mallards and northern shovelers, suggesting higher vulnerability of females. Of factors we examined, nest-success rate appeared to be the most influential factor in determining mallard production. Nest success varied both geographically and annually.

  12. Trace element concentrations in wintering waterfowl from the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    PubMed

    Vest, J L; Conover, M R; Perschon, C; Luft, J; Hall, J O

    2009-02-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is an important region for millions of migratory waterbirds. However, high concentrations of some trace elements, including Hg and Se, have been detected within the GSL, and baseline ecotoxicological data are lacking for avian species in this system. We collected common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), and green-winged teal (A. crecca) from the GSL during the winters of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 to evaluate sources of variation in liver trace element concentrations. Hg concentrations were among or exceeded the highest values reported in the published literature for common goldeneye, northern shoveler, and green-winged teal. Average Hg (total) concentrations of common goldeneye peaked in midwinter, whereas average Se concentrations peaked during late winter. During late winter, 100% and 88% of female goldeneye contained elevated concentrations of Hg [>or=1.0 microg/g wet weight (ww)] and Se (>or=3.0 microg/g ww), respectively, and 5% and 14% contained potentially harmful amounts of Hg (>or=30.0 microg/g ww) and Se (>10.0 microg/g ww), respectively. Similarly, 30% and 16% of male goldeneye contained potentially harmful concentrations of Hg and Se, respectively. Concentrations of Hg and Se were elevated in 100% and 79%, respectively, of northern shoveler samples (sexes combined) collected during February. We suggest that waterfowl contain biologically concerning amounts of Hg and Se during winter while on the GSL and further research is needed to evaluate the effect of these elements on GSL waterbirds. PMID:18560923

  13. Sources of variation in survival and breeding site fidelity in three species of European ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    1. We used long-term capture-recapture-recovery data and a modelling approach developed by Burnham (1993) to test a priori predictions about sources of variation in annual survival rates and fidelity within a population of individually marked females in three species of European ducks from a breeding ground study site in Latvia. 2. True annual survival was higher for diving ducks (tufted duck 0-72, common pochard 0-65) and lower for northern shoveler (0-52). Survival of female diving ducks was positively correlated with mean winter temperatures at Western European wintering areas, the relationship being much stronger for pochard. 3. We present the first unbiased estimates of breeding fidelity and permanent emigration in European ducks. Estimated fidelity rates were high (0'88-1-0) and emigration rates low (0-0-12) for all three species, and we found strong evidence for age-specific differences in fidelity of pochards. Unusual long-distance (up to 2500 km) breeding dispersal movements that we found in female tufted ducks have not been documented in any other European waterfowl and are most probably a result of saturated nesting habitats. 4. Fidelity was a function of patch reproductive success in the previous year for all three species providing support for the idea that patch success is an important cue influencing fidelity. 5. Fidelity probability increased to 1.0 for shovelers during the last 12 years of study following provision of critical improvements in nesting habitats and suggested that habitat conditions and reproductive success determined site fidelity and settling patterns for shoveler and probably also influenced fidelity of the two other species. In predictable habitats, fidelity is a parameter that reflects the integration of fitness components and is thus a good quantity for assessing the effectiveness of habitat management actions.

  14. LBNL Computational Research and Theory Facility Groundbreaking. February 1st, 2012

    ScienceCinema

    Yelick, Kathy

    2013-05-29

    Energy Secretary Steven Chu, along with Berkeley Lab and UC leaders, broke ground on the Lab's Computational Research and Theory (CRT) facility yesterday. The CRT will be at the forefront of high-performance supercomputing research and be DOE's most efficient facility of its kind. Joining Secretary Chu as speakers were Lab Director Paul Alivisatos, UC President Mark Yudof, Office of Science Director Bill Brinkman, and UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgeneau. The festivities were emceed by Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences, Kathy Yelick, and Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates joined in the shovel ceremony.

  15. The use of blood in Anas clypeata as an efficient and non-lethal method for the biomonitoring of mercury.

    PubMed

    Raygoza-Viera, J R; Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2013-07-01

    Hg was analyzed in seven tissues of 52 common shoveler Anas clypeata collected from the coast of SE Gulf of California. Mean Hg concentrations were highest in the liver (2,885 ng g?¹) and lowest in the gizzard (621 ng g?¹); they followed the order: liver, feathers > muscle tissue and tissues of the circulatory system > digestive organs. Hg levels were similar or higher than birds of the same trophic level and feeding habits. Considering the relationships of Hg among tissues and blood we recommend the use of blood as an efficient method to monitor Hg. PMID:23595347

  16. Bending the world: stories 

    E-print Network

    Swann, Philip Cameron

    1991-01-01

    breath. There is dirt between my teeth and I can't pull myself up. I can see the men loading my boy into the back of that truck. All I can do is scream, between and through folks' legs, for the man in the mask to please take his fingers and shut my.... Its damp surface was slick, its blades flexible but sharp. On more than one occasion, he had lost his footing and slid down the steep embankment, spilling the neon shovels and building blocks that filled his beach pail, cutting his legs and arms...

  17. LBNL Computational Research & Theory Facility Groundbreaking - Full Press Conference. Feb 1st, 2012

    ScienceCinema

    Yelick, Kathy

    2013-05-29

    Energy Secretary Steven Chu, along with Berkeley Lab and UC leaders, broke ground on the Lab's Computational Research and Theory (CRT) facility yesterday. The CRT will be at the forefront of high-performance supercomputing research and be DOE's most efficient facility of its kind. Joining Secretary Chu as speakers were Lab Director Paul Alivisatos, UC President Mark Yudof, Office of Science Director Bill Brinkman, and UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgeneau. The festivities were emceed by Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences, Kathy Yelick, and Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates joined in the shovel ceremony.

  18. LBNL Computational Research and Theory Facility Groundbreaking. February 1st, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Yelick, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Energy Secretary Steven Chu, along with Berkeley Lab and UC leaders, broke ground on the Lab's Computational Research and Theory (CRT) facility yesterday. The CRT will be at the forefront of high-performance supercomputing research and be DOE's most efficient facility of its kind. Joining Secretary Chu as speakers were Lab Director Paul Alivisatos, UC President Mark Yudof, Office of Science Director Bill Brinkman, and UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgeneau. The festivities were emceed by Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences, Kathy Yelick, and Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates joined in the shovel ceremony.

  19. Harvesting Rainwater for Wildlife

    E-print Network

    Cathey, James; Persyn, Russell A.; Porter, Dana; Dozier, Monty; Mecke, Michael; Kniffen, Billy

    2008-08-11

    Slot for metal to slide into 8 ft of 6 in PVC buried 3-4 in PVC Pipe Facility Drum with Faucet Drum with Float Small Game Guzzler 1 ft 6 in 11 Figure?10. Methods of anchoring and types of troughs. Drip irrigation emitter Shoveled hole with concrete... For Birds Metal Trough Anchor Float valve Scale 1 in = 1 ft 3-foot-diameter bowl, about 8 in deep For Big Game Concrete Float valve 4-6 in pipe Scale 3/4 in = 1 ft Overflow pipe Float valve Small wildlife access 1#24; Other?considerations? for...

  20. Home Maintenance Manual. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1985-01-01

    finished surfaces for dirt , finish * failure and needed repairs. 11. SAFETY EaUIPMENT 11A. FIRE EXTINGUISHER a. To inspect: ? Check indicator on pressure gauge to be sure that extin- * guisher is charged . (monthly) ? Be sure lock pin is firmly.../FIREPLACE ~ ..... a. Check to be sure damper operates and closes fully. If fire- * * place has a cleanout pit at bottom of chimney, remove ashes. b. Check iron grates for stability . * * c. Clean inside and vacuum. * 12B. WOODSTOVE a. To clean: ? Shovel ashes...

  1. Landslide tsunami hazard in New South Wales, Australia: novel observations from 3D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Hannah; Clarke, Samantha; Hubble, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the potential of tsunami inundation generated from two case study sites of submarine mass failures on the New South Wales coast of Australia. Two submarine mass failure events are investigated: the Bulli Slide and the Shovel Slide. Both slides are located approximately 65 km southeast of Sydney and 60 km east of the township of Wollongong. The Bulli Slide (~20 km3) and the Shovel Slide (7.97 km3) correspond to the two largest identified erosional surface submarine landslides scars of the NSW continental margin (Glenn et al. 2008; Clarke 2014) and represent examples of large to very large submarine landslide scars. The Shovel Slide is a moderately thick (80-165 m), moderately wide to wide (4.4 km) slide, and is located in 880 m water depth; and the Bulli Slide is an extremely thick (200-425 m), very wide (8.9 km) slide, and is located in 1500 m water depth. Previous work on the east Australian margin (Clarke et al., 2014) and elsewhere (Harbitz et al., 2013) suggests that submarine landslides similar to the Bulli Slide or the Shovel Slide are volumetrically large enough and occur at shallow enough water depths (400-2500 m) to generate substantial tsunamis that could cause widespread damage on the east Australian coast and threaten coastal communities (Burbidge et al. 2008; Clarke 2014; Talukder and Volker 2014). Currently, the tsunamogenic potential of these two slides has only been investigated using 2D modelling (Clarke 2014) and to date it has been difficult to establish the onshore tsunami surge characteristics for the submarine landslides with certainty. To address this knowledge gap, the forecast inundation as a result of these two mass failure events was investigated using a three-dimensional model (ANUGA) that predicts water flow resulting from natural hazard events such as tsunami (Nielsen et al., 2005). The ANUGA model solves the two-dimensional shallow water wave equations and accurately models the process of wetting and drying thus making it ideal for simulating inundation due to tsunami. The model generates a surface wave profile based on the dimensions of the submarine mass failure event using the method of Ward et al. (2005). Inundation maps are shown for these two slides and sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the characteristics of the slides that are most influential on inundation areas and depths.

  2. A shipping crate from the 1865 California shipwreck Brother Jonathan: hardware from the Russell and Erwin Manufacturing Company

    E-print Network

    Sowden, Carrie Elizabeth

    2006-08-16

    ????????????????. 54 4.4 Solder from the interior tin lining of the crate ???????????.. 54 4.5 Axes BJ-17-05 (on top) and BJ-17-06 in the crate ?????????... 55 4.6 Three axe handles conserved using the acetone/rosin method ?????. 57 4.7 Large sheave... hafted axe with RTV cast head (BJ-17-06)???????.. 130 6.2 Hatchet with RTV cast head (BJ-17-62)?????????????? 131 6.3 Coal shovels in situ (BJ-17-93)?????????????????. 132 6.4 Two small, one medium, and one large tap borer handle???????.. 133...

  3. A game of chess 

    E-print Network

    Gayle, Chad A

    1995-01-01

    within. "That' s Flannery, my after school pal, " she said, then chanted "Hello Flannery" in a singsong voice several times. "Girl horse or boy horse?" "Gelding horse, " Jenny replied as she opened the stall and began to shovel the clumps of manure... their down time -- right before they closed. Rooke was supposed to create a diversion, to attract attention away from me. But he did more than just attract attention to himself, he started lifting shit -- a bunch of fucking socks and shit -- who the hell...

  4. Effects of Planter Attachments and Seed Treatment on Stands of Cotton. 

    E-print Network

    Byrom, Mills H. (Mills Herbert); Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

    1942-01-01

    . These devices may consist of a roller made from a log, long enough to extend across three rows, some type of drag, two-wheel rollers, or by a chain or stick of wood dragged behind the covering shovels. The average cotton and corn planter is usually equipped... behind the wheel fill up the de- pression made by the wheel in cutting through the loose soil. in some of the tests, loose soil was not permitted to fall into the furrow before the seed were deposited on the firm bottom of the furrow. The. seed were...

  5. Brief communication: when Adam delved ... an activity-related lesion in three human skeletal populations.

    PubMed

    Knüsel, C J; Roberts, C A; Boylston, A

    1996-07-01

    A rare, activity-related lesion, the clay-shoveller's fracture, was identified during osteological analysis in three human populations dating from the Roman to the later Medieval period in England, circa fourth to 14th centuries A.D. The prevalence of this fracture in these populations suggests an osteological indicator for several possible manual activities, but also one that may be the result of a long-standing human subsistence adaptation requiring digging in the soil. Since males as opposed to females appear to be preferentially affected, the occurrence of such injuries has the potential to provide an insight into the sexual division of labor in earlier human populations. PMID:8798998

  6. Habitat use by Swainson's Hawks on their austral winter grounds in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canavelli, Sonia B.; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, B.; Kochert, Michael N.; Maceda, Juan J.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the use of agricultural habitats by Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni)in La Pampa and Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. We found an association of foraging Swainson's Hawks with permanent pastures such as fallow, natural, and alfalfa fields. The hawks also used plowed fields for sunning, resting, and preening. Fields planted with annual crops and pastures were used very little, except when they were cut for hay, plowed, and harvested, or when low crop height and cover allowed the hawks to land in fields. The availability of abundant, yet widely-spaced and transient food-sources, such as insect outbreaks, appeared to be the principal factor influencing habitat use by the hawks. Their reliance on agricultural habitats makes Swainson's Hawks highly vulnerable to pesticide contamination and has contributed to the occurrence of significant mortality events on their wintering grounds.

  7. Morphology and Anatomy of Texas Persimmon (Diospyros texana Scheele). 

    E-print Network

    Meyer, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Cover Photographs Top, a typical infestation of multi-stemmed Texas persimmon plants on the L). B. TYood Ranch nenr Georgeto-rirn, Texas. Bottom, Sam Barkley, oruner, with the largest recorded Texas persimt?~on plant in Texas near Uvalde... timeter-diameter stems, sections were re- iiioved by sawing transection;il cuts with a hand saw and chipping out tlie tissue with a hammer and chisel. Root samples were often difficult to secure because of the rocky soil. However, root samples 0.5, 1...

  8. Modified lingual split technique for extraction of impacted mandibular third molars.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J E

    1980-08-01

    Critical evaluation of existing chisel and bur techniques for removal of impacted mandibular third molars reveals a high incidence of complications. Both approaches require creation of a buccal defect immediately distal to the second molar for the insertion of an elevator, which may cause pocketing to occur postoperatively. The method described here minimizes periosteal reflection, almost completely avoids loss of bone, and effectively reduces the use of rotary instrumentation. The planning of the soft tissue flaps and bony cuts assists in primary wound closure, obliteration of dead space, and reduction of postoperative morbidity. PMID:6930459

  9. Glomalin in aggregate size classes from three different farming systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Wright; V. S. Green; M. A. Cavigelli

    2007-01-01

    Glomalin was measured in soil from farming systems managed for 8 years by chisel tillage (CT), more intensive tillage for organic (ORG) production, and no tillage (NT) on Acrisols (FAO Soil Units) in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Whole soil and aggregate size classes of >2.00, 0.50–2.00 and 0.21–0.50mm (macroaggregates), 0.05–0.21mm (microaggregates), and <0.05mm (fine material) were examined. Glomalin-related

  10. Oblique and conical shock similarity laws for non-equilibrium flows 

    E-print Network

    Holster, Jesse Louis

    1968-01-01

    0 BI IQUE ARD CONI CAL SHOCK SIMILARITY LAWS FOR NON-EQUILIBRIT~i. l PLOWS A Thesis by JESSE LOUIS HOLSTER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASH University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... Normal Shock Vibrational Similarity Param ter Normal Shock Dissociation Similarity Parameter Page 10 Oblique Shock Vibrational Similarity Law 19 Oblique Shock Dissociation Similarity Parameter Conical Shock Dissociation Similarity Parameter...

  11. Zero-Dimensional MHD Modelling of Two Gas-Puff Staged Pinch Plasma with FINITE-? Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Arshad M.; Deeba, F.; Ahmed, K.; Haseeb, M. Q.

    2007-04-01

    The implosion dynamics of two gas-puff staged pinch plasma is investigated using zero-dimensional MHD code in the presence of pressure gradients. A modified snow-plow model has been used to describe the dynamics of staged pinch plasma. Our numerical results demonstrate that fusion parameters can be achieved for an optimum choice of density ratio of the test to driver gas and kinetic to magnetic pressure ratio.

  12. The effects of a jet on vortex breakdown over a sharp leading-edge delta wing 

    E-print Network

    Maynard, Ian Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    . Force Measurement Corrections Flow Visualization Technique CHAP1'ER IV. RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 12 12 14 18 18 20 22 Lift Measurements Drag Measurements Pitching Moment Measurements Results of Plow Visualization Studies 22... determined coefficients); Mangler and Smith , J. H. Smith 1 and K. Gersten . More 15 16 17 recently, there has been an abundance of computer techniques developed for predicting lift of arbitrary planforms such as 18 those developed by Sacks and Lundberg...

  13. Notes on Lagi-Lagitya Relations in Jumla

    E-print Network

    Gurung, Om

    2003-01-01

    includes plowing and preparing agricultural fields, sowing seeds, transplanting paddy plants, weeding, harvesting, threshing, storing grain and carrying paddy straws to the cattle shed. Traditionally, the agreement with the badike is made during... or in grain. During leisure time, some Damai people make ~'lIlpa (big tobacco pipes) and sell them to their lagi. Traditionally, Sarkis used to make shoes for higher caste people on the basis of lagi-Iagilya relations. But these days the traditional lagi...

  14. Legumes for Soil Improvement for Cotton and Corn. 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, E. B.; Rea, H. E.; Whitney, Eli; Rich, P. A.; Roberts, J. E.

    1958-01-01

    &M Plantation located on bottomland near College Station; and Substation No. 6, Denton, to develop more practi- cal systems of managing legumes for soil im- provement, Hairy vetch, Willamette vetch and Dixie Wonder peas as winter green-manure crops be... rows had no significant effect on the corn yield. There was no differential response of plant spacing to irrigation, Irrigation produced a marked increase in the yield of corn in 1954. Plowing under Hairy vetch, Willamette vetch, Dixie Wonder peas...

  15. Conservation tillage for carbon sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lal; J. M. Kimble

    1997-01-01

    World soils represent the largest terrestrial pool of organic carbon (C), about 1550 Pg compared with about 700 Pg in the\\u000a atmosphere and 600 Pg in land biota. Agricultural activities (e.g., deforestation, burning, plowing, intensive grazing) contribute\\u000a considerably to the atmospheric pool. Expansion of agriculture may have contributed substantially to the atmospheric carbon\\u000a pool. However, the exact magnitude of carbon

  16. Analysis of nested gas-puff Z-pinch implosion dynamics and radiation performance using measured initial-density distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mosher; B. Weber; B. Moosman; P. Coleman; E. Waisman; H. Sze; Y. Song; D. Parks; P. Steen; J. Levine; B. Failor; A. Fisher

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. Gas distributions as functions of time, radius and distance from shell-on-shell nozzles used in MPI Double Eagle and SNL Saturn argon gas-puff experiments have been measured using high-sensitivity interferometry. Snow-plow implosions in ballistic-gas-flow-model (BM) fits to the measured density distributions and a two-level K-shell X-radiation model are used to analyze these experiments, and predict the performance

  17. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.; Lewis, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    The use of satellite data from the ERTS-1 satellite for mapping the cotton acreage in the southern deserts of California is discussed. The differences between a growing, a defoliated, and a plowed down field can be identified using an optical color combiner. The specific application of the land use maps is to control the spread of the pink bollworms by establishing planting and plowdown dates.

  18. [Effect of tillage patterns on the structure of weed communities in oat fields in the cold and arid region of North China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Li; Wu, Dong-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Jun

    2014-06-01

    In order to clarify the effects of tillage patterns on farmland weed community structure and crop production characteristics, based on 10 years location experiment with no-tillage, subsoiling and conventional tillage in the cold and arid region of North China, and supplementary experiment of plowing after 10 years no-tillage and subsoiling, oat was planted in 2 soils under different tillage patterns, and field weed total density, dominant weed types, weed diversity index, field weed biomass and oats yield were measured. The results showed that the regional weed community was dominated by foxtail weed (Setaira viridis); the weed density under long-term no-tillage was 2.20-5.14 times of tillage at different growing stages of oat, but there were no significant differences between conditional tillage and plowing after long-term no-tillage and subsoiling. Field weed Shannon diversity indices were 0.429 and 0.531, respectively, for sandy chestnut soil and loamy meadow soil under no-tillage conditions, and field weed biomass values were 1.35 and 2.26 times of plowing treatment, while the oat biomass values were only 2807.4 kg x hm(-2) and 4053.9 kg x hm(-2), decreased by 22.3% and 46.2%, respectively. The results showed that the weed community characteristics were affected by both tillage patterns and soil types. Long-term no-tillage farmland in the cold and arid region of North China could promote the natural evolution of plant communities by keeping more perennial weeds, and the plowing pattern lowered the annual weed density, eliminated perennial weeds with shallow roots, and stimulated perennial weeds with deep roots. PMID:25223030

  19. Organic matter addition, N, and residue burning effects on infiltration, biological, and physical properties of an intensively tilled silt-loam soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart B. Wuest; T. C. Caesar-TonThat; Sara F. Wright; John D. Williams

    2005-01-01

    Seventy years of different management treatments have produced significant differences in runoff, erosion, and ponded infiltration rate in a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–summer fallow experiment in OR, USA. We tested the hypothesis that differences in infiltration are due to changes in soil structure related to treatment-induced biological changes. All plots received the same tillage (plow and summer rod-weeding). Manure

  20. Corrosion resistance of alloy steels in media encountered in manufacture of synthetic naphthenic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Kuznetsov; A. I. Kartashevskii; A. M. Solov'ev; N. A. Khanbikova

    1987-01-01

    The test results showed that these formulations give reliable protection against atmospheric corrosion when applied to grain combines, silage combines, plows, cultivators, and other agricultural equipment between seasons, in open-area storage up to one year; the tests also showed that the products give 1.5-2 times the protection offered by the ZVVD-13 when applied to equipment used in feedlots. The expected

  1. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates 

    E-print Network

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01

    in the high side of the refrigerant loop for heating domestic water is almost always recommended. This device is typically a desuperheater that uses waste heat to generate hot water in the cooling mode or with excess heating capacity (which is available... are not recommended for water temperatures below 55°~(130~). Although differences in heating capacities do exist between the units, the Coefficients of Performance (COPS) are similar for a given water temperature. 6o . - . -.-- -- I-~ , . Water Plow I...

  2. ERIP invention 637. Technical progress report 2nd quarter, April 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, G.W.

    1997-07-22

    This technical report describes progress in the development of the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus. Prototype testing is reported, and includes the addition of precision tillage. Disease data, organic matter, and nitrogen levels results are very briefly described. Progress in marketing is also reported. Current marketing issues include test use by cotton and wheat growers, establishment of dealer relationships, incorporation of design modifications, expansion of marketing activities, and expansion of loan and lease program.

  3. Control of soil acidity in no-tillage system for soybean production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. de Oliveira; M. A. Pavan

    1996-01-01

    The common practice for liming no-tillage consists of applying dolomite to soil surface without incorporation into the soil by plowing. The effectiveness of surface application of lime to oxisols under no-tillage, particularly with regard to subsoil acidity, is uncertain.A field experiment was conducted from 1986 to 1991 in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to evaluate the extent of downward movement

  4. Soil surface modification in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Merrill, Clifton Edwards

    1983-01-01

    disturbance promotes forb presence. However, reasons for the absence of forbs on the disc plowed areas, which were disturbed but developed little grass to suppress forb growth were not clear. Lack of development of herbaceous vegetation might indicate a... infiltration rates. Soil water storage capacity was the most important variable in determining the success or failuze of the treatment. Contour furrowing coarse or gravelly soils did little more than suppress the established perennial grasses. Pitting...

  5. Comparison between conventional soil tests and the use of resin capsules for measuring P, K, and N in two soils under two moisture conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirasol F. Pampolino; Ryusuke Hatano

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory incubation study was conducted using sieved (< 2 mm) sandy loam (SL) and silt loam (SiL) soils collected from the plow layer of two upland fields in Hokkaido, Japan. The contents of P, K, and N in saturated (SAT, gravimetric water content=0.65 kg kg) and unsaturated (UNSAT, 0.32 kg kg) soils were measured using conventional soil tests and

  6. Diversity of methanogenic archaeal communities in Japanese paddy field ecosystem, estimated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Watanabe; Makoto Kimura; Susumu Asakawa

    2010-01-01

    Diversity of methanogenic archaeal communities in Japanese paddy field ecosystem was evaluated by the denaturing gradient\\u000a gel electrophoresis (DGGE) after PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs), sequencing analysis and data evaluation\\u000a by principal component analysis. Data were obtained from samples collected from the plowed soil layer, rice roots, rice straws\\u000a incorporated in soil, plant residues (mixture of

  7. Control and Management of Mesquite on Rangeland. 

    E-print Network

    Hoffman, Garlyn O.

    1981-01-01

    plow ing, stacking , chaining, etc ., which remove the bud zone from the soil. Chemicals , both contact and growth regulator-types, have been used widely since 1947. Contact-type herbicides , such as kerosene and diesel fuel oil, give excellent... translocate throughout the plant system. Contact Oils Kerosene or diesel fuel oil kills mesquite by con tact rather than by trans-location within the tree. For best results , apply the oil around the base of the tree in sufficient quantity to penetrate...

  8. Site Formation Processes at the Buttermilk Creek Site (41BL1239), Bell County, Texas

    E-print Network

    Keene, Joshua L.

    2010-10-12

    , lateral and vertical forces result in the formation of wedge-shaped pedological features and shear planes along which soils move called slickensides (Lynn and Williams 1992). In the classic view of vertisols, the defining characteristic is a constant...-plowing does not play as strong a role in vertisol formation as previously thought. Features such as poor horizonation, wedge-shaped peds, slickensides, and gilgai relief are now believed to be related to the mechanics of differential shrink/swell rather...

  9. Framing the Classroom: Pedagogy, Power, Oleanna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanton B. Garner

    I open this essay with an admission: I have never been a fan of Oleanna. When I first heard about the play in early 1992, I was apprehensive. Given the problematic attitudes toward women in plays such as Sexual Perversity in Chicago, American Buffalo, and Speed-the-Plow—and the strident masculine poses of both the playwright and his dramatic characters—David Mamet seemed

  10. Contending pathways of crop-livestock integration and the prospects for sustainable intensification in southern Mali

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Ramisch

    Since the mid-1980s, the largely agricultural landscape of subhumid southern Mali has also become the country's most important livestock-raising region. Cotton farmers have been investing in animals for plowing, weeding and drawing carts. Semi-sedentary Fulani have also moved south into the region with their herds, following Sahelian droughts of the 1970s and 1980s. A year-long village-based case study investigated which

  11. Influence of tillage and method of metam sodium application on distribution and survival of Verticillium dahliae in the soil and the development of verticillium wilt of potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond J. Taylor; Julie S. Pasche; Neil C. Gudmestad

    2005-01-01

    The effect of plowing and deep-rip tillage, in combination with chemigation or shank injection of metam sodium, onVerticillium dahliae populations and disease development was assessed in two fields with differing soil types and potato rotations. Soil samples\\u000a were collected on a geo-referenced basis at depths of 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm before tillage, after tillage, after

  12. Spatial variation of benzo[ a]pyrene and agrozem properties in the vicinity of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, D. N.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Manakhov, D. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Brekhov, P. T.

    2015-05-01

    The spatial variability of the density, moisture, pH, humus, and benzo[ a]pyrene contamination in a structural-metamorphic agrozem within the impact zone of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk thermal power plant has been considered. The correlation of the benzo[ a]pyrene content with the humus and density in the plow horizon has been revealed. The necessary numbers of sampling points for different problems of ecological monitoring have been planned.

  13. Department of Reactor Technology Ris#-H-2101 Ris National Laboratory SRE-7-78

    E-print Network

    . ABNORMAL CONDITIONS 1? 5.1. Loss of Flow 13 5.2. Leakage in the Primary System 14 5.3. Failure of the Power/gU District heating water Plow temp. °C Return water temp. °C SECURE 200 7 90 115 13 2.6 15 95 60 THERMOS 100 the heat from the reactor almost 1001 and needs no cooling water. This is of importance for the environment

  14. The$ Objec)ve$ 1$ site$ (S1,$ Ithaca$ NY)$ reflects$ many$ marginal$ soils$ in$ the$

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    $$prior$to$plowing$and$plan)ng.$ ! Carbon!Sequestra.on!and!Gaseous!Emissions!in!Perennial!Grass'"marginal"$changes$$with$markets$and$land$use$contexts$ ·In$the$NE$many$idled/abandoned$marginal$lands$are$best$suited$ for$low`intensity$perennial$$grasses)on,$and$trace$gas$emissions.$ Objec&ve(2((Conduct$a$broader$range$of$field`scale$perennial$grass$ trials$ (including$ new$ and

  15. Waiting for Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamson-Nussbaum, Jorie

    2013-01-01

    The author waits in the hot and oppressive air while dust devils are born and die over the newly plowed field. It is a dry spring and she prays for rain. The lupine beans withered to dry threads last week and the corn that sprouted in a green haze over the north field is turning to brown paper. However, driving north, the author discovers the Rum…

  16. An automatic cutting height control system for a sugarcane harvester 

    E-print Network

    Hale, Scott Andrew

    1985-01-01

    basecutting blades, a microprocessor based, ultrasonic control system was designed. It operated by using pulse-echo ranging to determine the height of any sugarcane stubble which remained in the field after cutting. This information was then used... widely used for non-contact sensing. Warner and Harries (1972) used an ultrasonic sensor in a tractor guidance system. This controller, which was designed to operate on a tractor engaged in plowing, utilized pulse-echo ranging to detect the location...

  17. Succession and resilience in boreal mixedwood plant communities 15–16 years after silvicultural site preparation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sybille Haeussler; Paula Bartemucci; Lorne Bedford

    2004-01-01

    Non-native plant abundance, vascular and non-vascular diversity and plant community succession were studied 10 and 15–16 years after stand initiation at two mixedwood boreal sites in northwestern Canada. At Inga Lake, five silvicultural treatments (untreated, plowed-and-inverted, rotocleared-and-mixed, burned-windrow, repeated vegetation control) created a gradient from pure broadleaf to pure white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) overstories. At Iron Creek, four

  18. Changes in the status of harvested rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California: Implications for wintering waterfowl.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.; Garr, Jay D.; Coates, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Harvested rice fields provide critical foraging habitat for wintering waterfowl in North America, but their value depends upon post-harvest treatments. We visited harvested ricefields in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winters of 2007 and 2008 (recent period) and recorded their observed status as harvested (standing or mechanically modified stubble), burned, plowed, or flooded. We compared these data with those from identical studies conducted during the 1980s (early period). We documented substantial changes in field status between periods. First, the area of flooded rice increased 4-5-fold, from about 15% to >40% of fields, because of a 3-4-fold increase in the percentage of fields flooded coupled with a 37-41% increase in the area of rice produced. Concurrently, the area of plowed fields increased from 35% of fields, burned fields declined from about 40% to 1%, and fields categorized as harvested declined from 22-54% to <15%. The increased flooding has likely increased access to food resources for wintering waterfowl, but this benefit may not be available to some goose species, and may be at least partially countered by the increase of plowed fields, especially those left dry, and the decrease of fields left as harvested.We encourage waterfowl managers to implement a rice field status survey in the Sacramento Valley and other North American rice growing regions as appropriate to support long-term monitoring programs and wetland habitat conservation planning for wintering waterfowl.

  19. Lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) emergence after mechanical incorporation of poultry litter into field soils.

    PubMed

    Calibeo-Hayes, Dawn; Denning, Steve S; Stringham, S Mike; Watson, D Wes

    2005-02-01

    Lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), emergence from North Carolina field soils was evaluated in a controlled experiment simulating land application of turkey litter and again in field studies. Adult lesser mealworms were buried in central North Carolina Cecil red clay at depths of 0, 8, 15, 23, and 30 cm and the beetles emerging from the soil counted 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 17, 21, 24, and 28 d after burial. Beetles emerged from all depths and differences among depths were not significant. Beetles survived at least 28 d buried in the soil at depths < or =30 cm. In seasonal field studies, lesser mealworm emergence from clay soil with poultry litter incorporated by disk, mulch and plow was compared with emergence from plots with no incorporation. Incorporation significantly reduced beetle emergence when poultry litter containing large numbers of beetles was applied to clay field soils during the summer (F = 3.45; df = 3, 143; P = 0.018). Although mechanical incorporation of poultry litter reduced beetle emergence relative to the control, greatest reductions were seen in plowed treatments. Beetle activity was reduced after land application of litter during colder months. Generally, lesser mealworm emergence decreased with time and few beetles emerged from the soil 28 d after litter was applied. Similarly, mechanical incorporation of poultry litter into sandy soils reduced beetle emergence (F = 4.06; df = 3, 143; P < 0.008). In sandy soils typical of eastern North Carolina, disk and plow treatments significantly reduced beetle emergence compared with control. PMID:15765688

  20. BotEC: The Himalayas and Continental Drift

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Kresan

    Queston: The story of the Himalayas can be traced back to the breakup of the supercontinent, called Pangaea, about 200 million years ago, when India began its rapid movement northward towards Asia. Asia was a much smaller continent then. Then, between 45 and 55 million years ago, India and Asia collided. Before collision, India moved northward at about 7-10 centimeters per year. Remarkably, India's northward movement was slowed only a little after the collisionâit continues to plow into Asia at a rate of 5-6 centimeters per year. We can measure the present northward movement of India into Asia using GPS measurements over a period of time. So, there is little doubt of the continued movement of India. There is much debate about how the northward march of India into Asia is being accommodated. Of course, the high Himalayan Plateau is a manifestation of this collision between two continents. Let's assume that India began to plow into the Asian continent 55 million years ago and that, since then, it has continued to uniformly move northward into the Asian continent at 6 centimeters per year (for 55 million years). Calculate the total distance (in kilometers) that India has plowed into Asia.

  1. Compaction and circuit extraction in the magic IC layout system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    Although a full-custom approach to the design of integrated circuits offers many advantages over other approaches, it is the most time-consuming design style of all. Much of this time is spent during the debug cycle, making changes to the layout of the circuit and then running a circuit extractor prior to simulating the design. This thesis introduces two new computer-aided design tools that drastically reduce the time spent in this debug cycle: a fast, new circuit extractor, and an operation called plowing for making changes to mask-level layout. Both tools were implemented as part of the Magic IC layout system. The circuit extractor is both incremental and hierarchical. It computes circuit connectivity and transistor dimensions, both internodal and substrate parasitic capacitance, and parasitic resistance. It is parameterized to work across a wide range of MOS technologies. The keys to its speed are a new mask-level extraction algorithm based on corner-stitching, and its ability to extract cells incrementally. Plowing is a new operation for stretching and compacting parts of an IC layout. It allows designers to make topological changes to a layout while maintaining connectivity and layout rule correctness. Plowing can be used to rearrange the geometry of a subcell, compact a sparse layout, or open up new space in a dense layout.

  2. Mx gene diversity and influenza association among five wild dabbling duck species (Anas spp.) in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Danielle; Runstadler, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Mx (myxovirus-resistant) proteins are induced by interferon and inhibit viral replication as part of the innate immune response to viral infection in many vertebrates. Influenza A virus appears to be especially susceptible to Mx antiviral effects. We characterized exon 13 and the 3’ UTR of the Mx gene in wild ducks, the natural reservoir of influenza virus and explored its potential relevance to influenza infection. We observed a wide range of intra- and interspecies variation. Total nucleotide diversity per site was 0.0014, 0.0027, 0.0044, 0.0051, and 0.0061 in mallards, northern shovelers, northern pintails, American wigeon, and American green-winged teals, respectively. There were 61 haplotypes present across all five species and four were shared among species. Additionally, we observed a significant association between Mx haplotype and influenza infection status in northern shovelers. However, we found no evidence of balancing or diversifying selection in this region of the Mx gene. Characterization of the duck Mx gene is an important step in understanding how the gene may affect disease resistance or susceptibility in wild populations. Furthermore, given that waterfowl act as a natural reservoir for influenza virus, the Mx gene could be an important determinant in the ecology of the virus. PMID:20621205

  3. Toxoplasma gondii in waterfowl: the first detection of this parasite in Anas crecca and Anas clypeata from Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Mugnaini, Linda; Poli, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii in waterfowl is of interest for elucidating the potential involvement of these birds in maintaining the parasitic life cycle because birds are exposed to these parasites. Sera from 103 adult, free-range game birds, representing 13 different species living in the Italian wetlands, were examined using modified agglutination tests for antibodies specific to T. gondii . In seropositive birds, the brain and heart were homogenized and DNA was extracted to perform nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and genotyping. Out of the 103 serum samples, 9 (8.7%) were scored as positive with titers ranging from 1/20 to 1/160. The seropositive animals corresponded to 4 of the species: Anas platyrhynchos (mallard; 2/17), Anas clypeata (northern shoveller; 2/11), Anas crecca (common teal; 3/41), and Gallinago gallinago (common snipe; 2/8). Parasite DNA was detected in 3 out of 9 brain samples, while the PCR results from the heart specimens were negative in all of the birds. The occurrence of non-clonal types of T. gondii was suggested in all cases. In conclusion, we describe the first documented detection of DNA of T. gondii in tissues from the northern shoveller and common teal, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite. PMID:23145510

  4. A new marine reptile from the Triassic of China, with a highly specialized feeding adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Long; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Shang, Qing-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The Luoping fauna (Anisian, Middle Triassic) is probably the oldest of Triassic faunas in Guizhou-Yunnan area, China. The reptilian assemblage is comprised of ichthyosaurs, a number of sauropterygians (pachypleurosaur-like forms), saurosphargids, protorosaurs, and archosauriforms. Here, we report on a peculiar reptile, newly found in this fauna. Its dentition is fence or comb-like and bears more than 175 pleurodont teeth in each ramus of the upper and lower jaws, tooth crown is needle-like distally and blade-shaped proximally; its rostrum strongly bends downward and the anterior end of its mandible expands both dorsally and ventrally to form a shovel-headed structure; and its ungual phalanges are hoof-shaped. The specializations of the jaws and dentition indicate that the reptile may have been adapted to a way of bottom-filter feeding in water. It is obvious that such delicate teeth are not strong enough to catch prey, but were probably used as a barrier to filter microorganisms or benthic invertebrates such as sea worms. These were collected by the specialized jaws, which may have functioned as a shovel or pushdozer (the mandible) and a grasper or scratcher (the rostrum). Our preliminary analysis suggests that the new reptile might be more closely related to the Sauropterygia than to other marine reptiles.

  5. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendola, C.F.

    1981-11-03

    A mining machine is disclosed in which a cutting drum undercuts a vein of coal and side relief cutters make vertical kerfs in the vein upwardly from the undercut. A chisel plate is forced into the coal vein and breaks loose the material above the undercut and between the side relief cuts. The coal falls into conveyors and is loaded into mine shuttle cars for removal from the mine. The side relief cutters and chisel assembly are progressively raised to extract higher levels of coal from the vein until the desired roof height has been reached. The tramming track assembly, which propels the machine, may be rotated 90/sup 0/ to permit extraction from the vein immediately adjacent the initial extraction. All power supplied near the working face of the vein is hydraulic to minimize the risk of fire or explosion, and a water spray system minimizes dust circulation. Hydraulic roof and floor jacks are provided to increase the stability of the mining machine when exceptionally hard material is encountered in the coal vein.

  6. Powder-Collection System for Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Blake, David; Bryson, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A system for collecting samples of powdered rock has been devised for use in conjunction with an ultrasonic/sonic drill/corer (USDC) -- a lightweight, lowpower apparatus designed to cut into, and acquire samples of, rock or other hard material for scientific analysis. The USDC includes a drill bit, corer, or other tool bit, in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are excited by an electronically driven piezoelectric actuator. The USDC advances into the rock or other material of interest by means of a hammering action and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, a negligible amount of axial force is needed to make the USDC advance into the material. Also unlike a conventional twist drill, the USDC operates without need for torsional restraint, lubricant, or a sharp bit. The USDC generates powder as a byproduct of the drilling or coring process. The purpose served by the present samplecollection system is to remove the powder from the tool-bit/rock interface and deliver the powder to one or more designated location(s) for analysis or storage

  7. Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring water levels and movement was much weaker for young females than for adults. 7. Young female diving ducks exhibited much stronger (compared to adults) asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water locations than away from these locations. 8. Local survival of day-old ducklings during the first year of life was time-specific and very low (means for different strata/states 0?01-0?08) because of high rates of emigration and prefledging mortality.

  8. Effects of management of ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes in grassland ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    Grasslands represent a large land-use footprint and have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for land managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack robust understanding of C sequestration in grasslands. Previous research has shown that management approaches such as organic amendments or vertical subsoiling can lead to larger soil C pools. These management approaches can both directly and indirectly affect soil C pools. We used well-replicated field experiments to explore the effects of these management strategies on ecosystem C pools and fluxes in two bioclimatic regions of California (Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) and Nicasio Ranch). Our treatments included an untreated control, compost amendments, plowed (vertical subsoil), and compost + plow. The experiment was conducted over two years allowing us to compare dry (360 mm) and average (632 mm) rainfall conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured weekly using a LI-8100 infrared gas analyzer. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured monthly using static flux chambers. Aboveground and belowground biomass were measured at the end of the growing season as an index of net primary productivity (NPP) in the annual plant dominated system. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously and averaged on hourly and daily timescales. Soil organic C and N concentrations were measured prior to the application of management treatments and at the ends of each growing season. Soils were collected to a 10 cm depth in year one and at four depth increments (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm) in year two. Soil C and N concentrations were converted to content using bulk density values for each plot. During both growing seasons, soil respiration rates were higher in the composted plots and lower in the plowed plots relative to controls at both sites. The effects on C loss via soil respiration were stronger in the first year, with compost soils experiencing a 21 ± 1 % greater cumulative loss at SFREC and 16 ± 3 % more at Nicasio. The second year showed a similar trend, but with a lower magnitude loss. Aboveground NPP responded positively to compost additions and negatively to plowing at both sites. At SFREC, we measured 58 % more ANPP in composted relative to control plots in year one (369 vs 230 g C/m2) and 56 % more in year two (327 vs 209 g C/m2). Aboveground NPP on plowed plots was 129 g C/m2 in year one, and 185 g C/m2 in year two. Plowed soils also showed a significant decline in soil C and N concentrations (C= 2.67 ± 0.13%, N = 0.20 ± 0.01%). Compost additions increased soil C and N concentrations (C= 3.92 ± 0.29%, N = 0.32 ± 0.02%) relative to control soils (C= 3.52 ± 0.20%, N = 0.27 ± 0.07%). Throughout the experiment, we did not detect significant treatment differences in CH4 or N2O fluxes, nor did we detect significant differences at any individual sampling point. These results suggest that compost addition can lead to an increase in ecosystem C storage, with a small offset from elevated soil respiration.

  9. Mechanical behavior of bovine nasal cartilage under static and dynamic loading.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Vera; Cadová, Michala; Gallo, Luigi M

    2013-09-01

    Abnormal mechanical loading may trigger cartilage degeneration associated with osteoarthritis. Tissue response to load has been the subject of several in vitro studies. However, simple stimuli were often applied, not fully mimicking the complex in vivo conditions. Therefore, a rolling/plowing explant test system (RPETS) was developed to replicate the combined in vivo loading patterns. In this work we investigated the mechanical behavior of bovine nasal septum (BNS) cartilage, selected as tissue approximation for experiments with RPETS, under static and dynamic loading. Biphasic material properties were determined and compared with those of other cartilaginous tissues. Furthermore, dynamic loading in plowing modality was performed to determine dynamic response and experimental results were compared with analytical models and Finite Elements (FE) computations. Results showed that BNS cartilage can be modeled as a biphasic material with Young's modulus E=2.03 ± 0.7 MPa, aggregate modulus HA=2.35 ± 0.7 MPa, Poisson's ratio ?=0.24 ± 0.07, and constant hydraulic permeability k0=3.0 ± 1.3 × 10(-15)m(4)(Ns)(-1). Furthermore, dynamic analysis showed that plowing induces macroscopic reactions in the tissue, proportionally to the applied loading force. The comparison among analytical, FE analysis and experimental results showed that predicted tangential forces and sample deformation lay in the range of variation of experimental results for one specific experimental condition. In conclusion, mechanical properties of BNS cartilage under both static and dynamic compression were assessed, showing that this tissue behave as a biphasic material and has a viscoelastic response to dynamic forces. PMID:23915577

  10. Effects of Different Tillage and Straw Return on Soil Organic Carbon in a Rice-Wheat Rotation System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liqun; Hu, Naijuan; Yang, Minfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhang, Zhengwen

    2014-01-01

    Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0–7, 7–14 and 14–21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0–7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7–14 cm depth. However, at 14–21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:24586434

  11. Transformation and sorption of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine in two soils: a short-term batch study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasteel, Roy; Mboh, Cho; Unold, Myriam; Groeneweg, Joost; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2010-05-01

    The worldwide use of veterinary antibiotics poses a continuous threat to the environment. There is, however, a lack of mechanistic studies on sorption and transformation processes for environmental assessment in soils. Two-weeks batch sorption experiments were performed with the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the plow layer and the subsoil of a loamy sand and a silty loam. The sorption and transformation parameters of SDZ and its main transformation products N1-2-(4-hydroxypyrimidinyl) benzenesulfanilamide (4-OH-SDZ) and 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-aniline (An-SDZ) were estimated using a global optimization algorithm. A two-stage, one-rate kinetic sorption model combined with a first-order transformation model adequately described the batch data. Sorption of SDZ was nonlinear (Freundlich), time-dependent, and affected by pH (speciation), with a higher sorption capacity for the loamy sand. Transformation of SDZ into 4-OH-SDZ occurred only in the liquid phase, with half-life values of about 1 month in the plow layers and about 6 months in the subsoils. Both the faster transformation rate in the plow layer compared to the subsoil and negligible transformation in the solid phase point to a microbial process for the formation of 4-OH-SDZ. Under the exclusion of light, An-SDZ was formed in substantial amounts in the silty loam only, with liquid phase half-life values of about 2 to 3 weeks. Despite the rather large parameter uncertainties, which may be reduced after the inclusion of additional information obtained from sequential solid phase extraction, the proposed method allows us to quantify and predict the fate of antibiotics in soils.

  12. Cross-Site Soil Microbial Communities under Tillage Regimes: Fungistasis and Microbial Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yrjälä, Kim; Alakukku, Laura; Palojärvi, Ansa

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of soil ecosystem services by agricultural management strategies requires knowledge of microbial communities in different management regimes. Crop cover by no-till management protects the soil surface, reducing the risk of erosion and nutrient leaching, but might increase straw residue-borne and soilborne plant-pathogenic fungi. A cross-site study of soil microbial communities and Fusarium fungistasis was conducted on six long-term agricultural fields with no-till and moldboard-plowed treatments. Microbial communities were studied at the topsoil surface (0 to 5 cm) and bottom (10 to 20 cm) by general bacterial and actinobacterial terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses. Fusarium culmorum soil fungistasis describing soil receptivity to plant-pathogenic fungi was explored by using the surface layer method. Soil depth had a significant impact on general bacterial as well as actinobacterial communities and PLFA profiles in no-till treatment, with a clear spatial distinction of communities (P < 0.05), whereas the depth-related separation of microbial communities was not observed in plowed fields. The fungal biomass was higher in no-till surface soil than in plowed soil (P < 0.07). Soil total microbial biomass and fungal biomass correlated with fungistasis (P < 0.02 for the sum of PLFAs; P < 0.001 for PLFA 18:2?6). Our cross-site study demonstrated that agricultural management strategies can have a major impact on soil microbial community structures, indicating that it is possible to influence the soil processes with management decisions. The interactions between plant-pathogenic fungi and soil microbial communities are multifaceted, and a high level of fungistasis could be linked to the high microbial biomass in soil but not to the specific management strategy. PMID:22983972

  13. Effects of dietary aluminum and phosphorus on magnesium metabolism in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Neathery, M W; Crowe, N A; Miller, W J; Crowe, C T; Varnadoe, J L; Blackmon, D M

    1990-04-01

    The metabolism of Mg was studied in young dairy calves fed two levels of added Al (0 and .20% Al) and two levels of added P (0 and .22% P) for 7 wk. The four treatments were 1) normal P-low Al, 2) low P-low Al, 3) normal P-high Al and 4) low P-high Al. The basal diet (low P-low Al) contained, by analysis, .132% P, .021% Al and .17% Mg. Added Al did not affect (P greater than .10) serum Mg. An Al x P interaction on bone Mg was detected (P less than .01). Magnesium was reduced in tibia shaft (.34 vs .44%) and in tibia joint (.43 vs .53%) in calves fed high Al in the presence of normal dietary P, but Mg was not reduced in the calves fed low-P diets. Apparent absorption of Mg was reduced by approximately five-fold (.18 g/d vs -.84 g/d, P less than .01); urinary Mg excretion was reduced 31% (1.12 g/d vs .77 g/d, P less than .01); and Mg retention declined 41% (-95 g/d vs -1.61 g/d, P less than .01) in calves fed added A1. Compared with calves fed low-P diets, calves fed normal levels of P had a higher Mg concentration in tibia shaft (P less than .01) and tibia joint (P less than .05). The data indicate that supplemental Al may adversely affect Mg metabolism in calves. PMID:2332387

  14. Influence of dietary aluminum and phosphorus on zinc metabolism in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Neathery, M W; Crowe, N A; Miller, W J; Crowe, C T; Varnadoe, J L; Blackmon, D M

    1990-12-01

    The metabolism of a single oral zinc-65 dose was studied in young dairy calves fed two concentrations of added A1 (0 and .20% A1) and two concentrations of added P (0 and .22% P) for 7 wk. The four treatments were 1) normal P-low A1, 2) low P-low A1, 3) normal P-high A1 and 4) low P-high A1. The basal diet (low P-low AL) contained, by analysis, .132% P, .74% Ca, .021% A1 and 59 ppm Zn. Zinc-65 absorption was greater (66.5 vs 63.2% of dose, P less than .10) with the low-P diet; added A1 reduced (P less than .05) 65Zn absorption. Calves fed low-P diets had higher (P less than .10) concentrations of 65Zn in liver, kidney, spleen, heart, small intestine and testicle than those fed normal-P diets. Zinc-65 was reduced (P less than .10) in pancreas, heart, testicle and muscle of calves fed high A1. Iron was increased in liver and kidney (P less than .10), Zn (P less than .10) and Mn (P less than .01) were increased in liver, but Fe in small intestine and Cu in muscle and tibia shaft were decreased (P less than .10) in calves fed the low-P diets compared to those fed adequate-P diets. High A1 reduced (P less than .10) Cu in small intestine and tibia shaft. The results suggest that zinc metabolism may be moderately affected in calves fed either low-P or high-A1 diets. PMID:2286572

  15. Cotton Production on the Texas High Plains. 

    E-print Network

    Lane, H. C.; Owen, W. L. Jr.; Walker, H. J.; Thaxton, E. L. Jr.; Ray, L. L.; Hudspeth, E. B. Jr.; Jones, D. L.

    1956-01-01

    the mechanical stripper is used for harvesting, the final stand should be three to four plants per foot of row. The planter should be equipped with the seed press wheel which runs over the seed before covering. The opening plow should be narrow a~d shielded... season and lowers yields. June 15 to 20 is the last practical date for planting. Funow Depth Generally cotton is planted in a furrow with the lister type planter. The furrow gives some protection to the young seedlings from high winds and blowing...

  16. Toward the autojuggie: Planting 72 geophones in 2 seconds

    E-print Network

    Steeples, Don W.; Baker, Gregory S.; Schmeissner, Chris M.

    1999-04-15

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 26, NO. 8, PAGES 1085-1088, APRIL 15, 1999 Toward the autojuggie: Planting 72 geophones in 2 sec Don W. Steeples, G. S. Baker, and C. Schmeissner Department of Geology, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas... for transport. Channel iron welded to V-shaped blades can be seen at top right. (b) Plow ready for automatic geophone planting. Channel iron with geophones attached can be seen in foreground as a white line running from left to right. 1085 1086 STEEPLES ET...

  17. In the Footsteps of Charles Darwin: Patterns of Coastal Subsidence and Uplift Associated with Seamount Subduction, Basal Fore-arc Erosion and Seamount Accretion in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D. M.; Kirby, S. H.; David, S. W.

    2004-12-01

    In Geological Observations on South America (1846), Charles Darwin described beds of late Cenozoic marine seashells that were uplifted to elevations as much as several hundred meters above some localities on the western coastline of South America and implied that the whole coast was uplifting at geologic time scales. We know now that such evidence is generally restricted to coastal embayments above fore-arc basins where offshore seamounts are colliding with the South American fore arc (e.g., the Juan Fernandez seamount chain, Valpariso Basin and Valpariso Bay). We suggest that the phenomena of basal fore-arc erosion and basin formation and coastal uplift are closely related to effects of seamount subduction. Marine multibeam sonar images and multichannel seismic reflection surveys by others demonstrate that seamounts, although locally cut by normal faults in the outer-rise/near-trench region, initally subduct intact and the primary interaction with the toe of the fore arc is plowing, with material eroded from the fore arc that accumulates above and on the margins of the seamount. Submarine landslides above such regions over-steepened by plowing can lead to coastal embayments far upslope of the plowing. Such plowing interaction can therefore lead to the formation of large forearc basins and coastal embayments such as those at Valpariso, Chile, or narrow corridors of subsidence in the wake of subducting seamounts in Costa Rica. It is also known that the transition between interplate thrust seismicity, representing mechanical coupling between the plates, and aseismic slip occurs at depths of typically 30-60 km and often geographically near coastlines that mark the boundary between outer fore-arc subsidence and inner fore-arc uplift. We suggest that decoupling can occur at the base of seamounts (i.e., the originally sedimented seafloor on which the seamount lavas are laid down) and that such seamounts can be accreted to the fore arc above and lead to coastal uplift. Such basal decoupling is known to occur under active volcanic islands in the open ocean in connection with rifting and gravitational spreading, such as beneath the island of Hawaii. The spatial and temporal patterns of coastal uplift and subsidence on active margins can therefore record the local history of seamount subduction. This conceptual model explains the spatial patterns of offshore subsidence and coastal uplift in Chile and Costa Rica and also has implications for patterns of seismicity along the interplate thrust boundary.

  18. Paddy soil cracks: characteristics and their impact on preferential flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongbin; Peng, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    Paddy soils with harrowing and puddling easily crack under alternate flooding and drying cycles (AFD). These cracks in paddy field may become pathways of preferential flow, improving water infiltration and increasing the pollution risk of groundwater. The objectives of this study were to investigate the 2D and 3D characteristics of soil cracks in paddy fields; and to determine their impacts on preferential flow. Two paddy fields, one cultivated for 20 years (YPF) and the other cultivated for more than 100 years (OPF), were subjected to either alternate flooding and drying (AFD) or continuous flooding (CF) during rice growing season. After the harvest of late rice crop, soil surface cracks were recorded using digital camera; and 3D structure of soil cracks was scanned by computed tomography (CT). The characteristics of 2D and 3D soil cracks were quantified with the aid of image analysis. The influence of soil cracks on preferential flow was characterized by tension infiltrometer, dye tracer and ion breakthrough curve. Our main results in this study were summed up as follows: under AFD condition, for the 2D soil cracks, the YPF presented 10 fold more cracks in quantity but these cracks were finer and more complicated as compared to those generated in the OPF. The results of CT scanning showed that the presence of soil cracks under the AFD increased average macropore length but decreased the number of macropores significantly, and it also changed macropore size distribution and macropore area density distribution with soil depth. The 3D structures of soil cracks were complicated but can be quantified using CT. The depth of soil cracks in young paddy field (7.58 cm) was smaller than that in old paddy field (9.34 cm), but soil cracks in both fields did not reach the plough pan (about 15 cm). Soil cracks significantly increased soil hydraulic conductivity. They serviced as pathways for preferential flow only in plow layer, as evidenced by a large dyed area above plough pan but a small area below it. Both the shape of BTCs and fitting parameters demonstrated that soil cracks did not increase preferential flow below plow pan because they did not perforate through the dense plow pan. This study demonstrates that soil cracks in paddy fields significantly affect macropore structure but their impact on preferential flow may be poor when they do not penetrate through the plow pan.

  19. Ground control failures. A pictorial view of case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2007-07-01

    The book shows, in pictorial views, many forms and/or stages of types of failures in mines, for instance, cutter, roof falls, and cribs. In each case, the year of occurrence is stated in the beginning so that the environment or technological background under which it occurred are reflected. The narrative than begins with the mining and geological conditions, followed by a description of the ground control problems and recommended solutions and results, if any. The sections cover failure of pillars, roof falls, longwall, roof bolting, multiple-seam mining, floor heave, longwall, flooding and weathering of coal, old workings, and shortwall and thin-seam plow longwall.

  20. Timing of x-ray burst from X-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shen; Zhang, Ran; Zhu, Xinlei; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-06-01

    The x-ray burst timings of X-pinches, TXB, made using eight different wires for different current were measured. The results showed that a higher current makes a shorter TXB for a given X-pinch wire. In other words, TXB scales linearly with the line mass density for a given current. Based on the snow-plow model for Z-pinch plasma, it was derived that for a given X-pinch wire the integral of the current over time from zero to TXB is constant, i.e., ?0TXBi (t ) ?d t =const. . This theoretically derived relation was confirmed by our experiments.

  1. Cropping management using color and color infrared aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. Solving this equation yields the long-term average annual soil loss that can be expected from rill and inter-rill erosion. In this study, manual interpretation of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at the scale of 1:60,000 is used to determine the cropping management factor in the USLE. Accurate information was collected about plowing practices and crop residue cover (unharvested vegetation) for the winter season on agricultural land in Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  2. Chemical potential fluctuations in topological insulator (Bi0.5Sb0.5)2Te3-films visualized by photocurrent spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastl, Christoph; Seifert, Paul; He, Xiaoyue; Wu, Kehui; Li, Yongqing; Holleitner, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the photocurrent properties of the topological insulator (Bi0.5Sb0.5)2Te3 on SrTiO3-substrates. We find reproducible, submicron photocurrent patterns generated by long-range chemical potential fluctuations, occurring predominantly at the topological insulator/substrate interface. We fabricate nano-plowed constrictions which comprise single potential fluctuations. Hereby, we can quantify the magnitude of the disorder potential to be in the meV range. The results further suggest a dominating photo-thermoelectric current generated in the surface states in such nanoscale constrictions.

  3. Combating soil erosion: AgriLife scientist discovering what works for Fort Hood 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    gully plugs (small rock dams built to stop gully erosion) and contour ripping (deep plowing of the ground), which reduces soil compaction. Less soil compaction allows water to soak into the soil and reduces runoff and erosion. Hoffman?s group...tx H2O | pg. 24 When most people think of Fort Hood, they think of the military readying troops for combat. When a group of Texas AgriLife Research scientists think of Fort Hood, it?s combating soil erosion. Fort Hood is one of the largest...

  4. Control of Mesquite on Grazing Lands. 

    E-print Network

    Fisher, C. E.; Meadors, C. H.; Behrens, R.; Robinson, E. D.; Marion, P. T.; Morton, H. L.

    1959-01-01

    that it has become common knowledge among people of the Southwest. Introdu_.__ ._ _ i plants along the water courses is thought to have been made first by roving herds of buffalo, later by the Spanish horses and finally by the extensive move- ment..., seven locations indicated that root plowing alonc without seeding had not materially improved tht ': Figure 16. Working cattle in mesquite that had been sprayed by airplane with 2,4.5-T during the preceding year. To be most beneficial, this method...

  5. Impact of conservation agriculture on harnessing sustainability and building resilience against land degradation in the northern Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Tesfay; Cornelis, Wim M.; Govaerts, Bram; Bauer, Hans; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Conservation Agriculture (CA) aims at improving soil quality and crop yield whilst reducing runoff and topsoil erosion which raises the soil resilience to combat soil degradation. Different chemical, physical, and biological properties of a soil interact in complex ways that determine the crop productivity potential of the soil. Hence, a medium-term tillage experiment was carried out (2005 to 2011) on a Vertisol to evaluate changes in soil quality, runoff and soil loss due to CA-based field conservation practices in northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was implemented in a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, plowed once at planting by refreshing the furrow and with 30% standing crop residue retention, terwah+ (TER+) with plowing once at planting with 30% standing crop residue retention and contour furrows made at 1.5 m distance interval, and conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three tillage operations and removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plow mahresha. Local crop rotation practices followed during the seven years sequentially from the first to the seventh year included wheat-teff-wheat-barley-wheat-teff-grass pea. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weed in DER+ and TER+. Significantly different (p<0.05) mean runoff coefficients (%) in 7-yrs of 13, 20 and 27 were recorded for DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Mean soil losses of 7-yrs were 4.4, 12.5 and 18 t ha-1 y-1 in DER+, TER+ and CT, respectively. Among the several assessed soil properties, SOM, N, P, soil microbial biomass carbon, aggregate stability index, consistency index, cone index, air capacity and macroporosity were shown to significantly increase in soils subjected to DER+ planting system compared to CT, specifically at 0-10 cm depth. Aggregate instability index, crack size at harvest, relative water capacity and plastic limit were significantly larger in CT compared to CA treatments. Adoption of improved local practices of DER+ and TER+ planting systems that employ conservation agriculture principles can reduce runoff, soil loss and improve crop yield and soil quality and thus, sustainability in Vertisols. Keywords: Soil resilience, Vertisol, conservation agriculture, field conservation practices, soil quality

  6. Radiation Balance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Radiation Balance challenges students to "become a meteorologist" and make predictions about the relationships among ground cover, time of day, altitude and temperature. It is a simulation of radiation processes in the earth's atmosphere caused by solar, terrestrial, and atmospheric radiation transfer. Students analyze temperature data measured by a balloon (radiosonde) that they "launch" both in the morning and evening over four types of terrain (sand, plowed field, grass or fresh snow). As the balloon is dragged and dropped to various heights in the simulated atmosphere, the temperatures at these altitudes are automatically plotted on a graph. Several temperature profiles may be plotted concurrently to compare differences before clearing the graph.

  7. Cottons Resistant to Wilt and Root Knot and the Effect of Potash Fertilizer in East Texas.

    E-print Network

    Young, P. A. (Paul Allen)

    1943-01-01

    , and Kime ( 2 5 ) . Johnson ( 6 ) recommended Rhpne's Cook cotton for fields with both the wilt fungus and root-knot nematodes. Rotation with Velvet beans, bare fallow, oats and bare fallow, and Crotalaria decreased tobacco root knot below 10 percent...~otalaria spectabilis, sorghum, and Velvet bean are practically immune to root knot and are recommended for starving the nematodes out of the soil. Although not a forage crop, crotalaria produces a large yield of nitrogenous organic matter for plowing into the soil...

  8. Prediction of soil loss with the CREAMS model

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, N.M.

    1984-07-24

    Variations in soil loss as a function of certain land use and land management practices were investigated on a small watershed in the Texas Panhandle using CREAMS, a recently developed computer model capable of simulating dynamic rainfall, runoff, and erosion processes over the time-frame of decades. Simulations of different curve numbers, three types of cropping, and varying crop yield and plowing practices were made to determine the sensitivity of soil loss to these parameters. Comparisons were made to actual in-field measurements of soil loss on experimental plots. 8 references, 3 figures.

  9. Self-revegetation of disturbed ground in the deserts of Nevada and Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Sauer, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Plant cover established without purposeful soil preparation or seeding was measured on ground disturbed by plowing in Washington and by aboveground nuclear explosions in Nevada. After a time lapse of three decades in Washington and two decades in Nevada, fewer species were self-established on the disturbed ground than the nearby undisturbed ground. Alien annual plants were the dominants on the disturbed ground. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominated abandoned fields in Washington, and filaree (Erodium cicutarium) dominated disturbed ground in Nevada. Perennial grasses and shrubs appeared to be more successful as invaders in Nevada than in Washington. This distinction is attributed to the superior competitive ability of cheatgrass in Washington.

  10. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  11. Control and Management of Mesquite on Rangeland.

    E-print Network

    Hoffman, Garlyn O.

    1981-01-01

    plow ing, stacking , chaining, etc ., which remove the bud zone from the soil. Chemicals , both contact and growth regulator-types, have been used widely since 1947. Contact-type herbicides , such as kerosene and diesel fuel oil, give excellent..., considering cost production-return, should extend over at least 20 years. Mesquite is capable of reestablishing itself from seed for at least I 0 to 40 years even if no new SPRAYING IN FRILL 4 STINGER DOZING seed is produced on the area. An example...

  12. The dental morphology of Pima Indians.

    PubMed

    Scott, G R; Potter, R H; Noss, J F; Dahlberg, A A; Dahlberg, T

    1983-05-01

    Fourteen morphologic crown traits were observed in a sample of 1528 Pima Indians of south-central Arizona. Pima dentitions are characterized by high frequencies of shoveling, incisor winging, the hypocone, the lower canine distal accessory ridge, cusp 6, and the protostylid. They exhibit low frequencies of the metaconule and lower premolar multiple lingual cusps and moderate frequencies of the canine tubercle, Carabelli's trait, cusp 7, and lower second molars with four cusps and X groove patterns. When Pima crown trait frequencies were compared to those of 13 Southwest Indian samples, their closest affinities were to other Uto-Aztecan groups, the Papago and Hopi. The Pima are most divergent from Athapaskans and are also clearly removed from Yuman speaking groups and the Zuni. In general, the pattern of dental morphologic variation in the Southwest corresponds closely to linguistic divisions. PMID:6869510

  13. Waterfowl ecology and avian influenza in california: Do host traits inform us about viral occurrence?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, N.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Cardona, C.J.; Ackerman, J.T.; Schultz, A.K.; Spragens, K.A.; Boyce, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether host traits influenced the occurrence of avian influenza virus (AIV) in Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans) at wintering sites in California's Central Valley. In total, 3487 individuals were sampled at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge and Conaway Ranch Duck Club during the hunting season of 2007-08. Of the 19 Anatidae species sampled, prevalence was highest in the northern shoveler (5.09%), followed by the ring-necked duck (2.63%), American wigeon (2.57%), bufflehead (2.50%), greater white-fronted goose (2.44%), and cinnamon teal (1.72%). Among host traits, density of lamellae (filtering plates) of dabbling ducks was significantly associated with AIV prevalence and the number of subtypes shed by the host, suggesting that feeding methods may influence exposure to viral particles. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  14. Waterfowl density on agricultural fields managed to retain water in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Nelms, C.O.

    1999-01-01

    Managed water on private and public land provides habitat for wintering waterfowl in the Mississippi Valley, where flood control projects have reduced the area of natural flooding. We compared waterfowl densities on rice, soybean, and moist-soil fields under cooperative agreements to retain water from 1 November through 28 February in Arkansas and Mississippi and assessed temporal changes in waterfowl density during winter in 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. Fields flooded earlier in Arkansas, but retained water later in Mississippi. Over winter, waterfowl densities decreased in Arkansas and increased in Mississippi. Densities of waterfowl, including mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), the most abundant species observed, were greatest on moist-soil fields. However, soybean fields had the greatest densities of northern shoveler (Spatula clypeata).

  15. Blasting casting to raise productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Pilshaw, S.R.

    1987-07-01

    Normally, surface mines employ draglines or truck and shovel systems to remove overburden. Blasting merely fragments and displaces the overburden enough to allow for easy digging. But during the past two decades, the effect of inflation and increased labor costs have encouraged unconventional methods of overburden removal. All of us are aware of the tremendous inflationary effects on costs of equipment, fuel, labor, interest, insurance, environmental compliance, etc. This has allowed the authors to take a new look at the use of explosives as an effective alternate method of overburden removal. This technique is known by several names, but basically blast casting or just casting best describes it. Other terms in vogue are explosive casting, controlled trajectory blasting, trajectory control blasting, and whatever terminology comes to mind.

  16. Dust control for draglines

    SciTech Connect

    Grad, P.

    2009-09-15

    Monitoring dust levels inside draglines reveals room for improvement in how filtration systems are used and maintained. The Australian firm BMT conducted a field test program to measure airflow parameters, dust fallout rates and dust concentrations, inside and outside the machine house, on four draglines and one shovel. The study involved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The article describes how the tests were made and gives results. It was not possible to say which of the two main filtration systems currently used on Australian draglines - Dynavane or Floseps - performs better. It would appear that more frequent maintenance and cleaning would increase the overall filtration performance and systems could be susceptible to repeat clogging in a short time. 2 figs., 1 photos.

  17. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control. PMID:17365634

  18. Mortality of waterfowl on a hypersaline wetland as a result of salt encrustation

    SciTech Connect

    Wobeser, G.; Howard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Approximately 300 geese, primarily lesser Canada geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) were found unable to fly or dead on a small hypersaline lake (conductivity 77,000-90,000 mumhos/cm) in western Saskatchewan in September 1985. The birds were heavily encrusted with sodium sulfate crystals. Dead birds that were necropsied had aspirated lake water and had evidence of acute muscle degeneration. The live geese (155) were captured and moved to nearby freshwater wetlands where most apparently survived. Some birds died of severe myopathy after translocation. Five northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) were found encrusted with salt and unable to fly on the lake approximately 10 days later. Salt encrustation apparently occurred when rapid cooling of the lake resulted in supersaturation and crystallization of the dissolved salt. A local resident recalled similar events occurring on the lake in autumn on at least two other occasions during the past 50 yr.

  19. Epizootiological features of avian cholera on the north coast of California.

    PubMed

    Mensik, J G; Botzler, R G

    1989-04-01

    An avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) epizootic was observed among wildfowl at the Centerville Gun Club, Humboldt County, California (USA) in January 1978. Compared to their live populations and use of the area, coots (Fulica americana) died in proportionately greater numbers than any other species. Coots collected by gunshot were evaluated for sex and age composition, and morphometry from November 1977 through mid-January 1978 at this site. There was no substantial difference in the sex, age or morphometry between birds dying of avian cholera and from those dying from gunshot. Assuming coots dying of gunshot are representative of the general population, it appears there was little selection among coots by P. multocida. There was evidence for a sequential mortality similar to that reported previously at this site: coots were the first birds to die, followed by American wigeon (Anas americana) and northern pintails (A. acuta acuta); northern shovelers (A. clypeata) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) died late in the epizootic. PMID:2716104

  20. Avian influenza in wild waterfowl and shorebirds in the Donana National Park: Serological survey using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Astorga, R J; Leon, L; Cubero, M J; Arenas, A; Maldonado, A; Tarradas, M C; Perea, A

    1994-06-01

    The indirect ELISA was used to detect antibodies to influenzavirus A in the sera of wildfowl from the Donana National Park. Of the 712 birds examined, 44 (6.2%) were seropositive. Positive birds belonged to 10 of the 13 species studied. Infection rates varied widely: spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, 32.2%), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, 9.9%), gadwall (Anas strepera, 8.6%), red-crested pochard (Netta rufina, 8.1%), pochard (Aythya ferina, 6.4%), shoveler (Anas clypeata, 5%), great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus, 4.3%), avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta, 3.1%), grey heron (Ardea cinerea, 3.1%) and coot (Fulica atra, 0.8%). Although infection rates were not high, the wide range of avian species susceptible to influenzavirus A suggests circulation of the virus amongst wildfowl at Donana. PMID:18671098

  1. Mortality of waterfowl on a hypersaline wetland as a result of salt encrustation.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Howard, J

    1987-01-01

    Approximately 300 geese, primarily lesser Canada geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) were found unable to fly or dead on a small hypersaline lake (conductivity 77,000-90,000 mumhos/cm) in western Saskatchewan in September 1985. The birds were heavily encrusted with sodium sulfate crystals. Dead birds that were necropsied had aspirated lake water and had evidence of acute muscle degeneration. The live geese (155) were captured and moved to nearby freshwater wetlands where most apparently survived. Some birds died of severe myopathy after translocation. Five northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) were found encrusted with salt and unable to fly on the lake approximately 10 days later. Salt encrustation apparently occurred when rapid cooling of the lake resulted in supersaturation and crystallization of the dissolved salt. A local resident recalled similar events occurring on the lake in autumn on at least two other occasions during the past 50 yr. PMID:3820414

  2. Redescription of the sarcocysts of Sarcocystis rileyi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Cawthorn, R J; Speer, C A; Wobeser, G A

    2003-01-01

    The intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis rileyi (Stiles 1893) Minchin 1913 are ducks (Anas spp.), and the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) is its definitive host. The structure of sarcocysts from an experimentally infected shoveler duck (Anas cylpeata) fed sporocysts from an experimentally-infected M. mephitis was studied and compared with type specimens from a naturally infected duck. The experimentally infected duck was killed 154 d after feeding sporocysts. By light microscopy the sarcocyst wall was 3-5 microm thick with indistinct villar protrusions. Ultrastructurally, the sarcocyst wall was a type-23 cyst wall with anastomosing villar protrusions that were up to 7.5 microm long. The villar projections contained filamentous structures. The bradyzoites were 12-14 microm long. Structurally, the sarcocyst from the naturally infected and experimentally infected ducks appeared similar. PMID:14733440

  3. Symptoms of construction workers exposed to whole body vibration and local vibration.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, K; Morioka, I; Tanabe, T; Iwata, H; Takeda, S

    1992-01-01

    To study the effects of construction machinery operation on subjective symptoms, a questionnaire survey was carried out among construction machinery operators by a self-reporting method. Subjects were 184 power shovel operators, 127 bulldozer operators, 44 forklift operators as operator groups, and 44 office workers as a control. Their ages were in a range of 30-49 years. The questionnaire contained 20 symptoms referring to fatigue, digestive problems, and upper or lower limbs or back problems. The prevalence rate and symptom characteristics were examined. The dominant symptoms of the operator groups were stiff shoulder, low back pain, and stomach symptoms. The prevalence rate of low back pain was significantly different between forklift operators and controls. No significant differences were found in the symptoms of upper limbs and fingers between operator groups and controls. The prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon was 0.5%-2.3% in the operator groups and 2.3% in the control group. PMID:1487332

  4. Stone tool production and utilization by bonobo-chimpanzees (Pan paniscus)

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Itai; Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue; Rubert-Pugh, Elizabeth; Ronen, Avraham; Nevo, Eviatar

    2012-01-01

    Using direct percussion, language-competent bonobo-chimpanzees Kanzi and Pan-Banisha produced a significantly wider variety of flint tool types than hitherto reported, and used them task-specifically to break wooden logs or to dig underground for food retrieval. For log breaking, small flakes were rotated drill-like or used as scrapers, whereas thick cortical flakes were used as axes or wedges, leaving consistent wear patterns along the glued slits, the weakest areas of the log. For digging underground, a variety of modified stone tools, as well as unmodified flint nodules, were used as shovels. Such tool production and utilization competencies reported here in Pan indicate that present-day Pan exhibits Homo-like technological competencies. PMID:22912400

  5. Noise exposure profile among heavy equipment operators, associated laborers, and crane operators.

    PubMed

    Legris, M; Poulin, P

    1998-11-01

    This study, conducted in 1987 and 1988, has made it possible to quantify exposure to noise among heavy equipment operators, associated laborers, and crane operators. The average daily noise exposure was 84 to 99 dBA for heavy equipment, 90 dBA for the laborer, and 74 to 97 dBA for the crane operator. The main sources of noise to which heavy equipment operators are exposed are vehicle engines and the muffler exhaust system, usually located near the operator. The presence of insulated cabs such as those found on power shovels, backhoes, wheel loaders, and graders help reduce noise exposure. The type of tasks carried out by the laborers, the sources of noise from heavy equipment around which they work, and the manual equipment they use determine the noise levels to which such workers are exposed. In the case of crane operators, an insulated cab significantly reduces the operator's exposure to engine noise. PMID:9830084

  6. Sediment transport simulation in an armoured stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.; Bradley, Jeffrey B.; Loeffler, Cindy L.

    1986-01-01

    Improved methods of calculating bed material stability and transport must be developed for a gravel bed stream having an armoured surface in order to use the HEC-6 model to examine channel change. Good possibilities exist for use of a two layer model based on the Schoklitsch and the Einstein-Brown transport equations. In Einstein-Brown the D35 of the armour is used for stabilities and the D50 of the bed (sub-surface) is used for transport. Data on the armour and sub-surface size distribution needs to be obtained as part of a bed material study in a gravel bed river; a "shovel" sample is not adequate. The Meyer-Peter, Muller equation should not be applied to a gravel bed stream with an armoured surface to estimate the initiation of transport or for calculation of transport at low effective bed shear stress.

  7. Healey motorsports` amazing {open_quotes}1 valve{close_quotes} racing Healey

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Recently, the 22 foot, chisel shaped, electric racing vehicle {open_quotes}Powertron/QuickCable Spirit of San Antonio I{close_quotes} set a new world speed record in the class-3 under 1500 pound electric vehicle class. Lloyd Healey, the designer, builder, and driver of the streamlined electric car; set the record at the Bonneville Salt flats with an averaged speed of 129.354 mph. The car was built with a Cr-Mo frame, aluminum outer skin, and a handmade fiberglass nose piece. The car is capable of carrying twenty-four Type-31 truck lead acid batteries or thirty Type-34 car batteries. The car is powered by an 11 inch General Electric DC series wound motor that produces both high torque and horsepower. The racing team hopes to break the 200-mph mark, with some unofficial times already set above 150-mph.

  8. Management of equine skull fractures using fixation with polydioxanone sutures.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, K L; Kannegieter, N J; Lovell, D K

    2008-12-01

    Ten horses presented with severe distortion of the facial contour, crepitus on palpation and mild to moderate epistaxis. Individual horses also showed ocular damage, ptosis, severe dyspnoea and movement of the facial bones concurrent with respiration. The fracture fragments were exposed using a large curvilinear incision and elevated using a retractor, periosteal elevator, chisel or Steinmann pin. The fracture fragments were unstable following reduction and fixation was necessary. Stabilisation was achieved with polydioxanone sutures placed through holes drilled in opposing sides of the fracture lines. Polydioxanone sutures provided good stability and had better handling properties than wire. There was good apposition of fracture edges and minimal complications. Use of polydioxanone sutures can also avoid the expense and complexity of plate fixation in selected cases, and should be considered as an alternative to fixation with stainless steel wire in any facial fracture that adjoins stable bone. PMID:19076771

  9. A study of hand vibration on chipping and grinding operators, part III: Power levels into the hands of operators of pneumatic tools used in chipping and grinding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. D.; Basel, R.; Wasserman, D. E.; Taylor, W.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating power transmitted to the hands of operators who use vibrating hand tools. Results that relate to a comprehensive multidisciplined NIOSH field study of several hundred chipper and grinder workers who used pneumatic hand tools are presented. The results of this study indicated that the power in the frequency range of 6·3 Hz to 1000 Hz transmitted to the hand ranged from 1·08 × 10 3 to 7·23 × 10 3 J/s for the chisel and from 8·52 × 10 -1 to 1·57 × 10 2 J/s for the handle of chipping hammers. For pneumatic grinders the power transmitted to the hands of the tool operators was in the range of 6·58 × 10 -3 to 2·35 × 10 -3 J/s over the same frequency range.

  10. Were Viking Dry-dock methods in the Americas used earlier to Build Pyramids, with Outflow Eroding the Sphinx, and were Stonehenge, the Obelisks, and Moas Similarly Erected?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Edward; McLeod, Roger

    2006-03-01

    Chisel-quarried recycled granite in MA is datable by runes to 1069 CE; it could corroborate dating by a LIDAR. Associated sites, possibly used by Vikings to dry-dock their ships, could have exploited lock-like controls, possibly a continued technology. Site-leveling at the Giza Pyramids proves water was used. `Locks' and body-immersion worked for building, moving, erecting, or watering, at sites like Stonehenge, The Hanging Gardens at Babylon, the Moas of Easter Island, or The Pyramids, where the eroding water discharge was deliberately flushed over the Sphinx complex. It enhance the electromagnetically excited blue light signals we can detect, especially at sites frequented by Molocket of ME. Information, as at America's Stonehenge, in NH, and constructions at Acton MA, at Giza or at Rumford ME proves that the Pyramids and Sphinx were engineered and built about 4500 BP.

  11. Saltbush leaves: excision of hypersaline tissue by a kangaroo rat.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, G J

    1972-12-01

    Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped (unlike those of other kangaroo rats, which are rounded and awl-shaped) and are used to shave off the hypersaline, peripheral tissue of the leaves so that the inner tissue can be eaten. This atypical feeding behavior should minimize the reliance of D. microps on the unpredictable seed crops of desert annuals, and also favor its coexistence with other species of Dipodomys, which are primarily granivorous. PMID:17741983

  12. Estimates of conditional normative firm supply functions for cotton heavy irrigated soils in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Hatch, Roy Edward

    1963-01-01

    hay lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. lb. acre acx'e acre sex'e acre acl'e acre acx'e appli. cwt, lb. cwt. S. C. owt. S. C. acx'e acre acre cwt. ton 4 9. 50 1. 05 3. 00 2. 00 3. 40 6. 50 7. 40 0. 52 8. 00 0...-planter 6 Veg. planter 7 Cultivator (A-row) 8 Cultivatox' (2-rows Chisel 10 Land plane ll Spray rig (8-row) 12 Ditcher 13 Cotton picker' Rotary shredder 15 Fertiliser appli. 5, 586 4, 79A 800 925 850 2/0 700 350 id16 825 325 28A 17, AOO...

  13. Endoscopic Transcanal Removal of Symptomatic External Auditory Canal Exostoses

    PubMed Central

    Kozin, Elliott D.; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Shah, Parth; Reardon, Edward; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Exostoses are bony outgrowths of the external auditory canal (EAC) that can lead to cerumen entrapment, recurrent infections, and conductive hearing loss. When surgical removal is indicated, a drill or osteotome may be used via a post-auricular, endaural, or transcanal approach. Studies suggest that exostoses removed by transcanal osteotome results in decreased morbidity when compared to open, drilled approaches; however, inadvertent injury to the facial nerve or inner ear is a theoretical concern given the restrictive geometry of the EAC and challenges of visualizing the tip of the chisel through the microscope. The endoscope provides superior visualization of the canal and tympanic membrane compared to the microscope. We sought to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic exostosis surgery with an osteotome. We find that the endoscope provides improved wide angled views without blind spots. There were no intraoperative complications. Endoscopic canaloplasty for exostoses may be readily applied. PMID:25459316

  14. Integrated simulation of agricultural tractor with controlled implement

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, J.L.; Lance, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive integrated simulation model of a tractor with hitch mounted, hydraulically actuated, chisel flow is defined and demonstrated. An ideal depth sensor is used in a closed loop control system to maintain desired working depth independent of terrain profile and variation in soil characteristics. Inputs to the system are either from depth commands to the control loop or from the tractor traversing a specified terrain profile. Emphasis is on the use of a model that combines all major subsystems into a single simulation and on the use of computer graphics for visualization of results. Typical simulation results are shown in plotted form and a number of frames from an animation made from the simulation data are shown to illustrate this mode of output.

  15. Geographic applications of ERTS-1 imagery to landscape change. [Mississippi River and Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 has proven to be an effective earth-orbiting monitor of landscape change. Its regional coverage for large areal monitoring has been effective for the detection and mapping of agricultural plowing regions, for general forest cover mapping, for flood mapping, for strip mine mapping, and for short-lived precipitation mapping patterns. Paramount to the entire study has been the temporal coverage provided by ERTS. Without the cyclic coverage on an 18 day basis, temporal coverage would have been inadequate for the detection and mapping of strip mining landscape change, the analysis of agricultural landscape change based on plowing patterns, the analysis of urban-suburban growth changes, and the mapping of the Mississippi River floods. Cost benefits from ERTS are unquestionably superior to aircraft systems in regard to large regional coverage and cyclic temporal parameters. For the analysis of landscape change in large regions such as statewide areas or even areas of 10,000 square miles, ERTS is of cost benefit consideration. Not only does the cost of imagery favor ERTS but the reduction of man-hours using ERTS has been in the magnitude of 1:10.

  16. Specific features of bacterial communities in floodplain agrocenoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'Skaya, T. G.; Leont'evskaya, E. A.; Sneg, A. A.; Balabko, P. N.

    2010-04-01

    The analysis of the taxonomic structure of the bacterial complexes in the alluvial soils of the Oka River valley allowed revealing the distinct differences in the spectrum of the bacterial dominants in the virgin and cultivated soils. Arthrobacter and pigment coryneform bacteria are shown to predominate in the virgin soil; bacilli and pseudomonades are common in the soil under vegetables. On cabbage leaves and carrot roots (both healthy and rotten), the spectrum of dominants is composed of two genera of enterobacteria: Pantoea and Erwinia. As a result of the plowing in of vegetables into the soil, enterobacteria accumulate; among them, phytopathogenic species are present. Within a year after this plowing in and the new yield, the enterobacteria practically disappeared, but myxobacteria and cytophages developed. Since these bacteria belong to the cellulose-destroying prokaryotes, the increase in their contents in the soil testified to their participation in the decomposition of the buried vegetable residues. Weeds are known to concentrate various bacterial forms in the phylloplane; they enter from different ecological niches: soil, water, meadow, and agricultural plants. Representatives of phytopathogenic bacteria as minor components were found on weeds.

  17. Soil Carbon Chronosequences From Post-Agricultural Land in Western New England.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. D.; Johnson, A. H.; Richter, S.; Art, H. W.

    2007-12-01

    We used quantitatively excavated soil pits to sample chronosequences of post-agricultural northern hardwood forest soils in the Hopkins Memorial Forest, Williamstown, MA, to determine how much carbon was lost during the period of agricultural use, and the rates at which C accumulated after abandonment. We developed chronosequences (based on the time of abandonment) for the three main agricultural uses--cultivated cropland, pasture or hay, and woodlot. Active farms served as our theoretical zero time points and old-growth stands in the region served as the likely maximum. Our data show a significant direct relationship between time since abandonment and carbon amount for the organic horizons (Oe and Oa) of plots that were cultivated, hayed or pastured, but not for stands that were formerly woodlots. There was likewise a significant direct relationship between C content and time for the plowed horizons (0-10 cm) of cultivated ground, but not for the top 10 cm of mineral soils that were formerly in hay/pasture or woodlot. Our best estimates suggest that cultivation reduced the C content of plowed soils by 50% to a depth of 10 cm, and that complete recovery of the soil C pool requires about 120 years.

  18. Nanoscale contact mechanics of biocompatible polyzwitterionic brushes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Morse, Andrew J; Armes, Steven P; Lewis, Andrew L; Geoghegan, Mark; Leggett, Graham J

    2013-08-27

    Friction force microscopy has been used to demonstrate that biocompatible, lubricious poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethylphosphorylcholine) (PMPC) brushes exhibit different frictional properties depending on the medium (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and water; the latter also with different quantities of added salt). The chemical functionalization of the probe (amine-, carboxylic acid-, and methyl-terminated probes were used) is not as important as the medium in determining the contact mechanics. For solvents such as methanol, where the adhesion between AFM probe and PMPC brushes is negligible, a linear friction-load relationship is observed. In contrast, the friction-load plot is nonlinear in ethanol or water, media in which stronger adhesion is measured. For ethanol, the data indicate Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) mechanics, whereas the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) model provided a good fit for the data acquired in water. Contact mechanics on zwitterionic PMPC brushes immersed in aqueous solutions of varying ionic strength followed the same trend, with high adhesion energies being correlated with a nonlinear friction-load relationship. These results can be rationalized by treating the friction force as the sum of a load-dependent term, attributed to molecular plowing, and an area-dependent shear term. In a good solvent for PMPC such as methanol, the shear term is negligible and the sliding interaction is dominated by molecular plowing. However, the adhesion energy is significantly larger in water and ethanol and the shear term is no longer negligible. PMID:23855771

  19. Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow. PMID:25398196

  20. The Effect of surface morphology on the friction of Electrogalvanized sheet steel in forming processes

    SciTech Connect

    Skarpelos, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1993-12-01

    The effect in the drawbead simulator test were evaluated for a set of commercially coated steels and a set of laboratory coated steels with underlying surfaces produced by laser textured, shot blast, and electro-discharge textured rolls. In general, surfaces with higher roughness (R{sub a} parameter) measured lower friction in the DBS tests. The requisite roughness amplitude necessary for low friction was moderated somewhat by having a more closely spaced roughness as described by the median wavelength, {lambda}m, of the power spectrum. This effect is due to interaction with the lubricant by the micro-roughness imparted by the galvanizing process. The lubricant tends to be retained better by the surfaces with the micro-roughness, thereby increasing the amount of elasto- and plasto-hydrodynamic support of the load. Other variables, such as large variations in thickness of the sheet can mask the effect of the surface by changing the actual distance of sliding contact during the DBS test. For tests where the amount of sliding is similar, the effect of roughness is significant. The friction measured for EG steels in the DBS test is dominated by deformation of the surface with plowing by the asperities of the tooling adding to that caused by the deformation. The size of the plow marks in the deformed surfaces corresponds to the roughness of the tooling and no significant evidence of wear particles was observed.

  1. Modeling lead input and output in soils by using lead isotopic geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semlali, R. M.; Dessogne, J. B.; Monna, F.; Bolte, J.; Azimi, S.; Denaix, L.; Loubet, M.; van Oort, F.

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study is to model downward migration of lead from the plow layer of an experimental site located in Versailles (about 15 km southwest from Paris, France). Since 1928, samples have been collected annually from the topsoil of three control plots maintained in bare fallow. Ten of them were analyzed for their lead and scandium contents and lead isotopic compositions. The fluxes are simple because of the well-controlled experimental conditions in Versailles: only one output flux, described as a first-order differential function of the anthropogenic lead pool, was taken into account; the inputs were exclusively ascribed to atmospheric deposition. The combination of concentration and isotopic data allows the rate of migration from the plow topsoil to the underlying horizon and, to a lesser extent the atmospheric fluxes, to be assessed. Both results are in good agreement with the sparse data available. They indicate extremely low migration for lead, compatible with the persistence of a major anthropogenic lead pool deposited before 1928. Knowledge of early pollution history seems therefore to be of primary importance.

  2. Modeling of 137Cs migration in soils using an 80-year soil archive: role of fertilizers and agricultural amendments.

    PubMed

    Monna, F; van Oort, F; Hubert, P; Dominik, J; Bolte, J; Loizeau, J-L; Labanowski, J; Lamri, J; Petit, C; Le Roux, G; Chateau, C

    2009-01-01

    An 80-year soil archive, the 42-plot experimental design at the INRA in Versailles (France), is used here to study long-term contamination by 137Cs atmospheric deposition and the fate of this radioisotope when associated with various agricultural practices: fallow land, KCl, NH4(NO3), superphosphate fertilizers, horse manure and lime amendments. The pertinence of a simple box model, where radiocaesium is supposed to move downward by convectional mechanisms, is checked using samples from control plots which had been neither amended, nor cultivated since 1928. This simple model presents the advantage of depending on only two parameters: alpha, a proportional factor allowing the historical atmospheric 137Cs fluxes to be reconstructed locally, and k, an annual loss coefficient from the plow horizon. Another pseudo-unknown is however necessary to run the model: the shape of historical 137Cs deposition, but this function can be easily computed by merging several curves previously established by other surveys. A loss of approximately 1.5% per year from the plow horizon, combined with appropriate fluxes, provides good concordance between simulated and measured values. In the 0-25cm horizon, the residence half time is found to be approximately 18yr (including both migration and radioactive decay). Migration rate constants are also calculated for some plots receiving continuous long-term agricultural treatments. Comparison with the control plots reveals significant influence of amendments on 137Cs mobility in these soils developed from a unique genoform. PMID:19013695

  3. Modeling lead input and output in soils using lead isotopic geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Semlali, R M; Dessogne, J B; Monna, F; Bolte, J; Azimi, S; Navarro, N; Denaix, L; Loubet, M; Chateau, C; van Oort, F

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study is to model downward migration of lead from the plow layer of an experimental site located in Versailles (about 15 km southwest of Paris, France). Since 1928, samples have been collected annually from the topsoil of three control plots maintained in bare fallow. Thirty samples from 10 different years were analyzed for their lead and scandium contents and lead isotopic compositions. The fluxes are simple because of the well-controlled experimental conditions in Versailles: only one output flux, described as a first-order differential function of the anthropogenic lead pool, was taken into account; the inputs were exclusively ascribed to atmospheric deposition. The combination of concentration and isotopic data allows the rate of migration from the plowed topsoil to the underlying horizon and, to a lesser extent, the atmospheric fluxes to be assessed. Both results are in good agreement with the sparse data available. Indeed, the post-depositional migration of lead appears negligible at the human time scale: less than 0.1% of the potentially mobile lead pool migrates downward, out of the first 25 cm of the soil, each year. Assuming future lead inputs equal to 0, at least 700 yr would be required to halve the amount of accumulated lead pollution. Such a low migration rate is compatible with the persistence of a major anthropogenic lead pool deposited before 1928. Knowledge of pollution history seems therefore to be of primary importance. PMID:15046354

  4. Scaling and dynamics of washboard road

    E-print Network

    Anne-Florence Bitbol; Nicolas Taberlet; Stephen W. Morris; Jim N. McElwaine

    2009-06-19

    Granular surfaces subjected to forces due to rolling wheels develop ripples above a critical speed. The resulting pattern, known as "washboard" or "corrugated" road, is common on dry, unpaved roads. We investigated this phenomenon theoretically and experimentally, using laboratory-scale apparatus and beds of dry sand. A thick layer of sand on a circular track was forced by a rolling wheel on an arm whose weight and moment of inertia could be varied. We compared the ripples made by the rolling wheel to those made using a simple inclined plow blade. We investigated the dependence of the critical speed on various parameters, and describe a scaling argument which leads to a dimensionless ratio, analogous to the hydrodynamic Froude number, which controls the instability. This represents the crossover between conservative, dynamic forces and dissipative, static forces. Above onset, wheel-driven ripples move in the direction of motion of the wheel, but plow-driven ripples move in the reverse direction for a narrow range of Froude numbers.

  5. Oil spill recovery apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.A.

    1989-06-20

    This patent describes an apparatus for removing oleaginous substances such as an crude oil or refined petroleum products from entrapment in coarse bottom sediments such as submerged sand beds covered by bodies of water or forming the bottom of a holding pond. The apparatus consists of tractor means for traversing the sand bed in a pattern which will substantially cover the area in which the substances are entrapped, the tractor means including a movable boom for supporting pump means for withdrawing water from the body of water; motor driven pump means supported by the boom spaced from the tractor means for intake of water from the body of water; means mounted on the tractor means for mechanically plowing the sand bed to a depth sufficient to overturn the sand bed which has been saturated with the substances; and hydraulic jet nozzle means in communication with the pump means for discharging a high velocity flow stream of water adjacent to the means for plowing to agitate the overturned to free the substances from the grains of sediment for flotation of the substances to the surface of the body of water.

  6. Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second year of a three year study comparing the Pegasus to conventional tillage. So far, no downside has been with the Pegasus and the following benefits have been documented: (1) Energy savings of 65.0 kilowatt hours per hectare over conventional tillage. This is when the Pegasus plow is used to bury whole stalks, and represents a 70% savings over conventional tillage (92.5 kilowatt hours per hectare). (2) Four to seven fewer passes of tillage, depending on the particular situation. This represents a substantial time savings to farmers. (3) So far, no differences in cotton yields. Recent cotton boll counts in one study indicate a higher yield potential with the Pegasus. (4) No disease problems. (5) Significantly higher levels of organic matter in the soil. A hypothesis of the study is that whole stalk burial may reduce plant disease problems. This hypothesis has not yet been proven. (6) Significantly higher levels of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen trended higher but were not significantly different. This shows that whole stalk burial does not adversely affect the nitrogen cycle in the soil and may actually improve it. The marketing support stage of the project is also described in the report.

  7. Assessment of vertical soil solid phase transport (pedoturbations) in different types of land use by magnetic tracer method (Belgorod region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    New method of quantitative assessments of vertical soil solid phase transport (pedoturbations) is based on redistribution of spherical magnetic particles (SMP) in soil profiles. SMP - are fly ash components, which mainly produce during coal burning. The main sources of SMP on studied object were locomotives on the railroads, which used coal at the turn of the XIX century. SMP income into the soil only from the atmosphere, very stable for destructions, can be preserved in soils for centuries, and have the same size and weight as the soil matter. So SMP redistribution reflects soil solid phase transport. SMP used as tracers of soil erosion (Olson et.al., 2013), but for the first time applied for quantitative assessments of pedoturbations. In Belgorod region of Russia studied vertical distribution of SMP in soils in different types of land use: a) arable chernozem about 160-year plowing, b) arable chernozem 120-year plowing, c) dark-gray forest soil, which didn't plow at least last 150 years. All three sites are located nearby for the same physical-geography conditions. Distribution of SMP studied layer by layer (thickness of the layer 7 cm) from the top to 70 cm depth, in triplicate soil columns in every land use type (totally 90 soil samples). The period of SMP kept in studied soils is about 115 years. Revealed the different depth of SMP penetration (burial) in soil profiles for this period: 49 cm in the soil of 160-year arable land, 58 cm in the soil of 120-year arable land and 68 cm in the virgin forest soil. Different depth of SMP penetration is connected with different activity of pedoturbations, which differs according to the composition of soil flora and fauna, root activity, and animal mixing work. It is supposed that in the arable land single cropping can reduce the thickness of the active layer and as a result the zone of active pedoturbation depth. Based on SMP distribution counted rates of vertical soil solid phase transport, which are equaled: 31 t/ha/year in the soil of 160-year arable land, 28 t/ha/year in the soil of 120-year arable land, 24 t/ha/year in the virgin forest soil. Certainly raised rates of vertical transport in arable land relative to forest is connected with agricultural plowing. Revealed the connection between the period of plowing and rates of vertical soil transport. Also worth noting is that the rates of pedoturbation in virgin forest soils are rather high and only 1,2-1,3 times less than on arable land uses. This research is funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research - Project 14-05-31141. 1. Olson K.R., Gennadiyev A.N., Zhidkin A.P., Markelov M.V., Golosov V.N., Lang J.M. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates // Catena. - 2013. - V. 104 - P. 103-110.

  8. Lateral Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Spherical Magnetic Particles within Soil Catenas of the Arable Watershed (Tver Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshovskii, Timur; Zhidkin, Andrei; Gennadiev, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very dangerous substances because of their carcinogenic properties. It is important to know the features of PAHs transport and accumulation in soils, especially on agricultural lands. Unfortunately this scientific problem is studied not enough. It is known that predominantly PAHs in soils are sorbed on solid phase particles [2], so redistribution of PAHs should be carried out with transport of soil solid phase matter. For the purpose of assessment of connections between PAHs and soil solid phase transport the lateral distribution of PAHs and spherical magnetic particles (SMP) as tracers of soil solid phase migration has been compared. SMP is the component of fly ash which is used last two decades for quantitative assessment of soil erosion [1]. Studies were conducted in small watershed of south-taiga zone in European part of Russia in Tver region. The watershed has 53 ha, steep slopes, less 50, convex and convexo-concave shapes with ridges and runnels. The watershed lands were plowed up for the last 350-400 years until 1995 year. Predominant soils are Umbric Albeluvisols. Soil samples were selected at four soil catenas (30 points with average distance about 70 meters). Two catenas were on opposite slopes near the road, and other two catenas were located on the opposite slopes (250-400 m from the road). It is revealed that average concentration of PAHs in studied soils are 105 ng/g, and varies from 11 to 770 ng/g, with coefficient of variation 143%. Lateral distribution of PAHs and SMP differs within different catenas, because of various factors influence on PAHs concentrations: 1) amounts of PAHs income, depending on the distance from the source; 2) homogenization of PAHs concentrations within arable layer because of mixing the soil matter due to plowing; 3) vertical transport of PAHs in subarable layers is also connected with plowing and bioturbation; 4) rates of decomposition of PAHs in arable layer, depending on photodestruction and biological activity; 5) transport of PAHs caused by soil erosion. Depending on these factors in different parts of the watershed occurred specific lateral and vertical distribution of PAHs. This research is funded by Russian Scientific Foundation - Project 14-17-00193. 1. Olson K.R., Gennadiyev A.N., Zhidkin A.P., Markelov M.V., Golosov V.N., Lang J.M. Use of magnetic tracer and radio-cesium methods to determine past cropland soil erosion amounts and rates // Catena. - 2013. - V. 104 - P. 103-110. 2. Tsibart A.S., Gennadiev A.N. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils: Sources, behavior, and indication significance (a review) // Eurasian Soil Sci. - 2013. - V. 46. ?7 - P. 728-741.

  9. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three vegetated treatments, CT, MT and NT showed a lower efficiency in reducing water losses than soil losses. Water losses by runoff during a number of events were of the same order of magnitude for all the management systems studied here; which was mainly true when the volume of rainfall was high and the lag between successive events was small. In general, soil losses in the autumn-winter seasons were lower than under the spring-summer seasons. Soil losses showed a positive correlation with rainfall erosivity. However, the degree of dependence between these two variables decreased as the efficiency of soil management in controlling soil erosion increased. The large soil and water losses in the BS and CT treatments suggest that there is a need to implement soil conservation measures in the study region. In this context soil conservation would take advantage from soil cover by previous crop residue as well as from terrace building. Acknowledgement: This work was partly supported by Spanish Ministry of Education (Project CGL2005-08219-C02).

  10. Individual quality, survival variation and patterns of phenotypic selection on body condition and timing of nesting in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.; Mednis, A.

    2005-01-01

    Questions about individual variation in 'quality' and fitness are of great interest to evolutionary and population ecologists. Such variation can be investigated using either a random effects approach or an approach that relies on identifying observable traits that are themselves correlated with fitness components. We used the latter approach with data from 1,925 individual females of three species of ducks (tufted duck, Aythya fuligula; common pochard, Aythya ferina; northern shoveler, Anas clypeata) sampled on their breeding grounds at Engure Marsh, Latvia, for over 15 years. Based on associations with reproductive output, we selected two traits, one morphological (relative body condition) and one behavioral (relative time of nesting), that can be used to characterize individual females over their lifetimes. We then asked whether these traits were related to annual survival probabilities of nesting females. We hypothesized quadratic, rather than monotonic, relationships based loosely on ideas about the likely action of stabilizing selection on these two traits. Parameters of these relationships were estimated directly using ultrastructural models embedded within capture-recapture-band-recovery models. Results provided evidence that both traits were related to survival in the hypothesized manner. For all three species, females that tended to nest earlier than the norm exhibited the highest survival rates, but very early nesters experienced reduced survival and late nesters showed even lower survival. For shovelers, females in average body condition showed the highest survival, with lower survival rates exhibited by both heavy and light birds. For common pochard and tufted duck, the highest survival rates were associated with birds of slightly above-average condition, with somewhat lower survival for very heavy birds and much lower survival for birds in relatively poor condition. Based on results from this study and previous work on reproduction, we conclude that nest initiation date and body condition covary with both reproductive and survival components of fitness. These associations lead to a positive covariance of these two fitness components within individuals and to the conclusion that these two traits are indeed correlates of individual quality.

  11. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  12. The uses of ERTS-1 imagery in the analysis of landscape change. [agriculture, strip mining forests, urban-suburban growth, and flooding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. B. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The analysis of strip mining from ERTS-1 data has resulted in the mapping of landscape changes for the Cumberland Plateau Test Site. Several mapping experiments utilizing ERTS-1 data have been established for the mapping of state-wide land use regions. The first incorporates 12 frames of ERTS-1 imagery for the generalized thematic mapping of forest cover for the state of Tennessee. In another mapping effort, 14 ERTS-1 images have been analyzed for plowed ground signatures to produce a map of agricultural regions for Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern portions of Mississippi and Alabama. Generalized urban land use categories and transportation networks have been determined from ERTS-1 imagery for the Knoxville Test Site. Finally, through the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery, short-lived phenomena such as the 1973 spring floods on the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, have been detected, monitored, and mapped.

  13. Monitoring the Tidal Disruption of a Gas Cloud Approaching Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baganoff, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    Gillessen et al.'s exciting discovery of a 3 earth-mass cloud of gas and dust that is approaching SgrA* on a nearly radial orbit presents a rare opportunity to watch the processes of tidal disruption and feeding of a SMBH in unprecedented detail. Analytical arguments and simulations indicate that the cloud will be compressed, fragmented and shock heated by RT and KH instabilities as it plows through the hot accretion flow of this ultra-sub-Eddington accreting black hole. The strength of the X-ray emission during pericenter passage will depend critically on the radial density and temperature profiles of the hot accretion flow, presenting an unique probe of these properties. The amount of X-ray emission will also be a powerful discriminator of proposed scenarios for the origin of the cloud.

  14. Coke-oven by-product modifications at National Steel's Great Lakes Div

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinowsky, R.P. (National Steel Corp., Ecorse, MI (United States). Great Lakes Division); Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    The rebuilt by-products plant, and coal and coke material handling facilities began operation in Nov. 1992. Coal handling facilities were reused with repairs and modifications, such as new vibrating bin bottoms, bin blasters and variable-speed belts with weigh scales for an accurate coal blend. Coke handling consists of two new fixed-blade rack and pinion drive coke plows, new conveyors and screening station. The by-products plant processes 48 million cu ft of coke-oven gas per day through two rehabilitated primary coolers, one of two rehabilitated exhausters, two new tar precipitators in parallel, two new ammonia scrubbers with secondary cooling in series and two rehabilitated light oil scrubbers in series. Environmental facilities include ammonia stills, catalytic ammonia destruction reactors with waste heat boilers and complete gas blanketing for benzene control. All facilities are PLC and DCS controlled with data trending capability. The by-product plant met all performance guarantees without any problems.

  15. Tribological behavior of Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings deposited by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Guizhi; Ma Shengli; Xu Kewei; Chu, Paul K [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-03-15

    Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings are deposited on high speed steel by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering, and the hardness, adhesion, and tribological behavior are studied. On account of the nanocomposite structure, the coatings possess hardness of more than 30 GPa. Failure of the coating during the scratch test is due to the buckling and wedge spallation failure mechanism. Compared to Ti-Al-Si-N, the presence of C in the Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings leads to reduced friction coefficient and wear rate, indicating effective lubrication rendered by amorphous C. According to the wear tracks examined by scanning electron microscopy, the wear mechanism can be explained by plowing abrasion.

  16. Application of magnetic tracer method for quantification of pedoturbations in soils under different land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkin, Andrey; Gennadiyev, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Pedoturbations are widely known and good classified by scientists. It is known 10 types of pedoturbations, allocated by F.D. Hole (1961) and supplemented by D.L. Johnson and collaborators (1987). They influence on many soil properties and also on migration substances (including pollutants). But there is a lack of data of quantitative assessments of pedoturbations especially in soils under different land use. In this paper are shown approaches for the use of magnetic tracer method for assessments of pedoturbation processes. This method is widely spread for study lateral solid phase soil matter (soil erosion), but first use for study pedoturbations. Magnetic tracer method is based on study of spherical magnetic particles (SMP) in soils. Origin of SMP is mainly connected with atmospheric deposition of fly ash, resulting from coal burning in steam engines of locomotives and thermal electric power stations. The period of active emission of SMP is the last 150 years. Magnetic spherules are stable and resistant to soil weathering and can be preserved in soils for decades without any clear signs of destruction. In European part of Russia and Middle West USA were analyzed 63 soil profiles under virgin forest and steppe vegetation and croplands. Vertical distribution of SMP in the upper 30 cm divided into 5 types: a) residually accumulative, b) not uniform with maximum in the upper 10 cm, c) not uniform with maximum in the 10-20 cm, d) not uniform with maximum in the 20-30 cm, e) gomogeneous. Vertical distribution of SMP reflects intensity of pedoturbations, because SMP migrate into the soils only from the atmospheric depositions. Labeled types of SMP vertical distribution are listed in order of increasing intensity of the pedoturbation. Most intensive pedoturbations are detected in arable soils. Depending on the region arable soils characterized by highest percentage of soil profiles with homogenous type of SMP distribution (up to 17%) and lowest percentage of soil profiles with residually accumulative SMP distribution (15-75%). Revealed the important role of type of plowing. On two sites in Russia with depleted type of plowing detected very high intensity of pedoturbation - homogenous type of SMP distribution was in 8-17% of soils and accumulative type - in 15-25%. Otherwise on two sites in the Middle West USA with moldboard type of plowing, homogenous type was much less (in 0-8% of soils) and accumulative type was 2-3 times more (55-75%). In virgin soils intensity of pedoturbations is much less, homogenous type of SMP distribution is not detected in any soil profiles. Furthermore on two virgin forest sites in USA and Russia percentage of soils with initial accumulative type of SMP distribution was 100%. On site in virgin steppe region of Russia - 85% of soils characterized by initial accumulative type and other 15% by not uniform with maximum in the upper 10 cm. Only on one site in forest region of Russia percentage of initial accumulative type of SMP distribution was rather low and even less than on arable soils with moldboard type of plowing - 67%.

  17. Dry Sliding Wear Characteristics of Gravity Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, Palash; Das, Arpan; Sahoo, K. L.

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with the wear behavior of conventional cast Mg-Sn-based alloys. The alloys were studied through pin- on- disk wear test under four different loading conditions; namely, 9.8, 19.6, 29.4, and 39.2 N. The study highlights the cumulative wear loss, volumetric wear loss, dry sliding wear rate, and coefficient of friction of the alloys. The volumetric wear increased with increasing applied load. The wear mechanism was studied with scanning electron microscope. The wear occurs mainly by plowing mechanism and also by delamination. During wear, extensive plastic deformation and work hardening occurred. Microstructural analysis has been carried out for all the alloys at different loading conditions.

  18. Effects of Particulate Debris Morphology on the Rolling Wear Behavior of All-Steel and Si(Sub 3)N(Sub 4)-Steel Bearing Element Couples

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, J.H.; Mecholsky, J.J., Jr.; Mitchell, D.J.

    1999-01-25

    Rolling contact fatigue experiments were performed on all-steel and hybrid Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-M50 steel rolling bearing systems using particulate contaminated lubricants. The particulate contaminants used were glycothermally synthesized {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} platelets or Arizona test dust. The effects of contaminant composition and morphology on rolling contact fatigue and wear behavior were explored. The effects of bearing element material properties on fatigue and wear behavior were also examined. Rolling wear behavior is related to bearing component material configuration and the type of particulate contaminant present in the lubricant. Component and particulate material properties such as hardness and elastic modulus are observed to affect rolling wear behavior. Wear mechanisms such as contact stress fatigue, indenting, cutting and plowing are observed.

  19. A physically-based abrasive wear model for composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gun Y.; Dharan, C.K.H.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2001-05-01

    A simple physically-based model for the abrasive wear of composite materials is presented based on the mechanics and mechanisms associated with sliding wear in soft (ductile) matrix composites containing hard (brittle) reinforcement particles. The model is based on the assumption that any portion of the reinforcement that is removed as wear debris cannot contribute to the wear resistance of the matrix material. The size of this non-contributing portion of the reinforcement is estimated by modeling the three primary wear mechanisms, specifically plowing, interfacial cracking and particle removal. Critical variables describing the role of the reinforcement, such as its relative size and the nature of the matrix/reinforcement interface, are characterized by a single contribution coefficient, C. Predictions are compared with the results of experimental two-body (pin-on drum) abrasive wear tests performed on a model aluminum particulate-reinforced epoxy matrix composite material.

  20. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Laser Clad Fe-Cr3C2 Composite Coating on 35CrMo Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bin; Li, Meiyan; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-01

    Fe-Cr3C2 hard coatings with varying Cr3C2 content were produced on 35CrMo steel substrates by laser cladding. The experimental results showed that the coatings were uniform, continuous, and free of cracks. High adhesions between all produced coatings and their corresponding substrates were obtained due to the metallurgical interfaces between them. The microstructures of the coatings were mainly composed of austenitic dendrites and M7C3. The microhardness gradually increased from the bottom to the top of the coating, and increased with elevation of Cr3C2 content. The Fe-Cr3C2 coatings improved the sliding wear resistance of the 35CrMo steel substrates obviously, and the dominant wear mechanism was spalling fatigue, with plowed grooves on the worn surfaces.

  1. Hydrologic modeling to screen potential environmental management methods for malaria vector control in Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L.; Bomblies, Arne; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the first use of Hydrology-Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a physically based distributed hydrology model, to investigate environmental management methods for malaria vector control in the Sahelian village of Banizoumbou, Niger. The investigation showed that leveling of topographic depressions where temporary breeding habitats form during the rainy season, by altering pool basin microtopography, could reduce the pool persistence time to less than the time needed for establishment of mosquito breeding, approximately 7 days. Undertaking soil surface plowing can also reduce pool persistence time by increasing the infiltration rate through an existing pool basin. Reduction of the pool persistence time to less than the rainfall interstorm period increases the frequency of pool drying events, removing habitat for subadult mosquitoes. Both management approaches could potentially be considered within a given context. This investigation demonstrates that management methods that modify the hydrologic environment have significant potential to contribute to malaria vector control in water-limited, Sahelian Africa.

  2. Effects of plant densities and management of purple nutsedge on sugarcane yield and effect of growth stages and main way of herbicides contact and absorption on the control of tubers.

    PubMed

    Durigan, Julio Cezar

    2005-01-01

    Field experiments carried out with Cyperus rotundus L. at low (58-246), medium (318-773), and high (675-1198 shoots/m2) densities showed sugarcane yield reductions of 13.5, 29.3, and 45.2%, respectively in relation to the control. In the second field experiment, the integration of a mechanic method with two sequences of plowing and disking operations in the dry season, and complementary applications of trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametrine and sulfentrazone (rainy season) was studied. Average of the chain connected to original shoot showed 92, 95, and 65% of reduction with trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametrine and surfactant, at the application stages "early," preflowering, and full flowering, respectively. PMID:15656168

  3. Investigation of Spatial Distribution of Radiocesium in a Paddy Field as a Potential Sink

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Surface soils, under various land uses, were contaminated by radionuclides that were released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Because paddy fields are one of the main land uses in Japan, we investigated the spatial distribution of radiocesium and the influence of irrigation water in a paddy field during cultivation. Soil core samples collected at a paddy field in Fukushima showed that plowing had disturbed the original depth distribution of radiocesium. The horizontal distribution of radiocesium did not show any evidence for significant influence of radiocesium from irrigation water, and its accumulation within the paddy field, since the original amount of radiocesium was much larger than was added into the paddy field by irrigation water. However, it is possible that rainfall significantly increases the loading of radiocesium. PMID:24260481

  4. Carbon supply and storage in tilled and nontilled soils as influenced by cover crops and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Singh, Bharat P; Whitehead, Wayne F; Wang, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration in tilled and nontilled areas can be influenced by crop management practices due to differences in plant C inputs and their rate of mineralization. We examined the influence of four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)], biculture of legume and nonlegume (vetch and rye), and no cover crops (or winter weeds)} and three nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (0, 60 to 65, and 120 to 130 kg N ha(-1)) on C inputs from cover crops, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)], and soil organic carbon (SOC) at the 0- to 120-cm depth in tilled and nontilled areas. A field experiment was conducted on Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Paleudults) from 1999 to 2002 in central Georgia. Total C inputs to the soil from cover crops, cotton, and sorghum from 2000 to 2002 ranged from 6.8 to 22.8 Mg ha(-1). The SOC at 0 to 10 cm fluctuated with C input from October 1999 to November 2002 and was greater from cover crops than from weeds in no-tilled plots. In contrast, SOC values at 10 to 30 cm in no-tilled and at 0 to 60 cm in chisel-tilled plots were greater for biculture than for weeds. As a result, C at 0 to 30 cm was sequestered at rates of 267, 33, -133, and -967 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) for biculture, rye, vetch, and weeds, respectively, in the no-tilled plot. In strip-tilled and chisel-tilled plots, SOC at 0 to 30 cm decreased at rates of 233 to 1233 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1). The SOC at 0 to 30 cm increased more in cover crops with 120 to 130 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) than in weeds with 0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), regardless of tillage. In the subtropical humid region of the southeastern United States, cover crops and N fertilization can increase the amount of C input and storage in tilled and nontilled soils, and hairy vetch and rye biculture was more effective in sequestering C than monocultures or no cover crop. PMID:16825471

  5. Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a gopher, it periodically stops advancing at the end of the hole to bring excavated material (in this case, a core sample) to the surface, then re-enters the hole to resume the advance of the end of the hole. By use of a cable suspended from a reel on the surface, the gopher is lifted from the hole to remove a core sample, then lowered into the hole to resume the advance and acquire the next core sample.

  6. Effect of the molecular weight on deformation states of the polystyrene film by AFM single scanning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Yan, Yongda; Liang, Yingchun; Hu, Zhenjiang; Zhao, Xuesen; Sun, Tao; Dong, Shen

    2013-01-01

    Nanobundles patterns can be formed on the surface of most thermoplastic polymers when the atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanomechanical machining method is employed to scratch their surfaces. Such patterns are reviewed as three-dimensional sine-wave structures. In the present study, the single-line scratch test is used firstly to study different removal states of the polystyrene (PS) polymer with different molecular weights (MWs). Effects of the scratching direction and the scratching velocity on deformation of the PS film and the state of the removed materials are also investigated. Single-wear box test is then employed to study the possibility of forming bundle structures on PS films with different MWs. The experimental results show that the state between the tip and the sample plays a key role in the nano machining process. If the contact radius between the AFM tip and the polymer surface is larger than the chain end-to-end distance, it is designated as the "cutting" state that means the area of both side ridges is less than the area of the groove and materials are removed. If the contact radius is less than the chain end-to-end distance, it is designated as the "plowing" state that means the area of both side ridges is larger than the area of the groove and no materials are removed at all. For the perfect bundles formation on the PS film, the plowing state is ideal condition for the larger MW polymers because of the chains' entanglement. PMID:23229843

  7. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, K. W. Jr.; Kobrick, R. L.; Klaus, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume- displacement metrics was systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to denote statistically the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction. From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the plowed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof-of-concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. When reviewing existing data analysis techniques for conducting two-body abrasive scratch tests, it was found that the ASTM International Standard G 171 specified a generic metric based only on visually determined scratch width as a way to compare abraded materials. A limitation to this method was identified in that the scratch width is based on optical surface measurements, manually defined by approximating the boundaries, but does not consider the three-dimensional volume of material that was displaced. With large, potentially irregular deformations occurring on softer materials, it becomes unclear where to systematically determine the scratch width. Specifically, surface scratches on different samples may look the same from a top view, resulting in an identical scratch width measurement, but may vary in actual penetration depth and/or plowing deformation. Therefore, two different scratch profiles would be measured as having identical abrasion properties, although they differ significantly.

  8. Sediment losses and gains across a gradient of livestock grazing and plant invasion in a cool, semi-arid grassland, Colorado Plateau, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Reynolds, R.L.; Reheis, M.C.; Phillips, S.L.; Urban, F.E.; Goldstein, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Large sediment fluxes can have significant impacts on ecosystems. We measured incoming and outgoing sediment across a gradient of soil disturbance (livestock grazing, plowing) and annual plant invasion for 9 years. Our sites included two currently ungrazed sites: one never grazed by livestock and dominated by perennial grasses/well-developed biocrusts and one not grazed since 1974 and dominated by annual weeds with little biocrusts. We used two currently grazed sites: one dominated by annual weeds and the other dominated by perennial plants, both with little biocrusts. Precipitation was highly variable, with years of average, above-average, and extremely low precipitation. During years with average and above-average precipitation, the disturbed sites consistently produced 2.8 times more sediment than the currently undisturbed sites. The never grazed site always produced the least sediment of all the sites. During the drought years, we observed a 5600-fold increase in sediment production from the most disturbed site (dominated by annual grasses, plowed about 50 years previously and currently grazed by livestock) relative to the never grazed site dominated by perennial grasses and well-developed biocrusts, indicating a non-linear, synergistic response to increasing disturbance types and levels. Comparing sediment losses among the sites, biocrusts were most important in predicting site stability, followed by perennial plant cover. Incoming sediment was similar among the sites, and while inputs were up to 9-fold higher at the most heavily disturbed site during drought years compared to average years, the change during the drought conditions was small relative to the large change seen in the sediment outputs. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of agricultural land-management practices on water quality in northeastern Guilford County, North Carolina, 1985-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different agricultural land- management practices on sediment, nutrients, and selected pesticides in surface water, and on nutrients and pesticides in ground water were studied in four small basins in the Piedmont of North Carolina. The basins included two adjacent basins in row-crop fields, a mixed land-use basin, and a forested basin. One of the row-crop fields was farmed using conservation land-management practices, including strip cropping, contour plowing, field borders, and grassed waterways. The other field was farmed using standard land- management practices, including continuous cropping, straight-row plowing, and ungrassed waterways. The sediment yield for the standard land-management basin was 2.3 times that for the conservation land-management basin, 14.1 times that for the mixed land-use basin, and 19.5 times that for the forested basin. Nutrient concentra- tions in surface water from the row-crop and mixed land-use basins were higher than those in surface water for the forested basin. Nutrient concentra- tions in soil water and ground water beneath the row-crop basins were lower than those in surface- water runoff for these basins. The lowest nutrient concentrations measured in the row-crop basins generally were in soil-water samples collected just below the root zone (3-foot depth) and in ground water. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were identified between the surface-water runoff from the standard land- management basin and that from the conservation land-management basin. Concentrations of the soil pesticides isopropalin and flumetralin were higher in the standard land-management basin than in the conservation land-management basin.

  10. Soil Carbon Chronosequnces from Post-Agricultural Land in Western New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. D.; Johnson, A. H.; Richter, S. L.; Art, H. W.

    2008-12-01

    Using quantitative soil pits, we sampled chronosequences of post-agricultural northern hardwood forest soils in the Hopkins Memorial Forest (Williamstown, MA) to determine the amount of carbon lost during the period of agricultural use, as well as the rates at which C accumulates after abandonment. Chronosequences based on the time of abandonment were developed for the three main agricultural uses: cultivated cropland, pasture or hay, and woodlot. Active farms served as our theoretical zero time points and old growth stands in the region served as our likely maximum for C-accumulation. We then tested this chronosequence model throughout the three main physiographic provinces of the Berkshire-Taconic landscape: carbonate lowlands, Taconic uplands, and Berkshire highlands. Our data show a significant direct relationship between time since abandonment and carbon amount for the organic horizons (Oe and Oa) of cultivated as well as pastured or hayed plots but not for stands formerly used as woodlots. Likewise there was a significant relationship between C content and time for plowed horizons (0-20 cm) of cultivated ground, but not for the top 20 cm of mineral soils that were formerly pasture, hay, or woodlot. Our best estimate suggests that cultivation reduced the C-content of plowed soils by 50% to a depth of 20 cm, and that complete recovery of the C-pool requires approximately 120 years. Management practices of post-settlement New England farms differ significantly from those used by modern farms. These methodological differences complicate efforts to quantify the recovery of carbon in the western New England landscape.

  11. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  12. Noise source emissions, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-13

    Noise source data and use factors for modeling the noise environment expected from salt site repository activity were provided by Battelle Columbus Division. This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompass all phases of activity from site preparation through construction of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. The equipment inventory, including sound-power levels for each item, is included. Emission source terms provided by Parsons Brinckerhoff/PB-KBB for the ESF were used as a basis for the noise-source emission inventory development. Where available, research results containing complete spectra were used. In cases where complete data were not available, a sound-pressure spectrum was synthesized from a characteristic spectrum shape from a similar piece of equipment. For example, a front-shovel excavator might be approximated by data from a front-end loader of similar horsepower range. Sound-power-level spectra were then calculated from the sound-pressure-level data. 2 refs.

  13. Improving waterfowl production estimates: results of a test in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, P.M.; Cowardin, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in an effort to improve and standardize methods for estimating waterfowl production tested a new technique in the four-county Arrowwood Wetland Management District (WMD) for three years (1982-1984). On 14 randomly selected 10.36 km2 plots, upland and wetland habitat was mapped, classified, and digitized. Waterfowl breeding pairs were counted twice each year and the proportion of wetland basins containing water was determined. Pair numbers and habitat conditions were entered into a computer model developed by Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. That model estimates production on small federally owned wildlife tracts, federal wetland easements, and private land. Results indicate that production estimates were most accurate for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), the species for which the computer model and data base were originally designed. Predictions for the pintail (Anas acuta), gadwall (A. strepa), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and northern shoveler (A. clypeata) were believed to be less accurate. Modeling breeding period dynamics of a waterfowl species and making credible production estimates for a geographic area are possible if the data used in the model are adequate. The process of modeling the breeding period of a species aids in locating areas of insufficient biological knowledge. This process will help direct future research efforts and permit more efficient gathering of field data.

  14. Application of radar to detect pedestrian workers near mining equipment.

    PubMed

    Ruff, T M

    2001-08-01

    Between 1990 and 1996, 133 accidents occurred and 23 mine workers were killed when haulage trucks used in surface mines collided with another smaller vehicle, a mine structure, or a pedestrian worker. These accidents were caused by a lack of visibility from the cab of the truck. Similar accidents are common with other types of equipment, such as front-end loaders and shovels. There are several methods for improving the operator's awareness of objects or people around the equipment including improved mirror designs, video cameras, and sensor technologies. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are evaluating collision warning systems that are based on radar technology. These systems are mounted on the mining equipment to monitor one or more of the blind areas. An alarm is provided to the operator if an object or person enters the radar's detection area. Tests consisted of mounting the systems on a 50-ton-capacity truck typically used in quarries and a 240-ton-capacity truck used at a surface mine. This article summarizes the test procedure and results of evaluations of several off-the-shelf and prototype radar systems. False alarm rates and reliable detection zones for pedestrians were recorded for various mounting configurations on the rear of the trucks. Mounting radar systems on large equipment presents several challenges; however, the technology does show promise for this application. PMID:11504357

  15. Mitsubishi technical review. Volume 20, Number 2. Series Number 57, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    Contents: Features of Current PWR Power Plant (General Review); Development of a Plant Operation Guidance System; Total Radioactive Solid Waste Processing System; Recent Technology Trend in PWR Turbine Plant; Remote Operation and Automation of the Maintenance Works under the Radiation Field (illustration); Development of Arc-Welding Robot for Nozzle of Boiler Drum; Field Study on Mechanical Strength of Sea Ice at East Coast of Hokkaido; A Study of Elementary Control Techniques for Car Air Conditioner; Radioactive Solid Waste Storage System; Completion of Coal-fired Marine Boiler; Mitsubishi Hydraulic Loading Shovel MS580; Mitsubishi Dry Type Mechanical Screen (Rack Type); Mitsubishi L300 '83 Year Model; 1983 Year Model Mitsubishi CANTER 1.5-3.5 Tonner Trucks; Large Sized Touring Coach, MS7 Series; Oceanographic Research Vessel 'TANSEI MARU';Mitsubishi Dredging Assist System for Cutter Suction Dredger 'MIDAS-C';Mitsubishi Testing Plant of Biaxially Oriented Film Production; Refreshing Breeze in All Seasons with Mitsubishi Daiya Ceiling Recessed Packaged Type Heat Pump Air Conditioner.

  16. Feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard M; Couturier, Kathy J; Felix, Rodney K; Avery, Michael L

    2013-06-01

    Feral swine are well known as environmentally destructive invasive animals in many areas around the world, where they degrade native habitats, harm rare plant and animal species, damage agricultural interests, and spread disease. We provide the first quantification of their potential as agents of disturbance at archaeological sites. Our study was conducted in south-central Florida at Avon Park Air Force Range, a base comprising over 40,000 ha and containing many archaeological sites. To determine the identifiable prevalence of feral swine disturbance, we examined 36 sites registered with the Florida State Historic Preservation Office and also eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Moreover, we evaluated the extent of swine disturbance at a prehistoric site of extraordinary significance to Florida's prehistory, "Dead Cow." Fifteen of the 36 NRHP-eligible sites (42 %) had some level of swine disturbance, including 14 of 30 (47 %) sites known to have artifacts within 20 cm of the surface (well within swine rooting depths). At the Dead Cow site, we documented disturbance at 74 % of shovel test points. Sites with shallow artifact depositions appeared highly vulnerable to disturbance by feral swine, threatening destruction of artifact stratigraphy and provenience. Our observations likely are a minimal representation of accumulated damage. These irreplaceable sites tell the area's land use story across the millennia. That they are under threat from feral swine should serve broad notice of potential threats that feral swine may pose to archaeological sites globally, making effective swine management imperative for site protection. PMID:23224506

  17. Assessment of Blasting Performance Using Electronic Vis-à-Vis Shock Tube Detonators in Strong Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Rai, Piyush

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a comparative investigation of the shock tube and electronic detonating systems practised in bench blasting. The blast trials were conducted on overburden rocks of Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss formations in one of the largest metalliferous mine of India. The study revealed that the choice of detonating system was crucial in deciding the fragment size and its distribution within the blasted muck-piles. The fragment size and its distribution affected the digging rate of excavators. Also, the shape of the blasted muck-pile was found to be related to the degree of fragmentation. From the present work, it may be inferred that in electronic detonation system, timely release of explosive energy resulted in better overall blasting performance. Hence, the precision in delay time must be considered in designing blast rounds in such overburden rock formations. State-of-art image analysis, GPS based muck-pile profile plotting techniques were rigorously used in the investigation. The study revealed that a mean fragment size (K50) value for shock tube detonated blasts (0.55-0.59 m) was higher than that of electronically detonated blasts (0.43-0.45 m). The digging rate of designated shovels (34 m3) with electronically detonated blasts was consistently more than 5000 t/h, which was almost 13 % higher in comparison to shock tube detonated blasts. Furthermore, favourable muck-pile shapes were witnessed in electronically detonated blasts from the observations made on the dozer performance.

  18. Noise source emissions, Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-13

    Noise source data and use factors for modeling the environmental noise environment expected from salt-site repository activity were provided by Battelle Columbus Division. This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompasses all phases of activity, from site preparation through construction of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. Data for the construction of transportation corridors were provided. The equipment inventory, including sound-power levels for each item is included as Appendix A. Emission source terms provided by Parsons Brinckerhoff/PB-KBB for the ESF were used as a basis for the noise source emission inventory development. Where available, research results containing complete spectra were used. In cases where complete data were not available, a sound-pressure spectrum was synthesized from a characteristic spectrum shape from a similar piece of equipment. For example, a front-shovel excavator might be approximated by data from a front-end loader of similar horsepower range. Sound-power-level spectra were then calculated from the sound-pressure-level data. 14 refs.

  19. Strength and durability properties of core lithologies from coal-bearing Tyonek formation, Cook Inlet region, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Odum, J.K.

    1985-04-01

    The Tyonek Formation (late Oligocene to middle Miocene) is a nonmarine unit of sandstone, siltstone, and claystone that contains large quantities of strippable subbituminous coal and lignite. The geotechnical properties, determined by field and laboratory tests on core from the Capps and Chuitna coalfields, dictate the equipment needs for excavation, determination of pit slope angle for mine planning, and durability of excavated spoil to weathering degradation. Point-load strength index tests are rapid and inexpensive field tests approximating the tensile and unconfined compressive strength of rock types. These tests, combined with laboratory uniaxial compression tests, were used to rank the formation lithologies in order of decreasing strength: coal (2670 psi), carbonaceous claystone (835 psi), siltstone (435 psi), claystone (375 psi), and sandstone (145 psi). Except for coal, the lithologies range in hardness from soft soil to soft rock. Laboratory slake durability index tests, which measure the deterioration potential of rock masses as a result of cyclic wetting and drying, were used to rank lithologies in order of decreasing durability: claystone (49%), carbonaceous claystone (46%), siltstone (40%), and sandstone (20%). The cored Tyonek lithologies are noncarbonate, and their strength and durability increase with decreasing grain size and increasing clay-particle content. Compressional wave velocity, combined with point-load data, indicates that most of the rocks could be removed by bull-dozers with ripping blades or by scrapers and shovels. However, coal (with rare exceptions, the strongest lithology tested) would require blasting before removal.

  20. Interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among Alaska dabbling ducks.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Andrew B; Pearce, John M; Ramey, Andrew M; Meixell, Brandt W; Runstadler, Jonathan A

    2011-12-01

    The reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact LPAI genomes among species and locations. To examine persistence of entire LPAI genome constellations in Alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome LPAI viruses isolated across 4 years from five species of duck: northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American green-winged teal (Anas crecca), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and American wigeon (Anas americana). Based on pairwise genetic distance, highly similar LPAI genomes (>99% identity) were observed within and between species and across a range of geographic distances (up to and >1000 km), but most often between isolates collected 0-10 km apart. Highly similar viruses were detected between years, suggesting inter-annual persistence, but these were rare in our data set with the majority occurring within 0-9 days of sampling. These results identify LPAI transmission pathways in the context of species, space and time, an initial perspective into the extent of regional virus distribution and persistence, and insight into why no completely Eurasian genomes have ever been detected in Alaska. Such information will be useful in forecasting the movement of foreign-origin avian influenza strains should they be introduced to North America. PMID:21964597

  1. Morphologic and molecular characterization of the sarcocysts of Sarcocystis rileyi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the mallard duck ( Anas platyrhynchos ).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, B M; Felix, T A

    2010-08-01

    Macroscopic sarcocysts are often observed in ducks, but at present their taxonomic status remains uncertain because ducks serve as intermediate hosts for several such parasites in the genus Sarcocystis . One such species, Sarcocystis rileyi , was long ago established to involve the northern shoveler duck ( Anas clypeata ) and the striped skunk ( Mephitis mephitis ) as its intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. Here, we employed light microscopy, electron microscopy, and DNA sequencing to more precisely describe diagnostic attributes of parasites presumed to represent S. rileyi occurring in a naturally-infected mallard duck ( Anas platyrhynchos ). By light and transmission electron microscopy, sarcocysts from the mallard duck resembled the S. rileyi described from A. clypeata . We document 18S, ITS-1, and 28S rDNA sequences from the mallard duck, the first for S. rileyi from any host. Sequences of conserved and variable portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA indicated that S. rileyi is related to, but distinct from, parasites employing opossums as their definitive host (including Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula ). Diagnostic ultrastructural features and nucleotide sequences should aid in future studies and communications regarding this parasitic taxon, which lends itself to experimentation because its sarcocysts are macroscopic and easily excised from infected birds. PMID:20496959

  2. The opossum (Didelphis virginiana) as a host for Sarcocystis debonei from cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and grackles (Cassidix mexicanus, Quiscalus quiscula).

    PubMed

    Duszynski, D W; Box, E D

    1978-04-01

    Sarcocystis-infected muscles from ducks, cowbirds, and grackles were fed to cats, opossums, rats, and a dog. Only the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was a suitable definitive host. All opossums that were fed Sarcocystis-infected cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and grackles (Cassidix mexicanus and Quiscalus quiscula) passed sporocysts in their feces. Opossums that ate the cowbirds had prepatent periods of 5 and 10 days and remained patent for at least 105 days. Opossums that ate the grackles became patent on day 10 after the infective meal and remained patent for over 90 (Quiscalus) and 105 (Cassidix) days. A single opossum fed infected muscle from a pintail duck (Anas acuta) passed sporocysts in the feces from days 13 through 18 after infection. No sporocysts were passed by opossums fed infected muscle from the green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis) and shoveller (Spatula clypeata). Sporocysts of duck, cowbird, and grackle origin were structurally similar. Mean dimensions of sporocysts were: duck-origin, 11.2 by 8.2 micron; cowbird-origin, 11.4 by 7.8 micron; Cassidix-origin, 11.2 by 7.8 micron; and Quiscalus-origin, 11.6 by 7.7 micron. We designate the sporocysts of cowbird and grackle origin as Sarcoycstis debonei Vogelsang, 1929 (Syn. Isospora boughtoni Volk, 1938). PMID:417165

  3. High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain

    PubMed

    Mateo; Belliure; Dolz; Aguilar Serrano JM; Guitart

    1998-08-01

    Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de València, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Doñana (Guadalquivir Marshes). Lead pellet density in sediment was maximum in the Albufera, with 2.8 million pellets/ha. In Tablas de Daimiel, where hunting was banned in 1965, about 1.0 million pellets/ha were found. Percentages of shot waterfowl with ingested pellets were maximum in the wetlands on the Mediterranean coast (El Fondo and Albufera de València): 87.5% of common pochard (Aythya ferina) and approximately 33% of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and shoveler (Anas clypeata) contained ingested pellets. It was found that mallards with > 5 µg/g dry weight of lead in the liver had 8.5% lower body condition and 7.7% less body weight than birds with lower lead concentrations. Moreover, lead poisoning was diagnosed as the cause of death in 16 out of 75 birds, mainly greylag geese (Anser anser), found dead in some of these zones. PMID:9680527

  4. Parasites of waterfowl, from southwest Texas: III. The green-winged teal, Anas crecca.

    PubMed

    Canaris, A G; Mena, A C; Bristol, J R

    1981-01-01

    Seventy of 72 green-winged teal, Anas crecca, from southwest Texas were infected with parasites. Seventeen species of endoparasites were recorded: Notocotylus attenuatus, Zygocotyle lunata, Typhlocoelum sisowi, Echinostoma revolutum, Hypoderaeum conoideum, Dendritobilharzia pulverulenta, Cloacotaenia megalops, Sobolevicanthus gracilis, Sobolevicanthus krabbeella, Gastrotaenia cygni, Amidostomum acutum, Amidostomum anseris, Tetrameres crami, Echinuria uncinata, Corynosoma constrictum, Polymorphus minutus. Also recorded were five species of ectoparasites: Trinoton querquedulae, Anaticola crassicornis, Anatoecous icterodes, Holomenopon setigerum and Epidermoptes sp. and the sacrosporidian, Sarcocystis rileyi. Anatoecous icterodes is a new host record for A. crecca. Sobolevicanthus gracilis, S. krabbeella, T. sisowi, and D. pulverulenta are new records for A. crecca in North America. Sobolevicanthus krabbeella is also a new record for North America. Fall juveniles had greater mean parasite intensity (29) than fall (19) and spring adults (19). Juveniles were infected with fewer species of parasites (17) than adults (20). Simpson's index was very low (0.11) indicating a diverse parasite fauna. Sorenson's index of similarity indicated that the parasite fauna for green-winged teal from southwest Texas was more similar to the shoveler's, Anas clypeata, parasites reported from southwest Texas (55%) than to green-winged teal parasites reported from eastern Canada (41%) and New Brunswick, Canada (21%). PMID:6788963

  5. Predicting resource partitioning and community organization of filter-feeding dabbling ducks from functional morphology.

    PubMed

    Gurd, D Brent

    2007-03-01

    Resource partitioning due to interspecific differences in phenotype is a key component of ecological and evolutionary theory, but the relationship between morphology and resource use is poorly understood for most species. In addition, ecologists often assume that morphological differences cause distinct resource preferences between species. Using mechanistic models that combine bill morphology and kinetics, I show that filter-feeding dabbling ducks face a morphology-mediated trade-off between particle size selection and water filtration rate. When detritus is absent, mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) should maximize their intake rates and exhibit high overlap in prey size. When prey and detritus co-occur, species should separate prey from detritus by size, leading to reduced intake rates and size-based prey partitioning. Models for both species correctly predicted variation in water filtration rates, particle retention probabilities, and prey ingestion rates due to variation in prey size, the presence of detritus, and experimental modification of bill morphology. Because species have both shared and distinct resource preferences, duck communities should exhibit strong density-dependent niche shifts (i.e., centrifugal dynamics), a finding that contradicts previous studies that assumed that ducks have distinct resource preferences only. Centrifugal dynamics may be widespread among filter feeders because of the common cost of separating prey from detritus. PMID:17230398

  6. Endozoochorous dispersal of aquatic plants: does seed gut passage affect plant performance?

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Jordi; Santamaría, Luis; Green, Andy J; Luque, Isabel; Alvarez, Raquel; Charalambidou, Iris

    2005-04-01

    The ingestion of seeds by vertebrates can affect the germinability and/or germination rate of seeds. It is, however, unclear if an earlier germination as a result of ingestion affects later plant performance. For sago pondweed, Potamogeton pectinatus, the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on both germinability and germination rate have been previously reported from laboratory experiments. We performed an experiment to determine the effects of seed ingestion by ducks on germination, seedling survival, plant growth and asexual multiplication. Both at the start and end of the winter, seeds were fed to three captive shovelers (Anas clypeata) and planted outdoors in water-filled containers. Plant biomass and its allocation to vegetative parts (shoot and roots), tubers, and seeds were determined in autumn. More duck-ingested seeds than control (uningested) seeds germinated in early winter, but this difference disappeared for seeds planted in late winter, when the treatments were first stratified for 3 mo. None of the variables for measuring seedling survival and plant performance varied between treatments. Under our experimental conditions (no herbivory or competition), ingestion by ducks in early winter resulted in increased performance for seeds surviving gut passage due to enhanced seed germinability, without other costs or benefits for the seedlings. PMID:21652448

  7. Tissue lead concentrations and shot ingestion in nine species of waterbirds from the Camargue (France).

    PubMed

    Pain, D J; Amiard-Triquet, C; Sylvestre, C

    1992-10-01

    This study investigates the relationship among lead exposure (shot ingestion), current lead impregnation (liver lead values), current and previous lead impregnation (bone lead values), and lead excretion (feather lead) in nine species of waterbird from the Camargue (Rhone river delta), France. Results indicate that for individuals there is no readily predictable relationship between ingested shot and liver or bone lead concentrations. However, at the "population" level, and interspecifically, significant positive relationships exist between the susceptibility to shot ingestion and the degree of lead impregnation. Shoveler (Anas clypeata) proved to be an exception, with a high level of shot ingestion and no elevated tissue lead values. This is probably related to dietary factors. Species with a high degree of current lead contamination tended to be those that had also previously absorbed elevated levels of lead. Feather lead concentrations were not clearly related to the vulnerability of a species to shot ingestion or lead poisoning. There was no significant absorption of arsenic and antimony from gunshot associated with lead absorption. PMID:1280587

  8. Cranial Morphology of the Brachystelechid 'Microsaur' Quasicaecilia texana Carroll Provides New Insights into the Diversity and Evolution of Braincase Morphology in Recumbirostran 'Microsaurs'.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Jason D; Szostakiwskyj, Matt; Anderson, Jason S

    2015-01-01

    Recumbirostran 'microsaurs,' a group of early tetrapods from the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, are the earliest known example of adaptation to head-first burrowing in the tetrapod fossil record. However, understanding of the diversity of fossorial adaptation within the Recumbirostra has been hindered by poor anatomical knowledge of the more divergent forms within the group. Here we report the results of ?CT study of Quasicaecilia texana, a poorly-known recumbirostran with a unique, broad, shovel-like snout. The organization of the skull roof and braincase of Quasicaecilia is found to be more in line with that of other recumbirostrans than previously described, despite differences in overall shape. The braincase is found to be broadly comparable to Carrolla craddocki, with a large presphenoid that encompasses much of the interorbital septum and the columella ethmoidalis, and a single compound ossification encompassing the sphenoid, otic, and occipital regions. The recumbirostran braincase conserves general structure and topology of braincase regions and cranial nerve foramina, but it is highly variable in the number of ossifications and their extent, likely associated with the reliance on braincase ossifications to resist compression during sediment compaction and mechanical manipulation by epaxial and hypaxial musculature. Expansion of the deep ventral neck musculature in Quasicaecilia, autapomorphic among recumbirostrans, may reflect unique biomechanical function, and underscores the importance of future attention to the role of the cervical musculature in contextualizing the origin and evolution of fossoriality in recumbirostrans. PMID:26107260

  9. The effectiveness of resistive force theory in granular locomotiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-10-01

    Resistive force theory (RFT) is often used to analyze the movement of microscopic organisms swimming in fluids. In RFT, a body is partitioned into infinitesimal segments, each of which generates thrust and experiences drag. Linear superposition of forces from elements over the body allows prediction of swimming velocities and efficiencies. We show that RFT quantitatively describes the movement of animals and robots that move on and within dry granular media (GM), collections of particles that display solid, fluid, and gas-like features. RFT works well when the GM is slightly polydisperse, and in the "frictional fluid" regime such that frictional forces dominate material inertial forces, and when locomotion can be approximated as confined to a plane. Within a given plane (horizontal or vertical) relationships that govern the force versus orientation of an elemental intruder are functionally independent of the granular medium. We use the RFT to explain features of locomotion on and within granular media including kinematic and muscle activation patterns during sand-swimming by a sandfish lizard and a shovel-nosed snake, optimal movement patterns of a Purcell 3-link sand-swimming robot revealed by a geometric mechanics approach, and legged locomotion of small robots on the surface of GM. We close by discussing situations to which granular RFT has not yet been applied (such as inclined granular surfaces), and the advances in the physics of granular media needed to apply RFT in such situations.

  10. Legless locomotion in lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Gong, Chaohui; Serrano, Miguel M.; Mendelson, Joseph R., III; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    By propagating waves from head to tail, limbless organisms like snakes can traverse terrain composed of rocks, foliage, soil and sand. Previous research elucidated how rigid obstacles influence snake locomotion by studying a model terrain-symmetric lattices of pegs placed in hard ground. We want to understand how different substrate-body interaction modes affect performance in desert-adapted snakes during transit of substrates composed of both rigid obstacles and granular media (GM). We tested Chionactis occipitalis, the Mojave shovel-nosed snake, in two laboratory treatments: lattices of 0 . 64 cm diameter obstacles arrayed on both a hard, slick substrate and in a GM of ~ 0 . 3 mm diameter glass particles. For all lattice spacings, d, speed through the hard ground lattices was less than that in GM lattices. However, maximal undulation efficiencies ?u (number of body lengths advanced per undulation cycle) in both treatments were comparable when d was intermediate. For other d, ?u was lower than this maximum in hard ground lattices, while on GM, ?u was insensitive to d. To systematically explore such locomotion, we tested a physical robot model of the snake; performance depended sensitively on base substrate, d and body wave parameters.

  11. Ground breaking at Astrotech for a new facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dirt flies during a ground-breaking ceremony to kick off Astrotech Space Operations' construction of a new satellite preparation facility to support the Delta IV, Boeing's winning entrant in the Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Program. Wielding shovels are (from left to right) Tom Alexico; Chet Lee, chairman, Astrotech Space Operations; Gen. Forrest McCartney, vice president, Launch Operations, Lockheed Martin; Richard Murphy, director, Delta Launch Operations, The Boeing Company; Keith Wendt; Toby Voltz; Loren Shriver, deputy director, Launch & Payload Processing, Kennedy Space Center; Truman Scarborough, Brevard County commissioner; U.S. Representative 15th Congressional District David Weldon; Ron Swank; and watching the action at right is George Baker, president, Astrotech Space Operations. Astrotech is located in Titusville, Fla. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of SPACEHAB, Inc., and has been awarded a 10-year contract to provide payload processing services for The Boeing Company. The facility will enable Astrotech to support the full range of satellite sizes planned for launch aboard Delta II, III and IV launch vehicles, as well as the Atlas V, Lockheed Martin's entrant in the EELV Program. The Atlas V will be used to launch satellites for government, including NASA, and commercial customers.

  12. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  13. Fine structure and functional comments of mouthparts in Platypus cylindrus (Col., Curculionidae: Platypodinae).

    PubMed

    Belhoucine, Latifa; Bouhraoua, Rachid T; Prats, Eva; Pulade-Villar, Juli

    2013-02-01

    Oak pinhole borer, Platypus cylindrus is seen in recent years as one of the biggest enemies directly involved in the observed decline of cork oak in Mediterranean forests with all the economic implications. As an ambrosia beetle, it has developed its effective drilling mouthpart enough to make tunnels in hardwood of the tree. The fine structural aspects of the mouthpart using the field emission scanning electron microscopy are analyzed about 23 adults collected in galleries of infested cork oak trees (Quercus suber) in a littoral forest of northwest Algeria. These adults are preserved in alcohol 70%, cleaned and coated with gold. The mouthparts of this beetle consist commonly of a labrum, a pair of mandibles, a pair of maxillae and the labium but with adapted structure to excavate galleries in the hardwood. In this role is also involved the first pair of legs. The function that present the different structures related to the construction of the tunnels is discussed. Both of maxillary and labial palpi direct the food to the mouth and hold it while the mandibles chew the food. The distal ends of these palpi are flattened and have shovel-like setae. Females have larger maxillary palpi than males and this is related to the particular biology of each sex. PMID:23182681

  14. Measurement of particulate concentrations produced during bulk material handling at the Tarragona harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artíñano, B.; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.; Pujadas, M.; Moreno, N.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Martín, F.; Guerra, A.; Luaces, J. A.; Basora, J.

    Bulk material handling can be a significant source of particles in harbor areas. The atmospheric impact of a number of loading/unloading activities of diverse raw materials has been assessed from continuous measurements of ambient particle concentrations recorded close to the emission sources. Two experimental campaigns have been carried out in the Tarragona port to document the impact of specific handling operations and bulk materials. Dusty bulk materials such as silica-manganese powder, tapioca, coal, clinker and lucerne were dealt with during the experiments. The highest impacts on ambient particle concentrations were recorded during handling of clinker. For this material and silica-manganese powder, high concentrations were recorded in the fine grain size (<2.5 ?m). The lowest impacts on particulate matter concentrations were recorded during handling of tapioca and lucerne, mainly in the coarse grain size (2-5-10 ?m). The effectiveness of several emission abatement measures, such as ground watering to diminish coal particle resuspension, was demonstrated to reduce ambient concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. The importance of other good practices in specific handling operations, such as controlling the height of the shovel discharge, was also evidenced by these experiments. The results obtained can be further utilized as a useful experimental database for emission factor estimations.

  15. Locomotor benefits of being a slender and slick sand swimmer.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Sarah S; Koehler, Stephan A; Kuckuk, Robyn M; Serrano, Miguel; Vela, Patricio A; Mendelson, Joseph; Goldman, Daniel I

    2015-02-01

    Squamates classified as 'subarenaceous' possess the ability to move long distances within dry sand; body elongation among sand and soil burrowers has been hypothesized to enhance subsurface performance. Using X-ray imaging, we performed the first kinematic investigation of the subsurface locomotion of the long, slender shovel-nosed snake (Chionactis occipitalis) and compared its biomechanics with those of the shorter, limbed sandfish lizard (Scincus scincus). The sandfish was previously shown to maximize swimming speed and minimize the mechanical cost of transport during burial. Our measurements revealed that the snake also swims through sand by propagating traveling waves down the body, head to tail. Unlike the sandfish, the snake nearly followed its own tracks, thus swimming in an approximate tube of self-fluidized granular media. We measured deviations from tube movement by introducing a parameter, the local slip angle, ?s, which measures the angle between the direction of movement of each segment and body orientation. The average ?s was smaller for the snake than for the sandfish; granular resistive force theory (RFT) revealed that the curvature utilized by each animal optimized its performance. The snake benefits from its slender body shape (and increased vertebral number), which allows propagation of a higher number of optimal curvature body undulations. The snake's low skin friction also increases performance. The agreement between experiment and RFT combined with the relatively simple properties of the granular 'frictional fluid' make subarenaceous swimming an attractive system to study functional morphology and bauplan evolution. PMID:25524983

  16. Phylogenetic and pathogenic analyses of three H5N1 avian influenza viruses (clade 2.3.2.1) isolated from wild birds in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaobin; Ci, Yanpeng; Liu, Liling; Ma, Yixin; Jia, Ying; Wang, Deli; Guan, Yuntao; Tian, Guobin; Ma, Jianzhang; Li, Yanbing; Chen, Hualan

    2015-01-01

    From April to September 2012, periodic surveillance of avian influenza H5N1 viruses from different wild bird species was conducted in Northeast China. Three highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses were isolated from a yellow-browed warbler, common shoveler, and mallard. To trace the genetic lineage of the isolates, nucleotide sequences of all eight gene segments were determined and phylogenetically analyzed. The data indicated that three viruses belonged to the same antigenic virus group: clade 2.3.2.1. To investigate the pathogenicity of these three viruses in different hosts, chickens, ducks, and mice were inoculated. The results showed that chickens were susceptible to each of the three HPAI H5N1 viruses, resulting in 100% mortality within 2-6 days after infection, whereas the three isolates exhibited distinctly different virulence in ducks and mice. The results of this study demonstrated that HPAI H5N1 viruses of clade 2.3.2.1 are still circulating in wild birds through overlapping migratory flyways. Therefore, continuous monitoring of H5N1 in both domestic and wild birds is necessary to prevent a potentially wider outbreak. PMID:25461692

  17. Level II Cultural Resource investigation for the Texoma Distribution Enhancements project, Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeeDecker, C. H.; Holland, C. C.

    1987-10-01

    A Level II Cultural Resource Survey was completed for the Texoma Distribution Enhancements project, located in Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana. The 13-mile pipeline extends from Strategic Petroleum Reserve No. 3 to a terminus near Vincent Landing. Located in Louisiana's southwest coastal zone, the pipeline will traverse extensive marsh lands as well as upland prairie terrace areas. Present land use within the project area consists primarily of undeveloped marsh land and cattle range. The study methods included background research, intensive pedestrian survey with systematic shovel testing, a boat survey, and laboratory analysis of recovered artifact collections. One historic site, 16CU205, was identified during the field survey, and it was tested for National Register eligibility. The site is assignable to the Industrialization and Modernization (1890-1940) Cultural Unit. Archaeological testing indicates that it is a rural residence or farmstead, with a house and one outbuilding within the proposed right-of-way. The site lacks significant historical association and sufficient archaeological integrity to merit inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places. Four standing structures were also identified during the field survey. The structures are agricultural outbuildings, less than 40 years in age, that possess no architectural distinction or historical association. They have been documented photographically and by scaled plan drawings, but do not merit additional study prior to their destruction. 24 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Cranial Morphology of the Brachystelechid ‘Microsaur’ Quasicaecilia texana Carroll Provides New Insights into the Diversity and Evolution of Braincase Morphology in Recumbirostran ‘Microsaurs’

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Jason D.; Szostakiwskyj, Matt; Anderson, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Recumbirostran ‘microsaurs,’ a group of early tetrapods from the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, are the earliest known example of adaptation to head-first burrowing in the tetrapod fossil record. However, understanding of the diversity of fossorial adaptation within the Recumbirostra has been hindered by poor anatomical knowledge of the more divergent forms within the group. Here we report the results of ?CT study of Quasicaecilia texana, a poorly-known recumbirostran with a unique, broad, shovel-like snout. The organization of the skull roof and braincase of Quasicaecilia is found to be more in line with that of other recumbirostrans than previously described, despite differences in overall shape. The braincase is found to be broadly comparable to Carrolla craddocki, with a large presphenoid that encompasses much of the interorbital septum and the columella ethmoidalis, and a single compound ossification encompassing the sphenoid, otic, and occipital regions. The recumbirostran braincase conserves general structure and topology of braincase regions and cranial nerve foramina, but it is highly variable in the number of ossifications and their extent, likely associated with the reliance on braincase ossifications to resist compression during sediment compaction and mechanical manipulation by epaxial and hypaxial musculature. Expansion of the deep ventral neck musculature in Quasicaecilia, autapomorphic among recumbirostrans, may reflect unique biomechanical function, and underscores the importance of future attention to the role of the cervical musculature in contextualizing the origin and evolution of fossoriality in recumbirostrans. PMID:26107260

  19. Lunar surface operations. Volume 3: Robotic arm for lunar surface vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-07-01

    A robotic arm for a lunar surface vehicle that can help in handling cargo and equipment, and remove obstacles from the path of the vehicle is defined as a support to NASA's intention to establish a lunar based colony by the year 2010. Its mission would include, but not limited to the following: exploration, lunar sampling, replace and remove equipment, and setup equipment (e.g. microwave repeater stations). Performance objectives for the robotic arm include a reach of 3 m, accuracy of 1 cm, arm mass of 100 kg, and lifting capability of 50 kg. The end effectors must grip various sizes and shapes of cargo; push, pull, turn, lift, or lower various types of equipment; and clear a path on the lunar surface by shoveling, sweeping aside, or gripping the obstacle present in the desired path. The arm can safely complete a task within a reasonable amount of time; the actual time is dependent upon the task to be performed. The positioning of the arm includes a manual backup system such that the arm can be safely stored in case of failure. Remote viewing and proximity and positioning sensors are incorporated in the design of the arm. The following specific topic are addressed in this report: mission and requirements, system design and integration, mechanical structure, modified wrist, structure-to-end-effector interface, end-effectors, and system controls.

  20. Whole body vibration exposure in heavy earth moving machinery operators of metalliferrous mines.

    PubMed

    Vanerkar, A P; Kulkarni, N P; Zade, P D; Kamavisdar, A S

    2008-08-01

    As mining operations get mechanized, the rate of profit generation increases and so do the rate of occupational hazards. This study deals with one such hazard - occupational vibration. The present study was carried out to determine the whole body vibration (WBV) exposure of the heavy earth moving machinery (HEMM) operators in two types of metalliferous mines in India, when they were engaged in the mining activity. Cross-comparison was done of the vibration dose value (VDV) for HEMM operators as well as each type of mine. The VDV for the shovel operator in bauxite mine was observed to be 13.53 +/- 5.63 m/s(7/4) with 25% of the readings higher than the prescribed limit whereas in iron ore mine VDV for dumper operator was 10.81 +/- 3.44 m/s(7/4) with 14.62% readings on the higher side. Cross-comparison of the VDV values for bauxite and iron ore mines revealed that it was 9.57 +/- 4.93 and 8.21 +/- 5.12 m/s(7/4) with 21.28 and 14.95% of the readings on the higher side respectively. The Student's t test level was found to be insignificant for both type of mines, indicating that the WBV exposure is not dependent on the type of mine but is dependent on the working condition and type of HEMM in operation. PMID:17874194

  1. Avian influenza survey in migrating waterfowl in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montalvo-Corral, M; López-Robles, G; Hernández, J

    2011-02-01

    A two-year survey was carried out on the occurrence of avian influenza in migrating birds in two estuaries of the Mexican state of Sonora, which is located within the Pacific flyway. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 1262 birds, including 20 aquatic bird species from the Moroncarit and Tobari estuaries in Sonora, Mexico. Samples were tested for type A influenza (M), H5 Eurasian and North American subtypes (H5EA and H5NA respectively) and the H7 North American subtype (H7NA). Gene detection was determined by one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The results revealed that neither the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 of Eurasian lineage nor H7NA were detected. The overall prevalence of avian influenza type A (M-positive) in the sampled birds was 3.6% with the vast majority in dabbling ducks (Anas species). Samples from two birds, one from a Redhead (Aythya americana) and another from a Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), were positive for the low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus of North American lineage. These findings represented documented evidence of the occurrence of avian influenza in wintering birds in the Mexican wetlands. This type of study contributes to the understanding of how viruses spread to new regions of North America and highlights the importance of surveillance for the early detection and control of potentially pathogenic strains, which could affect animal and human health. PMID:21091641

  2. Influenza A viruses in wild birds of the Pacific flyway, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Siembieda, Jennifer L; Johnson, Christine K; Cardona, Carol; Anchell, Nichole; Dao, Nguyet; Reisen, William; Boyce, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) pose a significant threat to public health, and viral subtypes circulating in natural avian reservoirs can contribute to the emergence of pathogenic influenza viruses in humans. We investigated the prevalence and distribution of AIVs in 8826 migratory and resident wild birds in North America along the Pacific flyway, which is a major north-south migration pathway that overlaps with four other flyways in Alaska providing opportunities for mixing of Eurasian and American origin influenza viruses. Overall, the prevalence of AIVs was low (1%) among the wide range of avian species tested, but we detected AIVs in 69 hunter-harvested waterfowl (Anseriformes) sampled at a national wildlife refuge in California from October 2007 to January 2008. A wide range of subtypes were detected in waterfowl with H6N1, H10N7, H7N3, and H3N5 being the most common. We suspect H6N1 was introduced or remerged in 2007 at this key wintering site for waterfowl along the Pacific Flyway. Over a 3-week period, 13 H6N1 AIVs were isolated from two northern pintails (Anas acuta), three northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), three ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris), four American widgeon (Anas americana), and one gadwall (Anas strepera). We conclude that a diverse array of AIVs was present and that cross-species transmission was occurring among waterfowl in the central valley wetlands of California. PMID:20059316

  3. Interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among Alaska dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Andrew; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Meixell, Brandt; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    The reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact LPAI genomes among species and locations. To examine persistence of entire LPAI genome constellations in Alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome LPAI viruses isolated across 4 years from five species of duck: northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American green-winged teal (Anas crecca), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and American wigeon (Anas Americana). Based on pairwise genetic distance, highly similar LPAI genomes (>99 percent identity) were observed within and between species and across a range of geographic distances (up to and >1000 km), but most often between isolates collected 0-10 km apart. Highly similar viruses were detected between years, suggesting inter-annual persistence, but these were rare in our data set with the majority occurring within 0-9 days of sampling. These results identify LPAI transmission pathways in the context of species, space and time, an initial perspective into the extent of regional virus distribution and persistence, and insight into why no completely Eurasian genomes have ever been detected in Alaska. Such information will be useful in forecasting the movement of foreign-origin avian influenza strains should they be introduced to North America.

  4. Interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among Alaska dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Meixell, B.W.; Runstadler, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact LPAI genomes among species and locations. To examine persistence of entire LPAI genome constellations in Alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome LPAI viruses isolated across 4. years from five species of duck: northern pintail (Anas acuta), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American green-winged teal (Anas crecca), northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and American wigeon (Anas americana). Based on pairwise genetic distance, highly similar LPAI genomes (>99% identity) were observed within and between species and across a range of geographic distances (up to and >1000 km), but most often between isolates collected 0-10. km apart. Highly similar viruses were detected between years, suggesting inter-annual persistence, but these were rare in our data set with the majority occurring within 0-9. days of sampling. These results identify LPAI transmission pathways in the context of species, space and time, an initial perspective into the extent of regional virus distribution and persistence, and insight into why no completely Eurasian genomes have ever been detected in Alaska. Such information will be useful in forecasting the movement of foreign-origin avian influenza strains should they be introduced to North America. ?? 2011.

  5. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands.

    PubMed

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Wesselingh, Frank P; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Amazonia contains one of the world's richest biotas, but origins of this diversity remain obscure. Onset of the Amazon River drainage at approximately 10.5 Ma represented a major shift in Neotropical ecosystems, and proto-Amazonian biotas just prior to this pivotal episode are integral to understanding origins of Amazonian biodiversity, yet vertebrate fossil evidence is extraordinarily rare. Two new species-rich bonebeds from late Middle Miocene proto-Amazonian deposits of northeastern Peru document the same hyperdiverse assemblage of seven co-occurring crocodylian species. Besides the large-bodied Purussaurus and Mourasuchus, all other crocodylians are new taxa, including a stem caiman-Gnatusuchus pebasensis-bearing a massive shovel-shaped mandible, procumbent anterior and globular posterior teeth, and a mammal-like diastema. This unusual species is an extreme exemplar of a radiation of small caimans with crushing dentitions recording peculiar feeding strategies correlated with a peak in proto-Amazonian molluscan diversity and abundance. These faunas evolved within dysoxic marshes and swamps of the long-lived Pebas Mega-Wetland System and declined with inception of the transcontinental Amazon drainage, favouring diversification of longirostrine crocodylians and more modern generalist-feeding caimans. The rise and demise of distinctive, highly productive aquatic ecosystems substantially influenced evolution of Amazonian biodiversity hotspots of crocodylians and other organisms throughout the Neogene. PMID:25716785

  6. Transnational pharmaceutical corporations and neo-liberal business ethics in India.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, Bernard

    2002-03-01

    The author critiques the expedient application of market valuation principles by the transnational corporations and other large firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry on a number of issues like patents, pricing, irrational drugs, clinical trials, etc. He contends that ethics in business is chiseled and etched within the confines of particular social structures of accumulation. An ascendant neo-liberal social structure of accumulation has basically shaped these firms' sharp opposition to the Indian Patents Act, 1970, government administered pricing, etc. The author contents that the practice of neo-liberal economics is strongly associated with a "one-dimensional" ethics that privileges market valuation principles over all others. This seems to inevitably generate a social counter-movement that struggles for social protections. He critiques neo-liberal business practices from a perspective that derives from the work of the economic anthropologist Karl Polanyi. Before the present phase of liberalization in India, markets were "managed", but without a "welfare state" in place. Moving toward deregulation of the markets without a welfare state in place is unethical. Keeping the debilities of the institutional framework of public policy in mind, the author adopts a Polanyian perspective that places its trust and hope in the growing social legitimacy of the counter-movement in opposition to both neo-liberal business practices and the degenerate behavior of state agencies. PMID:12625343

  7. Management of the nasal dorsum.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M; Tapias, Vanesa; Kim, Ji-Eon

    2011-04-01

    Profile alignment, including nasal dorsal reduction, is one of the most common maneuvers in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Techniques often include cartilaginous excision and bony hump reduction with a chisel or a rasp. Cartilaginous nasal vault excision can result in separation of the junction between the upper lateral cartilages and the dorsal septum. This separation can cause an inferior-medial repositioning of the upper lateral cartilages and overall weakening of middle vault infrastructure. Furthermore, surgical interruption of this key region can also damage the internal nasal valve configuration and function and create static and dynamic airway obstruction. This article outlines the anatomy and function of the middle nasal vault and internal nasal valve. In addition, it provides an overview of aesthetic complications of dorsal hump removal including inverted-V deformity, saddle nose deformity, hourglass deformity, and their functional consequences. Preoperative individual risk factors for middle-third deformities are mentioned. Preventive and corrective surgical techniques including cartilage grafting and reconstructive sutures are also detailed. PMID:21404161

  8. Effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of high-purity aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Zeides, F.

    1986-01-01

    A study of hydrogen effects was conducted on 99.999% pure aluminum. Hydrogen was introduced into the material by means of a corrosion process. Two corrosive media were used; deionized pure water and an alkaline solution. The former was used for dynamic hydrogen charging during mechanical tests and the latter for hydrogen precharging. The corrosion reaction in the dynamic charging was intensified by application of weak ultrasonic oscillations. It was found that hydrogen changed the response of the material to plastic deformation causing softening and plastic-deformation localization on the macroscale and slip-line coarsening as well as an increase in their waviness on the microscale. Hydrogen modified the fracture mode, changing it from a totally ductile, chisel point type to a more brittle transgranular or intergranular fracture. The hydrogen-induced fracture modification is believed to result from the plastic-deformation modification and from the effect of hydrogen on microvoid nucleation. Hydrogen charging resulted in the formation of bulk vacancy clusters, a linear-dimensions shrinkage, and grain growth.

  9. Electrical Bioimpedance-Controlled Surgical Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Brendle, Christian; Rein, Benjamin; Niesche, Annegret; Korff, Alexander; Radermacher, Klaus; Misgeld, Berno; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-11-21

    A bioimpedance-controlled concept for bone cement milling during revision total hip replacement is presented. Normally, the surgeon manually removes bone cement using a hammer and chisel. However, this procedure is relatively rough and unintended harm may occur to tissue at any time. The proposed bioimpedance-controlled surgical instrumentation improves this process because, for example, most risks associated with bone cement removal are avoided. The electrical bioimpedance measurements enable online process-control by using the milling head as both a cutting tool and measurement electrode at the same time. Furthermore, a novel integrated surgical milling tool is introduced, which allows acquisition of electrical bioimpedance data for online control; these data are used as a process variable. Process identification is based on finite element method simulation and on experimental studies with a rapid control prototyping system. The control loop design includes the identified process model, the characterization of noise as being normally distributed and the filtering, which is necessary for sufficient accuracy ( ±0.5 mm). Also, in a comparative study, noise suppression is investigated in silico with a moving average filter and a Kalman filter. Finally, performance analysis shows that the bioimpedance-controlled surgical instrumentation may also performs effectively at a higher feed rate (e.g., 5 mm/s). PMID:25423656

  10. A coiled-coil-repeat protein 'Ccrp' in Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus prevents cellular indentation, but is not essential for vibroid cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Andrew K; Hobley, Laura; Butan, Carmen; Subramaniam, Sriram; Sockett, Renee E

    2010-12-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are small, vibroid, predatory bacteria that grow within the periplasmic space of a host Gram-negative bacterium. The intermediate-filament (IF)-like protein crescentin is a member of a broad class of IF-like, coiled-coil-repeat-proteins (CCRPs), discovered in Caulobacter crescentus, where it contributes to the vibroid cell shape. The B. bacteriovorus genome has a single ccrp gene encoding a protein with an unusually long, stutter-free, coiled-coil prediction; the inactivation of this did not alter the vibriod cell shape, but caused cell deformations, visualized as chiselled insets or dents, near the cell poles and a general 'creased' appearance, under the negative staining preparation used for electron microscopy, but not in unstained, frozen, hydrated cells. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus expressing 'teal' fluorescent protein (mTFP), as a C-terminal tag on the wild-type Ccrp protein, did not deform under negative staining, suggesting that the function was not impaired. Localization of fluorescent Ccrp-mTFP showed some bias to the cell poles, independent of the cytoskeleton, as demonstrated by the addition of the MreB-specific inhibitor A22. We suggest that the Ccrp protein in B. bacteriovorus contributes as an underlying scaffold, similar to that described for the CCRP protein FilP in Streptomyces coelicolor, preventing cellular indentation, but not contributing to the vibroid shape of the B. bacteriovorus cells. PMID:20977494

  11. Laser Scanning of a Monolithic Column during Processing in Middle Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajioka, O.; Hori, Y.

    2011-09-01

    From ancient quarries around Akoris in Middle Egypt, which belong to the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, the stone blocks could be carried to the working area located in the outside of the city. Those blocks included a giant monolithic column measured approximately 14m in length, which had been cracked for reasons unknown and must have contributed to disuse of monolith. The first deal is a comparison of plans drawn by the point clouds by laser scanning with those coming from plane-tabling, which had been one of popular methods for measuring in the last century. This part shows how the laser scanning technology is useful in far better measuring and documentation of the site. The second discuss is about a detailed assessment of the procedure of processing through the observation of chisel marks and the detail analysis about the 3 dimensional data. In the result, we are succeed to show the restoration of the procedure of the proceedings using guidelines and a wooden curve since we concentrate attention on the point of abstracting the centre line and shaving the surface into the round shape.

  12. [Application of micro-power system in the surgery of tooth extraction].

    PubMed

    Kaijin, Hu; Yongfeng, Li

    2015-02-01

    Tooth extraction is a common operation in oral surgery. Traditional-extraction instruments, such as bone chisel, elevator, and bone hammer, lead to not only severe trauma but also unnecessary complications, and patients easily become nervous and apprehensive if tooth extraction is performed using these violent instruments. In recent years, with the develop- ment of minimally invasive concept and technology, various micro-power instruments have been used for tooth extraction. This innovative technology can reduce the iatrogenic trauma and complications of tooth extraction. Additionally, this technology can greatly decrease the patient's physical and mental pressure. The new equipment compensates for the deficiency of traditional tooth extraction equipment and facilitates the gradual replacement of the latter. Diverse micro-power systems have distinct strengths and weaknesses, so some auxiliary instruments are still needed during tooth extraction. This paper focuses on the various micro-power systems for tooth extraction and tries to compare the advantages and disadvantages of these systems. Selection and usage of auxiliary equipment are also introduced. Thus, this paper provides reference for the proper application of the micro-power systems in tooth extraction. PMID:25872289

  13. Analysis of forces in conventional and ultrasonically assisted plane cutting of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Khan, Mushtaq; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2013-06-01

    Bone cutting is a well accepted but technically demanding surgical procedure in orthopaedics. A level of tool penetration force during cutting of bones has been the prime concern to surgeons, since it can produce unnecessary mechanical damage to surrounding tissues. Research in this area has been undertaken for many decades to find ways to minimise the cutting force. Cutting of bone with ultrasonic tools is a relatively new technique replacing conventional procedures in neuro-, dental and orthopaedic surgeries, due to its precision and safety. In this article, the level of forces produced during a chisel-like tool penetration in a fresh cortical bone is studied. The obtained force data are analysed for both conventional cutting and ultrasonically assisted cutting. Through a series of experiments, it was demonstrated that the depth of cut and parameters of ultrasonic oscillations affected the level of cutting force, the former being the main factor in both types of cutting. It was found that the tool penetration force was decreased with an increase in the ultrasonic frequency or amplitude and was not affected by the cutting speed. The rise in bone temperature was measured and was found to be insensitive to the level of cutting speed within the range used in this study. PMID:23636763

  14. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  15. A New Industrial Laser Chemistry Program In Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, G. L.

    1984-05-01

    In a country which the OECD ranks 23rd of 24 nations in the value of technology-intensive exports over imports, which "has been an industrial museum and our factories are working mdoels of the age of chisels, spanners and hammers" according to its Minister for Science and Technology and which now, according to the same man has a "detailed Science and Technology Policy, the best of any political party in the English speaking world" there are indications of change. Over the past seven years there have been grants of 135M to encourage major industrial research and development projects by companies and a further 20M has been contracted for 18 projects seen to have potential benefit for Australia. Our laser photochemistry project has been funded under the latter scheme. A brief review will be given of Government support of industrial chemistry projects in Australia. The nature of the industry-academic interaction required in our contract will be compared with the normal approach by academics to industrial research.

  16. Culture-independent methods to study subaerial biofilm growing on biodeteriorated surfaces of stone cultural heritage and frescoes.

    PubMed

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Villa, Federica; Polo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, and fungi form subaerial biofilm (SAB) that can lead to material deterioration on artistic stone and frescoes. In studying SAB on cultural heritage surfaces, a general approach is to combine microscopy observations and molecular analyses. Sampling of biofilm is performed using specific adhesive tape and sampling of SAB and the substrate with sterile scalpels and chisels. Biofilm observations are carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Specific taxa and EPS in biofilm can be readily visualized by fluorochrome staining and subsequent observation using fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy. The observation of cross sections containing both SAB and the substrate shows if biofilm has developed not only on the surface but also underneath. Following nucleic acid extraction, 16S rRNA gene sequencing is used to identify bacterial taxa, while 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis is used to study eukaryotic groups. In this chapter, we illustrate the protocols related to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). PMID:24664845

  17. [Extradural en bloc removal and in situ replacement of the anterior clinoid process].

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Taku; Kumai, Junichiro; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Naemura, Kazuaki; Aihara, Kouki; Ishikawa, Osamu; Nishido, Hajime; Sakamoto, Masaki; Oya, Soichi; Endo, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    Extradural removal of the anterior clinoid process (ACP) is useful and essential for approaching aneurysmal and tumor lesions in and around the cavernous sinus. A safe, rapid and less invasive technique is beneficial for this basic skull base surgery. We developed a new technique by sharply cutting the ACP together with the part of the sphenoid ridge bone followed by complete replacement. A series of patients with either basilar top or internal carotid artery aneurysms underwent the present technique. After frontotemporal craniotomy, the lateral frontal and anterior middle cranial fossae are exposed extradurally. The bone was cut using a cutting steel burr from the sphenoid ridge to the superior orbital fissure and to the optic canal. By sharply separating the meningo-orbital band between the dura propria and the periorbital fascia, the ACP is exposed. The cutting burr runs underneath the ACP. By leaving a very thin sheet of bone, the entire bone piece was elevated after fracturing the thin bone using a chisel. By severing the carotid ring, the internal carotid artery is freed and mobile either laterally or medially to obtain an ample basal cistern. After operation, the once removed clinoid process is replaced in situ using a titanium plate screw. Extradural en bloc removal and in situ replacement of the ACP can be safely done by this cutting procedure. This can provide a good cosmetic result without causing enophthalmos or transient oculomotor palsy. PMID:20387573

  18. Root-Knot Nematode Management in Double-Cropped Plasticulture Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Desaeger, J. A.; Csinos, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    Combination treatments of chisel-injected fumigants (methyl bromide, 1,3-D, metam sodium, and chloropicrin) on a first crop, followed by drip-applied fumigants (metam sodium and 1,3-D ± chloropicrin) on a second crop, with and without oxamyl drip applications were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne incognita in three different tests (2002 to 2004) in Tifton, GA. First crops were eggplant or tomato, and second crops were cantaloupe, squash, or jalapeno pepper. Double-cropped vegetables suffered much greater root-knot nematode (RKN) pressure than first crops, and almost-total yield loss occurred when second crops received no nematicide treatment. On a first crop of eggplant, all fumigants provided good nematode control and average yield increases of 10% to 15 %. On second crops, higher application rates and fumigant combinations (metam sodium and 1,3-D ± chloropicrin) improved RKN control and increased yields on average by 20% to 35 % compared to the nonfumigated control. Oxamyl increased yields of the first crop in 2003 on average by 10% to 15% but had no effect in 2004 when RKN failed to establish itself. On double-cropped squash in 2003, oxamyl following fumigation provided significant additional reduction in nematode infection and increased squash yields on average by 30% to 75%. PMID:19259431

  19. Use of scleractinian corals to indicate marine pollution in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Barakat, S A; Al-Rousan, S; Al-Trabeen, M S

    2015-02-01

    The actual and fatal concentrations of selected heavy metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in corals from the Gulf of Aqaba were determined. Several living coral samples of different species (e.g., Porites) were collected from shallow depths (of about 5 m) at a number of sites along the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba coast. The coral samples were collected using either a pneumatic diamond drill corer (for Porites) or a hammer and chisel (for other branched species). Some of the corals that had been collected were analyzed for heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrometry, and other samples were used in incubation experiments. The heavy metal concentrations were determined separately in the coral skeleton and the tissue layer. Heavy metal concentrations have not previously been determined in corals from the Gulf of Aqaba. We conclude that corals are suitable for use as proxy tools for assessing environmental pollution (i.e., they are bioindicators) in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Therefore, this study provides useful information on the degree of heavy metal contamination in the study area. PMID:25637389

  20. Management of impacted third molars among Nigerian dentists.

    PubMed

    Owotade, F J; Ugboko, V I; Fatusi, O A; Akinmoladun, V I; Obuekwe, O N; Olasoji, H O

    2002-03-01

    Seventy-five Nigerian dentists were interviewed on their approach to the management of impacted third molars. The mean age of the dentists was 34.8 years, with a male/female ratio of 3.4:1. Most of the female dentists were found in the training institutions (p = 0.005). More than half of the dentists (58.7%) practiced in institutions with dental schools (training institutions), majority preferred the buccal approach (92%), and all the dentists (100%) preferred third molar disimpaction under local analgesia. Most dentists (88%) prescribe antibiotics following third molar surgery. Fifty dentists (66.7%) routinely reviewed all patients postoperatively while 12 dentists (16%) were of the opinion that all impacted third molars should be extracted. Only 21 dentists (28%) were aware of any protocol on the management of impacted teeth. More dentists in the training institutions performed third molar surgery less frequently than dentists in other hospitals (p = 0.07) who tend to employ chisels/mallet for bone removal (p = 0.0004). The need for continuing education and the formulation of guidelines in order to assist dentists to make informed decisions is emphasised. This will help conserve scarce resources and enhance the operation of the newly introduced National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:12061244