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1

Discovery of two new inhibitors of Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase by a chemical library screening.  

PubMed

Chitin synthases polymerize UDP-GlcNAC to form chitin polymer, a key component of fungal cell wall biosynthesis. Furthermore, chitin synthases are desirable targets for fungicides since chitin is absent in plants and mammals. Two potent Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase inhibitors, 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-d-ribose (compound 1) and a 2,5-functionalized imidazole (compound 2) were identified by screening a chemical library. We adapted the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) test for chitin synthase activity detection to allow miniaturization and robotization of the screen. Both identified compounds inhibited chitin synthases in vitro with IC50 values of 1.8 and 10?M, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antifungal activity and were found to be active against B. cinerea BD90 strain with MIC values of 190 and 100?M, respectively. Finally, we discovered that both compounds confer resistance to plant leaves against the attack of the fungus by reducing the propagation of lesions by 37% and 23%, respectively. Based on the inhibitory properties found in different assays, compounds 1 and 2 can be considered as antifungal hit inhibitors of chitin synthase, allowing further optimization of their pharmacological profile to improve their antifungal properties. PMID:23886809

Magellan, Hervé; Boccara, Martine; Drujon, Thierry; Soulié, Marie-Christine; Guillou, Catherine; Dubois, Joëlle; Becker, Hubert F

2013-09-01

2

Modulation of Alternaria infectoria cell wall chitin and glucan synthesis by cell wall synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The present work reports the effects of caspofungin, a ?-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, and nikkomycin Z, an inhibitor of chitin synthases, on two strains of Alternaria infectoria, a melanized fungus involved in opportunistic human infections and respiratory allergies. One of the strains tested, IMF006, bore phenotypic traits that conferred advantages in resisting antifungal treatment. First, the resting cell wall chitin content was higher and in response to caspofungin, the chitin level remained constant. In the other strain, IMF001, the chitin content increased upon caspofungin treatment to values similar to basal IMF006 levels. Moreover, upon caspofungin treatment, the FKS1 gene was upregulated in IMF006 and downregulated in IMF001. In addition, the resting ?-glucan content was also different in both strains, with higher levels in IMF001 than in IMF006. However, this did not provide any advantage with respect to echinocandin resistance. We identified eight different chitin synthase genes and studied relative gene expression when the fungus was exposed to the antifungals under study. In both strains, exposure to caspofungin and nikkomycin Z led to modulation of the expression of class V and VII chitin synthase genes, suggesting its importance in the robustness of A. infectoria. The pattern of A. infectoria phagocytosis and activation of murine macrophages by spores was not affected by caspofungin. Monotherapy with nikkomycin Z and caspofungin provided only fungistatic inhibition, while a combination of both led to fungal cell lysis, revealing a strong synergistic action between the chitin synthase inhibitor and the ?-glucan synthase inhibitor against this fungus. PMID:24614372

Fernandes, Chantal; Anjos, Jorge; Walker, Louise A; Silva, Branca M A; Cortes, Luísa; Mota, Marta; Munro, Carol A; Gow, Neil A R; Gonçalves, Teresa

2014-05-01

3

The structure of mollusc larval shells formed in the presence of the chitin synthase inhibitor Nikkomycin Z  

PubMed Central

Background Chitin self-assembly provides a dynamic extracellular biomineralization interface. The insoluble matrix of larval shells of the marine bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis consists of chitinous material that is distributed and structured in relation to characteristic shell features. Mollusc shell chitin is synthesized via a complex transmembrane chitin synthase with an intracellular myosin motor domain. Results Enzymatic mollusc chitin synthesis was investigated in vivo by using the small-molecule drug NikkomycinZ, a structural analogue to the sugar donor substrate UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). The impact on mollusc shell formation was analyzed by binocular microscopy, polarized light video microscopy in vivo, and scanning electron microscopy data obtained from shell material formed in the presence of NikkomycinZ. The partial inhibition of chitin synthesis in vivo during larval development by NikkomycinZ (5 ?M – 10 ?M) dramatically alters the structure and thus the functionality of the larval shell at various growth fronts, such as the bivalve hinge and the shell's edges. Conclusion Provided that NikkomycinZ mainly affects chitin synthesis in molluscs, the presented data suggest that the mollusc chitin synthase fulfils an important enzymatic role in the coordinated formation of larval bivalve shells. It can be speculated that chitin synthesis bears the potential to contribute via signal transduction pathways to the implementation of hierarchical patterns into chitin mineral-composites such as prismatic, nacre, and crossed-lamellar shell types.

Schonitzer, Veronika; Weiss, Ingrid M

2007-01-01

4

Chitin synthase homologs in three ectomycorrhizal truffles.  

PubMed

Degenerate PCR primers were used to amplify a conserved gene portion coding chitin synthase from genomic DNA of six species of ectomycorrhizal truffles. DNA was extracted from both hypogeous fruitbodies and in vitro growing mycelium of Tuber borchii. A single fragment of about 600 bp was amplified for each species. The amplification products from Tuber magnatum, T. borchii and T. ferrugineum were cloned and sequenced, revealing a high degree of identity (91.5%) at the nucleotide level. On the basis of the deduced amino acid sequences these clones were assigned to class II chitin synthase. Southern blot experiments performed on genomic DNA showed that the amplification products derive from a single copy gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of class II chitin synthase genes confirmed the current taxonomic position of the genus Tuber, and suggested a close relationship between T. magnatum and T. uncinatum. PMID:8593947

Lanfranco, L; Garnero, L; Delpero, M; Bonfante, P

1995-12-01

5

Inhibition of chitin synthase 2 and antifungal activity of lignans from the stem bark of Lindera erythrocarpa.  

PubMed

Potent chitin synthase 2 inhibitors, methyllinderone (1), linderone (2) and kanakugiol (3) were isolated from the stem bark of L. erythrocarpa Makino (Lauraceae). These compounds inhibited chitin synthase 2 with IC(50) values of 23.3, 21.4 and 23.8 microg/mL, respectively. Methyllinderone (1) and linderone (2) exhibited no inhibitory activities for chitin synthases 1 and 3 from S. cerevisiae, and chitin synthase 1 from Candida albicans up to the concentration of 280 microg/mL, while kanakugiol (3) exhibited very weak activity against chitin synthase 1 of C. albicans with an IC(50) of 160 microg/mL. All of the compounds showed moderate to weak antifungal activities against various pathogenic fungi (MIC: 8 - >128 microg/mL) including Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Colletotrichum lagenarium. The results indicate that these compounds are specific inhibitors of chitin synthase 2 and can potentially serve as antifungal agents. PMID:17538872

Hwang, Eui Il; Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Sang Myung; Yeo, Woon Hyung; Moon, Jae Sun; Kang, Tae Hoon; Park, Ki Duk; Kim, Sung Uk

2007-06-01

6

Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel quinazoline-2,4-dione derivatives as chitin synthase inhibitors and antifungal agents.  

PubMed

A series of novel 1-methyl-3-substituted quinazoline-2,4-dione derivatives were designed, synthesized, and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS spectral data. Their inhibition against chitin synthase (CHS) and antifungal activities were evaluated in vitro. Results showed compounds 5b, 5c, 5e, 5f, 5j, 5k, 5l, and 5o had strong inhibitory potency against CHS. Compound 5c, which has the highest potency among these compounds, had a half-inhibition concentration (IC50) of 0.08mmol/L, while polyoxin B as positive drug had IC50 of 0.18mmol/L. These IC50 values of compounds 5i, 5m, 5n, and 5s were greater than 0.75mmol/L, which revealed that those compounds had weak inhibition activity against CHS. Moreover, most of these compounds exhibited moderate to excellent antifungal activities. In detail, to Candida albicans, the activities of compound 5g and 5k were 8-fold stronger than that of fluconazole and 4-fold stronger than that of polyoxin B; to Aspergillus flavus, the activities of 5g, 5l and 5o were16-fold stronger than that of fluconazole and 8-fold stronger than that of polyoxin B; to Cryptococcus neoformans, the minimum-inhibition-concentration (MIC) values of compounds 5c, 5d, 5e and 5l were comparable to those of fluconazole and polyoxin B. The antifungal activities of these compounds were positively correlated to their IC50 values against CHS. Furthermore, these compounds had negligible actions to bacteria. Therefore, these compounds were promising selective antifungal agents. PMID:24856180

Ji, Qinggang; Yang, Dan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Chunyan; Deng, Qiao; Ge, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lvjiang; Yang, Xiaolan; Liao, Fei

2014-07-01

7

High resolution genetic mapping uncovers chitin synthase-1 as the target-site of the structurally diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole in Tetranychus urticae.  

PubMed

The acaricides clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole are commonly referred to as 'mite growth inhibitors', and clofentezine and hexythiazox have been used successfully for the integrated control of plant mite pests for decades. Although they are still important today, their mode of action has remained elusive. Recently, a mutation in chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) was linked to etoxazole resistance. In this study, we identified and investigated a Tetranychus urticae strain (HexR) harboring recessive, monogenic resistance to each of hexythiazox, clofentezine, and etoxazole. To elucidate if there is a common genetic basis for the observed cross-resistance, we adapted a previously developed bulk segregant analysis method to map with high resolution a single, shared resistance locus for all three compounds. This finding indicates that the underlying molecular basis for resistance to all three compounds is identical. This locus is centered on the CHS1 gene, and as supported by additional genetic and biochemical studies, a non-synonymous variant (I1017F) in CHS1 associates with resistance to each of the tested acaricides in HexR. Our findings thus demonstrate a shared molecular mode of action for the chemically diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole as inhibitors of an essential, non-catalytic activity of CHS1. Given the previously documented cross-resistance between clofentezine, hexythiazox and the benzyolphenylurea (BPU) compounds flufenoxuron and cycloxuron, CHS1 should be also considered as a potential target-site of insecticidal BPUs. PMID:24859419

Demaeght, Peter; Osborne, Edward J; Odman-Naresh, Jothini; Grbi?, Miodrag; Nauen, Ralf; Merzendorfer, Hans; Clark, Richard M; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

2014-08-01

8

Chitin Synthases from Saprolegnia Are Involved in Tip Growth and Represent a Potential Target for Anti-Oomycete Drugs  

PubMed Central

Oomycetes represent some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens. Typical examples are Phytophthora infestans, which causes potato and tomato late blight, and Saprolegnia parasitica, responsible for fish diseases. Despite the economical and environmental importance of oomycete diseases, their control is difficult, particularly in the aquaculture industry. Carbohydrate synthases are vital for hyphal growth and represent interesting targets for tackling the pathogens. The existence of 2 different chitin synthase genes (SmChs1 and SmChs2) in Saprolegnia monoica was demonstrated using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. The function of SmCHS2 was unequivocally demonstrated by showing its catalytic activity in vitro after expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant SmCHS1 protein did not exhibit any activity in vitro, suggesting that it requires other partners or effectors to be active, or that it is involved in a different process than chitin biosynthesis. Both proteins contained N-terminal Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking domains, which have never been reported in any other known carbohydrate synthases. These domains are involved in protein recycling by endocytosis. Enzyme kinetics revealed that Saprolegnia chitin synthases are competitively inhibited by nikkomycin Z and quantitative PCR showed that their expression is higher in presence of the inhibitor. The use of nikkomycin Z combined with microscopy showed that chitin synthases are active essentially at the hyphal tips, which burst in the presence of the inhibitor, leading to cell death. S. parasitica was more sensitive to nikkomycin Z than S. monoica. In conclusion, chitin synthases with species-specific characteristics are involved in tip growth in Saprolegnia species and chitin is vital for the micro-organisms despite its very low abundance in the cell walls. Chitin is most likely synthesized transiently at the apex of the cells before cellulose, the major cell wall component in oomycetes. Our results provide important fundamental information on cell wall biogenesis in economically important species, and demonstrate the potential of targeting oomycete chitin synthases for disease control.

Guerriero, Gea; Avino, Mariano; Zhou, Qi; Fugelstad, Johanna; Clergeot, Pierre-Henri; Bulone, Vincent

2010-01-01

9

Chitin synthases from Saprolegnia are involved in tip growth and represent a potential target for anti-oomycete drugs.  

PubMed

Oomycetes represent some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens. Typical examples are Phytophthora infestans, which causes potato and tomato late blight, and Saprolegnia parasitica, responsible for fish diseases. Despite the economical and environmental importance of oomycete diseases, their control is difficult, particularly in the aquaculture industry. Carbohydrate synthases are vital for hyphal growth and represent interesting targets for tackling the pathogens. The existence of 2 different chitin synthase genes (SmChs1 and SmChs2) in Saprolegnia monoica was demonstrated using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. The function of SmCHS2 was unequivocally demonstrated by showing its catalytic activity in vitro after expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant SmCHS1 protein did not exhibit any activity in vitro, suggesting that it requires other partners or effectors to be active, or that it is involved in a different process than chitin biosynthesis. Both proteins contained N-terminal Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking domains, which have never been reported in any other known carbohydrate synthases. These domains are involved in protein recycling by endocytosis. Enzyme kinetics revealed that Saprolegnia chitin synthases are competitively inhibited by nikkomycin Z and quantitative PCR showed that their expression is higher in presence of the inhibitor. The use of nikkomycin Z combined with microscopy showed that chitin synthases are active essentially at the hyphal tips, which burst in the presence of the inhibitor, leading to cell death. S. parasitica was more sensitive to nikkomycin Z than S. monoica. In conclusion, chitin synthases with species-specific characteristics are involved in tip growth in Saprolegnia species and chitin is vital for the micro-organisms despite its very low abundance in the cell walls. Chitin is most likely synthesized transiently at the apex of the cells before cellulose, the major cell wall component in oomycetes. Our results provide important fundamental information on cell wall biogenesis in economically important species, and demonstrate the potential of targeting oomycete chitin synthases for disease control. PMID:20865175

Guerriero, Gea; Avino, Mariano; Zhou, Qi; Fugelstad, Johanna; Clergeot, Pierre-Henri; Bulone, Vincent

2010-01-01

10

A Selective Assay to Detect Chitin and Biologically Active Nano-Machineries for Chitin-Biosynthesis with Their Intrinsic Chitin-Synthase Molecules  

PubMed Central

A new assay system for chitin has been developed. It comprises the chitin-binding protein ChbB in fusion with a His-tag as well as with a Strep-tag, the latter of which was chemically coupled to horseradish peroxidase. With the resulting complex, minimal quantities of chitin are photometrically detectable. In addition, the assay allows rapid scoring of the activity of chitin-synthases. As a result, a refined procedure for the rapid purification of yeast chitosomes (nano-machineries for chitin biosynthesis) has been established. Immuno-electronmicroscopical studies of purified chitosomes, gained from a yeast strain carrying a chitin-synthase gene fused to that for GFP (green-fluorescence protein), has led to the in situ localization of chitin-synthase-GFP molecules within chitosomes.

Herasimenka, Yury; Kotasinska, Marta; Walter, Stefan; Schrempf, Hildgund

2010-01-01

11

Characterization of a Chitin Synthase Encoding Gene and Effect of Diflubenzuron in Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines  

PubMed Central

Chitin synthases are critical enzymes for synthesis of chitin and thus for subsequent growth and development in insects. We identified the cDNA of chitin synthase gene (CHS) in Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, which is a serious pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of CHS in A. glycines (AyCHS) was 5802 bp long with an open reading frame of 4704 bp that encoded for a 1567 amino acid residues protein. The predicted AyCHS protein had a molecular mass of 180.05 kDa and its amino acid sequence contained all the signature motifs (EDR, QRRRW and TWGTR) of chitin synthases. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that AyCHS was expressed in all major tissues (gut, fat body and integument); however, it had the highest expression in integument (~3.5 fold compared to gut). Interestingly, the expression of AyCHS in developing embryos was nearly 7 fold higher compared to adult integument, which probably is a reflection of embryonic molts in hemimetabolus insects. Expression analysis in different developmental stages of A. glycines revealed a consistent AyCHS expression in all stages. Further, through leaf dip bioassay, we tested the effect of diflubenzuron (DFB, Dimilin ®), a chitin-synthesis inhibitor, on A. glycines' survival, fecundity and body weight. When fed with soybean leaves previously dipped in 50 ppm DFB solution, A. glycines nymphs suffered significantly higher mortality compared to control. A. glycines nymphs feeding on diflubenzuron treated leaves showed a slightly enhanced expression (1.67 fold) of AyCHS compared to nymphs on untreated leaves. We discussed the potential applications of the current study to develop novel management strategies using chitin-synthesis inhibitors and using RNAi by knocking down AyCHS expression.

Bansal, Raman; Mian, M. A. Rouf; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Michel, Andy P.

2012-01-01

12

Functional differentiation of chitin synthases in Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified seven chitin synthase-encoding genes in the genome of the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Three encoded chitin synthases with myosin motor-like domains at their N-termini, and we designated these CSM1 to CSM3, whereas four were identified as CHS1 to CHS4. To investigate the functions of these seven genes, we constructed and characterized their deletion mutants. The chs2? mutant formed chained cells in which daughter cells were connected with mother cells and had abnormally thick septa at the bud neck. The chs4? mutant showed remarkably reduced chitin content in its cell wall. The chs2?, csm1?, and csm2? mutants were found to be highly sensitive to chitin binding dyes, calcofluor white (CFW) and Congo red, whereas the chs4? mutant was resistant to CFW. These results suggest that Chs2 and Chs4 play major roles in septum formation and cell wall chitin synthesis respectively, whereas Csm1 and Csm2 are involved in the maintenance of cell wall architecture and/or cell wall integrity. The populations of filamentous cells, a type of cell population that are defined by the lengths of the cellular long and short axes, decreased in the chs3? mutant, suggesting that Chs3 is involved in cellular morphogenesis. PMID:23748777

Sheng, Wei; Yamashita, Shuichi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

13

Population bulk segregant mapping uncovers resistance mutations and the mode of action of a chitin synthesis inhibitor in arthropods  

PubMed Central

Because of its importance to the arthropod exoskeleton, chitin biogenesis is an attractive target for pest control. This point is demonstrated by the economically important benzoylurea compounds that are in wide use as highly specific agents to control insect populations. Nevertheless, the target sites of compounds that inhibit chitin biogenesis have remained elusive, likely preventing the full exploitation of the underlying mode of action in pest management. Here, we show that the acaricide etoxazole inhibits chitin biogenesis in Tetranychus urticae (the two-spotted spider mite), an economically important pest. We then developed a population-level bulk segregant mapping method, based on high-throughput genome sequencing, to identify a locus for monogenic, recessive resistance to etoxazole in a field-collected population. As supported by additional genetic studies, including sequencing across multiple resistant strains and genetic complementation tests, we associated a nonsynonymous mutation in the major T. urticae chitin synthase (CHS1) with resistance. The change is in a C-terminal transmembrane domain of CHS1 in a highly conserved region that may serve a noncatalytic but essential function. Our finding of a target-site resistance mutation in CHS1 shows that at least one highly specific chitin biosynthesis inhibitor acts directly to inhibit chitin synthase. Our work also raises the possibility that other chitin biogenesis inhibitors, such as the benzoylurea compounds, may also act by inhibition of chitin synthases. More generally, our genetic mapping approach should be powerful for high-resolution mapping of simple traits (resistance or otherwise) in arthropods.

Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Demaeght, Peter; Osborne, Edward J.; Dermauw, Wannes; Gohlke, Simon; Nauen, Ralf; Grbic, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Merzendorfer, Hans; Clark, Richard M.

2012-01-01

14

2-Acylamido Analogues of N-Acetylglucosamine Prime Formation of Chitin Oligosaccharides by Yeast Chitin Synthase 2*  

PubMed Central

Chitin, a homopolymer of ?1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues, is a key component of the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of arthropods. Chitin synthases transfer GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to preexisting chitin chains in reactions that are typically stimulated by free GlcNAc. The effect of GlcNAc was probed by using a yeast strain expressing a single chitin synthase, Chs2, by examining formation of chitin oligosaccharides (COs) and insoluble chitin, and by replacing GlcNAc with 2-acylamido analogues of GlcNAc. Synthesis of COs was strongly dependent on inclusion of GlcNAc in chitin synthase incubations, and N,N?-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc2) was the major reaction product. Formation of both COs and insoluble chitin was also stimulated by GlcNAc2 and by N-propanoyl-, N-butanoyl-, and N-glycolylglucosamine. MALDI analyses of the COs made in the presence of 2-acylamido analogues of GlcNAc showed they that contained a single GlcNAc analogue and one or more additional GlcNAc residues. These results indicate that Chs2 can use certain 2-acylamido analogues of GlcNAc, and likely free GlcNAc and GlcNAc2 as well, as GlcNAc acceptors in a UDP-GlcNAc-dependent glycosyltransfer reaction. Further, formation of modified disaccharides indicates that CSs can transfer single GlcNAc residues.

Gyore, Jacob; Parameswar, Archana R.; Hebbard, Carleigh F. F.; Oh, Younghoon; Bi, Erfei; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Price, Neil P.; Orlean, Peter

2014-01-01

15

2-Acylamido analogues of N-acetylglucosamine prime formation of chitin oligosaccharides by yeast chitin synthase 2.  

PubMed

Chitin, a homopolymer of ?1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues, is a key component of the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of arthropods. Chitin synthases transfer GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to preexisting chitin chains in reactions that are typically stimulated by free GlcNAc. The effect of GlcNAc was probed by using a yeast strain expressing a single chitin synthase, Chs2, by examining formation of chitin oligosaccharides (COs) and insoluble chitin, and by replacing GlcNAc with 2-acylamido analogues of GlcNAc. Synthesis of COs was strongly dependent on inclusion of GlcNAc in chitin synthase incubations, and N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc2) was the major reaction product. Formation of both COs and insoluble chitin was also stimulated by GlcNAc2 and by N-propanoyl-, N-butanoyl-, and N-glycolylglucosamine. MALDI analyses of the COs made in the presence of 2-acylamido analogues of GlcNAc showed they that contained a single GlcNAc analogue and one or more additional GlcNAc residues. These results indicate that Chs2 can use certain 2-acylamido analogues of GlcNAc, and likely free GlcNAc and GlcNAc2 as well, as GlcNAc acceptors in a UDP-GlcNAc-dependent glycosyltransfer reaction. Further, formation of modified disaccharides indicates that CSs can transfer single GlcNAc residues. PMID:24619411

Gyore, Jacob; Parameswar, Archana R; Hebbard, Carleigh F F; Oh, Younghoon; Bi, Erfei; Demchenko, Alexei V; Price, Neil P; Orlean, Peter

2014-05-01

16

On the function of chitin synthase extracellular domains in biomineralization.  

PubMed

Molluscs with various shell architectures evolved around 542-525 million years ago, as part of a larger phenomenon related to the diversification of metazoan phyla. Molluscs deposit minerals in a chitin matrix. The mollusc chitin is synthesized by transmembrane enzymes that contain several unique extracellular domains. Here we investigate the assembly mechanism of the chitin synthase Ar-CS1 via its extracellular domain ArCS1_E22. The corresponding transmembrane protein ArCS1_E22TM accumulates in membrane fractions of the expression host Dictyostelium discoideum. Soluble recombinant ArCS1_E22 proteins can be purified as monomers only at basic pH. According to confocal fluorescence microscopy experiments, immunolabeled ArCS1_E22 proteins adsorb preferably to aragonitic nacre platelets at pH 7.75. At pH 8.2 or pH 9.0 the fluorescence signal is less intense, indicating that protein-mineral interaction is reduced with increasing pH. Furthermore, ArCS1_E22 forms regular nanostructures on cationic substrates as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments on modified mica cleavage planes. These experiments suggest that the extracellular domain ArCS1_E22 is involved in regulating the multiple enzyme activities of Ar-CS1 such as chitin synthesis and myosin movements by interaction with mineral surfaces and eventually by protein assembly. The protein complexes could locally probe the status of mineralization according to pH unless ions and pCO2 are balanced with suitable buffer substances. Taking into account that the intact enzyme could act as a force sensor, the results presented here provide further evidence that shell formation is coordinated physiologically with precise adjustment of cellular activities to the structure, topography and stiffness at the mineralizing interface. PMID:23643908

Weiss, Ingrid M; Lüke, Florian; Eichner, Norbert; Guth, Christina; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke

2013-08-01

17

Chitin synthase II inhibitory activity of ursolic acid, isolated from Crataegus pinnatifida.  

PubMed

Two triterpenoid compounds, ursolic acid and uvaol, were isolated from Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge leaves. Ursolic acid inhibits chitin synthase II from S. cerevisiae with an IC50 value of 0.84 microgram/ml and the inhibition appears to be selective for chitin synthase II, whereas uvaol has no inhibitory activity up to 280 micrograms/ml. Oleanolic acid, alpha-hederin hydrate, and betulic acid inhibited the chitin synthase II activity under the same conditions with an IC50 of 5.6, 64.3, and 98.7 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:10232075

Jeong, T S; Hwang, E I; Lee, H B; Lee, E S; Kim, Y K; Min, B S; Bae, K H; Bok, S H; Kim, S U

1999-04-01

18

Evolution and phylogenetic relationships of chitin synthases from yeasts and fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin, the structural component that provides rigidity to the cell wall of fungi is the product of chitin synthases (Chs). These enzymes are not restricted to fungi, but are amply distributed in four of the five eukaryotic ‘crown kingdoms’. Dendrograms obtained by multiple alignment of Chs revealed that fungal enzymes can be classified into two divisions that branch into at

José Ruiz-Herrera; Juan Manuel González-Prieto; Roberto Ruiz-Medrano

2002-01-01

19

Early divergence, broad distribution, and high diversity of animal chitin synthases.  

PubMed

Even though chitin is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature, current knowledge on chitin formation is largely based only on data from fungi and insects. This study reveals unanticipated broad taxonomic distribution and extensive diversification of chitin synthases (CSs) in Metazoa, shedding new light on the relevance of chitin in animals and suggesting unforeseen complexity of chitin synthesis in many groups. We uncovered robust orthologs to insect type CSs in several representatives of deuterostomes, which generally are not thought to possess chitin. This suggests a broader distribution and function of chitin in this branch of the animal kingdom. We characterize a new CS type present not only in basal metazoans such as sponges and cnidarians but also in several bilaterian representatives. The most extensive diversification of CSs took place during emergence of lophotrochozoans, the third large group of protostomes next to arthropods and nematodes, resulting in coexistence of up to ten CS paralogs in molluscs. Independent fusion to different kinds of myosin motor domains in fungi and lophotrochozoans points toward high relevance of CS interaction with the cytoskeleton for fine-tuned chitin secretion. Given the fundamental role that chitin plays in the morphology of many animals, the here presented CS diversification reveals many evolutionary complexities. Our findings strongly suggest a very broad and multifarious occurrence of chitin and question an ancestral role as cuticular component. The molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of animal chitin synthesis are most likely far more complex and diverse than existing data from insects suggest. PMID:24443419

Zakrzewski, Anne-C; Weigert, Anne; Helm, Conrad; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja; Bleidorn, Christoph; Raible, Florian; Hausen, Harald

2014-01-01

20

Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium verticillioides is both an endophyte and a pathogen of maize and is a health threat in many areas of the world because it can contaminate\\u000a maize with fumonisins, a toxic secondary metabolite. We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F. verticillioides genomic sequence, and phylogenetic evidence shows that they group into seven established CHS gene classes. We

Troy M. LarsonDavid; David F. Kendra; Mark Busman; Daren W. Brown

2011-01-01

21

Nucleotide sequence variation of chitin synthase genes among ectomycorrhizal fungi and its potential use in taxonomy.  

PubMed Central

DNA sequences of single-copy genes coding for chitin synthases (UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.16) were used to characterize ectomycorrhizal fungi. Degenerate primers deduced from short, completely conserved amino acid stretches flanking a region of about 200 amino acids of zymogenic chitin synthases allowed the amplification of DNA fragments of several members of this gene family. Different DNA band patterns were obtained from basidiomycetes because of variation in the number and length of amplified fragments. Cloning and sequencing of the most prominent DNA fragments revealed that these differences were due to various introns at conserved positions. The presence of introns in basidiomycetous fungi therefore has a potential use in identification of genera by analyzing PCR-generated DNA fragment patterns. Analyses of the nucleotide sequences of cloned fragments revealed variations in nucleotide sequences from 4 to 45%. By comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences, the majority of the DNA fragments were identified as members of genes for chitin synthase class II. The deduced amino acid sequences from species of the same genus differed only in one amino acid residue, whereas identity between the amino acid sequences of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi within the same taxonomic class was found to be approximately 43 to 66%. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of class II chitin synthase-encoding gene fragments by using parsimony confirmed the current taxonomic groupings. In addition, our data revealed a fourth class of putative zymogenic chitin synthesis. Images

Mehmann, B; Brunner, I; Braus, G H

1994-01-01

22

Differential cell wall remodeling of two chitin synthase deletants ?chs3A and ?chs3B in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata.  

PubMed

It is known that cell wall remodeling and the salvaging pathway act to compensate for an impaired or a damaged cell wall. Lately, it has been indicated that this mechanism is partly required for resistance to the glucan synthesis inhibitor echinocandin. While cell wall remodeling has been described in mutants of glucan or mannan synthesis, it has not yet been reported in a chitin synthesis mutant. Here, we describe a novel cell wall remodeling and salvaging pathway in chitin synthesis mutants, ?chs3A and ?chs3B, of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. Electron microscopic analysis revealed a thickened mannoprotein layer in ?chs3A cells and a thickened chitin-glucan layer of ?chs3B cells, and it indicated the hypothesis that mannan synthase and chitin-glucan synthase indemnify ?chs3A and ?chs3B cells, respectively. The double-mutant CHS3A and MNN10, encoding ?-1,6-mannosyltransferase, showed synergistic stress sensitization, and the ?chs3B strain showed supersensitivity to echinocandins. Hence, these findings support the above hypothesis of remodeling. Furthermore, unlike ?chs3A cells, ?chs3B cells showed supersensitivity to calcineurin inhibitor FK506 and Tor1p kinase inhibitor rapamycin, indicating that the ?chs3B strain uses the calcineurin pathway and a Tor1p kinase for cell wall remodeling. PMID:21453325

Ueno, Keigo; Namiki, Yuichi; Mitani, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Chibana, Hiroji

2011-08-01

23

Identification and characterization of two chitin synthase genes in African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Chitin synthase (CHS) represents an attractive target site for combating insect pests as insect growth and development are strictly dependent on precisely tuned chitin biosynthesis and this pathway is absent in humans and other vertebrates. Current knowledge on CHS in insects, especially their structures, functions, and regulations is still very limited. We report the identification and characterization of two chitin synthase genes, AgCHS1 and AgCHS2, in African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. AgCHS1 and AgCHS2 were predicted to encode proteins of 1,578 and 1,586 amino acid residues, respectively. Their deduced amino acid sequences show high similarities to other insect chitin synthases. Transcriptional analysis indicated that AgCHS1 was expressed in egg, larval, pupal and adult stages whereas AgCHS2 appeared to be expressed at relatively low levels, particularly during the larval stages as examined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR. Relatively high expression was detected in the carcass followed by the foregut and hindgut for AgCHS1, and the foregut (cardia included) followed by the midgut for AgCHS2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical analysis revealed new information including the localization of the two enzymes in the ommatidia of the compound eyes, and AgCHS2 in the thoracic and abdominal inter-segmental regions of pupal integument.

Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jianzhen; Park, Yoonseong; Zhu, Kun Yan

2012-01-01

24

Class V chitin synthase determines pathogenesis in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum and mediates resistance to plant defence compounds.  

PubMed

Chitin, a beta-1,4-linked polysaccharide of N-acetylglucosamine, is a major structural component of fungal cell walls. Fungi have multiple classes of chitin synthases that catalyse N-acetylglucosamine polymerization. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for a class V chitin synthase during host infection by the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The chsV gene was identified in an insertional mutagenesis screen for pathogenicity mutants. ChsV has a putative myosin motor and a chitin synthase domain characteristic of class V chitin synthases. The chsV insertional mutant and a gene replacement mutant of F. oxysporum display morphological abnormalities such as hyphal swellings that are indicative of alterations in cell wall structure and can be partially restored by osmotic stabilizer. The mutants are unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or to grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. They are also hypersensitive to plant antimicrobial defence compounds such as the tomato phytoanticipin alpha-tomatine or H2O2. Reintroduction of a functional chsV copy into the mutant restored the growth phenotype of the wild-type strain. These data suggest that F. oxysporum requires a specific class V chitin synthase for pathogenesis, most probably to protect itself against plant defence mechanisms. PMID:12492869

Madrid, Martan P; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G

2003-01-01

25

Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

PubMed Central

Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB.

Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

2014-01-01

26

Traffic of Chitin Synthase 1 (CHS-1) to the Spitzenk?rper and Developing Septa in Hyphae of Neurospora crassa: Actin Dependence and Evidence of Distinct Microvesicle Populations ? †  

PubMed Central

We describe the subcellular location of chitin synthase 1 (CHS-1), one of seven chitin synthases in Neurospora crassa. Laser scanning confocal microscopy of growing hyphae showed CHS-1–green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized conspicuously in regions of active wall synthesis, namely, the core of the Spitzenkörper (Spk), the apical cell surface, and developing septa. It was also present in numerous fine particles throughout the cytoplasm plus some large vacuoles in distal hyphal regions. Although the same general subcellular distribution was observed previously for CHS-3 and CHS-6, they did not fully colocalize. Dual labeling showed that the three different chitin synthases were contained in different vesicular compartments, suggesting the existence of a different subpopulation of chitosomes for each CHS. CHS-1–GFP persisted in the Spk during hyphal elongation but disappeared from the septum after its development was completed. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed subapical clouds of particles, suggestive of chitosomes moving continuously toward the Spk. Benomyl had no effect on CHS-1–GFP localization, indicating that microtubules are not strictly required for CHS trafficking to the hyphal apex. Conversely, actin inhibitors caused severe mislocalization of CHS-1–GFP, indicating that actin plays a major role in the orderly traffic and localization of CHS-1 at the apex.

Sanchez-Leon, Eddy; Verdin, Jorge; Freitag, Michael; Roberson, Robert W.; Bartnicki-Garcia, Salomon; Riquelme, Meritxell

2011-01-01

27

Inhibitors of specific ceramide synthases.  

PubMed

Ceramide synthases (CerSs) are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of ceramides and display a group of at least six different isoenzymes (CerS1-6). Ceramides itself are bioactive molecules. Ceramides with different N-acyl side chains (C(14:0)-Cer - C(26:0)-Cer) possess distinct roles in cell signaling. Therefore, the selective inhibition of specific CerSs which are responsible for the formation of a specific ceramide holds promise for a number of new clinical treatment strategies, e.g., cancer. Here, we identified four of hitherto unknown functional inhibitors of CerSs derived from the FTY720 (Fingolimod) lead structure and showed their inhibitory effectiveness by two in vitro CerS activity assays. Additionally, we tested the substances in two cell lines (HCT-116 and HeLa) with different ceramide patterns. In summary, the in vitro activity assays revealed out that ST1058 and ST1074 preferentially inhibit CerS2 and CerS4, while ST1072 inhibits most potently CerS4 and CerS6. Importantly, ST1060 inhibits predominately CerS2. First structure-activity relationships and the potential biological impact of these compounds are discussed. PMID:21945810

Schiffmann, Susanne; Hartmann, Daniela; Fuchs, Sina; Birod, Kerstin; Ferreiròs, Nerea; Schreiber, Yannick; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Geisslinger, Gerd; Grösch, Sabine; Stark, Holger

2012-02-01

28

Different Chitin Synthase Genes Are Required for Various Developmental and Plant Infection Processes in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

Chitin is a major component of fungal cell wall and is synthesized by chitin synthases (Chs). Plant pathogenic fungi normally have multiple chitin synthase genes. To determine their roles in development and pathogenesis, we functionally characterized all seven CHS genes in Magnaporthe oryzae. Three of them, CHS1, CHS6, and CHS7, were found to be important for plant infection. While the chs6 mutant was non-pathogenic, the chs1 and chs7 mutants were significantly reduced in virulence. CHS1 plays a specific role in conidiogenesis, an essential step for natural infection cycle. Most of chs1 conidia had no septum and spore tip mucilage. The chs6 mutant was reduced in hyphal growth and conidiation. It failed to penetrate and grow invasively in plant cells. The two MMD-containing chitin synthase genes, CHS5 and CHS6, have a similar expression pattern. Although deletion of CHS5 had no detectable phenotype, the chs5 chs6 double mutant had more severe defects than the chs6 mutant, indicating that they may have overlapping functions in maintaining polarized growth in vegetative and invasive hyphae. Unlike the other CHS genes, CHS7 has a unique function in appressorium formation. Although it was blocked in appressorium formation by germ tubes on artificial hydrophobic surfaces, the chs7 mutant still produced melanized appressoria by hyphal tips or on plant surfaces, indicating that chitin synthase genes have distinct impacts on appressorium formation by hyphal tip and germ tube. The chs7 mutant also was defective in appressorium penetration and invasive growth. Overall, our results indicate that individual CHS genes play diverse roles in hyphal growth, conidiogenesis, appressorium development, and pathogenesis in M. oryzae, and provided potential new leads in the control of this devastating pathogen by targeting specific chitin synthases.

Li, Guo-Tian; Qi, Lin-Lu; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Chen-Fang; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Xu, Jin-Rong; Peng, You-Liang

2012-01-01

29

Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides is both an endophyte and a pathogen of maize and is a health threat in many areas of the world because it can contaminate maize with fumonisins, a toxic secondary metabolite. We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F. verticillioides genomic sequence, and phylogenetic evidence shows that they group into seven established CHS gene classes. We targeted two CHSs (CHS5 and CHS7) for deletion analysis and found that both are required for normal hyphal growth and maximal disease of maize seedlings and ears. CHS5 and CHS7 encode a putative class V and class VII fungal chitin synthase, respectively; they are located adjacent to each other and are divergently transcribed. Fluorescent microscopy found that both CHS deficient strains produce balloon-shaped hyphae, while growth assays indicated that they were more sensitive to cell wall stressing compounds (e.g., the antifungal compound Nikkomycin Z) than wild type. Pathogenicity assays on maize seedlings and ears indicated that both strains were significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease. Our results demonstrate that both CHS5 and CHS7 are necessary for proper hyphal growth and pathogenicity of F. verticillioides on maize. PMID:21246198

Larson, Troy M; Kendra, David F; Busman, Mark; Brown, Daren W

2011-06-01

30

ChsVb, a Class VII Chitin Synthase Involved in Septation, Is Critical for Pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum? †  

PubMed Central

A new myosin motor-like chitin synthase gene, chsVb, has been identified in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the chsVb chitin synthase 2 domain (CS2) revealed that ChsVb belongs to class VII chitin synthases. The ChsVb myosin motor-like domain (MMD) is shorter than the MMD of class V chitin synthases and does not contain typical ATP-binding motifs. Targeted disrupted single (?chsVb) and double (?chsV ?chsVb) mutants were unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. These strains were hypersensitive to compounds that interfere with fungal cell wall assembly, produced lemon-like shaped conidia, and showed swollen balloon-like structures in hyphal subapical regions, thickened walls, aberrant septa, and intrahyphal hyphae. Our results suggest that the chsVb gene is likely to function in polarized growth and confirm the critical importance of cell wall integrity in the complex infection process of this fungus.

Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; Gonzalez-Reyes, Jose Antonio; Ruiz-Roldan, Carmen

2008-01-01

31

Physiological and Morphological Aspects of Aedes aegypti Developing Larvae: Effects of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Novaluron  

PubMed Central

Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae. aegypti larval development. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing histological alterations produced by a BPU in immature vector mosquitoes.

Farnesi, Luana C.; Brito, Jose M.; Linss, Jutta G.; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L.

2012-01-01

32

Transcriptional Regulation of Chitin Synthases by Calcineurin Controls Paradoxical Growth of Aspergillus fumigatus in Response to Caspofungin?  

PubMed Central

Attenuated activity of echinocandin antifungals at high concentrations, known as the “paradoxical effect,” is a well-established phenomenon in Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. In the yeast C. albicans, upregulation of chitin biosynthesis via the protein kinase C (PKC), high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG), and Ca2+/calcineurin signaling pathways is an important cell wall stress response that permits growth in the presence of high concentrations of echinocandins. However, nothing is known of the molecular mechanisms regulating the mold A. fumigatus and its paradoxical response to echinocandins. Here, we show that the laboratory strain of A. fumigatus and five of seven clinical A. fumigatus isolates tested display various magnitudes of paradoxical growth in response to caspofungin. Interestingly, none of the eight strains showed paradoxical growth in the presence of micafungin or anidulafungin. Treatment of the ?cnaA and ?crzA strains, harboring gene deletions of the calcineurin A subunit and the calcineurin-dependent transcription factor, respectively, with high concentrations of caspofungin revealed that the A. fumigatus paradoxical effect is calcineurin pathway dependent. Exploring a molecular role for CnaA in the compensatory chitin biosynthetic response, we found that caspofungin treatment resulted in increased chitin synthase gene expression, leading to a calcineurin-dependent increase in chitin synthase activity. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanistic role for A. fumigatus calcineurin signaling in the chitin biosynthetic response observed during paradoxical growth in the presence of high-dose caspofungin treatment.

Fortwendel, Jarrod R.; Juvvadi, Praveen R.; Perfect, B. Zachary; Rogg, Luise E.; Perfect, John R.; Steinbach, William J.

2010-01-01

33

Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase BcChsVI is required for normal growth and pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Fungal chitin synthase of classes V and VI (or VII), which contain an additional N-terminal myosin motor domain, have been shown to play important roles in pathogenesis. To study the function of BcChsVI in Botrytis cinerea, BcChs6 gene was disrupted through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The Bcchs6 disruption mutant exhibited a 45.5 % increasing in its chitin content when compared with wild strain. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that in Bcchs6 mutant the expression of BcChs6 was significantly decreased, while the expression of BcChs2 and BcChs3a was increased when compared with wild type. It is probable that the disruption of this gene provoked a compensatory mechanism regulating the cellular response to cell wall damage. Interestingly, the radial growth of Bcchs6 mutant was drastically reduced when 50 % solute was removed from the regular PDA medium, and they were more sensitive to Calcofluor white and other cell wall disturbing chemicals. Pathogenicity assays on tomato leaves indicated that they were significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease. Our results demonstrated that BcChs6 is necessary for proper hyphal growth and pathogenicity of B. cinerea on tomato leaves. PMID:23722656

Cui, Zhifeng; Wang, Yanhua; Lei, Na; Wang, Kun; Zhu, Tingheng

2013-08-01

34

Cloning and sequence analysis of chitin synthase gene fragments of Demodex mites*  

PubMed Central

To our knowledge, few reports on Demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present. In this study our group, for the first time, cloned, sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (CHS) gene fragments of Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from Xi’an China, by designing specific primers based on the only partial sequence of the CHS gene of D. canis from Japan, retrieved from GenBank. Results show that amplification was successful only in three D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate out of the nine Demodex isolates. The obtained fragments were sequenced to be 339 bp for D. canis and 338 bp for D. brevis. The CHS gene sequence similarities between the three Xi’an D. canis isolates and one Japanese D. canis isolate ranged from 99.7% to 100.0%, and those between four D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate were 99.1%–99.4%. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods shared the same clusters, according with the traditional classification. Two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in each CHS gene sequenced, and their corresponding amino acid sequences were located at the catalytic domain. The relatively conserved sequences could be deduced to be a CHS class A gene, which is associated with chitin synthesis in the integument of Demodex mites.

Zhao, Ya-e; Wang, Zheng-hang; Xu, Yang; Xu, Ji-ru; Liu, Wen-yan; Wei, Meng; Wang, Chu-ying

2012-01-01

35

Cloning and sequence analysis of chitin synthase gene fragments of Demodex mites.  

PubMed

To our knowledge, few reports on Demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present. In this study our group, for the first time, cloned, sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (CHS) gene fragments of Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from Xi'an China, by designing specific primers based on the only partial sequence of the CHS gene of D. canis from Japan, retrieved from GenBank. Results show that amplification was successful only in three D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate out of the nine Demodex isolates. The obtained fragments were sequenced to be 339 bp for D. canis and 338 bp for D. brevis. The CHS gene sequence similarities between the three Xi'an D. canis isolates and one Japanese D. canis isolate ranged from 99.7% to 100.0%, and those between four D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate were 99.1%-99.4%. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods shared the same clusters, according with the traditional classification. Two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in each CHS gene sequenced, and their corresponding amino acid sequences were located at the catalytic domain. The relatively conserved sequences could be deduced to be a CHS class A gene, which is associated with chitin synthesis in the integument of Demodex mites. PMID:23024043

Zhao, Ya-e; Wang, Zheng-hang; Xu, Yang; Xu, Ji-ru; Liu, Wen-yan; Wei, Meng; Wang, Chu-ying

2012-10-01

36

Bait matrix for delivery of chitin synthesis inhibitors to the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

The efficacy of three chitin synthesis inhibitors, diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and chlorfluazuron, incorporated into a novel bait matrix to kill the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was evaluated in the laboratory. The bait matrix was significantly preferred by C. formosanus over southern yellow pine wood in a two-choice feeding test. Bait formulations containing 250 ppm of the three chitin synthesis inhibitors were presented to termite nests with 2,500 individuals (80% workers and 20% soldiers) in the presence of alternative food sources consisting of cardboard and southern yellow pine, Pinus taeda L., wood. None of the bait formulations were significantly repellent or feeding deterrent to the termite workers evidenced by the lack of full consumption of alternative food sources. All nests presented with the bait formulations died within 9 wk, whereas the control nests (bait with no chitin synthesis inhibitors) remained alive 6 mo after the end of the study. No significant differences in consumption were observed among the chitin synthesis inhibitor treatments. Importance of this study for the improvement of current bait technology is discussed. PMID:11332846

Rojas, M G; Morales-Ramos, J A

2001-04-01

37

Two-generation effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, teflubenzuron, on the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor was used in a two-generation test with Chironomus riparius (Insecta) to assess effects over a full life cycle from the first-instar larvae in the parental (P) generation until emergence in the subsequent F1 generation. Sediment spiked with teflubenzuron ranging from 10 to 390.6?g\\/kg sediment dry weight (dw) was used. EC50-values for fecundity and fertility were

Koffi T. Tassou; Ralf Schulz

2011-01-01

38

Oligomerization of the chitin synthase Chs3 is monitored at the Golgi and affects its endocytic recycling.  

PubMed

Chs3, the catalytic subunit of chitin synthase III in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a complex polytopic membrane protein whose plasma membrane expression is tightly controlled: export from the ER requires interaction with Chs7; exit from the Golgi is dependent on the exomer complex, and precise bud neck localization relies on endocytosis. Moreover, Chs3 is efficiently recycled from endosomes to the TGN in an AP-1-dependent manner. Here we show that the export of Chs3 requires the cargo receptor Erv14, in a step that is independent of Chs7. Chs3 oligomerized in the ER through its N-terminal cytosolic region. However, the truncated (?126)Chs3 was still exported by Erv14, but was sent back from the Golgi to the ER in a COPI- and Rer1-dependent manner. A subset of the oligomerization-deficient Chs3 proteins evaded Golgi quality control and reached the plasma membrane, where they were enzymatically active but poorly endocytosed. This resulted in high CSIII levels, but calcofluor white resistance, explained by the reduced intercalation of calcofluor white between nascent chitin fibres. Our data show that the oligomerization of Chs3 through its N-terminus is essential for proper protein trafficking and chitin synthesis and is therefore monitored intracellularly. PMID:23926947

Sacristan, Carlos; Manzano-Lopez, Javier; Reyes, Abigail; Spang, Anne; Muñiz, Manuel; Roncero, Cesar

2013-10-01

39

Undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors: antibacterial drug leads.  

PubMed

There is a significant need for new antibiotics due to the rise in drug resistance. Drugs such as methicillin and vancomycin target bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, but methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) have now arisen and are of major concern. Inhibitors acting on new targets in cell wall biosynthesis are thus of particular interest since they might also restore sensitivity to existing drugs, and the cis-prenyl transferase undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), essential for lipid I, lipid II, and thus, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, is one such target. We used 12 UPPS crystal structures to validate virtual screening models and then assayed 100 virtual hits (from 450,000 compounds) against UPPS from S. aureus and Escherichia coli. The most promising inhibitors (IC50 ?2 ?M, Ki ?300 nM) had activity against MRSA, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus sp. with MIC or IC50 values in the 0.25-4 ?g/mL range. Moreover, one compound (1), a rhodanine with close structural similarity to the commercial diabetes drug epalrestat, exhibited good activity as well as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.1 with methicillin against the community-acquired MRSA USA300 strain, indicating strong synergism. PMID:24827744

Sinko, William; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yonghui; Feixas, Ferran; Cox, Courtney L; Mitchell, Douglas A; Oldfield, Eric; McCammon, J Andrew

2014-07-10

40

Mitotic exit kinase Dbf2 directly phosphorylates chitin synthase Chs2 to regulate cytokinesis in budding yeast  

PubMed Central

How cell cycle machinery regulates extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling during cytokinesis remains poorly understood. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the primary septum (PS), a functional equivalent of animal ECM, is synthesized during cytokinesis by the chitin synthase Chs2. Here, we report that Dbf2, a conserved mitotic exit kinase, localizes to the division site after Chs2 and directly phosphorylates Chs2 on several residues, including Ser-217. Both phosphodeficient (chs2?S217A) and phosphomimic (chs2?S217D) mutations cause defects in cytokinesis, suggesting that dynamic phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of Ser-217 is critical for Chs2 function. It is striking that Chs2?S217A constricts asymmetrically with the actomyosin ring (AMR), whereas Chs2-S217D displays little or no constriction and remains highly mobile at the division site. These data suggest that Chs2 phosphorylation by Dbf2 triggers its dissociation from the AMR during the late stage of cytokinesis. Of interest, both chs2?S217A and chs2?S217D mutants are robustly suppressed by increased dosage of Cyk3, a cytokinesis protein that displays Dbf2?dependent localization and also stimulates Chs2?mediated chitin synthesis. Thus Dbf2 regulates PS formation through at least two independent pathways: direct phosphorylation and Cyk3?mediated activation of Chs2. Our study establishes a mechanism for direct cell cycle control of ECM remodeling during cytokinesis.

Oh, Younghoon; Chang, Kuang-Jung; Orlean, Peter; Wloka, Carsten; Deshaies, Raymond; Bi, Erfei

2012-01-01

41

Laboratory Evaluation of Five Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors Against the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

PubMed Central

Results of laboratory experiments are reported that tested the effects of five chitin synthesis inhibitors, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron. on second instars of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Crysomelidae), originally collected from potato fields of Bostanabaad, a town 66 km southeast of Tabriz, Iran. In bioassays, the larvae were fed potato leaves dipped in aqueous solutions containing chitin synthesis inhibitors. The mortalities and abnormalities of the treated larvae were recorded 72 hours after treatments. LC50 values were 58.6, 69.6, 27.3, 0.79 and 81.4 mg ai/ L for diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron, respectively. Compared with phosalone, which is one of the common insecticides used for controlling this pest in Iran, lufenuron and hexaflumuron seem to be much more potent, and if they perform equally well in the field, they would be suitable candidates to be considered as reduced risk insecticides in management programs for L. decemlineata due to much wider margin of safety for mammals and considerably fewer undesirable environmental side effects.

Karimzadeh, R.; Hejazi, M. J.; Rahimzadeh Khoei, F.; Moghaddam, M.

2007-01-01

42

Laboratory evaluation of five chitin synthesis inhibitors against the colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.  

PubMed

Results of laboratory experiments are reported that tested the effects of five chitin synthesis inhibitors, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron. on second instars of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Crysomelidae), originally collected from potato fields of Bostanabaad, a town 66 km southeast of Tabriz, Iran. In bioassays, the larvae were fed potato leaves dipped in aqueous solutions containing chitin synthesis inhibitors. The mortalities and abnormalities of the treated larvae were recorded 72 hours after treatments. LC(50) values were 58.6, 69.6, 27.3, 0.79 and 81.4 mg ai/ L for diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron, respectively. Compared with phosalone, which is one of the common insecticides used for controlling this pest in Iran, lufenuron and hexaflumuron seem to be much more potent, and if they perform equally well in the field, they would be suitable candidates to be considered as reduced risk insecticides in management programs for L. decemlineata due to much wider margin of safety for mammals and considerably fewer undesirable environmental side effects. PMID:20345285

Karimzadeh, R; Hejazi, M J; Rahimzadeh Khoei, F; Moghaddam, M

2007-01-01

43

Novel bisphosphonate inhibitors of the human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase.  

PubMed

A structure-based approach was pursued in designing novel bisphosphonate inhibitors of the human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (hFPPS). Preliminary SAR and structural evidence for the simultaneous binding of these inhibitors into the isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and the geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) substrate sub-pockets of the enzyme are presented. PMID:20801032

De Schutter, Joris W; Zaretsky, Serge; Welbourn, Sarah; Pause, Arnim; Tsantrizos, Youla S

2010-10-01

44

Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Inhibitors from In Silico Screening  

PubMed Central

The relaxed complex scheme is an in silico drug screening method that accounts for receptor flexibility using molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we used this approach combined with similarity searches and experimental inhibition assays to identify several low micromolar, non-bisphosphonate inhibitors, bisamidines, of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), an enzyme targeted by some anticancer and antimicrobial agents and for the treatment of bone resorption diseases. This novel class of farnesyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors have more drug-like properties than existing bisphosphonate inhibitors, making them interesting pharmaceutical leads.

Lindert, Steffen; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Yi-Liang; Pang, Ran; Oldfield, Eric; McCammon, J Andrew

2013-01-01

45

The biological activity of some chitin synthesis inhibitors against the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval), (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The action of three chitin synthesis inhibitors insecticides (chlorfluazuron, tefluben- zuron and flufenoxuron) against third and fifth instars of both susceptible and field strains of cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were ca- rried out in order to investigate the biological activity of these compounds, in their for- mulation form, under controlled laboratory conditions. The estimated LC50 values, cle- arly

ALAA E. BAYOUMI; R. BALAÑA-FOUCE; A. K. SOBEIHA; E. M. K. HUSSEIN

1998-01-01

46

Gibberella zeae chitin synthase genes, GzCHS5 and GzCHS7 , are required for hyphal growth, perithecia formation, and pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberella zeae causes Fusarium head blight of cereal crops, and sexual spores of the fungus play an important role as primary inocula. We\\u000a isolated a restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformant, ZH431, of G. zeae with defects in perithecia formation and virulence. Integration of the REMI vector resulted in disruption of GzCHS7 gene, which encodes a putative class VII chitin synthase

Jung-Eun Kim; Hyo-Jin Lee; Jungkwan Lee; Ki Woo Kim; Sung-Hwan Yun; Won-Bo Shim; Yin-Won Lee

2009-01-01

47

Laboratory Evaluation of Flurox, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, on the Termite, Microcerotermes diversus  

PubMed Central

Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is the most economically destructive termite in structures in southwest Iran. One sustainable control strategy that usually helps to reduce subterranean termite damage in buildings, is the use of insect growth regualtors in a suitable bait matrix that are safe to the user and the environment. In the laboratory assays described here, the delayed toxicity of Flurox, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, to M. diversus was evaluated under force-feeding and choice trials. Flurox induced worker and nymph mortality and incomplete ecdysis in nymphs of M. diversus under no-choice and two-choice feeding tests. These adverse effects may cause disruption of the caste balance in M. diversus, leading to the collapse of the colony. These assays determined concentrations of Flurox that can be used in bait formulations.

Habibpour, Behzad

2010-01-01

48

Larvicidal Activity of Novaluron, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, Against the Housefly, Musca domestica  

PubMed Central

A chitin synthesis inhibitor, novaluron, was evaluated under laboratory conditions for its larvicidal activity against a field population of the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), by feeding and dipping methods. The concentrations used were 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg a.i./kg in both methods. The product caused >80% larval mortality at 10 and 20 mg a.i./kg. Of the two methods, feeding was more effective for larvicidal activity at doses above 2.5 mg a.i./kg. After 72 hours, the LC50 and LC90 values were 1.66 and 8.25 mg a.i./kg, respectively, with the feeding method; and 2.72 and 17.88 mg a.i./kg, respectively, using the dipping method. The results showed that the product provided good control of housefly larvae and would greatly reduce adult emergence.

Cetin, Huseyin; Erler, Fedai; Yanikoglu, Atila

2006-01-01

49

Molecular analysis of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene sequences of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and T. rubrum.  

PubMed

Nucleotide sequences of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of dermatophytes, Arthroderma benhamiae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (T. interdigitale), and T. rubrum were analyzed for their phylogenetic relationship. About 620-bp genomic DNA fragments of the CHS1 gene were amplified from these dermatophytes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The CHS1 nucleotide sequences of these five dermatophytes showed more than 90% similarity between the species. The phylogenetic analysis of their sequences revealed that A. benhamiae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii, and T. rubrum were genetically distinct from one another, but T. interdigitale was genetically very close to A. vanbreuseghemii. On the other hand, a specific restriction endonuclease site of HinfI was present in the CHS1 gene fragment of T. rubrum but not in those of A. benhamiae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii and T. interdigitale. The molecular analysis of CHS1 genes will provide useful information for the identification of these Trichophyton species and the understanding of their evolution. PMID:9732529

Kano, R; Nakamura, Y; Watari, T; Watanabe, S; Takahashi, H; Tsujimoto, H; Hasegawa, A

1998-10-01

50

Chitin synthase-deficient mutant of Fusarium oxysporum elicits tomato plant defence response and protects against wild-type infection.  

PubMed

A mutant of the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, deficient in class V chitin synthase, has been shown previously to be nonvirulent. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of its avirulence could be the elicitation of the induced plant defence response, leading to the restriction of fungal infection. Co-inoculation of tomato plants with the wild-type strain and the DeltachsV mutant resulted in a significant reduction in symptom development, supporting a protective mechanism exerted by the mutant. The ability of the mutant to penetrate and colonize plant tissues was determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as fluorescence microscopy using green fluorescent protein- or cherry fluorescent protein-labelled fungal strains. The extent of wild-type strain colonization in co-inoculated plants decreased steadily throughout the infection process, as shown by the quantification of fungal biomass using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The hypothesis that defence responses are activated by the DeltachsV mutant was confirmed by the analysis of plant pathogenesis-related genes using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tomato plants inoculated with the DeltachsV mutant showed a three fold increase in endochitinase activity in comparison with wild-type inoculated plants. Taken together, these results suggest that the perturbation of fungal cell wall biosynthesis results in elicitation of the plant defence response during the infection process. PMID:20618706

Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Martín-Urdíroz, Magdalena; Roncero, María Isabel González; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roldán, María Del Carmen Ruiz

2010-07-01

51

Morphological changes of the filamentous fungus Mucor mucedo and inhibition of chitin synthase activity induced by anethole.  

PubMed

trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum with antimicrobial activity relatively weaker than those of well-known antibiotics, and significantly enhances the antifungal activity of polygodial and dodecanol against the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. However, the antifungal mechanism of anethole is unresolved. Anethole demonstrated antifungal activity against the filamentous fungus, Mucor mucedo IFO 7684, accompanied by hyphal morphological changes such as swollen hyphae at the tips. Its minimum growth inhibitory concentration was 0.625?mM. A hyperosmotic condition (1.2?M sorbitol) restricted the induction of morphological changes, while hypoosmotic treatment (distilled water) induced bursting of hyphal tips and leakage of cytoplasmic constituents. Furthermore, anethole dose-dependently inhibited chitin synthase (CHS) activity in permeabilized hyphae in an uncompetitive manner. These results suggest that the morphological changes of M. mucedo could be explained by the fragility of cell walls caused by CHS inhibition. PMID:21721062

Yutani, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Yukie; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujita, Ken-ichi

2011-11-01

52

Evaluation of two formulated chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron against the raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella.  

PubMed

The raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella Gregson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, and causes severe quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. The larvae attack various drying and dried fruits, fallen figs, and damaged or moldy clusters of grapes on vines. Control of this pest in storage depends mostly on synthetic pesticides with several adverse side effects. To mitigate the adverse effects of these pesticides, investigations have focused on the development of compounds with more selectivity, and short residual life. In this research, insecticidal effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, were investigated against E. figulilella. Graded concentrations of each pesticide were prepared with distilled water. One-day-old fifth instar were sprayed by Potter's precision spray tower. Application of hexaflumuron and lufenuron on last instar larvae of E. figulilella caused not only mortality in larval stage, but also caused defects in pupal and adult stages. Larval mortality increased as concentration increased. The longevity of the fifth instars in both hexaflumuron and lufenuron treatments, in comparison with the controls, increased by more than 12 days. The longevity of adults decreased by about 10 days. Probit analysis data revealed that the sensitivity of the test insect to hexaflumuron (EC(50) = 95.38 ppm) was greater than lufenuron (EC(50)= 379.21 ppm). PMID:23425138

Khajepour, Simin; Izadi, Hamzeh; Asari, Mohammad Javad

2012-01-01

53

Disruption of reproductive activity of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) primary reproductives by three chitin synthesis inhibitors.  

PubMed

Effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and lufenuron on the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, primary reproductives were studied in the laboratory. Incipient colonies were established by collecting and pairing C. formosanus alates and placing them in dishes containing an artificial diet. Three groups of 56 colonies each were fed with a diet containing 10 ppm of one of each of the CSIs and were compared with a control group fed with an untreated diet. All eggs oviposited by treated young queens failed to hatch at the end of 6 mo. Estimated queen fecundity was significantly lower in the lufenuron treatment compared with the control group. Fecundity of hexaflumuron-treated queens did not differ significantly from that of queens from the control group and the other treatments. Adult mortality was significantly higher in the diflubenzuron and lufenuron treatments than in the control group at the end of 6 mo., but not in the hexaflumuron treatment. All the pairs died within 8 mo. in the diflubenzuron and lufenuron treatments, even after treatment was suspended at the end of 6 mo. Mortality in the hexaflumuron treatment was significantly higher than in the control group by the end of 9 mo. The three CSIs tested eliminated reproduction in C. formosanus by preventing egg hatching and induced adult mortality. Possible mechanisms by which CSIs induce termite adult death are discussed. PMID:15666759

Rojas, M Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan A

2004-12-01

54

Endogenous Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor A Novel Marker of Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Exposure to risk factors such as hypertension or hypercholesterolemia decreases the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) and impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Recently, a circulating endogenous NO synthase inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), has been detected in human plasma. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma ADMA and atherosclerosis in humans. Methods and Results—Subjects (n 5116; age,

Hiroshi Miyazaki; Hidehiro Matsuoka; John P. Cooke; Michiaki Usui; Seiji Ueda; Seiya Okuda; Tsutomu Imaizumi

2010-01-01

55

Inhibitors of glycogen synthase 3 kinase  

DOEpatents

Compounds of formula 1: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, or heteroaralkyl, substituted with 0-3 substituents selected from lower alkyl, halo, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, amino, lower alkyl-amino, and nitro; R.sub.2 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy; R.sub.3 is H, lower alkyl, lower acyl, lower alkoxy-acyl, or amnino-acyl; R.sub.4 is H or lower alkyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; are effective inhibitors of GSK3.

Schultz, Peter (Oakland, CA); Ring, David B. (Palo Alto, CA); Harrison, Stephen D. (Berkeley, CA); Bray, Andrew M. (Victoria, AU)

2000-01-01

56

The myosin motor domain-containing chitin synthase PdChsVII is required for development, cell wall integrity and virulence in the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum.  

PubMed

Chitin is an essential component of the fungal cell wall and a potential target in the development of new antifungal compounds, due to its presence in fungi and not in plants or vertebrates. Chitin synthase genes (chs) constitute a complex family in filamentous fungi and are involved in fungal development, morphogenesis, pathogenesis and virulence. In this study, additional chs genes in the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum have been identified. Comparative analyses included each PdChs in each one of the classes I to VII previously established, and support the grouping of these into three divisions. Disruption of the gene coding PdChsVII, which contains a short version of a myosin motor domain, has been achieved by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and revealed its role in the life cycle of the fungus. Disruption strains were viable but showed reduced growth and conidia production. Moreover, Pdchs mutants developed morphological defects as balloon-like enlarged cells and increased chitin content, indicative of an altered cell wall structure. Gene disruption also increased susceptibility to antifungal compounds such as calcofluor white (CFW), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), hydroxide peroxide (H2O2) and commercial fungicides, but significantly no change was observed in the sensitivity to antifungal peptides. The PdchsVII mutants were able to infect citrus fruit and produced tissue maceration, although had reduced virulence and most importantly were greatly impaired in the production of visible mycelium and conidia on the fruit. PMID:24727399

Gandía, Mónica; Harries, Eleonora; Marcos, Jose F

2014-06-01

57

Effects of benzoylphenylurea on chitin synthesis and orientation in the cuticle of the Drosophila larva.  

PubMed

Chitin is an essential constituent of the insect exoskeleton, the cuticle, which is an extracellular matrix (ECM) covering the animal. It is produced by the glycosyltransferase chitin synthase at the apical plasma membrane of epidermal and tracheal cells. To fulfil its role in cuticle elasticity and stiffness it associates with proteins, thereby adopting a stereotypic arrangement of helicoidally stacked sheets, which run parallel to the surface of the animal. One approach to understand the mechanisms of chitin synthesis and organisation is to dissect these processes genetically. However, since only a few genes coding for factors involved in chitin synthesis and organisation have been identified to date using the model arthropod Drosophila melanogaster insight arising from mutant analysis is rather limited. To collect new data on the role of chitin during insect cuticle differentiation, we have analysed the effects of chitin synthesis inhibitors on Drosophila embryogenesis. For this purpose, we have chosen the benzoylphenylurea diflubenzuron and lufenuron that are widely used as insect growth regulators. Our data allow mainly two important conclusions. First, correct organisation of chitin seems to directly depend on the amount of chitin synthesised. Second, chitin synthesis and organisation are cell-autonomous processes as insecticide-treated larvae display a mosaic of cuticle defects. As benzoylphenylurea are used not only as insecticides but also as anti-diabetic drugs, the study of their impact on Drosophila cuticle differentiation may be fruitful for understanding their mode of action on a cellular pathway that is seemingly conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:18996617

Gangishetti, Umesh; Breitenbach, Sophie; Zander, Mareike; Saheb, Shaik Khaleelulla; Müller, Ursula; Schwarz, Heinz; Moussian, Bernard

2009-03-01

58

Polar Localizing Class V Myosin Chitin Synthases Are Essential during Early Plant Infection in the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Ustilago maydisW?  

PubMed Central

Fungal chitin synthases (CHSs) form fibers of the cell wall and are crucial for substrate invasion and pathogenicity. Filamentous fungi contain up to 10 CHSs, which might reflect redundant functions or the complex biology of these fungi. Here, we investigate the complete repertoire of eight CHSs in the dimorphic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis. We demonstrate that all CHSs are expressed in yeast cells and hyphae. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to all CHSs localize to septa, whereas Chs5-GFP, Chs6-GFP, Chs7-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), and Myosin chitin synthase1 (Mcs1)-YFP were found at growth regions of yeast-like cells and hyphae, indicating that they participate in tip growth. However, only the class IV CHS genes chs7 and chs5 are crucial for shaping yeast cells and hyphae ex planta. Although most CHS mutants were attenuated in plant pathogenicity, ?chs6, ?chs7, and ?mcs1 mutants were drastically reduced in virulence. ?mcs1 showed no morphological defects in hyphae, but Mcs1 became essential during invasion of the plant epidermis. ?mcs1 hyphae entered the plant but immediately lost growth polarity and formed large aggregates of spherical cells. Our data show that the polar class IV CHSs are essential for morphogenesis ex planta, whereas the class V myosin-CHS is essential during plant infection.

Weber, Isabella; Assmann, Daniela; Thines, Eckhard; Steinberg, Gero

2006-01-01

59

Hazards and uptake of chitin synthesis inhibitors in bumblebees Bombus terrestris.  

PubMed

This research project examined the potential hazards of a major class of insect growth regulators (IGRs) to survival, reproduction and larval growth in bumblebees Bombus terrestris L. Eight chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were tested: buprofezin, cyromazine, diflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, novaluron and teflubenzuron. These different IGRs, which are important in the control of pest insects in greenhouses, were applied via three different routes of exposure under laboratory conditions: dermal contact, and orally via the drinking of sugar/water and via pollen. The compounds were tested at their respective maximum field recommended concentrations (MFRC) and also in dose-response assays to calculate LC(50) values. In general, none of the CSIs showed acute worker toxicity. However, there was a dramatic reduction in brood production, especially after oral treatment with pollen and sugar/water. Conspicuously, egg fertility was reduced in all treatments with diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron. In addition to egg mortality, the worker bumblebees removed larvae from the treated nest, and in most cases these individuals were dead first-second instars. Under a binocular microscope, such larvae showed an abnormally formed cuticle leading to mechanical weakness and death. In another series of experiments using (14)C-diflubenzuron and (14)C-flufenoxuron, cuticular penetration in workers was studied for a better understanding of the differences in toxicity. With (14)C-diflubenzuron, transovarial transport and accumulation in the deposited eggs supported the strong reproductive effects. Overall, the present results suggest that CSIs should be applied with caution in combination with bumblebees. The compatibility of each compound to be used in combination with B. terrestris is discussed in relation to calculated LC(50) values, routes of uptake and effects. PMID:16786494

Mommaerts, Veerle; Sterk, Guido; Smagghe, Guy

2006-08-01

60

Aldosterone synthase inhibitors in cardiovascular and renal diseases.  

PubMed

Aldosterone is involved in various cardiovascular pathologies, including hypertension, heart failure, atherosclerosis and fibrosis. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent and -independent, genomic and non-genomic processes mediate its complex effects. Spironolactone and eplerenone, both MR antagonists, are the only commercially available compounds targeting directly the actions of aldosterone. However, due to the poor selectivity (spironolactone), low potency (eplerenone) and the fact that only MR-dependent effects of aldosterone can be inhibited, these drugs have limited clinical use. An attractive approach to abolish potentially all of aldosterone-mediated pathologies is the inhibition of aldosterone synthase. This review summarizes current knowledge on the complex effects mediated by aldosterone, potential advantages and disadvantages of aldosterone inhibition and novel directions in the development of aldosterone synthase inhibitors. PMID:24493871

Namsolleck, Pawel; Unger, Thomas

2014-02-01

61

Aldosterone synthase inhibitors in hypertension: current status and future possibilities.  

PubMed

The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system is a critical mechanism for controlling blood pressure, and exerts most of its physiological effects through the action of angiotensin II. In addition to increasing blood pressure by increasing vascular resistance, angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal gland. Aldosterone acts to cause an increase in sodium and water reabsorption, thus elevating blood pressure. Although treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors initially lowers circulating aldosterone, with chronic treatment aldosterone levels increase back to baseline, a phenomenon termed aldosterone escape; aldosterone blockade may therefore give added value in the treatment of hypertension. The first mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist developed was spironolactone, but its use has been severely hampered by adverse (notably oestrogenic) effects. The more recently developed mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone exhibits a better adverse effect profile, although it is not devoid of effects similar to spironolactone. In addition, aldosterone activates non-genomic receptors that are not inhibited by either eplerenone or spironolactone. It is believed that deleterious organ remodelling is mediated by aldosterone via such non-genomic pathways. A new class of drugs, the aldosterone synthase inhibitors, is currently under development. These may offer a novel therapeutic approach for both lowering blood pressure and preventing the non-genomic effects of aldosterone. Here, we will review the cardiovascular effects of aldosterone and review the drugs available that target this hormone, with a particular focus on the aldosterone synthase inhibitors. PMID:24570839

Hargovan, Milan; Ferro, Albert

2014-01-01

62

Structure-Based Discovery of Inhibitors of Thymidylate Synthase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular docking computer program (DOCK) was used to screen the Fine Chemical Directory, a database of commercially available compounds, for molecules that are complementary to thymidylate synthase (TS), a chemotherapeutic target. Besides retrieving the substrate and several known inhibitors, DOCK proposed putative inhibitors previously unknown to bind to the enzyme. Three of these compounds inhibited Lactobacillus caser TS at submillimolar concentrations. One of these inhibitors, sulisobenzone, crystallized with TS in two configurations that differed from the DOCK-favored geometry: a counterion was bound in the substrate site, which resulted in a 6 to 9 angstrom displacement of the inhibitor. The structure of the complexes suggested another binding region in the active site that could be exploited. This region was probed with molecules sterically similar to sulisobenzone, which led to the identification of a family of phenolphthalein analogs that inhibit TS in the 1 to 30 micromolar range. These inhibitors do not resemble the substrates of the enzyme. A crystal structure of phenolphthalein with TS shows that it binds in the target site in a configuration that resembles the one suggested by DOCK.

Shoichet, Brian K.; Stroud, Robert M.; Santi, Daniel V.; Kuntz, Irwin D.; Perry, Kathy M.

1993-03-01

63

Structural Studies of Pterin-Based Inhibitors of Dihydropteroate Synthase  

SciTech Connect

Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) is a key enzyme in bacterial folate synthesis and the target of the sulfonamide class of antibacterials. Resistance and toxicities associated with sulfonamides have led to a decrease in their clinical use. Compounds that bind to the pterin binding site of DHPS, as opposed to the p-amino benzoic acid (pABA) binding site targeted by the sulfonamide agents, are anticipated to bypass sulfonamide resistance. To identify such inhibitors and map the pterin binding pocket, we have performed virtual screening, synthetic, and structural studies using Bacillus anthracis DHPS. Several compounds with inhibitory activity have been identified, and crystal structures have been determined that show how the compounds engage the pterin site. The structural studies identify the key binding elements and have been used to generate a structure-activity based pharmacophore map that will facilitate the development of the next generation of DHPS inhibitors which specifically target the pterin site.

Hevener, Kirk E.; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Qi, Jianjun; Kerr, Iain D.; Babaoglu, Kerim; Hurdle, Julian G.; Balakrishna, Kanya; White, Stephan W.; Lee, Richard E. (Tennessee-HSC); (SJCH)

2010-01-12

64

A simple model to estimate the optimal separation and swath width of ULV-sprayed barriers of Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors (CSI) to control locust hopper bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model was constructed from available field data to predict the displacement of marching bands of gregarious nymphs of 3 locust species (Orthoptera: Acrididae). The displacement of hopper bands with a known age structure, perpendicular to sprayed barriers of a chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI), was estimated. The calculated displacements by bands up to fledging provided estimates of the maximum

G. D. A. Coppen

1999-01-01

65

Synthesis of Novel ?-Lactone Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is necessary for growth and survival of tumor cells and is a promising drug target for oncology. Here, we report on the syntheses and activity of novel inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of FAS. Using the structure of orlistat as a starting point, which contains a ?-lactone as the central pharmacophore, 28 novel congeners were synthesized and examined. Structural features such as the length of the ?- and ?-alkyl chains, their chemical composition, and amino ester substitutions were altered and the resulting compounds explored for inhibitory activity toward the thioesterase domain of FAS. Nineteen congeners show improved potency for FAS in biochemical assays relative to orlistat. Three of that subset, including the natural product valilactone, also display an increased potency in inducing tumor cell death and improved solubility compared to orlistat. These findings support the idea that an orlistat congener can be optimized for use in a preclinical drug design and for clinical drug development.

Richardson, Robyn D.; Ma, Gil; Oyola, Yatsandra; Zancanella, Manuel; Knowles, Lynn M.; Cieplak, Piotr; Romo, Daniel; Smith, Jeffrey W.

2011-01-01

66

Sensitivity of Aspergillus nidulans to the cellulose synthase inhibitor dichlobenil: insights from wall-related genes' expression and ultrastructural hyphal morphologies.  

PubMed

The fungal cell wall constitutes an important target for the development of antifungal drugs, because of its central role in morphogenesis, development and determination of fungal-specific molecular features. Fungal walls are characterized by a network of interconnected glycoproteins and polysaccharides, namely ?-, ?-glucans and chitin. Cell walls promptly and dynamically respond to environmental stimuli by a signaling mechanism, which triggers, among other responses, modulations in wall biosynthetic genes' expression. Despite the absence of cellulose in the wall of the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we found in this study that fungal growth, spore germination and morphology are affected by the addition of the cellulose synthase inhibitor dichlobenil. Expression analysis of selected genes putatively involved in cell wall biosynthesis, carried out at different time points of drug exposure (i.e. 0, 1, 3, 6 and 24 h), revealed increased expression for the putative mixed linkage ?-1,3;1,4 glucan synthase celA together with the ?-1,3-glucan synthase fksA and the Rho-related GTPase rhoA. We also compared these data with the response to Congo Red, a known plant/fungal drug affecting both chitin and cellulose biosynthesis. The two drugs exerted different effects at the cell wall level, as shown by gene expression analysis and the ultrastructural features observed through atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Although the concentration of dichlobenil required to affect growth of A. nidulans is approximately 10-fold higher than that required to inhibit plant cellulose biosynthesis, our work for the first time demonstrates that a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor affects fungal growth, changes fungal morphology and expression of genes connected to fungal cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:24312197

Guerriero, Gea; Silvestrini, Lucia; Obersriebnig, Michael; Salerno, Marco; Pum, Dietmar; Strauss, Joseph

2013-01-01

67

Effect of Cyclooxygenase and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors on Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperalgesia in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined a possible involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) products in hyperalgesia occurring during streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Indomethacin and celecoxib were used as relatively selective inhibitors of COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. NOS inhibitors included: non-specific inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine and L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine preferentially acting on inducible NOS (iNOS) as well as 7-nitroindazole relatively specific inhibitor neuronal NOS (nNOS). The

Magdalena Bujalska; Jan Tatarkiewicz; Anna de Cordé

2008-01-01

68

Design, synthesis, and enzyme kinetics of novel benzimidazole and quinoxaline derivatives as methionine synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Methionine synthase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine, producing methionine and tetrahydrofolate. Benzimidazole and deazatetrahydrofolates derivatives have been shown to inhibit methionine synthase by competing with the substrate 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. In this study, a novel series of substituted benzimidazoles and quinoxalines were designed and assessed for inhibitory activity against purified rat liver methionine synthase using a radiometric enzyme assay. Compounds 3g, 3j, and 5c showed the highest activity against methionine synthase (IC??: 20 ?M, 18 ?M, 9 ?M, respectively). Kinetic analysis of these compounds using Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed characteristics of mixed inhibition for 3g and 5c; and uncompetitive inhibition for 3j. Docking study into a homology model of the rat methionine synthase gave insights into the molecular determinants of the activity of this class of compounds. The identification of these drug-like inhibitors could lead the design of the next generation modulators of methionine synthase. PMID:24268539

Elshihawy, Hosam; Helal, Mohamed A; Said, Mohamed; Hammad, Mohamed A

2014-01-01

69

Effects of chitin synthase double-stranded RNA on molting and oogenesis in the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus.  

PubMed

In this study, we provided the demonstration of the presence of a single CHS gene in the Rhodnius prolixus (a blood-sucking insect) genome that is expressed in adults (integument and ovary) and in the integument of nymphs during development. This CHS gene appears to be essential for epidermal integrity and egg formation in R. prolixus. Because injection of CHS dsRNA was effective in reducing CHS transcript levels, phenotypic alterations in the normal course of ecdysis occurred. In addition, two phenotypes with severe cuticle deformations were observed, which were associated with loss of mobility and lifetime. The CHS dsRNA treatment in adult females affected oogenesis, reducing the size of the ovary and presenting a greater number of atresic oocytes and a smaller number of chorionated oocytes compared with the control. The overall effect was reduced oviposition. The injection of CHS dsRNA modified the natural course of egg development, producing deformed eggs that were dark in color and unable to hatch, distinct from the viable eggs laid by control females. The ovaries, which were examined under fluorescence microscopy using a probe for chitin detection, showed a reduced deposition on pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes compared with control. Taken together, these data suggest that the CHS gene is fundamentally important for ecdysis, oogenesis and egg hatching in R. prolixus and also demonstrated that the CHS gene is a good target for controlling Chagas disease vectors. PMID:24398146

Mansur, Juliana F; Alvarenga, Evelyn S L; Figueira-Mansur, Janaina; Franco, Thiago A; Ramos, Isabela B; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Melo, Ana C A; Moreira, Mônica F

2014-08-01

70

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the enzyme that synthesizes fatty acid in cells, is overexpressed in prostate cancer and a potential therapeutic target. We have identified several novel chemical scaffolds with potential to inhibit FASN. An extensive series of...

J. W. Schmitt, S. J. Kridel, W. T. Lowther

2011-01-01

71

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the enzyme that synthesizes fatty acid in cells, is over-expressed in prostate cancer and a potential therapeutic target. We have identified several novel chemical scaffolds with potential to inhibit FASN. An extensive series o...

S. J. Kridel

2010-01-01

72

Effect of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Resistance to traditional insecticides represents a threat to the control of disease vectors. The insect growth regulators (IGR) are a potential alternative to control mosquitoes, including resistant populations. The chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) are IGRs, which interfere with the insect molting process and represent one major class of compounds against Aedes aegypti populations resistant to the larvicide organophosphate temephos. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the CSI triflumuron on Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and against several Ae. aegypti field populations. Methods The efficacy of triflumuron, against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus was evaluated with laboratory strains through dose–response assays. Additionaly, this CSI was tested against seven Ae. aegypti field populations exhibiting distinct resistance levels to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Aedes aegypti populations were exposed to both a dose that inhibits 99% of the adult emergence of mosquitoes from the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, (EI99?=?3.95??g/L) and the diagnostic dose (DD), corresponding to twice the EI99. Results Our results indicate that triflumuron was effective in emergence inhibition (EI) of Cx. quinquefasciatus (EI50= 5.28??g/L; EI90= 12.47??g/L) and Ae. albopictus (EI50= 1.59??g/L; EI90= 2.63??g/L). Triflumuron was also effective against seven Ae. aegypti Brazilian populations resistant to both temephos and deltamethrin. Exposure of all the Ae. aegypti populations to the triflumuron EI99 of the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, resulted in complete inhibition of adult emergence, suggesting no cross-resistance among traditional insecticides and this CSI. However, a positive correlation between temephos resistance and tolerance to triflumuron was observed. Conclusion The results suggest that triflumuron represents a potential tool for the control of disease vectors in public health. Nevertheless, they point to the need of constant monitoring of the susceptibility status of vector populations to CSIs.

2013-01-01

73

Genetic rearrangements on the Chlorovirus genome that switch between hyaluronan synthesis and chitin synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses form polysaccharide fibers on the cell wall of host Chlorella cells after infection. Such polysaccharides are either hyaluronan synthesized by virus-encoded hyaluronan synthase (HAS) or chitin synthesized by viral chitin synthase (CHS). Some chloroviruses synthesize both hyaluronan (HA) and chitin simultaneously. To understand the relationship between “HA-synthesizing” and “chitin-synthesizing” viruses, we characterized the CVK2 genomic regions,

Ali Mohammed Mohammed Ali; Takeru Kawasaki; Takashi Yamada

2005-01-01

74

Chloropropionyl-CoA: a mechanism-based inhibitor of HMG-CoA synthase and fatty acid synthase  

SciTech Connect

Recent work on the mechanisms of inactivation of HMG-CoA synthase and fatty acid synthase by chloropropionyl-CoA (Cl-prop-CoA) suggests that this analog is a mechanism-based (suicide) inhibitor; the acyl group is enzymatically converted to an acrylyl derivative prior to alkylation of the target proteins. When Cl-(/sup 3/H)prop-CoA is incubated with the target enzymes, /sup 3/H/sub 2/O is produced concomitantly with enzyme inactivation; this suggests that deprotonation and chloride elimination to form an acrylyl moiety occurs. Difficulty in cleanly synthesizing acrylyl-CoA complicates direct demonstration of the intermediacy of this species. However, synthesis of a functionally equivalent reactive substrate analog, S-acrylyl-N-acetylcysteamine has been accomplished. This analog irreversibly inhibits both HMG-CoA synthase and fatty acid synthase in a site directed fashion. Concentrations required for effective inhibition (K/sub i/ values of 1.9 mM and 3.6 mM, respectively) are much higher than observed with Cl-prop-CoA. Maximal rates of inactivation (as vertical bar ..-->.. infinity) are comparable to those measured with Cl-prop-CoA, indicating that an acrylyl derivative is kinetically competent to function as an intermediate, as required if Cl-prop-CoA is a mechanism-based inhibitor. S-acrylyl-N-acetylcysteamine also inactivates HMG-CoA lyase. In this case, kinetic studies indicate that a bimolecular process is involved (k/sub 2/ = 86.7M/sup -1/min/sup -1/ at 30/sup 0/, pH 7.0).

Miziorko, H.M.; Ahmad, F.; Behnke, C.E.

1986-05-01

75

Control of Ctenocephalides felis on dogs and cats using the insect growth regulator (or chitin synthesis inhibitor) lufenuron Program, in Egypt.  

PubMed

Lufenuron, the chitin synthesis inhibitor (Program, Novartis-Switzerland) was given orally at doses of 10-mg/kg b/w to dogs and 30-mg/kg b/w to cats every four weeks (monthly) for the treatment of experimental flea infestations. Three to four weeks after the last infestation, Lufenuron had effectively controlled the Ct. felis infestation of dogs and cats as the drug prevented the development of the offspring of adult female fleas feeding on animals. Flea populations were absent or very low and remained so until the end of the study, 91 days after the first treatment. PMID:12049275

Fahmy, M M; el-Dien, N M Ezz

2002-04-01

76

An inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase inhibits the human enzyme, but not enzymes from other organisms.  

PubMed

Specific inhibitors of glucosylceramide biosynthesis are used as drugs for the treatment of some human diseases correlated to glycosphingolipid metabolism. The target of the presently available inhibitors is the human glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), but effects on enzymes from other organisms have not been studied. We expressed cDNAs encoding GCS enzymes from lower animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria in the yeast P. pastoris. In vitro GCS assays with the GCS inhibitor D-threo-1-(3',4'-ethylenedioxy)phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol showed that this inhibitor did not affect non-human GCS enzymes. PMID:16195602

Hillig, Inga; Warnecke, Dirk; Heinz, Ernst

2005-09-01

77

Molecular docking studies on quinazoline antifolate derivatives as human thymidylate synthase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

We have performed molecular docking on quinazoline antifolates complexed with human thymidylate synthase to gain insight into the structural preferences of these inhibitors. The study was conducted on a selected set of one hundred six compounds with variation in structure and activity. The structural analyses indicate that the coordinate bond interactions, the hydrogen bond interactions, the van der Waals interactions as well as the hydrophobic interactions between ligand and receptor are responsible simultaneously for the preference of inhibition and potency. In this study, fast flexible docking simulations were performed on quinazoline antifolates derivatives as human thymidylate synthase inhibitors. The results indicated that the quinazoline ring of the inhibitors forms hydrophobic contacts with Leu192, Leu221 and Tyr258 and stacking interaction is conserved in complex with the inhibitor and cofactor.

Srivastava, Vivek; Gupta, Satya Prakash; Siddiqi, Mohd. Imran; Mishra, Bhartendu Nath

2010-01-01

78

Structure-based and ligand-based drug design for microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) has been regarded as an attractive drug for inflammation-related diseases. In search of new mPGES-1 inhibitors, we performed virtual screening using our traditional Chinese medicine and natural products database (http:\\/\\/tcm.cmu.edu.tw\\/) and constructed comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) using a training set of 30 experimentally tested mPGES-1 inhibitors. The

Chia-Ling Li; Tung-Ti Chang; Mao-Feng Sun; Hsin-Yi Chen; Fuu-Jen Tsai; Mark Fisher; Calvin Yu-Chian Chen; Chun-Lin Lee; Wen-Chang Fang; Yung-Hao Wong

2011-01-01

79

Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors containing the carboxamidine group or its isosteres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review summarises structures, activities and selectivity of NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitors belonging to various classes of chemical compounds. Linear, cyclic and heterocyclic structures containing guanidine, amidine and/or isothiourea fragments are considered. The structure-activity relationships for these inhibitors were analysed in relation to their action on the inducible NOS isoform. This analysis can provide the basis for the synthesis of new more efficient compounds.

Proskuryakov, Sergei Ya; Konoplyannikov, Anatoly G.; Skvortzov, Valery G.; Mandrugin, Andrey A.; Fedoseev, Vladimir M.

2005-09-01

80

Determination of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in umbilical blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. Little is known about the potential physiological roles of ADMA in a perinatal setting. This study measures concentrations of ADMA in umbilical blood using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and those of NO as nitrite\\/nitrate (NOx?) using the Griess assay. Their relationship to

Hirokazu Tsukahara; Naoko Ohta; Shuko Tokuriki; Koji Nishijima; Fumikazu Kotsuji; Hisako Kawakami; Norihito Ohta; Kyouichi Sekine; Hironori Nagasaka; Mitsufumi Mayumi

2008-01-01

81

CHANGES IN KOCHIA (KOCHIA SCOPARIA \\/L.\\/ SCHRAD.) PLOIDY IN RELATION TO RESISTANCE TO ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE INHIBITORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ploidy level can be one of the factors influencing the origination of weed resistance to herbicides. Chromosome numbers were verified in four Czech populations of Kochia scoparia from various localities with different susceptibility to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors. Radicles 5-15 mm in length from pre-germinated seeds of Kochia scoparia were used for karyologic analysis. The diploid number of

Daniela CHODOVÁ; Jan MIKULKA

82

Identification, mRNA Expression, and Functional Analysis of Chitin Synthase 1 Gene and Its Two Alternative Splicing Variants in Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis  

PubMed Central

Two alternative splicing variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (BdCHS1) were cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The cDNA of both variants (BdCHS1a and BdCHS1b) consisted of 5,552 nucleotides (nt), with an open reading frame (ORF) of 4,776 nt, encoding a protein of 1,592 amino acid residues, plus 685- and 88-nt of 5?- and 3?-noncoding regions, respectively. The alternative splicing site was located between positions 3,784-3,960 and formed a pair of mutually exclusive exons (a/b) that were same in size (177 nt), but showed only 65% identity at the nucleotide level. During B. dorsalis growth and development, BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a were both mainly expressed during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions, while BdCHS1b was mainly expressed during pupal-adult metamorphosis and in the middle of the pupal stage. BdCHS1a was predominately expressed in the integument whereas BdCHS1b was mainly expressed in the trachea. The 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression of BdCHS1 and its variants. Injection of dsRNA of BdCHS1, BdCHS1a, and BdCHS1b into third-instar larvae significantly reduced the expression levels of the corresponding variants, generated phenotypic defects, and killed most of the treated larvae. Furthermore, silencing of BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a had a similar result in that the larva was trapped in old cuticle and died without tanning completely, while silencing of BdCHS1b has no effect on insect morphology. These results demonstrated that BdCHS1 plays an important role in the larval-pupal transition and the expression of BdCHS1 in B. dorsalis is regulated by 20E.

Yang, Wen-Jia; Xu, Kang-Kang; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

83

Human thromboxane synthase: comparative modeling and docking evaluation with the competitive inhibitors Dazoxiben and Ozagrel.  

PubMed

Abstract Thromboxane synthase (TXAS) is a P450 epoxygenase that synthesizes thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a potent mediator of platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction. This enzyme plays an important role in several human diseases, including myocardial infarction, stroke, septic shock, asthma and cancer. Despite of the increasing interest on developing TXAS inhibitors, the structure and activity of TXAS are still not totally elucidated. In this study, we used a comparative molecular modeling approach to construct a reliable model of TXAS and analyze its interactions with Dazoxiben and Ozagrel, two competitive inhibitors. Our results were compatible with experimental published data, showing feasible cation-? interaction between the iron atom of the heme group of TXAS and the basic nitrogen atom of the imidazolyl group of those inhibitors. In the absence of the experimental structure of thromboxane synthase, this freely available model may be useful for designing new antiplatelet drugs for diseases related with TXA2. PMID:23914925

Sathler, Plínio Cunha; Santana, Marcos; Lourenço, André Luiz; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Abreu, Paula; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; Castro, Helena Carla

2014-08-01

84

Structural and biological studies on bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by bacterial NOS functions as a cytoprotective agent against oxidative stress in Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus subtilis. The screening of several NOS-selective inhibitors uncovered two inhibitors with potential antimicrobial properties. These two compounds impede the growth of B. subtilis under oxidative stress, and crystal structures show that each compound exhibits a unique binding mode. Both compounds serve as excellent leads for the future development of antimicrobials against bacterial NOS-containing bacteria.

Holden, Jeffrey K.; Li, Huiying; Jing, Qing; Kang, Soosung; Richo, Jerry; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

85

Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding: A Potential Strategy for More Bioavailable Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase  

PubMed Central

Selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors have therapeutic applications in the treatment of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of inhibitors designed to have increased cell membrane permeability via intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Their potencies were examined in both purified enzyme and cell-based assays; a comparison of these results demonstrates that two of the new inhibitors display significantly increased membrane permeability over previous analogs. NMR spectroscopy provides evidence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding under physiological conditions in two of the inhibitors. Crystal structures of the inhibitors in the nNOS active site confirm the predicted non-intramolecular hydrogen bonded binding mode. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding may be an effective approach for increasing cell membrane permeability without affecting target protein binding.

Labby, Kristin Jansen; Xue, Fengtian; Kraus, James M.; Ji, Haitao; Mataka, Jan; Li, Huiying; Martasek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

2012-01-01

86

Discovery of Novel Antifungal (1,3)-?-d-Glucan Synthase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of life-threatening fungal infections has driven the search for new, broad-spectrum fungicidal agents that can be used for treatment and prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. Natural-product inhibitors of cell wall (1,3)-?-d-glucan synthase such as lipopeptide pneumocandins and echinocandins as well as the glycolipid papulacandins have been evaluated as potential therapeutics for the last two decades. As a result, MK-0991 (caspofungin acetate; Cancidas), a semisynthetic analogue of pneumocandin Bo, is being developed as a broad-spectrum parenteral agent for the treatment of aspergillosis and candidiasis. This and other lipopeptide antifungal agents have limited oral bioavailability. Thus, we have sought new chemical structures with the mode of action of lipopeptide antifungal agents but with the potential for oral absorption. Results of natural-product screening by a series of newly developed methods has led to the identification of four acidic terpenoid (1,3)-?-d-glucan synthase inhibitors. Of the four compounds, the in vitro antifungal activity of one, enfumafungin, is comparable to that of L-733560, a close analogue of MK-0991. Like the lipopeptides, enfumafungin specifically inhibits glucan synthesis in whole cells and in (1,3)-?-d-glucan synthase assays, alters the morphologies of yeasts and molds, and produces a unique response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with point mutations in FKS1, the gene which encodes the large subunit of glucan synthase.

Onishi, J.; Meinz, M.; Thompson, J.; Curotto, J.; Dreikorn, S.; Rosenbach, M.; Douglas, C.; Abruzzo, G.; Flattery, A.; Kong, L.; Cabello, A.; Vicente, F.; Pelaez, F.; Diez, M. T.; Martin, I.; Bills, G.; Giacobbe, R.; Dombrowski, A.; Schwartz, R.; Morris, S.; Harris, G.; Tsipouras, A.; Wilson, K.; Kurtz, M. B.

2000-01-01

87

Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on the febrile response to muramyl dipeptide and lipopolysaccharide in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have administered aminoguanidine, a relatively specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an unspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, to rats made febrile with the gram-positive pyrogen, muramyl dipeptide and gram-negative pyrogen, lipopolysaccharide. Sprague-Dawley rats, housed individually at ~25 °C with a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (lights on 0700 hours), were injected (at 0900 hours)

P. R. Kamerman; D. Mitchell; H. Laburn

2002-01-01

88

Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase by HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) causes endothelial dysfunction in part by decreasing the availability of endothelial nitric oxide (NO). Although HMG CoA reductase inhibitors restore endothelial function by reducing serum cholesterol levels, it is not known whether they can also directly upregulate endothelial NO synthase (ecNOS) activity. Methods and Results—Human saphenous vein endothelial cells were treated with ox-LDL (50 mg\\/mL thiobarbituric

Ulrich Laufs; Vito La Fata; Jorge Plutzky; James K. Liao

89

Impaired duodenal bicarbonate secretion in diabetic rats. Salutary effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported the impaired HCO3? secretion and the increased mucosal susceptibility to acid in the duodenum of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated the salutary effect of the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) on these changes and compared it with those of insulin. Animals were injected streptozotocin (STZ: 70 mg\\/kg, ip) and used after

K Takeuchi; T Hirata; R Korolkiewicz; Y Sugawa; M Kubomi

1997-01-01

90

Discovery of an Oral Potent Selective Inhibitor of Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D Synthase (HPGDS)  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) is primarly expressed in mast cells, antigen-presenting cells, and Th-2 cells. HPGDS converts PGH2 into PGD2, a mediator thought to play a pivotal role in airway allergy and inflammatory processes. In this letter, we report the discovery of an orally potent and selective inhibitor of HPGDS that reduces the antigen-induced response in allergic sheep.

2010-01-01

91

Glycosphingolipid depletion in Fabry disease lymphoblasts with potent inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosphingolipid depletion in Fabry disease lymphoblasts with potent inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase.BackgroundFabry disease is an inherited X-linked disorder resulting in the loss of activity of the lysosomal hydrolase ?-galactosidase A and causing the clinical manifestations of renal failure, cerebral vascular disease, and myocardial infarction. The phenotypic expression of this disorder is manifest by the accumulation of glycosphingolipids containing ?-galactosyl linkages,

Akira Abe; Lois J Arend; Lihsueh Lee; Clifford Lingwood; Roscoe O Brady; James A Shayman

2000-01-01

92

NonEnzymatic Production of Nitric Oxide (NO) from NO Synthase Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gaseous signal molecule, nitric oxide (NO•), is generated enzymatically by NO synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. Overproduction of NO contributes to cell and tissue damage assequelaeof infection and stroke. Strategies to suppress NO synthesis rely heavily on guanidino-substituted L-arginine analogs (L-NAME, L-NA, L-NMMA, L-NIO) as competitive inhibitors of NOS, which are often used in high doses to compete with millimolar

Leonid L. Moroz; Shong Wan Norby; LouAnn Cruz; Jonathan V. Sweedler; Rhanor Gillette; Robert B. Clarkson

1998-01-01

93

Virtual screening reveals allosteric inhibitors of the Toxoplasma gondii thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase.  

PubMed

The parasite Toxoplasma gondii can lead to toxoplasmosis in those who are immunocompromised. To combat the infection, the enzyme responsible for nucleotide synthesis thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) is a suitable drug target. We have used virtual screening to determine novel allosteric inhibitors at the interface between the two TS domains. Selected compounds from virtual screening inhibited TS activity. Thus, these results show that allosteric inhibition by small drug-like molecules can occur in T. gondii TS-DHFR and pave the way for new and potent species-specific inhibitors. PMID:24440298

Sharma, Hitesh; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Todd J; Kumar, Vidya P; Dahlgren, Markus K; Jorgensen, William L; Anderson, Karen S

2014-02-15

94

Identification and evaluation of novel acetolactate synthase inhibitors as antifungal agents.  

PubMed

High-throughput phenotypic screening against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a series of triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compounds with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, no significant cytotoxicity, and low protein binding. To elucidate the target of this series, we have applied a chemogenomic profiling approach using the S. cerevisiae deletion collection. All compounds of the series yielded highly similar profiles that suggested acetolactate synthase (Ilv2p, which catalyzes the first common step in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis) as a possible target. The high correlation with profiles of known Ilv2p inhibitors like chlorimuron-ethyl provided further evidence for a similar mechanism of action. Genome-wide mutagenesis in S. cerevisiae identified 13 resistant clones with 3 different mutations in the catalytic subunit of acetolactate synthase that also conferred cross-resistance to established Ilv2p inhibitors. Mapping of the mutations into the published Ilv2p crystal structure outlined the chlorimuron-ethyl binding cavity, and it was possible to dock the triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compound into this pocket in silico. However, fungal growth inhibition could be bypassed through supplementation with exogenous branched-chain amino acids or by the addition of serum to the medium in all of the fungal organisms tested except for Aspergillus fumigatus. Thus, these data support the identification of the triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compounds as inhibitors of acetolactate synthase but suggest that targeting may be compromised due to the possibility of nutrient bypass in vivo. PMID:23478965

Richie, Daryl L; Thompson, Katherine V; Studer, Christian; Prindle, Vivian C; Aust, Thomas; Riedl, Ralph; Estoppey, David; Tao, Jianshi; Sexton, Jessica A; Zabawa, Thomas; Drumm, Joseph; Cotesta, Simona; Eichenberger, Jürg; Schuierer, Sven; Hartmann, Nicole; Movva, N Rao; Tallarico, John A; Ryder, Neil S; Hoepfner, Dominic

2013-05-01

95

Identification and Evaluation of Novel Acetolactate Synthase Inhibitors as Antifungal Agents  

PubMed Central

High-throughput phenotypic screening against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a series of triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compounds with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, no significant cytotoxicity, and low protein binding. To elucidate the target of this series, we have applied a chemogenomic profiling approach using the S. cerevisiae deletion collection. All compounds of the series yielded highly similar profiles that suggested acetolactate synthase (Ilv2p, which catalyzes the first common step in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis) as a possible target. The high correlation with profiles of known Ilv2p inhibitors like chlorimuron-ethyl provided further evidence for a similar mechanism of action. Genome-wide mutagenesis in S. cerevisiae identified 13 resistant clones with 3 different mutations in the catalytic subunit of acetolactate synthase that also conferred cross-resistance to established Ilv2p inhibitors. Mapping of the mutations into the published Ilv2p crystal structure outlined the chlorimuron-ethyl binding cavity, and it was possible to dock the triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compound into this pocket in silico. However, fungal growth inhibition could be bypassed through supplementation with exogenous branched-chain amino acids or by the addition of serum to the medium in all of the fungal organisms tested except for Aspergillus fumigatus. Thus, these data support the identification of the triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compounds as inhibitors of acetolactate synthase but suggest that targeting may be compromised due to the possibility of nutrient bypass in vivo.

Richie, Daryl L.; Thompson, Katherine V.; Studer, Christian; Prindle, Vivian C.; Aust, Thomas; Riedl, Ralph; Estoppey, David; Tao, Jianshi; Sexton, Jessica A.; Zabawa, Thomas; Drumm, Joseph; Cotesta, Simona; Eichenberger, Jurg; Schuierer, Sven; Hartmann, Nicole; Movva, N. Rao; Tallarico, John A.

2013-01-01

96

Chitin Research Revisited  

PubMed Central

Two centuries after the discovery of chitin, it is widely accepted that this biopolymer is an important biomaterial in many aspects. Numerous studies on chitin have focused on its biomedical applications. In this review, various aspects of chitin research including sources, structure, biosynthesis, chitinolytic enzyme, chitin binding protein, genetic engineering approach to produce chitin, chitin and evolution, and a wide range of applications in bio- and nanotechnology will be dealt with.

Khoushab, Feisal; Yamabhai, Montarop

2010-01-01

97

Moiety-linkage map reveals selective nonbisphosphonate inhibitors of human geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.  

PubMed

Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS). Current bisphosphonate drugs (e.g., Fosamax and Zometa) are highly efficacious in the treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and tumor-induced osteolysis, but they are often less potent in blood and soft-tissue due to their phosphate moieties. The discovery of nonbisphosphonate inhibitors of FPPS and/or GGPPS for the treatment of bone diseases and cancers is, therefore, a current goal. Here, we propose a moiety-linkage-based method, combining a site-moiety map with chemical structure rules (CSRs), to discover nonbisphosphonate inhibitors from thousands of commercially available compounds and known crystal structures. Our moiety-linkage map reveals the binding mechanisms and inhibitory efficacies of 51 human GGPPS (hGGPPS) inhibitors. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first team to discover two novel selective nonbisphosphonate inhibitors, which bind to the inhibitory site of hGGPPS, using CSRs and site-moiety maps. These two compounds can be considered as a novel lead for the potent inhibitors of hGGPPS for the treatment of cancers and mevalonate-pathway diseases. Moreover, based on our moiety-linkage map, we identified two key residues of hGGPPS, K202, and K212, which play an important role for the inhibitory effect of zoledronate (IC50 = 3.4 ?M and 2.4 ?M, respectively). This result suggests that our method can discover specific hGGPPS inhibitors across multiple prenyltransferases. These results show that the compounds that highly fit our moiety-linkage map often inhibit hGGPPS activity and induce tumor cell apoptosis. We believe that our method is useful for discovering potential inhibitors and binding mechanisms for pharmaceutical targets. PMID:23919676

Chen, Shih-Hsun; Lin, Sheng-Wei; Lin, Shen-Rong; Liang, Po-Huang; Yang, Jinn-Moon

2013-09-23

98

Chitin in the epidermal cuticle of a vertebrate ( Paralipophrys trigloides , Blenniidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectin binding, endo-chitinase binding and enzymatic degradation studies show that the epidermal cuticle of the bony fishParalipophrys trigloides (Blenniidae) is chitinous. This is the first evidence that a vertebrate species possesses a chitinous tissue. Recently aXenopus gene has been identified which has significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of yeast chitin synthase III, a chitin producing enzyme1,2. Taken together

G. P. Wagner; J. Lo; R. Laine; M. Almeder

1993-01-01

99

Arginine-Based Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthase: Therapeutic Potential and Challenges  

PubMed Central

In the past three decades, nitric oxide has been well established as an important bioactive molecule implicated in regulation of cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Therefore, it is not surprising that much effort has been made to find specific inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), the enzymes responsible for production of nitric oxide. Among the many NOS inhibitors developed to date, inhibitors based on derivatives and analogues of arginine are of special interest, as this category includes a relatively high number of compounds with good potential for experimental as well as clinical application. Though this group of inhibitors covers early nonspecific compounds, modern drug design strategies such as biochemical screening and computer-aided drug design have provided NOS-isoform-specific inhibitors. With an emphasis on major advances in this field, a comprehensive list of inhibitors based on their structural characteristics is discussed in this paper. We provide a summary of their biochemical properties as well as their observed effects both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we focus in particular on their pharmacology and use in recent clinical studies. The potential of newly designed specific NOS inhibitors developed by means of modern drug development strategies is highlighted.

Vitecek, Jan; Lojek, Antonin; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Kubala, Lukas

2012-01-01

100

Phosphonosulfonates Are Potent, Selective Inhibitors of Dehydrosqualene Synthase and Staphyloxanthin Biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus produces a golden carotenoid virulence factor called staphyloxanthin (STX), and we report here the inhibition of the enzyme, dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM), responsible for the first committed step in STX biosynthesis. The most active compounds are halogen-substituted phosphonosulfonates, with Ki values as low as 5 nM against the enzyme and IC50 values for STX inhibition in S. aureus as low as 11 nM. There is, however, only a poor correlation (R2 = 0.27) between enzyme and cell pIC50 (= ?log10 IC50) values. The ability to predict cell from enzyme data improves considerably (to R2 = 0.72) with addition of two more descriptors. We also investigated the activity of these compounds against human squalene synthase (SQS), as a counterscreen, finding several potent STX biosynthesis inhibitors with essentially no squalene synthase activity. These results open up the way to developing potent and selective inhibitors of an important virulence factor in S. aureus, a major human pathogen.

Song, Yongcheng; Lin, Fu-Yang; Yin, Fenglin; Hensler, Mary; Poveda, Carlos A. Rodrigues; Mukkamala, Dushyant; Cao, Rong; Wang, Hong; Morita, Craig T.; Pacanowska, Dolores Gonzalez; Nizet, Victor; Oldfield, Eric

2009-01-01

101

Geranyl and neryl triazole bisphosphonates as inhibitors of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.  

PubMed

When inhibitors of enzymes that utilize isoprenoid pyrophosphates are based on the natural substrates, a significant challenge can be to achieve selective inhibition of a specific enzyme. One element in the design process is the stereochemistry of the isoprenoid olefins. We recently reported preparation of a series of isoprenoid triazoles as potential inhibitors of geranylgeranyl transferase II but these compounds were obtained as a mixture of olefin isomers. We now have accomplished the stereoselective synthesis of these triazoles through the use of epoxy azides for the cycloaddition reaction followed by regeneration of the desired olefin. Both geranyl and neryl derivatives have been prepared as single olefin isomers through parallel reaction sequences. The products were assayed against multiple enzymes as well as in cell culture studies and surprisingly a Z-olefin isomer was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. PMID:24726306

Zhou, Xiang; Ferree, Sarah D; Wills, Veronica S; Born, Ella J; Tong, Huaxiang; Wiemer, David F; Holstein, Sarah A

2014-05-01

102

Structural study and thermodynamic characterization of inhibitor binding to lumazine synthase from Bacillus anthracis  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of lumazine synthase from Bacillus anthracis was solved by molecular replacement and refined to R cryst = 23.7% (R free = 28.4%) at a resolution of 3.5?Å. The structure reveals the icosahedral symmetry of the enzyme and specific features of the active site that are unique in comparison with previously determined orthologues. The application of isothermal titration calorimetry in combination with enzyme kinetics showed that three designed pyrimidine derivatives bind to lumazine synthase with micromolar dissociation constants and competitively inhibit the catalytic reaction. Structure-based modelling suggested the binding modes of the inhibitors in the active site and allowed an estimation of the possible contacts formed upon binding. The results provide a structural framework for the design of antibiotics active against B. anthracis.

Morgunova, Ekaterina; Illarionov, Boris; Saller, Sabine; Popov, Aleksander; Sambaiah, Thota; Bacher, Adelbert; Cushman, Mark; Fischer, Markus; Ladenstein, Rudolf

2010-01-01

103

Substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis, a gastrointestinal disease caused by a protozoan Cryptosporidium hominis is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals. There is little clinical data to show that the existing treatment by nitazoxanide and paromomycin is effective in immunocompromised individuals. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are essential enzymes in the folate biosynthesis pathway and are well established as drug targets in cancer and malaria. A novel series of classical antifolates, 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines have been evaluated as Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase (ChTS) inhibitors. Crystal structure in complex with the most potent compound, a 2'-chlorophenyl with a sulfur bridge with a Ki of 8.83±0.67 nM is discussed in terms of several Van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with the protein residues and the substrate analog 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate. Of these interactions, two interactions with the non-conserved residues (A287 and S290) offer an opportunity to develop ChTS specific inhibitors. Compound 6 serves as a lead compound for analog design and its crystal structure provides clues for the design of ChTS specific inhibitors. PMID:23927969

Kumar, Vidya P; Frey, Kathleen M; Wang, Yiqiang; Jain, Hitesh K; Gangjee, Aleem; Anderson, Karen S

2013-10-01

104

Impact of five commercial baits containing chitin synthesis inhibitors on the protist community in Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

Eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), workers were continuously exposed to one of five chitin synthesis inhibiting (CSI) active ingredients and the protist community from the hindgut quantified biweekly for 21 d. The CSIs tested included commercially available formulations of diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron, noviflumuron, and novaluron. Results showed termites exposed to CSIs had a significant decrease (>or=30%) in the estimated total protist population after 3 d, regardless of treatment. Protist species impacted were Dinenympha fimbriata, D. gracilis, Microjoenia fallax, Pyrsonympha vertens, and Trichonympha agilis and could be indicative of weakened digestive homeostasis, but further studies are needed. We also provide evidence that lufenuron is highly toxic and discuss some of the implications this might have on termite management practices. PMID:20146844

Lewis, J L; Forschler, B T

2010-02-01

105

?-secretase inhibitor up-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase  

PubMed Central

Although previous studies have shown that ?-secretase inhibitors significantly suppress tumor growth via anti-angiogenesis, the mechanism involved in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis by ?-secretase inhibitors has not been clearly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by a ?-secretase inhibitor in the H5V mouse microvascular endothelial cell line. H5V cells were cultured with different concentrations of the ?-secretase inhibitor DAPT for 48 h and with 100 ?mol/l DAPT at different incubation times. Protein and mRNA expression of VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3 and eNOS was measured by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. The VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor was used to assess the role of VEGFR-2 in eNOS regulation. We found that the ?-secretase inhibitor DAPT increased protein and mRNA expression of VEGFR-2 and eNOS, but decreased VEGFR-1 expression and had no significant effect on VEGFR-3. Up-regulation of eNOS was blocked by the VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor. In conclusion, the ?-secretase inhibitor enhances VEGFR-2 and eNOS expression, and the up-regulation of eNOS is dependent on an increase in VEGFR-2. Thus, we suggest that administration of the ?-secretase inhibitor be combined with disruption of eNOS or interruption of VEGF signaling, which may improve the anti-angiogenic efficacy in tumor treatments.

ZOU, YU-HUI; CAO, YI-QUN; WANG, LAI-XING; ZHANG, YU-HUI; YUE, ZHI-JIAN; LIU, JIAN-MIN

2011-01-01

106

?-secretase inhibitor up-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed

Although previous studies have shown that ?-secretase inhibitors significantly suppress tumor growth via anti-angiogenesis, the mechanism involved in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis by ?-secretase inhibitors has not been clearly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by a ?-secretase inhibitor in the H5V mouse microvascular endothelial cell line. H5V cells were cultured with different concentrations of the ?-secretase inhibitor DAPT for 48 h and with 100 ?mol/l DAPT at different incubation times. Protein and mRNA expression of VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3 and eNOS was measured by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. The VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor was used to assess the role of VEGFR-2 in eNOS regulation. We found that the ?-secretase inhibitor DAPT increased protein and mRNA expression of VEGFR-2 and eNOS, but decreased VEGFR-1 expression and had no significant effect on VEGFR-3. Up-regulation of eNOS was blocked by the VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor. In conclusion, the ?-secretase inhibitor enhances VEGFR-2 and eNOS expression, and the up-regulation of eNOS is dependent on an increase in VEGFR-2. Thus, we suggest that administration of the ?-secretase inhibitor be combined with disruption of eNOS or interruption of VEGF signaling, which may improve the anti-angiogenic efficacy in tumor treatments. PMID:22977566

Zou, Yu-Hui; Cao, Yi-Qun; Wang, Lai-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Hui; Yue, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Jian-Min

2011-07-01

107

Anmindenols A and B, Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors from a Marine-Derived Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed

Anmindenols A (1) and B (2), inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptomyces sp. Their chemical structures were elucidated by interpreting various spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Anmindenols A and B are sesquiterpenoids possessing an indene moiety with five- and six-membered rings derived from isoprenyl units. The absolute configuration of C-4 in anmindenol B was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of a dimolybdenum complex. Anmindenols A (1) and B (2) inhibited nitric oxide production in stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 23 and 19 ?M, respectively. PMID:24878306

Lee, Jihye; Kim, Hiyoung; Lee, Tae Gu; Yang, Inho; Won, Dong Hwan; Choi, Hyukjae; Nam, Sang-Jip; Kang, Heonjoong

2014-06-27

108

Identification of Potent and Selective Glucosylceramide Synthase Inhibitors from a Library of N-Alkylated Iminosugars  

PubMed Central

Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) is an important target for clinical drug development for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders and a promising target for combating type 2 diabetes. Iminosugars are useful leads for the development of GCS inhibitors; however, the effective iminosugar type GCS inhibitors reported have some unwanted cross-reactivity toward other glyco-processing enzymes. In particular, iminosugar type GCS inhibitors often also inhibit to some extent human acid glucosylceramidase (GBA1) and the nonlysosomal glucosylceramidase (GBA2), the two enzymes known to process glucosylceramide. Of these, GBA1 itself is a potential drug target for the treatment of the lysosomal storage disorder, Gaucher disease, and selective GBA1 inhibitors are sought after as potential chemical chaperones. The physiological importance of GBA2 in glucosylceramide processing in relation to disease states is less clear, and here, selective inhibitors can be of use as chemical knockout entities. In this communication, we report our identification of a highly potent and selective N-alkylated l-ido-configured iminosugar. In particular, the selectivity of 27 for GCS over GBA1 is striking.

2010-01-01

109

Inhibitor-bound complexes of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis  

PubMed Central

Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by eukaryotic Babesia parasites which are morphologically similar to Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria in humans. Like Plasmodium, different species of Babesia are tuned to infect different mammalian hosts, including rats, dogs, horses and cattle. Most species of Plasmodium and Babesia possess an essential bifunctional enzyme for nucleotide synthesis and folate metabolism: dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase. Although thymidylate synthase is highly conserved across organisms, the bifunctional form of this enzyme is relatively uncommon in nature. The structural characterization of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase in Babesia bovis, the causative agent of babesiosis in livestock cattle, is reported here. The apo state is compared with structures that contain dUMP, NADP and two different antifolate inhibitors: pemetrexed and raltitrexed. The complexes reveal modes of binding similar to that seen in drug-resistant malaria strains and point to the utility of applying structural studies with proven cancer chemotherapies towards infectious disease research.

Begley, Darren W.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Raymond, Amy C.; Smith, Eric R.; Hartley, Robert C.; Abendroth, Jan; Sankaran, Banumathi; Lorimer, Donald D.; Myler, Peter J.; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J.

2011-01-01

110

Inhibitor-bound complexes of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis.  

PubMed

Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by eukaryotic Babesia parasites which are morphologically similar to Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria in humans. Like Plasmodium, different species of Babesia are tuned to infect different mammalian hosts, including rats, dogs, horses and cattle. Most species of Plasmodium and Babesia possess an essential bifunctional enzyme for nucleotide synthesis and folate metabolism: dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase. Although thymidylate synthase is highly conserved across organisms, the bifunctional form of this enzyme is relatively uncommon in nature. The structural characterization of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase in Babesia bovis, the causative agent of babesiosis in livestock cattle, is reported here. The apo state is compared with structures that contain dUMP, NADP and two different antifolate inhibitors: pemetrexed and raltitrexed. The complexes reveal modes of binding similar to that seen in drug-resistant malaria strains and point to the utility of applying structural studies with proven cancer chemotherapies towards infectious disease research. PMID:21904052

Begley, Darren W; Edwards, Thomas E; Raymond, Amy C; Smith, Eric R; Hartley, Robert C; Abendroth, Jan; Sankaran, Banumathi; Lorimer, Donald D; Myler, Peter J; Staker, Bart L; Stewart, Lance J

2011-09-01

111

Recent Advances Toward Improving the Bioavailability of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Overproduction of nitric oxide by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been highly correlated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. Given its role in human diseases, nNOS is an important target for therapy that deserves further attention. During the last decade, a large number of organic scaffolds have been investigated to develop selective nNOS inhibitors, resulting in two principal classes of compounds, 2-aminopyridines and thiophene-2-carboximidamides. The former compounds were investigated in detail by our group, exhibiting great potency and excellent selectivity; however, they suffer from poor bioavailability, which hampers their therapeutic potential. Here we present a review of various strategies adopted by our group to improve the bioavailability of 2-aminopyridine derivatives and describe recent advances in thiophene-2-carboximidamide based nNOS-selective inhibitors, which exhibit promising pharmacological profiles.

Huang, He; Silverman, Richard B.

2014-01-01

112

Structure-guided Design of Selective Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) comprise three closely related isoforms that catalyze the oxidation of l-arginine to l-citrulline and the important second messenger nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological selective inhibition of neuronal NOS (nNOS) has the potential to be therapeutically beneficial in various neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present a structure-guided, selective nNOS inhibitor design based on the crystal structure of lead compound 1 in nNOS. The best inhibitor, 7, exhibited low nanomolar inhibitory potency and good isoform selectivities (nNOS over eNOS and iNOS are 472-fold and 239-fold, respectively). Consistent with the good selectivity, 7 binds to nNOS and eNOS with different binding modes. The distinctly different binding modes of 7, driven by the critical residue Asp597 in nNOS, offers compelling insight to explain its isozyme selectivity, which should guide future drug design programs.

Huang, He; Li, Huiying; Martasek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

2013-01-01

113

Recent advances toward improving the bioavailability of neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Overproduction of nitric oxide by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been highly correlated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. Given its role in human diseases, nNOS is an important target for therapy that deserves further attention. During the last decade, a large number of organic scaffolds have been investigated to develop selective nNOS inhibitors, resulting in two principal classes of compounds, 2-aminopyridines and thiophene-2- carboximidamides. The former compounds were investigated in detail by our group, exhibiting great potency and excellent selectivity; however, they suffer from poor bioavailability, which hampers their therapeutic potential. Here we present a review of various strategies adopted by our group to improve the bioavailability of 2-aminopyridine derivatives and describe recent advances in thiophene-2-carboximidamide based nNOS-selective inhibitors, which exhibit promising pharmacological profiles. PMID:23578024

Huang, He; Silverman, Richard B

2013-01-01

114

Identification of Key Residues Determining Species Differences in Inhibitor Binding of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1*  

PubMed Central

Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (MPGES1) is induced during an inflammatory reaction from low basal levels by pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequently involved in the production of the important mediator of inflammation, prostaglandin E2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prevent prostaglandin E2 production by inhibiting the upstream enzymes cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. In contrast to these conventional drugs, a new generation of NSAIDs targets the terminal enzyme MPGES1. Some of these compounds potently inhibit human MPGES1 but do not have an effect on the rat orthologue. We investigated this interspecies difference in a rat/human chimeric form of the enzyme as well as in several mutants and identified key residues Thr-131, Leu-135, and Ala-138 in human MPGES1, which play a crucial role as gate keepers for the active site of MPGES1. These residues are situated in transmembrane helix 4, lining the entrance to the cleft between two subunits in the protein trimer, and regulate access of the inhibitor in the rat enzyme. Exchange toward the human residues in rat MPGES1 was accompanied with a gain of inhibitor activity, whereas exchange in human MPGES1 toward the residues found in rat abrogated inhibitor activity. Our data give evidence for the location of the active site at the interface between subunits in the homotrimeric enzyme and suggest a model of how the natural substrate PGH2, or competitive inhibitors of MPGES1, enter the active site via the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane.

Pawelzik, Sven-Christian; Uda, Narasimha Rao; Spahiu, Linda; Jegerschold, Caroline; Stenberg, Patric; Hebert, Hans; Morgenstern, Ralf; Jakobsson, Per-Johan

2010-01-01

115

Areawide field study on effect of three chitin synthesis inhibitor baits on populations of Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

Periodic sampling of 43 independent monitors, initially active with Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, or the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), was conducted to evaluate the effects of cellulose baits containing one of three chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs)-diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, or chlorfluazuron-on termite populations. Diflubenzuron at 0.1% active ingredient (AI, wt:wt) had no noticeable effect on termite populations. Chlorfluazuron (0.25% [AI]) significantly reduced termite populations in approximately 3 yr. Chlorfluazuron used after > 2-yr diflubenzuron treatment significantly reduced termite populations within months. This suggests diflubenzuron exposure increased the termite's sensitivity to chlorfluazuron accelerating population collapse. Hexaflumuron (0.5% [AI]) also reduced termite populations in approximately 2 yr. The process of removing most detectable termite populations from the approximately 160,000-m2 campus of the Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA, with CSIs baits required approximately 3 yr. Adjustments in the specific bait formulations and application procedures might reduce time to suppression. Establishment of new independent termite populations provides a mechanism to minimize the effects of baits. Remedial control measures around and under structures should be considered when implementing an area wide management strategy. PMID:21735923

Osbrink, Weste L A; Cornelius, Mary L; Lax, Alan R

2011-06-01

116

Identification of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase that do not interact with the endothelial cell L-arginine transporter.  

PubMed Central

The effects of inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase and other cationic amino acids on unidirectional L-arginine transport were studied in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in microwell plates or perfused in microcarrier columns. L-Homoarginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine inhibited transport of L-arginine. The NO synthase inhibitors NG-monomethyl-L-arginine and NG-iminoethyl-L-ornithine also reduced L-arginine uptake, whereas NG-nitro-L-arginine and its methyl-ester had no inhibitory effect. The ability to modulate selectively endothelial cell L-arginine transport or NO synthase activity will allow further characterization of the arginine transporter and its role in regulating NO biosynthesis.

Bogle, R. G.; Moncada, S.; Pearson, J. D.; Mann, G. E.

1992-01-01

117

Contribution of Endogenous Inhibitor of Nitric Oxide Synthase to Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays important roles in the development of diabetes. Elevated nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been shown to be closely related to diabetes. But the relationship between them in diabetes has not been determined. This study was to explore the role of ADMA in hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and its potential mechanisms in diabetic rats

Na Chen; Yi-Ping Leng; Wen-Juan Xu; Jian-Dong Luo; Min-Sheng Chen; Yan Xiong

2011-01-01

118

Effect of diabetic duration on serum concentrations of endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase in patients and rats with diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the effect of diabetic duration on serum concentrations of endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase NG, NG-asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients and rats with diabetes, and to determine whether elevated endogenous ADMA is implicated in endothelial dysfunction or macroangiopathy in diabetes. Experimental diabetic model was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to

Yan Xiong; Minxiang Lei; Sihai Fu; Yunfeng Fu

2005-01-01

119

Plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, are elevated in sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years an important role has been ascribed to a reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). Endogenously produced inhibitors of NO synthase, in particular asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), are currently considered of importance in various vascular disease states characterized by reduced NO availability. We determined ADMA levels in plasma of 12 adult sickle

J. B. Schnog; T. Teerlink; F. P. L. van der Dijs; A. J. Duits; F. A. J. Muskiet

2005-01-01

120

Imidazopyridine-Based Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors That Show Anti-HCV Activity and in Vivo Target Modulation  

PubMed Central

Potent imidazopyridine-based inhibitors of fatty acid synthase (FASN) are described. The compounds are shown to have antiviral (HCV replicon) activities that track with their biochemical activities. The most potent analogue (compound 19) also inhibits rat FASN and inhibits de novo palmitate synthesis in vitro (cell-based) as well as in vivo.

2012-01-01

121

In silico design, synthesis, and screening of novel deoxyhypusine synthase inhibitors targeting HIV-1 replication.  

PubMed

The human enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) is an important host cell factor that participates in the post-translational hypusine modification of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A). Hypusine-modified eIF-5A plays a role in a number of diseases, including HIV infection/AIDS. Thus, DHS represents a novel and attractive drug target. So far, four crystal structures are available, and various substances have been tested for inhibition of human DHS. Among these inhibitors, N-1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7) has been co-crystallized in the active site of DHS. However, despite its potency, GC7 is not selective enough to be used in drug applications. Therefore, new compounds that target DHS are needed. Herein we report the in silico design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of new DHS inhibitors. One of these inhibitors showed dose-dependent inhibition of DHS in vitro, as well as suppression of HIV replication in cell cultures. Furthermore, the compound exhibited no cytotoxic effects at active concentrations. Thus, this designed compound demonstrated proof of principle and represents a promising starting point for the development of new drug candidates to specifically interfere with DHS activity. PMID:24616161

Schroeder, Marcus; Kolodzik, Adrian; Pfaff, Katharina; Priyadarshini, Poornima; Krepstakies, Marcel; Hauber, Joachim; Rarey, Matthias; Meier, Chris

2014-05-01

122

Multiple resistance of acetolactate synthase and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors in Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes.  

PubMed

Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in Brazil has been documented for six species. The probability to select biotypes of Euphorbia heterophylla (EPPHL) with multiple resistance increases in the same order of magnitude as the use of other herbicides belonging to only one mechanism of action. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the distribution of resistant populations (R) in the states of the Parana and Santa Catarina; to determine the existence of populations of EPHHL with multiple resistance to ALS and PROTOX inhibitors, and to confirm the occurrence of cross resistance to compounds of these mechanisms of action. Seeds of EPHHL of areas with suspected resistance had been sampled in 97 places during 2003. In the greenhouse experiment samples of each population were sprayed with imazethapyr or fomesafen, at only one rate. To identify the resistant ones they were sprayed with different levels of the herbicides imazethapyr and fomesafen. Later they were sprayed with diverse herbicides of the same mechanisms of action to confirm the multiple/cross resistance. There is widespread distribution in the region of populations with resistance to ALS inhibitors. Some biotypes demonstrated resistance to herbicides from the two mechanisms of action. The resistance factor (FR), or the relation of resistance between R and susceptible biotypes, confirms the existence of two biotypes of EPHHL with cross resistance to several herbicides inhibitors of ALS and PROTOX. PMID:15656167

Trezzi, Michelangelo M; Felippi, C L; Mattei, D; Silva, H L; Nunes, A L; Debastiani, C; Vidal, R A; Marques, A

2005-01-01

123

Enzymatic characterization and inhibitor discovery of a new cystathionine {gamma}-synthase from Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Cystathionine gamma-synthase (CGS) catalyses the first step of the transsulfuration pathway that converts l-cysteine to l-homocysteine in bacteria, whereas this pathway is absent in human. In this report, we identified a new metB gene from Helicobacter pylori strain SS1, and the recombinant H. pylori Cystathionine gamma-synthase (HpCGS) was successfully cloned, expressed and purified in Escherichia coli system. Enzymatic study of HpCGS indicated that the K(m) and k(cat)/K(m) values against the substrate O-succinyl-l-homoserine (l-OSHS) were 3.02 mM and 98.7 M(-)(1)s(-)(1), respectively. Moreover, four natural products (alpha-lapachone, 9-hydroxy-alpha-lapachone, Paulownin and Yangambin, Fig. 1) were discovered to demonstrate inhibitory activities against HpCGS with IC(50) values of 11 +/- 3, 9 +/- 1, 19 +/- 2 and 27 +/- 6 microM, respectively. All these four inhibitors prevent the binding of l-OSHS to HpCGS in a non-competitive fashion. In vitro antibacterial assays further indicated that these four discovered compounds could highly inhibit the growth of H. pylori and exhibited strong inhibitory specificity against H. pylori related to E. coli. PMID:17981822

Kong, Yunhua; Wu, Dalei; Bai, Haiyun; Han, Cong; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

2008-01-01

124

Application of a High-throughput Fluorescent Acetyltransferase Assay to Identify Inhibitors of Homocitrate Synthase  

PubMed Central

Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first step of L-lysine biosynthesis in fungi by condensing acetyl-Coenzyme A and 2-oxoglutarate to form 3R-homocitrate and Coenzyme A. Due to its conservation in pathogenic fungi, HCS has been proposed as a candidate for antifungal drug design. Here we report the development and validation of a robust, fluorescent assay for HCS that is amenable to high-throughput screening for inhibitors in vitro. Using this assay, Schizosaccharomyces pombe HCS was screened against a diverse library of ~41,000 small molecules. Following confirmation, counter screens, and dose-response analysis, we prioritized over 100 compounds for further in vitro and in vivo analysis. This assay can be readily adapted to screen for small molecule modulators of other acyl-CoA-dependent acyltransferases or enzymes that generate a product with a free sulfhydryl group, including histone acetyltransferases, aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferases, thioesterases and enzymes involved in lipid metabolism.

Bulfer, Stacie L.; McQuade, Thomas J.; Larsen, Martha J.; Trievel, Raymond C.

2011-01-01

125

Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine potentiates iminodipropionitrile-induced neurotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine on iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicity in rats. The dyskinetic syndrome was produced in male Wistar rats by i.p. injections of IDPN (100 mg/kg) for 6 days. Aminoguanidine was administered orally in the doses of 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg, 60 min before IDPN in three different groups. Control rats received vehicle only, whereas another group was treated with 300 mg/kg of aminoguanidine alone (without IDPN). Our results showed that aminoguanidine significantly and dose dependently exacerbated the incidence and intensity of IDPN-induced dyskinetic head movements. Aminoguanidine potentiated IDPN-induced loss of air righting reflex. The histopathological examination of inner ear showed aggravation of IDPN-induced degeneration of sensory hair cells in the crista ampullaris by aminoguanidine. These results suggest the role of nitric oxide in IDPN-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicity. PMID:10586972

Tariq, M; Khan, H A; Al Deeb, S; Al Moutaery, K

1999-11-26

126

Arabidopsis Acetohydroxyacid Synthase Expressed in Escherichia coli Is Insensitive to the Feedback Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), the first enzyme unique to the biosynthesis of isoleucine, leucine, and valine, is the target enzyme for several classes of herbicides. The AHAS gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, including the chloroplast transit peptide, was cloned into the bacterial expression plasmid pKK233-2. The resulting plasmid was used to transform an AHAS-deficient Escherichia coli strain MF2000. The growth of the MF2000 strain of E. coli was complemented by the functional expression of the Arabidopsis AHAS. The AHAS protein was processed to a molecular mass of 65 kilodaltons that was similar to the mature protein isolated from Arabidopsis seedlings. The AHAS activity extracted from the transformed E. coli cells was inhibited by imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicides. AHAS activity extracted from Arabidopsis is inhibited by valine and leucine; however, this activity was insensitive to these feedback inhibitors when extracted from the transformed E. coli. ImagesFigure 3

Singh, Bijay; Szamosi, Iwona; Hand, J. Mark; Misra, Rajeev

1992-01-01

127

Thiolactomycin-based ?-Ketoacyl-AcpM Synthase A (KasA) Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Thiolactomycin (TLM) is a natural product inhibitor of KasA, the ?-ketoacyl synthase A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To improve the affinity of TLM for KasA, a series of TLM analogs have been synthesized based on interligand NOEs between TLM and a pantetheine analog when both are bound simultaneously to the enzyme. Kinetic binding data reveal that position 3 of the thiolactone ring is a suitable position for elaboration of the TLM scaffold, and the structure-activity relationship studies provide information on the molecular features that govern time-dependent inhibition in this enzyme system. These experiments also exemplify the utility of transient one-dimensional NOE spectroscopy for obtaining interligand NOEs compared with traditional steady state two-dimensional NOESY spectroscopy.

Kapilashrami, Kanishk; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Machutta, Carl A.; Kim, Pilho; Lai, Cheng-Tsung; Simmerling, Carlos; Picart, Francis; Tonge, Peter J.

2013-01-01

128

Visualizing inducible nitric-oxide synthase in living cells with a heme-binding fluorescent inhibitor.  

PubMed

The study of nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) physiology is constrained by the lack of suitable probes to detect NOS in living cells or animals. Here, we characterized a fluorescent inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor called PIF (pyrimidine imidazole FITC) and examined its utility for microscopic imaging of iNOS in living cells. PIF binding to iNOS displayed high affinity, isoform selectivity, and heme specificity, and was essentially irreversible. PIF was used to successfully image iNOS expressed in RAW264.7 cells, HEK293T cells, human A549 epithelial cells, and freshly obtained human lung epithelium. PIF was used to estimate a half-life for iNOS of 1.8 h in HEK293T cells. Our work reveals that fluorescent probes like PIF will be valuable for studying iNOS cell biology and in understanding the pathophysiology of diseases that involve dysfunctional iNOS expression. PMID:16006534

Panda, Koustubh; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta; Santos, Cecile; Koeck, Thomas; Erzurum, Serpil C; Parkinson, John F; Stuehr, Dennis J

2005-07-19

129

Phenanthrenoids from Juncus acutus L., new natural lipopolysaccharide-inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The novel natural product juncutol (1), 1,4,7-trimethyl-8,9-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[def]phenanthrene-2,6-diol, along with the three related metabolites juncusol (2), dehydrojuncusol (3), and 6-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2-ol (4), were isolated from the rhizomes of Juncus acutus L. (Juncaceae) growing in Egypt. The structural identity of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR spectroscopy. The inhibitory effect of these natural products on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells was determined for the first time. The unprecedented symmetrical compound juncutol (1) was found to be the most potent inhibitor against the induction of the proinflammatory iNOS protein. PMID:17666857

Behery, Fathi Abdelmohsen Abdelhalim; Naeem, Zain Elabdin Metwally; Maatooq, Galal Taha; Amer, Mohamed Mahmoud Abdelfattah; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Sheu, Jyh-Horng; Ahmed, Atallah Fouad

2007-08-01

130

Synthesis of 2-arylindole derivatives and evaluation as nitric oxide synthase and NF?B inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Development of small molecule drug-like inhibitors blocking both nitric oxide synthase and NF?B could offer a synergistic therapeutic approach in the prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. During the course of evaluating the biologic potential of a commercial compound library, 2-phenylindole (1) displayed inhibitory activity against nitrite production and NF ?B with IC50 values of 38.1±1.8 and 25.4±2.1 ?M, respectively. Based on this lead, synthesis and systematic optimization have been undertaken in an effort to find novel and more potent nitric oxide synthase and NF ?B inhibitors with antiinflammatory and cancer preventive potential. First, chemical derivatizations of 1 and 2-phenylindole-3-carboxaldehyde (4) were performed to generate a panel of N-alkylated indoles and 3-oxime derivatives 2–7. Second, a series of diversified 2-arylindole derivatives (10) were synthesized from an array of substituted 2-iodoanilines (8) and terminal alkynes (9) by applying one-pot palladium catalyzed Sonogashira-type alkynylation and base-assisted cycloaddition. Subsequent biological evaluations revealed 3-carboxaldehyde oxime and cyano substituted 2-phenylindoles 5 and 7 exhibited the strongest nitrite inhibitory activities (IC50 = 4.4±0.5 and 4.8±0.4 ?M, respectively); as well as NF?B inhibition (IC50 = 6.9±0.8 and 8.5±2.0 ?M, respectively). In addition, the 6?-MeO-naphthalen-2?-yl indole derivative 10at displayed excellent inhibitory activity against NF?B with an IC50 value of 0.6±0.2 ?M.

Yu, Xufen; Park, Eun-Jung; Kondratyuk, Tamara P.; Pezzuto, John M.

2012-01-01

131

Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, Hexaflumuron, on the Development and Hemolymph Physiology of the Cutworm, Spodoptera litura  

PubMed Central

The effects of sublethal concentrations 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on larval growth and development, the count and proportion of hemocytes, and carbohydrate content (trehalose and glyceride) in hemolymph were investigated in the cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricious) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). When 3rdinstar larvae were subjected to the sublethal concentrations, there were dose-dependent effects on larval weight and length of each instar larvae, percent pupation and the duration of development. Most of the larvae died during the molting process at all concentrations. Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL -1concentrations could develop to the 6thinstar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL -1concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae. In 5thinstar S. litura, the total number of hemocytes was significantly increased at 24 hours post—treatment, whereas the proliferation of hemocytes was inhibited, plasmatocyte pseudopodia contracted, and granulocyte expanded at 96 hours post—treatment. The increases of plasmatocyte count and the decreases of granulocyte count were dose—dependent. The longer treatment time of the sublethal concentrations increased the content of total carbohydrate and trehalose in hematoplasma, and was dose—dependent in hemocytes. The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post—treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post—treatment as compared with the control. The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

Zhu, Qiqi; He, Yuan; Yao, Jing; Liu, Yinzhao; Tao, Liming; Huang, Qingchun

2012-01-01

132

2-Alkylaminoethyl-1,1-Bisphosphonic Acids Are Potent Inhibitors of the Enzymatic Activity of Trypanosoma cruzi Squalene Synthase  

PubMed Central

As part of our efforts aimed at searching for new antiparasitic agents, the effect of representative 2-alkylaminoethyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acids on Trypanosoma cruzi squalene synthase (TcSQS) was investigated. These compounds had proven to be potent inhibitors of T. cruzi. This cellular activity had been associated with an inhibition of the enzymatic activity of T. cruzi farnesyl diphosphate synthase. 2-Alkylaminoethyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acids appear to have a dual action, since they also inhibit TcSQS at the nanomolar range.

Rodrigues-Poveda, Carlos A.; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Szajnman, Sergio H.

2012-01-01

133

Novel pyridyl- or isoquinolinyl-substituted indolines and indoles as potent and selective aldosterone synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Pathologically, high levels of aldosterone are associated with severe cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, hypertension, and myocardial fibrosis. The inhibition of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) to reduce aldosterone levels has been proposed as a promising treatment for diseases related to CYP11B2 because it is the crucial enzyme in the biosynthesis of aldosterone. A series of novel pyridyl- or isoquinolinyl-substituted indolines and indoles was designed via a ligand-based approach. The synthesized compounds were tested and found to be strong CYP11B2 inhibitors. The most potent ones showed IC50 values of less than 3 nM, being similarly potent as fadrozole and LCI699. Among them, compounds 14 and 23 showed good selectivity over the highly homologous CYP11B1, with selectivity factors (SF = IC50 CYP11B1/IC50 CYP11B2) around 170; thus, they are superior to fadrozole and LCI699 (SFs < 15). These potent CYP11B2 inhibitors exhibited no inhibition (IC50 > 50 ?M) of a panel of hepatic CYP enzymes including CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 and the crucial steroidogenic enzymes, CYP17 and CYP19. Because of these advantageous profiles, compounds 14 and 23 are considered to be candidates for further in vivo evaluation. PMID:24899257

Yin, Lina; Hu, Qingzhong; Emmerich, Juliette; Lo, Michael Man-Chu; Metzger, Edward; Ali, Amjad; Hartmann, Rolf W

2014-06-26

134

Endogenous Nitric-Oxide Synthase Inhibitor ADMA after Acute Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Previous results on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) show variations in NO availability and controversial effects of exogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inhibitors. Furthermore, elevated levels of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were reported in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, we examined whether ADMA and the enzymes involved in NO- and ADMA-metabolism are expressed in brain tissue after TBI and if time-dependent changes occur. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact injury (CCII) and neurological performance was monitored. Expression of NOS, ADMA, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAH) and protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) was determined by immunostaining in different brain regions and at various time-points after CCII. ADMA and PRMT1 expression decreased in all animals after TBI compared to the control group, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 expression increased in comparison to controls. Furthermore, perilesionally ADMA is positively correlated with neuroscore performance, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 are negatively correlated. ADMA and its metabolizing enzymes show significant temporal changes after TBI and may be new targets in TBI treatment.

Jung, Carla S.; Wispel, Christian; Zweckberger, Klaus; Beynon, Christopher; Hertle, Daniel; Sakowitz, Oliver W.; Unterberg, Andreas W.

2014-01-01

135

Endogenous nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor ADMA after acute brain injury.  

PubMed

Previous results on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) show variations in NO availability and controversial effects of exogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inhibitors. Furthermore, elevated levels of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were reported in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, we examined whether ADMA and the enzymes involved in NO- and ADMA-metabolism are expressed in brain tissue after TBI and if time-dependent changes occur. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact injury (CCII) and neurological performance was monitored. Expression of NOS, ADMA, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAH) and protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) was determined by immunostaining in different brain regions and at various time-points after CCII. ADMA and PRMT1 expression decreased in all animals after TBI compared to the control group, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 expression increased in comparison to controls. Furthermore, perilesionally ADMA is positively correlated with neuroscore performance, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 are negatively correlated. ADMA and its metabolizing enzymes show significant temporal changes after TBI and may be new targets in TBI treatment. PMID:24663083

Jung, Carla S; Wispel, Christian; Zweckberger, Klaus; Beynon, Christopher; Hertle, Daniel; Sakowitz, Oliver W; Unterberg, Andreas W

2014-01-01

136

Discovery of Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase by Fragment Hopping  

PubMed Central

Selective inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been shown to prevent brain injury and is important for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. This study shows that not only greater inhibitory potency and isozyme selectivity, but more drug-like properties can be achieved by fragment hopping. Based on the structure of lead molecule 6, fragment hopping effectively extracted the minimal pharmacophoric elements in the active site of nNOS for ligand hydrophobic and steric interactions and generated appropriate lipophilic fragments for lead optimization. More potent and selective inhibitors with better drug-like properties were obtained within the design of 20 derivatives (compounds 7-26). Our structure-based inhibitor design for nNOS and SAR analysis reveal the robustness and efficiency of fragment hopping in lead discovery and structural optimization, which implicates a broad application of this approach to many other therapeutic targets for which known drug-like small-molecule modulators are still limited.

Ji, Haitao; Li, Huiying; Martasek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

2009-01-01

137

Cyclooxygenase competitive inhibitors alter tyrosyl radical dynamics in prostaglandin H synthase-2.  

PubMed

Reaction of prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) isoforms 1 or 2 with peroxide forms a radical at Tyr385 that is required for cyclooxygenase catalysis and another radical at Tyr504, whose function is unknown. Both tyrosyl radicals are transient and rapidly dissipated by reductants, suggesting that cyclooxygenase catalysis might be vulnerable to suppression by intracellular antioxidants. Our initial hypothesis was that the two radicals are in equilibrium and that their proportions and stability are altered upon binding of fatty acid substrate. As a test, we examined the effects of three competitive inhibitors (nimesulide, flurbiprofen, and diclofenac) on the proportions and stability of the two radicals in PGHS-2 pretreated with peroxide. Adding nimesulide after ethyl peroxide led to some narrowing of the tyrosyl radical signal detected by EPR spectroscopy, consistent with a small increase in the proportion of the Tyr504 radical. Neither flurbiprofen nor diclofenac changed the EPR line width when added after peroxide. In contrast, the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on the stability of the preformed tyrosyl radicals were dramatic. The half-life of total tyrosyl radical was 4.1 min in the control, >10 h with added nimesulide, 48 min with flurbiprofen, and 0.8 min with diclofenac. Stabilization of the tyrosyl radicals was evident even at substoichiometric levels of nimesulide. Thus, the inhibitors had potent, structure-dependent, effects on the stability of both tyrosyl radicals. This dramatic modulation of tyrosyl radical stability by cyclooxygenase site ligands suggests a mechanism for regulating the reactivity of PGHS tyrosyl radicals with cellular antioxidants. PMID:19894761

Wu, Gang; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Kulmacz, Richard J

2009-12-22

138

Biochemical characterization and evaluation of potent inhibitors of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 acetohydroxyacid synthase.  

PubMed

Microbes and plants synthesize essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine via a common biosynthetic pathway in which the first reaction is catalyzed by acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18). Recently, AHAS was identified as a potential anti bacterial target. To help find an effective inhibitor that could act as an antibacterial compound, we cloned and characterized the catalytic subunit (CSU) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AHAS, and found four potent inhibitors through chemical library screening. The ilvI gene of P. aeruginosa encodes a 65-kDa AHAS protein, consistent with the size of the purified enzyme on SDS-PAGE. Enzyme kinetics showed that the enzyme has a Km of 14.2 mM and a specific activity of 0.12 U/mg. Enzyme activity was optimum at a temperature of 37 °C and a pH of 7.5. The Kd for thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) was 89.92 ± 17.9 ?M, as determined by fluorescence quenching. The cofactor activation constants (Ks) for ThDP and (Kc) for Mg(2+) were 0.6 ± 0.1 and 560.8 ± 7.4 ?M, respectively. Further, we determined that AVS2087, AVS2093, AVS2236, and AVS2387 compounds are potent inhibitors of the catalytic subunit of P. aeruginosa AHAS. These compounds inhibit nearly 100% of AHAS activity, with IC50 values of 1.19 ?M, 5.0 nM, 25 nM, and 13 nM, respectively. Compound AVS2093 showed growth inhibition with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 742.9 ?g/ml against P. aeruginosa strain ATCC 9027. Furthermore, these findings were supported by molecular docking studies with the AVS compounds against P. aeruginosa AHAS in which AVS2093 showed minimum binding energy (-7.8 kJ/mol) by interacting with the receptor through a single hydrogen bond of 2.873 ?. Correlation of AVS2093 activity with P. aeruginosa AHAS cell growth inhibition suggested that AHAS might serve as a target protein for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics. Results of the current study provide an impetus to further evaluate the potency of these inhibitors against pathogenic P. aeruginosa strains in vivo and to design more potent antibacterial agents based on these AVS inhibitors. PMID:23523771

Cho, June-Haeng; Lee, Mi-Young; Baig, Irshad Ahmed; Ha, Na-Reum; Kim, Joungmok; Yoon, Moon-Young

2013-07-01

139

Potentiation of the anti-HIV activity of zalcitabine and lamivudine by a CTP synthase inhibitor, 3-deazauridine.  

PubMed

Low levels of the CTP synthase inhibitor 3-deazauridine (3-DU) strongly potentiated the anti-HIV-1 activity of the 5'-triphosphates of the cytidine-based analogues [-]2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC; lamivudine) and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC). The potentiation was associated with a 3-DU-induced decrease in dCTP pool size; no changes were seen in cellular pool sizes of dATP, dGTP or dTTP. PMID:10772721

Gao, W Y; Johns, D G; Mitsuya, H

2000-01-01

140

YAP1 confers resistance to the fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin through the transporter Flr1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we utilized a genetic approach to identify genes which render yeast cells resistant to cerulenin (Cer), a\\u000a potent and noncompetitive inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS). Overexpression of the yeast transcription factor Yap1p was\\u000a found to confer Cer resistance (CerR). This resistance was shown to be less pronounced in a strain deleted for YCF1, a multidrug resistance

B. Oskouian; J. D. Saba

1999-01-01

141

Zymosan suppresses leukotriene C? synthase activity in differentiating monocytes: antagonism by aspirin and protein kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are potent proinflammatory mediators with particular relevance for asthma. However, control of cysLT biosynthesis in the time period after onset of acute inflammation has not been extensively studied. As a model for later phases of inflammation, we investigated regulation of leukotriene (LT) C(4) synthase (LTC(4)S) in differentiating monocytes, exposed for several days to fungal zymosan. Incubations with LTA(4) revealed 20-fold increased LTC(4)S activity during differentiation of monocytic Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells, which was reduced by 80% in the presence of zymosan (25 ?g/ml, 96 h). Zymosan (48 h) similarly attenuated LTC(4)S activity of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Several findings indicate phosphoregulation of LTC(4)S: increased activity during MM6 cell differentiation correlated with reduced phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), which could phosphorylate purified LTC(4)S; the p70S6K inhibitor rapamycin (20 nM) doubled LTC(4)S activity of undifferentiated MM6 cells, and protein kinase A and C inhibitors (H-89, CGP-53353, and staurosporine) reversed the zymosan-induced suppression of LTC(4)S activity. Finally, zymosan (48 h) up-regulated PGE(2) biosynthesis, and aspirin (10 ?M) or prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor antagonists counteracted the zymosan effect. Our results suggest a late PGE(2)-mediated phosphoregulation of LTC(4)S during microbial exposure, which may contribute to resolution of inflammation, with implications for aspirin hypersensitivity. PMID:21228223

Esser, Julia; Gehrmann, Ulf; Salvado, M Dolores; Wetterholm, Anders; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Samuelsson, Bengt; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Scheynius, Annika; Rådmark, Olof

2011-04-01

142

Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3[beta] Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice  

SciTech Connect

Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called 'mood-stabilizing drugs', such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3{beta}. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC{sub 50} values in the range of 4 to 680 nM against human GSK-3{beta}. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mg kg{sup -1} resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mg kg{sup -1}) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg kg{sup -1}). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3{beta} as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients.

Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara (Psychogenics); (Purdue); (UIC); (UTSMC)

2012-05-02

143

Biological activity of a novel rationally designed lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor.  

PubMed

AG-331 (N6[4-(N-morpholinosulfonyl)benzyl]-N6-methyl-2,6-diamino- benz[cd]indole glucuronate) is a novel lipophilic thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor. The properties of this compound were investigated in H35 rat hepatoma cells and in three variant cell lines resistant to antifolates by differing mechanisms. There was no evidence for any intracellular effect of AG-331 on dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR); however, the low degree of cross-resistance found for the H35FF line, which has elevated TS levels, suggested that TS may not be the sole locus of action of AG-331 in hepatoma cells. TS-directed effects of AG-331 were suggested by the pattern of its inhibition of deoxyuridine incorporation into DNA and the lesser effects of purine incorporation. In addition, H35 cells treated with 10 microM AG-331 were shown to accumulate in the S phase of the cell cycle, and this effect could be reversed by coadministration of thymidine. However, when treatments were conducted at a 5-fold higher concentration of AG-331, no S-phase block was apparent, suggesting the loss of a TS-directed effect at high inhibitor concentrations. Thymidine and folinic acid also failed to protect cells against AG-331 cytotoxicity, suggesting an alternate mode of action. Similar results were also obtained in protection experiments with a human hepatoma cell line, HEPG2, although previous results obtained in colon- and breast-cancer cell lines have suggested TS specific effects for AG-331. The possibility that biotransformation of AG-331 to other toxic species may occur in liver-derived cell lines has yet to be investigated. PMID:8004755

O'Connor, B M; Webber, S; Jackson, R C; Galivan, J; Rhee, M S

1994-01-01

144

Discovery of a compound that acts as a bacterial PyrG (CTP synthase) inhibitor.  

PubMed

PyrG (CTP synthase) catalyses the conversion of UTP to CTP, an essential step in the pyrimidine metabolic pathway in a variety of bacteria, including those causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections (RTIs). In this study, a luminescence-based ATPase assay of PyrG was developed and used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of 2-(3-[3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-2(3H)-yl]phenylsulfonylamino) benzoic acid (compound G1). Compound G1 inhibited PyrG derived from Streptococcus pneumoniae with a 50?% inhibitory concentration value of 0.091 µM, and the inhibitory activity of compound G1 was 13 times higher than that of acivicin (1.2 µM), an established PyrG inhibitor. The results of saturation transfer difference analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggested that these compounds compete with ATP and/or UTP for binding to Strep. pneumoniae PyrG. Finally, compound G1 was shown to have antimicrobial activity against several different bacteria causing RTIs, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae, suggesting that it is a prototype chemical compound that could be harnessed as an antimicrobial drug with a novel structure to target bacterial PyrG. PMID:22700553

Yoshida, Tatsuhiko; Nasu, Hatsumi; Namba, Eiko; Ubukata, Osamu; Yamashita, Makoto

2012-09-01

145

Determination of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in umbilical blood.  

PubMed

Endothelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. Little is known about the potential physiological roles of ADMA in a perinatal setting. This study measures concentrations of ADMA in umbilical blood using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and those of NO as nitrite/nitrate (NOx(-)) using the Griess assay. Their relationship to the degree of prematurity and maternal clinical condition is examined. Results show that ADMA concentrations in umbilical blood from control newborns were about twice as high as those of lactating women, healthy children, and healthy adults. Umbilical blood NOx(-) concentrations from control newborns were about half of those of lactating women, healthy children, and healthy adults. Consequently, the levels of ADMA relative to NOx(-) were about 4-fold higher in umbilical blood from control newborns than in blood from lactating women, healthy children, and healthy adults. Furthermore, the umbilical blood ADMA concentrations and the ratios of ADMA to NOx(-) in newborns were higher according to their birth prematurity and lower birth weight. The umbilical ADMA concentrations were independent of the delivery mode and maternal preeclampsia. We infer that the high ADMA levels play physiological roles in maintaining vascular tone and blood redistribution to vital organs during birth, thereby favoring the circulatory transition from fetal to neonatal life. PMID:18191051

Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Ohta, Naoko; Tokuriki, Shuko; Nishijima, Koji; Kotsuji, Fumikazu; Kawakami, Hisako; Ohta, Norihito; Sekine, Kyouichi; Nagasaka, Hironori; Mayumi, Mitsufumi

2008-02-01

146

Sulfonylureas have antifungal activity and are potent inhibitors of Candida albicans acetohydroxyacid synthase.  

PubMed

The sulfonylurea herbicides exert their activity by inhibiting plant acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), the first enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. It has previously been shown that if the gene for AHAS is deleted in Candida albicans , attenuation of virulence is achieved, suggesting AHAS as an antifungal drug target. Herein, we have cloned, expressed, and purified C. albicans AHAS and shown that several sulfonylureas are inhibitors of this enzyme and possess antifungal activity. The most potent of these compounds is ethyl 2-(N-((4-iodo-6-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoyl)sulfamoyl)benzoate (10c), which has a K(i) value of 3.8 nM for C. albicans AHAS and an MIC?? of 0.7 ?g/mL for this fungus in cell-based assays. For the sulfonylureas tested there was a strong correlation between inhibitory activity toward C. albicans AHAS and fungicidal activity, supporting the hypothesis that AHAS is the target for their inhibitory activity within the cell. PMID:23237384

Lee, Yu-Ting; Cui, Chang-Jun; Chow, Eve W L; Pue, Nason; Lonhienne, Thierry; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fraser, James A; Guddat, Luke W

2013-01-10

147

[Biological and pathophysiological roles of endogenous methylarginines as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase].  

PubMed

Protein arginine N-methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyse the methylation of guanidinonitrogen(s) of arginine to produce NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), asymmetric NG,NG-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) and symmetric NG,NG-dimethyl-L-arginine (SDMA), which are subsequently released into the cytoplasm following proteolysis. Free intracellular L-NMMA and ADMA, but not SDMA, are inhibitors of all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthases (nNOS, eNOS and iNOS). L-NMMA and ADMA, but not SDMA, are actively metabolized by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) to L-citrulline and methylamine (and dimethylamine). Free methylarginines are detectable in cell cytosol, plasma and tissues. Elevated ADMA has been detected in the plasma of patients or experimental animals with hypercholesterolemia, renal failure, atherosclerosis, hypertension, thrombotic microangiopathy, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and in the regenerated endothelial cells after angioplasty. Moreover, in the non-cardiovascular field, ADMA was increased in the urethral tissue following ischemia and in the plasma of patients with schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Altered biosynthesis of NO has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases, and it is possible to consider that the accumulation of endogenous L-NMMA and ADMA underlies the impaired NO generation and increased O2- production. We described herein the biosynthesis, transmembrane transport, metabolic pathway and possible pathophysiological roles of endogenous methylarginines. PMID:11862754

Masuda, Hitoshi; Azuma, Hiroshi

2002-01-01

148

The Interaction of Hydroxymandelate Synthase with the 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Inhibitor: NTBC.  

PubMed

Hydroxymandelate synthase (HMS) catalyzes the committed step in the formation of para-hydroxyphenylglycine, a recurrent substructure of polycyclic non-ribosomal peptide antibiotics such as vancomycin. HMS uses the same substrates as 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) and O(2), and also conducts a dioxygenation reaction. The difference between the two lies in the insertion of the second oxygen atom, HMS directing this atom onto the benzylic carbon of the substrate while HPPD hydroxylates the aromatic C1 carbon. We have shown that HMS will bind NTBC, a herbicide/therapeutic whose mode of action is based on the inhibition of HPPD. This occurs despite the difference in residues at the active site of HMS from those known to contact the inhibitor in HPPD. Moreover, the minimal kinetic mechanism for association of NTBC to HMS differs only slightly from that observed with HPPD. The primary difference is that three charge-transfer species are observed to accumulate during association. The first reversible complex forms with a weak dissociation constant of 520 microM, the subsequent two charge-transfer complexes form with rate constants of 2.7 s(-1) and 0.67 s(-1). As was the case for HPPD, the final complex has the most intense charge-transfer, is not observed to dissociate, and is unreactive towards dioxygen. PMID:18496607

Conrad, John A; Moran, Graham R

2008-03-01

149

Aggravation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) by administration of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Macrophages constitute a large proportion of the inflammatory cells that infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) of animals with EAE. Through the production of inflammatory mediators these infiltrating macrophages can contribute to the regulation of the immune reaction within the CNS, that eventually results in neurological deficits associated with EAE. NO, a free radical produced by macrophages and other cell types, has been put forward as such an immune mediator. In the present study we show that macrophages isolated from the CNS of Lewis rats with clinical signs of EAE produce elevated amounts of NO. We treated rats, in which EAE was induced, with Nw-nitro-L-arginine-methylester or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, inhibitors of NO synthase, either systemically via intraperitoneal injection, or intracerebrally via a cannula placed in the lateral ventricle. Both treatments resulted in a marked aggravation of clinical signs of EAE. These data point to an important role of NO, produced by infiltrating macrophages, as an immune-suppressor in the disease process during EAE.

RUULS, S. R.; VAN DER LINDEN, S.; SONTROP, K.; HUITINGA, I.; DIJKSTRA, C. D.

1996-01-01

150

Blockade of tolerance to morphine but not to kappa opioids by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.  

PubMed Central

The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (NO2Arg) blocks morphine tolerance in mice. After implantation of morphine pellets the analgesic response decreases from 100% on the first day to 0% on the third. Coadministration of NO2Arg along with the pellets markedly retards the development of tolerance; 60% of mice are analgesic after 3 days, and 50% of mice are analgesic after 5 days. In a daily injection paradigm the analgesic response to morphine is reduced from 60% to 0% by 5 days. Concomitant administration of morphine along with NO2Arg at doses of 2 mg/kg per day prevents tolerance for 4 weeks. A single NO2Arg dose retards morphine tolerance for several days, and dosing every 4 days is almost as effective as daily NO2Arg. NO2Arg slowly reverses preexisting tolerance over 5 days despite the continued administration of morphine along with NO2Arg. NO2Arg also reduces dependence and reverses previously established dependence. NO2Arg does not prevent tolerance to analgesia mediated by the kappa 1 agonist trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolindinyl)cyclohexyl]- benzene-acetamide (U50,488H) or the kappa 3 agent naloxone benzoylhydrazone, indicating a selective action of NO in the mechanisms of mu tolerance and dependence.

Kolesnikov, Y A; Pick, C G; Ciszewska, G; Pasternak, G W

1993-01-01

151

Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection to screen nitric oxide synthases inhibitors.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors are potential drug candidates due to the critical role of an excessive production of nitric oxide in a range of diseases. At present, the radiometric detection of l-[(3) H]-citrulline produced from l -[(3) H]-arginine during the enzymatic reaction is one of the most accepted methods to assess the in vitro activity of NOS inhibitors. Here we report a fast, easy, and cheap reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection, based on the precolumn derivatization of l-citrulline with o-phthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine, for the in vitro screening of NOS inhibitors. To evaluate enzyme inhibition by the developed method, N-[3-(aminomethyl)benzyl]acetamidine, a potent and selective inhibitor of inducible NOS, was used as a test compound. The half maximal inhibitory concentration obtained was comparable to that derived by the well-established radiometric assay. PMID:24687974

Maccallini, Cristina; Di Matteo, Mauro; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Di Silvestre, Sara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Giampietro, Letizia; Pandolfi, Assunta; Amoroso, Rosa

2014-06-01

152

Indirubin core structure of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors as novel chemotype for intervention with 5-lipoxygenase.  

PubMed

The enzymes 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 represent promising drug targets in inflammation. We made use of the bisindole core of indirubin, present in GSK-3 inhibitors, to innovatively target 5-LO at the ATP-binding site for the design of dual 5-LO/GSK-3 inhibitors. Evaluation of substituted indirubin derivatives led to the identification of (3Z)-6-bromo-3-[(3E)-3-hydroxyiminoindolin-2-ylidene]indolin-2-one (15) as a potent, direct, and reversible 5-LO inhibitor (IC50 = 1.5 ?M), with comparable cellular effectiveness on 5-LO and GSK-3. Together, we present indirubins as novel chemotypes for the development of 5-LO inhibitors, the interference with the ATP-binding site as a novel strategy for 5-LO targeting, and dual 5-LO/GSK-3 inhibition as an unconventional and promising concept for anti-inflammatory intervention. PMID:24697244

Pergola, Carlo; Gaboriaud-Kolar, Nicolas; Jestädt, Nadine; König, Stefanie; Kritsanida, Marina; Schaible, Anja M; Li, Haokun; Garscha, Ulrike; Weinigel, Christina; Barz, Dagmar; Albring, Kai F; Huber, Otmar; Skaltsounis, Alexios L; Werz, Oliver

2014-05-01

153

A chitin-like component in Aedes aegypti eggshells, eggs and ovaries.  

PubMed

An insoluble white substance was prepared from extracts of eggshells of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito and dengue vector. Its infrared and proton NMR spectra were similar to that of standard commercial chitin. This putative chitin-like material, also obtained from ovaries, newly laid and dark eggs, was hydrolyzed in acid and a major product was identified by HPLC to be glucosamine. The eggshell acid hydrolysate was also analyzed by ESI-MS and an ion identical to a glucosamine monoprotonated species was detected. The presence of chitin was also analyzed during different developmental stages of the ovary using a fluorescent microscopy technique and probes specific for chitin. The results showed that a chitin-like material accumulates in oocytes during oogenesis. Streptomyces griseus chitinase pre-treatment of oocytes greatly reduced the chitin-derived fluorescence. Chitinase activity was detected in newborn larvae and eggs prior to hatching. Feeding experiments indicated that the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron inhibited chitin synthesis, either when mosquitoes were allowed to feed directly on lufenuron-treated chickens or when an artificial feeding system was used. Lufenuron inhibited egg hatch, larval development and reduced mosquito viability. These data demonstrate for the first time that (1) a chitin-like material is present in A. aegypti eggs, ovaries and eggshells; (2) a chitin synthesis inhibitor can be used to inhibit mosquito oogenesis; and (3) chitin synthesis inhibitors have potential for controlling mosquito populations. PMID:17967344

Moreira, Mônica F; Dos Santos, Amanda S; Marotta, Humberto R; Mansur, Juliana F; Ramos, Isabela B; Machado, Ednildo A; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Eberlin, Marcos N; Kaiser, Carlos R; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Vasconcellos, Ana Maria H

2007-12-01

154

YM-53601, a novel squalene synthase inhibitor, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in several animal species  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency of YM-53601 ((E)-2-[2-fluoro-2-(quinuclidin-3-ylidene) ethoxy]-9H-carbazole monohydrochloride), a new inhibitor of squalene synthase, in reducing both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor and fibrates, respectively. YM-53601 equally inhibited squalene synthase activities in hepatic microsomes prepared from several animal species and also suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis in rats (ED50, 32?mg?kg?1). In guinea-pigs, YM-53601 and pravastatin reduced plasma nonHDL-C (=total cholesterol–high density lipoprotein cholesterol) by 47% (P<0.001) and 33% (P<0.001), respectively (100?mg?kg?1, daily for 14 days). In rhesus monkeys, YM-53601 decreased plasma nonHDL-C by 37% (50?mg?kg?1, twice daily for 21 days, P<0.01), whereas the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, pravastatin, failed to do (25?mg?kg?1, twice daily for 28 days). YM-53601 caused plasma triglyceride reduction in hamsters fed a normal diet (81% decrease at 50?mg?kg?1, daily for 5 days, P<0.001). In hamsters fed a high-fat diet, the ability of YM-53601 to lower triglyceride (by 73%, P<0.001) was superior to that of fenofibrate (by 53%, P<0.001), the most potent fibrate (dosage of each drug: 100?mg?kg?1, daily for 7 days). This is the first report that a squalene synthase inhibitor is superior to an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in lowering plasma nonHDL-C level in rhesus monkeys and is superior to a fibrate in significantly lowering plasma triglyceride level. YM-53601 may therefore prove useful in treating hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in humans.

Ugawa, Tohru; Kakuta, Hirotoshi; Moritani, Hirosh; Matsuda, Koyo; Ishihara, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Motoko; Naganuma, Shin; Iizumi, Yuichi; Shikama, Hisataka

2000-01-01

155

Design of selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced from L-arginine by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes, is an important second-messenger molecule that regulates several physiological functions. In endothelial cells, it relaxes smooth muscle, which decreases blood pressure. Macrophage cells produce NO as an immune defense system to destroy pathogens and microorganisms. In neuronal cells, NO controls the release of neurotransmitters and is involved in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, memory function, and neuroendocrine secretion. NO is a free radical that is commonly thought to contribute to oxidative damage and molecule and tissue destruction, and thus it is somewhat surprising that it has so many significant beneficial physiological effects. However, the cell is generally protected from NO's toxic effects, except under certain pathological conditions in which excessive NO is produced. In that case, tissue damage and oxidative stress can result, leading to a wide variety of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, among others. In this Account, we describe research aimed at identifying small molecules that can selectively inhibit only the neuronal isozyme of NOS, nNOS. By targeting only nNOS, we attained the beneficial effects of lowering excess NO in the brain without the detrimental effects of inhibition of the two isozymes found elsewhere in the body (eNOS and iNOS). Initially, in pursuit of this goal, we sought to identify differences in the second sphere of amino acids in the active site of the isozymes. From this study, the first class of dual nNOS-selective inhibitors was identified. The moieties important for selectivity in the best lead compound were determined by structure modification. Enhancement provided highly potent, nNOS-selective dipeptide amides and peptidomimetics, which were active in a rabbit model for fetal neurodegeneration. Crystal structures of these compounds bound to NOS isozymes showed a one-amino-acid difference between nNOS and eNOS in the second sphere of amino acids; this was the difference that we were searching for from the beginning of this project. With the aid of these crystal structures, we developed a new fragment-based de novo design method called "fragment hopping", which allowed the design of a new class of nonpeptide nNOS-selective inhibitors. These compounds were modified to give low nanomolar, highly dual-selective nNOS inhibitors, which we recently showed are active in a rabbit model for the prevention of neurobehavioral symptoms of cerebral palsy. These compounds could also have general application in other neurodegenerative diseases for which excess NO is responsible. PMID:19154146

Silverman, Richard B

2009-03-17

156

First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera)  

PubMed Central

A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges’ holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan–Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to ?-chitin than to ?-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates.

Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V.; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V.; Nekipelov, Serguei V.; Sivkov, Victor N.; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, Rene; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I.; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V.; Worheide, Gert

2013-01-01

157

First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera).  

PubMed

A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges' holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to ?-chitin than to ?-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates. PMID:23677340

Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V; Nekipelov, Serguei V; Sivkov, Victor N; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wörheide, Gert

2013-07-01

158

Identification of Novel Inhibitors of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase by Chemical Screening in Arabidopsis thaliana*  

PubMed Central

Ethylene is a gaseous hormone important for adaptation and survival in plants. To further understand the signaling and regulatory network of ethylene, we used a phenotype-based screening strategy to identify chemical compounds interfering with the ethylene response in Arabidopsis thaliana. By screening a collection of 10,000 structurally diverse small molecules, we identified compounds suppressing the constitutive triple response phenotype in the ethylene overproducer mutant eto1-4. The compounds reduced the expression of a reporter gene responsive to ethylene and the otherwise elevated level of ethylene in eto1-4. Structure and function analysis revealed that the compounds contained a quinazolinone backbone. Further studies with genetic mutants and transgenic plants involved in the ethylene pathway showed that the compounds inhibited ethylene biosynthesis at the step of converting S-adenosylmethionine to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) by ACC synthase. Biochemical studies with in vitro activity assay and enzyme kinetics analysis indicated that a representative compound was an uncompetitive inhibitor of ACC synthase. Finally, global gene expression profiling uncovered a significant number of genes that were co-regulated by the compounds and aminoethoxyvinylglycine, a potent inhibitor of ACC synthase. The use of chemical screening is feasible in identifying small molecules modulating the ethylene response in Arabidopsis seedlings. The discovery of such chemical compounds will be useful in ethylene research and can offer potentially useful agrochemicals for quality improvement in post-harvest agriculture.

Lin, Lee-Chung; Hsu, Jen-Hung; Wang, Long-Chi

2010-01-01

159

In Vivo Pharmacodynamics of HMR 3270, a Glucan Synthase Inhibitor, in a Murine Candidiasis Model  

PubMed Central

In vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characterization for numerous antibacterial compounds has had a significant impact upon optimal dosing regimen design and the development of in vivo susceptibility breakpoints. More recently, similar characterization has been undertaken for antifungal drug classes. Very little is known of these pharmacodynamic relationships for the new echinocandin class of compounds. We utilized a neutropenic murine model of disseminated candidiasis to describe the time course antifungal activity of HMR 3270, a new glucan synthase inhibitor. Single-dose in vivo time kill studies with four 16-fold escalating doses demonstrated concentration-dependent killing when drug levels in serum were more than four times the MIC. Postantifungal effects were dose dependent, ranging from 8 to 80 h duration. Multiple dosing regimen studies utilized six total doses, four dosing intervals, and a treatment duration of 6 days. Shortening the dosing interval from every 144 h (q144h) to q36h resulted in a fourfold rise in the dose necessary to achieve a net fungistatic effect. The peak/MIC ratio most strongly correlated with treatment outcomes (peak/MIC ratio, R2 = 98%; ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h to the MIC, R2 = 79%, percentage of time above the MIC, R2 = 61%). Studies were also conducted with five additional Candida albicans isolates to determine if a similar peak/MIC ratio was associated with efficacy. In vivo concentration-dependent killing was similarly observed in studies with each of the additional isolates. The peak/MIC ratio necessary to produce efficacy was relatively similar among the strains studied (P = 0.42). The peak/MIC ratio (mean ± standard deviation) necessary to achieve a fungistatic effect was 3.72 ± 1.84, and the ratio necessary to achieve maximal killing was near 10.

Andes, D.; Marchillo, K.; Lowther, J.; Bryskier, A.; Stamstad, T.; Conklin, R.

2003-01-01

160

Effect of a fatty acid synthase inhibitor on food intake and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides  

PubMed Central

The fatty acid synthase inhibitor, C75, acts centrally to reduce food intake and body weight in mice. Here we report the effects of C75 on the expression of key orexigenic [neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), and melanin-concentrating hormone] and anorexigenic [pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine-amphetamine-related transcript (CART)] neuropeptide messages in the hypothalami of lean and obese (ob/ob) mice. In lean mice, C75 rapidly and almost completely blocked food intake and prevented fasting-induced up-regulation of hypothalamic AgRP and NPY mRNAs, as well as down-regulation of CART and POMC mRNAs. Thus, in lean mice C75 seems to interrupt the fasting-induced signals that activate expression of NPY and AgRP and suppression of POMC and CART. In obese mice, C75 rapidly suppressed food intake, reduced body weight, and normalized obesity-associated hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Like its effect in lean mice, C75 prevented the fasting-induced increase of hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNAs in obese mice, but had no effect on the expression of POMC and CART mRNAs. The suppressive effect of C75 on food intake in lean mice seems to be mediated both by NPY/AgRP and POMC/CART neurons, whereas in obese mice the effect seems to be mediated primarily by NPY/AgRP neurons. In both lean and obese mice, C75 markedly increased expression of melaninconcentrating hormone and its receptor in the hypothalamus.

Shimokawa, Teruhiko; Kumar, Monica V.; Lane, M. Daniel

2002-01-01

161

Bacterial acetohydroxyacid synthase and its inhibitors--a summary of their structure, biological activity and current status.  

PubMed

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (anabolic AHAS; EC 2.2.1.6) is a thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis pathway. BCAAs are synthesized by plants, algae, fungi and bacteria, although not by animals. Thus, the enzymes of the BCAA biosynthetic pathway are potential targets in the development of herbicides, fungicides and antimicrobial compounds. Plant AHASs are well studied in this regard because specific plant AHAS inhibitors are considered to comprise the most potent herbicides. These inhibitors are also effective against bacterial AHASs, inhibit the growth of several bacterial strains and have little to no toxicity in mammals. This review provides an overview of bacterial AHASs with an update of the current status of AHAS inhibitors. PMID:22284339

Gedi, Vinayakumar; Yoon, Moon-Young

2012-03-01

162

Mode of action of site-directed irreversible folate analogue inhibitors of thymidylate synthase.  

PubMed

5,8-Dideazafolate analogues are tight binding but not irreversible inhibitors of thymidylate synthase (TS). However, when a chloroacetyl (ClAc) group is substituted at the N10-position of 2-desamino-2-methyl-5,8-dideazafolate (DMDDF), the resulting compound, ClAc-DMDDF, although still a reversible inhibitor (KI = 3.4 x 10(-3) M), gradually inactivates thyA-TS irreversibly at a rate of 0.37 min-1. The corresponding iodoacetyl derivative alkylated the enzyme somewhat slower (k3 = 0.15 min-1 ) than ClAc-DMDDF but was bound more tightly (KI = 1.4 x 10(-5) M), resulting in a second-order rate constant (k3/KI) of inactivation that was 100-fold greater than that of ClAc-DMDDF. A tryptic digest of the ClAc-DMDDF-inactivated enzyme yielded a peptide on HPLC, which revealed that cysteine-146, the residue at the active site that is intimately involved in the catalytic process, had reacted with ClAc-DMDDF to form a covalent bond. This derivative was confirmed indirectly by Edman analysis and more directly by mass spectrometry. Deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate, a substrate in the catalytic reaction, protected against inactivation. Similar to previously described Lactobacillus casei TS inhibition studies with sulfhydryl reagents [Galivan, J., Noonan, J., and Maley, F. (1977) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 184, 336-345], the kinetics of inhibition suggested that complete inhibition occurs on reaction of only one of the two active site cysteines, although sequence and amino acid analysis revealed that iodoacetate and ClAc-DMDDF had reacted with both active site cysteines. These studies demonstrate that a sulfhydryl reactive compound that is directed to the folate binding site of TS may diffuse to the active site cysteine, and form a covalent bond with this residue. How this inhibition comes about is suggested in a stereoscopic view of the ligand when modeled to the known crystal structure of Escherichia coli TS. PMID:9521774

Lobo, A P; Nair, M G; Changchien, L; Weichsel, A; Montfort, W R; Maley, F

1998-03-31

163

Lipophilic Bisphosphonates as Dual Farnesyl/Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase Inhibitors: An X-ray and NMR Investigation  

PubMed Central

Considerable effort has focused on the development of selective protein farnesyl transferase (FTase) and protein geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTase) inhibitors as cancer chemotherapeutics. Here, we report a new strategy for anti-cancer therapeutic agents involving inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), the two enzymes upstream of FTase and GGTase, by lipophilic bisphosphonates. Due to dual site targeting and decreased polarity, the compounds have activities far greater than do current bisphosphonate drugs in inhibiting tumor cell growth and invasiveness, both in vitro and in vivo. We explore how these compounds inhibit cell growth, how cell activity can be predicted based on enzyme inhibition data, and, using x-ray diffraction, solid state NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry, we show how these compounds bind to FPPS and/or GGPPS.

Zhang, Yonghui; Cao, Rong; Yin, Fenglin; Hudock, Michael P.; Guo, Rey-Ting; Krysiak, Kilannin; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Gao, Yi-Gui; Robinson, Howard; Song, Yongcheng; No, Joo Hwan; Bergan, Kyle; Leon, Annette; Cass, Lauren; Goddard, Amanda; Chang, Ting-Kai; Lin, Fu-Yang; Van Beek, Ermond; Papapoulos, Socrates; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Kubo, Tadahiko; Ochi, Mitsuo; Mukkamala, Dushyant; Oldfield, Eric

2009-01-01

164

Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 9-D-ribitylamino-1,3,7,9-tetrahydro-2,6,8-purinetriones bearing alkyl phosphate and alpha,alpha-difluorophosphonate substituents as inhibitors of tiboflavin synthase and lumazine synthase.  

PubMed

Lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase catalyze the last two steps in the biosynthesis of riboflavin, an essential metabolite that is involved in electron transport processes. To obtain structural probes of these two enzymes, as well as inhibitors of potential value as antibiotics, a series of ribitylpurinetriones bearing alkyl phosphate and alpha,alpha-difluorophosphonate substituents were synthesized. Since the purinetrione ring system and the ribityl hydroxyl groups can be alkylated, the synthesis required the generation of these two moieties in protected form before the desired alkylation reaction could be carried out. These substances were designed as intermediate analogue inhibitors of lumazine synthase that would bind to its phosphate-binding site. All of the compounds were found to be effective inhibitors of both Bacillus subtilis lumazine synthase as well as Escherichia coli riboflavin synthase. Molecular modeling of the binding of 3-(1,3,7,9-tetrahydro-9-D-ribityl-2,6,8-trioxopurin-7-yl)propane 1-phosphate provided a structural explanation for how these compounds are able to effectively inhibit both enzymes. Interestingly, the enzyme kinetics of these new compounds in comparison with the parent purinetrione demonstrated unexpectedly that the phosphate and phosphonate substituents contributed negatively to the binding. A possible explanation for these effects on lumazine synthase would be that the inorganic phosphate in the assay buffer competes with the substituted purinetriones for binding to the enzyme. This would be consistent with the observed increase in K(m) of the 3,4-dihydroxybutanone-4-phosphate substrate from 5.2 microM in Tris buffer or from 6.7 microM in MOPS buffer to 50 microM in phosphate buffer when tested on Bacillus subtilis lumazine synthase. However, when tested in Tris buffer vs Mycobacterium tuberculosis lumazine synthase, three of the phosphate inhibitors displayed inhibition constants in the 4-5 nM range, indicating that they are much more potent than the parent purinetrione. Under these conditions, the phosphate moieties of the inhibitors do contribute positively to their binding. The alpha,alpha-difluorophosphonate analogue, which is expected to have enhanced metabolic stability relative to the phosphates, was also found to be an inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lumazine synthase with a K(i) of 60 nM. PMID:14750781

Cushman, Mark; Sambaiah, Thota; Jin, Guangyi; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus; Bacher, Adelbert

2004-02-01

165

Attenuation of human nasal airway responses to bradykinin and histamine by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and local anaesthetics were studied on changes in human nasal airway patency and albumin extravasation in response to bradykinin and histamine, in vivo. 2. Compared with the action of the vasoconstrictor, ephedrine, 2.5 mumol, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 1 mumol alone, did not change the resting value of the minimal cross-sectional area (A min) of the human nasal airway. L-NAME, 0.1 to 10 mumol, produced a dose-related inhibition of the reduction in A min caused by bradykinin, 300 micrograms. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), 1 mumol, similarly reduced the effect of bradykinin, 300 micrograms, on A min, but NG-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME), had no effect. L-NAME, 0.1 to 10 mumol, or L-NMMA, 10 mumol, failed to inhibit the effect of histamine, 300 micrograms on A min. 3. The inhibition by L-NAME, 1 mumol of the action of bradykinin, 300 micrograms on A min was maximal between 15 and 30 min after pretreatment with L-NAME. 4. L-NAME, 1 and 10 mumol, inhibited the extravasation of albumin into the nasal cavity induced by bradykinin, 300 micrograms, and also by histamine, 300 micrograms. D-NAME, 1 and 10 mumol had no effect on the extravasation of albumin in response to bradykinin or histamine. 5. L-Arginine, 30 mumol, reversed the effect of L-NAME, 1 mumol, on the bradykinin- and histamine-induced albumin extravasation into the nasal airway. 6. Local anaesthesia of the nasal airway with lignocaine, 10 mg, or benzocaine, 10 mg, failed to inhibit the reduction in A min or the albumin extravasation induced by either bradykinin, 300 micrograms, and histamine, 300 micrograms. 7. We conclude that the extravasation of plasma albumin caused by bradykinin and by histamine involves the generation of nitric oxide. The nasal blockage induced by bradykinin involves nitric oxide generation but the nasal blockage induced by histamine does not.

Dear, J. W.; Ghali, S.; Foreman, J. C.

1996-01-01

166

The chemosensitizing activity of inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase is mediated primarily through modulation of P-gp function.  

PubMed

Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) is a key enzyme engaged in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids and in regulating ceramide metabolism. Studies exploring alterations in GCS activity suggest that the glycolase may have a role in chemosensitizing tumor cells to various cancer drugs. The chemosensitizing effect of inhibitors of GCS (e.g. PDMP and selected analogues) has been observed with a variety of tumor cells leading to the proposal that the sensitizing activity of GCS inhibitors is primarily through increases in intracellular ceramide leading to induction of apoptosis. The current study examined the chemosensitizing activity of the novel GCS inhibitor, Genz-123346 in cell culture. Exposure of cells to Genz-123346 and to other GCS inhibitors at non-toxic concentrations can enhance the killing of tumor cells by cytotoxic anti-cancer agents. This activity was unrelated to lowering intracellular glycosphingolipid levels. Genz-123346 and a few other GCS inhibitors are substrates for multi-drug resistance efflux pumps such as P-gp (ABCB1, gP-170). In cell lines selected to over-express P-gp or which endogenously express P-gp, chemosensitization by Genz-123346 was primarily due to the effects on P-gp function. RNA interference studies using siRNA or shRNA confirmed that lowering GCS expression in tumor cells did not affect their responsiveness to commonly used cytotoxic drugs. PMID:21186402

Chai, Lilly; McLaren, Rajashree P; Byrne, Ann; Chuang, Wei-Lien; Huang, Yinyin; Dufault, Michael R; Pacheco, Joshua; Madhiwalla, Shruti; Zhang, Xiaokui; Zhang, Mindy; Teicher, Beverly A; Carter, Kara; Cheng, Seng H; Leonard, John P; Xiang, Yibin; Vasconcelles, Michael; Goldberg, Mark A; Copeland, Diane P; Klinger, Katherine W; Lillie, James; Madden, Stephen L; Jiang, Yide A

2011-03-01

167

The Chitin Connection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is an essential component of the fungal cell wall. Chitosan, a deacetylated form of chitin, is also important in maintaining cell wall integrity and is essential for Cryptococcus neoformans virulence. In their article, Gilbert et al. [N. M. Gilbert, L. G. Baker, C. A. Specht, and J. K. Lodge, mBio 3(1):e00007-12, 2012] demonstrate that the enzyme responsible for chitosan synthesis, chitin deacetylase (CDA), is differentially attached to the cell membrane and wall. Bioactivity is localized to the cell membrane, where it is covalently linked via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Findings from this study significantly enhance our understanding of cryptococcal cell wall biology. Besides the role of chitin in supporting structural stability, chitin and host enzymes with chitinase activity have an important role in host defense and modifying the inflammatory response. Thus, chitin appears to provide a link between the fungus and host that involves both innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, there has been increased attention to the role of chitinases in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, especially asthma. We review these findings and explore the possible connection between fungal infections, the induction of chitinases, and asthma.

Goldman, David L.; Vicencio, Alfin G.

2012-01-01

168

Phosphorylation regulates polarisation of chitin synthesis in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The ability to undergo polarised cell growth is fundamental to the development of almost all walled organisms. Fungi are characterised by yeasts and moulds, and both cellular forms have been studied extensively as tractable models of cell polarity. Chitin is a hallmark component of fungal cell walls. Chitin synthesis is essential for growth, viability and rescue from many conditions that impair cell-wall integrity. In the polymorphic human pathogen Candida albicans, chitin synthase 3 (Chs3) synthesises the majority of chitin in the cell wall and is localised at the tips of growing buds and hyphae, and at the septum. An analysis of the C. albicans phospho-proteome revealed that Chs3 can be phosphorylated at Ser139. Mutation of this site showed that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are required for the correct localisation and function of Chs3. The kinase Pkc1 was not required to target Chs3 to sites of polarised growth. This is the first report demonstrating an essential role for chitin synthase phosphorylation in the polarised biosynthesis of fungal cell walls and suggests a new mechanism for the regulation of this class of glycosyl-transferase enzyme. PMID:20530569

Lenardon, Megan D; Milne, Sarah A; Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Kaffarnik, Florian A R; Peck, Scott C; Brown, Alistair J P; Munro, Carol A; Gow, Neil A R

2010-07-01

169

IF1, a natural inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthase, is not essential for the normal growth and breeding of mice  

PubMed Central

IF1 is an endogenous inhibitor protein of mitochondrial ATP synthase. It is evolutionarily conserved throughout all eukaryotes and it has been proposed to play crucial roles in prevention of the wasteful reverse reaction of ATP synthase, in the metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, in the suppression of ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation, in mitochondria morphology and in haem biosynthesis in mitochondria, which leads to anaemia. Here, we report the phenotype of a mouse strain in which IF1 gene was destroyed. Unexpectedly, individuals of this IF1-KO (knockout) mouse strain grew and bred without defect. The general behaviours, blood test results and responses to starvation of the IF1-KO mice were apparently normal. There were no abnormalities in the tissue anatomy or the autophagy. Mitochondria of the IF1-KO mice were normal in morphology, in the content of ATP synthase molecules and in ATP synthesis activity. Thus, IF1 is not an essential protein for mice despite its ubiquitous presence in eukaryotes.

Nakamura, Junji; Fujikawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Masasuke

2013-01-01

170

Discovery of novel acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitors as active agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by virtual screening and bioassay.  

PubMed

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) has been regarded as a promising drug target against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) as it catalyzes the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. In this study, 23 novel AHAS inhibitors were identified through molecular docking followed by similarity search. The determined IC(50) values range from 0.385 ± 0.026 ?M to >200 ?M against bacterium AHAS. Five of the identified compounds show significant in vitro activity against H37Rv strains (MICs in the range of 2.5-80 mg/L) and clinical MTB strains, including MDR and XDR isolates. More impressively, compounds 5 and 7 can enhance the killing ability against macrophages infected pathogen remarkably. This study suggests our discovered inhibitors can be further developed as novel anti-MTB therapeutics targeting AHAS. PMID:23316686

Wang, Di; Zhu, Xuelian; Cui, Changjun; Dong, Mei; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Zhengming; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Weiliang; Wang, Jian-Guo

2013-02-25

171

L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, as a potential countermeasure to post-suspension hypotension in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large number of astronauts returning from spaceflight experience orthostatic hypotension. This hypotension may be due to overproduction of vasodilatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. To evaluate the role of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as a countermeasure against the post-suspension reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP), we assessed the cardiovascular responses and vascular reactivity to 7-day 30 degrees tail-suspension and a subsequent 6 hr post-suspension period in conscious rats. After a pre-suspension reading, direct MAP and heart rate (HR) were measured daily and every 2 hrs post-suspension. The NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.v.), or saline, were administered after the 7th day reading prior to release from suspension and at 2 and 4 hrs post-suspension. At 6 hrs post-suspension, vascular reactivity was assessed. While MAP did not change during the suspension period, it was reduced post-suspension. Heart rate was not significantly altered. L-NAME administration reversed the post-suspension reduction in MAP. In addition, the baroreflex sensitivity for heart rate was modified by L-NAME. Thus, the post-suspension reduction in MAP may be due to overproduction of NO and altered baroreflex activity.

Bayorh, M. A.; Socci, R. R.; Watts, S.; Wang, M.; Eatman, D.; Emmett, N.; Thierry-Palmer, M.

2001-01-01

172

Protective effects of a squalene synthase inhibitor, lapaquistat acetate (TAK-475), on statin-induced myotoxicity in guinea pigs  

SciTech Connect

High-dose statin treatment has been recommended as a primary strategy for aggressive reduction of LDL cholesterol levels and protection against coronary artery disease. The effectiveness of high-dose statins may be limited by their potential for myotoxic side effects. There is currently little known about the molecular mechanisms of statin-induced myotoxicity. Previously we showed that T-91485, an active metabolite of the squalene synthase inhibitor lapaquistat acetate (lapaquistat: a previous name is TAK-475), attenuated statin-induced cytotoxicity in human skeletal muscle cells [Nishimoto, T., Tozawa, R., Amano, Y., Wada, T., Imura, Y., Sugiyama, Y., 2003a. Comparing myotoxic effects of squalene synthase inhibitor, T-91485, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A. Biochem. Pharmacol. 66, 2133-2139]. In the current study, we investigated the effects of lapaquistat administration on statin-induced myotoxicity in vivo. Guinea pigs were treated with either high-dose cerivastatin (1 mg/kg) or cerivastatin together with lapaquistat (30 mg/kg) for 14 days. Treatment with cerivastatin alone decreased plasma cholesterol levels by 45% and increased creatine kinase (CK) levels by more than 10-fold (a marker of myotoxicity). The plasma CK levels positively correlated with the severity of skeletal muscle lesions as assessed by histopathology. Co-administration of lapaquistat almost completely prevented the cerivastatin-induced myotoxicity. Administration of mevalonolactone (100 mg/kg b.i.d.) prevented the cerivastatin-induced myotoxicity, confirming that this effect is directly related to HMG-CoA reductase inhibition. These results strongly suggest that cerivastatin-induced myotoxicity is due to depletion of mevalonate derived isoprenoids. In addition, squalene synthase inhibition could potentially be used clinically to prevent statin-induced myopathy.

Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Eiichiro [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 2-17-85, Jusohonmachi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-8686 (Japan); Anayama, Hisashi; Hamajyo, Hitomi; Nagai, Hirofumi [Development Research Center, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 2-17-85, Jusohonmachi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-8686 (Japan); Hirakata, Masao [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 2-17-85, Jusohonmachi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-8686 (Japan); Tozawa, Ryuichi [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 2-17-85, Jusohonmachi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-8686 (Japan)], E-mail: Ryuichi_Tozawa@takeda.co.jp

2007-08-15

173

NOpiates: Novel Dual Action Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors with ?-Opioid Agonist Activity  

PubMed Central

A novel series of benzimidazole designed multiple ligands (DMLs) with activity at the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enzyme and the ?-opioid receptor was developed. Targeting of the structurally dissimilar heme-containing enzyme and the ?-opioid GPCR was predicated on the modulatory role of nitric oxide on ?-opioid receptor function. Structure–activity relationship studies yielded lead compound 24 with excellent nNOS inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.44 ?M), selectivity over both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (10-fold) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (125-fold), and potent ?-opioid binding affinity, Ki = 5.4 nM. The functional activity as measured in the cyclic adenosine monosphospate secondary messenger assay resulted in full agonist activity (EC50 = 0.34 ?M). This work represents a novel approach in the development of new analgesics for the treatment of pain.

2012-01-01

174

Synthesis and evaluation of 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine monophosphate analogues as inhibitors of flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A series of 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine monophosphate analogues has been synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of mycobacterial ThyX, a novel flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A systematic SAR study led to the identification of compound 5a, displaying an IC(50) value against mycobacterial ThyX of 0.91 ?M. This derivative lacks activity against the classical mycobacterial thymidylate synthase ThyA (IC(50) > 50 ?M) and represents the first example of a selective mycobacterial FDTS inhibitor. PMID:21657202

Kögler, Martin; Vanderhoydonck, Bart; De Jonghe, Steven; Rozenski, Jef; Van Belle, Kristien; Herman, Jean; Louat, Thierry; Parchina, Anastasia; Sibley, Carol; Lescrinier, Eveline; Herdewijn, Piet

2011-07-14

175

Determination of chitin content in fungal cell wall: an alternative flow cytometric method.  

PubMed

The conventional methods used to evaluate chitin content in fungi, such as biochemical assessment of glucosamine release after acid hydrolysis or epifluorescence microscopy, are low throughput, laborious, time-consuming, and cannot evaluate a large number of cells. We developed a flow cytometric assay, efficient, and fast, based on Calcofluor White staining to measure chitin content in yeast cells. A staining index was defined, its value was directly related to chitin amount and taking into consideration the different levels of autofluorecence. Twenty-two Candida spp. and four Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates with distinct susceptibility profiles to caspofungin were evaluated. Candida albicans clinical isolate SC5314, and isogenic strains with deletions in chitin synthase 3 (chs3?/chs3?) and genes encoding predicted GlycosylPhosphatidylInositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (pga31?/? and pga62?/?), were used as controls. As expected, the wild-type strain displayed a significant higher chitin content (P < 0.001) than chs3?/chs3? and pga31?/? especially in the presence of caspofungin. Ca. parapsilosis, Ca. tropicalis, and Ca. albicans showed higher cell wall chitin content. Although no relationship between chitin content and antifungal drug susceptibility phenotype was found, an association was established between the paradoxical growth effect in the presence of high caspofungin concentrations and the chitin content. This novel flow cytometry protocol revealed to be a simple and reliable assay to estimate cell wall chitin content of fungi. PMID:23359335

Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Silva, Ana P; Miranda, Isabel M; Salvador, Alexandre; Azevedo, Maria M; Munro, Carol A; Rodrigues, Acácio G; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

2013-03-01

176

Genetic rearrangements on the Chlorovirus genome that switch between hyaluronan synthesis and chitin synthesis.  

PubMed

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses form polysaccharide fibers on the cell wall of host Chlorella cells after infection. Such polysaccharides are either hyaluronan synthesized by virus-encoded hyaluronan synthase (HAS) or chitin synthesized by viral chitin synthase (CHS). Some chloroviruses synthesize both hyaluronan (HA) and chitin simultaneously. To understand the relationship between "HA-synthesizing" and "chitin-synthesizing" viruses, we characterized the CVK2 genomic regions, one flanking chs and the other corresponding to PBCV-1 has and found that on CVK2 DNA, a single ORF (PBCV-1 A330R) was replaced with a 5 kbp region containing chs, ugdh2 (the second gene for UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and two other ORFs, and that has was replaced with another chs gene. In some chloroviruses, ugdh was lost. These results suggest that chlorovirus types changed from "has viruses" to "chs viruses" or from "chs viruses" to "has viruses" by exchanging the genes. PMID:16112160

Mohammed Ali, Ali Mohammed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Yamada, Takashi

2005-11-10

177

The PKC, HOG and Ca2+ signalling pathways co-ordinately regulate chitin synthesis in Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Summary Chitin is an essential component of the fungal cell wall and its synthesis is under tight spatial and temporal regulation. The fungal human pathogen Candida albicans has a four member chitin synthase gene family comprising of CHS1 (class II), CHS2 (class I), CHS3 (class IV) and CHS8 (class I). LacZ reporters were fused to each CHS promoter to examine the transcriptional regulation of chitin synthesis. Each CHS promoter had a unique regulatory profile and responded to the addition of cell wall damaging agents, to mutations in specific CHS genes and exogenous Ca2+. The regulation of both CHS gene expression and chitin synthesis was co-ordinated by the PKC, HOG MAP kinase and Ca2+/calcineurin signalling pathways. Activation of these pathways also resulted in increased chitin synthase activity in vitro and elevated cell wall chitin content. Combinations of treatments that activated multiple pathways resulted in synergistic increases in CHS expression and in cell wall chitin content. Therefore, at least three pathways co-ordinately regulate chitin synthesis and activation of chitin synthesis operates at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

Munro, Carol A.; Selvaggini, Serena; de Bruijn, Irene; Walker, Louise; Lenardon, Megan D.; Gerssen, Bertus; Milne, Sarah; Brown, Alistair J. P.; Gow, Neil A. R.

2009-01-01

178

Iminosugar-Based Inhibitors of Glucosylceramide Synthase Increase Brain Glycosphingolipids and Survival in a Mouse Model of Sandhoff Disease  

PubMed Central

The neuropathic glycosphingolipidoses are a subgroup of lysosomal storage disorders for which there are no effective therapies. A potential approach is substrate reduction therapy using inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) to decrease the synthesis of glucosylceramide and related glycosphingolipids that accumulate in the lysosomes. Genz-529468, a blood-brain barrier-permeant iminosugar-based GCS inhibitor, was used to evaluate this concept in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease, which accumulates the glycosphingolipid GM2 in the visceral organs and CNS. As expected, oral administration of the drug inhibited hepatic GM2 accumulation. Paradoxically, in the brain, treatment resulted in a slight increase in GM2 levels and a 20-fold increase in glucosylceramide levels. The increase in brain glucosylceramide levels might be due to concurrent inhibition of the non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase, Gba2. Similar results were observed with NB-DNJ, another iminosugar-based GCS inhibitor. Despite these unanticipated increases in glycosphingolipids in the CNS, treatment nevertheless delayed the loss of motor function and coordination and extended the lifespan of the Sandhoff mice. These results suggest that the CNS benefits observed in the Sandhoff mice might not necessarily be due to substrate reduction therapy but rather to off-target effects.

Ashe, Karen M.; Bangari, Dinesh; Li, Lingyun; Cabrera-Salazar, Mario A.; Bercury, Scott D.; Nietupski, Jennifer B.; Cooper, Christopher G. F.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Lee, Edward R.; Copeland, Diane P.; Cheng, Seng H.; Scheule, Ronald K.; Marshall, John

2011-01-01

179

Iminosugar-based inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase increase brain glycosphingolipids and survival in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease.  

PubMed

The neuropathic glycosphingolipidoses are a subgroup of lysosomal storage disorders for which there are no effective therapies. A potential approach is substrate reduction therapy using inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) to decrease the synthesis of glucosylceramide and related glycosphingolipids that accumulate in the lysosomes. Genz-529468, a blood-brain barrier-permeant iminosugar-based GCS inhibitor, was used to evaluate this concept in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease, which accumulates the glycosphingolipid GM2 in the visceral organs and CNS. As expected, oral administration of the drug inhibited hepatic GM2 accumulation. Paradoxically, in the brain, treatment resulted in a slight increase in GM2 levels and a 20-fold increase in glucosylceramide levels. The increase in brain glucosylceramide levels might be due to concurrent inhibition of the non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase, Gba2. Similar results were observed with NB-DNJ, another iminosugar-based GCS inhibitor. Despite these unanticipated increases in glycosphingolipids in the CNS, treatment nevertheless delayed the loss of motor function and coordination and extended the lifespan of the Sandhoff mice. These results suggest that the CNS benefits observed in the Sandhoff mice might not necessarily be due to substrate reduction therapy but rather to off-target effects. PMID:21738789

Ashe, Karen M; Bangari, Dinesh; Li, Lingyun; Cabrera-Salazar, Mario A; Bercury, Scott D; Nietupski, Jennifer B; Cooper, Christopher G F; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Lee, Edward R; Copeland, Diane P; Cheng, Seng H; Scheule, Ronald K; Marshall, John

2011-01-01

180

Trophoblastic Neoplasms Express Fatty Acid Synthase, Which May Be a Therapeutic Target via Its Inhibitor C93  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an emerging tumor-associated marker and a promising antitumor therapeutic target. In this study, we analyzed the expression of FASN in normal and molar placentas, as well as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, and assessed the effects of a new FASN inhibitor, C93, on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in choriocarcinoma cells. Using a FASN-specific monoclonal antibody, we found that FASN immunoreactivity was detected in the cytotrophoblast and intermediate (extravillous) trophoblast of normal and molar placentas, as well as in placental site nodules. All choriocarcinomas (n = 33), 90% of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (n = 20), and 60% of placental site trophoblastic tumors (n = 10) exhibited FASN positivity. FASN expression was further confirmed in vitro by Western blot and real-time PCR. Treatment of JEG3 and JAR cells with C93 induced significant apoptosis through the caspase-3/caspase-9/poly(ADP)ribose polymerase pathway. Cell cycle progression was not affected by the inhibitor. In summary, the data indicate that FASN is expressed in the majority of gestational trophoblastic neoplasias, and is essential for choriocarcinoma cells to survive and escape from apoptosis. FASN inhibitors such as C93 warrant further investigation as targeted therapeutic agents for metastatic and chemoresistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

Ueda, Stefanie M.; Mao, Tsui-Lien; Kuhajda, Francis P.; Vasoontara, Chanont; Giuntoli, Robert L.; Bristow, Robert E.; Kurman, Robert J.; Shih, Ie-Ming

2009-01-01

181

Maintaining Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity Is Critical for mTOR Kinase Inhibitors to Inhibit Cancer Cell Growth.  

PubMed

mTOR kinase inhibitors that target both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are being evaluated in cancer clinical trials. Here, we report that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a critical determinant for the therapeutic response to this class of experimental drugs. Pharmacologic inhibition of GSK3 antagonized their suppressive effects on the growth of cancer cells similarly to genetic attenuation of GSK3. Conversely, expression of a constitutively activated form of GSK3? sensitized cancer cells to mTOR inhibition. Consistent with these findings, higher basal levels of GSK3 activity in a panel of human lung cancer cell lines correlated with more efficacious responses. Mechanistic investigations showed that mTOR kinase inhibitors reduced cyclin D1 levels in a GSK3?-dependent manner, independent of their effects on suppressing mTORC1 signaling and cap binding. Notably, selective inhibition of mTORC2 triggered proteasome-mediated cyclin D1 degradation, suggesting that mTORC2 blockade is responsible for GSK3-dependent reduction of cyclin D1. Silencing expression of the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBX4 rescued this reduction, implicating FBX4 in mediating this effect of mTOR inhibition. Together, our findings define a novel mechanism by which mTORC2 promotes cell growth, with potential implications for understanding the clinical action of mTOR kinase inhibitors. Cancer Res; 74(9); 2555-68. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24626091

Koo, Junghui; Yue, Ping; Gal, Anthony A; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

2014-05-01

182

Asymmetrical Dimethylarginine, an Endogenous Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor, in Experimental Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nc,NG-dimethyl-L-argmme (ADMA) IS an endog- enously synthesized mtnc oxide (NO) synthase mhibltor which has potent pressor\\/vasoconstnctor effects Dimethylargmmase metabolizes ADMA to L-citrullme and plays a key role m deter- rmmng the m VIVO levels of ADMA To mvestlgate the role of ADMA m the pathogenesls of hypertension, we measured 24- hour urinary excretion of ADMA (UADMA) and nitrate\\/nitrite (NOx) m

Hldeluro Matsuoka; Shmgo Itoh; Masuml Imoto; Kelsuke Kohno; Osamu Tamal; Yoshlfuml Wada; Hldeo Yasukawa; Gensho Iwaml; Selya Okuda; Tsutomu Imalzuml

2010-01-01

183

The interaction of hydroxymandelate synthase with the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor: NTBC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxymandelate synthase (HMS) catalyzes the committed step in the formation of para-hydroxyphenylglycine, a recurrent substructure of polycyclic non-ribosomal peptide antibiotics such as vancomycin. HMS uses the same substrates as 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) and O2, and also conducts a dioxygenation reaction. The difference between the two lies in the insertion of the second oxygen atom, HMS directing this atom

John A. Conrad; Graham R. Moran

2008-01-01

184

Nitric oxide biosynthesis, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and arginase competition for L-arginine utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nitric oxide (NO) is a recently discovered mediator produced by mammalian cells. It plays a key role in neurotransmission,\\u000a control of blood pressure, and cellular defense mechanisms. Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) catalyze the oxidation of L-arginine\\u000a to NO and L-citrulline. NOSs are unique enzymes in that they possess on the same polypeptidic chain a reductase domain and\\u000a an oxygenase

J. L. Boucher; C. Moali; J. P. Tenu

1999-01-01

185

Thiolactomycin-based ?-ketoacyl-AcpM synthase A (KasA) inhibitors: fragment-based inhibitor discovery using transient one-dimensional nuclear overhauser effect NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Thiolactomycin (TLM) is a natural product inhibitor of KasA, the ?-ketoacyl synthase A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To improve the affinity of TLM for KasA, a series of TLM analogs have been synthesized based on interligand NOEs between TLM and a pantetheine analog when both are bound simultaneously to the enzyme. Kinetic binding data reveal that position 3 of the thiolactone ring is a suitable position for elaboration of the TLM scaffold, and the structure-activity relationship studies provide information on the molecular features that govern time-dependent inhibition in this enzyme system. These experiments also exemplify the utility of transient one-dimensional NOE spectroscopy for obtaining interligand NOEs compared with traditional steady state two-dimensional NOESY spectroscopy. PMID:23306195

Kapilashrami, Kanishk; Bommineni, Gopal R; Machutta, Carl A; Kim, Pilho; Lai, Cheng-Tsung; Simmerling, Carlos; Picart, Francis; Tonge, Peter J

2013-03-01

186

Flavin-Dependent Thymidylate Synthase as a Drug Target for Deadly Microbes: Mutational Study and a Strategy for Inhibitor Design  

PubMed Central

The identification of flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase (FDTS) as an essential enzyme and its occurrence in several pathogenic microbes opens opportunities for using FDTS enzyme as an excellent target for new antimicrobial drug discovery. In contrast to the human thymidylate synthase enzyme that utilizes methylene-tetrahydrofolate (CH2H4 folate) for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP, the microbial enzymes utilize an additional non-covalently bound FAD molecule for the hydride transfer from NAD(P)H. The structural and mechanistic differences between the human and microbial enzymes present an attractive opportunity for the design of antimicrobial compounds specific for the pathogens. We have determined the crystal structure of FDTS enzyme in complex with the methyl donor, CH2H4 folate. We describe here the structure of a FDTS mutant and compare it with other FDTS complex structures, including a FDTS-CH2H4 folate complex. We identified a conformational change essential for substrate binding and propose a strategy for the design of FDTS specific inhibitors.

Mathews, Irimpan I

2014-01-01

187

Identification and first insights into the structure and biosynthesis of chitin from the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates that chitin is an important structural component within the skeletal fibers of the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris. Using a variety of analytical techniques ((13)C solid state NMR, FT-IR, Raman, NEXAFS, ESI-MS, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White Staining); we show that this sponge chitin is much closer to ?-chitin, known to be present in other animals, than to ?-chitin. Genetic analysis confirmed the presence of chitin synthases, which are described for the first time in a sponge. The presence of chitin in both marine (demosponges and hexactinellids) and freshwater sponges indicates that this important structural biopolymer was already present in their common ancestor. PMID:23831449

Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Brunner, Eike; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Ilan, Micha; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Paasch, Silvia; Kammer, Martin; Born, René; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Belikov, Sergei; Petrova, Olga V; Sivkov, Victor V; Vyalikh, Denis; Hunoldt, Sebastian; Wörheide, Gert

2013-09-01

188

Amelioration of virulent Babesia bovis infection in calves by administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine.  

PubMed

Calves undergoing initial infection with a virulent strain of the haemoprotozoan parasite Babesia bovis were treated with aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The mean maximum parasitaemia of the AG treated calves was significantly lower than that of the control cattle. In addition, the febrile response and decrease in packed cell volume (PCV) observed during acute infection were significantly ameliorated in the AG treated cattle relative to the controls. However, AG had no effect on the multiplication of B. bovis in the microaerophilous stationary-phase (MASP) in-vitro culture system. These results provide evidence of a role for nitric oxide (NO) produced in response to acute infection in the pathology of bovine babesiosis. PMID:9767611

Gale, K R; Waltisbuhl, D J; Bowden, J M; Jorgensen, W K; Matheson, J; East, I J; Zakrzewski, H; Leatch, G

1998-09-01

189

Effect of Potential Amine Prodrugs of Selective Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors on Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration  

PubMed Central

Several prodrug approaches were taken to mask amino groups in two potent and selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors containing either a primary or secondary amino group to lower the charge and improve blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. The primary amine was masked as an azide and the secondary amine as an amide or carbamate. The azide was not reduced to the amine under a variety of in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Despite the decrease in charge of the amino group as an amide and as carbamates, BBB penetration did not increase. It appears that the use of azides as prodrugs for primary amines or amides and carbamates as prodrugs for secondary amines are not universally effective approaches for CNS applications.

Silverman, Richard B.; Lawton, Graham R; Ranaivo, Hantamalala Ralay; Seo, Jiwon; Watterson, D. Martin

2009-01-01

190

Chitin Nanowhisker Aerogels  

PubMed Central

Chitin nanowhiskers are structured into mesoporous aerogels by using the same benign process used previously in our group to make cellulose nanowhisker aerogels. The nanowhiskers are sonicated in water to form a hydrogel before solvent-exchange with ethanol and drying under supercritical CO2 (scCO2). Aerogels are prepared with various densities and porosities, relating directly to the initial chitin nanowhisker content. scCO2 drying enables the mesoporous network structure to be retained as well as allowing the gel to retain its initial dimensions. The chitin aerogels have low densities (0.043–0.113 g cm?3), high porosities (up to 97 %), surface areas of up to 261 m2 g?1, and mechanical properties at the high end of other reported values (modulus between 7 and 9.3 MPa). The aerogels were further characterized by using X-ray diffraction, BET analysis, electron microscopy, FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization showed that the rod-like crystalline nature of the nanowhiskers was retained during the aerogel production process, making the aerogel truly an assembled structure of chitin nanocrystals. These aerogels also showed the lowest reported shrinkage during drying to date, with an average shrinkage of only 4 %.

Heath, Lindy; Zhu, Lifan; Thielemans, Wim

2013-01-01

191

Chitin nanowhisker aerogels.  

PubMed

Chitin nanowhiskers are structured into mesoporous aerogels by using the same benign process used previously in our group to make cellulose nanowhisker aerogels. The nanowhiskers are sonicated in water to form a hydrogel before solvent-exchange with ethanol and drying under supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ). Aerogels are prepared with various densities and porosities, relating directly to the initial chitin nanowhisker content. scCO2 drying enables the mesoporous network structure to be retained as well as allowing the gel to retain its initial dimensions. The chitin aerogels have low densities (0.043-0.113?g?cm(-3) ), high porosities (up to 97?%), surface areas of up to 261?m(2) ?g(-1) , and mechanical properties at the high end of other reported values (modulus between 7 and 9.3?MPa). The aerogels were further characterized by using X-ray diffraction, BET analysis, electron microscopy, FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization showed that the rod-like crystalline nature of the nanowhiskers was retained during the aerogel production process, making the aerogel truly an assembled structure of chitin nanocrystals. These aerogels also showed the lowest reported shrinkage during drying to date, with an average shrinkage of only 4?%. PMID:23335426

Heath, Lindy; Zhu, Lifan; Thielemans, Wim

2013-03-01

192

Chitin synthesis in chlorovirus CVK2-infected chlorella cells.  

PubMed

Hyaluronan synthesis in chlorovirus PBCV-1-infected Chlorella cells was previously reported (DeAngelis et al., 1997). In contrast, we report here on the detection, characterization, and expression of a gene for chitin synthase (chs) encoded by chlorovirus CVK2 isolated in Kyoto, Japan. The CVK2 chs gene encoding an open reading frame of 516 aa was expressed as early as 10 min postinfection (p.i.), peaked at 20-40 min p.i., and disappeared at 120-180 min p.i. The chitin polysaccharide began to accumulate as chitinase-sensitive, hair-like fibers on the outside of the virus-infected Chlorella cell wall by 30 min p.i. All chloroviruses without the gene for hyaluronan synthase (has) alternatively contained the chs gene, suggesting the importance of polysaccharide production in the course of virus infection. A few chloroviruses possessed both the chs and has genes and produced chitin and hyaluronan simultaneously. Polysaccharide accumulation on the algal surface may protect virus-infected algae from uptake by other organisms, such as protozoa. Since CVK2 was reported to encode two chitinases and one chitosanase, CVK2 is a very peculiar virus that encodes enzymes required for both the synthesis and the degradation of chitin materials. PMID:12429521

Kawasaki, Takeru; Tanaka, Masahiro; Fujie, Makoto; Usami, Shoji; Sakai, Kazuo; Yamada, Takashi

2002-10-10

193

Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors Induce Apoptosis in Non-Tumorigenic Melan-A Cells Associated with Inhibition of Mitochondrial Respiration  

PubMed Central

The metabolic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) is responsible for the endogenous synthesis of palmitate, a saturated long-chain fatty acid. In contrast to most normal tissues, a variety of human cancers overexpress FASN. One such cancer is cutaneous melanoma, in which the level of FASN expression is associated with tumor invasion and poor prognosis. We previously reported that two FASN inhibitors, cerulenin and orlistat, induce apoptosis in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of these inhibitors on non-tumorigenic melan-a cells. Cerulenin and orlistat treatments were found to induce apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation, in addition to inducing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activating caspases-9 and -3. Transfection with FASN siRNA did not result in apoptosis. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that treatment with the FASN inhibitors did not alter either the mitochondrial free fatty acid content or composition. This result suggests that cerulenin- and orlistat-induced apoptosis events are independent of FASN inhibition. Analysis of the energy-linked functions of melan-a mitochondria demonstrated the inhibition of respiration, followed by a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and the stimulation of superoxide anion generation. The inhibition of NADH-linked substrate oxidation was approximately 40% and 61% for cerulenin and orlistat treatments, respectively, and the inhibition of succinate oxidation was approximately 46% and 52%, respectively. In contrast, no significant inhibition occurred when respiration was supported by the complex IV substrate N,N,N?,N?-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD). The protection conferred by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine indicates that the FASN inhibitors induced apoptosis through an oxidative stress-associated mechanism. In combination, the present results demonstrate that cerulenin and orlistat induce apoptosis in non-tumorigenic cells via mitochondrial dysfunction, independent of FASN inhibition.

Rossato, Franco A.; Zecchin, Karina G.; La Guardia, Paolo G.; Ortega, Rose M.; Alberici, Luciane C.; Costa, Rute A. P.; Catharino, Rodrigo R.; Graner, Edgard; Castilho, Roger F.; Vercesi, Anibal E.

2014-01-01

194

Fatty Acid synthase inhibitors induce apoptosis in non-tumorigenic melan-a cells associated with inhibition of mitochondrial respiration.  

PubMed

The metabolic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) is responsible for the endogenous synthesis of palmitate, a saturated long-chain fatty acid. In contrast to most normal tissues, a variety of human cancers overexpress FASN. One such cancer is cutaneous melanoma, in which the level of FASN expression is associated with tumor invasion and poor prognosis. We previously reported that two FASN inhibitors, cerulenin and orlistat, induce apoptosis in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of these inhibitors on non-tumorigenic melan-a cells. Cerulenin and orlistat treatments were found to induce apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation, in addition to inducing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activating caspases-9 and -3. Transfection with FASN siRNA did not result in apoptosis. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that treatment with the FASN inhibitors did not alter either the mitochondrial free fatty acid content or composition. This result suggests that cerulenin- and orlistat-induced apoptosis events are independent of FASN inhibition. Analysis of the energy-linked functions of melan-a mitochondria demonstrated the inhibition of respiration, followed by a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and the stimulation of superoxide anion generation. The inhibition of NADH-linked substrate oxidation was approximately 40% and 61% for cerulenin and orlistat treatments, respectively, and the inhibition of succinate oxidation was approximately 46% and 52%, respectively. In contrast, no significant inhibition occurred when respiration was supported by the complex IV substrate N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD). The protection conferred by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine indicates that the FASN inhibitors induced apoptosis through an oxidative stress-associated mechanism. In combination, the present results demonstrate that cerulenin and orlistat induce apoptosis in non-tumorigenic cells via mitochondrial dysfunction, independent of FASN inhibition. PMID:24964211

Rossato, Franco A; Zecchin, Karina G; La Guardia, Paolo G; Ortega, Rose M; Alberici, Luciane C; Costa, Rute A P; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Graner, Edgard; Castilho, Roger F; Vercesi, Aníbal E

2014-01-01

195

Pyridinium-1-yl bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of farnesyl diphosphate synthase and bone resorption.  

PubMed

We report the design, synthesis and testing of a series of novel bisphosphonates, pyridinium-1-yl-hydroxy-bisphosphonates, based on the results of comparative molecular similarity indices analysis and pharmacophore modeling studies of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) inhibition, human Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cell activation and bone resorption inhibition. The most potent molecules have high activity against an expressed FPPS from Leishmania major, in Dictyostelium discoideum growth inhibition, in gammadelta T cell activation and in an in vitro bone resorption assay. As such, they represent useful new leads for the discovery of new bone resorption, antiinfective and anticancer drugs. PMID:15828834

Sanders, John M; Song, Yongcheng; Chan, Julian M W; Zhang, Yonghui; Jennings, Samuel; Kosztowski, Thomas; Odeh, Sarah; Flessner, Ryan; Schwerdtfeger, Christine; Kotsikorou, Evangelia; Meints, Gary A; Gómez, Aurora Ortiz; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Raker, Amy M; Wang, Hong; van Beek, Ermond R; Papapoulos, Socrates E; Morita, Craig T; Oldfield, Eric

2005-04-21

196

The mTOR Inhibitor Rapamycin Synergizes with a Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitor to Induce Cytotoxicity in ER/HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Patients with ER/HER2-positive breast cancer have a poor prognosis and are less responsive to selective estrogen receptor modulators; this is presumably due to the crosstalk between ER and HER2. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is essential for the survival and maintenance of the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells. An intimate relationship exists between FASN, ER and HER2. We hypothesized that FASN may be the downstream effector underlying ER/HER2 crosstalk through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in ER/HER2-positive breast cancer. The present study implicated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the regulation of FASN expression in ER/HER2-positive breast cancer cells and demonstrated that rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, inhibited FASN expression. Cerulenin, a FASN inhibitor, synergized with rapamycin to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell migration and tumorigenesis in ER/HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest that inhibiting the mTOR-FASN axis is a promising new strategy for treating ER/HER2-positive breast cancer.

Yan, Chen; Yan, Xue; Jingyue, Yang; Wenchao, Liu; Sheng, Han

2014-01-01

197

Chitin Synthesis in Chlorovirus CVK2Infected Chlorella Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyaluronan synthesis in chlorovirus PBCV-1-infected Chlorella cells was previously reported (DeAngelis et al., 1997). In contrast, we report here on the detection, characterization, and expression of a gene for chitin synthase (chs) encoded by chlorovirus CVK2 isolated in Kyoto, Japan. The CVK2 chs gene encoding an open reading frame of 516 aa was expressed as early as 10 min postinfection

Takeru Kawasaki; Masahiro Tanaka; Makoto Fujie; Shoji Usami; Kazuo Sakai; Takashi Yamada

2002-01-01

198

Echinocandin resistance due to simultaneous FKS mutation and increased cell wall chitin in a Candida albicans bloodstream isolate following brief exposure to caspofungin.  

PubMed

Echinocandins are first-line agents for treating severe invasive candidiasis. Glucan synthase gene (FKS1) mutations lead to echinocandin resistance but the role of enhanced chitin expression is not well recognized in clinical isolates. We report a case of bloodstream Candida albicans infection with both Fks1 hotspot mutation and elevated cell wall chitin. PMID:22653922

Imtiaz, Toufeeq; Lee, Kathy K; Munro, Carol A; Maccallum, Donna M; Shankland, Gillian S; Johnson, Elizabeth M; Macgregor, Mark S; Bal, Abhijit M

2012-09-01

199

Rates and mechanisms of resistance development in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a novel diarylquinoline ATP synthase inhibitor.  

PubMed

R207910 (also known as TMC207) is an investigational drug currently in clinical studies for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. It has a high degree of antimycobacterial activity and is equally effective against drug-susceptible and MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. In the present study, we characterized the development of resistance to R207910 in vitro. Ninety-seven independent R207910-resistant mutants were selected from seven different clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis (three drug-susceptible and four MDR isolates) at 10x, 30x, and 100x the MIC. At a concentration of 0.3 mg/liter (10x the MIC), the mutation rates ranged from 4.7 x 10(-7) to 8.9 x 10(-9) mutations per cell per division, and at 1.0 mg/liter (30x the MIC) the mutation rate ranged from 3.9 x 10(-8) to 2.4 x 10(-9). No resistant mutants were obtained at 3 mg/liter (100x the MIC). The level of resistance ranged from 0.12 to 3.84 mg/liter for the mutants identified; these concentrations represent 4- to 128-fold increases in the MICs. For 53 of the resistant mutants, the atpE gene, which encodes a transmembrane and oligomeric C subunit of the ATP synthase and which was previously shown to be involved in resistance, was sequenced. For 15/53 mutants, five different point mutations resulting in five different amino acid substitutions were identified in the atpE gene. For 38/53 mutants, no atpE mutations were found and sequencing of the complete F0 ATP synthase operon (atpB, atpE, and atpF genes) and the F1 ATP synthase operon (atpH, atpA, atpG, atpD, and atpC genes) from three mutants revealed no mutations, indicating other, alternative resistance mechanisms. Competition assays showed no measurable reduction in the fitness of the mutants compared to that of the isogenic wild types. PMID:20038615

Huitric, E; Verhasselt, P; Koul, A; Andries, K; Hoffner, S; Andersson, D I

2010-03-01

200

The role of cellular folates in the enhancement of activity of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolate against hepatoma cells in vitro by inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase.  

PubMed

Exposure of growing cultures of hepatoma cells in vitro to the lipid-soluble dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors metoprine (36 nM) or trimetrexate (2 nM) at subtoxic concentrations causes little change in cell growth rate, colony forming ability, cell cycle distribution, and de novo purine and thymidylate biosynthesis. The reductase inhibitors augment the cytotoxic activity of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor, 10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolate by nearly 10-fold under optimal conditions. Treatment of the hepatoma cells with the reductase inhibitors for 72 h during growth caused approximately a 75% reduction in total cellular folates and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (primarily as polyglutamates) the substrate for thymidylate synthase. The reductase inhibitors also cause a doubling in the accumulation of 10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolate polyglutamates. The combined antifolate treatment (metoprine or trimetrexate plus 10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolate) expands the dUMP pool by 30-fold, which is more than the sum of either of the antifolates alone. Consequently, it is postulated that the enhanced activity of 10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolate in combination with low concentrations of dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors is due to an increase in the ratio of inhibitor to substrate for thymidylate synthase of nearly 10-fold and an extensive enhancement of the dUMP pool. These conditions predispose the target enzyme and the cells to more effective metabolic blockade by 10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolate which is presumably caused by the formation of an inhibited 10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolate[polyglutamate]-thymidylate synthase-dUMP ternary complex. PMID:2525127

Galivan, J; Rhee, M S; Johnson, T B; Dilwith, R; Nair, M G; Bunni, M; Priest, D G

1989-06-25

201

Endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in the biology of disease: markers, mediators and regulators?  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric methylarginines inhibit nitric oxide synthesis in vivo by competing with L-arginine at the active site of nitric oxide synthase. High circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine predict adverse outcomes, specifically vascular events but there is now increasing experimental and epidemiological evidence that these molecules, and the enzymes that regulate this pathway, play a mechanistic role in cardiovascular diseases. Recent data have provided insight into the impact of altered levels of these amino-acids in both humans and rodents, however these reports also suggest a simplistic approach based on measuring and/or modulating circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine alone is inadequate. This review will outline the basic biochemistry and physiology of endogenous methylarginines, examine both the experimental and observational evidence for a role in disease pathogenesis and examine the potential for therapeutic regulation of these molecules.

Caplin, Ben; Leiper, James

2014-01-01

202

Crystal structure of yeast acetohydroxyacid synthase: a target for herbicidal inhibitors.  

PubMed

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; EC 4.1.3.18) catalyzes the first step in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. The enzyme requires thiamin diphosphate and FAD for activity, but the latter is unexpected, because the reaction involves no oxidation or reduction. Due to its presence in plants, AHAS is a target for sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides. Here, the crystal structure to 2.6 A resolution of the catalytic subunit of yeast AHAS is reported. The active site is located at the dimer interface and is near the proposed herbicide-binding site. The conformation of FAD and its position in the active site are defined. The structure of AHAS provides a starting point for the rational design of new herbicides. PMID:11902841

Pang, Siew Siew; Duggleby, Ronald G; Guddat, Luke W

2002-03-22

203

Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis by orlistat, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor.  

PubMed

Orlistat, an antiobesity drug, is cytostatic and cytotoxic to tumor cells. The antitumor activity of orlistat can be attributed to its ability to inhibit the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase (FAS). The objective of the present study was to test the effect of orlistat on endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Orlistat inhibits endothelial cell FAS, blocks the synthesis of fatty acids, and prevents endothelial cell proliferation. More significantly, orlistat inhibits human neovascularization in an ex vivo assay, which suggests that it may be useful as an antiangiogenic drug. The mechanism of these effects can be traced to the fact that orlistat prevents the display of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR2/KDR/Flk1) on the endothelial cell surface. Thus, orlistat is an antiangiogenic agent with a novel mechanism of action. PMID:17012255

Browne, Cecille D; Hindmarsh, Elizabeth J; Smith, Jeffrey W

2006-10-01

204

Pacing-induced delayed protection against arrhythmias is attenuated by aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase  

PubMed Central

Cardiac pacing, in anaesthetized dogs, protects against ischaemia and reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias when this is initiated 24?h after the pacing stimulus. Now we have examined whether this delayed cardioprotection afforded by cardiac pacing is mediated through nitric oxide.Twenty-two dogs were paced (4×5?min periods at 220 beats min?1) by way of the right ventricle, 24?h prior to a 25?min period of coronary artery occlusion. Nine of these dogs were given the inhibitor of induced nitric oxide synthase, aminoguanidine (50?mg?kg?1?i.v.), 0.5?h prior to coronary artery occlusion. Sham-operated non-paced dogs with and without aminoguanidine treatment served as controls.Pacing markedly (P<0.05) reduced arrhythmia severity (ventricular fibrillation, VF, during occlusion 15%; survival from the combined ischaemia-reperfusion insult 62%) compared to control, sham-operated, unpaced dogs (VF during occlusion 58%; survival 17%). This protection was attenuated by the administration of aminoguanidine prior to coronary artery occlusion (survival from the combined ischaemia-reperfusion insult 11%, which was significantly (P<0.05) less than in the paced dogs not given aminoguanidine and similar to the controls). Aminoguanidine had no significant effects on coronary artery occlusion when given to dogs that had not been paced. In the dose used aminoguanadine transiently elevated systemic arterial pressure by a mean of 20?mmHg and reduced heart rate by a mean of 22 beats min?1.These results suggest that nitric oxide, probably derived from induced nitric oxide synthase, contributes significantly to the delayed cardioprotection afforded by cardiac pacing.

Kis, Adrienn; Vegh, Agnes; Papp, Julius; Parratt, James

1999-01-01

205

Relationship between obesity, smoking, and the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an important endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO), as related to metabolic risk factors known to contribute to atherosclerotic disease. Dimethylarginines were analysed in a cross-sectional study of 563 elderly high-risk men (70 ± 6 years). ADMA and the l-arginine\\/ADMA (l-arg\\/ADMA) ratio were highly significantly correlated with several metabolic risk factors. However,

Hilde M. A. Eid; Harald Arnesen; Elsa M. Hjerkinn; Torstein Lyberg; Ingebjørg Seljeflot

2004-01-01

206

The crystal structure of spermidine synthase with a multisubstrate adduct inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Polyamines are essential in all branches of life. Spermidine synthase (putrescine aminopropyltransferase, PAPT) catalyzes the biosynthesis of spermidine, a ubiquitous polyamine. The crystal structure of the PAPT from Thermotoga maritima (TmPAPT) has been solved to 1.5 Å resolution in the presence and absence of AdoDATO (S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thiooctane), a compound containing both substrate and product moieties. This, the first structure of an aminopropyltransferase, reveals deep cavities for binding substrate and cofactor, and a loop that envelops the active site. The AdoDATO binding site is lined with residues conserved in PAPT enzymes from bacteria to humans, suggesting a universal catalytic mechanism. Other conserved residues act sterically to provide a structural basis for polyamine specificity. The enzyme is tetrameric; each monomer consists of a C-terminal domain with a Rossmann-like fold and an N-terminal ?-stranded domain. The tetramer is assembled using a novel barrel-type oligomerization motif.

Korolev, Sergey; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Skarina, Tatiana; Beasley, Steven; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Pegg, Anthony E.; Savchenko, Alexei

2009-01-01

207

Fatty acid synthase inhibitors from plants: isolation, structure elucidation, and SAR studies.  

PubMed

Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been identified as a potential antifungal target. FAS prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was employed for bioactivity-guided fractionation of Chlorophora tinctoria,Paspalum conjugatum, Symphonia globulifera, Buchenavia parviflora, and Miconia pilgeriana. Thirteen compounds (1-13), including three new natural products (1, 4, 12), were isolated and their structures identified by spectroscopic interpretation. They represented five chemotypes, namely, isoflavones, flavones, biflavonoids, hydrolyzable tannin-related derivatives, and triterpenoids. 3'-Formylgenistein (1) and ellagic acid 4-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (9) were the most potent compounds against FAS, with IC(50) values of 2.3 and 7.5 microg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, 43 (14-56) analogues of the five chemotypes from our natural product repository and commercial sources were tested for their FAS inhibitory activity. Structure-activity relationships for some chemotypes were investigated. All these compounds were further evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although there were several antifungal compounds in the set, correlation between the FAS inhibitory activity and antifungal activity could not be defined. PMID:12502337

Li, Xing-Cong; Joshi, Alpana S; ElSohly, Hala N; Khan, Shabana I; Jacob, Melissa R; Zhang, Zhizheng; Khan, Ikhlas A; Ferreira, Daneel; Walker, Larry A; Broedel, Sheldon E; Raulli, Robert E; Cihlar, Ronald L

2002-12-01

208

Design and synthesis of new potent inhibitors of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase.  

PubMed

Predictive QSAR models for the inhibition activities of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) against farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) from Leishmania major (LeFPPS) were developed using a data set of 97 compounds. The QSAR models were developed through the use of Artificial Neural Networks and Random Forest learning procedures. The predictive ability of the models was tested by means of leave-one-out cross-validation; Q(2)values ranging from 0.45-0.79 were obtained for the regression models. The consensus prediction for the external evaluation set afforded high predictive power (Q(2)=0.76 for 35 compounds). The robustness of the QSAR models was also evaluated using a Y-randomization procedure. A small set of 6 new N-BPs were designed and synthesized applying the Michael reaction of tetrakis (trimethylsilyl) ethenylidene bisphosphonate with amines. The inhibition activities of these compounds against LeFPPS were predicted by the developed QSAR models and were found to correlate with their fungistatic activities against Candida albicans. The antifungal activities of N-BPs bearing n-butyl and cyclopropyl side chains exceeded the activities of Fluconazole, a triazole-containing antifungal drug. In conclusion, the N-BPs developed here present promising candidate drugs for the treatment of fungal diseases. PMID:24818603

Prokopenko, Volodymyr; Kovalishyn, Vasyl; Shevchuk, Michael; Kopernyk, Iryna; Metelytsia, Larysa; Romanenko, Vadim; Mogilevich, Sergey; Kukhar, Valery

2014-06-01

209

Use of a chitin synthesis inhibitor to control fleas on wild rodents important in the maintenance of plague, Yersinia pestis, in California.  

PubMed

A study was designed to test the insect development inhibitors fluazuron and lufenuron for the control of fleas on sylvatic rodents as an adjunct to the control of plague. Historical data of flea burden from 15 prior years of study at Chuchupate Campground, Ventura County, CA, were compared to six years of treatment period data to determine if fluazuron and lufenuron were effective in controlling flea densities. The insect development inhibitors, delivered systemically via a feed cube, reduced flea loads effectively on California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi), long-eared woodrats (Neotoma macrotis), and mice (Peromyscus spp.) but not on Merriam's chipmunks (Tamias merriami). PMID:19263847

Davis, Richard M; Cleugh, Erika; Smith, Randall T; Fritz, Curtis L

2008-12-01

210

Long-term neuroprotection with 2-iminobiotin, an inhibitor of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase, after cerebral hypoxia–ischemia in neonatal rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short- and long-term neuroprotective effects of 2-iminobiotin, a selective inhibitor of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase, were studied in 12-day-old rats following hypoxia–ischemia. Hypoxia–ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right carotid artery followed by 90 minutes of hypoxia (FiO2 0.08). Immediately on reoxygenation, 12 and 24 hours later the rats were treated with vehicle or 2-iminobiotin at

Evelyn R W van den Tweel; Frank van Bel; Annemieke Kavelaars; Cacha M P C D Peeters-Scholte; Johan Haumann; Cora H A Nijboer; Cobi J Heijnen; Floris Groenendaal

2005-01-01

211

Plasma Concentration of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, an Endogenous Inhibitor of Nitric Oxide Synthase, Is Elevated in Monkeys With Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia or Hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms responsible for endothelial dysfunction in hyperhomocyst(e)inemia may involve impaired bioavailability of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide. We tested the hypothesis that hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is associated with an elevated plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. One group of adult cynomolgus monkeys was fed either a control or hyperhomocyst(e)inemic diet for

Rainer H. Boger; Stefanie M. Bode-Boger; Karsten Sydow; Donald D. Heistad; Steven R. Lentz

2010-01-01

212

Resistance of a Rodent Malaria Parasite to a Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitor Induces an Apoptotic Parasite Death and Imposes a Huge Cost of Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe greatest impediment to effective malaria control is drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, and thus understanding how resistance impacts on the parasite's fitness and pathogenicity may aid in malaria control strategy.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo generate resistance, P. berghei NK65 was subjected to 5-fluoroorotate (FOA, an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, TS) pressure in mice. After 15 generations of drug pressure, the 2% DT

Francis W. Muregi; Isao Ohta; Uchijima Masato; Hideto Kino; Akira Ishih

2011-01-01

213

Glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscles: defects in insulin signalling and the effects of a selective glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Treatment with glucocorticoids, especially at high doses, induces insulin resistance. The aims of the present study were to identify the potential defects in insulin signalling that contribute to dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscles, and to investigate whether the glycogen synthase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor CHIR-637 could restore insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism.Materials and methods  Skeletal muscles were made insulin-resistant by treating male Wistar rats

J. Ruzzin; A. S. Wagman; J. Jensen

2005-01-01

214

Efficacy of the selective prostaglandin synthase type 2 inhibitor nimesulide in blocking basal prostaglandin production and delaying glucocorticoid-induced premature labor in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of selective prostaglandin synthase type 2 inhibitors on basal prostaglandin concentrations in the fetal and maternal circulations and on the labor-associated increase in prostaglandin production in sheep. Study Design: The effects of maternal nimesulide (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg\\/kg) and 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (1, 5, and 10 mg\\/kg) administration were

Kirsten R. Poore; I. Ross Young; Jonathan J. Hirst

1999-01-01

215

The impact of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADAMA), the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, to the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage.  

PubMed

This review was designed to provide an update on the role of asymmetric arginine (ADMA), the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase in the pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Numerous studies in the past confirmed that NO is a multifunctional endogenous gas molecule involved in most of the body organs' functional and metabolic processes including the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) secretory functions, motility, maintenance of GI integrity, gastroprotection and ulcer healing. NO is metabolized from L-arginine by enzymatic reaction in the presence of constitutive NO synthase. In upper GI tract, NO acts as a potent vasodilator known to increase gastric mucosa blood flow, regulates the secretion of mucus and bicarbonate, inhibits the gastric secretion and protects the gastric mucosa against the damage induced by a variety of damaging agents and corrosive substances. In contrast, ADMA first time described by Vallance and coworkers in 1992, is synthesized by the hydrolysis of proteins containing methylated arginine amino acids located predominantly within the nucleus of cells. This molecule has been shown to competitively inhibit NO synthase suggesting its regulatory role in the functions of vascular endothelial cells and systemic circulation in humans and experimental animals. Nowadays, ADMA is a potentially important risk factor for coronary artery diseases and a marker of cardiovascular risk. Increased plasma levels of ADMA have been documented in several conditions that are characterized by endothelial dysfunction, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, renal failure and tobacco exposure. The role of ADMA in other systems including GI-tract has been so far less documented. Nevertheless, ADMA was shown to directly induce oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells in vitro and to contribute to the inflammatory reaction associated with major human pathogen to gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori). Infection of gastric mucosa with this germ or H. pylori water extract led to marked increase in the plasma concentration of ADMA and significantly inhibited bicarbonate secretion, considered as one of the important components of upper GI-tract defense system. When administered to rodents, ADMA aggravated gastric mucosal lesions injury induced by cold stress, ethanol and indomethacin and this worsening effect on gastric lesions was accompanied by the significant increase in the plasma level of ADMA. This exaggeration of gastric lesions by ADMA was coincided with the inhibition of NO, the suppression of gastric blood flow and excessive release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-?. This metabolic analog of L-arginine applied to rats was exposed to water immersion and restraint stress and ischemia-reperfusion, causing an elevation of plasma levels of ADMA and gastric MDA content, which is the marker of lipid peroxidation. These effects, including the rise in the plasma levels of ADMA in rats with stress and ischemia-reperfusion-induced gastric lesions, were attenuated by concomitant treatment with L-arginine, the substrate for NO-synthase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), a reactive oxygen metabolite scavenger added to ADMA. We conclude that ADMA could be considered as an important factor contributing to the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage and inflammatory reaction in H. pylori-infected stomach due to inhibition of NO, suppression of GI microcirculation, and the proinflammatory and proapoptotic actions of this arginine analog. PMID:22950506

Szlachcic, Aleksandra; Krzysiek-Maczka, Gracjana; Pajdo, Robert; Targosz, Aneta; Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

2013-01-01

216

L-arginine binding to human inducible nitric oxide synthase: an antisymmetric funnel route toward isoform-specific inhibitors?  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule produced by a family of enzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Because NO is involved in various pathological conditions, the development of potent and isoform-selective NOS inhibitors is an important challenge. In the present study, the dimer of oxygenase domain of human iNOS (iNOSoxy) complexed to its natural substrate L-arginine (L-Arg) and both heme and tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) cofactors was studied through multiple molecular dynamics simulations. Starting from the X-ray structure available for that complex (PDB: 1NSI ), a 16 ns equilibration trajectory was first obtained. Twelve dynamics of slow extraction of L-Arg out from the iNOSoxy active site were then performed. The steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach was used starting from three different points of the reference trajectory for a total simulation time of 35 ns. A probable unbinding/binding pathway of L-Arg was characterized. It was suggested that a driving force directed the substrate toward the heme pocket. Key intermediate steps/residues along the access route to the active site were identified along this "funnel shape" pathway and compared to existing data. A quasi-normal mode analysis performed on the SMD data suggested that large collective motions of the protein may be involved in L-Arg binding and that opening the route to the active site in one monomer promoted an inverse, closing motion in the second monomer. Finally, our findings might help to rationalize the design of human iNOS isoform competitive inhibitors. PMID:21574590

Floquet, Nicolas; Hernandez, Jean-François; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Martinez, Jean

2011-06-27

217

Deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) expression and sensitivity to the thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitorD9331  

PubMed Central

Uracil DNA misincorporation and misrepair of DNA have been recognized as important events accompanying thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition. dUTPase catalyses the hydrolysis of dUTP to dUMP, thereby maintaining low intracellular dUTP. We have addressed the relationship between dUTPase expression and cellular sensitivity to TS inhibition in four human lung tumour cell lines. Sensitivity (5-day MTT assay) to the growth inhibitory effects of the non-polyglutamatable, specific quinazoline TS inhibitor ZD9331, varied up to 20-fold (IC 50 3–70 nM). TS protein expression correlated with TS activity (r2= 0.88 P= 0.05). Intracellular concentrations of drug following exposure to ZD9331 (1 ?M, 24 h) varied by ~2-fold and dTTP pools decreased by > 80% in all cell lines. No clear associations across the cell lines between intracellular drug concentrations, TS activity/expression, or TTP depletion could be made. dUTPase activity varied 17-fold and correlated with dUTPase protein expression (r2= 0.94 P= 0.03). There was a striking variation in the amount of dUTP formed following exposure to ZD9331 (between 1.3 and 57 pmole 10–6cells) and was in general inversely associated with dUTPase activity. A large expansion in the dUTP pool was associated with increased sensitivity to a 24-h exposure to ZD9331 in A549 cells that have low dUTPase activity/expression. dUTPase expression and activity were elevated (approximately 3-fold) in two variants of a human lymphoblastoid cell line with acquired resistance to TS inhibitors, further suggesting an important role for this enzyme in TS inhibited cells. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

Webley, S D; Hardcastle, A; Ladner, R D; Jackman, A L; Aherne, G W

2000-01-01

218

Discovery of thienopyrimidine-based inhibitors of the human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase--parallel synthesis of analogs via a trimethylsilyl ylidene intermediate.  

PubMed

Thienopyrimidine-based bisphosphonates were identified as a new class of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (N-BP) inhibitors of the human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (hFPPS). Analogs were prepared via cyclization of 2-(1-(trimethylsilyl)ethylidene)malononitrile to 2-amino-4-(trimethylsilyl)thiophene-3-carbonitrile in the presence of elemental sulfur. Direct ipso-iododesilylation of this intermediate led to selective iodination at C? of the sulfur atom in high efficiency. The synthetic protocols developed were used in the parallel synthesis of structurally diverse thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine-based bisphosphonate inhibitors of hFPPS. PMID:23477945

Leung, Chun-Yuen; Langille, Adrienne M; Mancuso, John; Tsantrizos, Youla S

2013-04-15

219

Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ?-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester, on silica-induced inflammatory reaction and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background Although nitric oxide is overproduced by macrophages and neutrophils after exposure to silica, its role in silica-induced inflammatory reaction and apoptosis needs further clarification. In this study, rats were intratracheally instilled with either silica suspension or saline to examine inflammatory reactions and intraperitoneally injected with ?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, or saline to examine the possible role of nitric oxide production in the reaction. Results Results showed that silica instillation induced a strong inflammatory reaction indicated by increased total cell number, number of neutrophils, protein concentration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). There were no significant differences in these indices between silica-instilled groups with and without L-NAME injection (p > 0.05) except LDH level. The results also showed that apoptotic leucocytes were identified in BALF cells of silica-instilled groups whereas no significant difference was found between silica-instilled groups with and without L-NAME injection in the apoptotic reaction (p > 0.05). Silica instillation significantly increased the level of BALF nitrite/nitrate and L-NAME injection reduced this increase. Conclusion Intratracheal instillation of silica caused an obvious inflammatory reaction and leucocyte apoptosis, but these reactions were not influenced by intraperitoneal injection of L-NAME and reduced production of NO. This supports the possibility that silica-induced lung inflammation and BALF cell apoptosis are via NO-independent mechanisms.

Wang, He; Leigh, James

2006-01-01

220

Neurobiological effect of 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in experimental paradigm of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide plays a role in a series of neurobiological functions, underlying behaviour and memory. The functional role of nNOS derived nitric oxide in cognitive functions is elusive. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Learning and memory behaviour was assessed using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. 7-nitroindazole (25 mg/kg, ip) was administered as prophylactically (30 min before intracerebroventricular streptozotocin injection on day 1) and therapeutically (30 min before the assessment of memory by Morris water maze on day 15). Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin produced significant cognitive deficits coupled with alterations in biochemical indices.These behavioural and biochemical changes were significantly prevented by prophylactic treatment of 7-nitroindazole. However, therapeutic intervention of 7-nitroindazole did not show any significant reversal. The results suggests that 7-nitroindazole can be effective in the protection of dementiainduced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin only when given prophylactically but not therapeutically. PMID:24579374

Misra, Shubham; Kuhad, Anurag; Chopra, Kanwaljit

2013-12-01

221

Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME on fear extinction in rats: A task-dependent effect.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that nitric oxide may be involved in learning and memory. However, there remain comparatively few studies that have explored the relationship between nitric oxide signaling and fear extinction, an inhibitory learning model. In the present study, we tested the effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME on three tone fear extinction tasks in rats. In task 1, rats received fear conditioning, extinction training and extinction test in the same context (AAA design). In task 2, rats received fear conditioning in context A, extinction training in context B and extinction test in context A (ABA design). In task 3, rats received fear conditioning in context A, extinction training and extinction test in context B (ABB design). l-NAME (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30min prior to extinction training in each task. Percent of time spent freezing was used to measure conditioned fear response. We found that l-NAME administrations had no effect on freezing in task 1 and 2 but produced a dose-dependent increase in task 3. Further results indicated that the increased freezing in task 3 was not attributed to state-dependency effects or nonspecific changes of locomotor activity that followed l-NAME injection. These results showed that l-NAME produced a task-dependent impairment of fear extinction, and implied that nitric oxide signaling was involved in memory process of certain extinction tasks. PMID:24792396

Luo, Huaiqing; Han, Li; Tian, Shaowen

2014-06-20

222

Molecular characterisation of two cell lines selected for resistance to the folate-based thymidylate synthase inhibitor, ZD1694.  

PubMed Central

Resistance to anti-cancer drugs has proved to be a major barrier in the clinical management of neoplastic disease. We have investigated the mechanistic basis for resistance to folate-based thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors using two cell lines selected for resistance to ZD1694 (N-(5-[N-(3,4-dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-6-ylmethyl)-N -methylamino]-2 - thenoyl)-L-glutamic acid), a drug currently in phase III clinical trial. The degree of resistance was > 20,000 for the human lymphoblastoid cell line W1L2:R and approximately 14 for the ovarian carcinoma cell line CH1:R. In both cases resistance was associated with increased TS activity. The W1L2:R cell line had an approximately 100-fold increase in TS gene copy number and mRNA levels and a 500- to 1000-fold increase in enzyme levels determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern and Western blotting. The CH1:R cell line had an approximately 2- to 2.5-fold increase in TS gene copy number, mRNA and protein levels. In both cell lines the fold resistance determined was significantly higher than the fold increase in target enzyme DNA, mRNA or protein levels. Small changes in TS levels may therefore translate to clinically significant alterations in drug sensitivity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Freemantle, S. J.; Jackman, A. L.; Kelland, L. R.; Calvert, A. H.; Lunec, J.

1995-01-01

223

Phytotoxicity of Acetohydroxyacid Synthase Inhibitors Is Not Due to Accumulation of 2-Ketobutyrate and/or 2-Aminobutyrate.  

PubMed

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the site of action of herbicides of different chemical classes, such as imidazolinones, sulfonylureas, and triazolopyrimidines. Inhibition of AHAS causes the accumulation of 2-ketobutyrate (2-KB) and 2-aminobutyrate (2-AB) (the transamination product of 2-KB), and it has been proposed that the phytotoxicity of these inhibitors is due to this accumulation. Experiments were done to determine the relationship between accumulation of 2-KB and 2-AB and the phytotoxicity of imazaquin to maize (Zea mays). Imazaquin concentrations that inhibit growth of maize plants also cause the accumulation of 2-KB and 2-AB in the shoots. Supplementation of imazaquin-treated plants with isoleucine reduced the pools of 2-KB and 2-AB in the plant but did not protect plants from the growth inhibitory effects of imazaquin. Conversely, feeding 2-AB to maize plants increased 2-KB and 2-AB pools to much higher levels than those observed in imazaquin-treated plants, yet such high pools of 2-KB and 2-AB in the plant had no significant effect on growth. These results conclusively demonstrate that growth inhibition following imazaquin treatment is not due to accumulation of 2-KB and/or 2-AB in plants. Changes in the amino acid profiles after treatment with imazaquin suggest that starvation for the branched-chain amino acids may be the primary cause of growth retardation of maize. PMID:12232015

Shaner, D. L.; Singh, B. K.

1993-12-01

224

Characterization of Maleimide-Based Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) Inhibitors as Stimulators of Steroidogenesis  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of GSK-3? has been well documented to account for the behavioral actions of the mood stabilizer lithium in various animal models of mood disorders. Recent studies have showed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3? resulted in anxiolytic-like and pro-social behavior. In our ongoing efforts to develop GSK-3? inhibitors for the treatment of mood disorders, SAR studies on maleimide-based compounds were undertaken. We present herein for the first time that some of these GSK-3? inhibitors, in particular analogs 1 and 9, were able to stimulate progesterone production in the MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cell model of steroidogenesis without any significant toxicity. These two compounds were tested in the SmartCube® behavioral assay and showed anxiolytic-like signatures following daily dose administration (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 13 days. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that GSK-3? inhibition could influence neuroactive steroid production thereby mediating the modulation of anxiety-like behavior in vivo.

Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Midzak, Andrew; Gaisina, Irina N.; Sabath, Emily V.; Fedolak, Allison; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Kozikowski, Alan P.

2013-01-01

225

Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that interact with both heme propionate and tetrahydrobiopterin show high isoform selectivity.  

PubMed

Overproduction of NO by nNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neuronal disorders. Since NO signaling is involved in diverse physiological functions, selective inhibition of nNOS over other isoforms is essential to minimize side effects. A series of ?-amino functionalized aminopyridine derivatives (3-8) were designed to probe the structure-activity relationship between ligand, heme propionate, and H4B. Compound 8R was identified as the most potent and selective molecule of this study, exhibiting a Ki of 24 nM for nNOS, with 273-fold and 2822-fold selectivity against iNOS and eNOS, respectively. Although crystal structures of 8R complexed with nNOS and eNOS revealed a similar binding mode, the selectivity stems from the distinct electrostatic environments in two isoforms that result in much lower inhibitor binding free energy in nNOS than in eNOS. These findings provide a basis for further development of simple, but even more selective and potent, nNOS inhibitors. PMID:24758147

Kang, Soosung; Tang, Wei; Li, Huiying; Chreifi, Georges; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J; Poulos, Thomas L; Silverman, Richard B

2014-05-22

226

Impact of the prostaglandin-synthase 2 inhibitor celecoxib on ovulation and luteal events in women  

PubMed Central

Background Ovarian prostaglandins are critical in normal ovulation processes, thus their inhibition may provide contraceptive benefits. This study was performed to determine the effect of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor, celecoxib, on ovulation and luteal events in women. Study design Randomized double-blind crossover design. Ovulatory reproductive-aged women underwent ovarian ultrasound and serum hormone monitoring during four menstrual cycles (control cycle, treatment cycle 1, washout cycle, treatment cycle 2). Subjects received study drug (oral celecoxib 400 mg or placebo) either 1) once daily starting on cycle day 8 and continuing until follicle rupture or the onset of next menses if follicle rupture did not occur (pre-LH surge dosing) or 2) once daily beginning with the LH surge and continued for 6 days (post-LH surge dosing). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the above treatment schemes and received the other in the subsequent treatment cycle. The main outcomes were evidence of ovulatory and luteal dysfunction as determined by inhibited/delayed follicle rupture and reduced luteal progesterone synthesis or lifespan, respectively. Results A total of 20 women enrolled and completed the study (Group 1 = 10, Group 2 = 10) with similar demographics between groups. Nineteen subjects exhibited normal ovulation in the control cycle (one had a blunted LH peak). In comparison to control cycles, treatment cycles resulted in a significant increase in ovulatory dysfunction [pre-LH treatment: 30% (6/20), p = 0.04; post-LH treatment: 25% (5/20), p = 0.04]. Peak progesterone, estradiol, and LH levels and luteal phase length did not differ significantly between control and either treatment cycles. Conclusions Although treatment with celecoxib before or after the LH surge increases the rate of ovulatory dysfunction, most women ovulate normally. Thus, this selective COX2 inhibitor appears to be of limited usefulness as a potential emergency contraceptive.

Edelman, A.B.; Jensen, J.T.; Doom, C; Hennebold, J.D.

2014-01-01

227

Change of cell wall chitin content in amphotericin B resistant Kluyveromyces strains.  

PubMed

The culture of two Kluyveromyces species, Kluyveromyces lactis (ATCC 96897) and Kluyveromyces bulgaricus (ATCC 96631), in the presence of subinhibitory doses of amphotericin B leads to the selection of mutants which are resistant to this polyene. The mutants show an alteration of their cell wall composition with the main change corresponding to an increase of chitin. The enzyme activities involved in the metabolism of this polymer, i.e. chitin synthases and chitinase, were measured. The results demonstrate that in both mutants the activity of chitinase was drastically decreased by 99% in comparison with the activity measured in the corresponding wild-type strain while no significant change of the chitin synthase I, II and III activities could be detected. PMID:12423759

Bahmed, Karim; Bonaly, Roger; Wathier, Michel; Pucci, Bernard; Coulon, Joël

2002-10-29

228

Identification of chitin as a structural component of Giardia cysts.  

PubMed

The intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia is a significant cause of diarrheal disease, which is perpetuated by the infective cyst form of the parasite. Although a rational approach to the control of giardiasis would be to inhibit cyst formation, nothing is known of the chemical composition of the cyst wall or of its biosynthesis. In these studies, we have shown that chitin is a major structural component of G. lamblia and G. muris cyst walls. This conclusion is based on the finding that chitinase specifically destroys the cyst wall, as revealed by electron microscopy. The presence of chitin was also shown directly by lectin binding studies. Of 12 lectins with diverse carbohydrate recognition specificity, only the N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectins wheat germ agglutinin, succinylated wheat germ agglutinin, and tomato lectin bound to cyst walls, as shown by fluorescence microscopy and cytochemistry. Wheat germ agglutinin binding was completely abolished by treatment of the cysts with purified chitinase. This effect was specific since it could be prevented by incubating the enzyme with chitin before treatment of the cysts. Treatment of cysts with N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase partially inhibited wheat germ agglutinin binding, whereas other glycosidases and proteases had no effect. These findings indicate that chitin is a major structural component of Giardia cyst walls and raise the possibility that inhibitors of chitin synthesis may be of use in preventing encystation and thus controlling spread of the disease. PMID:4030095

Ward, H D; Alroy, J; Lev, B I; Keusch, G T; Pereira, M E

1985-09-01

229

Expression of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and its inhibitor, protein inhibitor of nNOS, in pigment cell lesions of the skin.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in many physiological processes. In cancer, low levels of NO are thought to enhance tumour progression and metastasis. NO is generated from arginine by NO synthase (NOS); the Ca2+-dependent neuronal isoform or nNOS (expressed by neurones and inhibited by the protein inhibitor of nNOS, PIN), is also expressed by cultured normal melanocytes and by all malignant melanoma (MM) cell lines. We studied the expression of nNOS and PIN in paraffin sections of 177 and 58 pigment cell lesions, respectively, using immunohistochemistry; the activity of the necessary cofactor NADPH was studied in 26 frozen cases. Normal melanocytes in situ lacked nNOS and PIN expression, but were NADPH +. Almost half of common acquired benign naevi expressed nNOS; however, halo naevi and congenital naevi expressed nNOS very frequently. Dysplastic naevi and MM showed variable nNOS immunoreactivity in 72% and 83% of cases, respectively. Early (Clark I and Clark II) MM displayed nNOS staining most frequently, and all MM with an invasive radial growth phase expressed nNOS in the papillary dermis. In contrast, only 67% of metastatic MM were nNOS +. PIN was coexpressed with nNOS in 40 of 58 lesions. NADPH activity was present in all nNOS + naevi, but in two malignant cases, NADPH activity was not accompanied by nNOS expression. We conclude that nNOS expression is induced de novo in benign and malignant pigment cell lesions which have all the requirements (NADPH, PIN) necessary for the production and modulation of NO. We postulate that the frequent expression of nNOS in the junctional part of dysplastic naevi may be responsible for their particular histological features. NO generated by the neoplastic dermal cells in the invasive radial growth phase may contribute to the increased number of blood vessels in the papillary dermis. PMID:10417510

Ahmed, B; Van Den Oord, J J

1999-07-01

230

The Effects of C75, an Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Synthase, on Sleep and Metabolism in Mice  

PubMed Central

Sleep is greatly affected by changes in metabolic state. A possible mechanism where energy-sensing and sleep-regulatory functions overlap is related to lipid metabolism. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) plays a central role in lipid metabolism as a key enzyme in the formation of long-chain fatty acids. We studied the effects of systemic administration of C75, an inhibitor of FAS, on sleep, behavioral activity and metabolic parameters in mice. Since the effects of C75 on feeding and metabolism are the opposite of ghrelin's and C75 suppresses ghrelin production, we also tested the role of ghrelin signaling in the actions of C75 by using ghrelin receptor knockout (KO) mice. After a transient increase in wakefulness, C75 elicited dose-dependent and long lasting inhibition of REMS, motor activity and feeding. Simultaneously, C75 significantly attenuated slow-wave activity of the electroencephalogram. Energy expenditure, body temperature and respiratory exchange ratio were suppressed. The diurnal rhythm of feeding was completely abolished by C75. There was significant correlation between the anorectic effects, the decrease in motor activity and the diminished energy expenditure after C75 injection. We found no significant difference between wild-type and ghrelin receptor KO mice in their sleep and metabolic responses to C75. The effects of C75 resemble to what was previously reported in association with visceral illness. Our findings suggest that sleep and metabolic effects of C75 in mice are independent of the ghrelin system and may be due to its aversive actions in mice.

Pellinen, Jacob; Szentirmai, Eva

2012-01-01

231

Amino-acid substitutions at the domain interface affect substrate and allosteric inhibitor binding in ?-isopropylmalate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

?-Isopropylmalate synthase (?-IPMS) is a multi-domain protein catalysing the condensation of ?-ketoisovalerate (?-KIV) and acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to form ?-isopropylmalate. This reaction is the first committed step in the leucine biosynthetic pathway in bacteria and plants, and ?-IPMS is allosterically regulated by this amino acid. Existing crystal structures of ?-IPMS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtuIPMS) indicate that this enzyme has a strikingly different domain arrangement in each monomer of the homodimeric protein. This asymmetry results in two distinct interfaces between the N-terminal catalytic domains and the C-terminal regulatory domains in the dimer. In this study, residues Arg97 and Asp444 across one of these unequal domain interfaces were substituted to evaluate the importance of protein asymmetry and salt bridge formation between this pair of residues. Analysis of solution-phase structures of wild-type and variant MtuIPMS indicates that substitutions of these residues have little effect on overall protein conformation, a result also observed for addition of the feedback inhibitor leucine to the wild-type enzyme. All variants had increased catalytic efficiency relative to wild-type MtuIPMS, and those with an Asp444 substitution displayed increased affinity for the substrate AcCoA. All variants also showed reduced sensitivity to leucine and altered biphasic reaction kinetics when compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. It is proposed that substituting residues at the asymmetric domain interface increases flexibility in the protein, particularly affecting the AcCoA binding site and the response to leucine, without penalty on catalysis. PMID:23500460

Huisman, Frances H A; Squire, Christopher J; Parker, Emily J

2013-04-01

232

The fatty acid synthase inhibitor orlistat reduces the growth and metastasis of orthotopic tongue oral squamous cell carcinomas.  

PubMed

Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is the biosynthetic enzyme responsible for the endogenous synthesis of fatty acids. It is downregulated in most normal cells, except in lipogenic tissues such as liver, lactating breast, fetal lung, and adipose tissue. Conversely, several human cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), overexpress FASN, which has been associated with poor prognosis and recently suggested as a metabolic oncoprotein. Orlistat is an irreversible inhibitor of FASN activity with cytotoxic properties on several cancer cell lines that inhibits tumor progression and metastasis in prostate cancer xenografts and experimental melanomas, respectively. To explore whether the inhibition of FASN could impact oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) metastatic spread, an orthotopic model was developed by the implantation of SCC-9 ZsGreen LN-1 cells into the tongue of BALB/c nude mice. These cells were isolated through in vivo selection, show a more invasive behavior in vitro than the parental cells, and generate orthotopic tumors that spontaneously metastasize to cervical lymph nodes in 10 to 15 days only. SCC-9 ZsGreen LN-1 cells also exhibit enhanced production of MMP-2, ERBB2, and CDH2. The treatment with orlistat reduced proliferation and migration, promoted apoptosis, and stimulated the secretion of VEGFA165b by SCC-9 ZsGreen LN-1 cells. In vivo, the drug was able to decrease both the volume and proliferation indexes of the tongue orthotopic tumors and, importantly, reduced the number of metastatic cervical lymph nodes by 43%. These results suggest that FASN is a potential molecular target for the chemotherapy of patients with OTSCC. PMID:24362464

Agostini, Michelle; Almeida, Luciana Y; Bastos, Débora C; Ortega, Rose M; Moreira, Fernanda S; Seguin, Fabiana; Zecchin, Karina G; Raposo, Helena F; Oliveira, Helena C F; Amoêdo, Nivea D; Salo, Tuula; Coletta, Ricardo D; Graner, Edgard

2014-03-01

233

Reshuffling of Aspergillus fumigatus Cell Wall Components Chitin and ?-Glucan under the Influence of Caspofungin or Nikkomycin Z Alone or in Combination  

PubMed Central

Chitin and ?-glucan are major cell wall components of Aspergillus spp. We investigated the antifungal activity of chitin synthesis inhibitors nikkomycin Z, polyoxin D, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and teflubenzuron, alone and combined with the ?-glucan synthesis inhibitor caspofungin. Only nikkomycin Z and caspofungin were found to act synergistically. The nikkomycin Z-induced chitin decrease corresponded with a ?-glucan increase, while with the caspofungin-induced ?-glucan decrease, an increase in chitin was found. This could explain the synergistic activity of this combination of drugs.

van Duijn, M. L.; Tavakol, M.; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A. J. M.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.

2012-01-01

234

Reshuffling of Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall components chitin and ?-glucan under the influence of caspofungin or nikkomycin Z alone or in combination.  

PubMed

Chitin and ?-glucan are major cell wall components of Aspergillus spp. We investigated the antifungal activity of chitin synthesis inhibitors nikkomycin Z, polyoxin D, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and teflubenzuron, alone and combined with the ?-glucan synthesis inhibitor caspofungin. Only nikkomycin Z and caspofungin were found to act synergistically. The nikkomycin Z-induced chitin decrease corresponded with a ?-glucan increase, while with the caspofungin-induced ?-glucan decrease, an increase in chitin was found. This could explain the synergistic activity of this combination of drugs. PMID:22203603

Verwer, Patricia E B; van Duijn, M L; Tavakol, M; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M; van de Sande, Wendy W J

2012-03-01

235

The Discovery of Potentially Selective Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) Inhibitors: A Combination of Pharmacophore Modelling, CoMFA, Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies  

PubMed Central

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays an important role in neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation. Selective inhibition of nNOS over its other isozymes is highly desirable for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases to avoid undesirable effects. In this study, we present a workflow for the identification and prioritization of compounds as potentially selective human nNOS inhibitors. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were constructed based on a set of known nNOS inhibitors. The pharmacophore models were evaluated by Pareto surface and CoMFA (Comparative Molecular Field Analysis) analyses. The best pharmacophore model, which included 7 pharmacophore features, was used as a search query in the SPECS database (SPECS®, Delft, The Netherlands). The hit compounds were further filtered by scoring and docking. Ten hits were identified as potential selective nNOS inhibitors.

Xu, Guanhong; Chen, Yue; Shen, Kun; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Fei; He, Yan

2014-01-01

236

The Discovery of Potentially Selective Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) Inhibitors: A Combination of Pharmacophore Modelling, CoMFA, Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies.  

PubMed

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays an important role in neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation. Selective inhibition of nNOS over its other isozymes is highly desirable for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases to avoid undesirable effects. In this study, we present a workflow for the identification and prioritization of compounds as potentially selective human nNOS inhibitors. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were constructed based on a set of known nNOS inhibitors. The pharmacophore models were evaluated by Pareto surface and CoMFA (Comparative Molecular Field Analysis) analyses. The best pharmacophore model, which included 7 pharmacophore features, was used as a search query in the SPECS database (SPECS®, Delft, The Netherlands). The hit compounds were further filtered by scoring and docking. Ten hits were identified as potential selective nNOS inhibitors. PMID:24830557

Xu, Guanhong; Chen, Yue; Shen, Kun; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Fei; He, Yan

2014-01-01

237

Systemic delivery of a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor reduces CNS substrates and increases lifespan in a mouse model of type 2 Gaucher disease.  

PubMed

Neuropathic Gaucher disease (nGD), also known as type 2 or type 3 Gaucher disease, is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GC). This deficiency impairs the degradation of glucosylceramide (GluCer) and glucosylsphingosine (GluSph), leading to their accumulation in the brains of patients and mouse models of the disease. These accumulated substrates have been thought to cause the severe neuropathology and early death observed in patients with nGD and mouse models. Substrate accumulation is evident at birth in both nGD mouse models and humans affected with the most severe type of the disease. Current treatment of non-nGD relies on the intravenous delivery of recombinant human glucocerebrosidase to replace the missing enzyme or the administration of glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors to attenuate GluCer production. However, the currently approved drugs that use these mechanisms do not cross the blood brain barrier, and thus are not expected to provide a benefit for the neurological complications in nGD patients. Here we report the successful reduction of substrate accumulation and CNS pathology together with a significant increase in lifespan after systemic administration of a novel glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor to a mouse model of nGD. To our knowledge this is the first compound shown to cross the blood brain barrier and reduce substrates in this animal model while significantly enhancing its lifespan. These results reinforce the concept that systemically administered glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors could hold enhanced therapeutic promise for patients afflicted with neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:22912851

Cabrera-Salazar, Mario A; Deriso, Matthew; Bercury, Scott D; Li, Lingyun; Lydon, John T; Weber, William; Pande, Nilesh; Cromwell, Mandy A; Copeland, Diane; Leonard, John; Cheng, Seng H; Scheule, Ronald K

2012-01-01

238

Identification of the cellulose synthase genes from the Oomycete Saprolegnia monoica and effect of cellulose synthesis inhibitors on gene expression and enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Cellulose biosynthesis is a vital but yet poorly understood biochemical process in Oomycetes. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the cellulose synthase genes (CesA) from Saprolegnia monoica. Southern blot experiments revealed the occurrence of three CesA homologues in this species and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that Oomycete CesAs form a clade of their own. All gene products contained the D,D,D,QXXRW signature of most processive glycosyltransferases, including cellulose synthases. However, their N-terminal ends exhibited Oomycete-specific domains, i.e. Pleckstrin Homology domains, or conserved domains of an unknown function together with additional putative transmembrane domains. Mycelial growth was inhibited in the presence of the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile or Congo Red. This inhibition was accompanied by a higher expression of all CesA genes in the mycelium and increased in vitro glucan synthase activities. Altogether, our data strongly suggest a direct involvement of the identified CesA genes in cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:19589393

Fugelstad, Johanna; Bouzenzana, Jamel; Djerbi, Soraya; Guerriero, Gea; Ezcurra, Inés; Teeri, Tuula T; Arvestad, Lars; Bulone, Vincent

2009-10-01

239

The renal and systemic hemodynamic effects of a nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor are reversed by a selective endothelin(a) receptor antagonist in men.  

PubMed

There is evidence for an interaction between nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) at the level of the renal vasculature. We hypothesized that acute renal effects of systemic NO synthase inhibition (NG-monomethyl-l-arginine, L-NMMA) may be blunted by coadministration of a specific ET(A) receptor antagonist (BQ-123) in healthy humans. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-way crossover study. These sodium-repleted volunteers received L-NMMA alone, or BQ-123 alone, or L-NMMA with a subsequent coinfusion of BQ-123. Renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined with the PAH and inulin clearance method, respectively. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse rate were measured noninvasively at baseline and every 15 min after the start of the study period. L-NMMA alone reduced RPF (-22%, P < 0.001) and GFR (-8%, P < 0.009) and increased MAP (+10%, P < 0.001). BQ-123 alone did not affect these parameters. However, coinfusion of BQ-123 blunted the effects of L-NMMA on RPF (P < 0.001), GFR (P < 0.001), and MAP (P = 0.006). Peripheral and renal hemodynamic effects of acute systemic NO synthase inhibition are at least partially reversed by ET(A) receptor blockade with BQ-123. This indicates a functional antagonism between specific ET(A) receptor antagonist and NO synthase inhibitors at the level of the renal vasculature. PMID:11485375

Schmidt, A; Bayerle-Eder, M; Pleiner, H; Zeisner, C; Wolzt, M; Mayer, G; Schmetterer, L

2001-08-01

240

Self-assembled chitin nanofibers and applications.  

PubMed

Self-assembled natural biomaterials offer a variety of ready-made nanostructures available for basic science research and technological applications. Most natural structural materials are made of self-assembled nanofibers with diameters in the nanometer range. Among these materials, chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose and is part of the exoskeleton or arthropods and mollusk shells. Chitin has several desirable properties as a biomaterial including mechanical strength, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. However, chitin insolubility in most organic solvents has somewhat limited its use. In this research highlight, we describe recent developments in producing biogenic chitin nanofibers using self-assembly from a solution of squid pen ?-chitin in hexafluoroisopropanol. With this solution based assembly, we have demonstrated chitin-silk composite self-assembly, chitin nanofiber fabrication across length-scales, and manufacturing of chitin nanofiber substrates for tissue engineering. PMID:24556234

Rolandi, Marco; Rolandi, Ranieri

2014-05-01

241

Anti-Icing Chitin Coating System Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Purified chitin samples have been compared to the controls with optical, stereo and SEM microscopy to identify regional coverage. Evidence from new tests show that sieving is required to produce a more evenly dispersed and invariable chitin grain size. Th...

G. L. Bowers-Irons C. T. Miller A. Lai

1990-01-01

242

2-Amino-4-methylpyridine as a potent inhibitor of inducible NO synthase activity in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed Central

1. The ability of 2-amino-4-methylpyridine to inhibit the catalytic activity of the inducible NO synthase (NOS II) enzyme was characterized in vitro and in vivo. 2. In vitro, 2-amino-4-methylpyridine inhibited NOS II activity derived from mouse RAW 264.7 cells with an IC50 of 6 nM. Enzyme kinetic studies indicated that inhibition is competitive with respect to arginine. 2-Amino-4-methylpyridine was less potent on human recombinant NOS II (IC50 = 40 nM) and was still less potent on human recombinant NOS I and NOS III (IC50 = 100 nM). NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), N6-iminoethyl-L-lysine (L-NIL) and aminoguanidine were much weaker inhibitors of murine NOS II than 2-amino-4-methylpyridine but, unlike 2-amino-4-methylpyridine, retained similar activity on human recombinant NOS II. L-NMMA inhibited all three NOS isoforms with similar potency (IC50S 3-7 microM). In contrast, compared to activity on human recombinant NOS III, L-NIL displayed 10 x selectivity for murine NOS II and 11 x selectivity for human recombinant NOS II while aminoguanidine displayed 7.3 x selectivity for murine NOS II and 3.7 x selectivity for human recombinant NOS II. 3. Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages produced high levels of nitrite when cultured overnight in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma. Addition of 2-amino-4-methylpyridine at the same time as the LPS and IFN-gamma, dose-dependently reduced the levels of nitrite (IC50 = 1.5 microM) without affecting the induction of NOS II protein. Increasing the extracellular concentration of arginine decreased the potency of 2-amino-4-methylpyridine but at concentrations up to 10 microM, 2-amino-4-methylpyridine did not inhibit the uptake of [3H]-arginine into the cell. Addition of 2-amino-4-methylpyridine after the enzyme was induced also dose-dependently inhibited nitrite production. Together, these data suggest that 2-amino-4-methylpyridine reduces cellular production of NO by competitive inhibition of the catalytic activity of NOS II, in agreement with results obtained from in vitro enzyme kinetic studies. 4. When infused i.v. in conscious unrestrained rats, 2-amino-4-methylpyridine inhibited the rise in plasma nitrate produced in response to intraperitoneal injection of LPS (ID50 = 0.009 mg kg-1 min-1). Larger doses of 2-amino-4-methylpyridine were required to raise mean arterial pressure in untreated conscious rats (ED50 = 0.060 mg kg-1 min-1) indicating 6.9 x selectivity for NOS II over NOS III in vivo. Under the same conditions, L-NMMA was nonselective while L-NIL and aminoguanidine displayed 5.2 x and 8.6 x selectivity respectively. All of these compounds caused significant increases in mean arterial pressure at doses above the ID50 for inhibition of NOS II activity in vivo. 5. 2-Amino-4-methylpyridine also inhibited LPS-induced elevation in plasma nitrate after either subcutaneous (ID50 = 0.3 mg kg-1) or oral (ID50 = 20.8 mg kg-1) administration. 6. These data indicate that 2-amino-4-methylpyridine is a potent inhibitor of NOS II activity in vitro and in vivo with a similar degree of isozyme selectivity to that of L-NIL and aminoguanidine in rodents.

Faraci, W. S.; Nagel, A. A.; Verdries, K. A.; Vincent, L. A.; Xu, H.; Nichols, L. E.; Labasi, J. M.; Salter, E. D.; Pettipher, E. R.

1996-01-01

243

Chitin in the peritrophic membrane of Acarus siro (Acari: Acaridae) as a target for novel acaricides.  

PubMed

The peritrophic membrane in Acarus siro L. (Acari: Acaridae) is produced by distinct cells located in the ventriculus. In this study, the chitin inside the peritrophic membrane was detected using wheat germ-lectin conjugated with colloidal gold (10 nm). The chitin fibrils of the peritrophic membrane were a target for chitin effectors, including 1) chitinase, which hydrolyzes chitin fibers inside the peritrophic membrane; 2) calcofluor, which binds to chitin and destroys the peritrophic membrane mesh structure; and 3) diflubenzuron, which inhibits chitin synthesis. In addition, soybean trypsin protease inhibitor (STI) and cocktails of chitinase/calcofluor, diflubenzuron/calcofluor and chitinase/STI were tested. These compounds were supplemented in diets and an increase of population initiated from 50 individuals was observed after 21 d of cultivation. Final A. siro densities on experimental and control diets were compared. The chitin in the peritrophic membrane was determined to be a suitable target for novel acaricidal compounds for suppressing the population growth of A. siro. The most effective compounds were calcofluor and diflubenzuron, whereas the suppressive effects of chitinase and STI were low. The failure of chitinase could be due to its degradation by endogenous proteases. The combination of chitinase and STI suppressed A. siro population growth more effectively than when they were tested in oral admission separately. The combinations of calcofluor/chitinase or calcofluor/difluorbenzuron showed no additive effects on final A. siro density. The presence of chitin in peritrophic membrane provides a target for novel acaricidal compounds, which disrupt peritrophic membrane structure. The suitability of chitin effectors and their practical application in the management of stored product mites is discussed. PMID:18613609

Sobotnik, Jan; Kudlikova-Krizkova, Iva; Vancova, Marie; Munzbergova, Zuzana; Hubert, Jan

2008-06-01

244

Chitin deposition on the embryonic cuticle of Rhodnius prolixus: The reduction of CHS transcripts by CHS-dsRNA injection in females affects chitin deposition and eclosion of the first instar nymph.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we found that the embryonic cuticle of Rhodnius prolixus is a chitin-based structure that helps the first instar nymph to hatch from the chorion. Here, we investigated how the reduction of transcripts induced by CHS dsRNA injection affects R. prolixus embryogenesis and eclosion. Deposition of chitin in the embryonic cuticle begins later at embryogenesis, around day 8, and ends approximately at day 15, when the insects are ready for eclosion. In R. prolixus, chitin deposition follows pari passu with the synthesis of the chitin synthase mRNA, indicating a regulation at the transcriptional level. The reduction of the chitin synthase gene transcripts by the injection of CHS dRNA prevented chitin deposition during embryonic cuticle formation, being lethal to hatching nymphs, which end up dying while stuck in the chorionic border trying to leave the chorion. The successful eclosion rates were reduced by 60% in animals treated with CHS dsRNA when compared to animals injected with a control (dsRNA no related gene or water). We found that the harmful effects on oviposition and eclosion are possibly due to changes in the structure of the embryonic cuticle, as observed by directly comparing the morphology of control and chitin-deficient embryonic cuticles under the transmission electron microscope. The lack of chitin and changes in its morphological characteristics appears to alter the embryonic cuticle physiology and functionality. Additionally, we observed that the effects of CHS dRNA treatment on R. prolixus females lasted up to 3 egg-laying cycles (?100 days), pointing to R. prolixus as a useful model for developmental studies. PMID:24412274

Souza-Ferreira, Paula S; Mansur, Juliana F; Berni, Matheus; Moreira, Monica F; Dos Santos, Roberto Eizemberg; Araújo, Helena M Marcolla; de Souza, Wanderley; Ramos, Isabela B; Masuda, Hatisaburo

2014-08-01

245

Cardiopulmonary Effects of Chronic Administration of the NO Synthase Inhibitor L-NAME in the Chick Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Experimental observations in mammalian models suggest that endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) content and activity are decreased in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that disruption of NO signaling in the developing chick embryo lung may contribute to pulmonary hypertension. Methods: We analyzed pulmonary arterial reactivity and structure and heart morphology of 19-day

Eduardo Villamor; Carolina G. A. Kessels; Robert J. van Suylen; Jo G. R. De Mey; Carlos E. Blanco

2005-01-01

246

Structures of Aquifex aeolicus KDO8P synthase in complex with R5P and PEP, and with a bisubstrate inhibitor: role of active site water in catalysis.  

PubMed

We have determined the crystal structures of the metalloenzyme 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate (KDO8P) synthase from Aquifex aeolicus in complex with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ribose 5-phosphate (R5P), and with a bisubstrate inhibitor that mimics the postulated linear reaction intermediate. R5P, which is not a substrate for KDO8P synthase, binds in a manner similar to that of arabinose 5-phosphate (A5P), which is the natural substrate. The lack of reactivity of R5P appears to be primarily a consequence of the loss of a water molecule coordinated to Cd(2+) and located on the si side of PEP. This water molecule is no longer present because it cannot form a hydrogen bond with C2-OH(R5P), which is oriented in a different direction from C2-OH(A5P). The bisubstrate inhibitor binds with its phosphate and phosphonate moieties occupying the positions of the phosphate groups of A5P and PEP, respectively. One of the inhibitor hydroxyls replaces water as a ligand of Cd(2+). The current work supports a mechanism for the synthesis of KDO8P, in which a hydroxide ion on the si side of PEP attacks C2(PEP), forming a tetrahedral-like intermediate with a buildup of negative charge at C3(PEP). The ensuing condensation of C3(PEP) with C1(A5P) would be favored by a proton transfer from the phosphate moiety of PEP to the aldehyde carbonyl of A5P to generate the hydroxyl. Overall, the process can be described as a syn addition of water and A5P to the si side of PEP. PMID:11747443

Wang, J; Duewel, H S; Woodard, R W; Gatti, D L

2001-12-25

247

Chitin-Like Molecules Associate with Cryptococcus neoformans Glucuronoxylomannan To Form a Glycan Complex with Previously Unknown Properties  

PubMed Central

In prior studies, we demonstrated that glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the major capsular polysaccharide of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, interacts with chitin oligomers at the cell wall-capsule interface. The structural determinants regulating these carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions, as well as the functions of these structures, have remained unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that glycan complexes composed of chitooligomers and GXM are formed during fungal growth and macrophage infection by C. neoformans. To investigate the required determinants for the assembly of chitin-GXM complexes, we developed a quantitative scanning electron microscopy-based method using different polysaccharide samples as inhibitors of the interaction of chitin with GXM. This assay revealed that chitin-GXM association involves noncovalent bonds and large GXM fibers and depends on the N-acetyl amino group of chitin. Carboxyl and O-acetyl groups of GXM are not required for polysaccharide-polysaccharide interactions. Glycan complex structures composed of cryptococcal GXM and chitin-derived oligomers were tested for their ability to induce pulmonary cytokines in mice. They were significantly more efficient than either GXM or chitin oligomers alone in inducing the production of lung interleukin 10 (IL-10), IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). These results indicate that association of chitin-derived structures with GXM through their N-acetyl amino groups generates glycan complexes with previously unknown properties.

Ramos, Caroline L.; Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Rodrigues, Jessica; Guimaraes, Allan J.; Cinelli, Leonardo P.; Miranda, Kildare; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Casadevall, Arturo; Travassos, Luiz R.

2012-01-01

248

Activation of ?-catenin by inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 ameliorates cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in HEI-OC1 cells.  

PubMed

Cisplatin is used in the treatment of a wide variety of solid tumors, but its use is limited by its serious adverse effects, including ototoxicity. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase that regulates a variety of cellular functions by phosphorylating its substrates. However, the otoprotective effect of GSK-3 inhibitors is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether GSK-3 is involved in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in HEI-OC1 cells and organs of Corti (OCs). GSK-3 inhibitors suppressed cisplatin-induced apoptosis determined by decreased p53 activity, and also decreased expression of PARP and p53 target genes such as p21 and PUMA. The effect of GSK-3 inhibitors was mediated by markedly increased nuclear ?-catenin that in turn blocked nuclear translocation of NF-?B. siRNA-mediated ?-catenin knockdown markedly increased the expression of NF-?B target genes, such as TNF-? and IL-6. Our data suggest that the GSK-3/?-catenin pathway may play a central role in cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity in HEI-OC1 cells and hair cells of OCs in vitro. PMID:24560772

Kim, Se-Jin; Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Joon No; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Il; Song, Seung Ryel; Cho, Meyoung; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil

2014-06-01

249

Constitutive nuclear factor-kappa B mRNA, protein overexpression and enhanced DNA-binding activity in thymidylate synthase inhibitor-resistant tumour cells.  

PubMed

In this study, the gene copy number, mRNA and protein expression levels and nuclear DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) were compared in a panel of five pairs of thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor-resistant and wild-type parent cancer cell lines. High constitutive NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity was detected in all chemoresistant cell lines. The upregulated NF-kappa B activity was composed of NF-kappa B subunits p50 and p65. Four out of five resistant cell lines constitutively overexpressed NF-kappa B p50 and p65 mRNA and protein. One resistant cell line with the highest NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity showed normal p50 and p65 protein expression. No NF-kappa B gene amplification was detected in resistant cell lines. Transient exposure of wild-type RKO(WT) and H630(WT) cells to 5-FU induced NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity but had no effect on NF-kappa B protein expression in these cells. Our results indicate that high constitutive NF-kappa B activity caused by its gene overexpression is an intrinsic character of TS inhibitor-resistant cells. NF-kappa B can antagonise anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. High NF-kappa B expression and nuclear activity in TS inhibitor-resistant cancer cells may play an important role in the chemoresistance. PMID:12592379

Wang, W; Cassidy, J

2003-02-24

250

Molecular Dynamic Simulation and Inhibitor Prediction of Cysteine Synthase Structured Model as a Potential Drug Target for Trichomoniasis  

PubMed Central

In our presented research, we made an attempt to predict the 3D model for cysteine synthase (A2GMG5_TRIVA) using homology-modeling approaches. To investigate deeper into the predicted structure, we further performed a molecular dynamics simulation for 10?ns and calculated several supporting analysis for structural properties such as RMSF, radius of gyration, and the total energy calculation to support the predicted structured model of cysteine synthase. The present findings led us to conclude that the proposed model is stereochemically stable. The overall PROCHECK G factor for the homology-modeled structure was ?0.04. On the basis of the virtual screening for cysteine synthase against the NCI subset II molecule, we present the molecule 1-N, 4-N-bis [3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl) phenyl] benzene-1,4-dicarboxamide (ZINC01690699) having the minimum energy score (?13.0?Kcal/Mol) and a log?P value of 6 as a potential inhibitory molecule used to inhibit the growth of T. vaginalis infection.

Singh, Satendra; Singh, Atul Kumar; Gautam, Budhayash

2013-01-01

251

Design and synthesis of N-2,6-difluorophenyl-5-methoxyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]-pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide as acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitor.  

PubMed

Triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonamide belongs to a herbicide group called acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitors. With the aim to discover new triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilide compounds with high herbicidal activity and faster degradation rate in soil, the methyl group of Flumetsulam (FS) was modified into a methoxy group to produce a new herbicidal compound, N-2,6-difluorophenyl-5-methoxy-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide (experimental code: Y6610). The enzymatic kinetic results indicated that compound Y6610 and FS have k(i) values of 3.31x10(-6) M and 3.60x10(-7) M against Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS, respectively. The 10-fold lower enzyme-inhibiting activity of Y6610 was explained rationally by further computational simulations and binding free energy calculations. In addition, compound Y6610 was found to display the same level in vivo post-emergent herbicidal activity as FS against some broad-leaf weeds and good safety to rice, maize, and wheat at the dosages of 75-300 gai/ha. Further determination of the half-lives in soil revealed that the half-life in soil of Y6610 is 3.9 days shorter than that of FS. The experimental results herein showed that compound Y6610 could be regarded as a new potential acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicide candidate for further study. PMID:19342247

Chen, Chao-Nan; Lv, Li-Li; Ji, Feng-Qin; Chen, Qiong; Xu, Hui; Niu, Cong-Wei; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

2009-04-15

252

Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-? induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNF? incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1? in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNF? were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNF?-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

Petri, Marcelo H. [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine [NARILIS, URBC, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium)] [NARILIS, URBC, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Ellertsen, Ingvill [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium)] [Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Bäck, Magnus, E-mail: Magnus.Back@ki.se [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-11-15

253

Chitin nanofibers: preparations, modifications, and applications.  

PubMed

Chitin nanofibers are prepared from the exoskeletons of crabs and prawns by a simple mechanical treatment after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers have fine nanofiber networks with a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and a high aspect ratio. The method used for chitin-nanofiber isolation is also successfully applied to the cell walls of mushrooms. They form a complex with glucans on the fiber surface. A grinder, a Star Burst atomization system, and a high speed blender are all used in the mechanical treatment to convert chitin to nanofibers. Mechanical treatment under acidic conditions is the key to facilitate fibrillation. At pH 3-4, the cationization of amino groups on the fiber surface assists nano-fibrillation by electrostatic repulsive force. By applying this finding, we also prepared chitin nanofibers from dry chitin powder. Chitin nanofibers are acetylated to modify their surfaces. The acetyl DS can be controlled from 1 to 3 by changing the reaction time. An acetyl group is introduced heterogeneously from the surface to the core. Nanofiber morphology is maintained even in the case of high acetyl DS. Optically transparent chitin nanofiber composites are prepared with 11 different types of acrylic resins. Due to the nano-sized structure, all of the composites are highly transparent. Chitin nanofibers significantly increase the Young's moduli and the tensile strengths and decrease the thermal expansion of all acrylic resins due to the reinforcement effect of chitin nanofibers. Chitin nanofibers show chiral separation ability. The chitin nanofiber membrane transports the d-isomer of glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and lysine from the corresponding racemic amino acid mixtures faster than the corresponding l-isomer. The chitin nanofibers improve clinical symptoms and suppress ulcerative colitis in a DSS-induced mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis. Moreover, chitin nanofibers suppress myeloperoxidase activation in the colon and decrease serum interleukin-6 concentrations. PMID:22539071

Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

2012-06-01

254

Antitumor effect of orlistat, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, is via activation of caspase-3 on human colorectal carcinoma-bearing animal.  

PubMed

We established a HT-29/tk-luc human colorectal carcinoma-bearing animal model for the study of the inhibition effect and mechanism of orlistat, a fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitor. The results showed that orlistat caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and triggered apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. The tumor inhibition effect of orlistat may also due to the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis without altering FASN activity. The tumor size of orlistat-treated mice in vivo was significantly smaller than that of the controls with 55% inhibition. The therapeutic efficacy was further confirmed with the bioluminescent imaging and nuclear molecular imaging with ¹³¹I-FIAU/gamma scintigraphy and ¹¹C-acetate/microPET. We suggest that FASN is a potential target for the treatment of human colorectal carcinoma. PMID:21723078

Chuang, Hui-Yen; Chang, Ya-Fang; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

2011-07-01

255

Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, are elevated in sickle cell patients but do not increase further during painful crisis.  

PubMed

Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, are elevated in the clinically asymptomatic state of sickle cell disease (SCD). However, the role of ADMA during vaso-occlusive complications has not been defined. ADMA concentrations were determined in HbSS (n = 43) and HbSC (n = 25) patients with healthy blood donors (HbAA) as controls. In the clinically asymptomatic state ADMA concentrations were elevated in sickle cell patients as compared to healthy controls (HbSS 0.70 micromol/L, HbSC 0.54 micromol/L, HbAA 0.39 micromol/L) (P < 0.001). Yet plasma ADMA concentrations did not increase further at presentation with a painful crisis implicating no role of primary importance during vaso-occlusive crises. PMID:18383318

Landburg, Precious P; Teerlink, Tom; Muskiet, Frits A J; Duits, Ashley J; Schnog, John-John B

2008-07-01

256

1-(Fluoroalkylidene)-1,1-bisphosphonic Acids are Potent and Selective Inhibitors of the Enzymatic Activity of Toxoplasma gondii Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Synthase  

PubMed Central

?-Fluorinated-1,1-bisphosphonic acids derived from fatty acids were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease and against Toxoplasma gondii, the responsible agent of toxoplasmosis and also towards the target parasitic enzymes farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase of T. cruzi (TcFPPS) and T gondii (TgFPPS), respectively. Interestingly, 1-fluorononylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (compound 43) has proven to be an extremely potent inhibitor of the enzymatic activity of TgFPPS at the low nanomolar range exhibiting an IC50 of 30 nM. This compound was two-fold more potent than risedronate (IC50 = 74 nM) taken as a positive control. This enzymatic activity was associated to a strong cell growth inhibition against tachyzoites of T. gondii having an IC50 value of 2.7 ?M.

Szajnman, Sergio H.; Rosso, Valeria S.; Malayil, Leena; Smith, Alyssa; Moreno, Silvia N. J.; Docampo, Roberto

2012-01-01

257

In Vitro Activity of a New Oral Glucan Synthase Inhibitor (MK-3118) Tested against Aspergillus spp. by CLSI and EUCAST Broth Microdilution Methods  

PubMed Central

MK-3118, a glucan synthase inhibitor derived from enfumafungin, and comparator agents were tested against 71 Aspergillus spp., including itraconazole-resistant strains (MIC, ?4 ?g/ml), using CLSI and EUCAST reference broth microdilution methods. The CLSI 90% minimum effective concentration (MEC90)/MIC90 values (?g/ml) for MK-3118, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, respectively, were as follows: 0.12, 2, and 0.03 for Aspergillus flavus species complex (SC); 0.25, 2, and 0.06 for Aspergillus fumigatus SC; 0.12, 2, and 0.06 for Aspergillus terreus SC; and 0.06, 1, and 0.03 for Aspergillus niger SC. Essential agreement between the values found by CLSI and EUCAST (±2 log2 dilution steps) was 94.3%. MK-3118 was determined to be a potent agent regardless of the in vitro method applied, with excellent activity against contemporary wild-type and itraconazole-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp.

Messer, Shawn A.; Motyl, Mary R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

2013-01-01

258

Fabrication and characterisation of ?-chitin nanofibers and highly transparent chitin films by pulsed ultrasonication.  

PubMed

?-Chitin nanofibers were fabricated with dried shrimp shells via a simple high-intensity ultrasonic treatment under neutral conditions (60 KHz, 300 W, pH=7). The diameter of the obtained chitin nanofibers could be controlled within 20-200 nm by simply adjusting the ultrasonication time. The pulsed ultrasound disassembled natural chitin into high-aspect-ratio nanofibers with a uniform width (19.4 nm after 30 min sonication). The EDS, FTIR, and XRD characterisation results verified that ?-chitin crystalline structure and molecular structure were maintained after the chemical purification and ultrasonic treatments. Interestingly, ultrasonication can slightly increase the degree of crystallinity of chitin (from 60.1 to 65.8). Furthermore, highly transparent chitin films (the transmittance was 90.2% at a 600 nm) and flexible ultralight chitin foams were prepared from chitin nanofiber hydrogels. PMID:24053832

Lu, Yun; Sun, Qingfeng; She, Xilin; Xia, Yanzhi; Liu, Yixing; Li, Jian; Yang, Dongjiang

2013-11-01

259

Utilisation of chitinous materials in pigment adsorption.  

PubMed

The effect of adding the cells of four lactobacilli to a squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium on prodigiosin (PG) production by Serratia marcescens TKU011 is examined. The best increase in PG productivity was shown by strain TKU012. Among the samples of strain TKU012 and the chitinous materials of cicada casting powder (CCP), shrimp shell powder (SSP), squid pen powder (SPP), ?-chitin, and ?-chitin, TKU012 cells displayed the best adsorption rate (84%) for PG, followed by CCP, SSP, SPP, ?-chitin, and ?-chitin. As for the water-soluble food colourants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazne (Y4), SPP and SSP had better adsorptive powers than pure chitin preparations, strain TKU012, and CCP. Treatment with organic solvents, hot alkali, or proteases (papain, bromelain) diminished the adsorption rates of the biosorbents. PMID:22953835

Wang, San-Lang; Chen, Yan-Cheng; Yen, Yue-Horng; Liang, Tzu-Wen

2012-12-01

260

Inhibitors of the proteasome pathway interfere with induction of nitric oxide synthase in macrophages by blocking activation of transcription factor NF-kappa B.  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the proteasome pathway or multicatalytic proteinase complex in the induction of immunologic nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) in rat alveolar macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. Macrophages were incubated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide plus test agent for up to 24 hr. Culture media were analyzed for accumulation of stable oxidation products of NO (NO2- + N03-, designated as NOX-), cellular RNA was extracted for determination of iNOS mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis, and nuclear extracts were prepared for determination of NF-kappa B by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. Inhibitors of calpain (alpha-N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-norleucinal; N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Leu-leucinal) and the proteasome (N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Ile-Glu-(O-t-Bu)-Ala-leucinal) markedly inhibited or abolished the induction of iNOS in macrophages. The proteinase inhibitors interfered with lipopolysaccharide-induced NOX- production by macrophages, and this effect was accompanied by comparable interference with the appearance of both iNOS mRNA and NF-kappa B. Calpain inhibitors elicited effects at concentrations of 1-100 microM, whereas the proteasome inhibitor was 1000-fold more potent, producing significant inhibitory effects at 1 nM. The present findings indicate that the proteasome pathway is essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of the iNOS gene in rat alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, the data support the view that the proteasome pathway is directly involved in promoting the activation of NF-kappa B and that the induction of iNOS by lipopolysaccharide involves the transcriptional action of NF-kappaB. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Griscavage, J M; Wilk, S; Ignarro, L J

1996-01-01

261

Minimal Pharmacophoric Elements and Fragment Hopping, an Approach Directed at Molecular Diversity and Isozyme Selectivity. Design of Selective Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Fragment hopping, a new fragment-based approach for de novo inhibitor design focusing on ligand diversity and isozyme selectivity, is described. The core of this approach is the derivation of the minimal pharmacophoric element for each pharmacophore. Sites for both ligand binding and isozyme selectivity are considered in deriving the minimal pharmacophoric elements. Five general-purpose libraries are established: the basic fragment library, the bioisostere library, the rules for metabolic stability, the toxicophore library, and the side chain library. These libraries are employed to generate focused fragment libraries to match the minimal pharmacophoric elements for each pharmacophore and then to link the fragment to the desired molecule. This method was successfully applied to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which is implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Starting with the nitroarginine-containing dipeptide inhibitors we developed previously, a small organic molecule with a totally different chemical structure was designed, which showed nanomolar nNOS inhibitory potency and more than 1000-fold nNOS selectivity. The crystallographic analysis confirms that the small organic molecule with a constrained conformation can exactly mimic the mode of action of the dipeptide nNOS inhibitors. Therefore, a new peptidomimetic strategy, referred to as fragment hopping, which creates small organic molecules that mimic the biological function of peptides by a pharmacophore-driven strategy for fragment-based de novo design, has been established as a new type of fragment-based inhibitor design. As an open system, the newly established approach efficiently incorporates the concept of early “ADME/Tox” considerations and provides a basic platform for medicinal chemistry-driven efforts.

Ji, Haitao; Stanton, Benjamin Z.; Igarashi, Jotaro; Li, Huiying; Martasek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

2010-01-01

262

The Vibrio cholerae chitin utilization program  

PubMed Central

Chitin, an insoluble polymer of GlcNAc, is an abundant source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy for marine microorganisms. Microarray expression profiling and mutational studies of Vibrio cholerae growing on a natural chitin surface, or with the soluble chitin oligosaccharides (GlcNAc)2–6, GlcNAc, or the glucosamine dimer (GlcN)2 identified three sets of differentially regulated genes. We show that (i) ChiS, a sensor histidine kinase, regulates expression of the (GlcNAc)2–6 gene set, including a (GlcNAc)2 catabolic operon, two extracellular chitinases, a chitoporin, and a PilA-containing type IV pilus, designated ChiRP (chitin-regulated pilus) that confers a significant growth advantage to V. cholerae on a chitin surface; (ii) GlcNAc causes the coordinate expression of genes involved with chitin chemotaxis and adherence and with the transport and assimilation of GlcNAc; (iii) (GlcN)2 induces genes required for the transport and catabolism of nonacetylated chitin residues; and (iv) the constitutively expressed MSHA pilus facilitates adhesion to the chitin surface independent of surface chemistry. Collectively, these results provide a global portrait of a complex, multistage V. cholerae program for the efficient utilization of chitin.

Meibom, Karin L.; Li, Xibing B.; Nielsen, Alex T.; Wu, Cheng-Yen; Roseman, Saul; Schoolnik, Gary K.

2004-01-01

263

Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Srinivasan, Sowmya; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

264

Interactions between inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase in vivo: investigations using the selective inhibitors, 1400W and celecoxib.  

PubMed

1. Exposure of tissues to endotoxin (LPS) and/or cytokines leads to the induction of both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). It has previously been reported that there is 'cross-talk' between these two systems. However, such previous studies have been limited by the availability of highly selective inhibitors. Here we have investigated the interactions between iNOS and COX-2 in vivo using 1400W, an iNOS-selective inhibitor, and celecoxib, a COX-2-selective inhibitor. 2. Infusion of LPS to rats for 6 h caused a time-dependent increase in the plasma concentrations of 6 keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (6 keto-PGF1alpha) and nitrite/nitrate (NO2/NO3), consistent with the induction of iNOS and COX-2. Bolus injection of arachidonic acid (AA) at t=6 h resulted in a further increase of circulating levels of 6 keto-PGF1alpha in LPS-treated animals. 3. Treatment of rats with 1400W or the non-selective NOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) inhibited the increase in plasma NO2/NO3 but were both without effect on the plasma concentration of 6 keto-PGF1alpha before or after AA. 4. Treatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), A771726 or diclofenac, or with celecoxib significantly reduced the increase in circulating 6 keto-PGF1alpha caused by LPS, and the large increase in 6 keto-PGF1alpha following injection of AA. None of the COX inhibitors affected the increase in plasma NO2/NO3. Dexamethasone, however, significantly inhibited both the increase in 6 keto-PGF1alpha and the increase in NO2/NO3. 5. In conclusion, the use of selective inhibitors does not support the concept of cross talk in vivo between iNOS and COX-2. PMID:9786506

Hamilton, L C; Warner, T D

1998-09-01

265

Molecular docking and pharmacophore filtering in the discovery of dual-inhibitors for human leukotriene A4 hydrolase and leukotriene C4 synthase.  

PubMed

Combination of drugs for multiple targets has been a standard treatment in treating various diseases. A single chemical entity that acts upon multiple targets is emerging nowadays because of their predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. We have employed a computer-aided methodology combining molecular docking and pharmacophore filtering to identify chemical compounds that can simultaneously inhibit the human leukotriene hydrolase (hLTA4H) and the human leukotriene C4 synthase (hLTC4S) enzymes. These enzymes are the members of arachidonic acid pathway and act upon the same substrate, LTA4, producing different inflammatory products. A huge set of 4966 druglike compounds from the Maybridge database were docked into the active site of hLTA4H using the GOLD program. Common feature pharmacophore models were developed from the known inhibitors of both the targets using Accelrys Discovery Studio 2.5. The hits from the hLTA4H docking were filtered to match the chemical features of both the pharmacophore models. The compounds that resulted from the pharmacophore filtering were docked into the active site of hLTC4S and the hits those bind well at both the active sites and matched the pharmacophore models were identified as possible dual inhibitors for hLTA4H and hLTC4S enzymes. Reverse validation was performed to ensure the results of the study. PMID:21133343

Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; John, Shalini; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Lee, Keun Woo

2011-01-24

266

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonist restore nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and neuronal NOS expression in the adrenal glands of spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

During development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, the activity of adrenal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was investigated. SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were studied at different ages: 3-4, 7-8 and 12-13 weeks after birth. Basal NOS activity was measured by the ability of homogenate to convert [3H]-L-arginine to [3H]-L-citrulline. At all ages, SHR rats exhibited 50-60% reduction in NOS activity when compared to age-matched WKY rats. In a following study, SHR rats (12-13 weeks) were treated chronically with the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) captopril or enalapril, or the AT1-receptor antagonist losartan (2 x 25, 10 and 60 mg/kg per day for 10 days, respectively). The total NOS activity and protein expression of NOS isoenzymes from adrenals were determined. The basal NOS activity and protein expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) was significantly increased in treated SHR rats when compared to control rats. The isoforms endothelial NOS and inducible NOS were undetectable. We conclude that impaired NO synthesis in the adrenal glands of SHR rats may contribute to the onset and maintenance of hypertension. The upregulation of nNOS protein in the adrenal glands may be one of the mechanisms by which ACE inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists by restoring the NO synthesis, mediate their antihypertensive effects. PMID:11388639

Qadri, F; Arens, T; Schwartz, E C; Häuser, W; Dominiak, P

2001-04-01

267

Synthesis and evaluation of 3-modified 1D-myo-inositols as inhibitors and substrates of phosphatidylinositol synthase and inhibitors of myo-inositol uptake by cells.  

PubMed

A number of 3-substituted 1D-myo-inositols were synthesized and evaluated as substrates for phosphatidylinositol synthase and uptake by intact cells. 1D-3-Amino-, -3-chloro-, and -3-(acetylthio)-3-deoxy-myo-inositols were all synthesized by nucleophilic displacement of the 6-O-(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl group of 1L-1,2:3,4-di-O-cyclohexylidene-5-O-methyl-6-O-[(trifluoromethyl)-sulfon yl] - chiro-inositol (which was prepared from L-quebrachitol), respectively, by reaction with LiN3, followed by reduction of the azido function, and with LiCl and KSAc to give the O-protected compounds. O-Demethylation using BBr3 and concomitant acetal hydrolysis furnished the free-hydroxy 3-amino- and 3-chloro-3-deoxy-1D-myo-inositols. The 3-mercapto analogue was obtained by removal of the acetal groups of the acetylthio analogue, followed by acetylation and purification of the peracetate, and subsequent O-demethylation and deacetylation. The 3-deoxy derivative was synthesized from the 6-O-(imidazol-1-ylthiocarbonyl) compound via Barton-McCombie deoxygenation. The 3-azido derivative was directly synthesized from 1L-1-O-tosyl-chiro-inositol via displacement with azide. The 3-keto analogue was prepared by Pt-catalyzed air oxidation of 1L-chiro-inositol. The compounds were all evaluated as substrates for phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) synthase from mouse brain. The 3-NH2, 3-F, 3-deoxy, and 3-keto analogues all showed activity as substrates, as measured by liberation of cytidine monophosphate. These compounds also showed inhibition of the reaction of myo-[3H]inositol with PtdIns synthase. These results taken together indicate that these compounds are likely to be incorporated into phospholipids. As a further indication that these compounds might be useful as probes for the PtdIns pathway, it was demonstrated that the 3-NH2, 3-F, and 3-deoxy compounds are taken up by intact fibroblast cells as evidenced by their competing with myo-[3H]inositol uptake. PMID:8246231

Johnson, S C; Dahl, J; Shih, T L; Schedler, D J; Anderson, L; Benjamin, T L; Baker, D C

1993-11-12

268

Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure-activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3.  

PubMed

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18_V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 ? resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3? (HsGSK-3?) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found. PMID:21195115

Ojo, Kayode K; Arakaki, Tracy L; Napuli, Alberto J; Inampudi, Krishna K; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

2011-04-01

269

Structure Determination of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 from Leishmania major and Comparative Inhibitor Structure-Activity Relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3  

PubMed Central

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18_V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 Å resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3? (HsGSK-3?) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found.

Ojo, Kayode K.; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Inampudi, Krishna K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlinde, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

2011-01-01

270

Lenticular mitoprotection. Part A: Monitoring mitochondrial depolarization with JC-1 and artifactual fluorescence by the glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibitor, SB216763  

PubMed Central

Purpose Dissipation of the electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane results in mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (mMPT), a potential early marker for the onset of apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate a role for glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) in regulating mMPT. Using direct inhibition of GSK-3? with the GSK-3? inhibitor SB216763, mitochondria may be prevented from depolarizing (hereafter referred to as mitoprotection). Cells treated with SB216763 showed an artifact of fluorescence similar to the green emission spectrum of the JC-1 dye. We demonstrate the novel use of spectral deconvolution to negate the interfering contributing fluorescence by SB216763, thus allowing an unfettered analysis of the JC-1 dye to determine the mitochondrial membrane potential. Methods Secondary cultures of virally transfected human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) were exposed to acute hypoxic conditions (approximately 1% O2) followed by exposure to atmospheric oxygen (approximately 21% O2). The fluorescent dye JC-1 was used to monitor the extent of mitochondrial depolarization upon exposure of inhibitor treatment relative to the control cells (mock inhibition) in atmospheric oxygen. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining was implemented to determine cell viability. Results Treatment of HLE-B3 cells with SB216763 (12 µM), when challenged by oxidative stress, suppressed mitochondrial depolarization relative to control cells as demonstrated with JC-1 fluorescent dye analysis. Neither the control nor the SB216763-treated HLE-B3 cells tested positive with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining under the conditions of the experiment. Conclusions Inhibition of GSK-3? activity by SB216763 blocked mMPT relative to the slow but consistent depolarization observed with the control cells. We conclude that inhibition of GSK-3? activity by the GSK-3? inhibitor SB216763 provides positive protection against mitochondrial depolarization.

Brooks, Morgan M.; Neelam, Sudha; Fudala, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy

2013-01-01

271

HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor Improves Endothelial Dysfunction in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats Via Down-regulation of Caveolin-1 and Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk. Caveolin-1 regulates nitric oxide (NO) signaling by modulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The purpose of this study was to examine whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor improves impaired endothelial function of the aorta in spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) and to determine the underlying mechanisms involved. Eight-week-old male SHR were assigned to either a control group (CON, n=11) or a rosuvastatin group (ROS, n=12), rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) administered for eight weeks. Abdominal aortic rings were prepared and responses to acetylcholine (10-9-10-4 M) were determined in vitro. To evaluate the potential role of NO and caveolin-1, we examined the plasma activity of NOx, eNOS, phosphorylated-eNOS and expression of caveolin-1. The relaxation in response to acetylcholine was significantly enhanced in ROS compared to CON. Expression of eNOS RNA was unchanged, whereas NOx level and phosphorylated-eNOS at serine-1177 was increased accompanied with depressed level of caveolin-1 in ROS. We conclude that 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor can improve impaired endothelial dysfunction in SHR, and its underlying mechanisms are associated with increased NO production. Furthermore, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor can activate the eNOS by phosphorylation related to decreased caveolin-1 abundance. These results imply the therapeutic strategies for the high blood pressure-associated endothelial dysfunction through modifying caveolin status.

Suh, Jung-Won; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cho, Young-Seok; Youn, Tae-Jin; Chae, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Hyo-soo; Oh, Buyng-Hee; Park, Young-Bae

2010-01-01

272

Chitin and chitosan: Chemistry, properties and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin and chitosan are considerably versatile and promising biomaterials. The deacetylated chitin derivative, chitosan is more useful and interesting bioactive polymer. Despite its biodegradability, it has many reactive amino side groups, which offer possibilities of chemical modifications, formation of a large variety of useful derivatives that are commercially available or can be made available via graft reactions and ionic interactions.

Pradip Kumar Dutta; Joydeep Dutta; V S Tripathi

273

Pure Chitin Preparation from Boletus Edulis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pure chitin was produced from Boletus edulis (hoods and stumps) by penetration of 10% potash ley under great heat, without acids or strong means of oxidation. The yield corresponds to 5 or 6% of the weight of the air dried mushrooms. The obtained chitin r...

E. Scholl

1968-01-01

274

"Chitin-specific" peroxidases in plants.  

PubMed

The activity of various plant peroxidases and the ability of their individual isoforms to bind chitin was studied. Some increase in peroxidase activity was observed in crude extracts in the presence of chitin. Activated peroxidases of some species fell in the fraction not sorbed on chitin and those of other species can bind chitin. Only anionic isoperoxidases from oat (Avena sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), garden radish (Raphanus sativus var. radicula), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Link et Otto) were sorbed on chitin. Both anionic and cationic isoforms from pea (Pisum sativum), galega(Galega orientalis), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) were sorbed on chitin. Peroxidase activation under the influence of chitin was correlated to the processes that occur during hypersensitive reaction and lignification of sites, in which pathogenic fungus penetrates into a plant. The role of chitin-specific isoperoxidases in inhibition of fungal growth and connection of this phenomenon with structural characteristics of isoperoxidases are also discussed. PMID:12693984

Maksimov, I V; Cherepanova, E A; Khairullin, R M

2003-01-01

275

Ternary complex structures of human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase bound with a novel inhibitor and secondary ligands provide insights into the molecular details of the enzyme's active site closure  

PubMed Central

Background Human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) controls intracellular levels of farnesyl pyrophosphate, which is essential for various biological processes. Bisphosphonate inhibitors of human FPPS are valuable therapeutics for the treatment of bone-resorption disorders and have also demonstrated efficacy in multiple tumor types. Inhibition of human FPPS by bisphosphonates in vivo is thought to involve closing of the enzyme’s C-terminal tail induced by the binding of the second substrate isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). This conformational change, which occurs through a yet unclear mechanism, seals off the enzyme’s active site from the solvent environment and is essential for catalysis. The crystal structure of human FPPS in complex with a novel bisphosphonate YS0470 and in the absence of a second substrate showed partial ordering of the tail in the closed conformation. Results We have determined crystal structures of human FPPS in ternary complex with YS0470 and the secondary ligands inorganic phosphate (Pi), inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and IPP. Binding of PPi or IPP to the enzyme-inhibitor complex, but not that of Pi, resulted in full ordering of the C-terminal tail, which is most notably characterized by the anchoring of the R351 side chain to the main frame of the enzyme. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments demonstrated that PPi binds more tightly to the enzyme-inhibitor complex than IPP, and differential scanning fluorometry experiments confirmed that Pi binding does not induce the tail ordering. Structure analysis identified a cascade of conformational changes required for the C-terminal tail rigidification involving Y349, F238, and Q242. The residues K57 and N59 upon PPi/IPP binding undergo subtler conformational changes, which may initiate this cascade. Conclusions In human FPPS, Y349 functions as a safety switch that prevents any futile C-terminal closure and is locked in the “off” position in the absence of bound IPP. Q242 plays the role of a gatekeeper and directly controls the anchoring of R351 side chain. The interactions between the residues K57 and N59 and those upstream and downstream of Y349 are likely responsible for the switch activation. The findings of this study can be exploited for structure-guided optimization of existing inhibitors as well as development of new pharmacophores.

2012-01-01

276

3D-QSAR and molecular docking study on bisarylmaleimide series as glycogen synthase kinase 3, cyclin dependent kinase 2 and cyclin dependent kinase 4 inhibitors: An insight into the criteria for selectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibition over cyclin dependent kinases such as cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) is an important requirement for improved therapeutic profile of GSK3 inhibitors. The concepts of selectivity and additivity fields have been employed in developing selective CoMFA models for these related kinases. Initially, sets of three individual CoMFA

Nigus Dessalew; Prasad V. Bharatam

2007-01-01

277

Reference Genes to Study Herbicide Stress Response in Lolium sp.: Up-Regulation of P450 Genes in Plants Resistant to Acetolactate-Synthase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Variation in the expression of numerous genes is at the basis of plant response to environmental stresses. Non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR), the major threat to grass weed chemical control, is governed by a subset of the genes involved in herbicide stress response. Quantitative PCR assays allowing reliable comparison of gene expression are thus key to identify genes governing NTSR. This work aimed at identifying a set of reference genes with a stable expression to be used as an internal standard for the normalisation of quantitative PCR data in studies investigating NTSR to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) in the major grass weed Lolium sp. Gene expression stability was assessed in plants resistant or sensitive to two ALS inhibitors, subjected or not to herbicide stress. Using three complementary approaches implemented in the programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm, cap-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and ubiquitin were identified as the most suitable reference genes. This reference gene set can probably be used to study herbicide response in other weed species. It was used to compare the expression of the genes encoding two herbicide target enzymes (ALS and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase) and five cytochromes P450 (CYP) with potential herbicide-degrading activity between plants resistant or sensitive to ALS inhibitors. Overall, herbicide application enhanced CYP gene expression. Constitutive up-regulation of all CYP genes observed in resistant plants compared to sensitive plants suggested enhanced secondary metabolism in the resistant plants. Comprehensive transcriptome studies associated to gene expression analyses using the reference gene set validated here are required to unravel NTSR genetic determinants.

Duhoux, Arnaud; Delye, Christophe

2013-01-01

278

Reference genes to study herbicide stress response in Lolium sp.: up-regulation of P450 genes in plants resistant to acetolactate-synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Variation in the expression of numerous genes is at the basis of plant response to environmental stresses. Non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR), the major threat to grass weed chemical control, is governed by a subset of the genes involved in herbicide stress response. Quantitative PCR assays allowing reliable comparison of gene expression are thus key to identify genes governing NTSR. This work aimed at identifying a set of reference genes with a stable expression to be used as an internal standard for the normalisation of quantitative PCR data in studies investigating NTSR to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) in the major grass weed Lolium sp. Gene expression stability was assessed in plants resistant or sensitive to two ALS inhibitors, subjected or not to herbicide stress. Using three complementary approaches implemented in the programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm, cap-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and ubiquitin were identified as the most suitable reference genes. This reference gene set can probably be used to study herbicide response in other weed species. It was used to compare the expression of the genes encoding two herbicide target enzymes (ALS and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase) and five cytochromes P450 (CYP) with potential herbicide-degrading activity between plants resistant or sensitive to ALS inhibitors. Overall, herbicide application enhanced CYP gene expression. Constitutive up-regulation of all CYP genes observed in resistant plants compared to sensitive plants suggested enhanced secondary metabolism in the resistant plants. Comprehensive transcriptome studies associated to gene expression analyses using the reference gene set validated here are required to unravel NTSR genetic determinants. PMID:23696834

Duhoux, Arnaud; Délye, Christophe

2013-01-01

279

Resistance of a Rodent Malaria Parasite to a Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitor Induces an Apoptotic Parasite Death and Imposes a Huge Cost of Fitness  

PubMed Central

Background The greatest impediment to effective malaria control is drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, and thus understanding how resistance impacts on the parasite's fitness and pathogenicity may aid in malaria control strategy. Methodology/Principal Findings To generate resistance, P. berghei NK65 was subjected to 5-fluoroorotate (FOA, an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, TS) pressure in mice. After 15 generations of drug pressure, the 2% DT (the delay time for proliferation of parasites to 2% parasitaemia, relative to untreated wild-type controls) reduced from 8 days to 4, equalling the controls. Drug sensitivity studies confirmed that FOA-resistance was stable. During serial passaging in the absence of drug, resistant parasite maintained low growth rates (parasitaemia, 15.5%±2.9, 7 dpi) relative to the wild-type (45.6%±8.4), translating into resistance cost of fitness of 66.0%. The resistant parasite showed an apoptosis-like death, as confirmed by light and transmission electron microscopy and corroborated by oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Conclusions/Significance The resistant parasite was less fit than the wild-type, which implies that in the absence of drug pressure in the field, the wild-type alleles may expand and allow drugs withdrawn due to resistance to be reintroduced. FOA resistance led to depleted dTTP pools, causing thymineless parasite death via apoptosis. This supports the tenet that unicellular eukaryotes, like metazoans, also undergo apoptosis. This is the first report where resistance to a chemical stimulus and not the stimulus itself is shown to induce apoptosis in a unicellular parasite. This finding is relevant in cancer therapy, since thymineless cell death induced by resistance to TS-inhibitors can further be optimized via inhibition of pyrimidine salvage enzymes, thus providing a synergistic impact. We conclude that since apoptosis is a process that can be pharmacologically modulated, the parasite's apoptotic machinery may be exploited as a novel drug target in malaria and other protozoan diseases of medical importance.

Muregi, Francis W.; Ohta, Isao; Masato, Uchijima; Kino, Hideto; Ishih, Akira

2011-01-01

280

Mechanisms of acquired resistance to the quinazoline thymidylate synthase inhibitor ZD1694 (Tomudex) in one mouse and three human cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Four cell lines, the mouse L1210 leukaemia, the human W1L2 lymphoblastoid and two human ovarian (CH1 and 41M) cell lines, were made resistant to ZD1694 (Tomudex) by continual exposure to incremental doses of the drug. A 500-fold increase in thymidylate synthase (TS) activity is the primary mechanism of resistance to ZD1694 in the W1L2:RD1694 cell line, which is consequently highly cross-resistant to other folate-based TS inhibitors, including BW1843U89, LY231514 and AG337, but sensitive to antifolates with other enzyme targets. The CH1:RD1694 cell line is 14-fold resistant to ZD1694, largely accounted for by the 4.2-fold increase in TS activity. Cross-resistance was observed to other TS inhibitors, including 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd). 41M:RD1694 cells, when exposed to 0.1 microM [3H]ZD1694, accumulated approximately 20-fold less 3H-labelled material over 24 h than the parental line. Data are consistent with this being the result of impaired transport of the drug via the reduced folate/methotrexate carrier. Resistance was therefore observed to methotrexate but not to CB3717, a compound known to use this transport mechanism poorly. The mouse L1210:RD1694 cell line does not accumulate ZD1694 or Methotrexate (MTX) polyglutamates. Folylpolyglutamate synthetase substrate activity (using ZD1694 as the substrate) was decreased to approximately 13% of that observed in the parental line. Cross-resistance was found to those compounds known to be active through polyglutamation.

Jackman, A. L.; Kelland, L. R.; Kimbell, R.; Brown, M.; Gibson, W.; Aherne, G. W.; Hardcastle, A.; Boyle, F. T.

1995-01-01

281

Exploring the allosteric mechanism of dihydrodipicolinate synthase by reverse engineering of the allosteric inhibitor binding sites and its application for lysine production.  

PubMed

Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, EC 4.2.1.52) catalyzes the first committed reaction of L-lysine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants and is allosterically regulated by L-lysine. In previous studies, DHDPSs from different species were proved to have different sensitivity to L-lysine inhibition. In this study, we investigated the key determinants of feedback regulation between two industrially important DHDPSs, the L-lysine-sensitive DHDPS from Escherichia coli and L-lysine-insensitive DHDPS from Corynebacterium glutamicum, by sequence and structure comparisons and site-directed mutation. Feedback inhibition of E. coli DHDPS was successfully alleviated after substitution of the residues around the inhibitor's binding sites with those of C. glutamicum DHDPS. Interestingly, mutagenesis of the lysine binding sites of C. glutamicum DHDPS according to E. coli DHDPS did not recover the expected feedback inhibition but an activation of DHDPS by L-lysine, probably due to differences in the allosteic signal transduction in the DHDPS of these two organisms. Overexpression of L-lysine-insensitive E. coli DHDPS mutants in E. coli MG1655 resulted in an improvement of L-lysine production yield by 46 %. PMID:22644522

Geng, Feng; Chen, Zhen; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Zeng, An-Ping

2013-03-01

282

Radioisotope assay for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase: s-adenosylhomocysteine analogs as inhibitors of the enzyme involved in plant senescence  

SciTech Connect

A simple and rapid radioisotopic assay for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase was developed, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene. The assay utilizes an AG50-X4(NH4 (+)) column which separates S-adenosyl-L-(carboxyl-/sup 14/C)methionine (AdoMet) from the product (/sup 14/C)acc, since the latter is not bound to the resin while (/sup 14/C)adoMet is. As opposed to other assays, this procedure measures ACC directly and does not require further conversion to ethylene. When an enzyme preparation from ripe-tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) was assayed, an I/sub 50/ of 2.5 + or - 0.8 micrometers for sinefungin and a K/sub m/ of 27 + or - 2 micrometers for AdoMet were obtained; these values were in good agreement with previous previous determinations made with a gas-chromatographic assay. When other nucleosides were tested as inhibitors the following order of decreasing activity was found: sinefungin, S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), AdoHcy sulfoxide, S-n-butyladenosine, 3-deaza-adenosylhomocysteine, S-isobutyladenosine, S-isobutyladenosine, S-isobutyl-l-deazaadenosine. In contrast, S-isobutyl-3-deazaadenosine, S-isobutyl-7-deazaadenosine, 3-deazaadenosine, and adenodine were not inhibitory.

Miura, G.A.; Chiang, P.K.

1985-01-01

283

The NO donor sodium nitroprusside reverses the negative effects on hepatic arterial flow induced by endotoxin and the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME.  

PubMed

In previous studies we have observed that the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME induces a profound deterioration of liver circulation in experimental endotoxemia. Using the same porcine model we now have evaluated the possibility of modulating these effects with the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside. Infusion of endotoxin led to a gradual deterioration of hemodynamic parameters, including liver blood flow. The decreases in portal blood flow paralleled and matched the decreases in cardiac output, and no compensatory increase in hepatic arterial flow occurred. L-NAME had detrimental effects on hemodynamics, including the liver circulation. The latter effects could, however, partially be reversed by sodium nitroprusside. Hepatic arterial flow increased from 1.9 to 7.2 ml/kg/min, with a concomitant decrease in hepatic arterial resistance from 5,364 to 1,746 dyn s/cm5 kg. A control group exhibited no significant change in either flow or resistance. The response to sodium nitroprusside was rapid and vigorous, and probably largely due to relaxation of the hepatic arterioles, and not to abatement of intrahepatic edema or plugging of the sinusoids. Furthermore, we conclude that the endotoxin-induced dysfunction of the hepatic arterial buffer response may be due to a selective inhibition of vascular endothelial function. PMID:8880121

Gundersen, Y; Saetre, T; Scholz, T; Carlsen, H; Kjekshus, H; Smiseth, O A; Lilleaasen, P; Aasen, A O

1996-01-01

284

RNA silencing targeting PIN (protein inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase) attenuates the development of hypertension in young spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency contributes to hypertension. We previously showed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was involved in hypertension and kidney damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN) has been reported to inhibit activity of nNOS.Thus, we tested whether increased PIN in the kidney results in hypertension and whether small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting PIN attenuates hypertension in SHRs. Four-week-old male SHRs were assigned into three groups (n = 6-7/group): SHR; SHR + PIN, SHR that received siRNA targeting PIN; and SHR + NC, SHR treated with random negative control siRNA. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. PIN protein expression was inhibited considerably when PIN siRNA was transfected into NRK52E cells (90% siRNA at 1 nM). The increases of BP were attenuated by siRNA targeting PIN in 12-week-old SHRs. Immunostaining of nNOS-? and total nNOS was greater in SHR + PIN group than SHR. Moreover, renal superoxide production and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) staining were more decreased in the SHR + PIN group than SHRs. We conclude that PIN siRNA reduced PIN expression in vitro and in vivo. PIN siRNA therapy attenuates hypertension in SHRs at 12 weeks of age. Our results suggest that PIN is involved in the development of hypertension. PMID:24035314

Wang, Su-Chen; Lin, Kuan-Miao; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Li-Tung; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Tain, You-Lin

2014-01-01

285

Characterization of the novel nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitro indazole and related indazoles: antinociceptive and cardiovascular effects.  

PubMed Central

1. 7-Nitro indazole (7-NI, 10-50 mg kg-1), 6-nitro indazole and indazole (25-100 mg kg-1) administered i.p. in the mouse produce dose-related antinociception in the late phase of the formalin-induced hindpaw licking and acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction assays. The ED50 values (mg kg-1) were as follows: 7-NI (27.5 and 22.5), 6-nitro indazole (62.5 and 44.0) and indazole (41.0 and 48.5) in the two assays respectively. 3-Indazolinone, 6 amino indazole and 6-sulphanilimido indazole (all 50 mg kg-1) were without effect. With the exception of 5-nitro indazole (50 mg kg-1) which produced sedation, none of the other indazole derivates examined caused overt behavioural changes. 2. The antinociceptive effect of 7-NI (25 mg kg-1, i.p.) in the late phase of the formalin-induced hindpaw licking assay was partially (46.7 +/- 16.2%, n = 18) reversed by pretreatment with L- but not D-arginine (both 50 mg kg-1, i.p.). 3. The time course of 7-NI induced antinociception in the mouse was correlated with inhibition of brain (cerebellum) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Maximum antinociceptive activity and NOS inhibition was detected 18-30 min following i.p. administration. In contrast, no antinociceptive effect or inhibition of cerebellar NOS was detected 75 min post-injection. 4. 7-NI, 6-nitro indazole, indazole, 3-indazolinone and 6-amino indazole (all 50 mg kg-1) failed to influence mean arterial pressure (MAP) over the 45 min after i.p. administration in the anaesthetized mouse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Moore, P. K.; Wallace, P.; Gaffen, Z.; Hart, S. L.; Babbedge, R. C.

1993-01-01

286

Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ? Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ? Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ? Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury induced by NM.

Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hall, LeRoy [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States)] [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2012-12-15

287

Promotion of purine nucleotide binding to thymidylate synthase by a potent folate analogue inhibitor, 1843U89.  

PubMed Central

A folate analogue, 1843U89 (U89), with potential as a chemotherapeutic agent due to its potent and specific inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS; EC 2.1.1.45), greatly enhances not only the binding of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (FdUMP) and dUMP to Escherichia coli TS but also that of dGMP, GMP, dIMP, and IMP. Guanine nucleotide binding was first detected by CD analysis, which revealed a unique spectrum for the TS-dGMP-U89 ternary complex. The quantitative binding of dGMP relative to GMP, FdUMP, and dUMP was determined in the presence and absence of U89 by ultrafiltration analysis, which revealed that although the binding of GMP and dGMP could not be detected in the absence of U89 both were bound in its presence. The Kd for dGMP was about the same as that for dUMP and FdUMP, with binding of the latter two nucleotides being increased by two orders of magnitude by U89. An explanation for the binding of dGMP was provided by x-ray diffraction studies that revealed an extensive stacking interaction between the guanine of dGMP and the benzoquinazoline ring of U89 and hydrogen bonds similar to those involved in dUMP binding. In addition, binding energy was provided through a water molecule that formed hydrogen bonds to both N7 of dGMP and the hydroxyl of Tyr-94. Accommodation of the larger dGMP molecule was accomplished through a distortion of the active site and a shift of the deoxyribose moiety to a new position. These rearrangements also enabled the binding of GMP to occur by creating a pocket for the ribose 2' hydroxyl group, overcoming the normal TS discrimination against nucleotides containing the 2' hydroxyl. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Weichsel, A; Montfort, W R; Ciesla, J; Maley, F

1995-01-01

288

Suppressing the expression of a forkhead transcription factor disrupts the chitin biosynthesis pathway in Spodoptera exigua.  

PubMed

Forkhead (Fox) transcription factors display functional diversity and are involved in various metabolic and developmental processes. The Spodoptera exigua Fox (SeFox) encodes a protein of 353 amino acids with a theoretical molecular mass of approximately 38.99 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.86. qPCR results revealed that SeFox was expressed mainly in the brain, fat body, epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testis. SeFox was expressed, with some changes, throughout development in the fat body and whole body. Injection of dsSeFox (SeFox dsRNA) into larvae resulted in incidences of albino plus molting deformity (4.8%), molting deformity (26.2%), and albino phenotypes (69.1%). dsSeFox injection resulted in approximately 50% knockdown of transcript levels at 36 h. Compared with control groups, hexokinase (HK) expression was reduced to approximately 40% at 48 h postinjection. Chitin synthase A (CHSA) expression was reduced to two-thirds at 24 h, but increased at 72 h. Compared with untreated control and green fluorescent protein-treated groups, Chitin synthase B (CHSB) expression decreased to 33% following dsSeFox injection by 36 h. We infer from our results that forkhead transcription factors act in chitin synthesis in S. exigua. PMID:24464395

Zhao, Lina; Wei, Ping; Guo, Hongshuang; Wang, Shigui; Tang, Bin

2014-05-01

289

Cardiac and regional haemodynamics, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and the effects of NOS inhibitors in conscious, endotoxaemic rats.  

PubMed Central

1. A reproducible model of the hyperdynamic circulatory sequelae of endotoxaemia in conscious, chronically-instrumented Long Evans rats, was achieved with a continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 150 micro g kg(-1) h(-1)) for 32 h. Over the first 2 h of LPS infusion, there was a transient hypotension and tachycardia, accompanied by a marked increase in renal flow and vascular conductance, although there were reductions in cardiac and stroke index. Between 4-8 after the start of LPS infusion, there was slight hypotension and tachycardia, and a transient rise in mesenteric flow and conductance, but reductions in the hindquarters vascular bed; the hyperaemic vasodilatation in the renal vascular bed was maintained. At this stage, all cardiac haemodynamic variables were not different from baseline. At this stage, cardiac and stroke index were substantially elevated, in association with marked increases in peak aortic flow, dF/dtmax and total peripheral conductance; these changes were well-maintained over the following 8 h of LPS infusion. 2. By 2 h after the start of LPS infusion, only lung inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity was increased, but at 6 h there were significant increases in iNOS activity in lung, liver, spleen, heart and aorta. (43.3 +/- 7.8, 28.8 +/- 3.3, 50.8 +/- 7.2, 3.04 +/- 0.29, 3.76 +/- 0.94 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively). However, by 24 h after the start of LPS infusion, iNOS activity was not elevated significantly in any tissue examined, and kidney iNOS activity did not change significantly during LPS infusion. Plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were increased after 2 h infusion of LPS (from 6.07 +/- 1.23 to 29.44 +/- 7.08 micromol l(-1)), and further by 6 h (228.10 +/- 29.20 micromol l(-1)), but were less 24 h after onset of LPS infusion (74.96 +/- 11.34 micromol l(-1)). Hence, the progressive hypotension, increasing cardiac function and developing hyperaemic vasodilatation in renal and hindquarters vascular beds between 8-24 h after the onset of LPS infusion, occurred when tissue iNOS activity and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were falling. 3. Pretreatment with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 30 mg kg(-1) bolus, 30 mg kg(-1) h(-1) infusion) 1 h before LPS infusion did not prevent the early hypotension, but abolished the initial renal vasodilatation and the later (6-8 h) fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP), and the additional renal vasodilatation.

Gardiner, S. M.; Kemp, P. A.; March, J. E.; Bennett, T.

1995-01-01

290

Anthranilate 4H-oxazol-5-ones: novel small molecule antibacterial acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) inhibitors.  

PubMed

D-optimal design and Projection to Latent Structures (PLS) analysis were used to optimize screening hit 5 (B. subtilis AcpS IC(50): 15 microM, B. subtilis MIC: >200 microM) into a series of 4H-oxazol-5-one, small molecule, antibacterial, AcpS inhibitors. Specifically, 15, 16 and 18 show microM or sub-microM AcpS inhibition (IC(50)s: 15: 1.1 microM, 16: 1.5 microM, 18: 0.27 microM) and moderate antibacterial activity (MICs: 12.5-50 microM) against B. subtilis, E. faecalis ATCC, E. faecalis VRE and S. pneumo+. PMID:14684293

Gilbert, Adam M; Kirisits, Matthew; Toy, Patrick; Nunn, David S; Failli, Amadeo; Dushin, Elizabeth G; Novikova, Elena; Petersen, Peter J; Joseph-McCarthy, Diane; McFadyen, Iain; Fritz, Christian C

2004-01-01

291

GW274150 and GW273629 are potent and highly selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

GW274150 ([2-[(1-iminoethyl) amino]ethyl]-L-homocysteine) and GW273629 (3-[[2-[(1-iminoethyl)amino]ethyl]sulphonyl]-L-alanine) are potent, time-dependent, highly selective inhibitors of human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) vs endothelial NOS (eNOS) (>100-fold) or neuronal NOS (nNOS) (>80-fold). GW274150 and GW273629 are arginine competitive, NADPH-dependent inhibitors of human iNOS with steady state Kd values of <40 and <90?nM, respectively.GW274150 and GW273629 inhibited intracellular iNOS in J774 cells in a time-dependent manner, reaching IC50 values of 0.2±0.04 and 1.3±0.16??M, respectively. They were also acutely selective in intact rat tissues: GW274150 was >260-fold and 219-fold selective for iNOS against eNOS and nNOS, respectively, while GW273629 was >150-fold and 365-fold selective for iNOS against eNOS and nNOS, respectively.The pharmacokinetic profile of GW274150 was biphasic in healthy rats and mice with a terminal half-life of ?6?h. That of GW273629 was also biphasic in rats, producing a terminal half-life of ?3?h. In mice however, elimination of GW273629 appeared monophasic and more rapid (?10?min). Both compounds show a high oral bioavailability (>90%) in rats and mice.GW274150 was effective in inhibiting LPS-induced plasma NOx levels in mice with an ED50 of 3.2±0.7?mg?kg?1 after 14?h intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 3.8±1.5?mg?kg?1 after 14?h when administered orally. GW273629 showed shorter-lived effects on plasma NOx and an ED50 of 9±2?mg?kg?1 after 2?h when administered i.p.The effects of GW274150 and GW273629 in vivo were consistent with high selectivity for iNOS, as these inhibitors were of low potency against nNOS in the rat cerebellum and did not cause significant effects on blood pressure in instrumented mice.

Alderton, Wendy K; Angell, Anthony D R; Craig, Caroline; Dawson, John; Garvey, Edward; Moncada, Salvador; Monkhouse, Jayne; Rees, Daryl; Russell, Linda J; Russell, Rachel J; Schwartz, Sheila; Waslidge, Neil; Knowles, Richard G

2005-01-01

292

An inhibitor-driven study for enhancing the selectivity of indirubin derivatives towards leishmanial Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 over leishmanial cdc2-related protein kinase 3  

PubMed Central

Background In search of new antiparasitic agents for overcoming the limitations of current leishmaniasis chemotherapy, we have previously shown that 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (6BIO) and several other 6-substituted analogues of indirubin, a naturally occurring bis-indole present in mollusks and plants, displayed reverse selectivity from the respective mammalian kinases, targeting more potently the leishmanial Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-1 (CDK1) homologue [cdc2-related protein kinase 3 (LCRK3)] over leishmanial Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (LGSK-3). This reversal of selectivity in Leishmania parasites compared to mammalian cells makes the design of specific indirubin-based LGSK-3 inhibitors difficult. In this context, the identification of compounds bearing specific substitutions that shift indirubin inhibition towards LGSK-3, previously found to be a potential drug target, over LCRK3 is imperative for antileishmanial targeted drug discovery. Methods A new in-house indirubin library, composed of 35 compounds, initially designed to target mammalian kinases (CDKs, GSK-3), was tested against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes using the Alamar blue assay. Indirubins with antileishmanial activity were tested against LGSK-3 and LCRK3 kinases, purified from homologous expression systems. Flow cytometry (FACS) was used to measure the DNA content for cell-cycle analysis and the mode of cell death. Comparative structural analysis of the involved kinases was then performed using the Szmap algorithm. Results We have identified 7 new indirubin analogues that are selective inhibitors of LGSK-3 over LCRK3. These new inhibitors were also found to display potent antileishmanial activity with GI50 values of <1.5 ??. Surprisingly, all the compounds that displayed enhanced selectivity towards LGSK-3, were 6BIO analogues bearing an additional 3'-bulky amino substitution, namely a piperazine or pyrrolidine ring. A comparative structural analysis of the two aforementioned leishmanial kinases was subsequently undertaken to explain and rationalize the selectivity trend determined by the in vitro binding assays. Interestingly, the latter analysis showed that selectivity could be correlated with differences in kinase solvation thermo dynamics induced by minor sequence variations of the otherwise highly similar ATP binding pockets. Conclusions In conclusion, 3'-bulky amino substituted 6-BIO derivatives, which demonstrate enhanced specificity towards LGSK-3, represent a new scaffold for targeted drug development to treat leishmaniasis.

2014-01-01

293

Inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase improves gas exchange in ventilator-induced lung injury after pneumonectomy  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes may cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and enhanced generation of nitric oxide (NO). We demonstrated in sheep that pneumonectomy followed by injurious ventilation promotes pulmonary edema. We wished both to test the hypothesis that neuronal NOS (nNOS), which is distributed in airway epithelial and neuronal tissues, could be involved in the pathogenesis of VILI and we also aimed at investigating the influence of an inhibitor of nNOS on the course of VILI after pneumonectomy. Methods Anesthetized sheep underwent right pneumonectomy, mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes (VT) of 6?mL/kg and FiO2 0.5, and were subsequently randomized to a protectively ventilated group (PROTV; n?=?8) keeping VT and FiO2 unchanged, respiratory rate (RR) 25 inflations/min and PEEP 4?cm H2O for the following 8?hrs; an injuriously ventilated group with VT of 12?mL/kg, zero end-expiratory pressure, and FiO2 and RR unchanged (INJV; n?=?8) and a group, which additionally received the inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (NI) 1.0?mg/kg/h intravenously from 2 hours after the commencement of injurious ventilation (INJV?+?NI; n?=?8). We assessed respiratory, hemodynamic and volumetric variables, including both the extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and the pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI). We measured plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels and examined lung biopsies for lung injury score (LIS). Results Both the injuriously ventilated groups demonstrated a 2–3-fold rise in EVLWI and PVPI, with no significant effects of NI. In the INJV group, gas exchange deteriorated in parallel with emerging respiratory acidosis, but administration of NI antagonized the derangement of oxygenation and the respiratory acidosis significantly. NOx displayed no significant changes and NI exerted no significant effect on LIS in the INJV group. Conclusion Inhibition of nNOS improved gas exchange, but did not reduce lung water extravasation following injurious ventilation after pneumonectomy in sheep.

2012-01-01

294

Dissolution of mechanically milled chitin in high temperature water.  

PubMed

Chitin is high in crystallinity in its natural form and does not dissolve into high temperature water (HTW), which often leads to decomposition reactions such as hydrolysis, deacetylation and dehydration when hydrothermally processed. In this work, we investigated the reactions of mechanically milled chitin in HTW. Mechanical milling pretreatment combined with HTW treatment improved the liquefaction of chitin giving a maximum water soluble fraction of 80%, where the untreated chitin was 55%. The reaction mechanism of the milled and raw chitin in HTW was shown to be different. For milled chitin, the dissolution of chitin occurred during the heating period to supercritical water conditions (400°C) at short reaction times (1min). Extended reaction time (10min) led to decomposition products and aromatic char formation. For raw chitin, the dissolution of chitin in HTW did not occur, due to its high crystallinity, so that liquefaction proceeded via decomposition reactions. PMID:24721066

Aida, Taku Michael; Oshima, Kenji; Abe, Chihiro; Maruta, Ryoma; Iguchi, Masayuki; Watanabe, Masaru; Smith, Richard L

2014-06-15

295

Association of the Endogenous Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor ADMA with Carotid Artery Intimal Media Thickness in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Higher plasma concentrations of the endogenous nitric oxides synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with increased risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events and death, presumably by promoting endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that plasma ADMA concentrations are positively related to common carotid artery intimal media thickness (CCA-IMT) and to internal carotid (ICA)/bulb-IMT. Methods We investigated the cross-sectional relations of plasma ADMA with CCA-IMT and ICA/bulb-IMT in 2958 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 58 years, 55% women). Results In unadjusted analyses, ADMA was positively related to both CCA-IMT (? per SD increment 0.012, p<0.001) and ICA/bulb IMT (? per SD increment 0.059, p<0.001). In multivariable analyses (adjusting for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, smoking status, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), Total to HDL cholesterol ratio, log C-reactive protein, and serum creatinine), plasma ADMA was not associated with CCA-IMT (p=0.991), but remained significantly and positively related to ICA/bulb IMT (? per SD increment 0.0246, p=0.002). Conclusions In our large community-based sample, we observed that higher plasma ADMA concentrations were associated with greater ICA/bulb-IMT but not with CCA-IMT. These data are consistent with the notion that ADMA promotes subclinical atherosclerosis in a site-specific manner, with a greater proatherogenic influence at known vulnerable sites in the arterial tree.

Maas, Renke; Xanthakis, Vanessa; Polak, Joseph F.; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Benndorf, Ralf; Schulze, Friedrich; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wolf, Philip A.; Boger, Rainer H.; Seshadri, Sudha

2009-01-01

296

The selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole has acute analgesic but not cumulative effects in a rat model of peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Chronic neuropathic pain that may arise from various nerve injuries or insults remains notoriously difficult to manage. The neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been shown to be involved in the spinal transmission of nociception in animal models of chronic pain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of single dose and repeated administration of a selective nNOS inhibitor. Rats were unilaterally implanted with a 2-mm polyethylene cuff around the sciatic nerve. Paw withdrawal thresholds were measured using von Frey filament stimulation. Rats were given 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), or vehicle, on days 2, 5, and 7 after model induction, respectively. Paw withdrawal thresholds were measured before and at 30 and 60 min after injection. 7-NI significantly increased paw withdrawal thresholds at 60 min at the 20 and 30 mg/kg dosages. In the second part of this study, rats were given 20 mg/kg 7-NI daily for five days starting immediately after cuff implantation (days 0 to 4), and the cuff was removed on day 4. Withdrawal thresholds were measured intermittently over a 24-day observation period. No differences in withdrawal thresholds were observed between drug and vehicle-treated rats. Therefore, early and repeated administration of 7-NI did not affect the development or progression of the model. In conclusion, inhibition of nNOS had an analgesic but not a pre-emptive effect in this model of peripheral neuropathic pain.

Dableh, Liliane J; Henry, James L

2011-01-01

297

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with echinocandin-resistant 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase.  

PubMed Central

A novel, potent, semisynthetic pneumocandin, L-733,560, was used to isolate a resistant mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This compound, like other pneumocandins and echinocandins, inhibits 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase from Candida albicans (F.A. Bouffard, R.A. Zambias, J. F. Dropinski, J.M. Balkovec, M.L. Hammond, G.K. Abruzzo, K.F. Bartizal, J.A. Marrinan, M. B. Kurtz, D.C. McFadden, K.H. Nollstadt, M.A. Powles, and D.M. Schmatz, J. Med. Chem. 37:222-225, 1994). Glucan synthesis catalyzed by a crude membrane fraction prepared from the S. cerevisiae mutant R560-1C was resistant to inhibition by L-733,560. The nearly 50-fold increase in the 50% inhibitory concentration against glucan synthase was commensurate with the increase in whole-cell resistance. R560-1C was cross-resistant to other inhibitors of C. albicans 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase (aculeacin A, dihydropapulacandin, and others) but not to compounds with different modes of action. Genetic analysis revealed that enzyme and whole-cell pneumocandin resistance was due to a single mutant gene, designated etg1-1 (echinocandin target gene 1), which was semidominant in heterozygous diploids. The etg1-1 mutation did not confer enhanced ability to metabolize L-733,560 and had no effect on the membrane-bound enzymes chitin synthase I and squalene synthase. Alkali-soluble beta-glucan synthesized by crude microsomes from R560-1C was indistinguishable from the wild-type product. 1,3-beta-D-Glucan synthase activity from R560-1C was fractionated with NaCl and Tergitol NP-40; reconstitution with fractions from wild-type membranes revealed that drug resistance is associated with the insoluble membrane fraction. We propose that the etg1-1 mutant gene encodes a subunit of the 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase complex.

Douglas, C M; Marrinan, J A; Li, W; Kurtz, M B

1994-01-01

298

Inhibitors of the fungal cell wall. Synthesis of 4-aryl-4- N-arylamine-1-butenes and related compounds with inhibitory activities on ?(1–3) glucan and chitin synthases  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of our project devoted to the search for antifungal agents, which act via a selective mode of action, we synthesized a series of new 4-aryl- or 4-alkyl-N-arylamine-1-butenes and transformed some of them into 2-substituted 4-methyl-tetrahydroquinolines and quinolines by using a novel three-step synthesis. Results obtained in agar dilution assays have shown that 4-aryl homoallylamines not possessing halogen in

Juan M Urbina; Juan C. G Cortés; Alirio Palma; Silvia N López; Susana A Zacchino; Ricardo D Enriz; Juan C Ribas; Vladimir V Kouznetzov

2000-01-01

299

Bacterial chitin degradation--mechanisms and ecophysiological strategies  

PubMed Central

Chitin is one the most abundant polymers in nature and interacts with both carbon and nitrogen cycles. Processes controlling chitin degradation are summarized in reviews published some 20 years ago, but the recent use of culture-independent molecular methods has led to a revised understanding of the ecology and biochemistry of this process and the organisms involved. This review summarizes different mechanisms and the principal steps involved in chitin degradation at a molecular level while also discussing the coupling of community composition to measured chitin hydrolysis activities and substrate uptake. Ecological consequences are then highlighted and discussed with a focus on the cross feeding associated with the different habitats that arise because of the need for extracellular hydrolysis of the chitin polymer prior to metabolic use. Principal environmental drivers of chitin degradation are identified which are likely to influence both community composition of chitin degrading bacteria and measured chitin hydrolysis activities.

Beier, Sara; Bertilsson, Stefan

2013-01-01

300

Preparation of acrylic grafted chitin for wound dressing application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (chitin–PAA) was prepared with the aim of obtaining a hydrogel characteristic for wound dressing application. The chitin–PAA films were synthesized at various acrylic acid feed contents to investigate its effect on water sorption ability. Acrylic acid (AA) was first linked to chitin, acting as the active grafting sites on the chain that was further polymerized

Siriporn Tanodekaew; Malinee Prasitsilp; Somporn Swasdison; Boonlom Thavornyutikarn; Thanawit Pothsree; Rujiporn Pateepasen

2004-01-01

301

Mechanism of differential inhibition of hepatic and pancreatic fatty acid ethyl ester synthase by inhibitors of serine-esterases: in vitro and cell culture studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier, we have shown that rat hepatic and pancreatic fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) synthases are structurally and functionally similar to rat liver carboxylesterase (CE) and pancreatic cholesterol esterase (ChE), respectively. We have also reported that only hepatic FAEE synthase is inhibited by tri-o-tolylphosphate (TOTP) in vivo and in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The metabolism of TOTP is a

Bhupendra S. Kaphalia; Kelly A. Mericle; G. A. S. Ansari

2004-01-01

302

Biomaterials based on chitin and chitosan in wound dressing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wound dressing is one of the most promising medical applications for chitin and chitosan. The adhesive nature of chitin and chitosan, together with their antifungal and bactericidal character, and their permeability to oxygen, is a very important property associated with the treatment of wounds and burns. Different derivatives of chitin and chitosan have been prepared for this purpose in the

R. Jayakumar; M. Prabaharan; P. T. Sudheesh Kumar; S. V. Nair; H. Tamura

2011-01-01

303

Selective preservation of chitin during the decay of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preservation potential of chitin in the marine environment is a matter of debate. To determine the relative survival of chitin and other organic components, the shrimp Crangon was decayed under different laboratory conditions. Solid state 13 C NMR and Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated that slightly transformed chitin represents the major component of the remaining biomass

M. Baas; D. E. G. Briggs; J. D. H. van Heemst; A. J. Kear; J. W. de Leeuw

1995-01-01

304

Role of Surface Proteins in Vibrio cholerae Attachment to Chitin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of surface proteins in Vibrio cholerae attachment to chitin particles in vitro was studied. Treatment of V. cholerae O1 ATCC 14034 and ATCC 14035 with pronase E reduced the attachment of bacteria to chitin particles by 57 to 77%. A statistically significant reduction was also observed when the attachment to chitin was evaluated in the presence of homologous

RENATO TARSI; CARLA PRUZZO

1999-01-01

305

Chitin and chitosan polymers: Chemistry, solubility and fiber formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin and chitosan (CS) are biopolymers having immense structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to generate novel properties, functions and applications especially in biomedical area. Despite its huge availability, the utilization of chitin has been restricted by its intractability and insolubility. The fact that chitin is as an effective material for sutures essentially because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and

C. K. S. Pillai; Willi Paul; Chandra P. Sharma

2009-01-01

306

Non-Bisphosphonate Inhibitors of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Identified via Computer-Aided Drug Design  

PubMed Central

The relaxed complex scheme, a virtual-screening methodology that accounts for protein receptor flexibility, was used to identify a low-micromolar, non-bisphosphonate inhibitor of farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Serendipitously, we also found that several predicted farnesyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors were low-micromolar inhibitors of undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase. These results are of interest because farnesyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors are being pursued as both anti-infective and anticancer agents, and undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors are antibacterial drug leads.

Durrant, Jacob D; Cao, Rong; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Zhu, Wei; Li, Jikun; Sankovsky, Anna; Oldfield, Eric; McCammon, J Andrew

2011-01-01

307

Nitric oxide donors prevent while the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME increases arachidonic acid plus CYP2E1-dependent toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA) play an important role in alcohol-induced liver injury. AA promotes toxicity in rat hepatocytes with high levels of cytochrome P4502E1 and in HepG2 E47 cells which express CYP2E1. Nitric oxide (NO) participates in the regulation of various cell activities as well as in cytotoxic events. NO may act as a protectant against cytotoxic stress or may enhance cytotoxicity when produced at elevated concentrations. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of endogenously or exogenously produced NO on AA toxicity in liver cells with high expression of CYP2E1 and assess possible mechanisms for its actions. Pyrazole-induced rat hepatocytes or HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 were treated with AA in the presence or absence of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase L-N {sup G}-Nitroarginine Methylester (L-NAME) or the NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), and (Z)-1-[-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-aminoethyl)]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA-NONO). AA decreased cell viability from 100% to 48 {+-} 6% after treatment for 48 h. In the presence of L-NAME, viability was further lowered to 23 {+-} 5%, while, SNAP or DETA-NONO increased viability to 66 {+-} 8 or 71 {+-} 6%. The L-NAME potentiated toxicity was primarily necrotic in nature. L-NAME did not affect CYP2E1 activity or CYP2E1 content. SNAP significantly lowered CYP2E1 activity but not protein. AA treatment increased lipid peroxidation and lowered GSH levels. L-NAME potentiated while SNAP prevented these changes. Thus, L-NAME increased, while NO donors decreased AA-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants prevented the L-NAME potentiation of AA toxicity. Damage to mitochondria by AA was shown by a decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). L-NAME potentiated this decline in MMP in association with its increase in AA-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. NO donors decreased this decline in MMP in association with their decrease in AA-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. These results indicate that NO can be hepatoprotective against CYP2E1-dependent toxicity, preventing AA-induced oxidative stress.

Wu Defeng [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cederbaum, Arthur [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: arthur.cederbaum@mssm.edu

2006-10-15

308

Effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NMMA on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in humans  

PubMed Central

Cerebral blood flow is highly sensitive to alterations in the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PO2 and PCO2, respectively) in the arterial blood. In humans, the extent to which nitric oxide (NO) is involved in this regulation is unclear. We hypothesized that the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), attenuates the sensitivity of middle cerebral artery blood velocity () to isocapnic hypoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 50 Torr) and euoxic hypercapnia (end-tidal PCO2 =+9 Torr above resting values) in 10 volunteers (age, 28.7 ± 1.3 years; height, 179.2 ± 2.4 cm; weight, 78.0 ± 3.7 kg; mean ±s.e.m.). The techniques of transcranial Doppler ultrasound and dynamic end-tidal forcing were used to measure , and control end-tidal PO2 and end-tidal PCO2, respectively. At baseline (isocapnic euoxia), following intravenous administration of l-NMMA, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) increased (76.3 ± 7.3 to 86.2 ± 9.4 mmHg) and heart rate (HR) decreased (59.5 ± 9.0 to 55.2 ± 9.5 beats min?1) but was unchanged. Hypoxia-induced increases in MAP, HR and were similar with and without l-NMMA (5.0 ± 0.7 versus 7.1 ± 1.0 mmHg, 11.5 ± 1.4 versus 12.4 ± 1.5 beats min?1, 6.5 ± 0.8 versus 6.6 ± 0.8 cm s?1 for ?MAP, ?HR and ?, respectively). Hypercapnia-induced increases in MAP, HR and were similar with and without l-NMMA (7.4 ± 3.1 versus 8.1 ± 2.2 mmHg, 10.4 ± 4.6 versus 10.0 ± 4.2 beats min?1, 16.5 ± 1.5 versus 17.6 ± 1.5 cm s?1 for ?MAP, ?HR and ?, respectively) but the sensitivity of the response at the removal of hypercapnia was attenuated with l-NMMA. In young healthy humans, pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide synthesis does not affect the increases in cerebral blood flow with hypoxia and hypercapnia, suggesting that nitric oxide is not required for the cerbrovascular responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia.

Ide, Kojiro; Worthley, Matthew; Anderson, Todd; Poulin, Marc J

2007-01-01

309

From a Natural Product Lead to the Identification of Potent and Selective Benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides as Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? Inhibitors that Suppress Proliferation and Survival of Pancreatic Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? (GSK-3?) is overexpressed in human colon and pancreatic carcinomas contributing to cancer cell proliferation and survival. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides, potent GSK-3? inhibitors. Some of these compounds show picomolar inhibitory activity toward GSK-3? and an enhanced selectivity against Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2 (CDK-2). Selected GSK-3? inhibitors were tested in the pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa-2, BXPC-3, and HupT3. We determined that some of these compounds, namely compounds 5, 6, 11, 20 and 26, demonstrate antiproliferative activity against some or all of the pancreatic cancer cells at low micromolar to nanomolar concentrations. We found that the treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with GSK-3? inhibitors 5 and 26 resulted in suppression of GSK-3? activity and a distinct decrease of the X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) expression leading to significant apoptosis. The present data suggest a possible role for GSK-3? inhibitors in cancer therapy, in addition to their more prominent applications in CNS disorders.

Gaisina, Irina N.; Gallier, Franck; Ougolkov, Andrei V.; Kim, Ki H.; Kurome, Toru; Guo, Songpo; Holzle, Denise; Luchini, Doris N.; Blond, Sylvie Y.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Kozikowski, Alan P.

2009-01-01

310

Spermine synthase  

PubMed Central

Spermine is present in many organisms including animals, plants, some fungi, some archaea, and some bacteria. It is synthesized by spermine synthase, a highly specific aminopropyltransferase. This review describes spermine synthase structure, genetics, and function. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that human spermine synthase is an obligate dimer. Each monomer contains a C-terminal domain where the active site is located, a central linking domain that also forms the lid of the catalytic domain, and an N-terminal domain that is structurally very similar to S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Gyro mice, which have an X-chromosomal deletion including the spermine synthase (SMS) gene, lack all spermine and have a greatly reduced size, sterility, deafness, neurological abnormalities, and a tendency to sudden death. Mutations in the human SMS lead to a rise in spermidine and reduction of spermine causing Snyder-Robinson syndrome, an X-linked recessive condition characterized by mental retardation, skeletal defects, hypotonia, and movement disorders.

Michael, Anthony J.

2010-01-01

311

A Candida albicans strain with high MIC for caspofungin and no FKS1 mutations exhibits a high chitin content and mutations in two chitinase genes.  

PubMed

We studied the cell wall of a Candida albicans laboratory mutant exhibiting a high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; 8 ?g ml(-1)) for caspofungin without bearing FKS1 mutations. This strain showed a reduced level of ß 1,3 D glucan (0.43×) and a higher chitin content (2.3×) than a control strain even when grown without caspofungin. No significant over- or under-expression of chitin synthase or chitinase genes was observed. However, point mutations were detected in the chitinase 2 and 3 genes. These mutations, which may affect the enzymatic activity of the encoded protein products involved in the degradation of the chitin, could have led to an increased concentration of that component, allowing the strain to compensate for its low ß 1,3 D glucan content and the effect of caspofungin. PMID:21108572

Drakulovski, P; Dunyach, C; Bertout, S; Reynes, J; Mallié, M

2011-07-01

312

Higher plant cellulose synthases  

PubMed Central

Cellulose, an aggregate of unbranched polymers of ?-1,4-linked glucose residues, is the major component of wood and thus paper, and is synthesized by plants, most algae, some bacteria and fungi, and even some animals. The genes that synthesize cellulose in higher plants differ greatly from the well-characterized genes found in Acetobacter and Agrobacterium sp. More correctly designated as 'cellulose synthase catalytic subunits', plant cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins are integral membrane proteins, approximately 1,000 amino acids in length. The sequences for more than 20 full-length CesA genes are available, and they show high similarity to one another across the entire length of the encoded protein, except for two small regions of variability. There are a number of highly conserved residues, including several motifs shown to be necessary for processive glycosyltransferase activity. No crystal structure is known for cellulose synthase proteins, and the exact enzymatic mechanism is unknown. There are a number of mutations in cellulose synthase genes in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Some of these mutants show altered morphology due to the lack of a properly developed primary or secondary cell wall. Others show resistance to well-characterized cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors.

Richmond, Todd

2000-01-01

313

LYM2-dependent chitin perception limits molecular flux via plasmodesmata  

PubMed Central

Chitin acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern from fungal pathogens whose perception triggers a range of defense responses. We show that LYSIN MOTIF DOMAIN-CONTAINING GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-ANCHORED PROTEIN 2 (LYM2), the Arabidopsis homolog of a rice chitin receptor-like protein, mediates a reduction in molecular flux via plasmodesmata in the presence of chitin. For this response, lym2-1 mutants are insensitive to the presence of chitin, but not to the flagellin derivative flg22. Surprisingly, the chitin-recognition receptor CHITIN ELCITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1) is not required for chitin-induced changes to plasmodesmata flux, suggesting that there are at least two chitin-activated response pathways in Arabidopsis and that LYM2 is not required for CERK1-mediated chitin-triggered defense responses, indicating that these pathways are independent. In accordance with a role in the regulation of intercellular flux, LYM2 is resident at the plasma membrane and is enriched at plasmodesmata. Chitin-triggered regulation of molecular flux between cells is required for defense responses against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, and thus we conclude that the regulation of symplastic continuity and molecular flux between cells is a vital component of chitin-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis.

Faulkner, Christine; Petutschnig, Elena; Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin; Beck, Martina; Robatzek, Silke; Lipka, Volker; Maule, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

314

Identification of a Maleimide-Based Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) Inhibitor, BIP-135, That Prolongs the Median Survival Time of ?7 SMA KO Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

PubMed Central

The discovery of upregulated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in various pathological conditions has led to the development of a host of chemically diverse small molecule GSK-3 inhibitors, such as BIP-135. GSK-3 inhibition emerged as an alternative therapeutic target for treating spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) when a number of GSK-3 inhibitors were shown to elevate survival motor neuron (SMN) levels in vitro and to rescue motor neurons when their intrinsic SMN level was diminished by SMN-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Despite their cellular potency, the in vivo efficacy of GSK-3 inhibitors has yet to be evaluated in an animal model of SMA. Herein, we disclose that a potent and reasonably selective GSK-3 inhibitor, namely BIP-135, was tested in a transgenic ?7 SMA KO mouse model of SMA and found to prolong the median survival of these animals. In addition, this compound was shown to elevate the SMN protein level in SMA patient-derived fibroblast cells as determined by Western blot, and was neuroprotective in a cell-based, SMA-related model of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.

2011-01-01

315

The Structure of Chitin and Chitosan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chitin is the basic structural material in the exoskeletons of arthropods (crab, shrimp, lobster and most insects), and it also occurs in certain fungi. Chemically, the material is a poly-N-acetylglucosamine, and it is related to cellulose, differing from...

B. L. Averbach

1975-01-01

316

DNA aptamers that bind to chitin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have succeeded in the acquisition of DNA aptamers that recognize chitin using in vitro selection. The obtained DNA aptamers have the stem-loop or bulge loop structures with guanine rich loop clusters and the clockwise B-form stems.

Ei-ichiro Fukusaki; Takahisa Kato; Hiroshi Maeda; Naoki Kawazoe; Yoshihiro Ito; Atsushi Okazawa; Shin-ichiro Kajiyama; Akio Kobayashi

2000-01-01

317

Environmentally friendly batteries by addition of chitin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the results of a research performed on pen alkaline-manganese batteries with the aim of checking the possibility of minimizing the release of metals from them when, exhausted, are disposed. This goal was temptatively looked for on inserting in the batteries a certain amount of chitin able to bind the metal ions formed by the natural

L. Campanella; R. Dragone; R. Grossi; A. E. Meo; G. Visco

2003-01-01

318

Radioisotope Assay for 1-Aminocyclopropane-1- Carboxylic Acid Synthase: S-adenosylhomocysteine Analogs as Inhibitors of the Enzyme Involved in Plant Senescence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple and rapid radioisotopic assay for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase was developed, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene. The assay utilizes an AG50-X4(NH4 (+)) column which separates S-adenosyl-L...

G. A. Miura P. K. Chiang

1985-01-01

319

Aminoguanidine, a Selective Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor, Attenuates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Renal Damage by Inhibiting Protein Nitration and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an antineoplastic agent that is used for the treatment of many neoplastic diseases. Renal damage is one of the dose-limiting side effects of CP. Recent studies show that nitrosative stress plays an important role in CP-induced renal damage. Aim: The purpose of our study was to investigate whether aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase

Premila Abraham; Suganthy Rabi

2011-01-01

320

Characterization of genes for chitin catabolism in Haloferax mediterranei.  

PubMed

Chitin is the second most abundant natural polysaccharide after cellulose. But degradation of chitin has never been reported in haloarchaea. In this study, we revealed that Haloferax mediterranei, a metabolically versatile haloarchaeon, could utilize colloidal or powdered chitin for growth and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) accumulation, and the gene cluster (HFX_5025-5039) for the chitin catabolism pathway was experimentally identified. First, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results showed that the expression of the genes encoding the four putative chitinases (ChiAHme, ChiBHme, ChiCHme, and ChiDHme, HFX_5036-5039), the LmbE-like deacetylase (DacHme, HFX_5027), and the glycosidase (GlyAHme, HFX_5029) was induced by colloidal or powdered chitin, and chiA Hme, chiB Hme, and chiC Hme were cotranscribed. Knockout of chiABC Hme or chiD Hme had a significant effect on cell growth and PHBV production when chitin was used as the sole carbon source, and the chiABCD Hme knockout mutant lost the capability to utilize chitin. Knockout of dac Hme or glyA Hme also decreased PHBV accumulation on chitin. These results suggested that ChiABCDHme, DacHme, and GlyAHme were indeed involved in chitin degradation in H. mediterranei. Additionally, the chitinase assay showed that each chitinase possessed hydrolytic activity toward colloidal or powdered chitin, and the major product of colloidal chitin hydrolysis by ChiABCDHme was diacetylchitobiose, which was likely further degraded to monosaccharides by DacHme, GlyAHme, and other related enzymes for both cell growth and PHBV biosynthesis. Taken together, this study revealed the genes and enzymes involved in chitin catabolism in haloarchaea for the first time and indicated the potential of H. mediterranei as a whole-cell biocatalyst in chitin bioconversion. PMID:23674154

Hou, Jing; Han, Jing; Cai, Lei; Zhou, Jian; Lü, Yang; Jin, Cheng; Liu, Jingfang; Xiang, Hua

2014-02-01

321

Inhibiting the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase has similar effects on the compensatory choroidal and axial responses to myopic defocus in chicks as does the non-specific inhibitor L-NAME  

PubMed Central

In birds, the choroid plays a role in the visual regulation of eye growth, thickening in response to myopic defocus, and thinning in response to hyperopic defocus, in both cases moving the retina towards the image plane. This response is rapid, occurring within hours of the defocus stimulus. These changes are consistently associated with slower changes in the sclera, that result in the appropriate changes in axial elongation, decreasing growth in response to myopic defocus and increasing it in response to hyperopic defocus. The molecular mechanisms underlying the scleral response involve changes in the synthesis of extracellular matrix molecules, however, those underlying the changes in choroidal thickness are not known. However, evidence suggests that it may involve the gaseous signal molecule nitric oxide, as nitric oxide is a potent smooth muscle relaxant, and injections of the non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME transiently inhibits the thickening response. Interestingly, it also dis-inhibits ocular growth, in accordance with a mechanistic link between the two responses. If nitric oxide is part of the signal cascade underlying the visual regulation of eye growth, it would be important to ascertain the source of the molecule. As a first step towards doing so, we used various more specific NOS inhibitors and studied their effects on the choroidal and growth responses. Birds (7–12 days old) were fitted with +10 D lenses on one eye. On that day, single intravitreal injections (30 ?l) of the following inhibitors were used: nNOS inhibitor N ?-propyl-L-arginine (n=12), iNOS inhibitor L-NIL (n=16), eNOS/iNOS inhibitor L-NIO (n=15), non-specific inhibitor L-NMMA (n=30) or physiological saline (n=18). Ocular dimensions were measured using high-frequency A-scan ultrasonography at the start of the experiment, and at 7, 24 and 48 hours after. We found that the nNOS inhibitor N ?-propyl-L-arginine had the same inhibitory effects on the choroidal response, and dis-inhibition of the growth response, as did L-NAME; neither of the other inhibitors had any effect except L-NMMA. We conclude that the choroidal compensatory response is influenced by nNOS, possibly from the intrinsic choroidal neurons, or the parasympathetic innervation from the ciliary and/or pterygopalatine ganglia.

Nickla, Debora L.; Damyanova, Petya; Lytle, Grace

2010-01-01

322

Chitin and glucan, the yin and yang of the fungal cell wall, implications for antifungal drug discovery and therapy.  

PubMed

The structural carbohydrate polymers glucan and chitin compliment and reinforce each other in a dynamic process to maintain the integrity and physical strength of the fungal cell wall. The assembly of chitin and glucan in the cell wall of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the polymorphic human pathogen Candida albicans are essential processes that involve a range of fungal-specific enzymes and regulatory networks. The fungal cell wall is, therefore, an attractive target for novel therapies as host cells lack many cell wall-related proteins. The most recent class of antifungal drug approved for clinical use, the echinocandins, targets the synthesis of cell wall ?(1-3)glucan. The echinocandins are effective at treating invasive and bloodstream Candida infections and are now widely used in the clinic. However, there have been sporadic reports of breakthrough infections in patients undergoing echinocandin therapy. The acquisition of point mutations in the FKS genes that encode the catalytic ?(1-3)glucan synthase subunits, the target of the echinocandins, has emerged as a dominant resistance mechanism. Cells with elevated chitin levels are also less susceptible to echinocandins and in addition, treatment with sub-MIC echinocandin activates cell wall salvage pathways that increase chitin synthesis to compensate for reduced glucan production. The development of drugs targeting the cell wall has already proven to be beneficial in providing an alternative class of drug for use in the clinic. Other cell wall targets such as chitin synthesis still hold great potential for drug development but careful consideration should be given to the capacity of fungi to manipulate their walls in a dynamic response to cell wall perturbations. PMID:23651596

Munro, Carol A

2013-01-01

323

2,4-Diamino-5-methyl-6-substituted Arylthio-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as Novel Classical and Nonclassical Antifolates as Potential Dual Thymidylate Synthase and Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors1a,b  

PubMed Central

A novel classical antifolate N-{4-[(2,4-diamino-5-methyl-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-yl)thio]-benzoyl}-l-glutamic acid 5 and 11 nonclassical antifolates 6–16 were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS). The nonclassical compounds 6–16 were synthesized from 20 via oxidative addition of substituted thiophenols using iodine. Peptide coupling of the intermediate acid 21 followed by saponification gave the classical analog 5. Compound 5 is the first example, to our knowledge, of a 2,4-diamino furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine classical antifolate that has inhibitory activity against both human DHFR and human TS. The classical analog 5 was a nanomolar inhibitor and remarkably selective inhibitor of P. carinii DHFR and M. avium DHFR at 263-fold and 2107-fold respectively compared to mammalian DHFR. The nonclassical analogs 6–16 were moderately potent against pathogen DHFR or TS. This study shows that the furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold is conducive to dual human DHFR-TS inhibitory activity and to high potency and selectivity for pathogen DHFR.

Gangjee, Aleem; Jain, Hiteshkumar D.; Phan, Jaclyn; Guo, Xin; Queener, Sherry F.; Kisliuk, Roy L.

2010-01-01

324

Mesoporous silica and organosilica films templated by nanocrystalline chitin.  

PubMed

Liquid crystalline phases can be used to impart order into inorganic solids, creating materials that mimic natural architectures. Herein, mesoporous silica and organosilica films with layered structures and high surface areas have been templated by nanocrystalline chitin. Aqueous suspensions of spindle-shaped chitin nanocrystals were prepared by sequential deacetylation and hydrolysis of chitin fibrils isolated from king crab shells. The nanocrystalline chitin self-assembles into a nematic liquid-crystalline phase that has been used to template silica and organosilica composites. Removal of the chitin template by either calcination or sulfuric-acid-catalyzed hydrolysis gave mesoporous silica and ethylene-bridged organosilica films. The large, crack-free mesoporous films have layered structures with features that originate from the nematic organization of the nanocrystalline chitin. PMID:24150881

Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh; Shopsowitz, Kevin E; MacLachlan, Mark J

2013-11-01

325

Applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopy to chitin from insect cuticles.  

PubMed

Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose. At the present time, the main commercial sources of chitin are the crab and shrimp shells which are major waste products from the seafood industry. However, current chitin resources have some inherent problems including seasonal availability, limited supplies, and environmental pollution. As an alternative, insect cuticle is proposed as an unconventional but viable source of chitin. This review focuses on the recent sources of insect chitin and the application of various magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques to native insect cuticles, particularly cicada sloughs and chitin extracted from insect sloughs. In addition, the physicochemical properties, isolation process, and degree of N-acetylation (DA) is reviewed and discussed. PMID:22732132

Gonil, Pattarapond; Sajomsang, Warayuth

2012-11-01

326

Differing Profiles of Prostaglandin Formation Inhibition Between Selective Prostaglandin H Synthase2 Inhibitors and Conventional NSAIDs in Inflammatory and Non-Inflammatory Sites of the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the inhibitory profiles of NS-398 and nimesulide against prostaglandin (PG) formation in inflammatory and non-inflammatory sites, and compared them with those of aspirin and indomethacin. In vitro, indomethacin inhibited PGH synthase (PGHS)-1 and PGHS-2 almost equally, while NS-398 and nimesulide inhibited only PGHS-2. NS-398 (1, 10 mg\\/kg) and nimesulide (3 mg\\/kg) slowed the rate of plasma

Yoshiteru Harada; Michiko Kawamura; Ko Hatanaka; Maki Saito; Michiko Ogino; Takashi Ohno; Keiko Ogino; Qiusheng Yang

1998-01-01

327

The ectopic F O F 1 ATP synthase of rat liver is modulated in acute cholestasis by the inhibitor protein IF 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rat liver plasma membranes contain FOF1 complexes (ecto-FOF1) displaying a similar molecular weight to the mitochondrial FOF1 ATP synthase, as evidenced by Blue Native PAGE. Their ATPase activity was stably reduced in short-term extra-hepatic cholestasis.\\u000a Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that the reduction in activity was not due to a decreased expression\\u000a of ecto-FOF1 complexes, but to an increased level

Valentina Giorgio; Elena Bisetto; Raffaella Franca; David A. Harris; Sabina Passamonti; Giovanna Lippe

2010-01-01

328

Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan Molecular Structure in Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to characterize the structure of chitin and chitosan fibers in aqueous solutions. Chitin fibers, whether isolated or in the form of a -chitin nanoparticle, adopt the so-called 2-fold helix with and values similar to its crystalline state. In solution, the intramolecular hydrogen bond HO3(n)O5(n+1) responsible for the 2-fold helical motif is stabilized by hydrogen

Eduardo D. Franca; Roberto D. Lins; Luiz C. G. Freitas; T. P. Straatsma

2008-01-01

329

Selective preservation of chitin during the decay of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preservation potential of chitin in the marine environment is a matter of debate. To determine the relative survival of chitin and other organic components, the shrimp Crangon was decayed under different laboratory conditions. Solid state 13C NMR and Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated that slightly transformed chitin represents the major component of the remaining biomass after

M. Baas; D. E. G. Briggs; J. D. H. Van Heemst; A. J. Kear; J. W. De Leeuw

1995-01-01

330

Biomaterials based on chitin and chitosan in wound dressing applications.  

PubMed

Wound dressing is one of the most promising medical applications for chitin and chitosan. The adhesive nature of chitin and chitosan, together with their antifungal and bactericidal character, and their permeability to oxygen, is a very important property associated with the treatment of wounds and burns. Different derivatives of chitin and chitosan have been prepared for this purpose in the form of hydrogels, fibers, membranes, scaffolds and sponges. The purpose of this review is to take a closer look on the wound dressing applications of biomaterials based on chitin, chitosan and their derivatives in various forms in detail. PMID:21262336

Jayakumar, R; Prabaharan, M; Sudheesh Kumar, P T; Nair, S V; Tamura, H

2011-01-01

331

Wet spinning of fibers made of chitosan and chitin nanofibrils.  

PubMed

Biocompatible and bioresorbable composite fibers consisting of chitosan filled with anisotropic chitin nanofibrils with the length of 600-800 nm and cross section of about 11-12 nm as revealed by SEM and XRD were prepared by coagulation. Both chitin and chitosan components of the composite fibers displayed preferred orientations. Orientation of chitosan molecules induced by chitin nanocrystallites was confirmed by molecular modeling. The incorporation of 0.1-0.3 wt.% of chitin nanofibrils into chitosan matrix led to an increase in strength and Young modulus of the composite fibers. PMID:24751262

Yudin, Vladimir E; Dobrovolskaya, Irina P; Neelov, Igor M; Dresvyanina, Elena N; Popryadukhin, Pavel V; Ivan'kova, Elena M; Elokhovskii, Vladimir Yu; Kasatkin, Igor A; Okrugin, Boris M; Morganti, Pierfrancesco

2014-08-01

332

Benzo[d]isothiazole 1,1-dioxide derivatives as dual functional inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase and microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1.  

PubMed

A series of 6-nitro-3-(m-tolylamino) benzo[d]isothiazole 1,1-dioxide analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibition activity against 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES-1). These compounds can inhibit both enzymes with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 23.6?M. One of the most potential compounds, 3g, inhibits 5-LOX and mPGES-1 with IC50 values of 0.6?M, 2.1?M, respectively. PMID:24794107

Shang, Erchang; Wu, Yiran; Liu, Pei; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Wei; Deng, Xiaobing; He, Chong; He, Shan; Li, Cong; Lai, Luhua

2014-06-15

333

The ectopic F(O)F(1) ATP synthase of rat liver is modulated in acute cholestasis by the inhibitor protein IF1.  

PubMed

Rat liver plasma membranes contain F(O)F(1) complexes (ecto-F(O)F(1)) displaying a similar molecular weight to the mitochondrial F(O)F(1) ATP synthase, as evidenced by Blue Native PAGE. Their ATPase activity was stably reduced in short-term extra-hepatic cholestasis. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that the reduction in activity was not due to a decreased expression of ecto-F(O)F(1) complexes, but to an increased level of an inhibitory protein, ecto-IF(1), bound to ecto-F(O)F(1). Since cholestasis down regulates the hepatic uptake of HDL-cholesterol, and ecto-F(O)F(1) has been shown to mediate SR-BI-independent hepatic uptake of HDL-cholesterol, these findings provide support to the hypothesis that ecto-F(O)F(1) contributes to the fine control of reverse cholesterol transport, in parallel with SR-BI. No activity change of the mitochondrial F(O)F(1) ATP synthase (m-F(O)F(1)), or any variation of its association with m-IF(1) was observed in cholestasis, indicating that ecto-IF(1) expression level is modulated independently from that of ecto-F(O)F(1), m-IF(1) and m-F(O)F(1). PMID:20180002

Giorgio, Valentina; Bisetto, Elena; Franca, Raffaella; Harris, David A; Passamonti, Sabina; Lippe, Giovanna

2010-04-01

334

Kinetic properties and role of bacterial chitin deacetylase in the bioconversion of chitin to chitosan.  

PubMed

Chitin is an extremely insoluble material with very limited industrial use; however it can be deacetylated to soluble chitosan which has a wide range of applications. The enzymatic deacetylation of various chitin samples was investigated using the bacterial chitin deacetylase (CDA), which was partially purified from Alcaligenes sp. ATCC 55938 growth medium and the kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. Also, the efficiency of biocatalyst recycling by immobilization technique was examined. CDA activity reached its maximum (0.419 U/ml) after 18 h of bacterial cultivation. When glycol chitin was used as a substrate, the optimum pH of the enzyme was estimated to be 6 after checking a pH range between 3 and 9, while the optimum temperature was found to be 35°C. Addition of acetate (100 mM) in the assay mixture resulted in 50% loss of enzyme activity. The Km value of the enzyme is 1.6 × 10(-4) µM and Vmax is 24.7 µM/min. The average activity of CDA was 0.38 U/ml for both of immobilized and freely suspended cells after 18 h of bacterial growth. Some related patents are also discussed here. PMID:24308492

ElMekawy, Ahmed; Hegab, Hanaa M; El-Baz, Ashraf; Hudson, Samuel M

2013-12-01

335

Applications of Chitin and Its Derivatives in Biological Medicine  

PubMed Central

Chitin and its derivatives—as a potential resource as well as multiple functional substrates—have generated attractive interest in various fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, food and environmental industries, since the first isolation of chitin in 1811. Moreover, chitosan and its chitooligosaccharides (COS) are degraded products of chitin through enzymatic and acidic hydrolysis processes; and COS, in particular, is well suited for potential biological application, due to the biocompatibility and nontoxic nature of chitosan. In this review, we investigate the current bioactivities of chitin derivatives, which are all correlated with their biomedical properties. Several new and cutting edge insights here may provide a molecular basis for the mechanism of chitin, and hence may aid its use for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

Park, Bae Keun; Kim, Moon-Moo

2010-01-01

336

Micro-CT Imaging of Denatured Chitin by Silver to Explore Honey Bee and Insect Pathologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChitin and cuticle coatings are important to the environmental and immune defense of honey bees and insect pollinators. Pesticides or environmental effects may target the biochemistry of insect chitin and cuticle coating. Denaturing of chitin involves a combination of deacetylation, intercalation, oxidation, Schweiger-peeling, and the formation of amine hydrochloride salt. The term “denatured chitin” calls attention to structural and property

Peter R. Butzloff

2011-01-01

337

Chitin Utilization by the Insect-Transmitted Bacterium Xylella fastidiosa? †  

PubMed Central

Xylella fastidiosa is an insect-borne bacterium that colonizes xylem vessels of a large number of host plants, including several crops of economic importance. Chitin is a polysaccharide present in the cuticle of leafhopper vectors of X. fastidiosa and may serve as a carbon source for this bacterium. Biological assays showed that X. fastidiosa reached larger populations in the presence of chitin. Additionally, chitin induced phenotypic changes in this bacterium, notably increasing adhesiveness. Quantitative PCR assays indicated transcriptional changes in the presence of chitin, and an enzymatic assay demonstrated chitinolytic activity by X. fastidiosa. An ortholog of the chitinase A gene (chiA) was identified in the X. fastidiosa genome. The in silico analysis revealed that the open reading frame of chiA encodes a protein of 351 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. chiA is in a locus that consists of genes implicated in polysaccharide degradation. Moreover, this locus was also found in the genomes of closely related bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas, which are plant but not insect associated. X. fastidiosa degraded chitin when grown on a solid chitin-yeast extract-agar medium and grew in liquid medium with chitin as the sole carbon source; ChiA was also determined to be secreted. The gene encoding ChiA was cloned into Escherichia coli, and endochitinase activity was detected in the transformant, showing that the gene is functional and involved in chitin degradation. The results suggest that X. fastidiosa may use its vectors' foregut surface as a carbon source. In addition, chitin may trigger X. fastidiosa's gene regulation and biofilm formation within vectors. Further work is necessary to characterize the role of chitin and its utilization in X. fastidiosa.

Killiny, Nabil; Prado, Simone S.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

2010-01-01

338

Exoskeletal chitin scales isometrically with body size in terrestrial insects.  

PubMed

The skeletal system of animals provides the support for a variety of activities and functions. For animals such as mammals, which have endoskeletons, research has shown that skeletal investment (mass) scales with body mass to the 1.1 power. In this study, we ask how exoskeletal investment in insects scales with body mass. We measured the body mass and mass of exoskeletal chitin of 551 adult terrestrial insects of 245 species, with dry masses ranging from 0.0001 to 2.41 g (0.0002-6.13 g wet mass) to assess the allometry of exoskeletal investment. Our results showed that exoskeletal chitin mass scales isometrically with dry body mass across the Insecta as M(chitin) = a M(dry) (b), where b = 1.03 +/- 0.04, indicating that both large and small terrestrial insects allocate a similar fraction of their body mass to chitin. This isometric chitin-scaling relationship was also evident at the taxonomic level of order, for all insect orders except Coleoptera. We additionally found that the relative exoskeletal chitin investment, indexed by the coefficient, a, varies with insect life history and phylogeny. Exoskeletal chitin mass tends to be proportionally less and to increase at a lower rate with mass in flying than in nonflying insects (M(flying insect chitin) = -0.56 x M(dry) (0.97); M(nonflying insect chitin) = -0.55 x M(dry) (1.03)), and to vary with insect order. Isometric scaling (b = 1) of insect exoskeletal chitin suggests that the exoskeleton in insects scales differently than support structures of most other organisms, which have a positive allometry (b > 1) (e.g., vertebrate endoskeleton, tree secondary tissue). The isometric pattern that we document here additionally suggests that exoskeletal investment may not be the primary limit on insect body size. PMID:20235123

Lease, Hilary M; Wolf, Blair O

2010-06-01

339

Clinical application of new chitin non-woven fabric and new chitin sponge sheet as wound dressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of new chitin dressings, mesh reinforcement type and sponge-sheet type, were manufactured and applied to skin wounds such as burns and donor sites. The advantages include pain relief, wound hemostasis, adherence and drying. In comparison to the regular type of chitin, the new dressings show no autolysis or breaking and have possibilities for long-term use in wound with

Y. Ohshima; K. Nishino; R. Okuda; A. Minami; K. Kihune

1991-01-01

340

Fabrication and characterization of melt-blended polylactide-chitin composites and their foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study details the fabrication and foaming of melt-blended polylactide (PLA) and chitin composites. The chitin used for compounding was as-received, as chitin nanowhiskers and as chitin nanowhiskers with a compatibilizing agent. The chitin nanowhiskers were produced by an acid-hydrolysis technique and their morphology was examined with transmission electron microscopy. The composite morphology was characterized with scanning electron microscopy and

Reza Rizvi; Brendan Cochrane; Hani Naguib; Patrick C Lee

2011-01-01

341

Preparation, characterization, bioactive and cell attachment studies of ?-chitin\\/gelatin composite membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chitin\\/gelatin composite membranes were prepared by mixing of chitin hydrogel with gelatin. The prepared composite membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical, swelling, enzymatic degradation and thermal studies. The XRD pattern of the chitin\\/gelatin composite membranes showed almost the same pattern as ?-chitin. The bioactivity studies of these chitin\\/gelatin membranes were carried out with

H. Nagahama; V. V. Divya Rani; K. T. Shalumon; R. Jayakumar; S. V. Nair; S. Koiwa; T. Furuike; H. Tamura

2009-01-01

342

Identification of 20-Hydroxyecdysone Late-Response Genes in the Chitin Biosynthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its receptor complex ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP) play a crucial role in controlling development, metamorphosis, reproduction and diapause. The ligand-receptor complex 20E-EcR/USP directly activates a small set of early-response genes and a much larger set of late-response genes. However, ecdysone-responsive genes have not been previously characterized in the context of insect chitin biosynthesis. Principal Findings Here, we show that injection-based RNA interference (RNAi) directed towards a common region of the two isoforms of SeEcR in a lepidopteron insect Spodoptera exigua was effective, with phenotypes including a high mortality prior to pupation and developmental defects. After gene specific RNAi, chitin contents in the cuticle of an abnormal larva significantly decreased. The expression levels of five genes in the chitin biosynthesis pathway, SeTre-1, SeG6PI, SeUAP, SeCHSA and SeCHSB, were significantly reduced, while there was no difference in the expression of SeTre-2 prior to 72 hr after injection of EcR dsRNA. Meanwhile, injection of 20E in vivo induced the expression of the five genes mentioned above. Moreover, the SeTre-1, SeG6PI, SeUAP and SeCHSB genes showed late responses to the hormone and the induction of SeTre-1, SeG6PI, SeUAP and SeCHSB genes by 20E were able to be inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide in vitro indicating these genes are 20E late-response genes. Conclusions We conclude that SeTre-1, SeG6PI, SeUAP and SeCHSB in the chitin biosynthesis pathway are 20E late-response genes and 20E and its specific receptors plays a key role in the regulation of chitin biosynthesis via inducing their expression.

Yao, Qiong; Zhang, Daowei; Tang, Bin; Chen, Jie; Chen, Jing; Lu, Liang; Zhang, Wenqing

2010-01-01

343

Structural basis of chitin oligosaccharide deacetylation.  

PubMed

Cell signaling and other biological activities of chitooligosaccharides (COSs) seem to be dependent not only on the degree of polymerization, but markedly on the specific de-N-acetylation pattern. Chitin de-N-acetylases (CDAs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the acetamido group in GlcNAc residues of chitin, chitosan, and COS. A major challenge is to understand how CDAs specifically define the distribution of GlcNAc and GlcNH2 moieties in the oligomeric chain. We report the crystal structure of the Vibrio cholerae CDA in four relevant states of its catalytic cycle. The two enzyme complexes with chitobiose and chitotriose represent the first 3D structures of a CDA with its natural substrates in a productive mode for catalysis, thereby unraveling an induced-fit mechanism with a significant conformational change of a loop closing the active site. We propose that the deacetylation pattern exhibited by different CDAs is governed by critical loops that shape and differentially block accessible subsites in the binding cleft of CE4 enzymes. PMID:24810719

Andrés, Eduardo; Albesa-Jové, David; Biarnés, Xevi; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Guerin, Marcelo E; Planas, Antoni

2014-07-01

344

Distribution of Callose Synthase, Cellulose Synthase, and Sucrose Synthase in Tobacco Pollen Tube Is Controlled in Dissimilar Ways by Actin Filaments and Microtubules1[W  

PubMed Central

Callose and cellulose are fundamental components of the cell wall of pollen tubes and are probably synthesized by distinct enzymes, callose synthase and cellulose synthase, respectively. We examined the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes in relation to the dynamics of actin filaments, microtubules, and the endomembrane system using specific antibodies to highly conserved peptide sequences. The role of the cytoskeleton and membrane flow was investigated using specific inhibitors (latrunculin B, 2,3-butanedione monoxime, taxol, oryzalin, and brefeldin A). Both enzymes are associated with the plasma membrane, but cellulose synthase is present along the entire length of pollen tubes (with a higher concentration at the apex) while callose synthase is located in the apex and in distal regions. In longer pollen tubes, callose synthase accumulates consistently around callose plugs, indicating its involvement in plug synthesis. Actin filaments and endomembrane dynamics are critical for the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase, showing that enzymes are transported through Golgi bodies and/or vesicles moving along actin filaments. Conversely, microtubules appear to be critical in the positioning of callose synthase in distal regions and around callose plugs. In contrast, cellulose synthases are only partially coaligned with cortical microtubules and unrelated to callose plugs. Callose synthase also comigrates with tubulin by Blue Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Membrane sucrose synthase, which expectedly provides UDP-glucose to callose synthase and cellulose synthase, binds to actin filaments depending on sucrose concentration; its distribution is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system but not on microtubules.

Cai, Giampiero; Faleri, Claudia; Del Casino, Cecilia; Emons, Anne Mie C.; Cresti, Mauro

2011-01-01

345

Mechanisms of acetohydroxyacid synthases.  

PubMed

Acetohydroxyacid synthases are thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) dependent biosynthetic enzymes found in all autotrophic organisms. Over the past 4-5 years, their mechanisms have been clarified and illuminated by protein crystallography, engineered mutagenesis and detailed single-step kinetic analysis. Pairs of catalytic subunits form an intimate dimer containing two active sites, each of which lies across a dimer interface and involves both monomers. The ThDP adducts of pyruvate, acetaldehyde and the product acetohydroxyacids can be detected quantitatively after rapid quenching. Determination of the distribution of intermediates by NMR then makes it possible to calculate individual forward unimolecular rate constants. The enzyme is the target of several herbicides and structures of inhibitor-enzyme complexes explain the herbicide-enzyme interaction. PMID:16055369

Chipman, David M; Duggleby, Ronald G; Tittmann, Kai

2005-10-01

346

Genome-wide transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to glyphosate, a potent inhibitor of the shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.  

PubMed

The shikimate pathway enzymes offer attractive targets for the development of antimetabolites. Glyphosate is an effective antimetabolite that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase in the shikimate pathway, thereby resulting in a shortage of the chorismate-derived essential aromatic amino acids. However, little is known about the genome-wide transcriptional responses of bacteria to glyphosate shock. In the current study, a transcriptome analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) exposed to glyphosate identified the differential expression of 1040 genes, which represent 23.2% of the genome. The differentially expressed genes are primarily involved in amino acid metabolism, cell motility, and central carbon metabolism, indicating that the impact of glyphosate on the shikimate pathway also extends to other metabolic pathways. Expectedly, almost all genes encoding the proteins for the shikimate and specific aromatic amino acid pathways were downregulated after the addition of glyphosate. Furthermore, the expression of many energy- and metabolism-related genes was repressed. In contrast, glyphosate treatment induced the coordinated upregulation of at least 50 genes related to cell motility and chemotaxis. The reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data showed that the expression profiles of selected genes from the referred pathways were found to be consistent with the microarray data. The results suggest that the presence of glyphosate during growth induces metabolic starvation, an energy drain and other non-target effects. PMID:23247721

Lu, Wei; Li, Liang; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Zhengfu; Zhang, Wei; Ping, Shuzhen; Yan, Yongliang; Wang, Jin; Lin, Min

2013-03-01

347

Herbicide-resistant forms of Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase: characterization of the catalytic properties and sensitivity to inhibitors of four defined mutants.  

PubMed Central

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids and is the target of several classes of herbicides. Four mutants (A122V, W574S, W574L and S653N) of the AHAS gene from Arabidopsis thaliana were constructed, expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzymes were purified. Each mutant form and wild-type was characterized with respect to its catalytic properties and sensitivity to nine herbicides. Each enzyme had a pH optimum near 7.5. The specific activity varied from 13% (A122V) to 131% (W574L) of the wild-type and the Km for pyruvate of the mutants was similar to the wild-type, except for W574L where it was five-fold higher. The activation by cofactors (FAD, Mg2+ and thiamine diphosphate) was examined. A122V showed reduced affinity for all three cofactors, whereas S653N bound FAD more strongly than wild-type AHAS. Six sulphonylurea herbicides inhibited A122V to a similar degree as the wild-type but S653N showed a somewhat greater reduction in sensitivity to these compounds. In contrast, the W574 mutants were insensitive to these sulphonylureas, with increases in the Kiapp (apparent inhibition constant) of several hundred fold. All four mutants were resistant to three imidazolinone herbicides with decreases in sensitivity ranging from 100-fold to more than 1000-fold.

Chang, A K; Duggleby, R G

1998-01-01

348

Tetra- and Pentacyclic Triterpene Acids from the Ancient Anti-inflammatory Remedy Frankincense as Inhibitors of Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1  

PubMed Central

The microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 is the terminal enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG)E2 from cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived PGH2. We previously found that mPGES-1 is inhibited by boswellic acids (IC50 = 3–30 ?M), which are bioactive triterpene acids present in the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense. Here we show that besides boswellic acids, additional known triterpene acids (i.e., tircuallic, lupeolic, and roburic acids) isolated from frankincense suppress mPGES-1 with increased potencies. In particular, 3?-acetoxy-8,24-dienetirucallic acid (6) and 3?-acetoxy-7,24-dienetirucallic acid (10) inhibited mPGES-1 activity in a cell-free assay with IC50 = 0.4 ?M, each. Structure–activity relationship studies and docking simulations revealed concrete structure-related interactions with mPGES-1 and its cosubstrate glutathione. COX-1 and -2 were hardly affected by the triterpene acids (IC50 > 10 ?M). Given the crucial role of mPGES-1 in inflammation and the abundance of highly active triterpene acids in frankincence extracts, our findings provide further evidence of the anti-inflammatory potential of frankincense preparations and reveal novel, potent bioactivities of tirucallic acids, roburic acids, and lupeolic acids.

2014-01-01

349

Tetra- and Pentacyclic Triterpene Acids from the Ancient Anti-inflammatory Remedy Frankincense as Inhibitors of Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1.  

PubMed

The microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 is the terminal enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG)E2 from cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived PGH2. We previously found that mPGES-1 is inhibited by boswellic acids (IC50 = 3-30 ?M), which are bioactive triterpene acids present in the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense. Here we show that besides boswellic acids, additional known triterpene acids (i.e., tircuallic, lupeolic, and roburic acids) isolated from frankincense suppress mPGES-1 with increased potencies. In particular, 3?-acetoxy-8,24-dienetirucallic acid (6) and 3?-acetoxy-7,24-dienetirucallic acid (10) inhibited mPGES-1 activity in a cell-free assay with IC50 = 0.4 ?M, each. Structure-activity relationship studies and docking simulations revealed concrete structure-related interactions with mPGES-1 and its cosubstrate glutathione. COX-1 and -2 were hardly affected by the triterpene acids (IC50 > 10 ?M). Given the crucial role of mPGES-1 in inflammation and the abundance of highly active triterpene acids in frankincence extracts, our findings provide further evidence of the anti-inflammatory potential of frankincense preparations and reveal novel, potent bioactivities of tirucallic acids, roburic acids, and lupeolic acids. PMID:24844534

Verhoff, Moritz; Seitz, Stefanie; Paul, Michael; Noha, Stefan M; Jauch, Johann; Schuster, Daniela; Werz, Oliver

2014-06-27

350

Macula densa nitric oxide synthase: Expression, regulation, and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macula densa nitric oxide synthase: Expression, regulation, and function. The type 1 brain nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) isoform occurs in macula densa (MD) cells where it functions to vasodilate the afferent arteriole and blunt expression of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). Dietary salt restriction enhances bNOS expression, yet microperfusion studies with NOS inhibitors imply that it is functionally inactive. We thus assessed

Christopher S. Wilcox; William J. Welch

1998-01-01

351

Calcofluor white and Congo red inhibit chitin microfibril assembly of Poterioochromonas: evidence for a gap between polymerization and microfibril formation  

PubMed Central

The influence of the light microscopical stains, Calcofluor white and Congo red, on the process of chitin microfibril formation of the chrysoflagellate alga Poterioochromonas stipitata was studied with light and electron microscopy. There is a concentration-dependent inhibition of lorica formation with both dyes. In the presence of the inhibitors malformed loricae are made, which do not show the usual ultrastructure and arrangement of the chitin microfibrils. Instead of long, laterally associated microfibrils, short rods or irregular networks of subelementary (15-25 A) fibrils are found. Microfibril assembly obviously takes place on the accessible outside of the plasma membrane. There must be a gap between the polymerization and microfibril formation reactions, allowing the stains to bind to the polymerized subunits. Thus, later association of these units to form microfibrils is disturbed. The microfibril-orienting mechanism also depends on normal microfibril formation. A model summarizing these hypotheses is suggested.

1980-01-01

352

Calcofluor white and Congo red inhibit chitin microfibril assembly of Poterioochromonas: evidence for a gap between polymerization and microfibril formation.  

PubMed

The influence of the light microscopical stains, Calcofluor white and Congo red, on the process of chitin microfibril formation of the chrysoflagellate alga Poterioochromonas stipitata was studied with light and electron microscopy. There is a concentration-dependent inhibition of lorica formation with both dyes. In the presence of the inhibitors malformed loricae are made, which do not show the usual ultrastructure and arrangement of the chitin microfibrils. Instead of long, laterally associated microfibrils, short rods or irregular networks of subelementary (15-25 A) fibrils are found. Microfibril assembly obviously takes place on the accessible outside of the plasma membrane. There must be a gap between the polymerization and microfibril formation reactions, allowing the stains to bind to the polymerized subunits. Thus, later association of these units to form microfibrils is disturbed. The microfibril-orienting mechanism also depends on normal microfibril formation. A model summarizing these hypotheses is suggested. PMID:7430250

Herth, W

1980-11-01

353

Molecular Modeling Studies and Synthesis of Novel Methyl 2-(2-(4-Oxo-3-aryl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)acetamido)alkanoates with Potential Anti-cancer Activity as Inhibitors for Methionine Synthase.  

PubMed

Cobalamin-dependant cytosolic enzyme methionine synthase (MetS) catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from the methyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) to homocysteine (Hcy) to produce methionine and tetrahydrofolate (THF). MetS is over-expressed in the cytosol of certain breast and prostate tumour cells. Methionine used as a source of one carbon atom for the building of the DNA of the tumour cells, structural protein and enzymes. In this study, we designed, synthesized and evaluated the cytotoxic activity of a series of substituted methyl 2-(2-(4-oxo-3-aryl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)acetamido)acetate and dipeptide that mimic the substructure of MTHF. These inhibitors were docked in to the MTHF binding domain in such the same way as MTHF in its binding domain. The free energies of the binding were calculated and compared to the IC50 values. This series has been developed by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and azide coupling methods of amino acid esters with carboxylic acid derivatives, respectively. Compound methyl 3-hydroxy-2-(2-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)acetamido)propanoate exhibited the highest IC50 value 20?µg/mL against PC-3 cell line and scored the lowest free energy of the binding (-207.19?kJ/mol). PMID:24990505

Elfekki, Ismail Mahmoud; Hassan, Walid Fathalla Mohamed; Elshihawy, Hosam Eldin Abd Elhamed; Ali, Ibrahim Ahmed Ibrahim; Eltamany, Elsayed Hussein Mostafa

2014-01-01

354

Effects of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, atorvastatin and simvastatin, on the expression of endothelin-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis has been attributed to alterations in the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway or to an excess of endothelin-1 (ET-1). The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to ameliorate endothelial function. However, the physiological basis of this observation is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of Atorvastatin and Simvastatin on the pre-proET-1 mRNA expression and ET-1 synthesis and on the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) transcript and protein levels in bovine aortic endothelial cells. These agents inhibited pre-proET-1 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion (60-70% maximum inhibition) and reduced immunoreactive ET-1 levels (25-50%). This inhibitory effect was maintained in the presence of oxidized LDL (1-50 microg/ml). No significant modification of pre-proET-1 mRNA half-life was observed. In addition, mevalonate, but not cholesterol, reversed the statin-mediated decrease of pre-proET-1 mRNA levels. eNOS mRNA expression was reduced by oxidized LDL in a dose-dependent fashion (up to 57% inhibition), whereas native LDL had no effect. Statins were able to prevent the inhibitory action exerted by oxidized LDL on eNOS mRNA and protein levels. Hence, these drugs might influence vascular tone by modulating the expression of endothelial vasoactive factors.

Hernandez-Perera, O; Perez-Sala, D; Navarro-Antolin, J; Sanchez-Pascuala, R; Hernandez, G; Diaz, C; Lamas, S

1998-01-01

355

Imidazolinones and Acetohydroxyacid Synthase from Higher Plants  

PubMed Central

Acetohydroxyacid synthase has been purified from maize (Zea mays, var Black Mexican Sweet) suspension culture cells 49-fold by a combination of ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. Use of the nondenaturing, zwitterionic detergent 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethyl-ammonio)-1-propanesulfonate was necessary to dissociate the enzyme from the heterogeneous, high molecular weight aggregates in which it appears to reside in vitro. The solubilized maize acetohydroxyacid synthase had a relative molecular mass of 440,000. The purified enzyme was highly unstable. Acetohydroxyacid synthase activities in crude extracts of excised maize leaves and suspension cultured cells were reduced 85 and 58%, respectively, by incubation of the tissue with 100 micromolar (excised leaves) and 5 micromolar (suspension cultures) of the imidazolinone imazapyr prior to enzyme extraction, suggesting that the inhibitor binds tightly to the enzyme in vivo. Binding of imazapyr to maize acetohydroxyacid synthase could also be demonstrated in vitro. Evidence is presented which suggests that the interaction between imazapyr and the enzyme is reversible. Imazapyr also exhibited slow-binding properties when incubated with maize cell acetohydroxyacid synthase in extended time course experiments. Initial and final Ki values for the inhibition were 15 and 0.9 micromolar, respectively. The results suggest that imazapyr is a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of acetohydroxyacid synthase.

Muhitch, Michael J.; Shaner, Dale L.; Stidham, Mark A.

1987-01-01

356

Comparison of Extraction Methods of Chitin from Ganoderma lucidum Mushroom Obtained in Submerged Culture  

PubMed Central

The chitin was isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum submerged cultures mycelium as potential source of chitin under biotechnological processes. The extraction of chitin was carried out through 5 different assays which involved mainly three phases: pulverization of the mushroom, deproteinization of the mycelia with NaOH solution, and a process of decolorization with potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. The chitin contents extracted from 9-day mycelia were 413, 339, 87, 78, and 144?mg/g?1 (milligrams of chitin/grams of dry biomass) for A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5, respectively. Obtained chitin was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by thermal analysis (TGA). The results showed that Ganoderma lucidum chitin has similar characteristic of chitin from different fonts. The advantage of the biotechnological processes and the fact that Ganoderma lucidum fungus may be used as a potential raw material for chitin production were demonstrated.

Ospina Alvarez, Sandra Patricia; Ramirez Cadavid, David Alexander; Ossa Orozco, Claudia Patricia; Zapata Ocampo, Paola; Atehortua, Lucia

2014-01-01

357

Comparison of extraction methods of chitin from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom obtained in submerged culture.  

PubMed

The chitin was isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum submerged cultures mycelium as potential source of chitin under biotechnological processes. The extraction of chitin was carried out through 5 different assays which involved mainly three phases: pulverization of the mushroom, deproteinization of the mycelia with NaOH solution, and a process of decolorization with potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. The chitin contents extracted from 9-day mycelia were 413, 339, 87, 78, and 144 mg/g(-1) (milligrams of chitin/grams of dry biomass) for A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5, respectively. Obtained chitin was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by thermal analysis (TGA). The results showed that Ganoderma lucidum chitin has similar characteristic of chitin from different fonts. The advantage of the biotechnological processes and the fact that Ganoderma lucidum fungus may be used as a potential raw material for chitin production were demonstrated. PMID:24551839

Ospina Álvarez, Sandra Patricia; Ramírez Cadavid, David Alexander; Escobar Sierra, Diana Marcela; Ossa Orozco, Claudia Patricia; Rojas Vahos, Diego Fernando; Zapata Ocampo, Paola; Atehortúa, Lucía

2014-01-01

358

Emerging chitin and chitosan nanofibrous materials for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades, we have witnessed significant progress in chitosan and chitin based nanostructured materials. The nanofibers from chitin and chitosan with appealing physical and biological features have attracted intense attention due to their excellent biological properties related to biodegradability, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, low immunogenicity and wound healing capacity. Various methods, such as electrospinning, self-assembly, phase separation, mechanical treatment, printing, ultrasonication and chemical treatment were employed to prepare chitin and chitosan nanofibers. These nanofibrous materials have tremendous potential to be used as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, wound dressing materials, antimicrobial agents, and biosensors. This review article discusses the most recent progress in the preparation and application of chitin and chitosan based nanofibrous materials in biomedical fields. PMID:25000536

Ding, Fuyuan; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen; Wang, Qun

2014-07-24

359

Progress in the Development of a Chitin Assay Technique for Measuring Extraradical Soilborne Mycelium of V-A Mycorrhizal Fungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation was conducted to replicate a chitin extraction procedure, used to identify extraradical fungal biomass, on various soil media to which chitin standards had been added. The procedure for chitin in the field soil failed each time performe...

A. G. Jarstfer R. M. Miller

1984-01-01

360

Molecular engineering and properties of chitin based shape memory polyurethanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) are playing a prominent role in biomedical, self repairing, aerospace and smart materials. Shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) were prepared from polycaprolactone diol 4000 (PCL4000), 1-4-butanediol (BDO), chitin, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), triethylamine (TEA), and 4, 4?-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). Trifunctional characteristics of chitin enhanced the thermal and mechanical properties of SMPUs. DMPA was used to obtain higher

Mehdi Barikani; Khalid Mahmood Zia; Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti; Mohammad Zuber; Haq Nawaz Bhatti

2008-01-01

361

4-Hydroxy-3-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)thiophen-2(5H)-one as inhibitors of tyrosyl-tRNA synthase: Synthesis, molecular docking and antibacterial evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel 4-hydroxy-3-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)thiophen-2(5H)-ones as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors were synthesized. Of these compounds, 4-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrothiophen-3-yl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (29) was the most potent. The binding model and structure-activity relationship indicate that replacement of phenyl acetate in the side chain of 29 with a substituent containing more hydrophilic groups would be more suitable for further modification. Antibacterial assay revealed that the synthetic compounds are effective against growth of Gram-positive organisms, and 29 is the most potent agent against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC50 value of 0.21 ?g/mL.

Sun, Juan; Liu, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Wei; Guo, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Xin-Yi; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2014-01-01

362

Antidepressant-like effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and sildenafil against lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.  

PubMed

Inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress underlie depression being assessed in rodents by the systemic administration of lipopolysacharide (LPS). There is an increasing body of evidence of an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in depression, but this issue was not investigated in LPS-induced model. Thus, herein we evaluated the effects of NO-pathway-modulating drugs, named aminoguanidine, l-NAME, sildenafil and l-arginine, on the behavioral (forced swimming test [FST], sucrose preference [SPT] and prepulse inhibition [PPI] of the startle) and neurochemical (glutathione [GSH], lipid peroxidation, IL-1?) alterations in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum as well as in BDNF levels in the hippocampus 24h after LPS (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) administration, a time-point related to depressive-like behavior. Twenty-four hours post LPS there was an increase in immobility time in the FST, decrease in sucrose preference and PPI levels accompanied by a decrease in GSH levels and an increase in lipid peroxidation, IL-1? and hippocampal BDNF levels suggestive of a depressive-like state. The pretreatment with the NOS inhibitors, l-NAME and aminoguanidine as well as sildenafil prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations induced by LPS, although sildenafil and l-NAME were not able to prevent the increase in hippocampal BDNF levels induced by LPS. The iNOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine, and imipramine prevented all behavioral and neurochemical alterations induced by LPS. l-arginine did not prevent the alterations in immobility time, sucrose preference and GSH induced by LPS. Taken together our results show that the NO-cGMP pathway is important in the modulation of the depressive-like alterations induced by LPS. PMID:24662848

Tomaz, V S; Cordeiro, R C; Costa, A M N; de Lucena, D F; Nobre Júnior, H V; de Sousa, F C F; Vasconcelos, S M M; Vale, M L; Quevedo, J; Macêdo, D

2014-05-30

363

Bacterial Chitin Hydrolysis in Two Lakes with Contrasting Trophic Statuses  

PubMed Central

Chitin, which is a biopolymer of the amino sugar glucosamine (GlcN), is highly abundant in aquatic ecosystems, and its degradation is assigned a key role in the recycling of carbon and nitrogen. In order to study the significance of chitin decomposition in two temperate freshwater lakes with contrasting trophic and redox conditions, we measured the turnover rate of the chitin analog methylumbelliferyl-N,N?-diacetylchitobioside (MUF-DC) and the presence of chitinase (chiA) genes in zooplankton, water, and sediment samples. In contrast to the eutrophic and partially anoxic lake, chiA gene fragments were detectable throughout the oligotrophic water column and chiA copy numbers per ml of water were up to 15 times higher than in the eutrophic waters. For both lakes, the highest chiA abundance was found in the euphotic zone—the main habitat of zooplankton, but also the site of production of easily degradable algal chitin. The bulk of chitinase activity was measured in zooplankton samples and the sediments, where recalcitrant chitin is deposited. Both, chiA abundance and chitinase activity correlated well with organic carbon, nitrogen, and concentrations of particulate GlcN. Our findings show that chitin, although its overall contribution to the total organic carbon is small (?0.01 to 0.1%), constitutes an important microbial growth substrate in these temperate freshwater lakes, particularly where other easily degradable carbon sources are scarce.

Carstens, Dorte; Keller, Esther; Vazquez, Francisco; Schubert, Carsten J.; Zeyer, Josef; Burgmann, Helmut

2012-01-01

364

Chitin membranes containing silver nanoparticles for wound dressing application.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are gaining importance as an antimicrobial agent in wound dressings. Chitin is a biopolymer envisioned to promote rapid dermal regeneration and accelerate wound healing. This study was focused on the evaluation of chitin membranes containing silver nanoparticles for use as an antimicrobial wound dressing. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised by gamma irradiation at doses of 50 kGy in the presence of sodium alginate as stabiliser. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of nanoparticles exhibited an absorption band at 415-420 nm, which is the typical plasmon resonance band of silver nanoparticles. The peaks in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern are in agreement with the standard values of the face-centred cubic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate silver nanoparticles with spherical morphology and small particle size in the range of 3-13 nm. In vitro antimicrobial tests were performed using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to determine the antimicrobial efficiency of the chitin membranes containing 30, 50, 70 and 100 ppm nanosilver. No viable counts for P. aeruginosa were detected with 70 ppm silver nanoparticles dressing after 1-hour exposure. A 2-log reduction in viable cell count was observed for S. aureus after 1 hour and a 4-log reduction after 6 hours with 100 ppm nanosilver chitin membranes. This study demonstrates the antimicrobial capability of chitin membranes containing silver nanoparticles. The chitin membranes with 100 ppm nanosilver showed promising antimicrobial activity against common wound pathogens. PMID:22958740

Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer

2014-06-01

365

Role of the anterior region of the third ventricle in the cardiovascular responses produced by systemic injection of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined whether a prior electrolytic lesion of the tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) would affect the increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and the fall in heart rate (HR) produced by systemic injection of the nitric oxide synthesis (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 25 micromol/kg, i.v.) in conscious rats. L-NAME produced a smaller increase in MAP in AV3V-lesion than in sham-lesion rats (+19+/-3 vs. +40+/-3 mmHg, respectively; P<0.05). In contrast, L-NAME produced similar falls in HR in the AV3V-lesion and sham-lesion rats (-103+/-15 vs. -97+/-8 bpm, respectively; P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that the L-NAME-induced pressor response is dependent upon the integrity of the AV3V region, whereas the L-NAME-induced bradycardia is not. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B. V.

Lewis, S. J.; Whalen, E. J.; Beltz, T. G.; Johnson, A. K.

1999-01-01

366

Role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3?) in mediating the cytotoxic effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have been shown to induce apoptotic and autophagic cell death in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms that underlie these cytotoxic effects are not yet clearly understood. Recently, HDACIs were shown to induce Akt dephosphorylation by disrupting HDAC-protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complexes. This disruption results in the increased association of PP1 with Akt, resulting in the dephosphorylation and consequent inactivation of the kinase. Akt enhances cellular survival through the phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of several pro-apoptotic proteins. Akt is an important negative regulator of GSK3?, a kinase that has been shown to regulate apoptosis in response to various stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the role of GSK3? in mediating the cytotoxic effects in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with trichostatin A (TSA), a prototype HDACI. We show that TSA induces Akt dephosphorylation in a PP1-dependent manner, resulting in activation of GSK3? in MCF-7 cells. Similarly, knockdown of HDAC1 and-2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in the dephosphorylation of Akt and GSK3?. Selective inhibition of GSK3? attenuated TSA induced cytotoxicity and resulted in enhanced proliferation following drug removal. Our findings identify GSK3? as an important mediator of TSA-induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Alao, John P; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V; Lam, Eric W-F; Coombes, R Charles

2006-01-01

367

Inhibition of calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase causes ileitis and leukocytosis in guinea pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As nitric oxide reduces gut epithelial permeability, we designed a study to determine if chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition predisposes the gut to inflammation. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors were administered in the drinking waterad libitum, for seven days: aminoguanidine (10 µg\\/ml), a selective inhibitor of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase; andNG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 1, 10, and

Mark J. S. Miller; Upender K. Munshi; Halina Sadowska-Krowicka; Jane L. Kakkis; Xiao-Jing Zhang; Sandra Eloby-Childress; David A. Clark

1994-01-01

368

Recombinant Narbonolide Polyketide Synthase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recombinant DNA compounds that encode all or a portion of the narbonolide polyketide synthase are used to express recombinant polyketide synthase genes in host cells for the production of narbonolide, narbonolide derivatives, and polyketides that are usef...

G. Ashley M. C. Betlach M. Betlach R. McDaniel L. Tang

2004-01-01

369

Diverse mechanisms of growth inhibition by luteolin, resveratrol, and quercetin in MIA PaCa-2 cells: a comparative glucose tracer study with the fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75  

PubMed Central

The rationale of this dose matching/dose escalating study was to compare a panel of flavonoids—luteolin, resveratrol, and quercetin—against the metabolite flux-controlling properties of a synthetic targeted fatty acid synthase inhibitor drug C75 on multiple macromolecule synthesis pathways in pancreatic tumor cells using [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose as the single precursor metabolic tracer. MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of 0.1% DMSO (control), or 50 or 100 ?M of each test compound, while intracellular glycogen, RNA ribose, palmitate and cholesterol as well as extra cellular 13CO2, lactate and glutamate production patterns were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and stable isotope-based dynamic metabolic profiling (SiDMAP). The use of 50% [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose as tracer resulted in an average of 24 excess 13CO2 molecules for each 1,000 CO2 molecule in the culture media, which was decreased by 29 and 33% (P < 0.01) with 100 ?M C75 and luteolin treatments, respectively. Extracellular tracer glucose-derived 13C-labeled lactate fractions (?m) were between 45.52 and 47.49% in all cultures with a molar ratio of 2.47% M + 1/?m lactate produced indirectly by direct oxidation of glucose in the pentose cycle in control cultures; treatment with 100 ?M C75 and luteolin decreased this figure to 1.80 and 1.67%. The tracer glucose-derived 13C labeled fraction (?m) of ribonucleotide ribose was 34.73% in controls, which was decreased to 20.58 and 8.45% with C75, 16.15 and 6.86% with luteolin, 27.66 and 19.25% with resveratrol, and 30.09 and 25.67% with quercetin, respectively. Luteolin effectively decreased nucleotide precursor synthesis pentose cycle flux primarily via the oxidative branch, where we observed a 41.74% flux (M + 1/?m) in control cells, in comparison with only a 37.19%, 32.74%, or a 26.57%, 25.47% M + 1/?m flux (P < 0.001) after 50 or 100 ?M C75 or luteolin treatment. Intracellular de novo fatty acid palmitate (C16:0) synthesis was severely and equally blocked by C75 and luteolin treatments indicated by the 5.49% (control), 2.29 or 2.47% (C75) and 2.21 or 2.73% (luteolin) tracer glucose-derived 13C-labeled fractions, respectively. On the other hand there was a significant 192 and 159% (P < 0.001), and a 103 and 117% (P < 0.01) increase in tracer glucose-derived cholesterol after C75 or luteolin treatment. Only resveratrol and quercetin at 100 ?M inhibited tracer glucose-derived glycogen labeling (?m) and turnover by 34.8 and 23.8%, respectively. The flavonoid luteolin possesses equal efficacy to inhibit fatty acid palmitate de novo synthesis as well as nucleotide RNA ribose turnover via the oxidative branch of the pentose cycle in comparison with the targeted fatty acid synthase inhibitor synthetic compound C75. Luteolin is also effective in stringently controlling glucose entry and anaplerosis in the TCA cycle, while it promotes less glucose flux towards cholesterol synthesis than that of C75. In contrast, quercetin and resveratrol inhibit glycogen synthesis and turnover as their underlying mechanism of controlling tumor cell proliferation. Therefore the flavonoid luteolin controls fatty and nucleic acid syntheses as well as energy production with pharmacological strength, which can be explored as a non-toxic natural treatment modality for pancreatic cancer.

Li, Luyi; Chen, Monica; Lagunero, F. Tracy; Go, Vay Liang W.; Boros, Laszlo G.

2011-01-01

370

YEA! ® Elicitor Response Comparison to Chitin \\/ Chitosan in Mung Bean and Adzuki Bean Germination Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

YEA! ® (1 mg\\/seed) to the 0.9 mg\\/seed treatment with chitin \\/ chitosan elicited five times as much 9-1,3-glucanase enzyme activity. Secondly, lower concentrations of the chitin oligosaccharide containing six glycan moieties, N-acetylchitohexaose were studied. The importance of the chitin oligosaccharide is that short chains of chitin have been found optimal in elicitation of many types of plants. The dose

James C. Linden; Richard J. Stoner

371

Efficacy of chitin-PAA-GTMAC gel in promoting wound healing: animal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylic grafted chitin (chitin-PAA) was modified with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) with the aim of promoting\\u000a wound healing. The chitin-PAA-GTMAC gels with different GTMAC contents were compared with the original chitin-PAA gel and\\u000a Intrasite gel for their efficacy in deep wound healing of Wistar rats. Four full-thickness wounds were made on the dorsal\\u000a skin of rats and then each was treated

Kajee Pilakasiri; Patamaporn Molee; Duangkamol Sringernyuang; Noppadon Sangjun; Somruethai Channasanon; Siriporn Tanodekaew

372

The biocompatibility of dibutyryl chitin in the context of wound dressings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dibutyryl chitin (DBC) is a modified chitin carrying butyryl groups at 3 and 6 positions; its peculiarity is that it dissolves promptly in common solvents, while being insoluble in aqueous systems. The high biocompatibility of dibutyryl chitin in the form of films and non-wovens has been demonstrated for human, chick and mouse fibroblasts by the Viability\\/Cytotoxicity assay, In situ Cell

Riccardo A. A. Muzzarelli; Mario Guerrieri; Gaia Goteri; Corrado Muzzarelli; Tatiana Armeni; Roberto Ghiselli; Maria Cornelissen

2005-01-01

373

Ultrasonication and steam-explosion as chitin pretreatments for chitin oligosaccharide production by chitinases of Lecanicillium lecanii.  

PubMed

In this study, chitin oligosaccharides have been successfully produced using chitinases from submerged fermentation of Lecanicillium lecanii. The highest Hex, Chit and Prot production was 0.14, 0.26 and 2.05 U/mg of protein, respectively, which were attained varying pH from 5 to 8 after 96 h. Culture conditions conducted at constant pH of 6 resulted in significantly lower enzyme production. The crude enzyme was partially purified by salting out with (NH4)2SO4 followed by size exclusion chromatography to isolate the chitinase mixture for further chitin hydrolysis assays. In this regard, chitin substrates were pretreated with sonication and steam explosion prior to enzymatic reaction. Structural changes were observed with steam explosion with 11.28% reduction of the crystallinity index attained with the lowest chitin/water ratio (0.1g/mL). Pretreated chitins reached the highest production of reducing sugars (0.37 mg/mL) and GlcNAc (0.59 mg/mL) in 23.6% yield. PMID:23993287

Villa-Lerma, Guadalupe; González-Márquez, Humberto; Gimeno, Miquel; López-Luna, Alberto; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

2013-10-01

374

O-Nucleoside, S-Nucleoside, and N-Nucleoside Probes of Lumazine Synthase and Riboflavin Synthase  

PubMed Central

Lumazine synthase catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin, while riboflavin synthase catalyzes the last step. O-Nucleoside, S-nucleoside and N-nucleoside analogues of hypothetical lumazine biosynthetic intermediates have been synthesized in order to obtain structure and mechanism probes of these two enzymes, as well as inhibitors of potential value as antibiotics. Methods were devised for the selective cleavage of benzyl protecting groups in the presence of other easily reduced functionality by controlled hydrogenolysis over Lindlar catalyst. The deprotection reaction was performed in the presence of other reactive functionality including nitro groups, alkenes, and halogens. The target compounds were tested as inhibitors of lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase obtained from a variety of microorganisms. In general, the S-nucleosides and N-nucleosides were more potent than the corresponding O-nucleosides as lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase inhibitors, while the C-nucleosides were the least potent. A series of molecular dynamics simulations followed by free energy calculations using the Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area (MM-PBSA) method were carried out in order to rationalize the results of ligand binding to lumazine synthase, and the results provide insight into the dynamics of ligand binding as well as the molecular forces stabilizing the intermediates in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

Talukdar, Arindam; Zhao, Yujie; Lv, Wei; Bacher, Adelbert; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus; Cushman, Mark

2012-01-01

375

Mechanisms of resistance to N-[5-[ N-(3, 4-dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-6-ylmethyl)- N-methylamino]-2-thenoyl]-L-glutamic acid (ZD1694), a folate-based thymidylate synthase inhibitor, in the HCT8 human ileocecal adenocarcinoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-[5-[N-(3,4-Dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-6-ylmethyl)-N-methylamino]-2-thenoyl]-L-glutamic acid (ZD1694) is a folate-based thymidylate synthase (TS; EC 2.1.1.45) inhibitor. Metabolism to higher chain length polyglutamates is essential for its optimal cytotoxic effect. A ZD1694-resistant (300-fold) human ileocecal carcinoma cell line (HCT-8\\/DW2) was developed, and its mechanism of resistance was evaluated. TS activities in situ and TS protein levels in the HCT-8 parental line and HCT-8\\/DW2 were similar

Kun Lu; Ming-Biao Yin; John J. McGuire; Enzo Bonmassar; Youcef M. Rustum

1995-01-01

376

[The possibilities of using a chitin and chitosan in wounds treatment].  

PubMed

Chitin and chitosan are natural polysaccharides. In this study, we presented the possibilities of using chitin and chitosan in medical practice and experimental studies. Chitin and chitosan, based wound dressings available as commercial products, were presented. The directions of future progress in employment chitin and chitosan in treatment of many kinds of wounds were also described. In this study, the main properties of these polymers were established. The usefulness of the chitin and chitosan as hemostatic products, wound dressing and skin substitutes was emphasized. PMID:24596043

Mazurek, Piotr; Kuli?ski, Sebastian; Gosk, Jerzy

2013-01-01

377

Glycan-functionalized fluorescent chitin nanocrystals for biorecognition applications.  

PubMed

A new platform based on chitin nanocrystals has been developed for biorecognition applications. TEMPO-oxidized chitin nanocrystals (TCNs) were labeled with a fluorescent imidazoisoquinolinone dye, and simultaneously conjugated with carbohydrate ligands, resulting in dually functionalized TCNs. The biorecognition properties of the nanocrystals were probed with lectins and bacteria, resulting in selective interactions with their corresponding cognate carbohydrate-binding proteins, as visualized by optical, fluorescence, STEM, and TEM imaging. This represents a new approach to multifunctional nanomaterials based on naturally occurring polymers, holding high potential for biomedical applications. PMID:24625204

Zhou, Juan; Butchosa, Núria; Jayawardena, H Surangi N; Zhou, Qi; Yan, Mingdi; Ramström, Olof

2014-04-16

378

Fatty acid synthase expression in cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms.  

PubMed

Mammalian fatty acid synthase is a multifunctional enzyme complex involved in de novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids, and inhibitors of fatty acid synthase are being evaluated as potential therapeutic agents. Increased fatty acid synthase expression has been demonstrated in subsets of malignancies, including colon, breast, endometrium, prostate and ovarian carcinomas, and recently malignant melanomas. We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of fatty acid synthase in 155 cutaneous melanocytic lesions. They included 30 congenital nevi, 19 compound nevi, 40 Spitz nevi, 48 primary melanomas, and 18 metastatic melanomas. Fatty acid synthase expression was stronger in malignant melanomas in comparison to conventional nevi and Spitz nevi, and was the highest for metastatic melanoma. Of the primary malignant melanomas, mean fatty acid synthase scores were significantly greater for Clark levels IV and V compared to Clark levels I and II (P<0.001). In addition, melanomas with Breslow thickness 0.75-1.50 mm and >1.50 mm showed significantly higher mean fatty acid synthase scores compared with those with Breslow thickness <0.75 mm (P=0.013 and <0.001, respectively). Of interest, congenital melanocytic nevi also showed strong fatty acid synthase expression, similar to that seen in metastatic melanoma. This may represent persistence of or regression to a fetal phenotype since normal fetal tissues are known to express high levels of fatty acid synthase. PMID:15920554

Kapur, Payal; Rakheja, Dinesh; Roy, Lonnie C; Hoang, Mai P

2005-08-01

379

Preparation of chitin-silica composites by in vitro silicification of two-dimensional Ianthella basta demosponge chitinous scaffolds under modified Stöber conditions.  

PubMed

Chitin is a biopolymer found in cell walls of various fungi and skeletal structures of numerous invertebrates. The occurrence of chitin within calcium- and silica-containing biominerals has inspired development of chitin-based hybrids and composites in vitro with specific physico-chemical and material properties. We show here for the first time that the two-dimensional ?-chitin scaffolds isolated from the skeletons of marine demosponge Ianthella basta can be effectively silicified by the two-step method with the use of Stöber silica micro- and nanodispersions under Extreme Biomimetic conditions. The chitin-silica composites obtained at 120 °C were characterized by the presence of spherical SiO2 particles homogeneously distributed over the chitin fibers, which probably follows from the compatibility of Si-OH groups to the hydroxyl groups of chitin. The biocomposites obtained were characterized by various analytical techniques such as energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy to determine possible interactions between silica and chitin molecule. The results presented proved that the character and course of the in vitro chitin silicification in Stöber dispersions depended considerably on the degree of hydrolysis of the SiO2 precursor. PMID:23910299

Wysokowski, Marcin; Behm, Thomas; Born, René; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Meissner, Heike; Richter, Gert; Szwarc-Rzepka, Karolina; Makarova, Anna; Vyalikh, Denis; Schupp, Peter; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann

2013-10-01

380

Cellulose synthase interacting protein  

PubMed Central

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth. The great abundance of cellulose places it at the forefront as a primary source of biomass for renewable biofuels. However, the knowledge of how plant cells make cellulose remains very rudimentary. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by hexameric protein complexes, also known as cellulose synthase complexes. The only known components of cellulose synthase complexes are cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins until the recent identification of a novel component. CSI1, which encodes CESA interacting protein 1 (CSI1) in Arabidopsis. CSI1, as the first non-CESA proteins associated with cellulose synthase complexes, opens up many opportunities.

Somerville, Chris

2010-01-01

381

Dynamics of Gram-negative bacteria population density in a soil in the course of the succession initiated by chitin and cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functions of actinomycetes in polymer destruction in soil traditionally considered as the dominant, compare to another groups of bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria also have ecological functions in destruction of soil organic matter. The role of Gram-negative bacteria has been researched in the microbial succession in terms of polymers destruction, which are widely spreads in soils: chitin and cellulose. The method with nalidixic acid as an inhibitor of DNA division of Gram-negative bacteria was modified. By modified method microbial succession of Gram-negative bacteria in the different horizons of a chernozem under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was researched. Chitin and cellulose as the source of nutrients with moistening was used in experiments. The introduction of chitin had no positive effect on the population density of Gram-negative bacteria in a chernozem, but it advanced the date of their appearance in microbial succession: the maximum of Gram-negative bacteria population density was registered on the 3rd- 7th day of the experiment with adding chitin. Compare to the control, which one was without any nutrient adding this dynamics registered much earlier. Consequently, the introdu