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1

Modulation of Alternaria infectoria Cell Wall Chitin and Glucan Synthesis by Cell Wall Synthase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The present work reports the effects of caspofungin, a ?-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, and nikkomycin Z, an inhibitor of chitin synthases, on two strains of Alternaria infectoria, a melanized fungus involved in opportunistic human infections and respiratory allergies. One of the strains tested, IMF006, bore phenotypic traits that conferred advantages in resisting antifungal treatment. First, the resting cell wall chitin content was higher and in response to caspofungin, the chitin level remained constant. In the other strain, IMF001, the chitin content increased upon caspofungin treatment to values similar to basal IMF006 levels. Moreover, upon caspofungin treatment, the FKS1 gene was upregulated in IMF006 and downregulated in IMF001. In addition, the resting ?-glucan content was also different in both strains, with higher levels in IMF001 than in IMF006. However, this did not provide any advantage with respect to echinocandin resistance. We identified eight different chitin synthase genes and studied relative gene expression when the fungus was exposed to the antifungals under study. In both strains, exposure to caspofungin and nikkomycin Z led to modulation of the expression of class V and VII chitin synthase genes, suggesting its importance in the robustness of A. infectoria. The pattern of A. infectoria phagocytosis and activation of murine macrophages by spores was not affected by caspofungin. Monotherapy with nikkomycin Z and caspofungin provided only fungistatic inhibition, while a combination of both led to fungal cell lysis, revealing a strong synergistic action between the chitin synthase inhibitor and the ?-glucan synthase inhibitor against this fungus. PMID:24614372

Fernandes, Chantal; Anjos, Jorge; Walker, Louise A.; Silva, Branca M. A.; Cortes, Luísa; Mota, Marta; Munro, Carol A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

2014-01-01

2

Modulation of Alternaria infectoria cell wall chitin and glucan synthesis by cell wall synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The present work reports the effects of caspofungin, a ?-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, and nikkomycin Z, an inhibitor of chitin synthases, on two strains of Alternaria infectoria, a melanized fungus involved in opportunistic human infections and respiratory allergies. One of the strains tested, IMF006, bore phenotypic traits that conferred advantages in resisting antifungal treatment. First, the resting cell wall chitin content was higher and in response to caspofungin, the chitin level remained constant. In the other strain, IMF001, the chitin content increased upon caspofungin treatment to values similar to basal IMF006 levels. Moreover, upon caspofungin treatment, the FKS1 gene was upregulated in IMF006 and downregulated in IMF001. In addition, the resting ?-glucan content was also different in both strains, with higher levels in IMF001 than in IMF006. However, this did not provide any advantage with respect to echinocandin resistance. We identified eight different chitin synthase genes and studied relative gene expression when the fungus was exposed to the antifungals under study. In both strains, exposure to caspofungin and nikkomycin Z led to modulation of the expression of class V and VII chitin synthase genes, suggesting its importance in the robustness of A. infectoria. The pattern of A. infectoria phagocytosis and activation of murine macrophages by spores was not affected by caspofungin. Monotherapy with nikkomycin Z and caspofungin provided only fungistatic inhibition, while a combination of both led to fungal cell lysis, revealing a strong synergistic action between the chitin synthase inhibitor and the ?-glucan synthase inhibitor against this fungus. PMID:24614372

Fernandes, Chantal; Anjos, Jorge; Walker, Louise A; Silva, Branca M A; Cortes, Luísa; Mota, Marta; Munro, Carol A; Gow, Neil A R; Gonçalves, Teresa

2014-05-01

3

The S. cerevisiae structural gene for chitin synthase is not required for chitin synthesis in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The chltin synthase of Saccharomyces is a plasma membrane-bound zymogen. Following proteolytic ac- tivation, the enzyme synthesizes insoluble chitin that has chain length and other physical properties similar to chitin found in bud scars. We isolated mutants lack- ing chitin synthase activity (chsl) and used these to clone CHS7. The gene has an open reading frame of 3400 bases

Christine E. Bulawa; Martin Slater; Enrico Cabib; Janice Au-Young; Adriana Sburlati; W. Lee Adair; Phillips W. Robbins

1986-01-01

4

Chitin synthase III activity, but not the chitin ring, is required for remedial septa formation in budding yeast.  

PubMed

Chitin is a minor but essential component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. In wild-type, chitin synthase II is required for the formation of primary septa and chitin synthase III (CSIII) is not essential. However, in chs2 mutants CSIII becomes essential for the formation of aberrant septa. We examined which of two CSIII functions, the formation of a chitin ring at bud emergence or of chitin in the remedial septa, was required for viability. By using cell cycle synchronization in combination with nikkomycin Z, a specific inhibitor of CSIII, we inhibited chitin synthesis in a chs2 mutant, during formation of either the ring or the remedial septa. The results show that only synthesis of the chitin during aberrant septa formation is essential for viability. Thus, the unique function of the chitin ring seems to be maintenance of the integrity of the mother-bud neck, as we recently found, and the importance of chitin in septum closure, both in normal and abnormal situations, is underlined. PMID:12892896

Cabib, Enrico; Schmidt, Martin

2003-07-29

5

Chitin synthase 1, an auxiliary enzyme for chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Previously, we showed that chitin synthase 2 (Chs2) is required for septum formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) does not appear to be an essential enzyme. However, in strains carrying a disrupted CHS1 gene, frequent lysis of buds is observed. Lysis occurs after nuclear separation and appears to result from damage to the cell wall, as indicated by osmotic stabilization and by a approximately 50-nm orifice at the center of the birth scar. Lysis occurs at a low pH and is prevented by buffering the medium above pH 5. A likely candidate for the lytic system is a previously described chitinase that is probably involved in cell separation. The chitinase has a very acidic pH optimum and a location in the periplasmic space that exposes it to external pH. Accordingly, allosamidin, a specific chitinase inhibitor, substantially reduced the number of lysed cells. Because the presence of Chs1 in the cell abolishes lysis, it is concluded that damage to the cell wall is caused by excessive chitinase activity at acidic pH, which can normally be repaired through chitin synthesis by Chs1. The latter emerges as an auxiliary or emergency enzyme. Other experiments suggest that both Chs1 and Chs2 collaborate in the repair synthesis of chitin, whereas Chs1 cannot substitute for Chs2 in septum formation. PMID:2523889

1989-01-01

6

Chitin synthase 1, an auxiliary enzyme for chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we showed that chitin synthase 2 (Chs2) is required for septum formation in Sac- charomyces cerevisiae, whereas chitin synthase 1 (Chsl) does not appear to be an essential enzyme. However, in strains carrying a disrupted CHS1 gene, frequent lysis of buds is observed. Lysis occurs after nuclear separation and appearg to result from damage to the cell wall, as

E. Cabib; Adriana Sburlati; Blair Bowers; Sanford J. Silverman

1989-01-01

7

Chitin Synthase 2 is Essential for Septum Formation and Cell Division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work led to the puzzling conclusion that chitin synthase 1, the major chitin synthase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not required for synthesis of the chitinous primary septum. The mechanism of in vivo synthesis of chitin has now been clarified by cloning the structural gene for the newly found chitin synthase 2, a relatively minor activity in yeast. Disruption

Sanford J. Silverman; Adriana Sburlati; Martin L. Slater; Enrico Cabib

1988-01-01

8

Chitin synthase A: a novel epidermal development regulation gene in the larvae of Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Chitin synthase is the key regulatory enzyme for chitin synthesis and excretion in insects, as well as a specific target of insecticides. The chitin synthase A gene (BmChsA) cloned from Bombyx mori, the model species of lepidopteran, is an epidermis-specific expressed gene during the molting stage. Knockdown BmChsA gene in 3rd instar larvae increased the number of non-molting and abnormal molting larvae. Exposure to nikkomycin Z, a chitin synthase inhibitor downregulated the expression of BmChsA and decreased the amount of epidermis chitin during the molting process. The thickness of the new epidermis and its dense structure varied greatly. The exogenous hormones significantly upregulated the expression of BmChsA with low levels of endogenous MH and high levels of endogenous JH immediately after molting. With low levels of endogenous hormones during the mulberry intake process, BmChsA was rarely upregulated by exogenous hormones. With high levels of endogenous MH and low levels of endogenous JH during the molting stage, we did not detect the upregulation of BmChsA by exogenous hormones. The expression of BmChsA was regulated by endocrine hormones, which directly affected the chitin synthesis-dependent epidermal regeneration and molting process. PMID:24577751

Zhuo, Weiwei; Fang, Yan; Kong, Lingfei; Li, Xi; Sima, Yanghu; Xu, Shiqing

2014-07-01

9

Expression in E. coli and characterization of the catalytic domain of Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chitin synthase 3a (CHS3a) from Botrytis cinerea (Bc) catalyses the multiple transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues to the growing chitin chain. Chitin, a ?-1,4 linked GlcNAc homopolymer, is an essential cell wall component of filamentous fungi. Chitin synthase, processive membranous protein, has been recognized as a promising target for new antifungicides. Enzymatic characterizations of chitin synthases have been limited,

Hervé Magellan; Thierry Drujon; Annie Thellend; Annie Piffeteau; Hubert F. Becker

2010-01-01

10

Chitin synthase 2 is essential for septum formation and cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Previous work led to the puzzling conclusion that chitin synthase 1, the major chitin synthase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not required for synthesis of the chitinous primary septum. The mechanism of in vivo synthesis of chitin has now been clarified by cloning the structural gene for the newly found chitin synthase 2, a relatively minor activity in yeast. Disruption of the chitin synthase 2 gene results in the loss of well-defined septa and in growth arrest, establishing that the gene product is essential for both septum formation and cell division. Images PMID:2968606

Silverman, S J; Sburlati, A; Slater, M L; Cabib, E

1988-01-01

11

2-acylamido analogues of N-acetylglucosamine prime formation of chitin oligosaccharides by yeast chitin synthase 2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chitin, a polymer of beta-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is a key component of the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of arthropods. Chitin synthases (CSs) transfer GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to pre-existing chitin chains in reactions that are typically stimulated by free GlcNAc. The eff...

12

Characterization of a Chitin Synthase Encoding Gene and Effect of Diflubenzuron in Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines  

PubMed Central

Chitin synthases are critical enzymes for synthesis of chitin and thus for subsequent growth and development in insects. We identified the cDNA of chitin synthase gene (CHS) in Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, which is a serious pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of CHS in A. glycines (AyCHS) was 5802 bp long with an open reading frame of 4704 bp that encoded for a 1567 amino acid residues protein. The predicted AyCHS protein had a molecular mass of 180.05 kDa and its amino acid sequence contained all the signature motifs (EDR, QRRRW and TWGTR) of chitin synthases. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that AyCHS was expressed in all major tissues (gut, fat body and integument); however, it had the highest expression in integument (~3.5 fold compared to gut). Interestingly, the expression of AyCHS in developing embryos was nearly 7 fold higher compared to adult integument, which probably is a reflection of embryonic molts in hemimetabolus insects. Expression analysis in different developmental stages of A. glycines revealed a consistent AyCHS expression in all stages. Further, through leaf dip bioassay, we tested the effect of diflubenzuron (DFB, Dimilin ®), a chitin-synthesis inhibitor, on A. glycines' survival, fecundity and body weight. When fed with soybean leaves previously dipped in 50 ppm DFB solution, A. glycines nymphs suffered significantly higher mortality compared to control. A. glycines nymphs feeding on diflubenzuron treated leaves showed a slightly enhanced expression (1.67 fold) of AyCHS compared to nymphs on untreated leaves. We discussed the potential applications of the current study to develop novel management strategies using chitin-synthesis inhibitors and using RNAi by knocking down AyCHS expression. PMID:23139631

Bansal, Raman; Mian, M. A. Rouf; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Michel, Andy P.

2012-01-01

13

A Selective Assay to Detect Chitin and Biologically Active Nano-Machineries for Chitin-Biosynthesis with Their Intrinsic Chitin-Synthase Molecules  

PubMed Central

A new assay system for chitin has been developed. It comprises the chitin-binding protein ChbB in fusion with a His-tag as well as with a Strep-tag, the latter of which was chemically coupled to horseradish peroxidase. With the resulting complex, minimal quantities of chitin are photometrically detectable. In addition, the assay allows rapid scoring of the activity of chitin-synthases. As a result, a refined procedure for the rapid purification of yeast chitosomes (nano-machineries for chitin biosynthesis) has been established. Immuno-electronmicroscopical studies of purified chitosomes, gained from a yeast strain carrying a chitin-synthase gene fused to that for GFP (green-fluorescence protein), has led to the in situ localization of chitin-synthase-GFP molecules within chitosomes. PMID:20957083

Herasimenka, Yury; Kotasinska, Marta; Walter, Stefan; Schrempf, Hildgund

2010-01-01

14

La chitine synthase de Neocallimastix frontalis, un marqueur enzymatique de la biomasse fongique  

E-print Network

La chitine synthase de Neocallimastix frontalis, un marqueur enzymatique de la biomasse fongique L, Université Lyon l, 43, boulevard du 11-Novembre-1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France. Summary. Chitin synthase responsible for chitin synthesis in the fungal cell wall was detected in the actively growing mycelium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Chitin Synthase 1, an Auxiliary Enzyme for Chitin Synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-print Network

Abstract. Previously, we showed that chitin synthase 2 (Chs2) is required for septum formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas chitin synthase 1 (Chsl) does not appear to be an essential enzyme. However, in strains carrying a disrupted CHS1 gene, frequent lysis of buds is observed. Lysis occurs after nuclear separation and appearg to result from damage to the cell wall, as indicated by osmotic stabilization and by a '~50-nm orifice at the center of the birth scar. Lysis occurs at a low pH and is prevented by buffering the medium above pH 5. A likely candidate for the lytic system is a previously described chitinase that is probably involved in cell separation. The chi-tinase has a very acidic pH optimum and a location in the periplasmic space that exposes it to external pH.

Enrico C Abib; Adriana Sburlati; Blair Bowers; Sanford J. Silverman

16

Role of chitin synthase genes in Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Three structural chitin synthase genes, chs1, chs2 and chs3, were identified in the genome of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a soilborne pathogen causing vascular wilt disease in tomato plants. Based on amino acid identities with related fungal species, chs1, chs2 and chs3 encode structural chitin synthases (CSs) of class I, class II and class III, respectively. A gene (chs7) encoding a chaperone-like protein was identified by comparison of the deduced protein with Chs7p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein required for the export of ScChs3p (class IV) from the ER. So far no CS gene belonging to class IV has been isolated from F. oxysporum, although it probably contains more than one gene of this class, based on the genome data of the closely related species Fusarium graminearum. F. oxysporum chs1-, chs2- and chs7-deficient mutants were constructed through targeted gene disruption by homologous recombination. No compensatory mechanism seems to exist between the CS genes studied, since chitin content determination and expression analysis of the chs genes showed no differences between the disruption mutants and the wild-type strain. By fluorescence microscopy using Calcofluor white and DAPI staining, the wild-type strain and Deltachs2 and Deltachs7 mutants showed similar septation and even nuclear distribution, with each hyphal compartment containing only one nucleus, whereas the Deltachs1 mutant showed compartments containing up to four nuclei. Pathogenicity assays on tomato plants indicated reduced virulence of Deltachs2 and Deltachs7 null mutants. Stress conditions affected normal development in Deltachs2 but not in Deltachs1 or Deltachs7 disruptants, and the three chs-deficient mutants showed increased hyphal hydrophobicity compared to the wild-type strain when grown in sorbitol-containing medium. The chitin synthase mutants will be useful for elucidating cell wall biogenesis in F. oxysporum and the relationship between fungal cell wall integrity and pathogenicity. PMID:15470098

Martín-Udíroz, Magdalena; Madrid, Marta P; Roncero, M Isabel G

2004-10-01

17

Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

Schoenitzer, Veronika [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Biomineralisation Group, Campus D2.2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany) [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Biomineralisation Group, Campus D2.2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Eichner, Norbert [Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)] [Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke [Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstrasse 34, D-80335 Muenchen, Germany, and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, D-80539 Muenchen (Germany)] [Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstrasse 34, D-80335 Muenchen, Germany, and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, D-80539 Muenchen (Germany); Weiss, Ingrid M., E-mail: ingrid.weiss@inm-gmbh.de [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Biomineralisation Group, Campus D2.2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)

2011-12-02

18

Early divergence, broad distribution, and high diversity of animal chitin synthases.  

PubMed

Even though chitin is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature, current knowledge on chitin formation is largely based only on data from fungi and insects. This study reveals unanticipated broad taxonomic distribution and extensive diversification of chitin synthases (CSs) in Metazoa, shedding new light on the relevance of chitin in animals and suggesting unforeseen complexity of chitin synthesis in many groups. We uncovered robust orthologs to insect type CSs in several representatives of deuterostomes, which generally are not thought to possess chitin. This suggests a broader distribution and function of chitin in this branch of the animal kingdom. We characterize a new CS type present not only in basal metazoans such as sponges and cnidarians but also in several bilaterian representatives. The most extensive diversification of CSs took place during emergence of lophotrochozoans, the third large group of protostomes next to arthropods and nematodes, resulting in coexistence of up to ten CS paralogs in molluscs. Independent fusion to different kinds of myosin motor domains in fungi and lophotrochozoans points toward high relevance of CS interaction with the cytoskeleton for fine-tuned chitin secretion. Given the fundamental role that chitin plays in the morphology of many animals, the here presented CS diversification reveals many evolutionary complexities. Our findings strongly suggest a very broad and multifarious occurrence of chitin and question an ancestral role as cuticular component. The molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of animal chitin synthesis are most likely far more complex and diverse than existing data from insects suggest. PMID:24443419

Zakrzewski, Anne-C; Weigert, Anne; Helm, Conrad; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja; Bleidorn, Christoph; Raible, Florian; Hausen, Harald

2014-02-01

19

The function of chitin synthases 2 and 3 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle  

PubMed Central

The morphology of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, all lacking chitin synthase 1 (Chs1) and two of them deficient in either Chs3 (calR1 mutation) or Chs2 was observed by light and electron microscopy. Cells deficient in Chs2 showed clumpy growth and aberrant shape and size. Their septa were very thick; the primary septum was absent. Staining with WGA-gold complexes revealed a diffuse distribution of chitin in the septum, whereas chitin was normally located at the neck between mother cell and bud and in the wall of mother cells. Strains deficient in Chs3 exhibited minor abnormalities in budding pattern and shape. Their septa were thin and trilaminar. Staining for chitin revealed a thin line of the polysaccharide along the primary septum; no chitin was present elsewhere in the wall. Therefore, Chs2 is specific for primary septum formation, whereas Chs3 is responsible for chitin in the ring at bud emergence and in the cell wall. Chs3 is also required for chitin synthesized in the presence of alpha-pheromone or deposited in the cell wall of cdc mutants at nonpermissive temperature, and for chitosan in spore walls. Genetic evidence indicated that a mutant lacking all three chitin synthases was inviable; this was confirmed by constructing a triple mutant rescued by a plasmid carrying a CHS2 gene under control of a GAL1 promoter. Transfer of the mutant from galactose to glucose resulted in cell division arrest followed by cell death. We conclude that some chitin synthesis is essential for viability of yeast cells. PMID:2050738

1991-01-01

20

Deletion of a Chitin Synthase Gene in a Citric Acid Producing Strain of Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Citric acid production by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is carried out in a process that causes the organism to drastically alter its morphology. This altered morphology includes hyphal swelling and highly limited polar growth resulting in clumps of swollen cells that eventually aggregate into pellets of approximately 100 microns in diameter. In this pelleted form, A. niger has increased citric acid production as compared to growth in filamentous form. Chitin is a crucial component of the cell wall of filamentous fungi. Alterations in the deposition or production of chitin may have profound effects on the morphology of the organism. In order to study the role of chitin synthesis in pellet formation we have deleted a chitin synthase gene (csmA) in Aspergillus niger strain ATCC 11414 using a PCR based deletion construct. This class of chitin synthases is only found in filamentous fungi and is not present in yeasts. The csmA genes contain a myosin motor domain at the N-terminus and a chitin synthesis domain at the C-terminus. They are believed to contribute to the specialized polar growth observed in filamentous fungi that is lacking in yeasts. The csmA deletion strain (csmA?) was subjected to minimal media with and without osmotic stabilizers as well as tested in citric acid production media. Without osmotic stabilizers, the mutant germlings were abnormally swollen, primarily in the subapical regions, and contained large vacuoles. However, this swelling is ultimately not inhibitory to growth as the germlings are able to recover and undergo polar growth. Colony formation was largely unaffected in the absence of osmotic stabilizers. In citric acid production media csmA? was observed to have a 2.5 fold increase in citric acid production. The controlled expression of this class of chitin synthases may be useful for improving production of organic acids in filamentous fungi.

Rinker, Torri E.; Baker, Scott E.

2007-01-29

21

Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium verticillioides is both an endophyte and a pathogen of maize and is a health threat in many areas of the world because it can contaminate maize with fumonisins, a toxic secondary metabolite. We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F. verticillioides genomic sequence and...

22

Nucleotide sequence variation of chitin synthase genes among ectomycorrhizal fungi and its potential use in taxonomy.  

PubMed Central

DNA sequences of single-copy genes coding for chitin synthases (UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.16) were used to characterize ectomycorrhizal fungi. Degenerate primers deduced from short, completely conserved amino acid stretches flanking a region of about 200 amino acids of zymogenic chitin synthases allowed the amplification of DNA fragments of several members of this gene family. Different DNA band patterns were obtained from basidiomycetes because of variation in the number and length of amplified fragments. Cloning and sequencing of the most prominent DNA fragments revealed that these differences were due to various introns at conserved positions. The presence of introns in basidiomycetous fungi therefore has a potential use in identification of genera by analyzing PCR-generated DNA fragment patterns. Analyses of the nucleotide sequences of cloned fragments revealed variations in nucleotide sequences from 4 to 45%. By comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences, the majority of the DNA fragments were identified as members of genes for chitin synthase class II. The deduced amino acid sequences from species of the same genus differed only in one amino acid residue, whereas identity between the amino acid sequences of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi within the same taxonomic class was found to be approximately 43 to 66%. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of class II chitin synthase-encoding gene fragments by using parsimony confirmed the current taxonomic groupings. In addition, our data revealed a fourth class of putative zymogenic chitin synthesis. Images PMID:7944356

Mehmann, B; Brunner, I; Braus, G H

1994-01-01

23

Identification and characterization of two chitin synthase genes in African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Chitin synthase (CHS) represents an attractive target site for combating insect pests as insect growth and development are strictly dependent on precisely tuned chitin biosynthesis and this pathway is absent in humans and other vertebrates. Current knowledge on CHS in insects, especially their structures, functions, and regulations is still very limited. We report the identification and characterization of two chitin synthase genes, AgCHS1 and AgCHS2, in African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. AgCHS1 and AgCHS2 were predicted to encode proteins of 1,578 and 1,586 amino acid residues, respectively. Their deduced amino acid sequences show high similarities to other insect chitin synthases. Transcriptional analysis indicated that AgCHS1 was expressed in egg, larval, pupal and adult stages whereas AgCHS2 appeared to be expressed at relatively low levels, particularly during the larval stages as examined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR. Relatively high expression was detected in the carcass followed by the foregut and hindgut for AgCHS1, and the foregut (cardia included) followed by the midgut for AgCHS2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical analysis revealed new information including the localization of the two enzymes in the ommatidia of the compound eyes, and AgCHS2 in the thoracic and abdominal inter-segmental regions of pupal integument. PMID:22683441

Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jianzhen; Park, Yoonseong; Zhu, Kun Yan

2012-01-01

24

Targeting of Chitin Synthase 3to Polarized Growth Sites in Yeast Requires Chs5p and Myo2p  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin is an essential structural component of the yeast cell wall whose deposition is regulated throughout the yeast life cycle. The temporal and spa- tial regulation of chitin synthesis was investigated dur- ing vegetative growth and mating of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by localization of the putative catalytic sub- unit of chitin synthase III, Chs3p, and its regulator, Chs5p. Immunolocalization of epitope-tagged

Beatriz Santos; Michael Snyder

1997-01-01

25

SEQUENCES OF CDNAS AND EXPRESSION OF GENES ENCODING CHITIN SYNTHASE AND CHITINASE IN THE MIDGUT OF SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The focus of this study was on the characterization and expression of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of chitin, chitin synthase (SfCHSB) and chitinase (SfCHI), respectively, in the midgut of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda,. Sequences of cDNAs for SfCHS...

26

Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

PubMed Central

Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB. PMID:24590130

Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

2014-01-01

27

Exposure to diflubenzuron results in an up-regulation of a chitin synthase 1 gene in citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB. PMID:24590130

Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

2014-01-01

28

Different chitin synthase genes are required for various developmental and plant infection processes in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.  

PubMed

Chitin is a major component of fungal cell wall and is synthesized by chitin synthases (Chs). Plant pathogenic fungi normally have multiple chitin synthase genes. To determine their roles in development and pathogenesis, we functionally characterized all seven CHS genes in Magnaporthe oryzae. Three of them, CHS1, CHS6, and CHS7, were found to be important for plant infection. While the chs6 mutant was non-pathogenic, the chs1 and chs7 mutants were significantly reduced in virulence. CHS1 plays a specific role in conidiogenesis, an essential step for natural infection cycle. Most of chs1 conidia had no septum and spore tip mucilage. The chs6 mutant was reduced in hyphal growth and conidiation. It failed to penetrate and grow invasively in plant cells. The two MMD-containing chitin synthase genes, CHS5 and CHS6, have a similar expression pattern. Although deletion of CHS5 had no detectable phenotype, the chs5 chs6 double mutant had more severe defects than the chs6 mutant, indicating that they may have overlapping functions in maintaining polarized growth in vegetative and invasive hyphae. Unlike the other CHS genes, CHS7 has a unique function in appressorium formation. Although it was blocked in appressorium formation by germ tubes on artificial hydrophobic surfaces, the chs7 mutant still produced melanized appressoria by hyphal tips or on plant surfaces, indicating that chitin synthase genes have distinct impacts on appressorium formation by hyphal tip and germ tube. The chs7 mutant also was defective in appressorium penetration and invasive growth. Overall, our results indicate that individual CHS genes play diverse roles in hyphal growth, conidiogenesis, appressorium development, and pathogenesis in M. oryzae, and provided potential new leads in the control of this devastating pathogen by targeting specific chitin synthases. PMID:22346755

Kong, Ling-An; Yang, Jun; Li, Guo-Tian; Qi, Lin-Lu; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Chen-Fang; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Xu, Jin-Rong; Peng, You-Liang

2012-02-01

29

ChsVb, a Class VII Chitin Synthase Involved in Septation, Is Critical for Pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum? †  

PubMed Central

A new myosin motor-like chitin synthase gene, chsVb, has been identified in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the chsVb chitin synthase 2 domain (CS2) revealed that ChsVb belongs to class VII chitin synthases. The ChsVb myosin motor-like domain (MMD) is shorter than the MMD of class V chitin synthases and does not contain typical ATP-binding motifs. Targeted disrupted single (?chsVb) and double (?chsV ?chsVb) mutants were unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. These strains were hypersensitive to compounds that interfere with fungal cell wall assembly, produced lemon-like shaped conidia, and showed swollen balloon-like structures in hyphal subapical regions, thickened walls, aberrant septa, and intrahyphal hyphae. Our results suggest that the chsVb gene is likely to function in polarized growth and confirm the critical importance of cell wall integrity in the complex infection process of this fungus. PMID:17993572

Martín-Urdíroz, Magdalena; Roncero, M. Isabel G.; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen

2008-01-01

30

Cloning and sequence analysis of chitin synthase gene fragments of Demodex mites*  

PubMed Central

To our knowledge, few reports on Demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present. In this study our group, for the first time, cloned, sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (CHS) gene fragments of Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from Xi’an China, by designing specific primers based on the only partial sequence of the CHS gene of D. canis from Japan, retrieved from GenBank. Results show that amplification was successful only in three D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate out of the nine Demodex isolates. The obtained fragments were sequenced to be 339 bp for D. canis and 338 bp for D. brevis. The CHS gene sequence similarities between the three Xi’an D. canis isolates and one Japanese D. canis isolate ranged from 99.7% to 100.0%, and those between four D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate were 99.1%–99.4%. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods shared the same clusters, according with the traditional classification. Two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in each CHS gene sequenced, and their corresponding amino acid sequences were located at the catalytic domain. The relatively conserved sequences could be deduced to be a CHS class A gene, which is associated with chitin synthesis in the integument of Demodex mites. PMID:23024043

Zhao, Ya-e; Wang, Zheng-hang; Xu, Yang; Xu, Ji-ru; Liu, Wen-yan; Wei, Meng; Wang, Chu-ying

2012-01-01

31

Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase BcChsVI is required for normal growth and pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Fungal chitin synthase of classes V and VI (or VII), which contain an additional N-terminal myosin motor domain, have been shown to play important roles in pathogenesis. To study the function of BcChsVI in Botrytis cinerea, BcChs6 gene was disrupted through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The Bcchs6 disruption mutant exhibited a 45.5 % increasing in its chitin content when compared with wild strain. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that in Bcchs6 mutant the expression of BcChs6 was significantly decreased, while the expression of BcChs2 and BcChs3a was increased when compared with wild type. It is probable that the disruption of this gene provoked a compensatory mechanism regulating the cellular response to cell wall damage. Interestingly, the radial growth of Bcchs6 mutant was drastically reduced when 50 % solute was removed from the regular PDA medium, and they were more sensitive to Calcofluor white and other cell wall disturbing chemicals. Pathogenicity assays on tomato leaves indicated that they were significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease. Our results demonstrated that BcChs6 is necessary for proper hyphal growth and pathogenicity of B. cinerea on tomato leaves. PMID:23722656

Cui, Zhifeng; Wang, Yanhua; Lei, Na; Wang, Kun; Zhu, Tingheng

2013-08-01

32

THE EFFECT OF AN INSECT CHITIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITOR ON HONEY BEES  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF AN INSECT CHITIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITOR ON HONEY BEES E.W. HERBERT, Jr. R.J. ARGAUER * H-flying colonies of honey bees. Brood rearing was temporarily terminated for a period of 2-3 weeks depending brood cells containing older larvae or pupae. INTRODUCTION The Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

Bait matrix for delivery of chitin synthesis inhibitors to the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

The efficacy of three chitin synthesis inhibitors, diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and chlorfluazuron, incorporated into a novel bait matrix to kill the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was evaluated in the laboratory. The bait matrix was significantly preferred by C. formosanus over southern yellow pine wood in a two-choice feeding test. Bait formulations containing 250 ppm of the three chitin synthesis inhibitors were presented to termite nests with 2,500 individuals (80% workers and 20% soldiers) in the presence of alternative food sources consisting of cardboard and southern yellow pine, Pinus taeda L., wood. None of the bait formulations were significantly repellent or feeding deterrent to the termite workers evidenced by the lack of full consumption of alternative food sources. All nests presented with the bait formulations died within 9 wk, whereas the control nests (bait with no chitin synthesis inhibitors) remained alive 6 mo after the end of the study. No significant differences in consumption were observed among the chitin synthesis inhibitor treatments. Importance of this study for the improvement of current bait technology is discussed. PMID:11332846

Rojas, M G; Morales-Ramos, J A

2001-04-01

34

Cyst Wall Biosynthesis Inhibitors: Discovery of a New Class of Anti-giardia Agents Dae-Hwan Suk,a  

E-print Network

protozoal cyst walls are composed of chitin or a chitin like substance Giardia: -1-3-linked poly(N-acetylgalactosamine) [poly(GalNAc)] Entamoeba: chitin Enzyme activity in Giardia termed cyst wall synthase has been described3 An inhibitor of cyst wall synthesis is likely to be a broad spectrum anti-protozoal agent Chitin

Thomas, David D.

35

EFFECTS OF 3 CHITIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS ON EGG VIABILITY AND SURVIVAL OF COPTOTERMES FORMOSANUS, (ISOPTERA: RHINOTERMITIDAE) INCIPIENT REPRODUCTIVE ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI), hexaflumuron, diflubenzuron, and lufenuron, on Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki reproductives were studied in the laboratory. Incipient colonies were established by collecting and pairing C. formosanus alates and placing them in dishes containing an ar...

36

Ovicidal activity of chitin synthesis inhibitors when fed to adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).  

PubMed

Ovicidal activity was observed in four adult groups (virgin males; virgin females; newly gravid females; and inseminated, reproducing females) of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, hexafluron, and UC 84572 (structure not disclosed) at the LC50's and LC95's determined from fifth-stage nymphs. All compounds were active only when fed to reproducing females (including the feeding period in which the ootheca is developing). Hexafluron and triflumuron at the LC50 caused 100% inhibition of hatch in reproducing females. Chlorfluazuron and UC 84572 at the LC50 had similar ovicidal activity (45.8 and 50.0% hatch, respectively). Female German cockroaches fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors before mating and after the ootheca had protruded from the abdomen were not affected. Reproductive capabilities of males were not affected, and males did not effectively transfer the compounds to untreated females during mating. PMID:2388230

DeMark, J J; Bennett, G W

1990-07-01

37

Undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors: antibacterial drug leads.  

PubMed

There is a significant need for new antibiotics due to the rise in drug resistance. Drugs such as methicillin and vancomycin target bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, but methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) have now arisen and are of major concern. Inhibitors acting on new targets in cell wall biosynthesis are thus of particular interest since they might also restore sensitivity to existing drugs, and the cis-prenyl transferase undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), essential for lipid I, lipid II, and thus, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, is one such target. We used 12 UPPS crystal structures to validate virtual screening models and then assayed 100 virtual hits (from 450,000 compounds) against UPPS from S. aureus and Escherichia coli. The most promising inhibitors (IC50 ?2 ?M, Ki ?300 nM) had activity against MRSA, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus sp. with MIC or IC50 values in the 0.25-4 ?g/mL range. Moreover, one compound (1), a rhodanine with close structural similarity to the commercial diabetes drug epalrestat, exhibited good activity as well as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.1 with methicillin against the community-acquired MRSA USA300 strain, indicating strong synergism. PMID:24827744

Sinko, William; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yonghui; Feixas, Ferran; Cox, Courtney L; Mitchell, Douglas A; Oldfield, Eric; McCammon, J Andrew

2014-07-10

38

Discovery of DF-461, a Potent Squalene Synthase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a new trifluoromethyltriazolobenzoxazepine series of squalene synthase inhibitors. Structure–activity studies and pharmacokinetics optimization on this series led to the identification of compound 23 (DF-461), which exhibited potent squalene synthase inhibitory activity, high hepatic selectivity, excellent rat hepatic cholesterol synthesis inhibitory activity, and plasma lipid lowering efficacy in nonrodent repeated dose studies. PMID:24900587

2013-01-01

39

Physiological significance of alternatively spliced exon combinations of the single-copy gene class A chitin synthase in the insect Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

Insect chitin synthase is an essential enzyme involved in chitin biosynthesis in insects. Chitin synthase A (CHSA) is expressed in different insect tissues during different developmental stages. CHSA contains alternative-splicing exons that allow tissue- and development-specific chitin synthesis. Here, we report that OfCHSA from the lepidopteran Ostrinia furnacalis contains two alternative-splicing exons, exons 2a and 2b and exons 19a and 19b. Although four combinations of these exons are theoretically possible, we found that transcripts containing exon 2a were dominant during most developmental stages, including embryonic development, larval-larval moulting, the larval-pupal transition and pupal-adult metamorphosis. Unexpectedly, 2b-containing transcripts were much more responsive to 20-hydroxyecdysone regulation than 2a-containing ones, suggesting that although OfCHSA isoforms encoded by 2b-containing transcripts are normally expressed at very low levels, they play unique roles. Spliced exons 2a and 2b have also been observed in Bombyx mori; therefore, this work provides new insights into the regulation of insect chitin synthase, particularly in lepidopteran insects. PMID:22607200

Qu, M; Yang, Q

2012-08-01

40

Laboratory Evaluation of Five Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors Against the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

PubMed Central

Results of laboratory experiments are reported that tested the effects of five chitin synthesis inhibitors, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron. on second instars of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Crysomelidae), originally collected from potato fields of Bostanabaad, a town 66 km southeast of Tabriz, Iran. In bioassays, the larvae were fed potato leaves dipped in aqueous solutions containing chitin synthesis inhibitors. The mortalities and abnormalities of the treated larvae were recorded 72 hours after treatments. LC50 values were 58.6, 69.6, 27.3, 0.79 and 81.4 mg ai/ L for diflubenzuron, cyromazine, lufenuron, hexaflumuron and triflumuron, respectively. Compared with phosalone, which is one of the common insecticides used for controlling this pest in Iran, lufenuron and hexaflumuron seem to be much more potent, and if they perform equally well in the field, they would be suitable candidates to be considered as reduced risk insecticides in management programs for L. decemlineata due to much wider margin of safety for mammals and considerably fewer undesirable environmental side effects. PMID:20345285

Karimzadeh, R.; Hejazi, M. J.; Rahimzadeh Khoei, F.; Moghaddam, M.

2007-01-01

41

A Structural and Biochemical Model of Processive Chitin Synthesis*  

PubMed Central

Chitin synthases (CHS) produce chitin, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. The molecular mechanism of processive chitin synthesis is not understood, limiting the discovery of new inhibitors of this enzyme class. We identified the bacterial glycosyltransferase NodC as an appropriate model system to study the general structure and reaction mechanism of CHS. A high throughput screening-compatible novel assay demonstrates that a known inhibitor of fungal CHS also inhibit NodC. A structural model of NodC, on the basis of the recently published BcsA cellulose synthase structure, enabled probing of the catalytic mechanism by mutagenesis, demonstrating the essential roles of the DD and QXXRW catalytic motifs. The NodC membrane topology was mapped, validating the structural model. Together, these approaches give insight into the CHS structure and mechanism and provide a platform for the discovery of inhibitors for this antifungal target. PMID:24942743

Dorfmueller, Helge C.; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; Borodkin, Vladimir S.; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

2014-01-01

42

Effects of four chitin synthesis inhibitors on feeding and mortality of the Eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae)  

E-print Network

This study measured changes in feeding and mortality of the Eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes when exposed to diets treated with one of four chitin synthesis inhibitors including; diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron...

Vahabzadeh, Rebecca D.

2002-01-01

43

Chitin synthase-deficient mutant of Fusarium oxysporum elicits tomato plant defence response and protects against wild-type infection.  

PubMed

A mutant of the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, deficient in class V chitin synthase, has been shown previously to be nonvirulent. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of its avirulence could be the elicitation of the induced plant defence response, leading to the restriction of fungal infection. Co-inoculation of tomato plants with the wild-type strain and the DeltachsV mutant resulted in a significant reduction in symptom development, supporting a protective mechanism exerted by the mutant. The ability of the mutant to penetrate and colonize plant tissues was determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as fluorescence microscopy using green fluorescent protein- or cherry fluorescent protein-labelled fungal strains. The extent of wild-type strain colonization in co-inoculated plants decreased steadily throughout the infection process, as shown by the quantification of fungal biomass using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The hypothesis that defence responses are activated by the DeltachsV mutant was confirmed by the analysis of plant pathogenesis-related genes using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tomato plants inoculated with the DeltachsV mutant showed a three fold increase in endochitinase activity in comparison with wild-type inoculated plants. Taken together, these results suggest that the perturbation of fungal cell wall biosynthesis results in elicitation of the plant defence response during the infection process. PMID:20618706

Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Martín-Urdíroz, Magdalena; Roncero, María Isabel González; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roldán, María Del Carmen Ruiz

2010-07-01

44

Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) plants putatively resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors were identified in a Wisconsin USA no-tillage soybean (Glycine max) field in 1999. Resistance to imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicides was characterized at the whole-plant level and enzyme level. Three- to four-leaf stage green foxtail plants were 1020, 53, and 6.5-fold resistant to imazethapyr, imazamox, and nicosulfuron, respec- tively,

Dean S. Volenberg; David E. Stoltenberg; Chris M. Boerboom

45

Inhibitors of glycogen synthase 3 kinase  

DOEpatents

Compounds of formula 1: ##STR00001## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, or heteroaralkyl, substituted with 0 3 substituents selected from lower alkyl, halo, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, amino, lower alkyl-amino, and nitro; R.sub.2 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy; R.sub.3 is H, lower alkyl, lower acyl, lower alkoxy-acyl, or amino-acyl; R.sub.4 is H or lower alkyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; are effective inhibitors of GSK3.

Schultz, Peter; Ring, David B.; Harrison, Stephen D.; Bray, Andrew M.

2006-05-30

46

Inhibitors of glycogen synthase 3 kinase  

DOEpatents

Compounds of formula 1: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, or heteroaralkyl, substituted with 0-3 substituents selected from lower alkyl, halo, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, amino, lower alkyl-amino, and nitro; R.sub.2 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy; R.sub.3 is H, lower alkyl, lower acyl, lower alkoxy-acyl, or amnino-acyl; R.sub.4 is H or lower alkyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; are effective inhibitors of GSK3.

Schultz, Peter (Oakland, CA); Ring, David B. (Palo Alto, CA); Harrison, Stephen D. (Berkeley, CA); Bray, Andrew M. (Victoria, AU)

2000-01-01

47

Note: Transovarial activity of the chitin synthesis inhibitor novaluron on egg hatch and subsequent development of larvae of Tribolium castaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI) novaluron on egg hatch and on larval development ofTribolium castaneum (Herbst) concentrations of 1.0, 0.3, 0.2 or 0.1 ppm were tested. The effect of novaluron at low concentrations depended strongly\\u000a on the exposure period. At 0.3 ppm, egg hatch ofT. castaneum was totally inhibited after 28 days; at 0.2 ppm the effect

A. Trostanetsky; M. Kostyukovsky

2008-01-01

48

Efficacy of chitin synthesis inhibitors on nymphal German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).  

PubMed

Second- and fifth-instar Blattella germanica (L.), fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, hexafluron, and UC 84572 (structure not disclosed) were examined for mortality and developmental abnormalities. All compounds were active against B. germanica (L.), with lower diet concentrations being required to kill second instars compared with fifth instars. Chlorfluazuron was significantly more active against second and fifth instars (LC50 = 0.000191 and 0.000363% AI, respectively for the second and fifth instars). UC 84572 also killed nymphs at extremely low concentrations (LC50 = 0.000508 and 0.000754% AI, respectively, for second and fifth instars). LC50's for hexafluron and triflumuron against fifth instars were more than 1,000 times higher than that for chlorfluazuron. Sensitive periods of exposure were determined by comparing effects when four different age classes of fifth instars (1-, 4-, 7-, and 10-d old) fed on the compounds for 3 d. Triflumuron was most effective when ingested during the first three age classes and hexafluron was most effective during the last three age classes. Chlorfluazuron and UC 84572 were most effective when ingested during the second age class (days 4-6). Adults surviving exposure during the fifth instar were often deformed and weak; they died at a greater rate than the controls. However, most surviving adults were able to reproduce normally. PMID:2607029

DeMark, J J; Bennett, G W

1989-12-01

49

Evaluation of Two Formulated Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors, Hexaflumuron and Lufenuron Against the Raisin Moth, Ephestia figulilella  

PubMed Central

The raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella Gregson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, and causes severe quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. The larvae attack various drying and dried fruits, fallen figs, and damaged or moldy clusters of grapes on vines. Control of this pest in storage depends mostly on synthetic pesticides with several adverse side effects. To mitigate the adverse effects of these pesticides, investigations have focused on the development of compounds with more selectivity, and short residual life. In this research, insecticidal effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, were investigated against E. figulilella. Graded concentrations of each pesticide were prepared with distilled water. One-day-old fifth instar were sprayed by Potter's precision spray tower. Application of hexaflumuron and lufenuron on last instar larvae of E. figulilella caused not only mortality in larval stage, but also caused defects in pupal and adult stages. Larval mortality increased as concentration increased. The longevity of the fifth instars in both hexaflumuron and lufenuron treatments, in comparison with the controls, increased by more than 12 days. The longevity of adults decreased by about 10 days. Probit analysis data revealed that the sensitivity of the test insect to hexaflumuron (EC50 = 95.38 ppm) was greater than lufenuron (EC50= 379.21 ppm). PMID:23425138

Khajepour, Simin; Izadi, Hamzeh; Asari, Mohammad Javad

2012-01-01

50

Aldosterone synthase inhibitors in hypertension: current status and future possibilities  

PubMed Central

The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system is a critical mechanism for controlling blood pressure, and exerts most of its physiological effects through the action of angiotensin II. In addition to increasing blood pressure by increasing vascular resistance, angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal gland. Aldosterone acts to cause an increase in sodium and water reabsorption, thus elevating blood pressure. Although treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors initially lowers circulating aldosterone, with chronic treatment aldosterone levels increase back to baseline, a phenomenon termed aldosterone escape; aldosterone blockade may therefore give added value in the treatment of hypertension. The first mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist developed was spironolactone, but its use has been severely hampered by adverse (notably oestrogenic) effects. The more recently developed mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone exhibits a better adverse effect profile, although it is not devoid of effects similar to spironolactone. In addition, aldosterone activates non-genomic receptors that are not inhibited by either eplerenone or spironolactone. It is believed that deleterious organ remodelling is mediated by aldosterone via such non-genomic pathways. A new class of drugs, the aldosterone synthase inhibitors, is currently under development. These may offer a novel therapeutic approach for both lowering blood pressure and preventing the non-genomic effects of aldosterone. Here, we will review the cardiovascular effects of aldosterone and review the drugs available that target this hormone, with a particular focus on the aldosterone synthase inhibitors. PMID:24570839

Hargovan, Milan

2014-01-01

51

Structure-Based Discovery of Inhibitors of Thymidylate Synthase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular docking computer program (DOCK) was used to screen the Fine Chemical Directory, a database of commercially available compounds, for molecules that are complementary to thymidylate synthase (TS), a chemotherapeutic target. Besides retrieving the substrate and several known inhibitors, DOCK proposed putative inhibitors previously unknown to bind to the enzyme. Three of these compounds inhibited Lactobacillus caser TS at submillimolar concentrations. One of these inhibitors, sulisobenzone, crystallized with TS in two configurations that differed from the DOCK-favored geometry: a counterion was bound in the substrate site, which resulted in a 6 to 9 angstrom displacement of the inhibitor. The structure of the complexes suggested another binding region in the active site that could be exploited. This region was probed with molecules sterically similar to sulisobenzone, which led to the identification of a family of phenolphthalein analogs that inhibit TS in the 1 to 30 micromolar range. These inhibitors do not resemble the substrates of the enzyme. A crystal structure of phenolphthalein with TS shows that it binds in the target site in a configuration that resembles the one suggested by DOCK.

Shoichet, Brian K.; Stroud, Robert M.; Santi, Daniel V.; Kuntz, Irwin D.; Perry, Kathy M.

1993-03-01

52

Chitin or Chitin-like Glycans as Targets for Late-term Cancer Chemoprevention  

PubMed Central

A consistent observation in studies of carcinogenesis is that some glycans are expressed differently in cancer cells than in normal cells. A well-known example is the aberrant ?1-6 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine branching associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in many cancers. This commentary proposes that, although not found in normal mammalian cells, a chitin (?-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) or a chitin-like polysaccharide (e.g. hyaluronan) may exist as a cancer-associated glycan, which can be targeted by the novel pyrimidine nucleotide derivative SP-1015 (designed as a chitin synthase inhibitor). Preliminary chemoprevention data of our group showed SP-1015 in the diet can inhibit benzo(a)pyrene-induced neoplasia in the forestomach of female A/J mice, and of importance, this activity occurred at late stages in carcinogenesis. While no effect was seen in the murine lung, this may be due to the low bioavailability of the compound. A different route of administration (e.g. inhalation of an aerosol) may have potential to inhibit pulmonary carcinogenesis. We hypothesize that inhibitors of chitin or chitin-like glycan formation may be effective chemopreventive agents and suggest that further work is needed to study these novel targets for cancer prevention. PMID:21149328

Wattenberg, Lee W.; Patterson, Steven; Antonides, Jennifer D.

2010-01-01

53

Inhibitors to Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases: Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Implications  

PubMed Central

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) catalyze the formation of biodegradable PHAs that are considered as an ideal alternative to nonbiodegradable synthetic plastics. However, study of PhaC has been challenging because the rate of PHA chain elongation is much faster than that of initiation. This difficulty along with lack of a structure has become the main hurdle to understand and engineer PhaCs for economical PHA production. Here we reported the synthesis of two carbadethia CoA analogs, sT-CH2-CoA 26a and sTet-CH2-CoA 26b as well as sT-aldehyde 29 as new PhaC inhibitors. Study of these analogs with PhaECAv revealed that 26a/b and 29 are competitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. It was observed that CoA moiety and PHA chain extension can increase binding affinity, which is consistent with the docking study. Estimation from Kic of 26a/b predicts that a CoA analog attached with an octameric-HB chain may facilitate the formation of a kinetically well-behaved synthase. PMID:25394180

Cao, Ruikai; Maurmann, Leila; Li, Ping

2015-01-01

54

Inhibitors of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases: synthesis, molecular docking, and implications.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) catalyze the formation of biodegradable PHAs that are considered to be ideal alternatives to non-biodegradable synthetic plastics. However, study of PhaCs has been challenging because the rate of PHA chain elongation is much faster than that of initiation. This difficulty, along with lack of a crystal structure, has become the main hurdle to understanding and engineering PhaCs for economical PHA production. Here we report the synthesis of two carbadethia CoA analogues--sT-CH2-CoA (26 a) and sTet-CH2-CoA (26 b)--as well as sT-aldehyde (saturated trimer aldehyde, 29), as new PhaC inhibitors. Study of these analogues with PhaECAv revealed that 26 a/b and 29 are competitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Both the CoA moiety and extension of PHA chain will increase binding affinity; this is consistent with our docking study. Estimation of the Kic values of 26 a and 26 b predicts that a CoA analogue incorporating an octameric hydroxybutanoate (HB) chain might facilitate the formation of a kinetically well-behaved synthase. PMID:25394180

Zhang, Wei; Chen, Chao; Cao, Ruikai; Maurmann, Leila; Li, Ping

2015-01-01

55

Glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors differentially affect expression of glycosphingolipids.  

PubMed

Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of glucosylceramide (GlcCer)-related glycosphingolipids (GSLs). Although inhibitors of GCS, PPMP and PDMP have been widely used to elucidate their biological function and relevance, our comprehensive literature review revealed that the available data are ambiguous. We therefore investigated whether and to what extent GCS inhibitors affect the expression of lactosylceramide (LacCer), neolacto (nLc4 and P1), ganglio (GM1 and GD3) and globo (Gb3 and SSEA3) series GSLs in a panel of human cancer cell lines using flow cytometry, a commonly applied method investigating cell-surface GSLs after GCS inhibition. Their cell-surface GSL expression considerably varied among cell lines and more importantly, sublethal concentrations (IC10) of both inhibitors preferentially and significantly reduced the expression of Gb3 in the cancer cell lines IGROV1, BG1, HT29 and T47D, whereas SSEA3 was only reduced in BG1. Unexpectedly, the neolacto and ganglio series was not affected. LacCer, the precursor of all GlcCer-related GSL, was significantly reduced only in BG1 cells treated with PPMP. Future research questions addressing particular GSLs require careful consideration; our results indicate that the extent to which there is a decrease in the expression of one or more particular GSLs is dependent on the cell line under investigation, the type of GCS inhibitor and exposure duration. PMID:25715344

Alam, Shahidul; Fedier, André; Kohler, Reto S; Jacob, Francis

2015-04-01

56

Disruption of the Bcchs3a chitin synthase gene in Botrytis cinerea is responsible for altered adhesion and overstimulation of host plant immunity.  

PubMed

The fungal cell wall is a dynamic structure that protects the cell from different environmental stresses suggesting that wall synthesizing enzymes are of great importance for fungal virulence. Previously, we reported the isolation and characterization of a mutant in class III chitin synthase, Bcchs3a, in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. We demonstrated that virulence of this mutant is severely impaired. Here, we describe the virulence phenotype of the cell-wall mutant Bcchs3a on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and analyze its virulence properties, using a variety of A. thaliana mutants. We found that mutant Bcchs3a is virulent on pad2 and pad3 mutant leaves defective in camalexin. Mutant Bcchs3a was not more susceptible towards camalexin than the wild-type strain but induced phytoalexin accumulation at the infection site on Col-0 plants. Moreover, this increase in camalexin was correlated with overexpression of the PAD3 gene observed as early as 18 h postinoculation. The infection process of the mutant mycelium was always delayed by 48 h, even on pad3 plants, probably because of lack of mycelium adhesion. No loss in virulence was found when Bcchs3a conidia were used as the inoculum source. Collectively, these data led us to assign a critical role to the BcCHS3a chitin synthase isoform, both in fungal virulence and plant defense response. PMID:20672878

Arbelet, Delphine; Malfatti, Pierrette; Simond-Côte, Elizabeth; Fontaine, Thierry; Desquilbet, Loïc; Expert, Dominique; Kunz, Caroline; Soulié, Marie-Christine

2010-10-01

57

Cell Wall Polysaccharide Synthases Are Located in Detergent-Resistant Membrane Microdomains in Oomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathways responsible for cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis are vital in eukaryotic microorganisms. The corresponding synthases are potential targets of inhibitors such as fungicides. Despite their fundamental and economical importance, most polysaccharide synthases are not well characterized, and their molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. With the example of Saprolegnia monoica as a model organism, we show that chitin and (133)--D-glucan

Anne Briolay; Jamel Bouzenzana; Michel Guichardant; Christian Deshayes; Nicolas Sindt; Laurence Bessueille; Vincent Bulone

2009-01-01

58

Synthesis in vitro of crystalline chitin by a solubilized enzyme from the cellulosic fungus Saprolegnia monoica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enriched preparations of chitin synthase were obtained from cell homogenates from Supvolegnia monoica. Chitin synthase was solubilized from a mixed membrane fraction by two successive digitonin treatments. Glycerol gradient centrifugation of the solubilized proteins separated the chitin synthase activity from the majority of proteins and from 8-1,3 and p-1,4 glucan synthases. The properties of chitin synthase from this Oomycete fungus

L. Gay; H. Chanzy; V. Bulone; V. Girard; M. Fevre

1993-01-01

59

Stimulation of Chitin Synthesis Rescues Candida albicans from Echinocandins  

PubMed Central

Echinocandins are a new generation of novel antifungal agent that inhibit cell wall ?(1,3)-glucan synthesis and are normally cidal for the human pathogen Candida albicans. Treatment of C. albicans with low levels of echinocandins stimulated chitin synthase (CHS) gene expression, increased Chs activity, elevated chitin content and reduced efficacy of these drugs. Elevation of chitin synthesis was mediated via the PKC, HOG, and Ca2+-calcineurin signalling pathways. Stimulation of Chs2p and Chs8p by activators of these pathways enabled cells to survive otherwise lethal concentrations of echinocandins, even in the absence of Chs3p and the normally essential Chs1p, which synthesize the chitinous septal ring and primary septum of the fungus. Under such conditions, a novel proximally offset septum was synthesized that restored the capacity for cell division, sustained the viability of the cell, and abrogated morphological and growth defects associated with echinocandin treatment and the chs mutations. These findings anticipate potential resistance mechanisms to echinocandins. However, echinocandins and chitin synthase inhibitors synergized strongly, highlighting the potential for combination therapies with greatly enhanced cidal activity. PMID:18389063

de Bruijn, Irene; Lenardon, Megan D.; McKinnon, Alastair; Gow, Neil A. R.

2008-01-01

60

Isolation and structural determination of squalene synthase inhibitor from Prunus mume fruit.  

PubMed

Squalene synthase plays an important role in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Inhibiting this enzyme in hypercholesterolemia can lower not only plasma cholesterol but also plasma triglyceride levels. A squalene synthase inhibitor was screened from Prunus mume fruit, and then purified via sequential processes of ethanol extraction, HP-20 column chromatography, ethyl acetate extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and crystallization. The squalene synthase inhibitor was identified as chlorogenic acid with a molecular mass of 354 Da and a molecular formula of C16H18O9 based on UV spectrophotometry, 1H and 13C NMRs, and mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid inhibited the squalene synthase of pig liver with an IC50 level of 100 nM. Since chlorogenic acid was an effective inhibitor against the squalene synthase of an animal source, it may be a potential therapeutic agent for hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18167444

Choi, Sung-Won; Hur, Nam-Yoon; Ahn, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Seob; Lee, Jae-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Ok; Park, Seung-Kook; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

2007-12-01

61

Sensitivity of Aspergillus nidulans to the Cellulose Synthase Inhibitor Dichlobenil: Insights from Wall-Related Genes’ Expression and Ultrastructural Hyphal Morphologies  

PubMed Central

The fungal cell wall constitutes an important target for the development of antifungal drugs, because of its central role in morphogenesis, development and determination of fungal-specific molecular features. Fungal walls are characterized by a network of interconnected glycoproteins and polysaccharides, namely ?-, ?-glucans and chitin. Cell walls promptly and dynamically respond to environmental stimuli by a signaling mechanism, which triggers, among other responses, modulations in wall biosynthetic genes’ expression. Despite the absence of cellulose in the wall of the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we found in this study that fungal growth, spore germination and morphology are affected by the addition of the cellulose synthase inhibitor dichlobenil. Expression analysis of selected genes putatively involved in cell wall biosynthesis, carried out at different time points of drug exposure (i.e. 0, 1, 3, 6 and 24 h), revealed increased expression for the putative mixed linkage ?-1,3;1,4 glucan synthase celA together with the ?-1,3-glucan synthase fksA and the Rho-related GTPase rhoA. We also compared these data with the response to Congo Red, a known plant/fungal drug affecting both chitin and cellulose biosynthesis. The two drugs exerted different effects at the cell wall level, as shown by gene expression analysis and the ultrastructural features observed through atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Although the concentration of dichlobenil required to affect growth of A. nidulans is approximately 10-fold higher than that required to inhibit plant cellulose biosynthesis, our work for the first time demonstrates that a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor affects fungal growth, changes fungal morphology and expression of genes connected to fungal cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:24312197

Obersriebnig, Michael; Salerno, Marco; Pum, Dietmar; Strauss, Joseph

2013-01-01

62

Human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase inhibitor complex structures.  

PubMed

In mast and Th2 cells, hematopoietic prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (H-PGDS) catalyses the isomerization of PGH(2) in the presence of glutathione (GSH) to produce the allergic and inflammatory mediator PGD(2). We determined the X-ray structures of human H-PGDS inhibitor complexes with 1-amino-4-{4-[4-chloro-6-(2-sulpho-phenylamino)-[1,3,5]triazin-2-ylmethyl]-3-sulpho-phenylamino}-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-sulphonic acid (Cibacron Blue) and 1-amino-4-(4-aminosulphonyl) phenyl-anthraquinone-2-sulphonic acid (APAS) at 2.0 Å resolution. When complexed with H-PGDS, Cibacron Blue had an IC(50) value of 40 nM and APAS 2.1 ?M. The Cibacron Blue molecule was stabilized by four hydrogen bonds and ?-? stacking between the anthraquinone ring and Trp104, the ceiling of the active site H-PGDS pocket. Among the four hydrogen bonds, the Cibacron Blue terminal sulphonic group directly interacted with conserved residues Lys112 and Lys198, which recognize the PGH(2) substrate ?-chain. In contrast, the APAS anthraquinone ring was inverted to interact with Trp104, while its benzenesulphonic group penetrated the GSH-bound region at the bottom of the active site. Due to the lack of extended aromatic rings, APAS could not directly hydrogen bond with the two conserved lysine residues, thus decreasing the total number of hydrogen bond from four to one. These factors may contribute to the 50-fold difference in the IC(50) values obtained for the two inhibitors. PMID:22418579

Kado, Yuji; Aritake, Kosuke; Uodome, Nobuko; Okano, Yousuke; Okazaki, Nobuo; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Urade, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

2012-04-01

63

Chitin is endogenously produced in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Chitin, a biopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is abundant in invertebrates and fungi and is an important structural molecule [1, 2]. There has been a longstanding belief that vertebrates do not produce chitin; however, we have obtained compelling evidence to the contrary. Chitin synthase genes are present in numerous fishes and amphibians, and chitin is localized in situ to the lumen of the developing zebrafish gut, in epithelial cells of fish scales, and in at least three different cell types in larval salamander appendages. Chitin synthase gene knockdowns and various histochemical experiments in zebrafish further authenticated our results. Finally, a polysaccharide was extracted from scales of salmon that exhibited all the chemical hallmarks of chitin. Our data and analyses demonstrate the existence of endogenous chitin in vertebrates and suggest that it serves multiple roles in vertebrate biology. PMID:25772447

Tang, W Joyce; Fernandez, Javier G; Sohn, Joel J; Amemiya, Chris T

2015-03-30

64

Studies of inositol 1-phosphate analogues as inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate synthase in mycobacteria.  

PubMed

We previously reported a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol in mycobacteria via phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) [Morii H., Ogawa, M., Fukuda, K., Taniguchi, H., and Koga, Y (2010) J. Biochem. 148, 593-602]. PIP synthase in the pathway is a promising target for the development of new anti-mycobacterium drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the characteristics of the PIP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Four types of compounds were chemically synthesized based on the assumption that structural homologues of inositol 1-phosphate, a PIP synthase substrate, would act as PIP synthase inhibitors, and the results confirmed that all synthesized compounds inhibited PIP synthase activity. The phosphonate analogue of inositol 1-phosphate (Ino-C-P) had the greatest inhibitory effect among the synthesized compounds examined. Kinetic analysis indicated that Ino-C-P acted as a competitive inhibitor of inositol 1-phosphate. The IC(50) value for Ino-C-P inhibition of the PIP synthase activity was estimated to be 2.0 mM. Interestingly, Ino-C-P was utilized in the same manner as the normal PIP synthase substrate, leading to the synthesis of a phosphonate analogue of PIP (PI-C-P), which had a structure similar to that of the natural product, PIP. In addition, PI-C-P had high inhibitory activity against PIP synthase. PMID:23225597

Morii, Hiroyuki; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Nomiya, Hiroki; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

2013-03-01

65

SIMULATED FIELD EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF TWO FORMULATIONS OF DIFLUBENZURON, A CHITIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITOR AGAINST LARVAE OF AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN WATER-STORAGE CONTAINERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tablet (40 mg a.i.\\/tablet) and granular (2% a.i.) formulations of diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, insect growth regulator, were evaluated for larvicidal efficacy against the larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.) in water-storage containers under field conditions in Thailand. Each formulation was applied to 200-l clay jars at 5 different dosages (0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg\\/l a.i.). The jars

Usavadee Thavara; Apiwat Tawatsin; Chitti Chansang; Preecha Asavadachanukorn; Morteza Zaim; Mir S Mulla

66

Modulation of Pea Membrane ?-Glucan Synthase Activity by Calcium, Polycation, Endogenous Protease, and Protease Inhibitor 1  

PubMed Central

?-Glucan synthase activity in plant membranes can be markedly altered by a multiplicity of apparently unrelated factors. In pea epicotyl membranes it is enhanced by low and inhibited by high concentrations of added Ca2+, trypsin or soluble pea protease. Ca2+ stimulates preexisting synthase activity, particularly in the presence of polycations (spermidine), but protease treatments activate and, with time, inactivate synthase zymogen. Endogenous pea protease activity is also associated with washed pea membrane and appears to be responsible for the decay observed with time in the ?-glucan synthase activity. Endogenous pea protease activity is inhibited by thiol inhibitors, e.g. iodoacetamide and Hg2+, and by a heat-stable peptide, molecular weight approximately 10,000, that is found in supernatants of pea extracts. These protease inhibitors have the capacity to protect ?-glucan synthase activity from denaturation or its zymogen from activation due to endogenous or added protease activity. Evidence is described which supports the proposal that 1,4-?-glucan synthase is destroyed and possibly converted to 1,3-?-glucan synthase activity by protease action, and that the latter may then be greatly enhanced by Ca2+ and polycations. PMID:16665644

Girard, Vincent; Maclachlan, Gordon

1987-01-01

67

Use of orally administered chitin inhibitor (lufenuron) to control flea vectors of plague on ground squirrels in California.  

PubMed

The efficacy of orally administered lufenuron, a chitin inhibitor, to control fleas on California ground squirrels, Spermophilus beecheyi (Richardson), was evaluated during a 2-yr study in Santa Barbara County, CA. Results demonstrated that use of a host-targeted feed cube containing lufenuron was effective in significantly reducing the burden of Oropsylla montana (Baker) and Hoplopsyllus anomalus (Baker) fleas on ground squirrels. A flea index that indicated a mean number of fleas per squirrel of 10.0 decreased to 1.3 after 2 treatments in season 1, and to 0.7 and 0.2 after the 3rd and 4th treatments, respectively, in season 2. A cost comparison of this new method compared with a traditional reactive, emergency, insecticide-based plague control program demonstrated a cost reduction of approximately 90%. The results of this study indicated that a lufenuron feed cube was an effective, cost-saving, and proactive technique for controlling fleas on California ground squirrels, and thus reducing the risk of disease transmission in plague endemic regions. PMID:10534949

Davis, R M

1999-09-01

68

Behavioral and histological changes in the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) induced by the chitin synthesis inhibitor noviflumuron.  

PubMed

This study describes the behavioral and histological changes of the molting process in Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki caused by the chitin synthesis inhibitor noviflumuron. Termites exposed to noviflumuron initiated ecdysis as untreated individuals did; however, peristalsis contractions were weak and the expansion of the dorsal breach of the exoskeleton did not occur. Treated termites could not complete their molting process and died after the initiation of the ecdysis. Histological observations showed that the process of voiding the gut protozoa during premolting was not affected by the noviflumuron treatment. However, the formation of the new cuticle was disrupted resulting in the loss of integrity of the cuticle. The alteration of the cuticle was visible in the gizzard (foregut), the thoracic pleurons, and most of the exoskeleton. Muscles were partially able to reattach to the incompletely formed new cuticle, and muscle contractions resulted in tearing off the cuticle. Because the integrity of the newly formed cuticle was compromised by the noviflumuron treatment, we concluded that termites' death was caused primarily by the loss of hemolymph as a result of the damage done by the muscle contractions on the exoskeleton during the peristalsis. As the physiological homeostasis was disrupted, termites were too weak to shed their old cuticle, ultimately resulting in termite dying during the molting process. PMID:24772556

Xing, Lin; Chouvenc, Thomas; Su, Nan-Yao

2014-04-01

69

The genetic complexity of chitin synthesis in fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin synthesis is a process maintained across the fungal kingdom that, thanks to the power of genetic manipulation of yeast cells, is now beginning to be understood. Chitin synthesis is based on the regulation of distinct chitin synthase isoenzymes whose number ranges from one in Schizosaccharomyces pombe to seven in some filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus fumigatus. This high diversity

Cesar Roncero

2002-01-01

70

Chloropropionyl-CoA: a mechanism-based inhibitor of HMG-CoA synthase and fatty acid synthase  

SciTech Connect

Recent work on the mechanisms of inactivation of HMG-CoA synthase and fatty acid synthase by chloropropionyl-CoA (Cl-prop-CoA) suggests that this analog is a mechanism-based (suicide) inhibitor; the acyl group is enzymatically converted to an acrylyl derivative prior to alkylation of the target proteins. When Cl-(/sup 3/H)prop-CoA is incubated with the target enzymes, /sup 3/H/sub 2/O is produced concomitantly with enzyme inactivation; this suggests that deprotonation and chloride elimination to form an acrylyl moiety occurs. Difficulty in cleanly synthesizing acrylyl-CoA complicates direct demonstration of the intermediacy of this species. However, synthesis of a functionally equivalent reactive substrate analog, S-acrylyl-N-acetylcysteamine has been accomplished. This analog irreversibly inhibits both HMG-CoA synthase and fatty acid synthase in a site directed fashion. Concentrations required for effective inhibition (K/sub i/ values of 1.9 mM and 3.6 mM, respectively) are much higher than observed with Cl-prop-CoA. Maximal rates of inactivation (as vertical bar ..-->.. infinity) are comparable to those measured with Cl-prop-CoA, indicating that an acrylyl derivative is kinetically competent to function as an intermediate, as required if Cl-prop-CoA is a mechanism-based inhibitor. S-acrylyl-N-acetylcysteamine also inactivates HMG-CoA lyase. In this case, kinetic studies indicate that a bimolecular process is involved (k/sub 2/ = 86.7M/sup -1/min/sup -1/ at 30/sup 0/, pH 7.0).

Miziorko, H.M.; Ahmad, F.; Behnke, C.E.

1986-05-01

71

MULTI-ANALYTE CHEMISTRY METHODS FOR PESTICIDES WHICH ARE ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE (ALS) INHIBITORS IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

A joint EPA/state/industry working group has developed several multi-analyte methods to analyze soils for low ppb (parts per billion) levels of herbicides (such as sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, and sulfonamides) that are acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors and may cause phyto...

72

ECOLOGICAL FITNESS OF ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE INHIBITOR–RESISTANT AND –SUSCEPTIBLE DOWNY BROME (BROMUS TECTORUM) BIOTYPES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted to determine the relative fitness and competitive ability of an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor–resistant (R) downy brome biotype compared with a susceptible (S) biotype. In previous research, the mechanism of resistance was determined to be an altered ALS enzyme. Seed g...

73

DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201100589 Dual Dehydrosqualene/Squalene Synthase Inhibitors: Leads for Innate  

E-print Network

)--while at the same time stimulating host antimicrobial NET formation (Figure 2c). This would represent a novel, dual-targetingDOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201100589 Dual Dehydrosqualene/Squalene Synthase Inhibitors: Leads for Innate Research Council (US) re- port,[1b] these include targeting virulence factors, as well as boosting innate

Nizet, Victor

74

REGULATION OF CHITIN SYNTHESIS IN THE LARVAL MIDGUT OF MANDUCA SEXTA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In insects, chitin is not only synthesized by ectodermal cells that form chitinous cuticles, but also by endodermal cells of the midgut that secrete a chitinous peritrophic matrix. Using anti-chitin synthase (CHS) antibodies, we previously demonstrated that in the midgut of Manduca sexta, CHS is exp...

75

Effect of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Resistance to traditional insecticides represents a threat to the control of disease vectors. The insect growth regulators (IGR) are a potential alternative to control mosquitoes, including resistant populations. The chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) are IGRs, which interfere with the insect molting process and represent one major class of compounds against Aedes aegypti populations resistant to the larvicide organophosphate temephos. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the CSI triflumuron on Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and against several Ae. aegypti field populations. Methods The efficacy of triflumuron, against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus was evaluated with laboratory strains through dose–response assays. Additionaly, this CSI was tested against seven Ae. aegypti field populations exhibiting distinct resistance levels to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Aedes aegypti populations were exposed to both a dose that inhibits 99% of the adult emergence of mosquitoes from the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, (EI99?=?3.95??g/L) and the diagnostic dose (DD), corresponding to twice the EI99. Results Our results indicate that triflumuron was effective in emergence inhibition (EI) of Cx. quinquefasciatus (EI50= 5.28??g/L; EI90= 12.47??g/L) and Ae. albopictus (EI50= 1.59??g/L; EI90= 2.63??g/L). Triflumuron was also effective against seven Ae. aegypti Brazilian populations resistant to both temephos and deltamethrin. Exposure of all the Ae. aegypti populations to the triflumuron EI99 of the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, resulted in complete inhibition of adult emergence, suggesting no cross-resistance among traditional insecticides and this CSI. However, a positive correlation between temephos resistance and tolerance to triflumuron was observed. Conclusion The results suggest that triflumuron represents a potential tool for the control of disease vectors in public health. Nevertheless, they point to the need of constant monitoring of the susceptibility status of vector populations to CSIs. PMID:23557173

2013-01-01

76

Structural and biological studies on bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by bacterial NOS functions as a cytoprotective agent against oxidative stress in Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus subtilis. The screening of several NOS-selective inhibitors uncovered two inhibitors with potential antimicrobial properties. These two compounds impede the growth of B. subtilis under oxidative stress, and crystal structures show that each compound exhibits a unique binding mode. Both compounds serve as excellent leads for the future development of antimicrobials against bacterial NOS-containing bacteria. PMID:24145412

Holden, Jeffrey K.; Li, Huiying; Jing, Qing; Kang, Soosung; Richo, Jerry; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

77

Structural characterization of substrate and inhibitor binding to farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Locus PA4043 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 has been annotated as coding for a farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS). This open reading frame was cloned and expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli. The dimeric enzyme shows farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase activity and is strongly inhibited by ibandronate and zoledronate, drugs that are presently in clinical use. The structures of the unliganded enzyme and complexes with the substrate geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the inhibitor ibandronate and two compounds obtained from a differential scanning fluorimetry-based screen of a fragment library were determined by X-ray crystallography to resolutions of better than 2.0?Å. The enzyme shows the typical ?-helical fold of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthases. The substrate GPP binds in the S1 substrate site in an open conformation of the enzyme. In the enzyme–ibandronate complex three inhibitor molecules are bound in the active site of the enzyme. One inhibitor molecule occupies the allylic substrate site (S1) of each subunit, as observed in complexes of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate inhibitors of farnesyl synthases from other species. Two (in subunit A) and one (in subunit B) additional ibandronate molecules are bound in the active site. The structures of the fragment complexes show two molecules bound in a hydrophobic pocket adjacent to the active site. This allosteric pocket, which has previously only been described for FPPS from eukaryotic organisms, is thus also present in enzymes from pathogenic prokaryotes and might be utilized for the design of inhibitors of bacterial FPPS with a different chemical scaffold to the highly charged bisphosphonates, which are less likely to pass bacterial membranes. PMID:25760619

Schmidberger, Jason W.; Schnell, Robert; Schneider, Gunter

2015-01-01

78

Structural characterization of substrate and inhibitor binding to farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Locus PA4043 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 has been annotated as coding for a farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS). This open reading frame was cloned and expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli. The dimeric enzyme shows farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase activity and is strongly inhibited by ibandronate and zoledronate, drugs that are presently in clinical use. The structures of the unliganded enzyme and complexes with the substrate geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the inhibitor ibandronate and two compounds obtained from a differential scanning fluorimetry-based screen of a fragment library were determined by X-ray crystallography to resolutions of better than 2.0?Å. The enzyme shows the typical ?-helical fold of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthases. The substrate GPP binds in the S1 substrate site in an open conformation of the enzyme. In the enzyme-ibandronate complex three inhibitor molecules are bound in the active site of the enzyme. One inhibitor molecule occupies the allylic substrate site (S1) of each subunit, as observed in complexes of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate inhibitors of farnesyl synthases from other species. Two (in subunit A) and one (in subunit B) additional ibandronate molecules are bound in the active site. The structures of the fragment complexes show two molecules bound in a hydrophobic pocket adjacent to the active site. This allosteric pocket, which has previously only been described for FPPS from eukaryotic organisms, is thus also present in enzymes from pathogenic prokaryotes and might be utilized for the design of inhibitors of bacterial FPPS with a different chemical scaffold to the highly charged bisphosphonates, which are less likely to pass bacterial membranes. PMID:25760619

Schmidberger, Jason W; Schnell, Robert; Schneider, Gunter

2015-03-01

79

P24, a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK 3) inhibitor.  

PubMed

A heat resistant glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK 3) binding protein, p24, that inhibits its kinase activity at a low magnesium concentration (in a way similar to that of lithium) was found in microtubules from adult rat brains. This protein associates with GSK 3 in microtubules and corresponds to one previously described in the literature as p25, although it has a relative molecular weight of 23472. p24 is a poor substrate for GSK 3 but it could be phosphorylated by other protein kinases such as cAMP dependent protein kinase and cdk 5. Since p24 could form complexes with GSK 3, it may not only regulate GSK 3 activity but also it might act as an anchoring protein for the kinase. PMID:11781156

Martín, Concepción Pérez; Vázquez, Jesús; Avila, Jesús; Moreno, Francisco J

2002-01-01

80

Discovery of an Oral Potent Selective Inhibitor of Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D Synthase (HPGDS)  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) is primarly expressed in mast cells, antigen-presenting cells, and Th-2 cells. HPGDS converts PGH2 into PGD2, a mediator thought to play a pivotal role in airway allergy and inflammatory processes. In this letter, we report the discovery of an orally potent and selective inhibitor of HPGDS that reduces the antigen-induced response in allergic sheep. PMID:24900177

2010-01-01

81

Syntheses and herbicidal activity of new triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonamides as acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide, discovered from preparing bioisosteres of the sulfonylurea herbicides, is an important class of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) inhibitors. At least over ten triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilides have been commercialized as herbicides for the control of broadleaf weeds and grass with cereal crop selectivity. Herein, a series of triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilides were designed and synthesized with the aim of discovery of new

Chao-Nan Chen; Qiong Chen; Yu-Chao Liu; Xiao-Lei Zhu; Cong-Wei Niu; Zhen Xi; Guang-Fu Yang

2010-01-01

82

Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors block behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated administration of methamphetamine (1.0 mg\\/kg) once daily for 7 consecutive days resulted in an augmentation of the locomotor-activating effect of methamphetamine (0.5 mg\\/kg) challenged 72 h after the last injection. Administration of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine (10 and 30 mg\\/kg), before daily methamphetamine injections dose dependently prevented the development of behavioral sensitization to subsequent methamphetamine challenge.

Masuo Ohno; Shigenori Watanabe

1995-01-01

83

Identification, mRNA expression, and functional analysis of chitin synthase 1 gene and its two alternative splicing variants in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.  

PubMed

Two alternative splicing variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (BdCHS1) were cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The cDNA of both variants (BdCHS1a and BdCHS1b) consisted of 5,552 nucleotides (nt), with an open reading frame (ORF) of 4,776 nt, encoding a protein of 1,592 amino acid residues, plus 685- and 88-nt of 5'- and 3'-noncoding regions, respectively. The alternative splicing site was located between positions 3,784-3,960 and formed a pair of mutually exclusive exons (a/b) that were same in size (177 nt), but showed only 65% identity at the nucleotide level. During B. dorsalis growth and development, BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a were both mainly expressed during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions, while BdCHS1b was mainly expressed during pupal-adult metamorphosis and in the middle of the pupal stage. BdCHS1a was predominately expressed in the integument whereas BdCHS1b was mainly expressed in the trachea. The 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression of BdCHS1 and its variants. Injection of dsRNA of BdCHS1, BdCHS1a, and BdCHS1b into third-instar larvae significantly reduced the expression levels of the corresponding variants, generated phenotypic defects, and killed most of the treated larvae. Furthermore, silencing of BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a had a similar result in that the larva was trapped in old cuticle and died without tanning completely, while silencing of BdCHS1b has no effect on insect morphology. These results demonstrated that BdCHS1 plays an important role in the larval-pupal transition and the expression of BdCHS1 in B. dorsalis is regulated by 20E. PMID:23569438

Yang, Wen-Jia; Xu, Kang-Kang; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

84

Identification, mRNA Expression, and Functional Analysis of Chitin Synthase 1 Gene and Its Two Alternative Splicing Variants in Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis  

PubMed Central

Two alternative splicing variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (BdCHS1) were cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The cDNA of both variants (BdCHS1a and BdCHS1b) consisted of 5,552 nucleotides (nt), with an open reading frame (ORF) of 4,776 nt, encoding a protein of 1,592 amino acid residues, plus 685- and 88-nt of 5?- and 3?-noncoding regions, respectively. The alternative splicing site was located between positions 3,784-3,960 and formed a pair of mutually exclusive exons (a/b) that were same in size (177 nt), but showed only 65% identity at the nucleotide level. During B. dorsalis growth and development, BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a were both mainly expressed during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions, while BdCHS1b was mainly expressed during pupal-adult metamorphosis and in the middle of the pupal stage. BdCHS1a was predominately expressed in the integument whereas BdCHS1b was mainly expressed in the trachea. The 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression of BdCHS1 and its variants. Injection of dsRNA of BdCHS1, BdCHS1a, and BdCHS1b into third-instar larvae significantly reduced the expression levels of the corresponding variants, generated phenotypic defects, and killed most of the treated larvae. Furthermore, silencing of BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a had a similar result in that the larva was trapped in old cuticle and died without tanning completely, while silencing of BdCHS1b has no effect on insect morphology. These results demonstrated that BdCHS1 plays an important role in the larval-pupal transition and the expression of BdCHS1 in B. dorsalis is regulated by 20E. PMID:23569438

Yang, Wen-Jia; Xu, Kang-Kang; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

85

Effect of a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor on arterial graft patency and platelet deposition in dogs  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the effect of selective thromboxane synthase inhibition and nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibition on vascular graft patency and indium 111-labeled platelet deposition in 35 mongrel dogs undergoing carotid artery replacement with 4 mm X 4 cm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (one side) and Dacron (opposite side) end-to-end grafts. Aspirin-dipyridamole therapy improved one-week graft patency, from 46% in untreated dogs to 93% in treated dogs. Thromboxane synthase inhibition (U-63557A) improved graft patency in these dogs to 81%. Both drug treatments reduced platelet deposition on Dacron and PTFE grafts by 48% to 68% compared with control dogs. Dacron grafts accumulated significantly more platelets than PTFE grafts but had comparable patency rates. Low-dose aspirin therapy had no significant effect on either graft patency or platelet deposition. All treatment groups showed a 60% to 76% reduction in serum thromboxane B2, but only thromboxane synthase inhibitor treatment increased plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha by 100%. Selective thromboxane synthase inhibition improved small-caliber prosthetic graft patency to the same extent as did conventional cyclooxygenase inhibition in this preliminary study.

McDaniel, M.D.; Huntsman, W.T.; Miett, T.O.; Cronenwett, J.L.

1987-08-01

86

Inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 enzyme as emerging anti-inflammatory candidates.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid (AA) into PGH2 that is further metabolized by terminal prostaglandin (PG) synthases into biologically active PGs, for example, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostacyclin I2 (PGI2), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2?). Among them, PGE2 is a widely distributed PG in the human body, and an important mediator of inflammatory processes. The successful modulation of this PG provides a beneficial strategy for the potential anti-inflammatory therapy. For instance, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), both classical nonselective (cNSAIDs) and the selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) attenuate the generation of PGH2 from AA that in turn reduces the synthesis of PGE2 and modifies the inflammatory conditions. However, the long-term use of these agents causes severe side effects due to the nonselective inhibition of other PGs, such as PGI2 and TXA2, etc. Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), a downstream PG synthase, specifically catalyzes the biosynthesis of COX-2-derived PGE2 from PGH2, and describes itself as a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory disease conditions. Therefore, the small molecule inhibitors of mPGES-1 would serve as a beneficial anti-inflammatory therapy, with reduced side effects that are usually associated with the nonselective inhibition of PG biosynthesis. PMID:25019142

Bahia, Malkeet Singh; Katare, Yogesh Kumar; Silakari, Om; Vyas, Bhawna; Silakari, Pragati

2014-07-01

87

ATP Synthase and the Actions of Inhibitors Utilized To Study Its Roles in Human Health, Disease, and Other Scientific Areas  

PubMed Central

Summary: ATP synthase, a double-motor enzyme, plays various roles in the cell, participating not only in ATP synthesis but in ATP hydrolysis-dependent processes and in the regulation of a proton gradient across some membrane-dependent systems. Recent studies of ATP synthase as a potential molecular target for the treatment of some human diseases have displayed promising results, and this enzyme is now emerging as an attractive molecular target for the development of new therapies for a variety of diseases. Significantly, ATP synthase, because of its complex structure, is inhibited by a number of different inhibitors and provides diverse possibilities in the development of new ATP synthase-directed agents. In this review, we classify over 250 natural and synthetic inhibitors of ATP synthase reported to date and present their inhibitory sites and their known or proposed modes of action. The rich source of ATP synthase inhibitors and their known or purported sites of action presented in this review should provide valuable insights into their applications as potential scaffolds for new therapeutics for human and animal diseases as well as for the discovery of new pesticides and herbicides to help protect the world's food supply. Finally, as ATP synthase is now known to consist of two unique nanomotors involved in making ATP from ADP and Pi, the information provided in this review may greatly assist those investigators entering the emerging field of nanotechnology. PMID:19052322

Hong, Sangjin; Pedersen, Peter L.

2008-01-01

88

Antifungal thiopeptide cyclothiazomycin B1 exhibits growth inhibition accompanying morphological changes via binding to fungal cell wall chitin.  

PubMed

Cyclothiazomycin B1 (CTB1) is an antifungal cyclic thiopeptide isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. HA 125-40. CTB1 inhibited the growth of several filamentous fungi including plant pathogens along with swelling of hyphae and spores. The antifungal activity of CTB1 was weakened by hyperosmotic conditions, and hyphae treated with CTB1 burst under hypoosmotic conditions, indicating increased cell wall fragility. CTB1-sensitive fungal species contain high levels of cell wall chitin and/or chitosan. Unlike nikkomycin Z, a competitive inhibitor of chitin synthase (CHS), CTB1 did not inhibit CHS activity. Although CTB1 inhibited CHS biosynthesis, the same result was also obtained with a non-specific proteins inhibitor, cycloheximide, which did not reduce cell wall rigidity. These results indicate that the primary target of CTB1 is not CHS, and we concluded that CTB1 antifungal activity was independent of this sole inhibition. We found that CTB1 bound to chitin but did not bind to ?-glucan and chitosan. The results of the present study suggest that CTB1 induces cell wall fragility by binding to chitin, which forms the fungal cell wall. The antifungal activity of CTB1 could be explained by this chitin-binding ability. PMID:21885289

Mizuhara, Naoko; Kuroda, Manabu; Ogita, Akira; Tanaka, Toshio; Usuki, Yoshinosuke; Fujita, Ken-Ichi

2011-09-15

89

Synthesis and biological evaluation of nonsymmetrical aromatic disulfides as novel inhibitors of acetohydroxyacid synthase.  

PubMed

46 Novel nonsymmetrical aromatic disulfides containing [1,3,4]thiadiazole or [1,3,4]oxadiazole groups were synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated as inhibitors of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 2.2.1.6). Besides their strong in vitro inhibition against plant AHAS, compounds 3e and 3f also display 80-100% post-emergence herbicidal activities in greenhouse bioassay at 1500g /ha dosage. The assay of exogenous branched-chain amino acids supplementation on rape root growth of 3e suggests that the herbicidal activity has relationship with AHAS inhibition. PMID:23726033

Li, Zai-Shun; Wang, Wei-Min; Lu, Wei; Niu, Cong-Wei; Li, Yong-Hong; Li, Zheng-Ming; Wang, Jian-Guo

2013-07-01

90

Anmindenols A and B, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed

Anmindenols A (1) and B (2), inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptomyces sp. Their chemical structures were elucidated by interpreting various spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Anmindenols A and B are sesquiterpenoids possessing an indene moiety with five- and six-membered rings derived from isoprenyl units. The absolute configuration of C-4 in anmindenol B was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of a dimolybdenum complex. Anmindenols A (1) and B (2) inhibited nitric oxide production in stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 23 and 19 ?M, respectively. PMID:24878306

Lee, Jihye; Kim, Hiyoung; Lee, Tae Gu; Yang, Inho; Won, Dong Hwan; Choi, Hyukjae; Nam, Sang-Jip; Kang, Heonjoong

2014-06-27

91

Biological activity of a novel rationally designed lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

AG-331 {N6[4-(N-morpholinosulfonyl)benzyl]-N6-methyl-2,6-diamino-benz[cd]indole glucuronate} is a novel lipophilic thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor. The properties of this compound were investigated in H35 rat hepatoma cells and in three variant cell lines resistant to antifolates by differing mechanisms. There was no evidence for any intracellular effect of AG-331 on dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR); however, the low degree of cross-resistance found for the H35FF line,

Brigid M. O'Connor; Stephanie Webber; Robert C. Jackson; John Galivanl; Myung S. Rhee

1994-01-01

92

Identification of Potent and Selective Glucosylceramide Synthase Inhibitors from a Library of N-Alkylated Iminosugars  

PubMed Central

Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) is an important target for clinical drug development for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders and a promising target for combating type 2 diabetes. Iminosugars are useful leads for the development of GCS inhibitors; however, the effective iminosugar type GCS inhibitors reported have some unwanted cross-reactivity toward other glyco-processing enzymes. In particular, iminosugar type GCS inhibitors often also inhibit to some extent human acid glucosylceramidase (GBA1) and the nonlysosomal glucosylceramidase (GBA2), the two enzymes known to process glucosylceramide. Of these, GBA1 itself is a potential drug target for the treatment of the lysosomal storage disorder, Gaucher disease, and selective GBA1 inhibitors are sought after as potential chemical chaperones. The physiological importance of GBA2 in glucosylceramide processing in relation to disease states is less clear, and here, selective inhibitors can be of use as chemical knockout entities. In this communication, we report our identification of a highly potent and selective N-alkylated l-ido-configured iminosugar. In particular, the selectivity of 27 for GCS over GBA1 is striking. PMID:24900289

2010-01-01

93

Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Human Lung Tumor Xenografts Treated with the Ectopic ATP Synthase Inhibitor Citreoviridin  

PubMed Central

ATP synthase is present on the plasma membrane of several types of cancer cells. Citreoviridin, an ATP synthase inhibitor, selectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of lung cancer without affecting normal cells. However, the global effects of targeting ectopic ATP synthase in vivo have not been well defined. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and provided a comprehensive insight into the complicated regulation by citreoviridin in a lung cancer xenograft model. With high reproducibility of the quantitation, we obtained quantitative proteomic profiling with 2,659 proteins identified. Bioinformatics analysis of the 141 differentially expressed proteins selected by their relative abundance revealed that citreoviridin induces alterations in the expression of glucose metabolism-related enzymes in lung cancer. The up-regulation of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and storage of glucose indicated that citreoviridin may reduce the glycolytic intermediates for macromolecule synthesis and inhibit cell proliferation. Using comprehensive proteomics, the results identify metabolic aspects that help explain the antitumorigenic effect of citreoviridin in lung cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the links between metabolism and tumorigenesis in cancer therapy. PMID:23990911

Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Chia-Wei; Chien, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ju; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

2013-01-01

94

A human fatty acid synthase inhibitor binds ?-ketoacyl reductase in the keto-substrate site.  

PubMed

Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) is a complex, multifunctional enzyme that is solely responsible for the de novo synthesis of long chain fatty acids. hFAS is highly expressed in a number of cancers, with low expression observed in most normal tissues. Although normal tissues tend to obtain fatty acids from the diet, tumor tissues rely on de novo fatty acid synthesis, making hFAS an attractive metabolic target for the treatment of cancer. We describe here the identification of GSK2194069, a potent and specific inhibitor of the ?-ketoacyl reductase (KR) activity of hFAS; the characterization of its enzymatic and cellular mechanism of action; and its inhibition of human tumor cell growth. We also present the design of a new protein construct suitable for crystallography, which resulted in what is to our knowledge the first co-crystal structure of the human KR domain and includes a bound inhibitor. PMID:25086508

Hardwicke, Mary Ann; Rendina, Alan R; Williams, Shawn P; Moore, Michael L; Wang, Liping; Krueger, Julie A; Plant, Ramona N; Totoritis, Rachel D; Zhang, Guofeng; Briand, Jacques; Burkhart, William A; Brown, Kristin K; Parrish, Cynthia A

2014-09-01

95

Localized deposition of chitin on the yeast cell surface in response to mating pheromone.  

PubMed

Treatment of a mating-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with the pheromone alpha-factor (secreted by alpha mating-type cells) induces the synthesis of chitin. Small daughter cells, which start with no detectable chitin, make 3 times more chitin when grown in the presence of alpha-factor than do untreated exponentially growing cells. Budding cells accumulate chitin in the nascent division septum [Cabib, E. & Bowers, B. (1975) J. Bacteriol. 124, 1586), as detected by staining with the fluorescent dye primulin. In the absence of a division septum, alpha-factor-treated cells accumulate chitin in the area of pheromone-stimulated growth. Enzymatic lysis of budding and pheromone-treated cells allows the separation of membrane-bound chitin synthase (UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose: chitin 4-beta-acetamidodeoxyglucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.16) activity from a dense particulate fraction containing chitin. Chitin synthase activity is associated with both the plasma membrane and small intracellular particles. During pheromone treatment, the levels of chitin synthase in the plasma membrane and in intracellular particle fractions increase 11- and 4-fold, respectively. Although chitin synthase is made as zymogen that requires proteolytic activation, the plasma membrane of pheromone-treated cells shows a significant fraction of preactivated enzyme; intracellular membrane-bound synthase is found exclusively in the zymogen form. PMID:16592617

Schekman, R; Brawley, V

1979-02-01

96

Structure of ACC synthase inactivated by the mechanism-based inhibitor L-vinylglycine.  

PubMed

L-Vinylglycine (L-VG) is both a substrate for and a mechanism-based inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase. The ratio of the rate constants for catalytic conversion to alpha-ketobutyrate and ammonia to inactivation is 500/1. The crystal structure of the covalent adduct of the inactivated enzyme was determined at 2.25 Angstroms resolution. The active site contains an external aldimine of the adduct of L-VG with the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor. The side chain gamma-carbon of L-VG is covalently bound to the epsilon-amino group of Lys273. This species corresponds to one of the two alternatives proposed by Feng and Kirsch [Feng, L. and Kirsch, J.F. (2000) L-Vinylglycine is an alternative substrate as well as a mechanism-based inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase. Biochemistry 39, 2436-2444] and presumably results from Michael addition to a vinylglycine ketimine intermediate. PMID:15848188

Capitani, Guido; Tschopp, Markus; Eliot, Andrew C; Kirsch, Jack F; Grütter, Markus G

2005-04-25

97

Chitin Research Revisited  

PubMed Central

Two centuries after the discovery of chitin, it is widely accepted that this biopolymer is an important biomaterial in many aspects. Numerous studies on chitin have focused on its biomedical applications. In this review, various aspects of chitin research including sources, structure, biosynthesis, chitinolytic enzyme, chitin binding protein, genetic engineering approach to produce chitin, chitin and evolution, and a wide range of applications in bio- and nanotechnology will be dealt with. PMID:20714419

Khoushab, Feisal; Yamabhai, Montarop

2010-01-01

98

Conformationally-Restricted Dipeptide Amides as Potent and Selective Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Four new conformationally-restricted analogues of the potent and selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroargininyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyramide (1), have been synthesized. N?-Methyl and N?-benzyl derivatives (3 and 4, respectively) of 4N-(L-ArgNO2)-trans-4-amino-L-prolineamide (2) are also selective inhibitors, but the potency and selectivity of 3 are weak. Analogue 4 has only one-third the potency and one-half to one-third the selectivity of 2 against iNOS and eNOS, respectively. 3-N-(L-ArgNO2)-trans-3-amino-L-prolineamide (6) is as potent an inhibitor of nNOS as is 2; selectivity for nNOS over iNOS is half of that for 2 but the selectivity for nNOS over eNOS is almost double that for 2. The corresponding cis-isomer (5) is a weak inhibitor of nNOS. These results are supported by computer modeling. PMID:17034131

Ji, Haitao; Gómez-Vidal, José A.; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Silverman, Richard B.

2008-01-01

99

Stroke Protection by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)CoA Reductase Inhibitors Mediated by Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of ischemic strokes is limited to prophylactic agents that block the coagulation cascade. Here, we show that cholesterol-lowering agents, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors, protect against cerebral injury by a previously unidentified mechanism involving the selective up-regulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Prophylactic treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors augments cerebral blood flow, reduces cerebral infarct size, and improves neurological

Matthias Endres; Ulrich Laufs; Zhihong Huang; Tadashi Nakamura; Paul Huang; Michael A. Moskowitz; James K. Liao

1998-01-01

100

Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine, a natural inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the change in the plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, in early-, mid-, and late-gestation normotensive pregnancies and in gestational age–matched preeclamptic pregnancies and compared the observed changes with changes in blood pressure. STUDY DESIGN: Blood pressure and peripheral plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations were measured in 20 nonpregnant and 145 pregnant

Desmond P. Holden; Sara A. Fickling; Guy St. J. Whitley; Stephen S. Nussey

1998-01-01

101

Thiolactomycin-based ?-Ketoacyl-AcpM Synthase A (KasA) Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Thiolactomycin (TLM) is a natural product inhibitor of KasA, the ?-ketoacyl synthase A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To improve the affinity of TLM for KasA, a series of TLM analogs have been synthesized based on interligand NOEs between TLM and a pantetheine analog when both are bound simultaneously to the enzyme. Kinetic binding data reveal that position 3 of the thiolactone ring is a suitable position for elaboration of the TLM scaffold, and the structure-activity relationship studies provide information on the molecular features that govern time-dependent inhibition in this enzyme system. These experiments also exemplify the utility of transient one-dimensional NOE spectroscopy for obtaining interligand NOEs compared with traditional steady state two-dimensional NOESY spectroscopy. PMID:23306195

Kapilashrami, Kanishk; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Machutta, Carl A.; Kim, Pilho; Lai, Cheng-Tsung; Simmerling, Carlos; Picart, Francis; Tonge, Peter J.

2013-01-01

102

ELIGLUSTAT TARTRATE: Glucosylceramide Synthase Inhibitor Treatment of Type 1 Gaucher Disease.  

PubMed

Eliglustat tartrate (Genz-112638) is a novel, orally administered agent currently in development for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders, including type 1 Gaucher disease and Fabry disease. This glucosylceramide analogue acts as an inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, a Golgi complex enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glucosylceramide from ceramide and UDP-glucose and is the first step in the formation of glucocerebroside-based glycosphingolipids. Pre-clinical pharmacological studies demonstrate that the agent has a high therapeutic index, excellent oral bioavailability and limited toxicity. Phase I studies in healthy volunteers revealed limited toxicity with an excellent pharmacodynamic response, as measured by decreased plasma glucosylceramide concentrations. Phase II studies in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease have demonstrated promising clinical responses, as measured by decreases in spleen size, improvement in hemoglobin concentrations and increased platelet counts. Two randomized phase III trials testing the efficacy and safety of eliglustat tartrate are currently in progress. PMID:22563139

Shayman, J A

2010-08-01

103

Evaluation of deoxyhypusine synthase inhibitors targeting BCR-ABL positive leukemias.  

PubMed

Effective inhibition of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase activity with Imatinib represents a breakthrough in the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, more than 30 % of patients with CML in chronic phase do not respond adequately to Imatinib and the drug seems not to affect the quiescent pool of BCR-ABL positive leukemic stem and progenitor cells. Therefore, despite encouraging clinical results, Imatinib can still not be considered a curative treatment option in CML. We recently reported downregulation of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) in Imatinib treated K562 cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of eIF5A by siRNA in combination with Imatinib has been shown to exert synergistic cytotoxic effects on BCR-ABL positive cell lines. Based on the structure of known deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) inhibitors such as CNI-1493, a drug design approach was applied to develop potential compounds targeting DHS. Here we report the biological evaluation of selected novel (DHSI-15) as compared to established (CNI-1493, deoxyspergualin) DHS inhibitors. We show that upon the compounds tested, DHSI-15 and deoxyspergualin exert strongest antiproliferative effects on BCR-ABL cells including Imatinib resistant mutants. However, this effect did not seem to be restricted to BCR-ABL positive cell lines or primary cells. Both compounds are able to induce apoptosis/necrosis during long term incubation of BCR-ABL positive BA/F3 derivates. Pharmacological synergism can be observed for deoxyspergualin and Imatinib, but not for DHSI-15 and Imatinib. Finally we show that deoxyspergualin is able to inhibit proliferation of CD34+ progenitor cells from CML patients. We conclude that inhibition of deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) can be supportive for the anti-proliferative treatment of leukemia and merits further investigation including other cancers. PMID:22415796

Ziegler, Patrick; Chahoud, Tuhama; Wilhelm, Thomas; Pällman, Nora; Braig, Melanie; Wiehle, Valeska; Ziegler, Susanne; Schröder, Marcus; Meier, Chris; Kolodzik, Adrian; Rarey, Matthias; Panse, Jens; Hauber, Joachim; Balabanov, Stefan; Brümmendorf, Tim H

2012-12-01

104

Design, Synthesis, and Biochemical Evaluation of 1,5,6,7-Tetrahydro-6,7-dioxo-9-D-Ribitylaminolumazines Bearing Alkyl Phosphate Substituents as Inhibitors of Lumazine Synthase and Riboflavin Synthase  

PubMed Central

The last two steps in the biosynthesis of riboflavin, an essential metabolite that is involved in electron transport, are catalyzed by lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase. In order to obtain structural probes and inhibitors of these two enzymes, two ribityllumazinediones bearing alkyl phosphate substituents were synthesized. The synthesis involved the generation of the ribityl side chain, the phosphate side chain, and the lumazine system in protected form, followed by the simultaneous removal of three different types of protecting groups. The products were designed as intermediate analog inhibitors of lumazine synthase that would bind to its phosphate-binding site as well as its lumazine binding site. Both compounds were found to be effective inhibitors of both Bacillus subtilis lumazine synthase as well as Escherichia coli riboflavin synthase. Molecular modeling of the binding of one of the two compounds provided a structural explanation for how these compounds are able to effectively inhibit both enzymes. In phosphate-free buffer, the phosphate moieties of the inhibitors were found to contribute positively to their binding to Mycobacterium tuberculosis lumazine synthase, resulting in very potent inhibitors with Ki values in the low nanomolar range. The additional carbonyl in the dioxolumazine system vs. the purinetrione system was found to make a positive contribution to its binding to E. coli riboflavin synthase. PMID:16277343

Cushman, Mark; Jin, Guangyi; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus; Ladenstein, Rudolf; Bacher, Adelbert

2008-01-01

105

Tritritionikkomycin Z, (uracil-5- sup 3 H,pyridyl-2,4- sup 3 H sub 2 ): Radiolabeling of a potent inhibitor of fungal and insect chitin synthetase  

SciTech Connect

Nikkomycin Z (NZ) (a potent fungicide, insecticide, miticide, and inhibitor of fungal and insect chitin synthetase) was converted to a mixture of specific mono-, di-, and tribromo derivatives (BrNZ, Br{sub 2}NZ, and Br{sub 3}NZ, respectively) on reaction with N-bromosuccinimide in N,N-dimethylformamide. Substitution by bromine occurred first at the 2-position of the 3-hydroxypyridyl moiety, second at the 5-position of the uracil moiety, and finally at the 4-position of the 3-hydroxypyridyl moiety as observed both for NZ and for mixtures of uridine and 3-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine as model compounds representative of the moieties of NZ. Following fractionation of the various bromonikkomycin derivatives by HPLC, their structures were assigned by NMR, MS, and UV analyses. Catalytic reductive debromination of Br{sub 3}NZ with tritium gas over palladium on carbon gave (uracil-5-{sup 3}H,pyridyl-2,4-{sup 3}H{sub 2})NZ. This material has sufficiently high specific activity ({approximately}60 Ci/mmol) and suitable positions of labeling to study its uptake, distribution, metabolism, and possible target site interactions in fungal and insect systems.

Ando, Tetsu; Tecle, B.; Toia, R.F.; Casida, J.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1990-08-01

106

Areawide field study on effect of three chitin synthesis inhibitor baits on populations of Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

Periodic sampling of 43 independent monitors, initially active with Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, or the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), was conducted to evaluate the effects of cellulose baits containing one of three chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs)-diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, or chlorfluazuron-on termite populations. Diflubenzuron at 0.1% active ingredient (AI, wt:wt) had no noticeable effect on termite populations. Chlorfluazuron (0.25% [AI]) significantly reduced termite populations in approximately 3 yr. Chlorfluazuron used after > 2-yr diflubenzuron treatment significantly reduced termite populations within months. This suggests diflubenzuron exposure increased the termite's sensitivity to chlorfluazuron accelerating population collapse. Hexaflumuron (0.5% [AI]) also reduced termite populations in approximately 2 yr. The process of removing most detectable termite populations from the approximately 160,000-m2 campus of the Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA, with CSIs baits required approximately 3 yr. Adjustments in the specific bait formulations and application procedures might reduce time to suppression. Establishment of new independent termite populations provides a mechanism to minimize the effects of baits. Remedial control measures around and under structures should be considered when implementing an area wide management strategy. PMID:21735923

Osbrink, Weste L A; Cornelius, Mary L; Lax, Alan R

2011-06-01

107

Discovery of Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase by Fragment Hopping  

PubMed Central

Selective inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been shown to prevent brain injury and is important for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. This study shows that not only greater inhibitory potency and isozyme selectivity, but more drug-like properties can be achieved by fragment hopping. Based on the structure of lead molecule 6, fragment hopping effectively extracted the minimal pharmacophoric elements in the active site of nNOS for ligand hydrophobic and steric interactions and generated appropriate lipophilic fragments for lead optimization. More potent and selective inhibitors with better drug-like properties were obtained within the design of 20 derivatives (compounds 7-26). Our structure-based inhibitor design for nNOS and SAR analysis reveal the robustness and efficiency of fragment hopping in lead discovery and structural optimization, which implicates a broad application of this approach to many other therapeutic targets for which known drug-like small-molecule modulators are still limited. PMID:19125620

Ji, Haitao; Li, Huiying; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

2009-01-01

108

Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors reduce sarcomere addition in rat skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

1. Mechanical stimuli are thought to modulate the number of sarcomeres in series (sarcomere number) in skeletal muscle fibres. However, the mechanisms by which muscle cells transduce mechanical signals into serial sarcomere addition have not been explored. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nitric oxide positively modulates sarcomere addition. 2. The soleus muscle was cast-immobilized in a shortened position in 3-week-old female Wistar rats. After 4 weeks, the casts were removed, creating a period of rapid sarcomere addition. During the remobilization period, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors or substrate were administered. 3. Rats treated with the non-isoform-specific NOS inhibitor L-nitro-arginine methyl ester during 3 weeks of remobilization had smaller soleus sarcomere numbers than control rats. Rats treated with 1-(2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-imidazole, which has greater specificity for the neuronal isoform than for the endothelial isoform of NOS, also had smaller soleus sarcomere numbers than control rats. These results suggest that inhibition of the neuronal isoform of NOS reduces sarcomere addition during remobilization. 4. Rats treated with L-arginine, the substrate for NOS, during 1 week of remobilization had soleus sarcomere numbers for the immobilized-remobilized muscle which were closer to that for the contralateral, non-immobilized muscle than did rats that were not treated with L-arginine. 5. These results support the hypothesis that nitric oxide derived from the neuronal isoform of NOS positively modulates sarcomere addition. PMID:10432349

Koh, T J; Tidball, J G

1999-08-15

109

A Septin-based Hierarchy of Proteins Required for Localized Deposition of Chitin in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just before bud emergence, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell forms a ring of chitin in its cell wall; this ring remains at the base of the bud as the bud grows and ultimately forms part of the bud scar marking the division site on the mother cell. The chitin ring seems to be formed largely or entirely by chitin synthase III,

Douglas J. DeMarini; Alison E. M. Adams; Hanna Fares; Claudio De Virgilio; Giorgio Valle; John S. Chuang; John R. Pringle

1997-01-01

110

Syntheses and herbicidal activity of new triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonamides as acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitor.  

PubMed

The triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide, discovered from preparing bioisosteres of the sulfonylurea herbicides, is an important class of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, EC 4.1.3.18) inhibitors. At least over ten triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilides have been commercialized as herbicides for the control of broadleaf weeds and grass with cereal crop selectivity. Herein, a series of triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilides were designed and synthesized with the aim of discovery of new herbicides with higher activity. The assay results of the inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds against Arabidopsis thatiana AHAS indicated that some compounds showed a little higher activity against flumetsulam (FS), the first commercial triazolopyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide-type herbicide. The ki values of two promising compounds 3d and 8h are respectively, 1.61 and 1.29 microM, while that of FS is 1.85 microM. Computational simulation results indicated the ester group of compound 3d formed hydrogen bonds with the surrounding residues Arg'198 and Ser653, which accounts for its 11.5-folds higher AHAS inhibition activity than Y6610. Further green house assay showed that compound 3d has comparable herbicidal activity as FS. Even at the concentration of 37.5g.ai/ha, 3d showed excellent herbicidal activity against Galium aparine, Cerastium arvense, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Rmumex acetasa, moderate herbicidal activity against Polygonum humifusum, Cyperus iria, and Eclipta prostrate. The combination of in vitro and in vivo assay indicated that 3d could be regarded as a new potential acetohydroxyacid synthase-inhibiting herbicide candidate for further study. PMID:20598554

Chen, Chao-Nan; Chen, Qiong; Liu, Yu-Chao; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Niu, Cong-Wei; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

2010-07-15

111

Lipid-lowering properties of TAK-475, a squalene synthase inhibitor, in vivo and in vitro  

PubMed Central

Squalene synthase is the enzyme that converts farnesyl pyrophosphate to squalene in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. We examined the lipid-lowering properties of 1-[[(3R,5S)-1-(3-acetoxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)-7-chloro-5-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-oxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepin-3-yl]acetyl]piperidine-4-acetic acid (TAK-475), a novel squalene synthase inhibitor. TAK-475 inhibited hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis in rats (ED50, 2.9 mg kg?1) and showed lipid-lowering effects in beagle dogs, marmosets, cynomolgus monkeys and Wistar fatty rats. In marmosets, TAK-475 (30, 100 mg kg?1, p.o., for 4 days) lowered both plasma non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride, but did not affect plasma HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, atorvastatin (10, 30 mg kg?1, p.o., for 4 days) lowered the levels of all these lipids. A correlation between decrease in triglyceride and increase in HDL cholesterol was observed, and TAK-475 increased HDL cholesterol with a smaller decrease in triglyceride than did atorvastatin. TAK-475 (60 mg kg?1, p.o., for 15 days) suppressed the rate of triglyceride secretion from the liver in hypertriglyceridemic Wistar fatty rats, which show an enhanced triglyceride secretion rate from the liver compared with their lean littermates. In HepG2 cells, TAK-475 and its pharmacologically active metabolite, T-91485, increased the binding of 125I-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to LDL receptors. 6?These results suggest that TAK-475 has clear hypolipidemic effects in animals via inhibition of hepatic triglyceride secretion and upregulation of LDL receptors, and that TAK-475 might increase HDL cholesterol by decreasing triglyceride. Thus, TAK-475 is expected to be useful for the treatment of dyslipidemia. PMID:12839864

Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Amano, Yuichiro; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Ishikawa, Eiichiro; Imura, Yoshimi; Yukimasa, Hidefumi; Sugiyama, Yasuo

2003-01-01

112

Lipid-lowering properties of TAK-475, a squalene synthase inhibitor, in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

1. Squalene synthase is the enzyme that converts farnesyl pyrophosphate to squalene in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. We examined the lipid-lowering properties of 1-[[(3R,5S)-1-(3-acetoxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl)-7-chloro-5-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-oxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepin-3-yl]acetyl]piperidine-4-acetic acid (TAK-475), a novel squalene synthase inhibitor. 2. TAK-475 inhibited hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis in rats (ED(50), 2.9 mg kg(-1)) and showed lipid-lowering effects in beagle dogs, marmosets, cynomolgus monkeys and Wistar fatty rats. 3. In marmosets, TAK-475 (30, 100 mg kg(-1), p.o., for 4 days) lowered both plasma non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride, but did not affect plasma HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, atorvastatin (10, 30 mg kg(-1), p.o., for 4 days) lowered the levels of all these lipids. A correlation between decrease in triglyceride and increase in HDL cholesterol was observed, and TAK-475 increased HDL cholesterol with a smaller decrease in triglyceride than did atorvastatin. 4. TAK-475 (60 mg kg(-1), p.o., for 15 days) suppressed the rate of triglyceride secretion from the liver in hypertriglyceridemic Wistar fatty rats, which show an enhanced triglyceride secretion rate from the liver compared with their lean littermates. 5. In HepG2 cells, TAK-475 and its pharmacologically active metabolite, T-91485, increased the binding of (125)I-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to LDL receptors. 6. These results suggest that TAK-475 has clear hypolipidemic effects in animals via inhibition of hepatic triglyceride secretion and upregulation of LDL receptors, and that TAK-475 might increase HDL cholesterol by decreasing triglyceride. Thus, TAK-475 is expected to be useful for the treatment of dyslipidemia. PMID:12839864

Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Amano, Yuichiro; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Ishikawa, Eiichiro; Imura, Yoshimi; Yukimasa, Hidefumi; Sugiyama, Yasuo

2003-07-01

113

Non-antibiotic quorum sensing inhibitors acting against N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase as druggable target  

PubMed Central

N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) is important for the regulation of proteobacterial virulence determinants. Thus, the inhibition of AHL synthases offers non-antibiotics-based therapeutic potentials against QS-mediated bacterial infections. In this work, functional AHL synthases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI and RhlI were heterologously expressed in an AHL-negative Escherichia coli followed by assessments on their AHLs production using AHL biosensors and high resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LCMS). These AHL-producing E. coli served as tools for screening AHL synthase inhibitors. Based on a campaign of screening synthetic molecules and natural products using our approach, three strongest inhibitors namely are salicylic acid, tannic acid and trans-cinnamaldehyde have been identified. LCMS analysis further confirmed tannic acid and trans-cinnemaldehyde efficiently inhibited AHL production by RhlI. We further demonstrated the application of trans-cinnemaldehyde inhibiting Rhl QS system regulated pyocyanin production in P. aeruginosa up to 42.06%. Molecular docking analysis suggested that trans-cinnemaldehyde binds to the LasI and EsaI with known structures mainly interacting with their substrate binding sites. Our data suggested a new class of QS-inhibiting agents from natural products targeting AHL synthase and provided a potential approach for facilitating the discovery of anti-QS signal synthesis as basis of novel anti-infective approach. PMID:25430794

Chang, Chien-Yi; Krishnan, Thiba; Wang, Hao; Chen, Ye; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chong, Yee-Meng; Tan, Li Ying; Chong, Teik Min; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

114

Area Wide Field Study on Effect of Three Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Baits on Populations of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Periodic sampling of 43 independent monitors, initially active with Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, or the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) was conducted to evaluate the effects of cellulose baits containing one of three chitin synthesis i...

115

Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in?uence dynorphin A (1–17) immunoreactivity in the rat brain following hyperthermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The possibility that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors influence dynorphin immunoreactivity following hyperthermia was\\u000a examined in a rat model using a pharmacological approach. Previous reports from our laboratory show that hyperthermia induces\\u000a an upregulation of NOS in several brain regions that seems to be instrumental in causing cell injury. Recent reports suggest\\u000a that nitric oxide (NO) can influence dynorphin neurotransmission

H. S. Sharma; P. Alm

2002-01-01

116

Therapeutic administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors reverses hyperalgesia but not inflammation in a rat model of polyarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) has been postulated to play a role in pain as well as in inflammation. In the present studies, the effects of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors on both pain and inflammation were examined in a rat model of polyarthritis. Female Lewis rats were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with peptidoglycan\\/polysaccharide (PG\\/PS) or saline to induce arthritis. Hind paw volume, response

Laura S Tedesco; John Fuseler; Matthew Grisham; Robert Wolf; Sandra C Roerig

2002-01-01

117

Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, Hexaflumuron, on the Development and Hemolymph Physiology of the Cutworm, Spodoptera litura  

PubMed Central

The effects of sublethal concentrations 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on larval growth and development, the count and proportion of hemocytes, and carbohydrate content (trehalose and glyceride) in hemolymph were investigated in the cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricious) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). When 3rdinstar larvae were subjected to the sublethal concentrations, there were dose-dependent effects on larval weight and length of each instar larvae, percent pupation and the duration of development. Most of the larvae died during the molting process at all concentrations. Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL -1concentrations could develop to the 6thinstar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL -1concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae. In 5thinstar S. litura, the total number of hemocytes was significantly increased at 24 hours post—treatment, whereas the proliferation of hemocytes was inhibited, plasmatocyte pseudopodia contracted, and granulocyte expanded at 96 hours post—treatment. The increases of plasmatocyte count and the decreases of granulocyte count were dose—dependent. The longer treatment time of the sublethal concentrations increased the content of total carbohydrate and trehalose in hematoplasma, and was dose—dependent in hemocytes. The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post—treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post—treatment as compared with the control. The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances. PMID:22958164

Zhu, Qiqi; He, Yuan; Yao, Jing; Liu, Yinzhao; Tao, Liming; Huang, Qingchun

2012-01-01

118

Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3[beta] Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice  

SciTech Connect

Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called 'mood-stabilizing drugs', such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3{beta}. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC{sub 50} values in the range of 4 to 680 nM against human GSK-3{beta}. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mg kg{sup -1} resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mg kg{sup -1}) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg kg{sup -1}). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3{beta} as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients.

Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara (Psychogenics); (Purdue); (UIC); (UTSMC)

2012-05-02

119

Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3? Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called “mood-stabilizing drugs”, such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3?. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC50 values in the range of 4 to 680 nm against human GSK-3?. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mgkg?1 resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/ chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mgkg?1) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mgkg?1). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3? in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3? as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients. PMID:21732538

Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara

2012-01-01

120

Imaging pharmacodynamics of the alpha-folate receptor-targeted thymidylate synthase inhibitor BGC 945.  

PubMed

The assessment of tissue-specific pharmacodynamics is desirable in the development of tumor-targeted therapies. Plasma deoxyuridine (dUrd) levels, a measure of systemic thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition, has limited application for studying the pharmacodynamics of novel TS inhibitors targeted to the high affinity alpha-folate receptor (FR). Here, we have evaluated the utility of [(18)F]fluorothymidine positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FLT-PET) for imaging the tissue pharmacodynamics of BGC 945, an FR-targeted antifolate TS inhibitor; the nontargeted antifolate BGC 9331 was used for comparison. TS inhibition by both drugs induced a concentration-dependent increase in [(3)H]thymidine uptake in FR-positive human epidermoid KB cells. Membrane-associated equilibrative nucleoside transporter type 1 levels increased from 55,720 +/- 6,101 to 118,700 +/- 5,193 and 130,800 +/- 10,800 per cell at 100 mug/mL of BGC 9331 and BGC 945, respectively, suggesting this as a potential mechanism of increased nucleoside uptake. In keeping with these in vitro findings, tumor [(18)F]FLT accumulation in KB xenografts increased by >/=2-fold after drug treatment with maximal levels at 1 to 4 hours and 4 to 24 hours after BGC 9331 and BGC 945 treatment, respectively. Of interest to FR targeting, BGC 9331, but not BGC 945, induced accumulation of [(18)F]FLT uptake in intestine, a proliferative and TS-responsive tissue. For both drugs, quantitative changes in tumor [(18)F]FLT uptake were associated with increased tumor dUrd levels. In conclusion, we have validated the utility of [(18)F]FLT-PET to image TS inhibition induced by antifolates and shown the tumor-specific activity of BGC 945. This imaging biomarker readout will be useful in the early clinical development of BGC 945. PMID:18483267

Pillai, Radhakrishna G; Forster, Martin; Perumal, Meg; Mitchell, Fraser; Leyton, Julius; Aibgirhio, Franklin I; Golovko, Oksana; Jackman, Ann L; Aboagye, Eric O

2008-05-15

121

YM-53601, a novel squalene synthase inhibitor, suppresses lipogenic biosynthesis and lipid secretion in rodents  

PubMed Central

To better understand how it decreases plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, we evaluated the effect of (E)-2-[2-fluoro-2-(quinuclidin-3-ylidene)ethoxy]-9H-carbazole monohydrochloride(YM-53601) on lipogenic biosynthesis in the liver and lipid secretion from the liver in rats and hamsters. Single administration of YM-53601 in cholestyramine-treated rats inhibited triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) biosynthesis at a similar dose range to that at which it inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis. YM-53601 inhibited both triglyceride and FFA biosynthesis in hamsters treated with cholestyramine. YM-53601 by single oral administration decreased the enhanced plasma triglyceride levels in hamsters induced by an injection of protamine sulfate, which inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and consequently increases plasma very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels. YM-53601 also decreased the enhanced plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels in hamsters treated with Triton WR1339, which also inhibits the degradation of VLDL. Plasma cholesterol was significantly decreased as soon as 1 h after single administration of YM-53601 in hamsters fed a normal diet. This is the first report that a squalene synthase inhibitor suppresses lipogenic biosynthesis in the liver and cholesterol and triglyceride secretion from the liver in vivo. We therefore suggest that the mechanism by which YM-53601 decreases plasma triglyceride might include these effects. The finding that YM-53601 rapidly decreased plasma cholesterol suggests that this compound may be effective in decreasing plasma cholesterol levels early in the course of treatment of hypercholesterolemia in humans. PMID:12746232

Ugawa, Tohru; Kakuta, Hirotoshi; Moritani, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Osamu; Shikama, Hisataka

2003-01-01

122

Sulfonylureas have antifungal activity and are potent inhibitors of Candida albicans acetohydroxyacid synthase.  

PubMed

The sulfonylurea herbicides exert their activity by inhibiting plant acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), the first enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. It has previously been shown that if the gene for AHAS is deleted in Candida albicans , attenuation of virulence is achieved, suggesting AHAS as an antifungal drug target. Herein, we have cloned, expressed, and purified C. albicans AHAS and shown that several sulfonylureas are inhibitors of this enzyme and possess antifungal activity. The most potent of these compounds is ethyl 2-(N-((4-iodo-6-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoyl)sulfamoyl)benzoate (10c), which has a K(i) value of 3.8 nM for C. albicans AHAS and an MIC?? of 0.7 ?g/mL for this fungus in cell-based assays. For the sulfonylureas tested there was a strong correlation between inhibitory activity toward C. albicans AHAS and fungicidal activity, supporting the hypothesis that AHAS is the target for their inhibitory activity within the cell. PMID:23237384

Lee, Yu-Ting; Cui, Chang-Jun; Chow, Eve W L; Pue, Nason; Lonhienne, Thierry; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fraser, James A; Guddat, Luke W

2013-01-10

123

Structural analysis of a fungal methionine synthase with substrates and inhibitors.  

PubMed

The cobalamin-independent methionine synthase from Candida albicans, known as Met6p, is a 90-kDa enzyme that consists of two (??)8 barrels. The active site is located between the two domains and has binding sites for a zinc ion and substrates L-homocysteine and 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate-glutamate3. Met6p catalyzes transfer of the methyl group of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate-glutamate3 to the L-homocysteine thiolate to generate methionine. Met6p is essential for fungal growth, and we currently pursue it as an antifungal drug design target. Here we report the binding of L-homocysteine, methionine, and several folate analogs. We show that binding of L-homocysteine or methionine results in conformational rearrangements at the amino acid binding pocket, moving the catalytic zinc into position to activate the thiol group. We also map the folate binding pocket and identify specific binding residues, like Asn126, whose mutation eliminates catalytic activity. We also report the development of a robust fluorescence-based activity assay suitable for high-throughput screening. We use this assay and an X-ray structure to characterize methotrexate as a weak inhibitor of fungal Met6p. PMID:24524835

Ubhi, Devinder; Kago, Grace; Monzingo, Arthur F; Robertus, Jon D

2014-04-17

124

Property-based design of a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor that reduces glucosylceramide in the brain.  

PubMed

Synthesis inhibition is the basis for the treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease by the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor eliglustat tartrate. However, the extended use of eliglustat and related compounds for the treatment of glycosphingolipid storage diseases with CNS manifestations is limited by the lack of brain penetration of this drug. Property modeling around the D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-propanol (PDMP) pharmacophore was employed in a search for compounds of comparable activity against the GCS but lacking P-glycoprotein (MDR1) recognition. Modifications of the carboxamide N-acyl group were made to lower total polar surface area and rotatable bond number. Compounds were screened for inhibition of GCS in crude enzyme and whole cell assays and for MDR1 substrate recognition. One analog, 2-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl)-N-((1R,2R)-1-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)-1-hydroxy-3-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)propan-2-yl)acetamide (CCG-203586), was identified that inhibited GCS at low nanomolar concentrations with little to no apparent recognition by MDR1. Intraperitoneal administration of this compound to mice for 3 days resulted in a significant dose dependent decrease in brain glucosylceramide content, an effect not seen in mice dosed in parallel with eliglustat tartrate. PMID:22058426

Larsen, Scott D; Wilson, Michael W; Abe, Akira; Shu, Liming; George, Christopher H; Kirchhoff, Paul; Showalter, H D Hollis; Xiang, Jianming; Keep, Richard F; Shayman, James A

2012-02-01

125

A specific and potent inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase for substrate inhibition therapy of Gaucher disease.  

PubMed

An approach to treating Gaucher disease is substrate inhibition therapy which seeks to abate the aberrant lysosomal accumulation of glucosylceramide. We have identified a novel inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase (Genz-112638) and assessed its activity in a murine model of Gaucher disease (D409V/null). Biochemical characterization of Genz-112638 showed good potency (IC(50) approximately 24nM) and specificity against the target enzyme. Mice that received drug prior to significant accumulation of substrate (10 weeks of age) showed reduced levels of glucosylceramide and number of Gaucher cells in the spleen, lung and liver when compared to age-matched control animals. Treatment of older mice that already displayed significant amounts of tissue glucosylceramide (7 months old) resulted in arrest of further accumulation of the substrate and appearance of additional Gaucher cells in affected organs. These data indicate that substrate inhibition therapy with Genz-112638 represents a viable alternate approach to enzyme therapy to treat the visceral pathology in Gaucher disease. PMID:17509920

McEachern, Kerry Anne; Fung, John; Komarnitsky, Svetlana; Siegel, Craig S; Chuang, Wei-Lien; Hutto, Elizabeth; Shayman, James A; Grabowski, Gregory A; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Cheng, Seng H; Copeland, Diane P; Marshall, John

2007-07-01

126

Hyperactivity caused by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor is countered by ultra-wideband pulses.  

PubMed

Potential action of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic field pulses on effects of N(G)-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), on nociception and locomotor activity was investigated in CF-1 mice. Animals were injected IP with saline or 50 mg/kg L-NAME and exposed for 30 min to no pulses (sham exposure) or UWB pulses with electric field parameters of 102+/-1 kV/m peak amplitude, 0.90+/-0.05 ns duration, and 160+/-5 ps rise time (mean+/-S.D.) at 600/s. Animals were tested for thermal nociceptive responses on a 50 degrees C surface and for spontaneous locomotor activity for 5 min. L-NAME by itself increased mean first-response (paw lift, shake, or lick; jump) and back-paw-lick response latencies and mean locomotor activity. Exposure to UWB pulses reduced the L-NAME-induced increase in back-paw-lick latency by 22%, but this change was not statistically significant. The L-NAME-induced hyperactivity was not present after UWB exposure. Reduction and cancellation of effects of L-NAME suggest activation of opposing mechanism(s) by the UWB pulses, possibly including increase of nitric oxide production by NOS. The action, or actions, of UWB pulses appears to be more effective on locomotor activity than on thermal nociception in CF-1 mice. PMID:10495308

Seaman, R L; Belt, M L; Doyle, J M; Mathur, S P

1999-10-01

127

YM-53601, a novel squalene synthase inhibitor, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in several animal species  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency of YM-53601 ((E)-2-[2-fluoro-2-(quinuclidin-3-ylidene) ethoxy]-9H-carbazole monohydrochloride), a new inhibitor of squalene synthase, in reducing both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor and fibrates, respectively. YM-53601 equally inhibited squalene synthase activities in hepatic microsomes prepared from several animal species and also suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis in rats (ED50, 32?mg?kg?1). In guinea-pigs, YM-53601 and pravastatin reduced plasma nonHDL-C (=total cholesterol–high density lipoprotein cholesterol) by 47% (P<0.001) and 33% (P<0.001), respectively (100?mg?kg?1, daily for 14 days). In rhesus monkeys, YM-53601 decreased plasma nonHDL-C by 37% (50?mg?kg?1, twice daily for 21 days, P<0.01), whereas the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, pravastatin, failed to do (25?mg?kg?1, twice daily for 28 days). YM-53601 caused plasma triglyceride reduction in hamsters fed a normal diet (81% decrease at 50?mg?kg?1, daily for 5 days, P<0.001). In hamsters fed a high-fat diet, the ability of YM-53601 to lower triglyceride (by 73%, P<0.001) was superior to that of fenofibrate (by 53%, P<0.001), the most potent fibrate (dosage of each drug: 100?mg?kg?1, daily for 7 days). This is the first report that a squalene synthase inhibitor is superior to an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in lowering plasma nonHDL-C level in rhesus monkeys and is superior to a fibrate in significantly lowering plasma triglyceride level. YM-53601 may therefore prove useful in treating hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in humans. PMID:10960070

Ugawa, Tohru; Kakuta, Hirotoshi; Moritani, Hirosh; Matsuda, Koyo; Ishihara, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Motoko; Naganuma, Shin; Iizumi, Yuichi; Shikama, Hisataka

2000-01-01

128

YM-53601, a novel squalene synthase inhibitor, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in several animal species.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency of YM-53601 ((E)-2-[2-fluoro-2-(quinuclidin-3-ylidene) ethoxy]-9H-carbazole monohydrochloride), a new inhibitor of squalene synthase, in reducing both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor and fibrates, respectively. YM-53601 equally inhibited squalene synthase activities in hepatic microsomes prepared from several animal species and also suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis in rats (ED(50), 32 mg kg(-1)). In guinea-pigs, YM-53601 and pravastatin reduced plasma nonHDL-C (=total cholesterol - high density lipoprotein cholesterol) by 47% (P<0.001) and 33% (P<0.001), respectively (100 mg kg(-1), daily for 14 days). In rhesus monkeys, YM-53601 decreased plasma nonHDL-C by 37% (50 mg kg(-1), twice daily for 21 days, P<0.01), whereas the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, pravastatin, failed to do (25 mg kg(-1), twice daily for 28 days). YM-53601 caused plasma triglyceride reduction in hamsters fed a normal diet (81% decrease at 50 mg kg(-1), daily for 5 days, P<0.001). In hamsters fed a high-fat diet, the ability of YM-53601 to lower triglyceride (by 73%, P<0.001) was superior to that of fenofibrate (by 53%, P<0.001), the most potent fibrate (dosage of each drug: 100 mg kg(-1), daily for 7 days). This is the first report that a squalene synthase inhibitor is superior to an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in lowering plasma nonHDL-C level in rhesus monkeys and is superior to a fibrate in significantly lowering plasma triglyceride level. YM-53601 may therefore prove useful in treating hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in humans. PMID:10960070

Ugawa, T; Kakuta, H; Moritani, H; Matsuda, K; Ishihara, T; Yamaguchi, M; Naganuma, S; Iizumi, Y; Shikama, H

2000-09-01

129

Structure-guided Discovery of Phenyl diketo-acids as Potent Inhibitors of M. tuberculosis Malate Synthase  

PubMed Central

Summary The glyoxylate shunt plays an important role in fatty-acid metabolism, and has been shown to be critical to survival of several pathogens involved in chronic infections. For Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a strain with a defective glyoxylate shunt was previously shown to be unable to establish infection in a mouse model. We report the development of novel phenyl-diketo acid (PDKA) inhibitors of malate synthase (GlcB), one of two glyoxylate shunt enzymes, using structure-based methods. PDKA inhibitors were active against Mtb grown on acetate, and over-expression of GlcB ameliorated this inhibition. Crystal structures of complexes of GlcB with PDKA inhibitors were used to guide optimization of potency. A selected PDKA compound demonstrated efficacy in a mouse model of tuberculosis. The discovery of these PDKA derivatives provides chemical validation of GlcB as an attractive target for tuberculosis therapeutics. PMID:23261599

Krieger, Inna V.; Freundlich, Joel S.; Gawandi, Vijay B.; Roberts, Justin P.; Gawandi, Vidyadhar B.; Sun, Qingan; Owen, Joshua L.; Fraile, Maria T.; Huss, Sofia I.; Lavandera, Jose-Luis; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Sacchettini, James C.

2012-01-01

130

YM-53601, a novel squalene synthase inhibitor, suppresses lipogenic biosynthesis and lipid secretion in rodents.  

PubMed

1. To better understand how it decreases plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, we evaluated the effect of (E)-2-[2-fluoro-2-(quinuclidin-3-ylidene)ethoxy]-9H-carbazole monohydrochloride(YM-53601) on lipogenic biosynthesis in the liver and lipid secretion from the liver in rats and hamsters. 2. Single administration of YM-53601 in cholestyramine-treated rats inhibited triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) biosynthesis at a similar dose range to that at which it inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis. YM-53601 inhibited both triglyceride and FFA biosynthesis in hamsters treated with cholestyramine. 3. YM-53601 by single oral administration decreased the enhanced plasma triglyceride levels in hamsters induced by an injection of protamine sulfate, which inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and consequently increases plasma very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels. YM-53601 also decreased the enhanced plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels in hamsters treated with Triton WR1339, which also inhibits the degradation of VLDL. Plasma cholesterol was significantly decreased as soon as 1 h after single administration of YM-53601 in hamsters fed a normal diet. 4. This is the first report that a squalene synthase inhibitor suppresses lipogenic biosynthesis in the liver and cholesterol and triglyceride secretion from the liver in vivo. We therefore suggest that the mechanism by which YM-53601 decreases plasma triglyceride might include these effects. The finding that YM-53601 rapidly decreased plasma cholesterol suggests that this compound may be effective in decreasing plasma cholesterol levels early in the course of treatment of hypercholesterolemia in humans. PMID:12746232

Ugawa, Tohru; Kakuta, Hirotoshi; Moritani, Hiroshi; Inagaki, Osamu; Shikama, Hisataka

2003-05-01

131

Increased endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in patients with congestive heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in controlling vascular tone and regulates the contractile properties of cardiac myocytes. Patients with heart failure exhibit high plasma levels of nitrite\\/nitrate (NOx), a stable metabolite of NO, and of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-?, a potent inducer of NO synthase. An increase in inducible NO synthase activity has been found in cardiac

Michiaki Usui; Hidehiro Matsuoka; Hiroshi Miyazaki; Seiji Ueda; Seiya Okuda; Tsutomu Imaizumi

1998-01-01

132

Lipophilic Bisphosphonates as Dual Farnesyl/Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase Inhibitors: An X-ray and NMR Investigation  

PubMed Central

Considerable effort has focused on the development of selective protein farnesyl transferase (FTase) and protein geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTase) inhibitors as cancer chemotherapeutics. Here, we report a new strategy for anti-cancer therapeutic agents involving inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), the two enzymes upstream of FTase and GGTase, by lipophilic bisphosphonates. Due to dual site targeting and decreased polarity, the compounds have activities far greater than do current bisphosphonate drugs in inhibiting tumor cell growth and invasiveness, both in vitro and in vivo. We explore how these compounds inhibit cell growth, how cell activity can be predicted based on enzyme inhibition data, and, using x-ray diffraction, solid state NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry, we show how these compounds bind to FPPS and/or GGPPS. PMID:19309137

Zhang, Yonghui; Cao, Rong; Yin, Fenglin; Hudock, Michael P.; Guo, Rey-Ting; Krysiak, Kilannin; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Gao, Yi-Gui; Robinson, Howard; Song, Yongcheng; No, Joo Hwan; Bergan, Kyle; Leon, Annette; Cass, Lauren; Goddard, Amanda; Chang, Ting-Kai; Lin, Fu-Yang; Van Beek, Ermond; Papapoulos, Socrates; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Kubo, Tadahiko; Ochi, Mitsuo; Mukkamala, Dushyant; Oldfield, Eric

2009-01-01

133

Lipophilic Bisphosphonates as Dual Farnesyl/Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase Inhibitors: An X-ray and NMR Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Considerable effort has focused on the development of selective protein farnesyl transferase (FTase) and protein geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTase) inhibitors as cancer chemotherapeutics. Here, we report a new strategy for anticancer therapeutic agents involving inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), the two enzymes upstream of FTase and GGTase, by lipophilic bisphosphonates. Due to dual site targeting and decreased polarity, the compounds have activities far greater than do current bisphosphonate drugs in inhibiting tumor cell growth and invasiveness, both in vitro and in vivo. We explore how these compounds inhibit cell growth and how cell activity can be predicted based on enzyme inhibition data, and using X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we show how these compounds bind to FPPS and/or GGPPS.

Zhang, Y.; Cao, R; Yin, F; Hudock, M; Guo, R; Song, Y; No, J; Bergan, K; Leon, A; et al,

2009-01-01

134

A novel bisphosphonate inhibitor of squalene synthase combined with a statin or a nitrogenous bisphosphonate in vitro[S  

PubMed Central

Statins and nitrogenous bisphosphonates (NBP) inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase (HMGCR) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS), respectively, leading to depletion of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and disruption of protein prenylation. Squalene synthase (SQS) utilizes FPP in the first committed step from the mevalonate pathway toward cholesterol biosynthesis. Herein, we have identified novel bisphosphonates as potent and specific inhibitors of SQS, including the tetrasodium salt of 9-biphenyl-4,8-dimethyl-nona-3,7-dienyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (compound 5). Compound 5 reduced cholesterol biosynthesis and lead to a substantial intracellular accumulation of FPP without reducing cell viability in HepG2 cells. At high concentrations, lovastatin and zoledronate impaired protein prenylation and decreased cell viability, which limits their potential use for cholesterol depletion. When combined with lovastatin, compound 5 prevented lovastatin-induced FPP depletion and impairment of protein farnesylation. Compound 5 in combination with the NBP zoledronate completely prevented zoledronate-induced impairment of both protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation. Cotreatment of cells with compound 5 and either lovastatin or zoledronate was able to significantly prevent the reduction of cell viability caused by lovastatin or zoledronate alone. The combination of an SQS inhibitor with an HMGCR or FDPS inhibitor provides a rational approach for reducing cholesterol synthesis while preventing nonsterol isoprenoid depletion. PMID:21903868

Wasko, Brian M.; Smits, Jacqueline P.; Shull, Larry W.; Wiemer, David F.; Hohl, Raymond J.

2011-01-01

135

Involvement of chitin in exoskeleton morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Exoskeletons stabilize cell, tissue, and body morphology in many living organisms including fungi, plants, and arthropods. In insects, the exoskeleton, the cuticle, is produced by epidermal cells as a protein extracellular matrix containing lipids and the polysaccharide chitin, and its formation requires coordinated synthesis, distribution, and modification of these components. Eventually, the stepwise secretion and sorting of the cuticle material results in a layered structure comprising the envelope, the proteinaceous epicuticle, and the chitinous procuticle. To study the role of chitin during cuticle development, we analyzed the consequences of chitin absence in the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster caused by mutations in the Chitin Synthase-1 (CS-1) gene, called krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv). Our histological data confirm that chitin is essential for procuticle integrity and further demonstrate that an intact procuticle is important to assemble and to stabilize the chitin-less epicuticle. Moreover, the phenotype of CS-1/kkv mutant embryos indicates that chitin is required to attach the cuticle to the epidermal cells, thereby maintaining epidermal morphology. Finally, sclerotization and pigmentation, which are the last steps in cuticle differentiation, are impaired in tissues lacking CS-1/kkv function, suggesting that proper cuticle structure is crucial for the activity of the underlying enzymes. PMID:15747378

Moussian, Bernard; Schwarz, Heinz; Bartoszewski, Slawomir; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

2005-04-01

136

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of a novel inhibitor of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, we reported a new ?-hydroxybutenolide derivative, 4-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-3-bromo-5-hydroxy-5H-furan-2-one (BTH), as inhibitor of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression in lypopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 and TPH-1 cells, without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of BTH on some acute and chronic inflammatory animal models in relation to its inhibitory profile on

María Dolores Guerrero; Maurizio Aquino; Ines Bruno; Raffaele Riccio; María Carmen Terencio; Miguel Payá

2009-01-01

137

Syntheses of 3-ethylidenequinuclidine derivatives as squalene synthase inhibitors. Part 2: enzyme inhibition and effects on plasma lipid levels.  

PubMed

Squalene synthase (E.C. 2.5.1.21) is a microsomal enzyme which catalyzes the reductive dimerization of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate to form squalene, and is involved in the first committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis. It is an attractive target for hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic strategies. We synthesized a series of 3-ethylidenequinuclidine derivatives, and evaluated their ability to inhibit squalene synthase in vitro and to lower non-HDL cholesterol levels in hamsters. 3-Ethylidenequinuclidine derivatives incorporating an unsubstituted 9H-carbazole moiety reduced plasma non-HDL cholesterol levels and did not affect plasma transaminase levels, indicating a lack of hepatotoxicity. Among the novel compounds, (Z)-2-[2-(quinuclidin-3-ylidene)ethoxy]-9H-carbazole hydrochloride 8 (YM-53579) and (E)-2-[2-fluoro-2-(quinuclidin-3-ylidene)ethoxy]-9H-carbazole hydrochloride 28 (YM-53601) were potent inhibitors of squalene synthase derived from human hepatoma cells, with IC(50) values of 160 and 79 nM, respectively. They also reduced plasma non-HDL cholesterol levels in hamsters by approximately 50 and 70%, respectively, at an oral dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days. PMID:12901918

Ishihara, Tsukasa; Kakuta, Hirotoshi; Moritani, Hiroshi; Ugawa, Tohru; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Tsukamoto, Shin ichi; Yanagisawa, Isao

2003-08-15

138

Anti-obesity effects of 3-hydroxychromone derivative, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3.  

PubMed

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism, and dysregulation of GSK-3 activity is implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Hence, GSK-3 has emerged as an attractive target molecule for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Therefore, this research focused on identification and characterization of a novel small-molecule GSK-3 inhibitor. Compound 1a, a structure based on 3-hydroxychromone bearing isothiazolidine-1,1-dione, was identified from chemical library as a highly potent GSK-3 inhibitor. An in vitro kinase assay utilizing a panel of kinases demonstrated that compound 1a strongly inhibits GSK-3?. The potential effects of compound 1a on the inactivation of GSK-3 were confirmed in human liver HepG2 and human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Stabilization of glycogen synthase and ?-catenin, which are direct targets of GSK-3, by compound 1a was assessed in comparison with two other GSK-3 inhibitors: LiCl and SB-415286. In mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, compound 1a markedly blocked adipocyte differentiation. Consistently, intraperitoneal administration of compound 1a to diet-induced obese mice significantly ameliorated their key symptoms such as body weight gain, increased adiposity, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis due to the marked reduction of whole-body lipid level. In vitro and in vivo effects were accompanied by upregulation of ?-catenin stability and downregulation of the expression of several critical genes related to lipid metabolism. From these results, it can be concluded that compound 1a, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of GSK-3, has potential as a new class of therapeutic agent for obesity treatment. PMID:23337568

Lee, Sooho; Yang, Woo Kyeom; Song, Ji Ho; Ra, Young Min; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ha, Joohun

2013-04-01

139

Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in As induced VaD.

Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.

2013-11-15

140

L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, as a potential countermeasure to post-suspension hypotension in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large number of astronauts returning from spaceflight experience orthostatic hypotension. This hypotension may be due to overproduction of vasodilatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. To evaluate the role of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as a countermeasure against the post-suspension reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP), we assessed the cardiovascular responses and vascular reactivity to 7-day 30 degrees tail-suspension and a subsequent 6 hr post-suspension period in conscious rats. After a pre-suspension reading, direct MAP and heart rate (HR) were measured daily and every 2 hrs post-suspension. The NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.v.), or saline, were administered after the 7th day reading prior to release from suspension and at 2 and 4 hrs post-suspension. At 6 hrs post-suspension, vascular reactivity was assessed. While MAP did not change during the suspension period, it was reduced post-suspension. Heart rate was not significantly altered. L-NAME administration reversed the post-suspension reduction in MAP. In addition, the baroreflex sensitivity for heart rate was modified by L-NAME. Thus, the post-suspension reduction in MAP may be due to overproduction of NO and altered baroreflex activity.

Bayorh, M. A.; Socci, R. R.; Watts, S.; Wang, M.; Eatman, D.; Emmett, N.; Thierry-Palmer, M.

2001-01-01

141

Protective effects of a squalene synthase inhibitor, lapaquistat acetate (TAK-475), on statin-induced myotoxicity in guinea pigs  

SciTech Connect

High-dose statin treatment has been recommended as a primary strategy for aggressive reduction of LDL cholesterol levels and protection against coronary artery disease. The effectiveness of high-dose statins may be limited by their potential for myotoxic side effects. There is currently little known about the molecular mechanisms of statin-induced myotoxicity. Previously we showed that T-91485, an active metabolite of the squalene synthase inhibitor lapaquistat acetate (lapaquistat: a previous name is TAK-475), attenuated statin-induced cytotoxicity in human skeletal muscle cells [Nishimoto, T., Tozawa, R., Amano, Y., Wada, T., Imura, Y., Sugiyama, Y., 2003a. Comparing myotoxic effects of squalene synthase inhibitor, T-91485, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A. Biochem. Pharmacol. 66, 2133-2139]. In the current study, we investigated the effects of lapaquistat administration on statin-induced myotoxicity in vivo. Guinea pigs were treated with either high-dose cerivastatin (1 mg/kg) or cerivastatin together with lapaquistat (30 mg/kg) for 14 days. Treatment with cerivastatin alone decreased plasma cholesterol levels by 45% and increased creatine kinase (CK) levels by more than 10-fold (a marker of myotoxicity). The plasma CK levels positively correlated with the severity of skeletal muscle lesions as assessed by histopathology. Co-administration of lapaquistat almost completely prevented the cerivastatin-induced myotoxicity. Administration of mevalonolactone (100 mg/kg b.i.d.) prevented the cerivastatin-induced myotoxicity, confirming that this effect is directly related to HMG-CoA reductase inhibition. These results strongly suggest that cerivastatin-induced myotoxicity is due to depletion of mevalonate derived isoprenoids. In addition, squalene synthase inhibition could potentially be used clinically to prevent statin-induced myopathy.

Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Eiichiro [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 2-17-85, Jusohonmachi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-8686 (Japan); Anayama, Hisashi; Hamajyo, Hitomi; Nagai, Hirofumi [Development Research Center, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 2-17-85, Jusohonmachi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-8686 (Japan); Hirakata, Masao [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 2-17-85, Jusohonmachi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-8686 (Japan); Tozawa, Ryuichi [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 2-17-85, Jusohonmachi, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-8686 (Japan)], E-mail: Ryuichi_Tozawa@takeda.co.jp

2007-08-15

142

Novel 2,4-Disubstituted Pyrimidines as Potent, Selective, and Cell-Permeable Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase  

PubMed Central

Selective inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an important therapeutic approach to target neurodegenerative disorders. However, the majority of the nNOS inhibitors developed are arginine mimetics and, therefore, suffer from poor bioavailability. We designed a novel strategy to combine a more pharmacokinetically favorable 2-imidazolylpyrimidine head with promising structural components from previous inhibitors. In conjunction with extensive structure–activity studies, several highly potent and selective inhibitors of nNOS were discovered. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that these type II inhibitors utilize the same hydrophobic pocket to gain strong inhibitory potency (13), as well as high isoform selectivity. Interestingly, select compounds from this series (9) showed good permeability and low efflux in a Caco-2 assay, suggesting potential oral bioavailability, and exhibited minimal off-target binding to 50 central nervous system receptors. Furthermore, even with heme-coordinating groups in the molecule, modifying other pharmacophoric fragments minimized undesirable inhibition of cytochrome P450s from human liver microsomes. PMID:25489882

2014-01-01

143

Efficacy of small-molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors in the postnatal rat model of tau hyperphosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) affects neuropathological events associated with Alzheime?s disease (AD) such as hyperphosphorylation of the protein, tau. GSK-3? expression, enzyme activity and tau phosphorylated at AD-relevant epitopes are elevated in juvenile rodent brains. Here, we assess five GSK-3? inhibitors and lithium in lowering phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and GSK-3? enzyme activity levels in 12-day old postnatal rats. Experimental approach: Brain levels of inhibitors following treatment in vivo were optimized based on pharmacokinetic data. At optimal doses, p-tau (Ser396) levels in brain tissue was measured by immunoblotting and correlated with GSK-3? enzyme activities in the same tissues. Effects of GSK inhibitors on p-tau, GSK-3? activities and cell death were measured in a human neuronal cell line (LUHMES). Key results: Lithium and CHIR98014 reduced tau phosphorylation (Ser396) in the cortex and hippocampus of postnatal rats, while Alsterpaullone and SB216763 were effective only in hippocampus. AR-A014418 and Indirubin-3?-monoxime were ineffective in either brain region. Inhibition of p-tau in brain required several-fold higher levels of GSK inhibitors than the IC50 values obtained in recombinant or cell-based GSK-3? enzyme activity assays. The inhibitory effect on GSK-3? activity ex vivo correlated with protection against cell death and decrease of p-tau- in LUHMES cells, using low ?M inhibitor concentrations. Conclusions and Implications: Selective small-molecule inhibitors of GSK-3 reduce tau phosphorylation in vivo. These findings corroborate earlier suggestions that GSK-3? may be an attractive target for disease-modification in AD and related conditions where tau phosphorylation is believed to contribute to disease pathogenesis. PMID:17906685

Selenica, M-L; Jensen, H S; Larsen, A K; Pedersen, M L; Helboe, L; Leist, M; Lotharius, J

2007-01-01

144

First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera)  

PubMed Central

A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges’ holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan–Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to ?-chitin than to ?-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates. PMID:23677340

Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V.; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V.; Nekipelov, Serguei V.; Sivkov, Victor N.; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I.; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V.; Wörheide, Gert

2013-01-01

145

Glycogen synthase kinase 3? inhibitors induce apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells and inhibit in-vivo tumor growth.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among US women. Paclitaxel/carboplatin is the current drug therapy used to treat ovarian cancer, but most women develop drug resistance and recurrence of the disease, necessitating alternative strategies for treatment. A possible molecular target for cancer therapy is glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), a downstream kinase in the Wnt signaling pathway that is overexpressed in serous ovarian cancer. Novel maleimide-based GSK3? inhibitors (GSK3?i) were synthesized, selected, and tested in vitro using SKOV3 and OVCA432 serous ovarian cancer cell lines. From a panel of 10 inhibitors, GSK3?i 9ING41 was found to be the most effective in vitro. 9ING41 induced apoptosis as indicated by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-positive nuclear condensation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. The mechanism for apoptosis was through caspase-3 cleavage. GSK3?i upregulated phosphorylation of the inhibitory serine residue of GSK3? in OVCA432 and SKOV3 cell lines and also inhibited phosphorylation of the downstream target glycogen synthase. An in-vivo xenograft study using SKOV3 cells demonstrated that tumor progression was hindered by 9ING41 in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose for 9ING41 was greater than 500 mg/kg in rats. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed 9ING41 to have a bioavailability of 4.5% and to be well distributed in tissues. Therefore, GSK3? inhibitors alone or in combination with existing drugs may hinder the growth of serous ovarian cancers. PMID:21878813

Hilliard, Tyvette S; Gaisina, Irina N; Muehlbauer, Amanda G; Gaisin, Arsen M; Gallier, Franck; Burdette, Joanna E

2011-11-01

146

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibitors induce apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells and inhibit in vivo tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among US women. Paclitaxel/carboplatin is the current drug therapy used to treat ovarian cancer, but most women develop drug resistance and recurrence of the disease, necessitating alternative strategies for treatment. A possible molecular target for cancer therapy is glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), a downstream kinase in the Wnt signaling pathway that is overexpressed in serous ovarian cancer. Novel maleimide-based GSK3? inhibitors (GSK3?i) were synthesized, selected, and tested in vitro using SKOV3 and OVCA432 serous ovarian cancer cell lines. From a panel of 10 inhibitors, the GSK3?i 9ING41 was found to be the most effective in vitro. 9ING41 induced apoptosis as indicated by 4?6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) positive nuclear condensation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The mechanism for apoptosis was through caspase-3 cleavage. GSK3?i upregulated phosphorylation of the inhibitory serine residue of GSK3? in the OVCA432 and SKOV3 cell lines as well as inhibited phosphorylation of the downstream target glycogen synthase. An in vivo xenograft study using SKOV3 cells demonstrated that tumor progression was hindered by 9ING41 in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose for 9ING41 was greater than 500 mg/kg in rats. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed 9ING41 to have a bioavailability of 4.5% and was well distributed in tissues. Therefore, GSK3? inhibitors alone or in combination with existing drugs may hinder growth of serous ovarian cancers. PMID:21878813

Hilliard, Tyvette S.; Gaisina, Irina N.; Muehlbauer, Amanda G.; Gaisin, Arsen M.; Gallier, Franck; Burdette, Joanna E.

2011-01-01

147

Sensitive Assay for Antifungal Activity of Glucan Synthase Inhibitors That Uses Germ Tube Formation in Candida albicans as an End Point  

Microsoft Academic Search

We implemented a simple, sensitive, objective, and rapid cellular assay to reveal the antifungal activity of a novel class of glucan synthase inhibitors. The assay, especially useful for early drug discovery, measures the transformation of Candida albicans from the yeast form to the hyphal form. Test compounds were ranked by potency (50% inhibitory concentration) and efficacy (percent inhibition of germ

Timothy G. Brayman; John W. Wilks

2003-01-01

148

Antiinflammatory Effects of Mercaptoethylguanidine, a Combined Inhibitor of Nitric Oxide Synthase and Peroxynitrite Scavenger, in Carrageenan-induced Models of Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro studies have demonstrated that mercaptoethylguanidine (MEG), a selective inhibitor of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS), is also effective as a scavenger of peroxynitrite (a potent cytotoxic oxidant produced by the reaction of NO and superoxide). In the present study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory potential of MEG treatment in two models of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw edema and pleurisy),

Salvatore Cuzzocrea; Basilia Zingarelli; Paul Hake; Andrew L Salzman; Csaba Szabo

1998-01-01

149

Iminosugar-Based Inhibitors of Glucosylceramide Synthase Increase Brain Glycosphingolipids and Survival in a Mouse Model of Sandhoff Disease  

PubMed Central

The neuropathic glycosphingolipidoses are a subgroup of lysosomal storage disorders for which there are no effective therapies. A potential approach is substrate reduction therapy using inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) to decrease the synthesis of glucosylceramide and related glycosphingolipids that accumulate in the lysosomes. Genz-529468, a blood-brain barrier-permeant iminosugar-based GCS inhibitor, was used to evaluate this concept in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease, which accumulates the glycosphingolipid GM2 in the visceral organs and CNS. As expected, oral administration of the drug inhibited hepatic GM2 accumulation. Paradoxically, in the brain, treatment resulted in a slight increase in GM2 levels and a 20-fold increase in glucosylceramide levels. The increase in brain glucosylceramide levels might be due to concurrent inhibition of the non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase, Gba2. Similar results were observed with NB-DNJ, another iminosugar-based GCS inhibitor. Despite these unanticipated increases in glycosphingolipids in the CNS, treatment nevertheless delayed the loss of motor function and coordination and extended the lifespan of the Sandhoff mice. These results suggest that the CNS benefits observed in the Sandhoff mice might not necessarily be due to substrate reduction therapy but rather to off-target effects. PMID:21738789

Ashe, Karen M.; Bangari, Dinesh; Li, Lingyun; Cabrera-Salazar, Mario A.; Bercury, Scott D.; Nietupski, Jennifer B.; Cooper, Christopher G. F.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Lee, Edward R.; Copeland, Diane P.; Cheng, Seng H.; Scheule, Ronald K.; Marshall, John

2011-01-01

150

Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design  

PubMed Central

The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5?-methylthio­adenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethyl­aniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS. PMID:25760598

Sprenger, Janina; Svensson, Bo; Hålander, Jenny; Carey, Jannette; Persson, Lo; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

2015-01-01

151

Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design.  

PubMed

The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethylaniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS. PMID:25760598

Sprenger, Janina; Svensson, Bo; Hålander, Jenny; Carey, Jannette; Persson, Lo; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

2015-03-01

152

Effects of inhibitors of deoxyhypusine synthase on the differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma and erythroleukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyhypusine synthase catalyzes the conversion of lysine to deoxyhypusine residue on the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) precursor using spermidine as the substrate. Subsequent hydroxylation of the deoxyhypusine residue completes hypusine formation on eIF-5A. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) have been implicated in tumor growth and differentiation. Because deoxyhypusine\\/hypusine formation is one of the most specific polyamine-dependent biochemical events, we

Zong Ping Chen; Yong Ping Yan; Qing Jie Ding; Spence Knapp; Joseph A. Potenza; Harvey J. Schugar; Kuang Yu Chen

1996-01-01

153

Selective small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 modulate glycogen metabolism and gene transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine\\/threonine protein kinase, the activity of which is inhibited by a variety of extracellular stimuli including insulin, growth factors, cell specification factors and cell adhesion. Consequently, inhibition of GSK-3 activity has been proposed to play a role in the regulation of numerous signalling pathways that elicit pleiotropic cellular responses. This report describes the

Matthew P Coghlan; Ainsley A Culbert; Darren AE Cross; Stacey L Corcoran; John W Yates; Nigel J Pearce; Oliver L Rausch; Gregory J Murphy; Paul S Carter; Lynne Roxbee Cox; David Mills; Murray J Brown; David Haigh; Robert W Ward; David G Smith; Kenneth J Murray; Alastair D Reith; Julie C Holder

2000-01-01

154

Pyrazinamide, but not pyrazinoic acid, is a competitive inhibitor of NADPH binding to Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I  

PubMed Central

Pyrazinamide (PZA), an essential component of short-course anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, was shown by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR methods to act as a competitive inhibitor of NADPH binding to purified Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I (FAS I). Both PZA and pyrazinoic acid (POA) reversibly bind to FAS I but at different binding sites. The competitive binding of PZA and NADPH suggests potential FAS I binding sites. POA was not previously known to have any specific binding interactions. The STD NMR of NADPH bound to the mycobacterial FAS I was consistent with the orientation reported in published single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of fungal FAS I. Overall the differences in binding between PZA and POA are consistent with previous recognition of the importance of intracellular accumulation of POA for anti-mycobacterial activity. PMID:21775138

Sayahi, Halimah; Zimhony, Oren; Jacobs, William R.; Shekhtman, Alexander; Welch, John T.

2015-01-01

155

Effect of Potential Amine Prodrugs of Selective Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors on Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration  

PubMed Central

Several prodrug approaches were taken to mask amino groups in two potent and selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors containing either a primary or secondary amino group to lower the charge and improve blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. The primary amine was masked as an azide and the secondary amine as an amide or carbamate. The azide was not reduced to the amine under a variety of in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Despite the decrease in charge of the amino group as an amide and as carbamates, BBB penetration did not increase. It appears that the use of azides as prodrugs for primary amines or amides and carbamates as prodrugs for secondary amines are not universally effective approaches for CNS applications. PMID:19796958

Silverman, Richard B.; Lawton, Graham R; Ranaivo, Hantamalala Ralay; Seo, Jiwon; Watterson, D. Martin

2009-01-01

156

Inhibitors of the Salicylate Synthase (MbtI) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Discovered by High-Throughput Screening  

PubMed Central

A simple steady-state kinetic high-throughput assay was developed for the salicylate synthase MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which catalyzes the first committed step of mycobactin biosynthesis. The mycobactins are small-molecule iron chelators produced by M. tuberculosis, and their biosynthesis has been identified as a promising target for the development of new antitubercular agents. The assay was miniaturized to a 384-well plate format and high-throughput screening was performed at the National Screening Laboratory for the Regional Centers of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (NSRB). Three classes of compounds were identified comprising the benzisothiazolones (class I), diarylsulfones (class II), and benzimidazole-2-thiones (class III). Each of these compound series was further pursued to investigate their biochemical mechanism and structure–activity relationships. Benzimidazole-2-thione 4 emerged as the most promising inhibitor owing to its potent reversible inhibition. PMID:21053346

Vasan, Mahalakshmi; Neres, João; Williams, Jessica; Wilson, Daniel J.; Teitelbaum, Aaron M.; Remmel, Rory P.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

2010-01-01

157

The occurrence of chitin in the hemocytes of invertebrates  

PubMed Central

The light-organ symbiosis of Euprymna scolopes, the Hawaiian bobtail squid, is a useful model for the study of animal–microbe interactions. Recent analyses have demonstrated that chitin breakdown products play a role in communication between E. scolopes and its bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri. In this study, we sought to determine the source of chitin in the symbiotic organ. We used a commercially available chitin-binding protein (CBP) conjugated to fluorescein to label the polymeric chitin in host tissues. Confocal microscopy revealed that the only cells in contact with the symbionts that labeled with the probe were the macrophage-like hemocytes, which traffic into the light-organ crypts where the bacteria reside. Labeling of extracted hemocytes by CBP was markedly decreased following treatment with purified chitinase, providing further evidence that the labeled molecule is polymeric chitin. Further, CBP-positive areas co-localized with both a halide peroxidase antibody and Lysotracker, a lysosomal marker, suggesting that the chitin-like biomolecule occurs in the lysosome or acidic vacuoles. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of hemocytes revealed mRNA coding for a chitin synthase, suggesting that the hemocytes synthesize chitin de novo. Finally, upon surveying blood cells from other invertebrate species, we observed CBP-positive regions in all granular blood cells examined, suggesting that this feature is a shared character among the invertebrates; the vertebrate blood cells that we sampled did not label with CBP. Although the function of the chitin-like material remains undetermined, its presence and subcellular location in invertebrate hemocytes suggests a conserved role for this polysaccharide in the immune system of diverse animals. PMID:21723107

Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A.C.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

2011-01-01

158

Chitin is a necessary component to maintain the barrier function of the peritrophic matrix in the insect midgut.  

PubMed

In most insects, the peritrophic matrix (PM) partitions the midgut into different digestive compartments, and functions as a protective barrier against abrasive particles and microbial infections. In a previous study we demonstrated that certain PM proteins are essential in maintaining the PM's barrier function and establishing a gradient of PM permeability from the anterior to the posterior part of the midgut which facilitates digestion (Agrawal et al., 2014). In this study, we focused on the effects of a reduction in chitin content on PM permeability in larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Oral administration of the chitin synthesis inhibitor diflubenzuron (DFB) only partially reduced chitin content of the larval PM even at high concentrations. We observed no nutritional effects, as larval growth was unaffected and neutral lipids were not depleted from the fat body. However, the metamorphic molt was disrupted and the insects died at the pharate pupal stage, presumably due to DFB's effect on cuticle formation. RNAi to knock-down expression of the gene encoding chitin synthase 2 in T. castaneum (TcCHS-2) caused a complete loss of chitin in the PM. Larval growth was significantly reduced, and the fat body was depleted of neutral lipids. In situ PM permeability assays monitoring the distribution of FITC dextrans after DFB exposure or RNAi for TcCHS-2 revealed that PM permeability was increased in both cases. RNAi for TcCHS-2, however, led to a higher permeation of the PM by FITC dextrans than DFB treatment even at high doses. Similar effects were observed when the chitin content was reduced by feeding DFB to adult yellow fever mosquitos, Aedes aegypti. We demonstrate that the presence of chitin is necessary for maintaining the PM's barrier function in insects. It seems that the insecticidal effects of DFB are mediated by the disruption of cuticle synthesis during the metamorphic molt rather than by interfering with larval nutrition. However, as DFB clearly affects PM permeability, it may be suitable to increase the efficiency of pesticides targeting the midgut. PMID:25449129

Kelkenberg, Marco; Odman-Naresh, Jothini; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Merzendorfer, Hans

2015-01-01

159

Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors Induce Apoptosis in Non-Tumorigenic Melan-A Cells Associated with Inhibition of Mitochondrial Respiration  

PubMed Central

The metabolic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) is responsible for the endogenous synthesis of palmitate, a saturated long-chain fatty acid. In contrast to most normal tissues, a variety of human cancers overexpress FASN. One such cancer is cutaneous melanoma, in which the level of FASN expression is associated with tumor invasion and poor prognosis. We previously reported that two FASN inhibitors, cerulenin and orlistat, induce apoptosis in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of these inhibitors on non-tumorigenic melan-a cells. Cerulenin and orlistat treatments were found to induce apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation, in addition to inducing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activating caspases-9 and -3. Transfection with FASN siRNA did not result in apoptosis. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that treatment with the FASN inhibitors did not alter either the mitochondrial free fatty acid content or composition. This result suggests that cerulenin- and orlistat-induced apoptosis events are independent of FASN inhibition. Analysis of the energy-linked functions of melan-a mitochondria demonstrated the inhibition of respiration, followed by a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and the stimulation of superoxide anion generation. The inhibition of NADH-linked substrate oxidation was approximately 40% and 61% for cerulenin and orlistat treatments, respectively, and the inhibition of succinate oxidation was approximately 46% and 52%, respectively. In contrast, no significant inhibition occurred when respiration was supported by the complex IV substrate N,N,N?,N?-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD). The protection conferred by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine indicates that the FASN inhibitors induced apoptosis through an oxidative stress-associated mechanism. In combination, the present results demonstrate that cerulenin and orlistat induce apoptosis in non-tumorigenic cells via mitochondrial dysfunction, independent of FASN inhibition. PMID:24964211

Rossato, Franco A.; Zecchin, Karina G.; La Guardia, Paolo G.; Ortega, Rose M.; Alberici, Luciane C.; Costa, Rute A. P.; Catharino, Rodrigo R.; Graner, Edgard; Castilho, Roger F.; Vercesi, Aníbal E.

2014-01-01

160

The Design and Synthesis of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 for the Treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a genetically validated drug target for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called African sleeping sickness. We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of aminopyrazole derivatives as Trypanosoma brucei GSK3 short inhibitors. Low nanomolar inhibitors, which had high selectivity over the off-target human CDK2 and good selectivity over human GSK3? enzyme, have been prepared. These potent kinase inhibitors demonstrated low micromolar levels of inhibition of the Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasite grown in culture. PMID:25198388

2014-01-01

161

Phosphorylation regulates polarisation of chitin synthesis in Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

The ability to undergo polarised cell growth is fundamental to the development of almost all walled organisms. Fungi are characterised by yeasts and moulds, and both cellular forms have been studied extensively as tractable models of cell polarity. Chitin is a hallmark component of fungal cell walls. Chitin synthesis is essential for growth, viability and rescue from many conditions that impair cell-wall integrity. In the polymorphic human pathogen Candida albicans, chitin synthase 3 (Chs3) synthesises the majority of chitin in the cell wall and is localised at the tips of growing buds and hyphae, and at the septum. An analysis of the C. albicans phospho-proteome revealed that Chs3 can be phosphorylated at Ser139. Mutation of this site showed that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are required for the correct localisation and function of Chs3. The kinase Pkc1 was not required to target Chs3 to sites of polarised growth. This is the first report demonstrating an essential role for chitin synthase phosphorylation in the polarised biosynthesis of fungal cell walls and suggests a new mechanism for the regulation of this class of glycosyl-transferase enzyme. PMID:20530569

Lenardon, Megan D.; Milne, Sarah A.; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.; Kaffarnik, Florian A. R.; Peck, Scott C.; Brown, Alistair J. P.; Munro, Carol A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

2010-01-01

162

Phosphorylation regulates polarisation of chitin synthesis in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The ability to undergo polarised cell growth is fundamental to the development of almost all walled organisms. Fungi are characterised by yeasts and moulds, and both cellular forms have been studied extensively as tractable models of cell polarity. Chitin is a hallmark component of fungal cell walls. Chitin synthesis is essential for growth, viability and rescue from many conditions that impair cell-wall integrity. In the polymorphic human pathogen Candida albicans, chitin synthase 3 (Chs3) synthesises the majority of chitin in the cell wall and is localised at the tips of growing buds and hyphae, and at the septum. An analysis of the C. albicans phospho-proteome revealed that Chs3 can be phosphorylated at Ser139. Mutation of this site showed that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are required for the correct localisation and function of Chs3. The kinase Pkc1 was not required to target Chs3 to sites of polarised growth. This is the first report demonstrating an essential role for chitin synthase phosphorylation in the polarised biosynthesis of fungal cell walls and suggests a new mechanism for the regulation of this class of glycosyl-transferase enzyme. PMID:20530569

Lenardon, Megan D; Milne, Sarah A; Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Kaffarnik, Florian A R; Peck, Scott C; Brown, Alistair J P; Munro, Carol A; Gow, Neil A R

2010-07-01

163

Marine natural products as inhibitors of cystathionine beta-synthase activity.  

PubMed

A library consisting of characterized marine natural products as well as synthetic derivatives was screened for compounds capable of inhibiting the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS). Eight hits were validated and shown to inhibit CBS activity with IC50 values ranging from 83 to 187?M. The majority of hits came from a series of synthetic polyandrocarpamine derivatives. In addition, a modified fluorogenic probe for H2S detection with improved solubility in aqueous solutions is reported. PMID:25666819

Thorson, Megan K; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Harper, Mary Kay; Ireland, Chris M; Majtan, Tomas; Kraus, Jan P; Barrios, Amy M

2015-03-01

164

Catechol-based substrates of chalcone synthase as a scaffold for novel inhibitors of PqsD.  

PubMed

A new strategy for treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections could be disrupting the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) quorum sensing (QS) system. The goal is to impair communication among the cells and, hence, reduce the expression of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms. PqsD is an essential enzyme for the synthesis of PQS and shares some features with chalcone synthase (CHS2), an enzyme expressed in Medicago sativa. Both proteins are quite similar concerning the size of the active site, the catalytic residues and the electrostatic surface potential at the entrance of the substrate tunnel. Hence, we evaluated selected substrates of the vegetable enzyme as potential inhibitors of the bacterial protein. This similarity-guided approach led to the identification of a new class of PqsD inhibitors having a catechol structure as an essential feature for activity, a saturated linker with two or more carbons and an ester moiety bearing bulky substituents. The developed compounds showed PqsD inhibition with IC50 values in the single-digit micromolar range. The binding mode of these compounds was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) experiments revealing that their interaction with the protein is not influenced by the presence of the anthranilic acid bound to active site cysteine. Importantly, some compounds reduced the signal molecule production in cellulo. PMID:25437621

Allegretta, Giuseppe; Weidel, Elisabeth; Empting, Martin; Hartmann, Rolf W

2015-01-27

165

Yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta pathway inhibitors from an organic extract of Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed

Investigation of a microbial fermentation organic extract of Streptomyces sp. H7667 led to the isolation of three new imides, 3-[(5E)-5-methyl-4-oxo-2-hydroxy-5-octenyl]glutarimide (1), 2-amino-N-2'-(phenylacetyl)propanimide (5), and 2-amino-N-(2'-(cyclohex-2''-enyl)acetyl)acetimide (6), and one new isoflavonoid glycoside, 6-O-methyl-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyldaidzein (7), along with four known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by HRESIMS, 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY spectra. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities in the yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta assay. PMID:19711989

Cheenpracha, Sarot; Zhang, Hui; Mar, Annie M N; Foss, Adam P; Foo, Sek Hin; Lai, Ngit Shin; Jee, Jap Meng; Seow, Heng Fong; Ho, Coy Choke; Chang, Leng Chee

2009-08-01

166

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inhibitors in the Next Horizon for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment  

PubMed Central

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), a proline/serine protein kinase ubiquitously expressed and involved in many cellular signaling pathways, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) being probably the link between ?-amyloid and tau pathology. A great effort has recently been done in the discovery and development of different new molecules, of synthetic and natural origin, able to inhibit this enzyme, and several kinetics mechanisms of binding have been described. The small molecule called tideglusib belonging to the thiadiazolidindione family is currently on phase IIb clinical trials for AD. The potential risks and benefits of this new kind of disease modifying drugs for the future therapy of AD are discussed in this paper. PMID:21760986

Martinez, Ana; Gil, Carmen; Perez, Daniel I.

2011-01-01

167

Effect of centrally administered C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, on ghrelin secretion and its downstream effects  

PubMed Central

The central administration of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor, C75, rapidly suppresses the expression of orexigenic neuropeptides [neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP)] and activates expression of anorexigenic neuropeptides [proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)] in the hypothalamus. The combined actions of these changes inhibit food intake and decrease body weight. Intracerebroventricular injection of C75 appears to rapidly inhibit the secretion of ghrelin by hypothalamic explants ex vivo and by the stomach in vivo. Ghrelin administered intracerebroventricularly reverses the anorexic effect of C75, suggesting that C75 acts upstream of ghrelin. Because ghrelin-producing neurons are known to form synapses onto NPY/AgRP neurons, we suggest that the reversal of C75-induced anorexia by ghrelin may be mediated by NPY/AgRP neurons. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that ghrelin reverses the C75-induced inactivation (assessed by c-Fos expression) of neurons in the arcuate nucleus that express NPY (assessed by immunohistochemical costaining). These effects closely correlate with appropriate changes downstream in the expression of the hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate feeding behavior, i.e., down-regulation of the expression of NPY and AgRP and up-regulation of the expression of proopiomelanocortin/?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, provoked by C75 and reversed by ghrelin. We propose a model in which ghrelin secretion plays an intermediary role between malonyl-CoA, the substrate of fatty acid synthase, and the neural circuitry regulating energy homeostasis. PMID:15728730

Hu, Zhiyuan; Cha, Seung Hun; van Haasteren, Goedelle; Wang, Jing; Lane, M. Daniel

2005-01-01

168

Deciphering the Genetic Programme Triggering Timely and Spatially-Regulated Chitin Deposition  

PubMed Central

Organ and tissue formation requires a finely tuned temporal and spatial regulation of differentiation programmes. This is necessary to balance sufficient plasticity to undergo morphogenesis with the acquisition of the mature traits needed for physiological activity. Here we addressed this issue by analysing the deposition of the chitinous extracellular matrix of Drosophila, an essential element of the cuticle (skin) and respiratory system (tracheae) in this insect. Chitin deposition requires the activity of the chitin synthase Krotzkopf verkehrt (Kkv). Our data demonstrate that this process equally requires the activity of two other genes, namely expansion (exp) and rebuf (reb). We found that Exp and Reb have interchangeable functions, and in their absence no chitin is produced, in spite of the presence of Kkv. Conversely, when Kkv and Exp/Reb are co-expressed in the ectoderm, they promote chitin deposition, even in tissues normally devoid of this polysaccharide. Therefore, our results indicate that both functions are not only required but also sufficient to trigger chitin accumulation. We show that this mechanism is highly regulated in time and space, ensuring chitin accumulation in the correct tissues and developmental stages. Accordingly, we observed that unregulated chitin deposition disturbs morphogenesis, thus highlighting the need for tight regulation of this process. In summary, here we identify the genetic programme that triggers the timely and spatially regulated deposition of chitin and thus provide new insights into the extracellular matrix maturation required for physiological activity. PMID:25617778

Rotstein, Bárbara; Casali, Andreu; Llimargas, Marta

2015-01-01

169

The fatty acid synthase inhibitor triclosan: repurposing an anti-microbial agent for targeting prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of FASN has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, and numerous inhibitors have been investigated. However, severe pharmacological limitations have challenged their clinical testing. The synthetic FASN inhibitor triclosan, which was initially developed as a topical antibacterial agent, is merely affected by these pharmacological limitations. Yet, little is known about its mechanism in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. Here we compared the cellular and molecular effects of triclosan in a panel of eight malignant and non-malignant prostate cell lines to the well-known FASN inhibitors C75 and orlistat, which target different partial catalytic activities of FASN. Triclosan displayed a superior cytotoxic profile with a several-fold lower IC50 than C75 or orlistat. Structure-function analysis revealed that alcohol functionality of the parent phenol is critical for inhibitory action. Rescue experiments confirmed that end product starvation was a major cause of cytotoxicity. Importantly, triclosan, C75 and orlistat induced distinct changes to morphology, cell cycle, lipid content and the expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism, demonstrating that inhibition of different partial catalytic activities of FASN activates different metabolic pathways. These finding combined with its well-documented pharmacological safety profile make triclosan a promising drug candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:25313139

Sadowski, Martin C.; Pouwer, Rebecca H.; Gunter, Jennifer H.; Lubik, Amy A.; Quinn, Ronald J.; Nelson, Colleen C.

2014-01-01

170

PHYSIOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND REPRODUCTION Influence of Aminoguanidine, an Inhibitor of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, on the Pulmonary Hypertensive Response to Microparticle Injections in Broilers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulmonary hypertensive response to pulmonary vascular obstruction caused by intravenously injected microparticles is amplified by pretreatment with N?nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The L-NAME prevents the synthesis of the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) by inhibiting both the constitutive (endothe- lial NO synthase (eNOS or NOS-3)) and inducible (induc- ibleNOsynthase(iNOSorNOS-2))formsofNOsynthase. In the present study we used the selective iNOS inhibitor

R. F. Wideman; O. T. Bowen; G. F. Erf; M. E. Chapman

171

Allosteric Inhibitors at the Heterodimer Interface of Imidazole Glycerol Phosphate Synthase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) from Thermotoga maritima is a heterodimeric enzyme composed of the HisH and HisF proteins. It is attractive as a pathological target since it is absent in mammals but found in plant and opportunistic human pathogens. IGPS was experimentally determined to be a V-type allosteric enzyme that is involved in an essential biosynthetic pathway of microorganisms. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to form NH3 in the HisH protein, followed by cyclization of NH3 with N'-[(5'-phosphoribulosyl)imino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) in the HisF subunit, forming imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR) that enter the histidine and purine biosynthetic pathways. Allosteric motions induced upon the binding of the effector PRFAR to HisF propagate through the non-covalent HisH/HisF interface and synchronize catalytic activity at the two distant active sites. However, the nature of the allosteric pathway and the feasibility of manipulating signal transduction by using allosteric drug-like molecules remain to be established. Molecular docking studies of commercial drugs at the HisH/HisF interface were used to identify stable candidates with a potential allosteric effect on the reaction mechanism. Molecular dynamic simulations and calculations of NMR chemical shifts were combined to elucidate the allosteric pathway of IGPS.

Snoeberger, Ning-Shiuan Nicole

172

Nitroarachidonic Acid, a Novel Peroxidase Inhibitor of Prostaglandin Endoperoxide H Synthases 1 and 2*  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase (PGHS) catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2. We have previously synthesized and chemically characterized nitroarachidonic acid (AANO2), a novel anti-inflammatory signaling mediator. Herein, the interaction of AANO2 with PGHS was analyzed. AANO2 inhibited oxygenase activity of PGHS-1 but not PGHS-2. AANO2 exhibited time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of peroxidase activity in both PGHS-1 and -2. The plot of kobs versus AANO2 concentrations showed a hyperbolic function with kinact = 0.045 s?1 and Ki*app = 0.019 ?m for PGHS-1 and kinact = 0.057 s?1 and Ki*app = 0.020 ?m for PGHS-2. Kinetic analysis suggests that inactivation of PGHS by AANO2 involves two sequential steps: an initial reversible binding event (described by Ki) followed by a practically irreversible event (Ki*app) leading to an inactivated enzyme. Inactivation was associated with irreversible disruption of heme binding to the protein. The inhibitory effects of AANO2 were selective because other nitro-fatty acids tested, such as nitrooleic acid and nitrolinoleic acid, were unable to inhibit enzyme activity. In activated human platelets, AANO2 significantly decreased PGHS-1-dependent thromboxane B2 formation in parallel with a decrease in platelet aggregation, thus confirming the biological relevance of this novel inhibitory pathway. PMID:21266582

Trostchansky, Andrés; Bonilla, Lucía; Thomas, Christopher P.; O’Donnell, Valerie B.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Radi, Rafael; Rubbo, Homero

2011-01-01

173

A Fatal Combination: A Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitor with DNA Damaging Activity  

PubMed Central

2?-deoxy-5-ethynyluridine (EdU) has been previously shown to be a cell poison whose toxicity depends on the particular cell line. The reason is not known. Our data indicates that different efficiency of EdU incorporation plays an important role. The EdU-mediated toxicity was elevated by the inhibition of 2?-deoxythymidine 5?-monophosphate synthesis. EdU incorporation resulted in abnormalities of the cell cycle including the slowdown of the S phase and a decrease in DNA synthesis. The slowdown but not the cessation of the first cell division after EdU administration was observed in all of the tested cell lines. In HeLa cells, a 10 ?M EdU concentration led to the cell death in the 100% of cells probably due to the activation of an intra S phase checkpoint in the subsequent S phase. Our data also indicates that this EdU concentration induces interstrand DNA crosslinks in HeLa cells. We suppose that these crosslinks are the primary DNA damage resulting in cell death. According to our results, the EdU-mediated toxicity is further increased by the inhibition of thymidylate synthase by EdU itself at its higher concentrations. PMID:25671308

Ligasová, Anna; Strunin, Dmytro; Friedecký, David; Adam, Tomáš; Koberna, Karel

2015-01-01

174

The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine decreases defibrillation-induced free radical generation?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) contributes to free radical generation after epicardial shocks and to determine the effect of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), on free radical generation. Background: Free radicals are generated by direct current shocks for defibrillation. NO reacts with the superoxide (O2•?) radical to form peroxynitrite (O = NOO?), which is toxic and initiates additional free radical generation. The contribution of NO to free radical generation after defibrillation is not fully defined. Methods and results Fourteen open chest dogs were studied. In the initial eight dogs, 40 J damped sinusoidal monophasic epicardial shocks was administered. Using electron paramagnetic resonance, we monitored the coronary sinus concentration of ascorbate free radical (Asc•?), a measure of free radical generation (total oxidative flux). Epicardial shocks were repeated after L-NNA, 5 mg/kg IV. In six additional dogs, immunohistochemical staining was done to identify nitrotyrosine, a marker of reactive nitrogen species-mediated injury, in post-shock myocardial tissue. Three of these dogs received L-NNA pre-shock. After the initial 40 J shock, Asc•? rose 39 ± 2.5% from baseline. After L-NNA infusion, a similar 40 J shock caused Asc•? to increase only 2 ± 3% from baseline (P < 0.05, post-L-NNA shock versus initial shock). Nitrotyrosine staining was more prominent in control animals than dogs receiving L-NNA, suggesting prevention of O = NOO? formation. Conclusions NO contributes to free radical generation and nitrosative injury after epicardial shocks; NOS inhibitors decrease radical generation by inhibiting the production of O = NOO?. PMID:15061157

Clark, Craig B.; Zhang, Yi; Martin, Sean M.; Davies, L. Ray; Xu, Linjing; Kregel, Kevin C.; Miller, Francis J.; Buettner, Garry R.; Kerber, Richard E.

2015-01-01

175

The impact of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADAMA), the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, to the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage.  

PubMed

This review was designed to provide an update on the role of asymmetric arginine (ADMA), the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase in the pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Numerous studies in the past confirmed that NO is a multifunctional endogenous gas molecule involved in most of the body organs' functional and metabolic processes including the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) secretory functions, motility, maintenance of GI integrity, gastroprotection and ulcer healing. NO is metabolized from L-arginine by enzymatic reaction in the presence of constitutive NO synthase. In upper GI tract, NO acts as a potent vasodilator known to increase gastric mucosa blood flow, regulates the secretion of mucus and bicarbonate, inhibits the gastric secretion and protects the gastric mucosa against the damage induced by a variety of damaging agents and corrosive substances. In contrast, ADMA first time described by Vallance and coworkers in 1992, is synthesized by the hydrolysis of proteins containing methylated arginine amino acids located predominantly within the nucleus of cells. This molecule has been shown to competitively inhibit NO synthase suggesting its regulatory role in the functions of vascular endothelial cells and systemic circulation in humans and experimental animals. Nowadays, ADMA is a potentially important risk factor for coronary artery diseases and a marker of cardiovascular risk. Increased plasma levels of ADMA have been documented in several conditions that are characterized by endothelial dysfunction, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, renal failure and tobacco exposure. The role of ADMA in other systems including GI-tract has been so far less documented. Nevertheless, ADMA was shown to directly induce oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells in vitro and to contribute to the inflammatory reaction associated with major human pathogen to gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori). Infection of gastric mucosa with this germ or H. pylori water extract led to marked increase in the plasma concentration of ADMA and significantly inhibited bicarbonate secretion, considered as one of the important components of upper GI-tract defense system. When administered to rodents, ADMA aggravated gastric mucosal lesions injury induced by cold stress, ethanol and indomethacin and this worsening effect on gastric lesions was accompanied by the significant increase in the plasma level of ADMA. This exaggeration of gastric lesions by ADMA was coincided with the inhibition of NO, the suppression of gastric blood flow and excessive release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-?. This metabolic analog of L-arginine applied to rats was exposed to water immersion and restraint stress and ischemia-reperfusion, causing an elevation of plasma levels of ADMA and gastric MDA content, which is the marker of lipid peroxidation. These effects, including the rise in the plasma levels of ADMA in rats with stress and ischemia-reperfusion-induced gastric lesions, were attenuated by concomitant treatment with L-arginine, the substrate for NO-synthase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), a reactive oxygen metabolite scavenger added to ADMA. We conclude that ADMA could be considered as an important factor contributing to the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal damage and inflammatory reaction in H. pylori-infected stomach due to inhibition of NO, suppression of GI microcirculation, and the proinflammatory and proapoptotic actions of this arginine analog. PMID:22950506

Szlachcic, Aleksandra; Krzysiek-Maczka, Gracjana; Pajdo, Robert; Targosz, Aneta; Magierowski, Marcin; Jasnos, Katarzyna; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

2013-01-01

176

The PKC, HOG and Ca2+ signalling pathways co-ordinately regulate chitin synthesis in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Chitin is an essential component of the fungal cell wall and its synthesis is under tight spatial and temporal regulation. The fungal human pathogen Candida albicans has a four member chitin synthase gene family comprising of CHS1 (class II), CHS2 (class I), CHS3 (class IV) and CHS8 (class I). LacZ reporters were fused to each CHS promoter to examine the transcriptional regulation of chitin synthesis. Each CHS promoter had a unique regulatory profile and responded to the addition of cell wall damaging agents, to mutations in specific CHS genes and exogenous Ca2+. The regulation of both CHS gene expression and chitin synthesis was co-ordinated by the PKC, HOG MAP kinase and Ca2+/calcineurin signalling pathways. Activation of these pathways also resulted in increased chitin synthase activity in vitro and elevated cell wall chitin content. Combinations of treatments that activated multiple pathways resulted in synergistic increases in CHS expression and in cell wall chitin content. Therefore, at least three pathways co-ordinately regulate chitin synthesis and activation of chitin synthesis operates at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:17302816

Munro, Carol A; Selvaggini, Serena; de Bruijn, Irene; Walker, Louise; Lenardon, Megan D; Gerssen, Bertus; Milne, Sarah; Brown, Alistair J P; Gow, Neil A R

2007-03-01

177

The PKC, HOG and Ca2+ signalling pathways co-ordinately regulate chitin synthesis in Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Summary Chitin is an essential component of the fungal cell wall and its synthesis is under tight spatial and temporal regulation. The fungal human pathogen Candida albicans has a four member chitin synthase gene family comprising of CHS1 (class II), CHS2 (class I), CHS3 (class IV) and CHS8 (class I). LacZ reporters were fused to each CHS promoter to examine the transcriptional regulation of chitin synthesis. Each CHS promoter had a unique regulatory profile and responded to the addition of cell wall damaging agents, to mutations in specific CHS genes and exogenous Ca2+. The regulation of both CHS gene expression and chitin synthesis was co-ordinated by the PKC, HOG MAP kinase and Ca2+/calcineurin signalling pathways. Activation of these pathways also resulted in increased chitin synthase activity in vitro and elevated cell wall chitin content. Combinations of treatments that activated multiple pathways resulted in synergistic increases in CHS expression and in cell wall chitin content. Therefore, at least three pathways co-ordinately regulate chitin synthesis and activation of chitin synthesis operates at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:17302816

Munro, Carol A.; Selvaggini, Serena; de Bruijn, Irene; Walker, Louise; Lenardon, Megan D.; Gerssen, Bertus; Milne, Sarah; Brown, Alistair J. P.; Gow, Neil A. R.

2009-01-01

178

Property-based design of a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor that reduces glucosylceramide in the brain[S  

PubMed Central

Synthesis inhibition is the basis for the treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease by the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor eliglustat tartrate. However, the extended use of eliglustat and related compounds for the treatment of glycosphingolipid storage diseases with CNS manifestations is limited by the lack of brain penetration of this drug. Property modeling around the D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-propanol (PDMP) pharmacophore was employed in a search for compounds of comparable activity against the GCS but lacking P-glycoprotein (MDR1) recognition. Modifications of the carboxamide N-acyl group were made to lower total polar surface area and rotatable bond number. Compounds were screened for inhibition of GCS in crude enzyme and whole cell assays and for MDR1 substrate recognition. One analog, 2-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl)-N-((1R,2R)-1-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)-1-hydroxy-3-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)propan-2-yl)acetamide (CCG-203586), was identified that inhibited GCS at low nanomolar concentrations with little to no apparent recognition by MDR1. Intraperitoneal administration of this compound to mice for 3 days resulted in a significant dose dependent decrease in brain glucosylceramide content, an effect not seen in mice dosed in parallel with eliglustat tartrate. PMID:22058426

Larsen, Scott D.; Wilson, Michael W.; Abe, Akira; Shu, Liming; George, Christopher H.; Kirchhoff, Paul; Showalter, H. D. Hollis; Xiang, Jianming; Keep, Richard F.; Shayman, James A.

2012-01-01

179

Phytotoxicity of Acetohydroxyacid Synthase Inhibitors Is Not Due to Accumulation of 2-Ketobutyrate and/or 2-Aminobutyrate.  

PubMed Central

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the site of action of herbicides of different chemical classes, such as imidazolinones, sulfonylureas, and triazolopyrimidines. Inhibition of AHAS causes the accumulation of 2-ketobutyrate (2-KB) and 2-aminobutyrate (2-AB) (the transamination product of 2-KB), and it has been proposed that the phytotoxicity of these inhibitors is due to this accumulation. Experiments were done to determine the relationship between accumulation of 2-KB and 2-AB and the phytotoxicity of imazaquin to maize (Zea mays). Imazaquin concentrations that inhibit growth of maize plants also cause the accumulation of 2-KB and 2-AB in the shoots. Supplementation of imazaquin-treated plants with isoleucine reduced the pools of 2-KB and 2-AB in the plant but did not protect plants from the growth inhibitory effects of imazaquin. Conversely, feeding 2-AB to maize plants increased 2-KB and 2-AB pools to much higher levels than those observed in imazaquin-treated plants, yet such high pools of 2-KB and 2-AB in the plant had no significant effect on growth. These results conclusively demonstrate that growth inhibition following imazaquin treatment is not due to accumulation of 2-KB and/or 2-AB in plants. Changes in the amino acid profiles after treatment with imazaquin suggest that starvation for the branched-chain amino acids may be the primary cause of growth retardation of maize. PMID:12232015

Shaner, D. L.; Singh, B. K.

1993-01-01

180

Eliglustat tartrate, an orally active glucocerebroside synthase inhibitor for the potential treatment of Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage diseases.  

PubMed

Eliglustat tartrate (Genz-112638), currently under development by Genzyme Corp, is a glucocerebroside (glucosylceramide) synthase inhibitor for the treatment of Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage disorders. Gaucher disease is an inherited defect of lysosomal functions caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene leading to accumulation of glucocerebroside, primarily in macrophages. Gaucher disease is characterized by visceromegaly and skeletal complications, including osteoporosis and painful episodes of osteonecrosis. In vitro studies demonstrated that, following exposure to eliglustat tartrate, the abundance of GM1 and GM3 gangliosides in cultured human erythroleukemia cells and murine melanoma cells was decreased. In vivo, eliglustat tartrate administered to Asp409Val/null mice lowered the concentrations of glucocerebroside in the liver, lung and spleen and reduced the number of Gaucher cells in the liver. In a phase Ib clinical trial in healthy volunteers, plasma glucocerebroside concentrations were decreased after dosing with eliglustat tartrate, and in phase II clinical trials in patients with type 1 (non-neuronopathic) Gaucher disease, spleen and liver volumes were diminished. Patients also demonstrated improved bone mineral density, correction of abnormal bone marrow signal with MRI and normalization of glucocerebroside and ganglioside GM3 levels. Eliglustat tartrate is orally active and, with potent effects on the primary identified molecular target for type 1 Gaucher disease and other glycosphingolipidoses, appears likely to fulfill high expectations for clinical efficacy. PMID:20872320

Cox, Timothy M

2010-10-01

181

Design and syntheses of novel phthalazin-1(2H)-one derivatives as acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed

A series of 2-substituted-8-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)-4-methylphthalazin-1-one derivatives, 7a-7w, were designed via an ortho-substituent cyclization strategy to discover a new herbicidal lead structure. These compounds were synthesized by a seven-step route using 3-hydroxy-acetophenone as a starting material. Determination of the Ki values against wild-type A. thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) (EC 4.1.3.18) indicated that some of the compounds displayed good enzyme inhibition activity comparable to that of KIH-6127. The further preliminary bioassay data on weeds showed that the synthesized compounds exhibited typical injury symptoms of AHAS-inhibiting herbicides, and some of them showed broad-spectrum and high herbicidal activities in postemergence treatments against Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria viridis, Brassica juncea, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Chenopodium album at an application rate of 150 g ai/ha. To our knowledge, this is the first report of methylphthalazin-1-one derivatives as AHAS inhibitors. PMID:17117801

Li, Yuan-Xiang; Luo, Yan-Ping; Xi, Zhen; Niu, Congwei; He, Yan-Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

2006-11-29

182

QSAR studies on benzoylaminobenzoic acid derivatives as inhibitors of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III.  

PubMed

Fatty acid biosynthesis is essential for most of the bacterial survival. Components of this biosynthetic pathway have been identified as attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial agents. FabH, beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, is a attractive target since it is central to the initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies have been carried out on a series of benzoylaminobenzoic acid derivatives as potent inhibitors of FabH and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli, which demonstrate FabH inhibitory activity in cell free and whole cell system. The QSAR studies revealed that inhibitory activity increases with increase in hydrophobicity, molar refractivity, aromaticity, and presence of OH group (on x position of the nucleus). On the other side presence of hetero-atoms like N, O, or S at R(1) position of the nucleus decreases the inhibitory activity. The comparison of QSAR between the FabH inhibitory activity and antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, E. faecalis, N. meningitidis also demonstrates that the hydrophobicity, aromaticity and presence of OH group (on x position of the nucleus) are conducive for the inhibitory activity. PMID:17707951

Singh, Satyakam; Soni, Love K; Gupta, Manish K; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S; Kaskhedikar, S G

2008-05-01

183

Characterization of Maleimide-Based Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) Inhibitors as Stimulators of Steroidogenesis  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of GSK-3? has been well documented to account for the behavioral actions of the mood stabilizer lithium in various animal models of mood disorders. Recent studies have showed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3? resulted in anxiolytic-like and pro-social behavior. In our ongoing efforts to develop GSK-3? inhibitors for the treatment of mood disorders, SAR studies on maleimide-based compounds were undertaken. We present herein for the first time that some of these GSK-3? inhibitors, in particular analogs 1 and 9, were able to stimulate progesterone production in the MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cell model of steroidogenesis without any significant toxicity. These two compounds were tested in the SmartCube® behavioral assay and showed anxiolytic-like signatures following daily dose administration (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 13 days. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that GSK-3? inhibition could influence neuroactive steroid production thereby mediating the modulation of anxiety-like behavior in vivo. PMID:23725591

Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Midzak, Andrew; Gaisina, Irina N.; Sabath, Emily V.; Fedolak, Allison; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Kozikowski, Alan P.

2013-01-01

184

Chitin Biotechnology Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article describes the current status of the production and consumption of chitin and chitosan, and their current practical applications in biotechnology with some attempted uses. The applications include: 1) cationic agents for polluted waste-water treatment, 2) agricultural materials, 3) food and feed additives, 4) hypocholesterolemic agents, 5) biomedical and pharmaceutical materials, 6) wound-healing materials, 7) blood anticoagulant, antithrombogenic

Shigehiro Hirano

1996-01-01

185

Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors Prevent the Growth-inhibiting Effects of Quinpirole  

PubMed Central

Purpose Both dopamine and nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated in the signal cascade mediating ocular growth inhibition. If both are part of the same pathway, which precedes the other? We tested the hypothesis that dopamine acts upstream of NO, by using two NOS inhibitors in combination with the dopamine agonist quinpirole, and measuring the effects on ocular growth rate. Methods Chicks wore ?10 D lenses or diffusers (FD) for 4d starting at age 13d. Experimental eyes received daily 20 ?l injections of the following: Quinpirole: lens: n=12; FD: n=20; n-?-propyl-L-arginine (n-PLA): lens: n=6; FD: n=4; quinpirole + n-PLA: lens: n=17; FD: n=19; quinpirole + L-NIO: lens: n=12; FD: n=12. Saline injections were done as controls. High frequency ultrasonography was done at the start, and on day 5, prior to injections and 3 hours later. Refractions were measured on day5. Results As expected, quinpirole prevented the development of axial myopia in both paradigms. When quinpirole was combined with either NOS inhibitor, however, eyes became myopic compared to quinpirole (FD: n-PLA: ?5.9D vs ?3.4D; L-NIO: ?5.8D vs ?3.4D; LENS: n-PLA: ?3.5D vs ?0.4D; p<0.05 for all; L-NIO was not significant). This was the result of a dis-inhibition of vitreous chamber growth vs quinpirole (FD: n-PLA: 401 vs 275 ?m/4d; L-NIO: 440 vs 275 ?m/4d; LENS: n-PLA: 407 vs 253/4d; L-NIO: 403 vs 253 ?m/4d; p<0.05). Only n-PLA prevented the quinpirole-induced choroidal thickening in lens-wearing eyes (0 vs 31 ?m/3hr; p<0.05). Choroidal thickening was not inhibited by either drug in FD eyes. Conclusions Dopamine acts upstream of NO and the choroidal response in the signal cascade mediating ocular growth inhibition in both form deprivation and negative lens wear. That neither NOS inhibitor inhibits choroidal thickening in FD eyes suggests that the choroidal mechanisms differ in the two paradigms. PMID:24061155

Nickla, Debora L.; Lee, Laimeng; Totonelly, Kristen

2014-01-01

186

Chitin synthesis in chlorovirus CVK2-infected chlorella cells.  

PubMed

Hyaluronan synthesis in chlorovirus PBCV-1-infected Chlorella cells was previously reported (DeAngelis et al., 1997). In contrast, we report here on the detection, characterization, and expression of a gene for chitin synthase (chs) encoded by chlorovirus CVK2 isolated in Kyoto, Japan. The CVK2 chs gene encoding an open reading frame of 516 aa was expressed as early as 10 min postinfection (p.i.), peaked at 20-40 min p.i., and disappeared at 120-180 min p.i. The chitin polysaccharide began to accumulate as chitinase-sensitive, hair-like fibers on the outside of the virus-infected Chlorella cell wall by 30 min p.i. All chloroviruses without the gene for hyaluronan synthase (has) alternatively contained the chs gene, suggesting the importance of polysaccharide production in the course of virus infection. A few chloroviruses possessed both the chs and has genes and produced chitin and hyaluronan simultaneously. Polysaccharide accumulation on the algal surface may protect virus-infected algae from uptake by other organisms, such as protozoa. Since CVK2 was reported to encode two chitinases and one chitosanase, CVK2 is a very peculiar virus that encodes enzymes required for both the synthesis and the degradation of chitin materials. PMID:12429521

Kawasaki, Takeru; Tanaka, Masahiro; Fujie, Makoto; Usami, Shoji; Sakai, Kazuo; Yamada, Takashi

2002-10-10

187

Impact of the prostaglandin-synthase 2 inhibitor celecoxib on ovulation and luteal events in women  

PubMed Central

Background Ovarian prostaglandins are critical in normal ovulation processes, thus their inhibition may provide contraceptive benefits. This study was performed to determine the effect of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor, celecoxib, on ovulation and luteal events in women. Study design Randomized double-blind crossover design. Ovulatory reproductive-aged women underwent ovarian ultrasound and serum hormone monitoring during four menstrual cycles (control cycle, treatment cycle 1, washout cycle, treatment cycle 2). Subjects received study drug (oral celecoxib 400 mg or placebo) either 1) once daily starting on cycle day 8 and continuing until follicle rupture or the onset of next menses if follicle rupture did not occur (pre-LH surge dosing) or 2) once daily beginning with the LH surge and continued for 6 days (post-LH surge dosing). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the above treatment schemes and received the other in the subsequent treatment cycle. The main outcomes were evidence of ovulatory and luteal dysfunction as determined by inhibited/delayed follicle rupture and reduced luteal progesterone synthesis or lifespan, respectively. Results A total of 20 women enrolled and completed the study (Group 1 = 10, Group 2 = 10) with similar demographics between groups. Nineteen subjects exhibited normal ovulation in the control cycle (one had a blunted LH peak). In comparison to control cycles, treatment cycles resulted in a significant increase in ovulatory dysfunction [pre-LH treatment: 30% (6/20), p = 0.04; post-LH treatment: 25% (5/20), p = 0.04]. Peak progesterone, estradiol, and LH levels and luteal phase length did not differ significantly between control and either treatment cycles. Conclusions Although treatment with celecoxib before or after the LH surge increases the rate of ovulatory dysfunction, most women ovulate normally. Thus, this selective COX2 inhibitor appears to be of limited usefulness as a potential emergency contraceptive. PMID:22902348

Edelman, A.B.; Jensen, J.T.; Doom, C; Hennebold, J.D.

2014-01-01

188

Use of a chitin synthesis inhibitor to control fleas on wild rodents important in the maintenance of plague, Yersinia pestis, in California.  

PubMed

A study was designed to test the insect development inhibitors fluazuron and lufenuron for the control of fleas on sylvatic rodents as an adjunct to the control of plague. Historical data of flea burden from 15 prior years of study at Chuchupate Campground, Ventura County, CA, were compared to six years of treatment period data to determine if fluazuron and lufenuron were effective in controlling flea densities. The insect development inhibitors, delivered systemically via a feed cube, reduced flea loads effectively on California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi), long-eared woodrats (Neotoma macrotis), and mice (Peromyscus spp.) but not on Merriam's chipmunks (Tamias merriami). PMID:19263847

Davis, Richard M; Cleugh, Erika; Smith, Randall T; Fritz, Curtis L

2008-12-01

189

Chitin Synthesis in Chlorovirus CVK2Infected Chlorella Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyaluronan synthesis in chlorovirus PBCV-1-infected Chlorella cells was previously reported (DeAngelis et al., 1997). In contrast, we report here on the detection, characterization, and expression of a gene for chitin synthase (chs) encoded by chlorovirus CVK2 isolated in Kyoto, Japan. The CVK2 chs gene encoding an open reading frame of 516 aa was expressed as early as 10 min postinfection

Takeru Kawasaki; Masahiro Tanaka; Makoto Fujie; Shoji Usami; Kazuo Sakai; Takashi Yamada

2002-01-01

190

Synthesis of potent inhibitors of ?-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III as potential antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis FabH, an essential enzyme in the mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway, is an attractive target for novel anti-tubercolosis agents. Structure-based design and synthesis of 1-(4-carboxybutyl)-4-(4-(substituted benzyloxy)phenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid derivatives 7a-h, a subset of eight potential FabH inhibitors, is described in this paper. The Vilsmeier-Haack reaction was employed as a key step. The structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were identified by IR, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, ESI-MS and HRMS. The alamarBlue™ microassay was employed to evaluate the compounds 7a-h against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H??Rv. The results demonstrate that the compound 7d possesses good in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H??Rv (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration value [MIC], 12.5 µg/mL).These compounds may prove useful in the discovery and development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs. PMID:22534662

Liu, Yan; Zhong, Wu; Li, Rui-Juan; Li, Song

2012-01-01

191

The Discovery of Potentially Selective Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) Inhibitors: A Combination of Pharmacophore Modelling, CoMFA, Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies  

PubMed Central

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays an important role in neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation. Selective inhibition of nNOS over its other isozymes is highly desirable for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases to avoid undesirable effects. In this study, we present a workflow for the identification and prioritization of compounds as potentially selective human nNOS inhibitors. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were constructed based on a set of known nNOS inhibitors. The pharmacophore models were evaluated by Pareto surface and CoMFA (Comparative Molecular Field Analysis) analyses. The best pharmacophore model, which included 7 pharmacophore features, was used as a search query in the SPECS database (SPECS®, Delft, The Netherlands). The hit compounds were further filtered by scoring and docking. Ten hits were identified as potential selective nNOS inhibitors. PMID:24830557

Xu, Guanhong; Chen, Yue; Shen, Kun; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Fei; He, Yan

2014-01-01

192

The discovery of potentially selective human neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) Inhibitors: a combination of pharmacophore modelling, CoMFA, virtual screening and molecular docking studies.  

PubMed

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays an important role in neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation. Selective inhibition of nNOS over its other isozymes is highly desirable for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases to avoid undesirable effects. In this study, we present a workflow for the identification and prioritization of compounds as potentially selective human nNOS inhibitors. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were constructed based on a set of known nNOS inhibitors. The pharmacophore models were evaluated by Pareto surface and CoMFA (Comparative Molecular Field Analysis) analyses. The best pharmacophore model, which included 7 pharmacophore features, was used as a search query in the SPECS database (SPECS®, Delft, The Netherlands). The hit compounds were further filtered by scoring and docking. Ten hits were identified as potential selective nNOS inhibitors. PMID:24830557

Xu, Guanhong; Chen, Yue; Shen, Kun; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Fei; He, Yan

2014-01-01

193

Time-dependent enhancement or inhibition of endotoxin-induced vascular injury in rat intestine by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), on the vascular damage induced by the endotoxin, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in the ileum and colon were investigated in the conscious rat over a 5 h period. 2. Administration of LPS (3 mg kg-1, i.v.) increased ileal and colonic vascular injury after a lag period of 2 h, as determined by the leakage of radiolabelled albumin. 3. Administration of L-NAME (1-5 mg kg-1, s.c.) concurrently with LPS, produced a dose-dependent increase in vascular albumin leakage in the intestinal tissues, when determined over a 5 h period. Vascular albumin leakage with LPS and L-NAME (5 mg kg-1) was substantially increased after 1 h, reached maximal levels 3 h after administration, and then slowly declined. 4. L-NMMA (50 mg kg-1, s.c.), likewise elevated intestinal albumin leakage when administered concurrently with LPS, but this reached maximal levels after 1 h and rapidly declined over the subsequent 2 h. 5. In control rats, in the absence of LPS challenge, neither L-NAME (5 mg kg-1, s.c.) nor L-NMMA (50 mg kg-1, s.c.) increased intestinal vascular leakage of albumin over a 5 h period. 6. By contrast, when L-NAME (1-5 mg kg-1, s.c.) or L-NMMA (12.5-50 mg kg-1, s.c.) was injected 3 h after LPS, a dose-dependent reduction in the LPS-provoked vascular albumin leakage was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7518298

Laszlo, F.; Whittle, B. J.; Moncada, S.

1994-01-01

194

Inhibitor-?B kinase attenuates Hsp90-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase function in vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) is the predominant isoform that generates NO in the blood vessels. Many different regulators, including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), govern eNOS function. Hsp90-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS is a critical event that determines eNOS activity. In our earlier study we demonstrated an inhibitor-?B kinase-? (IKK?)-Hsp90 interaction in a high-glucose environment. In the present study we further define the putative binding domain of IKK? on Hsp90. Interestingly, IKK? binds to the middle domain of Hsp90, which has been shown to interact with eNOS to stimulate its activity. This new finding suggests a tighter regulation of eNOS activity than was previously assumed. Furthermore, addition of purified recombinant IKK? to the eNOS-Hsp90 complex reduces the eNOS-Hsp90 interaction and eNOS activity, indicating a competition for Hsp90 between eNOS and IKK?. The pathophysiological relevance of the IKK?-Hsp90 interaction has also been demonstrated using in vitro vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated signaling and an Ins2(Akita) in vivo model. Our study further defines the preferential involvement of ?- vs. ?-isoforms of Hsp90 in the IKK?-eNOS-Hsp90 interaction, even though both Hsp90? and Hsp90? stimulate NO production. These studies not only reinforce the significance of maintaining a homeostatic balance of eNOS and IKK? within the cell system that regulates NO production, but they also confirm that the IKK?-Hsp90 interaction is favored in a high-glucose environment, leading to impairment of the eNOS-Hsp90 interaction, which contributes to endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications in diabetes. PMID:25652452

Natarajan, Mohan; Konopinski, Ryszard; Krishnan, Manickam; Roman, Linda; Bera, Alakesh; Hongying, Zheng; Habib, Samy L; Mohan, Sumathy

2015-04-15

195

CESA TRAFFICKING INHIBITOR Inhibits Cellulose Deposition and Interferes with the Trafficking of Cellulose Synthase Complexes and Their Associated Proteins KORRIGAN1 and POM2/CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE PROTEIN11[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) at the plasma membrane (PM) are aligned with cortical microtubules (MTs) and direct the biosynthesis of cellulose. The mechanism of the interaction between CSCs and MTs, and the cellular determinants that control the delivery of CSCs at the PM, are not yet well understood. We identified a unique small molecule, CESA TRAFFICKING INHIBITOR (CESTRIN), which reduces cellulose content and alters the anisotropic growth of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls. We monitored the distribution and mobility of fluorescently labeled cellulose synthases (CESAs) in live Arabidopsis cells under chemical exposure to characterize their subcellular effects. CESTRIN reduces the velocity of PM CSCs and causes their accumulation in the cell cortex. The CSC-associated proteins KORRIGAN1 (KOR1) and POM2/CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE PROTEIN1 (CSI1) were differentially affected by CESTRIN treatment, indicating different forms of association with the PM CSCs. KOR1 accumulated in bodies similar to CESA; however, POM2/CSI1 dissociated into the cytoplasm. In addition, MT stability was altered without direct inhibition of MT polymerization, suggesting a feedback mechanism caused by cellulose interference. The selectivity of CESTRIN was assessed using a variety of subcellular markers for which no morphological effect was observed. The association of CESAs with vesicles decorated by the trans-Golgi network-localized protein SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS61 (SYP61) was increased under CESTRIN treatment, implicating SYP61 compartments in CESA trafficking. The properties of CESTRIN compared with known CESA inhibitors afford unique avenues to study and understand the mechanism under which PM-associated CSCs are maintained and interact with MTs and to dissect their trafficking routes in etiolated hypocotyls. PMID:25535279

Wilkop, Thomas E.; Esteve, Victor Esteva; Jeannotte, Richard; Lathe, Rahul; Vernhettes, Samantha; Weimer, Bart; Hicks, Glenn; Alonso, Jose; Labavitch, John; Persson, Staffan; Ehrhardt, David; Drakakaki, Georgia

2015-01-01

196

Systemic Delivery of a Glucosylceramide Synthase Inhibitor Reduces CNS Substrates and Increases Lifespan in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Gaucher Disease  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic Gaucher disease (nGD), also known as type 2 or type 3 Gaucher disease, is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GC). This deficiency impairs the degradation of glucosylceramide (GluCer) and glucosylsphingosine (GluSph), leading to their accumulation in the brains of patients and mouse models of the disease. These accumulated substrates have been thought to cause the severe neuropathology and early death observed in patients with nGD and mouse models. Substrate accumulation is evident at birth in both nGD mouse models and humans affected with the most severe type of the disease. Current treatment of non-nGD relies on the intravenous delivery of recombinant human glucocerebrosidase to replace the missing enzyme or the administration of glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors to attenuate GluCer production. However, the currently approved drugs that use these mechanisms do not cross the blood brain barrier, and thus are not expected to provide a benefit for the neurological complications in nGD patients. Here we report the successful reduction of substrate accumulation and CNS pathology together with a significant increase in lifespan after systemic administration of a novel glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor to a mouse model of nGD. To our knowledge this is the first compound shown to cross the blood brain barrier and reduce substrates in this animal model while significantly enhancing its lifespan. These results reinforce the concept that systemically administered glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors could hold enhanced therapeutic promise for patients afflicted with neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:22912851

Cabrera-Salazar, Mario A.; DeRiso, Matthew; Bercury, Scott D.; Li, Lingyun; Lydon, John T.; Weber, William; Pande, Nilesh; Cromwell, Mandy A.; Copeland, Diane; Leonard, John; Cheng, Seng H.; Scheule, Ronald K.

2012-01-01

197

Syntheses of 3-Ethylidenequinuclidine derivatives as squalene synthase inhibitors. Part 2: enzyme inhibition and effects on plasma lipid levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squalene synthase (E.C. 2.5.1.21) is a microsomal enzyme which catalyzes the reductive dimerization of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate to form squalene, and is involved in the first committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis. It is an attractive target for hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic strategies. We synthesized a series of 3-ethylidenequinuclidine derivatives, and evaluated their ability to inhibit squalene synthase in vitro

Tsukasa Ishihara; Hirotoshi Kakuta; Hiroshi Moritani; Tohru Ugawa; Shuichi Sakamoto; Shin-ichi Tsukamoto; Isao Yanagisawa

2003-01-01

198

Development of a high-throughput assay for aldosterone synthase inhibitors using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Aldosterone plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Aldosterone biosynthesis involves three membrane-bound enzymes: aldosterone synthase, adrenodoxin, and adrenodoxin reductase. Here, we report the development of a mass spectrometry-based high-throughput whole cell-based assay for aldosterone synthesis. A human adrenal carcinoma cell line (H295R) overexpressing human aldosterone synthase cDNA was established. The production of aldosterone in these cells was initiated with the addition of 11-deoxycorticosterone, the immediate substrate of aldosterone synthase. An automatic liquid handler was used to gently distribute cells uniformly to well plates. The adaption of a second automated liquid handling system to extract aldosterone from the cell culture medium into organic solvent enabled the development of 96- and 384-well plate formats for this cellular assay. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the detection of aldosterone. Production of aldosterone was linear with time and saturable with increasing substrate concentration. The assay was highly reproducible with an overall average Z' value=0.49. This high-throughput assay would enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of aldosterone biosynthesis. PMID:24959941

Yurek, David; Yu, Lan; Schrementi, James; Bell, Michael G; McGee, James; Kowala, Mark; Kuo, Ming-shang; Wang, Jian

2014-10-01

199

Chemistry and application of chitin and chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organosoluble derivatives of chitin were prepared and used as precursors for regioselective and quantitative chemical modifications. Based on these precursors, various sugar groups could be introduced to prepare nonnatural branched chitins and chitosans. With a view to establishing a new route to facile modifications, reactivity of ?-chitin was examined and confirmed to be much higher than that of ordinary ?-chitin.

Keisuke Kurita

1998-01-01

200

Effects of L-NAME, a non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on AlCl3-induced toxicity in the rat forebrain cortex.  

PubMed

The present experiments were done to determine the effectiveness of a non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on oxidative stress parameters induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) intrahippocampal injections in Wistar rats. Animals were sacrificed 3 h and 30 d after treatments, heads were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and forebrain cortices were removed. Crude mitochondrial fraction preparations of forebrain cortices were used for the biochemical analyses: nitrite levels, superoxide production, malondialdehyde concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and reduced glutathione contents. AlCl(3) injection resulted in increased nitrite concentrations, superoxide anion production, malondialdehyde concentrations and reduced glutathione contents in the forebrain cortex, suggesting that AlCl(3) exposure promoted oxidative stress in this brain structure. The biochemical changes observed in neuronal tissues showed that aluminium acted as a pro-oxidant. However, the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, exerted anti-oxidant actions in AlCl(3)-treated animals. These results revealed that NO-mediated neurotoxicity due to intrahippocampal AlCl3 injection spread temporally and spatially to the forebrain cortex, and suggested a potentially neuroprotective effect for L-NAME. PMID:19255519

Stevanovi?, Ivana D; Jovanovi?, Marina D; Jelenkovi?, Ankica; Coli?, Miodrag; Stojanovi?, Ivana; Ninkovi?, Milica

2009-03-01

201

Chitin Deacetylases: Properties and Applications  

PubMed Central

Chitin deacetylases, occurring in marine bacteria, several fungi and a few insects, catalyze the deacetylation of chitin, a structural biopolymer found in countless forms of marine life, fungal cell and spore walls as well as insect cuticle and peritrophic matrices. The deacetylases recognize a sequence of four GlcNAc units in the substrate, one of which undergoes deacetylation: the resulting chitosan has a more regular deacetylation pattern than a chitosan treated with hot NaOH. Nevertheless plain chitin is a poor substrate, but glycolated, reprecipitated or depolymerized chitins are good ones. The marine Vibrio sp. colonize the chitin particles and decompose the chitin thanks to the concerted action of chitinases and deacetylases, otherwise they could not tolerate chitosan, a recognized antibacterial biopolymer. In fact, chitosan is used to prevent infections in fishes and crustaceans. Considering that chitin deacetylases play very important roles in the biological attack and defense systems, they may find applications for the biological control of fungal plant pathogens or insect pests in agriculture and for the biocontrol of opportunistic fungal human pathogens. PMID:20161969

Zhao, Yong; Park, Ro-Dong; Muzzarelli, Riccardo A. A.

2010-01-01

202

Food applications of chitin and chitosans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin is the second most abundant natural biopolymer after cellulose. The chemical structure of chitin is similar to that of cellulose with 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-glucose (NAG) monomers attached via ?(1?4) linkages. Chitosan is the deacetylated (to varying degrees) form of chitin, which, unlike chitin, is soluble in acidic solutions. Application of chitinous products in foods and pharmaceuticals as well as processing aids

Fereidoon Shahidi; Janak Kamil Vidana Arachchi; You-Jin Jeon

1999-01-01

203

The central administration of C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, activates sympathetic outflow and thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue.  

PubMed

The present work investigated the participation of interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), which is an important site for thermogenesis, in the anti-obesity effects of C75, a synthetic inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS). We report that a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of C75 induced hypophagia and weight loss in fasted male Wistar rats. Furthermore, C75 induced a rapid increase in core body temperature and an increase in heat dissipation. In parallel, C75 stimulated IBAT thermogenesis, which was evidenced by a marked increase in the IBAT temperature that preceded the rise in the core body temperature and an increase in the mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-1. As with C75, an i.c.v. injection of cerulenin, a natural FAS inhibitor, increased the core body and IBAT temperatures. The sympathetic IBAT denervation attenuated all of the thermoregulatory effects of FAS inhibitors as well as the C75 effect on weight loss and hypophagia. C75 induced the expression of Fos in the paraventricular nucleus, preoptic area, dorsomedial nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, and raphé pallidus, all of which support a central role of FAS in regulating IBAT thermogenesis. These data indicate a role for IBAT in the increase in body temperature and hypophagia that is induced by FAS inhibitors and suggest new mechanisms explaining the weight loss induced by these compounds. PMID:23827961

Cassolla, Priscila; Uchoa, Ernane Torres; Mansur Machado, Frederico Sander; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Rissato Garófalo, Maria Antonieta; de Almeida Brito, Nilton; Kagohara Elias, Lucila Leico; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; do Carmo Kettelhut, Isis; Carvalho Navegantes, Luiz Carlos

2013-12-01

204

Synthesis of isoprenoid bisphosphonate ethers through C–P bond formations: Potential inhibitors of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase  

PubMed Central

Summary A set of bisphosphonate ethers has been prepared through sequential phosphonylation and alkylation of monophosphonate ethers. After formation of the corresponding phosphonic acid salts, these compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit the enzyme geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS). Five of the new compounds show IC50 values of less than 1 ?M against GGDPS with little to no activity against the related enzyme farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS). The most active compound displayed an IC50 value of 82 nM when assayed with GGDPS, and no activity against FDPS even at a 10 ?M concentration. PMID:25161722

Zhou, Xiang; Reilly, Jacqueline E; Loerch, Kathleen A; Hohl, Raymond J

2014-01-01

205

Stable isotopic studies on chitin  

SciTech Connect

Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen stable isotope ratios of the poly-amino-sugar chitin isolated from exo-skeletons of 75 arthropod species collected in 59 locations were determined. The objectives were to understand the environmental, climatic, and biological influences on the isotope ratios and to develop a data base for interpreting isotope ratios of archaeological and fossil chitins. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in chitin isolates showed large variations which reflect intrinsic compositional and isotopic heterogeneities as well as differences caused by methods of preparation.

Schimmelmann, A.

1985-01-01

206

An innovative strategy for dual inhibitor design and its application in dual inhibition of human thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase enzymes.  

PubMed

Due to the diligence of inherent redundancy and robustness in many biological networks and pathways, multitarget inhibitors present a new prospect in the pharmaceutical industry for treatment of complex diseases. Nevertheless, to design multitarget inhibitors is concurrently a great challenge for medicinal chemists. We have developed a novel computational approach by integrating the affinity predictions from structure-based virtual screening with dual ligand-based pharmacophore to discover potential dual inhibitors of human Thymidylate synthase (hTS) and human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR). These are the key enzymes in folate metabolic pathway that is necessary for the biosynthesis of RNA, DNA, and protein. Their inhibition has found clinical utility as antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiprotozoal agents. A druglike database was utilized to perform dual-target docking studies. Hits identified through docking experiments were mapped over a dual pharmacophore which was developed from experimentally known dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. Pharmacophore mapping procedure helped us in eliminating the compounds which do not possess basic chemical features necessary for dual inhibition. Finally, three structurally diverse hit compounds that showed key interactions at both active sites, mapped well upon the dual pharmacophore, and exhibited lowest binding energies were regarded as possible dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. Furthermore, optimization studies were performed for final dual hit compound and eight optimized dual hits demonstrating excellent binding features at target systems were also regarded as possible dual inhibitors of hTS and hDHFR. In general, the strategy used in the current study could be a promising computational approach and may be generally applicable to other dual target drug designs. PMID:23577115

Arooj, Mahreen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Cao, Guang ping; Lee, Keun Woo

2013-01-01

207

Effects of estrous synchronization on response to nitric oxide donors, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, and endothelin-1 in vitro.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of nitric oxide (NO) donors, endothelin-(ET-1), and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors on bovine luteal function in vitro. In experiment 1, estrus in Brahman cows was synchronized with Synchro-Mate-B (SMB) and day-13-14 corpora luteal slices were weighed, diced and incubated in vitro. Treatments (100 ng/ml) were: vehicle, N[see symbol in text]-nitro-L-arginine-L-methyl ester (L-NAME), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), DETA-NONOate, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), or ET-1. In experiment 2, estrus was synchronized with Lutalyse, a Controlled Intravaginal Progesterone Releasing Device (CIDR), or cows were not synchronized. Corpora lutea were collected, weighed, and luteal slices were weighed, diced and incubated in vitro with treatments. Treatments (100ng/ml) were: vehicle, L- NAME, L-NMMA, DETA, DETA-NONOate, sodium nitroprusside, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) or endothelin-1. Tissues were incubated in M- 199 for 1 h without treatments and for 4 and 8 h in both experiments with treatments in both experiments. Media were analyzed for progesterone, prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha (PGE2, PGF2alpha) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Hormone data in experiments 1 and 2 were analyzed by 2 x 7 and 3 x 2 x 8 factorial design for analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively. Luteal weights in experiment 2 were analyzed by a one-way ANOVA. Concentrations of progesterone in media were similar (P > or = 0.05) among treatments within experiments. Concentrations of PGE2 in media in experiment 1 were undetectable in 90 and 57% of the samples at 4 and 8 h, respectively. PGF2alpha increased (P < or = 0.05) with time, but did not differ (P > or = 0.05) among treatments. Secretion of PGF2alpha was not affected by treatments (P > or = 0.05). In experiment 2, luteal weights of the induced estrous cycle were decreased (P < or = 0.05) by Lutalyse. Concentrations of PGE2 and PGF2alpha increased (P < or = 0.05) with time in control of all three synchronization regimens. DETA-NONOate, SNAP, sodium nitroprusside (NO donors) and ET-1 increased (P < or = 0.05) PGE2 except in the CIDR synchronized group (P > or = 0.05). No treatment increased (P > or = 0.05) PGF2alpha in any synchronization regimen. It is concluded that either SMB containing norgestomet or a CIDR containing progesterone alters luteal secretion of PGE2, Lutalyse lowers luteal weights in the induced estrous cycle, and NO or ET-1 given alone are not luteolytic agents. It is suggested that NO and ET-1 could have indirect antiluteolytic/luteotropic effects via increasing PGE2 secretion by luteal tissue rather than being luteolytic. PMID:15560115

Weems, Y S; Randel, R D; Tatman, S; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Weems, C W

2004-10-01

208

MICROBIOLOGY: Chitin, Cholera, and Competence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Vibrio cholerae, a human pathogen, inhabits aquatic environments and is often associated with chitin-containing organisms. In their Perspective, Bartlett and Azam discuss the findings of Meibom et al. in the same issue of chitin-mediated natural DNA transformation in V. cholerae. This finding opens a new window for understanding conditions that influence the evolution of this bacterium in aquatic habitats.

Douglas H. Bartlett (cripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California; Marine Biology Research Division)

2005-12-16

209

Evidence that the neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7 -nitroindazole inhibits monoamine oxidase in the rat: in vivo effects on extracellular striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated in vivo the kinetics of the changes in rat striatal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA), and its monoamine oxidase (MAO)-derived metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), following administration either of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) and N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) or of the widely used MAO inhibitor pargyline. DA and DOPAC concentrations were determined every 4

Christophe Desvignes; Lionel Bert; Laurent Vinet; Luc Denoroy; Bernard Renaud; Laura Lambás-Señas

1999-01-01

210

Chs7p, a New Protein Involved in the Control of Protein Export from the Endoplasmic Reticulum that Is Specifically Engaged in the Regulation of Chitin Synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS7 gene encodes an integral membrane protein located in the ER which is directly involved in chitin synthesis through the regulation of chitin synthase III (CSIII) activity. In the absence of CHS7 product, Chs3p, but not other secreted proteins, is retained in the ER, lead- ing to a severe defect in CSIII activity and conse- quently, to

Jose A. Trilla; Angel Durán; Cesar Roncero

1999-01-01

211

Investigating the efficacy of pamidronate, a chemical inhibitor of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, in the inhibition of influenza virus infection in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Influenza A virus has caused significant pandemics in the past decades, including the H1N1?2009 pandemic. Viperin is an interferon?inducible protein that acts as a broad?spectrum antiviral protein via the inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS). To mimic this activity of viperin, the present study investigated the effectiveness of a commercially available FPPS inhibitor (pamidronate) as an inhibitor of influenza virus infection in vitro and in vivo. HeLaM cells were treated with pamidronate to determine its effect on the replication of influenza virus A/H1N1/WSN/1933. C57BL/6 mice were also subjected to intratracheal pamidronate treatment regimes prior to and following lethal influenza challenge. Treatment with the FPPS inhibitor in vitro resulted in a considerable reduction in the viral titer of ~1 log and diminished lipid raft formation without cellular toxicity, thus mimicking the antiviral effect of viperin. However, pamidronate lacked efficacy in vivo and was associated with increased pulmonary damage, most likely due to the complexity of drug?host interactions in the infected mice. Further studies are warranted on pamidronate treatment in other infectious diseases that are more susceptible to FPPS inhibition. PMID:24154548

Tan, Kai Sen; Ng, Wai Chii; Seet, Ju Ee; Olfat, Farzad; Engelward, Bevin P; Chow, Vincent T K

2014-01-01

212

Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime Inhibits Hematopoietic Regeneration in Stem Cell Recipient Mice.  

PubMed

Small-molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) have demonstrated strong anti-leukemia effects in preclinical studies. Here, we investigated the effect of GSK3? inhibitor 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) previously shown to inhibit leukemia cell growth in vitro and of animal models on hematopoietic regeneration in recipients of stem cell transplant. BIO administered to immunocompromised mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells inhibited human stem cell engraftment in the bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood. BIO reduced CD34(+) progenitor cells in the BM, and primitive lymphoid progenitors re-populated host thymus at later stages post-transplant. The development of all T-cell subsets in the thymus was suppressed in BIO-treated mice. Human cell engraftment was gradually restored after discontinuation of BIO treatment; however, T-cell depletion remained until the end of experiment, which correlated with the attenuated thymic function in the host. BIO delayed CD34(+) cell expansion in stroma-supported or cytokine-only cultures. BIO treatment delayed progenitor cell divisions and induced apoptosis in cultures with sub-optimal cytokine support. In addition, BIO inhibited B- and T-cell development in co-cultures with MS5 and OP9-DL1 BM stroma cells, respectively. These data suggest that administration of GKS3? inhibitors may act to delay hematopoietic regeneration in patients who received stem cell transplant. PMID:25329250

Shen, Sylvie; Xu, Ning; Klamer, Guy; Ko, Kap-Hyoun; Khoo, Melissa; Ma, David; Moore, John; O'Brien, Tracey A; Dolnikov, Alla

2015-03-15

213

In-silico docking based design and synthesis of [1H,3H] imidazo[4,5-b] pyridines as lumazine synthase inhibitors for their effective antimicrobial activity  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The imidazopyridine moiety is important pharmacophore that has proven to be useful for a number of biologically relevant targets, also reported to display antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral properties. Riboflavin biosynthesis involving catalytic step of Lumazine synthase is absent in animals and human, but present in microorganism, one of marked advantage of this study. Still, this path is not exploited as antiinfective target. Here, we proposed different interactions between [1H,3H] imidazo[4,5-b] pyridine test ligands and target protein Lumazine synthase (protein Data Bank 2C92), one-step synthesis of title compounds and further evaluation of them for in vitro antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods: Active pocket of the target protein involved in the interaction with the test ligands molecules was found using Biopredicta tools in VLifeMDS 4.3 Suite. In-silico docking suggests H-bonding, hydrophobic interaction, charge interaction, aromatic interaction, and Vanderwaal forces responsible for stabilizing enzyme-inhibitor complex. Disc diffusion assay method was used for in vitro antimicrobial screening. Results and Discussion: Investigation of possible interaction between test ligands and target lumazine synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggested 1i and 2f as best fit candidates showing hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic, aromatic and Vanderwaal's forces. Among all derivatives 1g, 1j, 1k, 1l, 2a, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2h, and 2j exhibited potent activities against bacteria and fungi compared to the standard Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole, respectively. The superiority of 1H imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine compounds having R’ = Cl >No2 > NH2 at the phenyl/aliphatic moiety resident on the imidazopyridine, whereas leading 3H imidazo[4,5-b] pyridine compounds containing R/Ar = Cl > No2 > NH2> OCH3 substituents on the 2nd position of imidazole. PMID:25400412

Harer, Sunil L.; Bhatia, Manish S.

2014-01-01

214

Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-? induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNF? incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1? in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNF? were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNF?-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

Petri, Marcelo H. [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine [NARILIS, URBC, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium)] [NARILIS, URBC, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Ellertsen, Ingvill [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium)] [Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Bäck, Magnus, E-mail: Magnus.Back@ki.se [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-11-15

215

Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of N?-Nitro-L-Arginine-Containing Peptidomimetics as Selective Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase. Displacement of the Heme Structural Water  

PubMed Central

The neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the enzyme responsible for the production of nitric oxide in the central nervous system, represents an attractive target for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. X-ray crystal structures of complexes of nNOS with two nNOS-selective inhibitors, (4S)-N-{4-amino-5-[(2-aminoethylamino]pentyl}-N?-nitroguanidine (1) and 4-N-(N?-nitro-L-argininyl)-trans-4-amino-L-proline amide (2), led to the discovery of a conserved structural water molecule that was hydrogen bonded between the two heme propionates and the inhibitors (Figure 2). Based on this observation, we hypothesized that by attaching a hydrogen bond donor group to the amide nitrogen of 2 or to the secondary amine nitrogen of 1, the inhibitor molecules could displace the structural water molecule and obtain a direct interaction with the heme cofactor. To test this hypothesis, peptidomimetic analogues 3–5, which have either an N-hydroxyl (3 and 5) or N-amino (4) donor group, were designed and synthesized. X-ray crystal structures of nNOS with inhibitors 3 and 5 bound verified that the N-hydroxyl group had, indeed, displaced the structural water molecule and provided a direct interaction with the heme propionate moiety (Figures 4 and 5). Surprisingly, in vitro activity assay results indicated that the addition of a hydroxyl group (3) only increased the potency slightly against the neuronal isoform over the parent compound (1). Rationalizations for the small increase in potency are consistent with other changes in the crystal structures. PMID:17425297

Seo, Jiwon; Igarashi, Jotato; Li, Huiying; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

2008-01-01

216

Self-assembled chitin nanofibers and applications.  

PubMed

Self-assembled natural biomaterials offer a variety of ready-made nanostructures available for basic science research and technological applications. Most natural structural materials are made of self-assembled nanofibers with diameters in the nanometer range. Among these materials, chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose and is part of the exoskeleton or arthropods and mollusk shells. Chitin has several desirable properties as a biomaterial including mechanical strength, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. However, chitin insolubility in most organic solvents has somewhat limited its use. In this research highlight, we describe recent developments in producing biogenic chitin nanofibers using self-assembly from a solution of squid pen ?-chitin in hexafluoroisopropanol. With this solution based assembly, we have demonstrated chitin-silk composite self-assembly, chitin nanofiber fabrication across length-scales, and manufacturing of chitin nanofiber substrates for tissue engineering. PMID:24556234

Rolandi, Marco; Rolandi, Ranieri

2014-05-01

217

Controlled functionalization of the polysaccharide chitin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of rapidly growing interest in the amino polysaccharide chitin as a functional biopolymer, a recent progress of basic and application studies in chitin chemistry is reviewed as well as some basic aspects of this specialty biomass resource. A special emphasis is placed on the controlled modification reactions to prepare chitin derivatives with well-defined structures and thereby to construct

Keisuke Kurita

2001-01-01

218

Structure-Based Design of Novel Pyrimido[4,5-c]pyridazine Derivatives as Dihydropteroate Synthase Inhibitors with Increased Affinity  

SciTech Connect

Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) is the validated drug target for sulfonamide antimicrobial therapy. However, due to widespread drug resistance and poor tolerance, the use of sulfonamide antibiotics is now limited. The pterin binding pocket in DHPS is highly conserved and is distinct from the sulfonamide binding site. It therefore represents an attractive alternative target for the design of novel antibacterial agents. We previously carried out the structural characterization of a known pyridazine inhibitor in the Bacillus anthracis DHPS pterin site and identified a number of unfavorable interactions that appear to compromise binding. With this structural information, a series of 4,5-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimido[4,5-c]pyridazines were designed to improve binding affinity. Most importantly, the N-methyl ring substitution was removed to improve binding within the pterin pocket, and the length of the side chain carboxylic acid was optimized to fully engage the pyrophosphate binding site. These inhibitors were synthesized and evaluated by an enzyme activity assay, X-ray crystallography, isothermal calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the binding interactions from structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic perspectives. This study clearly demonstrates that compounds lacking the N-methyl substitution exhibit increased inhibition of DHPS, but the beneficial effects of optimizing the side chain length are less apparent.

Zhao, Ying; Hammoudeh, Dalia; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Qi, Jianjun; White, Stephen W.; Lee, Richard E. (Tennessee-HSC); (SJCH)

2012-05-29

219

Inhibition of saturated very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis by mefluidide and perfluidone, selective inhibitors of 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthases.  

PubMed

The trifluoromethanesulphonanilides mefluidide and perfluidone are used in agriculture as plant growth regulators and herbicides. Despite the fact that mefluidide and perfluidone have been investigated experimentally for decades, their mode of action is still unknown. In this study, we used a cascade approach of different methods to clarify the mode of action and target site of mefluidide and perfluidone. Physiological profiling using an array of biotests and metabolic profiling in treated plants of Lemna paucicostata suggested a common mode of action in very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) synthesis similar to the known 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) inhibitor metazachlor. Detailed analysis of fatty acid composition in Lemna plants showed a decrease of saturated VLCFAs after treatment with mefluidide and perfluidone. To study compound effects on enzyme level, recombinant KCSs from Arabidopsis thaliana were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzyme activities of seven KCS proteins from 17 tested were characterized by their fatty acid substrate and product spectrum. For the KCS CER6, the VLCFA product spectrum in vivo, which consists of tetracosanoic acid, hexacosanoic acid and octacosanoic acid, is reported here for the first time. Similar to metazachlor, mefluidide and perfluidone were able to inhibit KCS1, CER6 and CER60 enzyme activities in vivo. FAE1 and KCS2 were inhibited by mefluidide only slightly, whereas metazachlor and perfluidone were strong inhibitors of these enzymes with IC(50) values in ?M range. This suggests that KCS enzymes in VLCFA synthesis are the primary herbicide target of mefluidide and perfluidone. PMID:22284369

Tresch, Stefan; Heilmann, Monika; Christiansen, Nicole; Looser, Ralf; Grossmann, Klaus

2012-04-01

220

Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure?activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3  

SciTech Connect

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18{_}V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 {angstrom} resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3{beta} (HsGSK-3{beta}) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found.

Ojo, Kayode K.; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Inampudi, Krishna K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlind, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C. (UWASH)

2012-04-24

221

Structure Determination of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 from Leishmania major and Comparative Inhibitor Structure-Activity Relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3  

PubMed Central

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18_V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 Å resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3? (HsGSK-3?) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found. PMID:21195115

Ojo, Kayode K.; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Inampudi, Krishna K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlinde, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

2011-01-01

222

Chitin-Like Molecules Associate with Cryptococcus neoformans Glucuronoxylomannan To Form a Glycan Complex with Previously Unknown Properties  

PubMed Central

In prior studies, we demonstrated that glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the major capsular polysaccharide of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, interacts with chitin oligomers at the cell wall-capsule interface. The structural determinants regulating these carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions, as well as the functions of these structures, have remained unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that glycan complexes composed of chitooligomers and GXM are formed during fungal growth and macrophage infection by C. neoformans. To investigate the required determinants for the assembly of chitin-GXM complexes, we developed a quantitative scanning electron microscopy-based method using different polysaccharide samples as inhibitors of the interaction of chitin with GXM. This assay revealed that chitin-GXM association involves noncovalent bonds and large GXM fibers and depends on the N-acetyl amino group of chitin. Carboxyl and O-acetyl groups of GXM are not required for polysaccharide-polysaccharide interactions. Glycan complex structures composed of cryptococcal GXM and chitin-derived oligomers were tested for their ability to induce pulmonary cytokines in mice. They were significantly more efficient than either GXM or chitin oligomers alone in inducing the production of lung interleukin 10 (IL-10), IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). These results indicate that association of chitin-derived structures with GXM through their N-acetyl amino groups generates glycan complexes with previously unknown properties. PMID:22562469

Ramos, Caroline L.; Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Rodrigues, Jessica; Guimarães, Allan J.; Cinelli, Leonardo P.; Miranda, Kildare; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Casadevall, Arturo; Travassos, Luiz R.

2012-01-01

223

Subfornical organ mediates pressor effect of angiotensin: Influence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, AT(1) and AT(2) angiotensin antagonist's receptors.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of voltage-dependent calcium channels and nitric oxide (NO) on angiotensin II (ANG II)-pressor effect injected into subfornical organ (SFO). The influence of NO on nifedipine antipressor action has also been studied by utilizing N(W)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (20 mug x 0.2 mul(-1)) a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (NOSI) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NIT) (20 mug x 0.2 mul(-1)), a specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (nNOSI). We have also investigated the role of losartan and PD123319, selective ANG II AT(1) and AT(2) receptor nonpeptide antagonists, in the pressor effect of ANG II and in the effect of L-NAME and 7-NIT, injected into the SFO. Adult male Holtzman rats (220 to 280 g) were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg(-1) of body weight) plus xylazine (7 mg/kg(-1) of body weight), placed in a stereotaxic apparatus (David Kopf model for rats), and implanted with cannula into the SFO. Direct mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was recorded in conscious rats in a test cage, without access to food or water. The previously implanted catheter into femoral artery was connected to a Statham (P23 Db) pressure transducer (Statham-Gould, Valley View, OH) coupled to a multichannel recorder (PowerLab Multirecord). MAP increased after ANG II injection. Pre-treatment with nifidipine (50 mug x 0.2 mul(-1) or 100 mug x 0.2 mul(-1)) followed by 25 pmol x 0.2 mul(-1) of ANG II, decreased ANG II-pressor effect. L-NAME and 7-NIT increased the elevation in MAP induced by ANG II, which was blocked by the prior injection of nifedipine. The AT(1) angiotensin antagonist losartan injected into the SFO blocked the effect of ANG II and the effects of L-NAME and 7-NIT while PD123319 did not. These results provide evidence that ANG II-pressor effect is influenced by nitrergic pathways that utilize L-type calcium channels in the SFO. PMID:20409914

Saad, Wilson Abrão; Camargo, Luiz Antonio de Arruda; Guarda, Ismael Francisco Motta Siqueira; Santos, Talmir Augusto Faria Brizola Dos

2008-01-01

224

A novel Pro197Glu substitution in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad-spectrum resistance across ALS inhibitors.  

PubMed

Water chickweed (Myosoton aquaticum L.), a competitive broadleaf weed, is widespread in wheat fields in China. Tribenuron and pyroxsulam failed to control water chickweed in the same field in Qiaotian Village in 2011 and 2012, respectively. An initial tribenuron resistance confirmation test identified a resistant population (AH02). ALS gene sequencing revealed a previously unreported substitution of Glu for Pro at amino acid position 197 in resistant individuals. A purified subpopulation (WRR04) that was individually homozygous for the Pro197Glu substitution was generated and characterized in terms of its response to different classes of ALS inhibitors. A whole-plant experiment showed that the WRR04 population exhibited broad-spectrum resistance to tribenuron (SU, 318-fold), pyrithiobac sodium (PTB,?> 197-fold), pyroxsulam (TP, 81-fold), florasulam (TP,?> 36-fold) and imazethapyr (IMI, 11-fold). An in vitro ALS assay confirmed that the ALS from WRR04 showed high resistance to all the tested ALS inhibitors. These results established that the Pro197Glu substitution endows broad-spectrum resistance across ALS inhibitors in water chickweed. In addition, molecular markers were developed to rapidly identify the Pro197Glu mutation. PMID:25619909

Liu, Weitang; Yuan, Guohui; Du, Long; Guo, Wenlei; Li, Lingxu; Bi, Yaling; Wang, Jinxin

2015-01-01

225

Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats  

SciTech Connect

Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/?CT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused ?-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/?CT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation produced by GSK-3 inhibition. • In rats, 3 GSK-3 inhibitors produced a unique serum bone turnover biomarker profile. • Enhanced bone formation was seen within 7 to 14 days of compound treatment in rats.

Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

2013-10-15

226

Chitin nanofibers: preparations, modifications, and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chitin nanofibers are prepared from the exoskeletons of crabs and prawns by a simple mechanical treatment after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers have fine nanofiber networks with a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and a high aspect ratio. The method used for chitin-nanofiber isolation is also successfully applied to the cell walls of mushrooms. They form a complex with glucans on the fiber surface. A grinder, a Star Burst atomization system, and a high speed blender are all used in the mechanical treatment to convert chitin to nanofibers. Mechanical treatment under acidic conditions is the key to facilitate fibrillation. At pH 3-4, the cationization of amino groups on the fiber surface assists nano-fibrillation by electrostatic repulsive force. By applying this finding, we also prepared chitin nanofibers from dry chitin powder. Chitin nanofibers are acetylated to modify their surfaces. The acetyl DS can be controlled from 1 to 3 by changing the reaction time. An acetyl group is introduced heterogeneously from the surface to the core. Nanofiber morphology is maintained even in the case of high acetyl DS. Optically transparent chitin nanofiber composites are prepared with 11 different types of acrylic resins. Due to the nano-sized structure, all of the composites are highly transparent. Chitin nanofibers significantly increase the Young's moduli and the tensile strengths and decrease the thermal expansion of all acrylic resins due to the reinforcement effect of chitin nanofibers. Chitin nanofibers show chiral separation ability. The chitin nanofiber membrane transports the d-isomer of glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and lysine from the corresponding racemic amino acid mixtures faster than the corresponding l-isomer. The chitin nanofibers improve clinical symptoms and suppress ulcerative colitis in a DSS-induced mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis. Moreover, chitin nanofibers suppress myeloperoxidase activation in the colon and decrease serum interleukin-6 concentrations.

Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

2012-05-01

227

Differential effects of selective and non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on the blood perfusion of ischemia-reperfused myocardium in dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Nitric oxide (NO) is protective for the cardiovascular system, and excessive NO exerts negative effects on the circulatory system. This study aimed to compare the effects of selective or non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors on blood flow perfusion of ischemia-reperfused myocardium. Materials/Methods Male mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to 4 groups: only ischemia-reperfusion (control), ischemia-reperfusion plus N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME) treatment, ischemia-reperfusion plus aminoguanidine (AMD) treatment, and sham operation group. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was performed. Blood samples were taken for measurement of NO. Background-subtracted peak videointensity (PVI) and PVI ratio in myocardium were measured. Results In the NAME-treated group, the PVI at 5 min reperfusion did not significantly differ from pre-LAD-occlusion, but declined to and retained at a level obviously lower than the pre-LAD-occlusion. In the AMD-treated group, the PVI at 5 min reperfusion was significantly higher than at pre-LAD-occlusion, and then restored to and remained at the pre-LAD-occlusion level. The changes of PVI ratios in the 3 groups were similar to PVI values. In the AMD-treated group, the curve width increased in the early reperfusion, but returned to the pre-LAD-occlusion level at 90 min reperfusion. The plasma NO concentration in the NAME-treated group greatly decreased and remained low during the whole period of reperfusion. In the AMD-treated group, there were only slight increases in NO concentrations during reperfusion. Conclusions NAME totally inhibited NO production and attenuated myocardial blood flow perfusion. Aminoguanidine significantly relieved the increase in NO production and alleviated the congestion of reperfused myocardium. Selective inhibitors of iNOS might be useful in the management of certain diseases associated with ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:23807023

Luo, Yi; Cha, Dao-Gang; Liu, Yi-Li; Zhou, Shu-Feng

2013-01-01

228

Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats.  

PubMed

Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/?CT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused ?-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH1-34 or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/?CT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. PMID:23872097

Gilmour, Peter S; O'Shea, Patrick J; Fagura, Malbinder; Pilling, James E; Sanganee, Hitesh; Wada, Hiroki; Courtney, Paul F; Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A; Escott, K Jane

2013-10-15

229

Effect of S-methylisothiourea, an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in joint pain and pathology in surgically induced model of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vivo modulatory effect of S-methylisothiourea (SMT), a preferential inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on pain and pathology in the surgical model of osteoarthritis (OA) in rats. The OA was produced by the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and medial meniscectomy (MMx) of right knee. SMT was administered 1 day prior to the production of OA and continued up to day 42 postoperation. Mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, tail flick latency after repeated flexion and extension of OA knee and knee diameter of right knee were determined at weekly intervals. Serum levels of IL-1?, TNF-? and nitrite concentration were determined at the end of the experiment. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, collagen content and histopathological evaluation of articular cartilage were also determined at the end of the experiment. SMT reduced mechanical hyperalgesia and the serum levels of IL-1?, TNF-? and nitrite. Further, SMT reduced the loss of GAG from articular cartilage. Microscopically, SMT reduced the severity of the cartilage lesion. The results indicate the effectiveness of SMT in attenuating the pain and pathology of experimental OA phase by reducing the production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?, which are known to play a major role in the pathophysiology of OA. PMID:25111192

Balaganur, Venkanna; Pathak, Nitya Nand; Lingaraju, Madhu C; More, Amar Sunil; Latief, Najeeb; Kumari, Rashmi Rekha; Kumar, Dinesh; Tandan, Surendra K

2014-01-01

230

Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ? Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ? Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ? Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury induced by NM.

Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hall, LeRoy [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States)] [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2012-12-15

231

Attenuation of Acute Nitrogen Mustard-Induced Lung Injury, Inflammation and Fibrogenesis by a Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d - 28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS+ and cyclooxygenase-2+) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1+ and galectin-3+) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2x/day, 1 d - 3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:22981630

Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro; Hall, LeRoy; Gow, Andrew J.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

2012-01-01

232

An inhibitor-driven study for enhancing the selectivity of indirubin derivatives towards leishmanial Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 over leishmanial cdc2-related protein kinase 3  

PubMed Central

Background In search of new antiparasitic agents for overcoming the limitations of current leishmaniasis chemotherapy, we have previously shown that 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (6BIO) and several other 6-substituted analogues of indirubin, a naturally occurring bis-indole present in mollusks and plants, displayed reverse selectivity from the respective mammalian kinases, targeting more potently the leishmanial Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-1 (CDK1) homologue [cdc2-related protein kinase 3 (LCRK3)] over leishmanial Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (LGSK-3). This reversal of selectivity in Leishmania parasites compared to mammalian cells makes the design of specific indirubin-based LGSK-3 inhibitors difficult. In this context, the identification of compounds bearing specific substitutions that shift indirubin inhibition towards LGSK-3, previously found to be a potential drug target, over LCRK3 is imperative for antileishmanial targeted drug discovery. Methods A new in-house indirubin library, composed of 35 compounds, initially designed to target mammalian kinases (CDKs, GSK-3), was tested against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes using the Alamar blue assay. Indirubins with antileishmanial activity were tested against LGSK-3 and LCRK3 kinases, purified from homologous expression systems. Flow cytometry (FACS) was used to measure the DNA content for cell-cycle analysis and the mode of cell death. Comparative structural analysis of the involved kinases was then performed using the Szmap algorithm. Results We have identified 7 new indirubin analogues that are selective inhibitors of LGSK-3 over LCRK3. These new inhibitors were also found to display potent antileishmanial activity with GI50 values of <1.5 ??. Surprisingly, all the compounds that displayed enhanced selectivity towards LGSK-3, were 6BIO analogues bearing an additional 3'-bulky amino substitution, namely a piperazine or pyrrolidine ring. A comparative structural analysis of the two aforementioned leishmanial kinases was subsequently undertaken to explain and rationalize the selectivity trend determined by the in vitro binding assays. Interestingly, the latter analysis showed that selectivity could be correlated with differences in kinase solvation thermo dynamics induced by minor sequence variations of the otherwise highly similar ATP binding pockets. Conclusions In conclusion, 3'-bulky amino substituted 6-BIO derivatives, which demonstrate enhanced specificity towards LGSK-3, represent a new scaffold for targeted drug development to treat leishmaniasis. PMID:24886176

2014-01-01

233

Chitin — The Undisputed Biomolecule of Great Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the truly abundant polysaccharides in Nature, only chitin has yet to find utilization in large quantity. Chitin is the second most abundant natural biopolymer derived from exoskeletons of crustaceans and also from cell walls of fungi and insects. Chitin is a linear ?1,4-linked polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), whereas chitosan, a copolymer of GlcNAc (?20%) and glulcosamine (GlcN, 80%) residues,

Rudrapatnam N. Tharanathan; Farooqahmed S. Kittur

2003-01-01

234

Chitin, Chitinase Responses, and Invasive Fungal Infections  

PubMed Central

The human immune system is capable of recognizing and degrading chitin, an important cell wall component of pathogenic fungi. In the context of host-immune responses to fungal infections, herein we review the particular contributions and interplay of fungus and chitin recognition, and chitin-degrading enzymes, known as chitinases. The mechanisms of host chitinase responses may have implications for diagnostic assays as well as novel therapeutic approaches for patients that are at risk of contracting fatal fungal infections. PMID:22187561

Vega, Karina; Kalkum, Markus

2012-01-01

235

Differentiations of Chitin Content and Surface Morphologies of Chitins Extracted from Male and Female Grasshopper Species  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis (EA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate chitin structure isolated from both sexes of four grasshopper species. FT-IR, EA, XRD, and TGA showed that the chitin was in the alpha form. With respect to gender, two main differences were observed. First, we observed that the quantity of chitin was greater in males than in females and the dry weight of chitin between species ranged from 4.71% to 11.84%. Second, using SEM, we observed that the male chitin surface structure contained 25 – 90nm wide nanofibers and 90 – 250 nm nanopores, while no pores or nanofibers were observed in the chitin surface structure of the majority of females (nanofibers were observed only in M. desertus females). In contrast, the elemental analysis, thermal properties, and crystalline index values for chitin were similar in males and females. Also, we carried out enzymatic digestion of the isolated chitins using commercial chitinase from Streptomyces griseus. We observed that there were no big differences in digestion rate of the chitins from both sexes and commercial chitin. The digestion rates were for grasshoppers’ chitins; 88.45–95.48% and for commercial chitin; 94.95%. PMID:25635814

Kaya, Murat; Lelešius, Evaldas; Nagrockait?, Radvil?; Sargin, Idris; Arslan, Gulsin; Mol, Abbas; Baran, Talat; Can, Esra; Bitim, Betul

2015-01-01

236

Visualization of ?-Chitin with a Specific Chitin-Binding Protein (CHB1) from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently we identified a so far unique protein (CHB1) which interacts specifically with crystalline ?-chitin. Having optimized the binding conditions for CHB1 coupled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), we succeeded in developing a highly sensitive assay to detect ?-chitin. CHB1–FITC interacted neither with ?- or colloidal chitin nor with chitooligomers or cellulose. With the help of fluorescence or confocal laser microscopy,

Andris Zeltins; Hildgund Schrempf

1995-01-01

237

Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21673928

Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Srinivasan, Sowmya; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

238

Inhibitors  

MedlinePLUS

... Hemophilia Related Pages Hemophilia Treatment Center Directory Universal Data Collection (UDC) System Blood Disorders Homepage Von Willebrand Disease ... Required) Data & Statistics Training & Education Research CHAMP Universal Data Collection Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials ...

239

Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens  

SciTech Connect

Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of /sup 3/H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei.

Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

1987-05-01

240

The effect of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NMMA, on sodium metabisulphite-induced bronchoconstriction and refractoriness in asthma.  

PubMed

Refractoriness to indirect bronchoconstrictor stimuli, is a feature of asthma but the mechanism is poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) produced during a first bronchoconstrictor challenge protects against subsequent challenge and therefore has a role in the refractory process. The effect of an NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-mono-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), on refractoriness to sodium metabisulphite (MBS) was investigated in 20 subjects with mild asthma. On visit one, the dose of MBS which caused a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (PD20) was determined. On visit two, the refractory index (RI) to MBS was determined by challenging the subjects twice with their PD20 of MBS, the second challenge proceeding after recovery from the first. Those showing a refractory index of approximately 30% (10 subjects) inhaled either L-NMMA or placebo followed 5 min later by two challenges with their PD20 of MBS in a double-blind cross over study at two further visits. The dose of L-NMMA used was shown to reduce exhaled NO for a duration sufficient to cover the second MBS challenge However, no significant difference was found between L-NMMA and placebo in maximum fall in FEV1% and area under the curve (AUC) during first or second MBS challenges or in RI on the two study days. It is concluded that subjects with mild asthma show refractoriness to sodium metabisulphite, but that endogenous nitric oxide is unlikely to be involved either in the refractory process or in the response to sodium metabisulphite per se. PMID:10543296

Hamad, A M; Wisniewski, A; Range, S P; Small, T; Holland, F; Knox, A J

1999-09-01

241

The selective prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 inhibitor, NS-398, reduces prostaglandin production and ovulation in vivo and in vitro in the rat.  

PubMed

Two isoforms of prostaglandin G/H synthase, PGS-1 and PGS-2, catalyze the formation of prostaglandins (PG). Nonselective PGS inhibitors, e.g., indomethacin, reduce the number of ovulations and PG levels in many animal models. This study evaluated the effects of the selective PGS-2 inhibitor NS-398, compared to indomethacin, on ovulation number and on PG and steroid production both in vivo and in vitro in the rat. NS-398 reduced the synthesis of PGE2 in isolated, LH-stimulated preovulatory follicles incubated in vitro. The inhibition by NS-398 was similar to that of indomethacin. Maximal inhibition was noted from 0.1 microM. Neither progesterone nor cAMP production was affected by NS-398 or indomethacin. The effect of in vivo administration of NS-398 (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg BW, s. c.) to proestrous rats 1 h after the injection of an ovulatory dose of hCG was monitored in follicles extirpated 10 h after hCG. These follicles were incubated in vitro, and NS-398 dose-dependently reduced PGE2 production. The synthesis of cAMP and progesterone was not altered. In separate experiments, the same doses of NS-398 were injected to determine their effect on ovulation in vivo. The number of ovulations was decreased by the highest dose of NS-398. In the in vitro ovarian perfusion model, NS-398 (10 microM) reduced the number of ovulations initiated by LH and isobutylmethylxanthine. Lower doses of NS-398 (0.1 and 1 microM) were less effective. The production of prostanoids (PGE2, PGF2alpha, and 6-keto-PGF1alpha) was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by NS-398. The secretion of steroids was not affected. This study demonstrates that selective inhibition of PGS-2 by NS-398 reduces LH/hCG-stimulated production of prostanoids and the number of ovulations both in vivo and in vitro. These results provide direct evidence to strengthen the role of the inducible, granulosa cell-expressed PGS-2 as one of the key regulators in the ovulatory process and also document that the elevated and perhaps sustained levels of PG are obligatory for ovulation. PMID:9780312

Mikuni, M; Pall, M; Peterson, C M; Peterson, C A; Hellberg, P; Brännström, M; Richards, J S; Hedin, L

1998-11-01

242

Melanin externalization in Candida albicans depends on cell wall chitin structures.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogen Candida albicans produces dark-pigmented melanin after 3 to 4 days of incubation in medium containing l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) as a substrate. Expression profiling of C. albicans revealed very few genes significantly up- or downregulated by growth in l-DOPA. We were unable to determine a possible role for melanin in the virulence of C. albicans. However, we showed that melanin was externalized from the fungal cells in the form of electron-dense melanosomes that were free or often loosely bound to the cell wall exterior. Melanin production was boosted by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to the medium, indicating a possible association between melanin production and chitin synthesis. Melanin externalization was blocked in a mutant specifically disrupted in the chitin synthase-encoding gene CHS2. Melanosomes remained within the outermost cell wall layers in chs3Delta and chs2Delta chs3Delta mutants but were fully externalized in chs8Delta and chs2Delta chs8Delta mutants. All the CHS mutants synthesized dark pigment at equivalent rates from mixed membrane fractions in vitro, suggesting it was the form of chitin structure produced by the enzymes, not the enzymes themselves, that was involved in the melanin externalization process. Mutants with single and double disruptions of the chitinase genes CHT2 and CHT3 and the chitin pathway regulator ECM33 also showed impaired melanin externalization. We hypothesize that the chitin product of Chs3 forms a scaffold essential for normal externalization of melanosomes, while the Chs8 chitin product, probably produced in cell walls in greater quantity in the absence of CHS2, impedes externalization. PMID:20543065

Walker, Claire A; Gómez, Beatriz L; Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Mackenzie, Kevin S; Munro, Carol A; Brown, Alistair J P; Gow, Neil A R; Kibbler, Christopher C; Odds, Frank C

2010-09-01

243

Immobilization of invertase on krill chitin  

SciTech Connect

By simple adsorption or covalent binding, enzymes were immobilized on chitin isolated from the shells of edible shellfish. It is reported that the best results were obtained by immoblizing diastase on krill chitin by adsorption at pH 6.7 and an ionic strength of 0.05.

Synowiecki, J.; Sikorski, Z.E.; Naczk, M.

1981-01-01

244

A review of chitin and chitosan applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin is the most abundant natural amino polysaccharide and is estimated to be produced annually almost as much as cellulose. It has become of great interest not only as an underutilized resource, but also as a new functional material of high potential in various fields, and recent progress in chitin chemistry is quite noteworthy. The purpose of this review is

Majeti N. V Ravi Kumar

2000-01-01

245

Implantable applications of chitin and chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin, extracted primarily from shellfish sources, is a unique biopolymer based on the N-acetyl-glucosamine monomer. More than 40 years have lapsed since this biopolymer had aroused the interest of the scientific community around the world for its potential biomedical applications. Chitin, together with its variants, especially its deacetylated counterpart chitosan, has been shown to be useful as a wound dressing

Eugene Khor; Lee Yong Lim

2003-01-01

246

Chitin Modulates Innate Immune Responses of Keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChitin, after cellulose the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, is an essential component of exoskeletons of crabs, shrimps and insects and protects these organisms from harsh conditions in their environment. Unexpectedly, chitin has been found to activate innate immune cells and to elicit murine airway inflammation. The skin represents the outer barrier of the human host defense and is

Barbara Koller; Alisa Sophie Müller-Wiefel; Rudolph Rupec; Hans Christian Korting; Thomas Ruzicka; Jürgen Schauber

2011-01-01

247

Chitin-natural clay nanotubes hybrid hydrogel.  

PubMed

Novel hybrid hydrogel was synthesized from chitin NaOH/urea aqueous solution in presence of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) via crosslinking with epichlorohydrin. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed the interfacial interactions in the chitin-HNTs hybrid hydrogel. The compressive strength and shear modulus of chitin hydrogel were significantly increased by HNTs as shown in the static compressive experiment and rheology measurement. The hybrid hydrogels showed highly porous microstructures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling ratio of chitin hydrogel decreased because of the addition of HNTs. The malachite green's absorption experiment result showed that the hybrid hydrogel exhibited much higher absorption rate than the pure chitin hydrogel. The prepared hybrid hydrogel had potential applications in waste treatment and biomedical areas. PMID:23535366

Liu, Mingxian; Zhang, Yun; Li, Jingjing; Zhou, Changren

2013-07-01

248

Water-soluble chitin as a wound healing accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble chitin (WSC) was prepared by controlling degree of deacetylation (DD) and molecular weight of chitin through alkaline and ultrasonic treatment. Its accelerating effect on wound healing in rats was compared with those of chitin and chitosan. Full-thickness skin incision was made on the backs of the rats and then three kinds of powders (chitin, chitosan, WSC) and an aqueous

Yong-Woo Cho; Yong-Nam Cho; Sang-Hun Chung; Gyeol Yoo; Sohk-Won Ko

1999-01-01

249

Suppressing the expression of a forkhead transcription factor disrupts the chitin biosynthesis pathway in Spodoptera exigua.  

PubMed

Forkhead (Fox) transcription factors display functional diversity and are involved in various metabolic and developmental processes. The Spodoptera exigua Fox (SeFox) encodes a protein of 353 amino acids with a theoretical molecular mass of approximately 38.99 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.86. qPCR results revealed that SeFox was expressed mainly in the brain, fat body, epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testis. SeFox was expressed, with some changes, throughout development in the fat body and whole body. Injection of dsSeFox (SeFox dsRNA) into larvae resulted in incidences of albino plus molting deformity (4.8%), molting deformity (26.2%), and albino phenotypes (69.1%). dsSeFox injection resulted in approximately 50% knockdown of transcript levels at 36 h. Compared with control groups, hexokinase (HK) expression was reduced to approximately 40% at 48 h postinjection. Chitin synthase A (CHSA) expression was reduced to two-thirds at 24 h, but increased at 72 h. Compared with untreated control and green fluorescent protein-treated groups, Chitin synthase B (CHSB) expression decreased to 33% following dsSeFox injection by 36 h. We infer from our results that forkhead transcription factors act in chitin synthesis in S. exigua. PMID:24464395

Zhao, Lina; Wei, Ping; Guo, Hongshuang; Wang, Shigui; Tang, Bin

2014-05-01

250

A selective thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase inhibitor, ozagrel, attenuates lung injury and decreases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 mRNA expression in oleic acid-induced lung injury in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of ozagrel, a thromboxane A(2) synthase inhibitor, on the accumulation of leucocytes and chemokine mRNA expression in lungs experimentally injured using oleic acid (OA). OA injection into guinea pigs rapidly increased thromboxane A(2) generation and subsequently increased total protein concentration and the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 mRNA expression in the whole lung. Administration of ozagrel prevented these changes associated with OA injection. Ozagrel is a promising drug candidate for preventing acute lung injury. PMID:19783866

Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Isohama, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Hidehiro; Hatamoto, Keita; Kurita, Sumika; Irikura, Mitsuru; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Irie, Tetsumi

2009-10-01

251

Adsorption and growth of Vibrio cholerae on chitin.  

PubMed Central

Incubation of Vibrio cholerae of O-group serotype 1 with chitin particles resulted in adsorption of vibrios onto chitin; chitin-adsorbed V. cholerae survived exposure to acid better than nonadsorbed vibrios. V. cholerae multiplied in dialyzed chitin suspended in 4.2% NaCl, suggesting that adherence to ingested chitin of crustacea might be of epidemiological significance by providing a substrate for vibrio multiplication as well as protection from gastric acid during stomach transit. PMID:489131

Nalin, D R; Daya, V; Reid, A; Levine, M M; Cisneros, L

1979-01-01

252

From a natural product lead to the identification of potent and selective benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides as glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibitors that suppress proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) is overexpressed in human colon and pancreatic carcinomas, contributing to cancer cell proliferation and survival. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides, potent GSK-3beta inhibitors. Some of these compounds show picomolar inhibitory activity toward GSK-3beta and an enhanced selectivity against cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK-2). Selected GSK-3beta inhibitors were tested in the pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa-2, BXPC-3, and HupT3. We determined that some of these compounds, namely compounds 5, 6, 11, 20, and 26, demonstrate antiproliferative activity against some or all of the pancreatic cancer cells at low micromolar to nanomolar concentrations. We found that the treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with GSK-3beta inhibitors 5 and 26 resulted in suppression of GSK-3beta activity and a distinct decrease of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) expression, leading to significant apoptosis. The present data suggest a possible role for GSK-3beta inhibitors in cancer therapy, in addition to their more prominent applications in CNS disorders. PMID:19338355

Gaisina, Irina N; Gallier, Franck; Ougolkov, Andrei V; Kim, Ki H; Kurome, Toru; Guo, Songpo; Holzle, Denise; Luchini, Doris N; Blond, Sylvie Y; Billadeau, Daniel D; Kozikowski, Alan P

2009-04-01

253

From a Natural Product Lead to the Identification of Potent and Selective Benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides as Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? Inhibitors that Suppress Proliferation and Survival of Pancreatic Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3? (GSK-3?) is overexpressed in human colon and pancreatic carcinomas contributing to cancer cell proliferation and survival. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides, potent GSK-3? inhibitors. Some of these compounds show picomolar inhibitory activity toward GSK-3? and an enhanced selectivity against Cyclin-dependent Kinase 2 (CDK-2). Selected GSK-3? inhibitors were tested in the pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa-2, BXPC-3, and HupT3. We determined that some of these compounds, namely compounds 5, 6, 11, 20 and 26, demonstrate antiproliferative activity against some or all of the pancreatic cancer cells at low micromolar to nanomolar concentrations. We found that the treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with GSK-3? inhibitors 5 and 26 resulted in suppression of GSK-3? activity and a distinct decrease of the X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) expression leading to significant apoptosis. The present data suggest a possible role for GSK-3? inhibitors in cancer therapy, in addition to their more prominent applications in CNS disorders. PMID:19338355

Gaisina, Irina N.; Gallier, Franck; Ougolkov, Andrei V.; Kim, Ki H.; Kurome, Toru; Guo, Songpo; Holzle, Denise; Luchini, Doris N.; Blond, Sylvie Y.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Kozikowski, Alan P.

2009-01-01

254

Nitric oxide donors prevent while the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME increases arachidonic acid plus CYP2E1-dependent toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA) play an important role in alcohol-induced liver injury. AA promotes toxicity in rat hepatocytes with high levels of cytochrome P4502E1 and in HepG2 E47 cells which express CYP2E1. Nitric oxide (NO) participates in the regulation of various cell activities as well as in cytotoxic events. NO may act as a protectant against cytotoxic stress or may enhance cytotoxicity when produced at elevated concentrations. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of endogenously or exogenously produced NO on AA toxicity in liver cells with high expression of CYP2E1 and assess possible mechanisms for its actions. Pyrazole-induced rat hepatocytes or HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 were treated with AA in the presence or absence of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase L-N {sup G}-Nitroarginine Methylester (L-NAME) or the NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), and (Z)-1-[-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-aminoethyl)]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA-NONO). AA decreased cell viability from 100% to 48 {+-} 6% after treatment for 48 h. In the presence of L-NAME, viability was further lowered to 23 {+-} 5%, while, SNAP or DETA-NONO increased viability to 66 {+-} 8 or 71 {+-} 6%. The L-NAME potentiated toxicity was primarily necrotic in nature. L-NAME did not affect CYP2E1 activity or CYP2E1 content. SNAP significantly lowered CYP2E1 activity but not protein. AA treatment increased lipid peroxidation and lowered GSH levels. L-NAME potentiated while SNAP prevented these changes. Thus, L-NAME increased, while NO donors decreased AA-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants prevented the L-NAME potentiation of AA toxicity. Damage to mitochondria by AA was shown by a decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). L-NAME potentiated this decline in MMP in association with its increase in AA-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. NO donors decreased this decline in MMP in association with their decrease in AA-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. These results indicate that NO can be hepatoprotective against CYP2E1-dependent toxicity, preventing AA-induced oxidative stress.

Wu Defeng [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cederbaum, Arthur [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: arthur.cederbaum@mssm.edu

2006-10-15

255

The molecular biology of chitin digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitinases catalyze the hydrolysis of chitin, an unbranched polymer of ?-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine. In recent years, soil-borne microorganisms that produce chitinases are considered as potential biocontrol agents against fungi and nematodes which cause diseases of agricultural crops. Chitinases also play an important physiological and ecological role in ecosystems as recyclers of chitin, by generating carbon and nitrogen sources. Many chitinases of varied

Rachel Cohen-Kupiec; Ilan Chet

1998-01-01

256

Effects induced by inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and nitric oxide synthase/guanylyl cyclase pathways on the isometric contraction in rat aorta: a comparative study.  

PubMed

This work was aimed to determine whether isometric contraction in Wistar rat aorta is related to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Basically, we hypothesized that additional increases in active tone occur after the pharmacological inhibition of a transduction pathway involved in NO synthesis or action. In intact aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine or high K(+), the cumulative administration of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, elicited significant decreases--but not supplementary increases--in tone. In endothelium-intact tissues, on the other hand, the Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor did not alter phenylephrine- and K(+)-induced isometric contractions. The PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (1 × 10(-7) m) produced a significant supplementary contraction only in endothelium-intact aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine. Higher concentrations of this inhibitor produced relaxations of phenylephrine and high K(+)-constricted endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings. LY294002 and wortmannin did not cause any potentiating effect on phenylephrine- and angiotensin II-induced concentration-dependent contractile responses in endothelium-intact tissues. In intact aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine or high K(+), the addition of the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, or the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, further augmented tone in a concentration-dependent manner, and these supplementary contractions were significantly reduced by endothelium removal. Taken together, our data suggest that the PI3K/Akt pathway is not counteracting aortic isometric contractions by activation of the eNOS. It appears, on the other hand, that the smooth muscle PI3K can stimulate contraction without activation of the protein kinase Akt in response to GPCR agonists and high K(+). PMID:20584208

López, Ruth M; Pérez, Teresa; Castillo, Carlos; Castillo, Enrique F

2011-06-01

257

Identification of the FKS1 gene of Candida albicans as the essential target of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase inhibitors.  

PubMed Central

Pneumocandins and echinocandins are fungicidal antibiotics, currently in clinical development, that inhibit 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase (GS) in several human fungal pathogens. We have identified a gene from the diploid organism Candida albicans that encodes a target of these inhibitors. A 2.1-kb portion of this gene, designated CaFKS1, has significant homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS1 and FKS2 genes, which encode partially functionally redundant subunits of GS. To evaluate the role of CaFkslp in susceptibility to echinocandins, we disrupted CaFKS1 on one homolog each of the spontaneous pneumocandin-resistant C. albicans mutants CAI4R1, NR2, NR3, and NR4. These mutants had been selected previously on agar plates containing the pneumocandin L-733,560. The clones derived from this transformation were either resistant (Ech[r]) or fully sensitive (Ech[s]) to inhibition by L-733,560 in both liquid broth microdilution and in vitro GS assays. The site of plasmid insertion in the transformants was mapped by Southern blot analysis, using restriction site polymorphisms in the CaFKS1 gene to distinguish between the two alleles (designated CaFKS1h and CaFKS1b). For strains CAI4R1 and NR2, the CaFKS1b allele was disrupted in each Ech(r) transformant; for strain NR4, CaFKS1h was disrupted in each Ech(r) transformant. We conclude that (i) strains CAI4R1, NR2, and NR4 are heterozygous for a dominant or semidominant pneumocandin resistance mutation at CaFKS1, (ii) drug resistance mutations can occur in either CaFKS1 allele, and (iii) CaFks1p is a target of the echinocandins. For transformants of strain NR3, all the clones we analyzed were uniformly Ech(r), and only the CaFKS1h allele, either in disrupted or wild-type form, was detected on genomic Southern blots. We believe gene conversion at the CaFKS1 locus may have produced two Cafks1h alleles that each contain an Ech(r) mutation. Transformants derived from the mutants were analyzed for susceptibility to pneumocandin treatment in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Strains heterozygous for the resistant allele (i.e., C. albicans CAI4R1, NR2, and NR4) were moderately resistant to treatment, while strains without a functional Ech(s) allele (i.e., strain NR3 and derivatives of strain CAI4R1 with the disruption plasmid integrated in the Ech[s] allele) displayed strong in vivo echinocandin resistance. Finally, we were unable to inactivate both alleles at CaFKS1 by two-step integrative disruption, suggesting that CaFks1p is likely to be an essential protein in C. albicans. PMID:9371352

Douglas, C M; D'Ippolito, J A; Shei, G J; Meinz, M; Onishi, J; Marrinan, J A; Li, W; Abruzzo, G K; Flattery, A; Bartizal, K; Mitchell, A; Kurtz, M B

1997-01-01

258

Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and nitric oxide donors modulate the biosynthesis of thaxtomin A, a nitrated phytotoxin produced by Streptomyces spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for the involvement of a bacterial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the biosynthesis of a phytotoxin is presented. Several species of Streptomyces bacteria produce secondary metabolites with unusual nitrogen groups, such as thaxtomin A (ThxA), which contains a nitroindole moiety. ThxA is a phytotoxin made by three pathogenic Streptomyces species that cause common scab of potato. All three species

Michael J. Wach; Johan A. Kers; Stuart B. Krasnoff; Rosemary Loria; Donna M. Gibson

2005-01-01

259

Inhibiting the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase has similar effects on the compensatory choroidal and axial responses to myopic defocus in chicks as does the non-specific inhibitor L-NAME  

PubMed Central

In birds, the choroid plays a role in the visual regulation of eye growth, thickening in response to myopic defocus, and thinning in response to hyperopic defocus, in both cases moving the retina towards the image plane. This response is rapid, occurring within hours of the defocus stimulus. These changes are consistently associated with slower changes in the sclera, that result in the appropriate changes in axial elongation, decreasing growth in response to myopic defocus and increasing it in response to hyperopic defocus. The molecular mechanisms underlying the scleral response involve changes in the synthesis of extracellular matrix molecules, however, those underlying the changes in choroidal thickness are not known. However, evidence suggests that it may involve the gaseous signal molecule nitric oxide, as nitric oxide is a potent smooth muscle relaxant, and injections of the non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME transiently inhibits the thickening response. Interestingly, it also dis-inhibits ocular growth, in accordance with a mechanistic link between the two responses. If nitric oxide is part of the signal cascade underlying the visual regulation of eye growth, it would be important to ascertain the source of the molecule. As a first step towards doing so, we used various more specific NOS inhibitors and studied their effects on the choroidal and growth responses. Birds (7–12 days old) were fitted with +10 D lenses on one eye. On that day, single intravitreal injections (30 ?l) of the following inhibitors were used: nNOS inhibitor N ?-propyl-L-arginine (n=12), iNOS inhibitor L-NIL (n=16), eNOS/iNOS inhibitor L-NIO (n=15), non-specific inhibitor L-NMMA (n=30) or physiological saline (n=18). Ocular dimensions were measured using high-frequency A-scan ultrasonography at the start of the experiment, and at 7, 24 and 48 hours after. We found that the nNOS inhibitor N ?-propyl-L-arginine had the same inhibitory effects on the choroidal response, and dis-inhibition of the growth response, as did L-NAME; neither of the other inhibitors had any effect except L-NMMA. We conclude that the choroidal compensatory response is influenced by nNOS, possibly from the intrinsic choroidal neurons, or the parasympathetic innervation from the ciliary and/or pterygopalatine ganglia. PMID:19450449

Nickla, Debora L.; Damyanova, Petya; Lytle, Grace

2010-01-01

260

Bacterial chitin utilization at halophilic conditions.  

PubMed

Chitin is a dominant structural polymer produced in large amounts by brine shrimp Artemia in hypersaline lakes. Microbiological analysis of chitin utilization as a growth substrate in hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in the south Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) revealed two groups of bacteria able to grow on chitin at moderate salinity. Under aerobic conditions, an enrichment culture was obtained at 2 M NaCl. Further purification resulted in the isolation of strains HCh1 and strain HCh2, identified as representatives of the genera Saccharospirillum and Arhodomonas (both in the Gammaproteobacteria). The chitin-utilizing potential has not been previously recognized in these genera. The Saccharospirillum sp. strain HCh1 grew on chitin within the salinity range from 0.5 to 3.25 M NaCl (optimum at 1 M), while Arhodomonas sp. strain HCh2 grew up to 2.5 M NaCl but had a higher salt optimum at 1.5 M. Anaerobic enrichments grew with chitin at 2 and 4 M NaCl, but growth in the latter was extremely slow and the culture eventually lost viability. The enrichment at 2 M NaCl resulted in the isolation of strain HCh-An1, identified as a distant new species of the genus Orenia in the clostridial order Halanaerobiales. It was able to grow on chitin within a salinity range from 1.0 to 2.5 M NaCl (optimum at 1.5 M). The strain is proposed as a new species of the genus Orenia-O. chitinitropha. PMID:24306781

Sorokin, D Y; Kolganova, T V

2014-03-01

261

The effect of chitin metabolic effectors on the population increase of stored product mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study tested the effect of the chitin metabolic effectors, teflubenzuron, diflubenzuron, and calcofluor, and a combination\\u000a of a chitinase and soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) on the population growth of eight species of stored product mites under\\u000a laboratory conditions. The compounds were incorporated into the diets of the mites in concentrations ranging from 0.01 to\\u000a 50 mg g?1. The final populations of

Jitka Stara; Tomas Erban; Jan Hubert

2010-01-01

262

Bacterial chitin degradation—mechanisms and ecophysiological strategies  

PubMed Central

Chitin is one the most abundant polymers in nature and interacts with both carbon and nitrogen cycles. Processes controlling chitin degradation are summarized in reviews published some 20 years ago, but the recent use of culture-independent molecular methods has led to a revised understanding of the ecology and biochemistry of this process and the organisms involved. This review summarizes different mechanisms and the principal steps involved in chitin degradation at a molecular level while also discussing the coupling of community composition to measured chitin hydrolysis activities and substrate uptake. Ecological consequences are then highlighted and discussed with a focus on the cross feeding associated with the different habitats that arise because of the need for extracellular hydrolysis of the chitin polymer prior to metabolic use. Principal environmental drivers of chitin degradation are identified which are likely to influence both community composition of chitin degrading bacteria and measured chitin hydrolysis activities. PMID:23785358

Beier, Sara; Bertilsson, Stefan

2013-01-01

263

Requirement for chitin biosynthesis in epithelial tube morphogenesis  

E-print Network

Requirement for chitin biosynthesis in epithelial tube morphogenesis W. Patrick Devine , Barry. These findings show that chitin regulates epithelial tube morphogenesis, in addition to its classical role protecting mature epithelia. branching morphogenesis tracheal system Drosophila tube shape mandril Many

Krasnow, Mark A.

264

Concurrent protein synthesis is required for in vivo chitin synthesis in postmolt blue crabs  

SciTech Connect

Chitin synthesis in crustaceans involves the deposition of a protein-polysaccharide complex at the apical surface of epithelial cells which secrete the cuticle or exoskeleton. The present study involves an examination of in vivo incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids and amino sugars into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Rates of incorporation of both 3H leucine and 3H threonine were linear with respect to time of incubation. Incorporation of 3H threonine into the endocuticle was inhibited greater than 90% in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, puromycin. Linear incorporation of 14C glucosamine into the cuticle was also demonstrated; a significant improvement of radiolabeling was achieved by using 14C-N-acetylglucosamine as the labeled precursor. Incorporation of 3H-N-acetylglucosamine into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs was inhibited 89% by puromycin, indicating that concurrent protein synthesis is required for the deposition of chitin in the blue crab. Autoradiographic analysis of control vs. puromycin-treated crabs indicates that puromycin totally blocks labeling of the new endocuticle with 3H glucosamine. These results are consistent with the notion that crustacean chitin is synthesized as a protein-polysaccharide complex. Analysis of the postmolt and intermolt blue crab cuticle indicates that the exoskeleton contains about 60% protein and 40% chitin. The predominant amino acids are arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, and threonine.

Horst, M.N. (Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (USA))

1990-12-01

265

SHORT REPORT Open Access Saccharomyces cerevisiae chitin biosynthesis  

E-print Network

SHORT REPORT Open Access Saccharomyces cerevisiae chitin biosynthesis activation by N Thellend2 Abstract Background: To explore chitin synthesis initiation, the effect of addition of exogenous oligosaccharides on in vitro chitin synthesis was studied. Oligosaccharides of various natures and lengths were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Chitin Accelerates Activation of a Novel Haloarchaeal Serine Protease That Deproteinizes Chitin-Containing Biomass  

PubMed Central

The haloarchaeon Natrinema sp. strain J7-2 has the ability to degrade chitin, and its genome harbors a chitin metabolism-related gene cluster that contains a halolysin gene, sptC. The sptC gene encodes a precursor composed of a signal peptide, an N-terminal propeptide consisting of a core domain (N*) and a linker peptide, a subtilisin-like catalytic domain, a polycystic kidney disease domain (PkdD), and a chitin-binding domain (ChBD). Here we report that the autocatalytic maturation of SptC is initiated by cis-processing of N* to yield an autoprocessed complex (N*-IWT), followed by trans-processing/degradation of the linker peptide, the ChBD, and N*. The resulting mature form (MWT) containing the catalytic domain and the PkdD showed optimum azocaseinolytic activity at 3 to 3.5 M NaCl, demonstrating salt-dependent stability. Deletion analysis revealed that the PkdD did not confer extra stability on the enzyme but did contribute to enzymatic activity. The ChBD exhibited salt-dependent chitin-binding capacity and mediated the binding of N*-IWT to chitin. ChBD-mediated chitin binding enhances SptC maturation by promoting activation of the autoprocessed complex. Our results also demonstrate that SptC is capable of removing proteins from shrimp shell powder (SSP) at high salt concentrations. Interestingly, N*-IWT released soluble peptides from SSP faster than did MWT. Most likely, ChBD-mediated binding of the autoprocessed complex to chitin in SSP not only accelerates enzyme activation but also facilitates the deproteinization process by increasing the local protease concentration around the substrate. By virtue of these properties, SptC is highly attractive for use in preparation of chitin from chitin-containing biomass. PMID:25002433

Zhang, Yaoxin; Wang, Mengxin; Du, Xin; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Moran; Wang, Jian; Tang, Bing

2014-01-01

267

Nanofibrillar chitin aerogels as renewable base catalysts.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the fabrication of chitin nanofibril aerogels and their successful application as base catalysts for the production of useful chemicals. Squid-pen chitin nanofibrils (ChNF) with primary C2-amine groups on their crystalline surfaces were fabricated into highly porous aerogels with high specific surface areas up to 289 m(2) g(-1) using freeze-drying or a supercritical drying process. The prepared ChNF aerogel was used in the aqueous Knoevenagel-condensation reaction and acted as a highly efficient base catalyst, suggesting that the combination of the nanofibrous aerogel structure and primary C2-amines exposed on the crystalline ChNF surface was effective for continuous flow catalysis. Because the ChNF aerogel can be easily prepared from abundant and renewable chitin present in nature, this strategy is a gateway to promoting and conducting green and sustainable chemistry. PMID:25285573

Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki; Koga, Hirotaka; Qi, Zi-Dong; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

2014-11-10

268

Cyclooxygenase-independent induction of p21WAF-1/cip1, apoptosis and differentiation by L-745,337, a selective PGH synthase-2 inhibitor, and salicylate in HT-29 cells.  

PubMed

In order to dissect out cyclooxygenase-dependent from cyclooxygenase-independent mechanisms in the antiproliferative effects of selective prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS)-2 inhibitors, we compared the effects of L-745,337 (a highly selective PGHS-2 inhibitor) with sodium salicylate (a weak PGHS inhibitor) on prostanoid production, induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF-1/cip1, mutant p53 (m273-p53) levels, apoptosis and differentiation in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. L-745,337 dose-dependently suppressed the cyclooxygenase activity of HT-29 cells (IC50: 0.24 microM). Four-day treatment with L-745,337 caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell growth (IC50: 0.9 mM) associated with the induction of p21WAF-1/cip1 and an increase in the proportion of apoptotic nuclei (EC50: 0.1 and 0.34 mM, respectively) while reducing the levels of m273-p53 (IC50: 0.2 mM). Sodium salicylate, at the concentration of 10 mM that did not affect prostanoid formation, caused a 60% reduction of cell growth associated with a 3-fold induction of p21WAF-1/cip1 and a 60% increase in the proportion of apoptotic nuclei. Ultrastructural analysis showed that L-745,337 (0.5 mM) and sodium salicylate (10 mM) caused the induction of a differentiated phenotype. We conclude that high concentrations of L-745,337 and sodium salicylate inhibit colon cancer cell growth by a mechanism unrelated to cyclooxygenase inhibition that may involve p53-independent induction of the tumor suppressor p21WAF-1/cip1. PMID:14634277

Santini, G; Sciulli, M G; Marinacci, R; Fusco, O; Spoletini, L; Pace, A; Ricciardulli, A; Natoli, C; Procopio, A; Maclouf, J; Patrignani, P

1999-06-01

269

Rosuvastatin, a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, upregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and protects from ischemic stroke in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are cholesterol-lowering drugs and reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. In this study we investigated whether rosuvastatin, a new, potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, upregulates endothelial nitric oxide (NO) expression and activity and protects from cerebral ischaemia in mice. Endothelial cells in culture and 129\\/SV mice were chronically treated with rosuvastatin. The expression and activity

Ulrich Laufs; Karen Gertz; Ulrich Dirnagl; Michael Böhm; Georg Nickenig; Matthias Endres

2002-01-01

270

LYM2-dependent chitin perception limits molecular flux via plasmodesmata.  

PubMed

Chitin acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern from fungal pathogens whose perception triggers a range of defense responses. We show that LYSIN MOTIF DOMAIN-CONTAINING GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-ANCHORED PROTEIN 2 (LYM2), the Arabidopsis homolog of a rice chitin receptor-like protein, mediates a reduction in molecular flux via plasmodesmata in the presence of chitin. For this response, lym2-1 mutants are insensitive to the presence of chitin, but not to the flagellin derivative flg22. Surprisingly, the chitin-recognition receptor CHITIN ELCITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1) is not required for chitin-induced changes to plasmodesmata flux, suggesting that there are at least two chitin-activated response pathways in Arabidopsis and that LYM2 is not required for CERK1-mediated chitin-triggered defense responses, indicating that these pathways are independent. In accordance with a role in the regulation of intercellular flux, LYM2 is resident at the plasma membrane and is enriched at plasmodesmata. Chitin-triggered regulation of molecular flux between cells is required for defense responses against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, and thus we conclude that the regulation of symplastic continuity and molecular flux between cells is a vital component of chitin-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis. PMID:23674687

Faulkner, Christine; Petutschnig, Elena; Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin; Beck, Martina; Robatzek, Silke; Lipka, Volker; Maule, Andrew J

2013-05-28

271

Stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions with regenerated chitin nanofibers.  

PubMed

Natural chitin is a highly crystalline biopolymer with poor aqueous solubility. Thus direct application of chitin is rather limited unless chemical modifications are made to improve its solubility in aqueous media. Through a simple dissolution and regeneration process, we have successfully prepared chitin nanofibers with diameters around 50nm, which form a stable suspension at concentrations higher than 0.50% and a self-supporting gel at concentrations higher than 1.00%. Additionally, these nanofibers can stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with oil fraction more than 0.50 at chitin usage level of 0.01g/g oil. The droplet sizes of the resulting emulsions decrease with increasing chitin concentrations and decreasing oil fraction. Confocal laser scanning micrographs demonstrate the adsorption of chitin nanofibers on the emulsion droplet surface, which indicates the emulsion stabilization is through a Pickering mechanism. Our findings allow the direct application of chitin in the food industry without chemical modifications. PMID:25863618

Zhang, Ying; Chen, Zhigang; Bian, Wenyang; Feng, Li; Wu, Zongwei; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Tao

2015-09-15

272

Chitin and chitosan: Properties and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin is the second most important natural polymer in the world. The main sources exploited are two marine crustaceans, shrimp and crabs. Our objective is to appraise the state of the art concerning this polysaccharide: its morphology in the native solid state, methods of identification and characterization and chemical modifications, as well as the difficulties in utilizing and processing it

Marguerite Rinaudo

2006-01-01

273

Chemically modified chitin and chitosan as biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of the chemical modification of chitin and chitosan are discussed from the viewpoint of biomedical applications. Special emphasis is placed on the role of individual functional groups in applications of modified chitosan. The modifications discussed here include chitosan attached to sugars, dendrimers, cyclodextrins, crown ethers, and glass beads. Among these derivatives, sugar-modified chitosans are excellent candidates for drug

Hitoshi Sashiwa; Sei-ichi Aiba

2004-01-01

274

Chitin-chitosan: Properties, benefits and risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A beneficial effect of chitin-chitosan as a food supplement is the reduction of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides due to its ability to bind dietary lipids, thereby reducing intestinal lipid absorption. The hypolipidemic influence of chitosan may also be due to interruption of the enterohepatic bile acid circulation. Plasma cholesterol in animals on cholesterol-free diet, however, is not affected, indicating that

S. S. Koide

1998-01-01

275

An efficient synthesis of argifin: A natural product chitinase inhibitor with chemotherapeutic potential  

E-print Network

-acetyl-DD-glucosamine residues, is a key constit- uent of many organisms that are pathogenic to humans. Chitin is the main,5 as well as glycolipid storage disorders, such as GaucherÕs disease.6 Chitin metabolism is a very and is a potent inhibitor of many chitinases of glycosyl hydrolase family 18 that contains enzymes from mam- mals

van Aalten, Daan

276

Role of polymorphisms in factor V (FV Leiden), prothrombin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) genes as risk factors for thrombophilias.  

PubMed

Thrombophilias are defined as a predisposition to thrombosis due to hematological changes which induce blood hypercoagulability; they can be inherited or acquired. They are individually characterized by a large phenotypic variability, even when they occur within the same family. Hereditary thrombophilias are, in most cases, due to changes related to physiological coagulation inhibitors or mutations in the genes of coagulation factors. High levels of plasma homocysteine may also be responsible for vaso-occlusive episodes and may have acquired (nutritional deficiencies of folate and vitamins B6 and B12) and/or genetic causes (mutations in the genes responsible for expression of enzymes involved in the intracellular metabolism of homocysteine). Considering that: (1) thromboses are events of multigenic and multifactorial etiopathology; (2) the presence of mutations in several genes significantly increases the risk of their occurrence; (3) the vascular territory (venous and/or arterial) affected involves different pathophysiological mechanisms and treatments, knowledge of genetic variants that may contribute to the risk and variability of the phenotypic manifestations of these diseases is extremely important. This understanding may provide support for a more individualized and therefore more effective treatment for thrombophilia carriers. Thus, this mini-review aims to address a comprehensive summary of thrombophilias and thrombosis, and discuss the role of polymorphisms in Factor V (FV Leiden), Prothrombin, Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) genes as risk factors for thrombophilias. PMID:22512572

Miranda-Vilela, A L

2012-09-01

277

Chitin: 'Forgotten' Source of Nitrogen: From Modern Chitin to Thermally Mature Kerogen: Lessons from Nitrogen Isotope Ratios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chitinous biomass represents a major pool of organic nitrogen in living biota and is likely to have contributed some of the fossil organic nitrogen in kerogen. We review the nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of chitin and present preliminary results suggesting interaction between kerogen and ammonium during thermal maturation. Modern arthropod chitin may shift its nitrogen isotope ratio by a few per mil depending on the chemical method of chitin preparation, mostly because N-containing non-amino-sugar components in chemically complex chitin cannot be removed quantitatively. Acid hydrolysis of chemically complex chitin and subsequent ion-chromatographic purification of the "deacetylated chitin-monomer" D-glucosamine (in hydrochloride form) provides a chemically well-defined, pure amino-sugar substrate for reproducible, high-precision determination of ??15N values in chitin. ??15N values of chitin exhibited a variability of about one per mil within an individual's exoskeleton. The nitrogen isotope ratio differed between old and new exoskeletons by up to 4 per mil. A strong dietary influence on the ??15N value of chitin is indicated by the observation of increasing ??15N values of chitin from marine crustaceans with increasing trophic level. Partial biodegradation of exoskeletons does not significantly influence ??15N values of remaining, chemically preserved amino sugar in chitin. Diagenesis and increasing thermal maturity of sedimentary organic matter, including chitin-derived nitrogen-rich moieties, result in humic compounds much different from chitin and may significantly change bulk ??15N values. Hydrous pyrolysis of immature source rocks at 330??C in contact with 15N-enriched NH4Cl, under conditions of artificial oil generation, demonstrates the abiogenic incorporation of inorganic nitrogen into carbon-bound nitrogen in kerogen. Not all organic nitrogen in natural, thermally mature kerogen is therefore necessarily derived from original organic matter, but may partly result from reaction with ammonium-containing pore waters.

Schimmelmann, A.; Wintsch, R.P.; Lewan, M.D.; DeNiro, M.J.

1998-01-01

278

Design and Synthesis of 2-Amino-4-methylpyridine Analogues as Inhibitors for Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and in vivo Evaluation of [18F]6-(2-Fluoropropyl)-4-methyl-pyridin-2-amine as a Potential PET Tracer for Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase  

PubMed Central

A series of position-6 substituted 2-amino-4-methylpyridine analogues was synthesized and compounds 9, 18, and 20 were identified as the inhibitors with the greatest potential to serve as PET tracers for imaging inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). [18F]9 was synthesized and evaluated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS activation. In vivo biodistribution studies of [18F]9 indicate higher tracer uptake in the lungs of the LPS-treated mice when compared to control mice. Tracer uptake at 60 min post-injection was reduced in a blocking study using a known inhibitor of iNOS. The expression of iNOS was confirmed by Western blot analysis of lung samples from the LPS-treated mice. MicroPET studies also demonstrated accumulation of radiotracer in the lungs of the LPS-treated mice. Taken collectively, these data suggest that [18F]9 shows favorable properties as a PET tracer to image iNOS activation with PET. PMID:19323559

Zhou, Dong; Lee, Hsiaoju; Rothfuss, Justin M.; Chen, Delphine L.; Ponde, Datta E.; Welch, Michael J.; Mach, Robert H.

2009-01-01

279

Conservation of the Chitin Utilization Pathway in the Vibrionaceae? †  

PubMed Central

Vibrionaceae are regarded as important marine chitin degraders, and attachment to chitin regulates important biological functions; yet, the degree of chitin pathway conservation in Vibrionaceae is unknown. Here, a core chitin degradation pathway is proposed based on comparison of 19 Vibrio and Photobacterium genomes with a detailed metabolic map assembled for V. cholerae from published biochemical, genomic, and transcriptomic results. Further, to assess whether chitin degradation is a conserved property of Vibrionaceae, a set of 54 strains from 32 taxa were tested for the ability to grow on various forms of chitin. All strains grew on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomer of chitin. The majority of isolates grew on ? (crab shell) and ? (squid pen) chitin and contained chitinase A (chiA) genes. chiA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis suggest that this gene is a good indicator of chitin metabolism but appears subject to horizontal gene transfer and duplication. Overall, chitin metabolism appears to be a core function of Vibrionaceae, but individual pathway components exhibit dynamic evolutionary histories. PMID:17933912

Hunt, Dana E.; Gevers, Dirk; Vahora, Nisha M.; Polz, Martin F.

2008-01-01

280

Chitin-glucan complex production by Schizophyllum commune submerged cultivation.  

PubMed

Chitin-glucan complex is a fungal origin copolymer that finds application in medicine and cosmetics. Traditionally, the mycelium of Micromycetes is considered as an industrial chitin-glucan complex source. Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune submerged cultivation for chitin-glucan complex production was studied. In different S. commune strains chitin-glucan complex composed 15.2 +/- 0.4 to 30.2 +/- 0.2% of mycelium dry weight. Optimized conditions for chitin-glucan complex production (nutrient medium composition in g/l: sucrose - 35, yeast extract - 4, Na2HPO4*12H2O - 2.5, MgSO4*7 H2O - 0.5; medium initial pH 6.5; aeration intensity 21 of air per 11 of medium; 144 hours of cultivation) resulted in 3.5 +/- 0.3 g/l complex yield. Redirection of fungal metabolism from exopolysaccharide synthesis to chitin-glucan complex accumulation was achieved most efficiently by aeration intensity increase. Chitin-glucan complex from S. commune had the structure of microfibers with diameter 1-2 microm, had water-swelling capacity of 18 g/g, and was composed of 16.63% chitin and 83.37% glucan with a degree of chitin deacetylation of 26.9%. S. commune submerged cultivation is a potent alternative to Micromycetes for industrial-scale chitin-glucan complex production. PMID:22184929

Smirnou, Dzianis; Krcmar, Martin; Prochazkova, Eva

2011-01-01

281

Comparison of chitin structures isolated from seven Orthoptera species.  

PubMed

Differences in the physichochemical properties of the chitin structure of the exoskeleton of seven species from four genera were investigated in this study. The same method was used to isolate the chitin structure of the seven species. The physicochemical properties of the isolated chitins were revealed by ESEM, FTIR, TGA and XRD analyses. The FTIR, TGA and XRD results from the chitin samples were similar. The surface morphologies of the chitins were investigated by ESEM and interesting results were noted. While the surface morphologies of the chitins isolated from two species within the same genus were quite different, the surface morphologies of chitins isolated from species belonging to different genera showed similarity. It was determined that the dry weight chitin contents of the grasshopper species varied between 5.3% and 8.9%. The results of molecular analysis showed that the chitins from seven Orthoptera species (between 5.2 and 6.8 kDa) have low molecular weights. Considering that these invasive and harmful species are killed with insecticides and go to waste in large amounts, this study suggests that they should be collected and evaluated as an alternative chitin source. PMID:25290985

Kaya, Murat; Erdogan, Sevil; Mol, Abbas; Baran, Talat

2015-01-01

282

A novel role of andrographolide, an NF-kappa B inhibitor, on inhibition of platelet activation: the pivotal mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase\\/cyclic GMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andrographolide is a novel NF-?B inhibitor from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of thrombotic diseases. However, no data are available concerning the effects\\u000a of andrographolide in platelet activation. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of andrographolide in preventing\\u000a platelet activation. Andrographolide (25–75 ??) exhibited a more potent activity of inhibiting

Wan-Jung Lu; Jie-Jen Lee; Duen-Suey Chou; Thanasekaran Jayakumar; Tsorng-Han Fong; George Hsiao; Joen-Rong Sheu

283

Nonlinear microscopy of chitin and chitinous structures: a case study of two cave-dwelling insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a study of the nonlinear optical properties of chemically purified chitin and insect cuticle using two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Excitation spectrum, fluorescence time, polarization sensitivity, and bleaching speed were measured. We have found that the maximum autofluorescence signal requires an excitation wavelength below 850 nm. At longer wavelengths, we were able to penetrate more than 150-?m deep into the sample through the chitinous structures. The excitation power was kept below 10 mW (at the sample) in order to diminish bleaching. The SHG from the purified chitin was confirmed by spectral- and time-resolved measurements. Two cave-dwelling, depigmented, insect species were analyzed and three-dimensional images of the cuticular structures were obtained.

Rabasovi?, Mihailo D.; Panteli?, Dejan V.; Jelenkovi?, Branislav M.; ?ur?i?, Sre?ko B.; Rabasovi?, Maja S.; Vrbica, Maja D.; Lazovi?, Vladimir M.; ?ur?i?, Božidar P. M.; Krmpot, Aleksandar J.

2015-01-01

284

The battle for chitin recognition in plant-microbe interactions.  

PubMed

Fungal cell walls play dynamic functions in interaction of fungi with their surroundings. In pathogenic fungi, the cell wall is the first structure to make physical contact with host cells. An important structural component of fungal cell walls is chitin, a well-known elicitor of immune responses in plants. Research into chitin perception has sparked since the chitin receptor from rice was cloned nearly a decade ago. Considering the widespread nature of chitin perception in plants, pathogens evidently evolved strategies to overcome detection, including alterations in the composition of cell walls, modification of their carbohydrate chains and secretion of effectors to provide cell wall protection or target host immune responses. Also non-pathogenic fungi contain chitin in their cell walls and are recipients of immune responses. Intriguingly, various mutualists employ chitin-derived signaling molecules to prepare their hosts for the mutualistic relationship. Research on the various types of interactions has revealed different molecular components that play crucial roles and, moreover, that various chitin-binding proteins contain dissimilar chitin-binding domains across species that differ in affinity and specificity. Considering the various strategies from microbes and hosts focused on chitin recognition, it is evident that this carbohydrate plays a central role in plant-fungus interactions. PMID:25725011

Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Mesters, Jeroen R; Thomma, Bart P H J

2015-03-01

285

Isolation and characterization of chitin and chitosan from marine origin.  

PubMed

Nowadays, chitin and chitosan are produced from the shells of crabs and shrimps, and bone plate of squid in laboratory to industrial scale. Production of chitosan involved deproteinization, demineralization, and deacetylation. The characteristics of chitin and chitosan mainly depend on production processes and conditions. The characteristics of these biopolymers such as appearance of polymer, turbidity of polymer solution, degree of deacetylation, and molecular weight are of major importance on applications of these polymers. This chapter addresses the production processes and conditions to produce chitin, chitosan, and chito-oligosaccharide and methods for characterization of chitin, chitosan, and chito-oligosaccharide. PMID:25081074

Nwe, Nitar; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

286

Tetra- and pentacyclic triterpene acids from the ancient anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense as inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E(2) synthase-1.  

PubMed

The microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 is the terminal enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG)E2 from cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived PGH2. We previously found that mPGES-1 is inhibited by boswellic acids (IC50 = 3-30 ?M), which are bioactive triterpene acids present in the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense. Here we show that besides boswellic acids, additional known triterpene acids (i.e., tircuallic, lupeolic, and roburic acids) isolated from frankincense suppress mPGES-1 with increased potencies. In particular, 3?-acetoxy-8,24-dienetirucallic acid (6) and 3?-acetoxy-7,24-dienetirucallic acid (10) inhibited mPGES-1 activity in a cell-free assay with IC50 = 0.4 ?M, each. Structure-activity relationship studies and docking simulations revealed concrete structure-related interactions with mPGES-1 and its cosubstrate glutathione. COX-1 and -2 were hardly affected by the triterpene acids (IC50 > 10 ?M). Given the crucial role of mPGES-1 in inflammation and the abundance of highly active triterpene acids in frankincence extracts, our findings provide further evidence of the anti-inflammatory potential of frankincense preparations and reveal novel, potent bioactivities of tirucallic acids, roburic acids, and lupeolic acids. PMID:24844534

Verhoff, Moritz; Seitz, Stefanie; Paul, Michael; Noha, Stefan M; Jauch, Johann; Schuster, Daniela; Werz, Oliver

2014-06-27

287

Herbicide-resistant forms of Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase: characterization of the catalytic properties and sensitivity to inhibitors of four defined mutants.  

PubMed Central

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids and is the target of several classes of herbicides. Four mutants (A122V, W574S, W574L and S653N) of the AHAS gene from Arabidopsis thaliana were constructed, expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzymes were purified. Each mutant form and wild-type was characterized with respect to its catalytic properties and sensitivity to nine herbicides. Each enzyme had a pH optimum near 7.5. The specific activity varied from 13% (A122V) to 131% (W574L) of the wild-type and the Km for pyruvate of the mutants was similar to the wild-type, except for W574L where it was five-fold higher. The activation by cofactors (FAD, Mg2+ and thiamine diphosphate) was examined. A122V showed reduced affinity for all three cofactors, whereas S653N bound FAD more strongly than wild-type AHAS. Six sulphonylurea herbicides inhibited A122V to a similar degree as the wild-type but S653N showed a somewhat greater reduction in sensitivity to these compounds. In contrast, the W574 mutants were insensitive to these sulphonylureas, with increases in the Kiapp (apparent inhibition constant) of several hundred fold. All four mutants were resistant to three imidazolinone herbicides with decreases in sensitivity ranging from 100-fold to more than 1000-fold. PMID:9677339

Chang, A K; Duggleby, R G

1998-01-01

288

Selective peptide inhibitors of bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase from Toxoplasma gondii provide insights into domain–domain communication and allosteric regulation  

PubMed Central

The bifunctional enzyme thymidylate synthase–dihydrofolate reductase (TS–DHFR) plays an essential role in DNA synthesis and is unique to several species of pathogenic protozoans, including the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Infection by T. gondii causes the prevalent disease toxoplasmosis, for which TS–DHFR is a major therapeutic target. Here, we design peptides that target the dimer interface between the TS domains of bifunctional T. gondii TS–DHFR by mimicking ?-strands at the interface, revealing a previously unknown allosteric target. The current study shows that these ?-strand mimetic peptides bind to the apo-enzyme in a species-selective manner to inhibit both the TS and distal DHFR. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to monitor conformational switching of the TS domain and demonstrate that these peptides induce a conformational change in the enzyme. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, nonconserved residues in the linker between TS and DHFR were identified that play a key role in domain–domain communication and in peptide inhibition of the DHFR domain. These studies validate allosteric inhibition of apo-TS, specifically at the TS–TS interface, as a potential target for novel, species-specific therapeutics for treating T. gondii parasitic infections and overcoming drug resistance. PMID:23813474

J Landau, Mark; Sharma, Hitesh; Anderson, Karen S

2013-01-01

289

Tetra- and Pentacyclic Triterpene Acids from the Ancient Anti-inflammatory Remedy Frankincense as Inhibitors of Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1  

PubMed Central

The microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 is the terminal enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG)E2 from cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived PGH2. We previously found that mPGES-1 is inhibited by boswellic acids (IC50 = 3–30 ?M), which are bioactive triterpene acids present in the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense. Here we show that besides boswellic acids, additional known triterpene acids (i.e., tircuallic, lupeolic, and roburic acids) isolated from frankincense suppress mPGES-1 with increased potencies. In particular, 3?-acetoxy-8,24-dienetirucallic acid (6) and 3?-acetoxy-7,24-dienetirucallic acid (10) inhibited mPGES-1 activity in a cell-free assay with IC50 = 0.4 ?M, each. Structure–activity relationship studies and docking simulations revealed concrete structure-related interactions with mPGES-1 and its cosubstrate glutathione. COX-1 and -2 were hardly affected by the triterpene acids (IC50 > 10 ?M). Given the crucial role of mPGES-1 in inflammation and the abundance of highly active triterpene acids in frankincence extracts, our findings provide further evidence of the anti-inflammatory potential of frankincense preparations and reveal novel, potent bioactivities of tirucallic acids, roburic acids, and lupeolic acids. PMID:24844534

2014-01-01

290

Distribution of Callose Synthase, Cellulose Synthase, and Sucrose Synthase in Tobacco Pollen Tube Is Controlled in Dissimilar Ways by Actin Filaments and Microtubules1[W  

PubMed Central

Callose and cellulose are fundamental components of the cell wall of pollen tubes and are probably synthesized by distinct enzymes, callose synthase and cellulose synthase, respectively. We examined the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes in relation to the dynamics of actin filaments, microtubules, and the endomembrane system using specific antibodies to highly conserved peptide sequences. The role of the cytoskeleton and membrane flow was investigated using specific inhibitors (latrunculin B, 2,3-butanedione monoxime, taxol, oryzalin, and brefeldin A). Both enzymes are associated with the plasma membrane, but cellulose synthase is present along the entire length of pollen tubes (with a higher concentration at the apex) while callose synthase is located in the apex and in distal regions. In longer pollen tubes, callose synthase accumulates consistently around callose plugs, indicating its involvement in plug synthesis. Actin filaments and endomembrane dynamics are critical for the distribution of callose synthase and cellulose synthase, showing that enzymes are transported through Golgi bodies and/or vesicles moving along actin filaments. Conversely, microtubules appear to be critical in the positioning of callose synthase in distal regions and around callose plugs. In contrast, cellulose synthases are only partially coaligned with cortical microtubules and unrelated to callose plugs. Callose synthase also comigrates with tubulin by Blue Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Membrane sucrose synthase, which expectedly provides UDP-glucose to callose synthase and cellulose synthase, binds to actin filaments depending on sucrose concentration; its distribution is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system but not on microtubules. PMID:21205616

Cai, Giampiero; Faleri, Claudia; Del Casino, Cecilia; Emons, Anne Mie C.; Cresti, Mauro

2011-01-01

291

Partial blockage of sterol biosynthesis with a squalene synthase inhibitor in early postnatal Niemann-Pick type C npcnih null mice brains reduces neuronal cholesterol accumulation, abrogates astrogliosis, but may inhibit myelin maturation  

PubMed Central

Niemann-Pick C disease (NPC) is a fatal, neurovisceral genetic disorder. Cell culture studies showed that NPC1 or NPC2 mutations cause malfunctions in cellular cholesterol trafficking and lead to accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in the late endo/lysosomes. Previous work showed that neuronal cholesterol accumulation occurs in the brains of young postnatal NPC1-/- mice. Here, to evaluate the potential of partial blockage of cholesterol biosynthesis as a therapy for the NPC disease, we first developed a simple method to monitor the relative rates of lipid biosynthesis in mice brains. We next administered squalene synthase inhibitor (SSI) CP-340868 to young mice. The results show that treating 8-day-old NPC1-/- mice with CP-340868 for six days significantly inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis in the mice brains. It reduces neuronal cholesterol accumulation, reduces GM3 ganglioside accumulation, and diminishes astrogliosis in the brain. These results suggest that neuronal cholesterol accumulation contributes to early pathogenesis in the NPC1-/- mice brains. The SSI treatment also reduced brain galactolipid content, suggesting that blocking endogenous cholesterol synthesis in the young mice brains may disrupt the normal myelin maturation processes. The methods described in the current work have general applicability for lipid metabolism studies in mice brains in various pathophysiological conditions. PMID:17949821

Reid, Patrick C.; Lin, Song; Vanier, Marie T.; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; Harwood, H. James; Hickey, William F.; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Chang, Ta-Yuan

2009-01-01

292

Effects of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, atorvastatin and simvastatin, on the expression of endothelin-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis has been attributed to alterations in the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway or to an excess of endothelin-1 (ET-1). The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to ameliorate endothelial function. However, the physiological basis of this observation is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of Atorvastatin and Simvastatin on the pre-proET-1 mRNA expression and ET-1 synthesis and on the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) transcript and protein levels in bovine aortic endothelial cells. These agents inhibited pre-proET-1 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion (60-70% maximum inhibition) and reduced immunoreactive ET-1 levels (25-50%). This inhibitory effect was maintained in the presence of oxidized LDL (1-50 microg/ml). No significant modification of pre-proET-1 mRNA half-life was observed. In addition, mevalonate, but not cholesterol, reversed the statin-mediated decrease of pre-proET-1 mRNA levels. eNOS mRNA expression was reduced by oxidized LDL in a dose-dependent fashion (up to 57% inhibition), whereas native LDL had no effect. Statins were able to prevent the inhibitory action exerted by oxidized LDL on eNOS mRNA and protein levels. Hence, these drugs might influence vascular tone by modulating the expression of endothelial vasoactive factors. PMID:9637705

Hernández-Perera, O; Pérez-Sala, D; Navarro-Antolín, J; Sánchez-Pascuala, R; Hernández, G; Díaz, C; Lamas, S

1998-01-01

293

The Dominant Inhibitory Chalcone Synthase Allele C2-Idf (Inhibitor diffuse) From Zea mays (L.) Acts via an Endogenous RNA Silencing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The flavonoid pigment pathway in plants has been used as a model system for studying gene regulatory mechanisms. C2-Idf is a stable dominant mutation of the chalcone synthase gene, c2, which encodes the first dedicated enzyme in this biosynthetic pathway of maize. Homozygous C2-Idf plants show no pigmentation. This allele also inhibits expression of functional C2 alleles in heterozygotes, producing a less pigmented condition instead of the normal deeply pigmented phenotype. To explore the nature of this effect, the C2-Idf allele was cloned. The gene structure of the C2-Idf haplotype differs substantially from that of the normal c2 gene in that three copies are present. Two of these are located in close proximity to each other in a head-to-head orientation and the third is closely linked. Previous experiments showed that the lower level of pigmentation in heterozygotes is correlated with reduced enzyme activity and low steady-state mRNA levels. We found that c2 transcription occurs in nuclei of C2-Idf/C2 heterozygotes, but mRNA does not accumulate, suggesting that the inhibition is mediated by RNA silencing. Infection of C2-Idf/C2 heterozygotes with viruses that carry suppressors of RNA silencing relieved the phenotypic inhibition, restoring pigment production and mRNA levels. Finally, we detected small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants carrying C2-Idf, but not in plants homozygous for the wild-type C2 allele. Together, our results indicate that the inhibitory effect of C2-Idf occurs through RNA silencing. PMID:15956664

Della Vedova, Chris B.; Lorbiecke, René; Kirsch, Helene; Schulte, Michael B.; Scheets, Kay; Borchert, Lutz M.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Wienand, Udo; Cone, Karen C.; Birchler, James A.

2005-01-01

294

4-Hydroxy-3-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)thiophen-2(5H)-one as inhibitors of tyrosyl-tRNA synthase: Synthesis, molecular docking and antibacterial evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel 4-hydroxy-3-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)thiophen-2(5H)-ones as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors were synthesized. Of these compounds, 4-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrothiophen-3-yl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (29) was the most potent. The binding model and structure-activity relationship indicate that replacement of phenyl acetate in the side chain of 29 with a substituent containing more hydrophilic groups would be more suitable for further modification. Antibacterial assay revealed that the synthetic compounds are effective against growth of Gram-positive organisms, and 29 is the most potent agent against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC50 value of 0.21 ?g/mL.

Sun, Juan; Liu, Jia-Jia; Zhou, Wei; Guo, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Xin-Yi; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2014-01-01

295

Kinetic properties and role of bacterial chitin deacetylase in the bioconversion of chitin to chitosan.  

PubMed

Chitin is an extremely insoluble material with very limited industrial use; however it can be deacetylated to soluble chitosan which has a wide range of applications. The enzymatic deacetylation of various chitin samples was investigated using the bacterial chitin deacetylase (CDA), which was partially purified from Alcaligenes sp. ATCC 55938 growth medium and the kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. Also, the efficiency of biocatalyst recycling by immobilization technique was examined. CDA activity reached its maximum (0.419 U/ml) after 18 h of bacterial cultivation. When glycol chitin was used as a substrate, the optimum pH of the enzyme was estimated to be 6 after checking a pH range between 3 and 9, while the optimum temperature was found to be 35°C. Addition of acetate (100 mM) in the assay mixture resulted in 50% loss of enzyme activity. The Km value of the enzyme is 1.6 × 10(-4) µM and Vmax is 24.7 µM/min. The average activity of CDA was 0.38 U/ml for both of immobilized and freely suspended cells after 18 h of bacterial growth. Some related patents are also discussed here. PMID:24308492

ElMekawy, Ahmed; Hegab, Hanaa M; El-Baz, Ashraf; Hudson, Samuel M

2013-12-01

296

A gut-specific chitinase gene essential for regulation of chitin content of peritrophic matrix and growth of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae.  

PubMed

Chitinases belong to a large and diverse family of hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds of chitin. However, very little is known about the function of chitinase genes in regulating the chitin content in peritrophic matrix (PM) of the midgut in insects. We identified a cDNA putatively encoding a chitinase (OnCht) in European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis). The OnCht transcript was predominately found in larval midgut but undetectable in eggs, pupae, or adults. When the larvae were fed on an artificial diet, the OnCht transcript level increased by 4.4-fold but the transcript level of a gut-specific chitin synthase (OnCHS2) gene decreased by 2.5-fold as compared with those of unfed larvae. In contrast, when the larvae were fed with the food and then starved for 24h, the OnCht transcript level decreased by 1.8-fold but the transcript level of OnCHS2 increased by 1.8-fold. Furthermore, there was a negative relationship between OnCht transcript level and chitin content in the midgut. By using a feeding-based RNAi technique, we were able to reduce the OnCht transcript level by 63-64% in the larval midgut. Consequently, these larvae showed significantly increased chitin content (26%) in the PM but decreased larval body weight (54%) as compared with the control larvae fed on the diet containing GFP dsRNA. Therefore, for the first time, we provide strong evidence that OnCht plays an important role in regulating chitin content of the PM and subsequently affecting the growth and development of the ECB larvae. PMID:20542114

Khajuria, Chitvan; Buschman, Lawrent L; Chen, Ming-Shun; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Zhu, Kun Yan

2010-08-01

297

Novel, potent, orally bioavailable and selective mycobacterial ATP synthase inhibitors that demonstrated activity against both replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The mycobacterial F0F1-ATP synthase (ATPase) is a validated target for the development of tuberculosis (TB) therapeutics. Therefore, a series of eighteen novel compounds has been designed, synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATPase. The observed ATPase inhibitory activities (IC50) of these compounds range between 0.36 and 5.45?M. The lead compound 9d [N-(7-chloro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-N-(3-((diethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dichlorobenzenesulfonamide] with null cytotoxicity (CC50>300?g/mL) and excellent anti-mycobacterial activity and selectivity (mycobacterium ATPase IC50=0.51?M, mammalian ATPase IC50>100?M, and selectivity >200) exhibited a complete growth inhibition of replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv at 3.12?g/mL. In addition, it also exhibited bactericidal effect (approximately 2.4log10 reductions in CFU) in the hypoxic culture of non-replicating M. tuberculosis at 100?g/mL (32-fold of its MIC) as compared to positive control isoniazid [approximately 0.2log10 reduction in CFU at 5?g/mL (50-fold of its MIC)]. The pharmacokinetics of 9d after p.o. and IV administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats indicated its quick absorption, distribution and slow elimination. It exhibited a high volume of distribution (Vss, 0.41L/kg), moderate clearance (0.06L/h/kg), long half-life (4.2h) and low absolute bioavailability (1.72%). In the murine model system of chronic TB, 9d showed 2.12log10 reductions in CFU in both lung and spleen at 173?mol/kg dose as compared to the growth of untreated control group of Balb/C male mice infected with replicating M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The in vivo efficacy of 9d is at least double of the control drug ethambutol. These results suggest 9d as a promising candidate molecule for further preclinical evaluation against resistant TB strains. PMID:25614114

Singh, Supriya; Roy, Kuldeep K; Khan, Shaheb R; Kashyap, Vivek Kr; Sharma, Abhisheak; Jaiswal, Swati; Sharma, Sandeep K; Krishnan, Manju Yasoda; Chaturvedi, Vineeta; Lal, Jawahar; Sinha, Sudhir; Gupta, Arnab D; Srivastava, Ranjana; Saxena, Anil K

2015-02-15

298

Solid state characterization of ?-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell (?-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei (?-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray

Jessica D. Schiffman; Caroline L. Schauer

2009-01-01

299

Characterization of chitin-metal silicates as binding superdisintegrants.  

PubMed

When chitin is used in pharmaceutical formulations, processing of chitin with metal silicates is advantageous, from both an industrial and pharmaceutical perspective, compared to processing using silicon dioxide. Unlike the use of acidic and basic reagents for the industrial preparation of chitin-silica particles, coprecipitation of metal silicates is dependent upon a simple replacement reaction between sodium silicate and metal chlorides. When coprecipitated onto chitin particles, aluminum, magnesium, or calcium silicates result in nonhygroscopic, highly compactable/disintegrable compacts. Disintegration and hardness parameters for coprocessed chitin compacts were investigated and found to be independent of the particle size. Capillary action appears to be the major contributor to both water uptake and the driving force for disintegration of compacts. The good compaction and compression properties shown by the chitin-metal silicates were found to be strongly dependent upon the type of metal silicate coprecipitated onto chitin. In addition, the inherent binding and disintegration abilities of chitin-metal silicates are useful in pharmaceutical applications when poorly compressible and/or highly nonpolar drugs need to be formulated. PMID:19691098

Rashid, Iyad; Daraghmeh, Nidal; Al-Remawi, Mayyas; Leharne, Stephen A; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Badwan, Adnan

2009-12-01

300

Applications and Environmental Aspects of Chitin and Chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey on the properties of the natural nitrogen-containing polysaccharides chitin and chitosan is given. Outstanding features are the materials' mechanical and chemical properties which offer numerous, largely unexplored applications in technology, chemistry, medicine, and agriculture. Derivatives of chitin and chitosan are accessible by reactions of the hydroxy and amino groups with appropriate reagents. Various types of gels, membranes, and

Martin G. Peter

1995-01-01

301

Removal of metals from aqueous solutions using natural chitinous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four naturally derived chitinous materials, commercial cryogenically milled carapace (CCMC), mechanically milled carapace (MMC), chitin and chitosan, were assessed for their ability to remove a range of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metals from aqueous media in flow-through column trials. The materials showed a poor affinity for the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals but significantly greater affinity for

I. B. Rae; S. W. Gibb

2003-01-01

302

Degradation and mineralization of chitin in an estuary  

SciTech Connect

A method for measuring microbial degradation and mineralization of radiolabeled native chitin is described. /sup 14/C-labeled chitin was synthesized in vivo by injecting shed blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) with N-acetyl-D-(/sup 14/C)-glucosamine, allowing for its incorporation into the exoskeleton. Rates of chitin degradation and mineralization in estuarine water and sediments were determined as functions of temperature, inoculum source, and oxygen condition. Significant differences in rates between temperature treatments were evident. Q/sub 10/ values ranged from 1.2 to 2.5 for water and sediment, respectively. Increased incubation temperature also resulted in decreased lag times before onset of chitinoclastic bacterial growth and chitin degradation. The anaerobic pathway of chitin decomposition by chitinoclastic bacteria was examined with an emphasis on end product coupling to other bacterial types. Actively growing chitinoclastic bacterial isolates produced primarily acetate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide in broth culture.

Boyer, J.

1987-01-01

303

Applications of Chitin and Its Derivatives in Biological Medicine  

PubMed Central

Chitin and its derivatives—as a potential resource as well as multiple functional substrates—have generated attractive interest in various fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, food and environmental industries, since the first isolation of chitin in 1811. Moreover, chitosan and its chitooligosaccharides (COS) are degraded products of chitin through enzymatic and acidic hydrolysis processes; and COS, in particular, is well suited for potential biological application, due to the biocompatibility and nontoxic nature of chitosan. In this review, we investigate the current bioactivities of chitin derivatives, which are all correlated with their biomedical properties. Several new and cutting edge insights here may provide a molecular basis for the mechanism of chitin, and hence may aid its use for medical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21614199

Park, Bae Keun; Kim, Moon-Moo

2010-01-01

304

Chitin and chitosan nanofibers: preparation and chemical modifications.  

PubMed

Chitin nanofibers are prepared from the exoskeletons of crabs and prawns, squid pens and mushrooms by a simple mechanical treatment after a series of purification steps. The nanofibers have fine nanofiber networks with a uniform width of approximately 10 nm. The method used for chitin-nanofiber isolation is also successfully applied to the cell walls of mushrooms. Commercial chitin and chitosan powders are also easily converted into nanofibers by mechanical treatment, since these powders consist of nanofiber aggregates. Grinders and high-pressure waterjet systems are effective for disintegrating chitin into nanofibers. Acidic conditions are the key factor to facilitate mechanical fibrillation. Surface modification is an effective way to change the surface property and to endow nanofiber surface with other properties. Several modifications to the chitin NF surface are achieved, including acetylation, deacetylation, phthaloylation, naphthaloylation, maleylation, chlorination, TEMPO-mediated oxidation, and graft polymerization. Those derivatives and their properties are characterized. PMID:25393598

Ifuku, Shinsuke

2014-01-01

305

Antioxidant effects of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives.  

PubMed

Chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives are considered to promote diverse activities, including antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antitumor and anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, and antidiabetic effects, one of the most crucial of which is the antioxidant effect. By modulating and improving physiological functions, chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives may provide novel therapeutic applications for the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. Antioxidant activity of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives can be attributed to in vitro and in vivo free radical-scavenging activities. Antioxidant effect of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives may be used as functional ingredients in food formulations to promote consumer health and to improve the shelf life of food products. This chapter presents an overview of the antioxidant activity of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives with the potential utilization in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25300540

Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

2014-01-01

306

The kinase LYK5 is a major chitin receptor in Arabidopsis and forms a chitin-induced complex with related kinase CERK1  

PubMed Central

Chitin is a fungal microbe-associated molecular pattern recognized in Arabidopsis by a lysin motif receptor kinase (LYK), AtCERK1. Previous research suggested that AtCERK1 is the major chitin receptor and mediates chitin-induced signaling through homodimerization and phosphorylation. However, the reported chitin binding affinity of AtCERK1 is quite low, suggesting another receptor with high chitin binding affinity might be present. Here, we propose that AtLYK5 is the primary chitin receptor in Arabidopsis. Mutations in AtLYK5 resulted in a significant reduction in chitin response. However, AtLYK5 shares overlapping function with AtLYK4 and, therefore, Atlyk4/Atlyk5-2 double mutants show a complete loss of chitin response. AtLYK5 interacts with AtCERK1 in a chitin-dependent manner. Chitin binding to AtLYK5 is indispensable for chitin-induced AtCERK1 phosphorylation. AtLYK5 binds chitin at a much higher affinity than AtCERK1. The data suggest that AtLYK5 is the primary receptor for chitin, forming a chitin inducible complex with AtCERK1 to induce plant immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03766.001 PMID:25340959

Cao, Yangrong; Liang, Yan; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Nguyen, Cuong T; Jedrzejczak, Robert P; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Stacey, Gary

2014-01-01

307

The Non-catalytic Chitin-binding Protein CBP21 from Serratia marcescens Is Essential for Chitin Degradation*  

E-print Network

on the action of a small non- catalytic protein, CBP21, which binds to the insoluble crystalline substrate promoted hydrolysis of crystalline -chitin by chitinases A and C, while it was essential for full inter- actions between the protein and crystalline chitin. This is the first time a secreted binding

van Aalten, Daan

308

Role of the anterior region of the third ventricle in the cardiovascular responses produced by systemic injection of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined whether a prior electrolytic lesion of the tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) would affect the increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and the fall in heart rate (HR) produced by systemic injection of the nitric oxide synthesis (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 25 micromol/kg, i.v.) in conscious rats. L-NAME produced a smaller increase in MAP in AV3V-lesion than in sham-lesion rats (+19+/-3 vs. +40+/-3 mmHg, respectively; P<0.05). In contrast, L-NAME produced similar falls in HR in the AV3V-lesion and sham-lesion rats (-103+/-15 vs. -97+/-8 bpm, respectively; P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that the L-NAME-induced pressor response is dependent upon the integrity of the AV3V region, whereas the L-NAME-induced bradycardia is not. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B. V.

Lewis, S. J.; Whalen, E. J.; Beltz, T. G.; Johnson, A. K.

1999-01-01

309

DIT101 (CSD2, CAL1), a cell cycle-regulated yeast gene required for synthesis of chitin in cell walls and chitosan in spore walls.  

PubMed

A mutant screen has been designed to isolate mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in spore wall dityrosine. As shown by electron microscopy, most of the mutant spores lacked only the outermost, dityrosine-rich layer of the spore wall. Mutant dit101, however, was additionally lacking the chitosan layer of the spore wall. Chemical measurements showed that this mutant does not synthesize chitosan during sporulation. The mutant spores were viable but sensitive to lytic enzymes (glusulase or zymolyase). Unlike most of the dit-mutants, dit101 did show a distinctive phenotype in vegetative cells: they grew normally but contained very little chitin and were therefore resistant to the toxic chitin-binding dye, Calcofluor White. The cells showed barely detectable staining of the walls with Calcofluor White or primulin. The decrease in the amount of chitin in vegetative cells and the absence of chitosan in spores suggested that the mutant dit101 could be defective in a chitin synthase. Indeed, a genomic yeast clone harboring the gene, CSD2, sharing significant sequence similarity with yeast chitin synthases I and II (C. E. Bulawa (1992), Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 1764-1776), complemented our mutant and was shown to correspond to the chromosomal locus of dit101. Thus, the mutations dit101 and csd2 (and probably also call; M. H. Valdivieso et al., (1991), J. Cell Biol. 114, 101-109) were shown to be allelic. The gene was mapped to chromosome II and was located about 3 kb distal of GAL1. Using this DNA clone, a transcript of about 3500-4000 nucleotides was detected. Comparing RNA isolated from vegetative cells and from sporulating cells at different times throughout the sporulation process, no significant differences in DIT101 transcript levels could be detected indicating absence of sporulation-specific transcriptional regulation. However, the amount of DIT101 transcript changed significantly at different stages of the mitotic cell cycle, peaking after septum formation, but before cytokinesis. As most of the chitin synthesis of vegetative cells occurs at this stage of the cell division cycle, chitin synthesis mediated by DIT101 could be primarily regulated at the level of transcription in vegetatively growing cells. PMID:1293886

Pammer, M; Briza, P; Ellinger, A; Schuster, T; Stucka, R; Feldmann, H; Breitenbach, M

1992-12-01

310

Localized Deposition of Chitin on the Yeast Cell Surface in Response to Mating Pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of a mating-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with the pheromone alpha -factor (secreted by alpha mating-type cells) induces the synthesis of chitin. Small daughter cells, which start with no detectable chitin, make 3 times more chitin when grown in the presence of alpha -factor than do untreated exponentially growing cells. Budding cells accumulate chitin in the nascent division septum [Cabib,

Randy Schekman; Vicki Brawley

1979-01-01

311

Crystal Structure and Binding Properties of the Serratia marcescens Chitin-binding Protein CBP21*S  

E-print Network

Crystal Structure and Binding Properties of the Serratia marcescens Chitin-binding Protein CBP21*S, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom Chitin proteins are commonly found in bacteria that utilize chitin as a source of energy. CBP21 is a chitin- binding protein from Serratia marcescens, a Gram-neg- ative soil

van Aalten, Daan

312

Micro-CT Imaging of Denatured Chitin by Silver to Explore Honey Bee and Insect Pathologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChitin and cuticle coatings are important to the environmental and immune defense of honey bees and insect pollinators. Pesticides or environmental effects may target the biochemistry of insect chitin and cuticle coating. Denaturing of chitin involves a combination of deacetylation, intercalation, oxidation, Schweiger-peeling, and the formation of amine hydrochloride salt. The term “denatured chitin” calls attention to structural and property

Peter R. Butzloff

2011-01-01

313

Diverse mechanisms of growth inhibition by luteolin, resveratrol, and quercetin in MIA PaCa-2 cells: a comparative glucose tracer study with the fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75  

PubMed Central

The rationale of this dose matching/dose escalating study was to compare a panel of flavonoids—luteolin, resveratrol, and quercetin—against the metabolite flux-controlling properties of a synthetic targeted fatty acid synthase inhibitor drug C75 on multiple macromolecule synthesis pathways in pancreatic tumor cells using [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose as the single precursor metabolic tracer. MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of 0.1% DMSO (control), or 50 or 100 ?M of each test compound, while intracellular glycogen, RNA ribose, palmitate and cholesterol as well as extra cellular 13CO2, lactate and glutamate production patterns were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and stable isotope-based dynamic metabolic profiling (SiDMAP). The use of 50% [1,2-13C2]-d-glucose as tracer resulted in an average of 24 excess 13CO2 molecules for each 1,000 CO2 molecule in the culture media, which was decreased by 29 and 33% (P < 0.01) with 100 ?M C75 and luteolin treatments, respectively. Extracellular tracer glucose-derived 13C-labeled lactate fractions (?m) were between 45.52 and 47.49% in all cultures with a molar ratio of 2.47% M + 1/?m lactate produced indirectly by direct oxidation of glucose in the pentose cycle in control cultures; treatment with 100 ?M C75 and luteolin decreased this figure to 1.80 and 1.67%. The tracer glucose-derived 13C labeled fraction (?m) of ribonucleotide ribose was 34.73% in controls, which was decreased to 20.58 and 8.45% with C75, 16.15 and 6.86% with luteolin, 27.66 and 19.25% with resveratrol, and 30.09 and 25.67% with quercetin, respectively. Luteolin effectively decreased nucleotide precursor synthesis pentose cycle flux primarily via the oxidative branch, where we observed a 41.74% flux (M + 1/?m) in control cells, in comparison with only a 37.19%, 32.74%, or a 26.57%, 25.47% M + 1/?m flux (P < 0.001) after 50 or 100 ?M C75 or luteolin treatment. Intracellular de novo fatty acid palmitate (C16:0) synthesis was severely and equally blocked by C75 and luteolin treatments indicated by the 5.49% (control), 2.29 or 2.47% (C75) and 2.21 or 2.73% (luteolin) tracer glucose-derived 13C-labeled fractions, respectively. On the other hand there was a significant 192 and 159% (P < 0.001), and a 103 and 117% (P < 0.01) increase in tracer glucose-derived cholesterol after C75 or luteolin treatment. Only resveratrol and quercetin at 100 ?M inhibited tracer glucose-derived glycogen labeling (?m) and turnover by 34.8 and 23.8%, respectively. The flavonoid luteolin possesses equal efficacy to inhibit fatty acid palmitate de novo synthesis as well as nucleotide RNA ribose turnover via the oxidative branch of the pentose cycle in comparison with the targeted fatty acid synthase inhibitor synthetic compound C75. Luteolin is also effective in stringently controlling glucose entry and anaplerosis in the TCA cycle, while it promotes less glucose flux towards cholesterol synthesis than that of C75. In contrast, quercetin and resveratrol inhibit glycogen synthesis and turnover as their underlying mechanism of controlling tumor cell proliferation. Therefore the flavonoid luteolin controls fatty and nucleic acid syntheses as well as energy production with pharmacological strength, which can be explored as a non-toxic natural treatment modality for pancreatic cancer. PMID:22754424

Li, Luyi; Chen, Monica; Lagunero, F. Tracy; Go, Vay Liang W.; Boros, Laszlo G.

2011-01-01

314

Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human adherent blood mononuclear cells is inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine.  

PubMed

The release of chemokines such as macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) from activated macrophages is a crucial step in cell recruitment necessary for establishing local inflammatory responses. To ascertain the importance of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway in LPS-induced MIP-1 alpha release, we stimulated human adherent PBMC with LPS in the presence of the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). L-NMMA decreased LPS-induced MIP-1 alpha protein release (45.5% inhibition) and steady state levels of mRNA (48% inhibition) in adherent PBMC. The concentration of L-NMMA for inhibition of MIP-1 alpha release was dependent on the concentration of L-arginine in the cell culture medium, emphasizing the L-arginine-related action of the drug. Most of the MIP-1 alpha release was attributed to the activity of IL-1 and TNF, since coincubation of LPS-stimulated PBMC with IL-1R antagonist and TNF-binding protein abrogated LPS-induced MIP-1 alpha release (by 76.8%). Analysis of cytokine secretion revealed that, in addition to MIP-1 alpha, L-NMMA inhibited the release of mature IL-1 beta (by 70%) and TNF-alpha (by 53%). In contrast, release of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 was unaffected; IL-10 was augmented (123.4%) by L-NMMA. In the presence of exogenous NO provided by NO donors, LPS-induced MIP-1 alpha release was enhanced. We concluded that endogenous NO acts as a mediator of inflammation. Since IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, these data also suggest that L-NMMA acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by specifically altering the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines released from LPS-stimulated human PBMC. PMID:9366434

Mühl, H; Dinarello, C A

1997-11-15

315

Structural alterations, pore generation, and deacetylation of ?- and ?-chitin submitted to steam explosion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to use an environmentally friendly steam explosion method to achieve ?- and ?-chitin structural alterations, pore generation, and deacetylation, enhancing the degree of deacetylation (DD) in chitin and extending its applications. The samples of ?- and ?-chitin possessing various moisture contents that were exploded at 9kg/cm(2) exhibited higher DDs, lower densities, lower crystallinity and more porous structures compared to unexploded chitin. After explosion, ?-chitin exhibited a larger expansion ratio, lower crystallinity and contained a larger proportion of small-sized particles compared to ?-chitin. The highest DD values of exploded ?- and ?-chitin with 75% moisture content were 42.9% and 43.7%, respectively. The exploded chitin samples with lower moisture content exhibited lower DDs, densities, crystallinity indices, smaller particle sizes, and higher expansion ratios than the chitin samples with higher moisture content. The chitin samples with lower moisture content also contained larger and more numerous pores. PMID:25817675

Tan, Too Shen; Chin, Hui Yen; Tsai, Min-Lang; Liu, Chao-Lin

2015-05-20

316

Identification of 20-Hydroxyecdysone Late-Response Genes in the Chitin Biosynthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its receptor complex ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP) play a crucial role in controlling development, metamorphosis, reproduction and diapause. The ligand-receptor complex 20E-EcR/USP directly activates a small set of early-response genes and a much larger set of late-response genes. However, ecdysone-responsive genes have not been previously characterized in the context of insect chitin biosynthesis. Principal Findings Here, we show that injection-based RNA interference (RNAi) directed towards a common region of the two isoforms of SeEcR in a lepidopteron insect Spodoptera exigua was effective, with phenotypes including a high mortality prior to pupation and developmental defects. After gene specific RNAi, chitin contents in the cuticle of an abnormal larva significantly decreased. The expression levels of five genes in the chitin biosynthesis pathway, SeTre-1, SeG6PI, SeUAP, SeCHSA and SeCHSB, were significantly reduced, while there was no difference in the expression of SeTre-2 prior to 72 hr after injection of EcR dsRNA. Meanwhile, injection of 20E in vivo induced the expression of the five genes mentioned above. Moreover, the SeTre-1, SeG6PI, SeUAP and SeCHSB genes showed late responses to the hormone and the induction of SeTre-1, SeG6PI, SeUAP and SeCHSB genes by 20E were able to be inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide in vitro indicating these genes are 20E late-response genes. Conclusions We conclude that SeTre-1, SeG6PI, SeUAP and SeCHSB in the chitin biosynthesis pathway are 20E late-response genes and 20E and its specific receptors plays a key role in the regulation of chitin biosynthesis via inducing their expression. PMID:21124981

Yao, Qiong; Zhang, Daowei; Tang, Bin; Chen, Jie; Chen, Jing; Lu, Liang; Zhang, Wenqing

2010-01-01

317

Rheological study of chitosan acetate solutions containing chitin nanofibrils.  

PubMed

Rheological properties of chitosan acetate solutions containing chitin nanofibrils (n-chitin) and biocompatible plasticizers intended for preparation of biodegradable films are reported in the steady, oscillatory and transient shear flow. The experiments were performed on slurries with an optimum proportion of 65/35 wt.% between chitosan and n-chitin in the films which was determined from our results of mechanical properties and absorption of water vapor. The time-dependent dynamic experiments revealed the chitin nanofibrils as an effective "gelling agent" of chitosan phase. The phenomenon is explained by a chitosan-like surface of n-chitin and by the interactions inducing orientational cooperativity of chitosan molecules dissolved in close neighborhood of the anisotropic chitin nanofibrils. Additions of glycerol or poly(ethylene glycol), improving mechanical properties of the films, delay significantly the onset of gelation of chitosan/n-chitin slurries. The effect is induced by an increase in viscosity of the slurries and by their enhanced chaotropic character. PMID:25129805

Mikešová, Jana; Hašek, Jind?ich; Tishchenko, Galina; Morganti, Pierfrancesco

2014-11-01

318

Chitin biosynthesis: does it involve a lipid-bound intermediate  

SciTech Connect

In plants and animals, mechanical support is provided by insoluble extracellular fibers of high molecular weight which, in many invertebrates and fungi, consist in part of the nitrogen-containing carbohydrate chitin. At least in animals, chitin may be covalently bonded to protein. This possibility has given rise to the persistent search for a lipid-bound intermediate in chitin biosynthesis, since for certain glycoproteins such involvement is well established. Cell-free chitin synthetase systems from yeasts have been prepared, purified, and to some extent characterized. For such systems, in the cases where the product has been unequivocally identified as chitin, involvement of a lipid-bound intermediate is most unlikely. Chitin synthesis by particulate cell-free preparations has been claimed for both crustaceans and insects. Careful inspection of the evidence in the latter instances reveals either that the synthetase is probably of microorganismic origin, or that the available results do not convincingly support the conclusions drawn from them. Semi-in vitro work involving short- or longer-term culture of epithelial cells synthesizing chitin has been done successfully in a number of laboratories. In cases where the question of lipid-bound intermediates has been addressed, the evidence has tended to militate against such involvement in insects and for it in crustaceans, but the evidence is as yet inconclusive. Further work is needed.

Bade, M.L.

1983-01-01

319

Salmonella Biofilm Formation on Aspergillus niger Involves Cellulose – Chitin Interactions  

PubMed Central

Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose–chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens. PMID:22003399

Brandl, Maria T.; Carter, Michelle Q.; Parker, Craig T.; Chapman, Matthew R.; Huynh, Steven; Zhou, Yaguang

2011-01-01

320

Streptomyces lunalinharesii spores contain chitin on the outer sheath.  

PubMed

Chitin from Streptomyces lunalinharesii spores, detected on its outermost surface layer, was isolated and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods, transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Gold-chitinase- and gold-lectin (Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, LEA)-conjugated labels were used in microscopy experiments, whereas a fluorescence-lectin (LEA) conjugate was used in flow cytometry analysis. Chitin isolation consisted of several steps of hot alkali and nitrous acid treatment, and the final material was obtained in the colloidal form. The infrared and the 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of Streptomyces sp. colloidal chitin and colloidal chitin obtained from commercial crab shell chitin were very similar. Incubation of the spores with gold-labeled lectin, or gold-labeled recombinant chitinase, showed the presence of gold particles around the spore surface, indicating the specific binding of the lectin or the recombinant chitinase with the chitin present on the outermost surface. Flow cytometry analysis, using the fluorescence-lectin conjugate, confirmed these results. According to scanning electron microscopy, S. lunalinharesii presented spore surface ornamentation belonging to the spiny group. This is the first detailed characterization of chitin on the spore's outermost layer from a Streptomyces species. PMID:18625023

Gomes, Rosana Canuto; Soares, Rosangela Maria Araújo; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Souto-Padrón, Thais; de Souza, Rodrigo Fonseca; de Azevedo Soares Semêdo, Luzia Teixeira; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Rodrigues Coelho, Rosalie Reed

2008-09-01

321

Crystal analysis and high-resolution imaging of microfibrillar ?-chitin from Phaeocystis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of ?-chitin microfibril produced by marine alga Phaeocystis was investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The average size of the microfibril was 17.1±1.8?m in length and 39.8±8.8nm in width. The FT-IR spectrum shows typical ?-chitin pattern, and each band was sharper than crustacean chitin’s, indicating higher crystallinity of the Phaeocystis chitin. The X-ray diffraction gave

Yu Ogawa; Satoshi Kimura; Masahisa Wada; Shigenori Kuga

2010-01-01

322

Structure and Inhibition of Tuberculosinol Synthase and Decaprenyl Diphosphate Synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

We have obtained the structure of the bacterial diterpene synthase, tuberculosinol/iso-tuberculosinol synthase (Rv3378c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a target for anti-infective therapies that block virulence factor formation. This phosphatase adopts the same fold as found in the Z- or cis-prenyltransferases. We also obtained structures containing the tuberculosinyl diphosphate substrate together with one bisphosphonate inhibitor-bound structure. These structures together with the results of site-directed mutagenesis suggest an unusual mechanism of action involving two Tyr residues. Given the similarity in local and global structure between Rv3378c and the M. tuberculosis cis-decaprenyl diphosphate synthase (DPPS; Rv2361c), the possibility exists for the development of inhibitors that target not only virulence but also cell wall biosynthesis, based in part on the structures reported here. PMID:24475925

2015-01-01

323

Emerging chitin and chitosan nanofibrous materials for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several decades, we have witnessed significant progress in chitosan and chitin based nanostructured materials. The nanofibers from chitin and chitosan with appealing physical and biological features have attracted intense attention due to their excellent biological properties related to biodegradability, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, low immunogenicity and wound healing capacity. Various methods, such as electrospinning, self-assembly, phase separation, mechanical treatment, printing, ultrasonication and chemical treatment were employed to prepare chitin and chitosan nanofibers. These nanofibrous materials have tremendous potential to be used as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, wound dressing materials, antimicrobial agents, and biosensors. This review article discusses the most recent progress in the preparation and application of chitin and chitosan based nanofibrous materials in biomedical fields.

Ding, Fuyuan; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen; Wang, Qun

2014-07-01

324

Emerging chitin and chitosan nanofibrous materials for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades, we have witnessed significant progress in chitosan and chitin based nanostructured materials. The nanofibers from chitin and chitosan with appealing physical and biological features have attracted intense attention due to their excellent biological properties related to biodegradability, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, low immunogenicity and wound healing capacity. Various methods, such as electrospinning, self-assembly, phase separation, mechanical treatment, printing, ultrasonication and chemical treatment were employed to prepare chitin and chitosan nanofibers. These nanofibrous materials have tremendous potential to be used as drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, wound dressing materials, antimicrobial agents, and biosensors. This review article discusses the most recent progress in the preparation and application of chitin and chitosan based nanofibrous materials in biomedical fields. PMID:25000536

Ding, Fuyuan; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen; Wang, Qun

2014-08-21

325

O-Nucleoside, S-Nucleoside, and N-Nucleoside Probes of Lumazine Synthase and Riboflavin Synthase  

PubMed Central

Lumazine synthase catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin, while riboflavin synthase catalyzes the last step. O-Nucleoside, S-nucleoside and N-nucleoside analogues of hypothetical lumazine biosynthetic intermediates have been synthesized in order to obtain structure and mechanism probes of these two enzymes, as well as inhibitors of potential value as antibiotics. Methods were devised for the selective cleavage of benzyl protecting groups in the presence of other easily reduced functionality by controlled hydrogenolysis over Lindlar catalyst. The deprotection reaction was performed in the presence of other reactive functionality including nitro groups, alkenes, and halogens. The target compounds were tested as inhibitors of lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase obtained from a variety of microorganisms. In general, the S-nucleosides and N-nucleosides were more potent than the corresponding O-nucleosides as lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase inhibitors, while the C-nucleosides were the least potent. A series of molecular dynamics simulations followed by free energy calculations using the Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area (MM-PBSA) method were carried out in order to rationalize the results of ligand binding to lumazine synthase, and the results provide insight into the dynamics of ligand binding as well as the molecular forces stabilizing the intermediates in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. PMID:22780198

Talukdar, Arindam; Zhao, Yujie; Lv, Wei; Bacher, Adelbert; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus; Cushman, Mark

2012-01-01

326

Chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives for wound healing: old and new materials.  

PubMed

Chitin (?-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) is widely distributed in nature and is the second most abundant polysaccharide after cellulose. It is often converted to its more deacetylated derivative, chitosan. Previously, many reports have indicated the accelerating effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives on wound healing. More recently, chemically modified or nano-fibrous chitin and chitosan have been developed, and their effects on wound healing have been evaluated. In this review, the studies on the wound-healing effects of chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are summarized. Moreover, the development of adhesive-based chitin and chitosan are also described. The evidence indicates that chitin, chitosan, and its derivatives are beneficial for the wound healing process. More recently, it is also indicate that some nano-based materials from chitin and chitosan are beneficial than chitin and chitosan for wound healing. Clinical applications of nano-based chitin and chitosan are also expected. PMID:25780874

Azuma, Kazuo; Izumi, Ryotaro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

2015-01-01

327

Optical properties of chitin and chitosan biopolymers with application to structural color analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical properties of the biopolymers chitin and chitosan have been considered for wavelengths between 250 and 750 nm. First, by inverting published refractive index data for composite chitosan-chitin samples of two independent sources, we have been able to obtain the spectral dependence of both the chitosan and chitin refractive indices. Then light reflection and transmission measurements were carried out for samples obtained from fresh shrimp shells. From these spectrophotometric measurements the chitin refractive index and its extinction coefficient have been obtained for the mentioned spectral range. Absorption of light by chitin is negligible for visible wavelengths. Chitin extinction coefficient displays absorption bands in the near ultraviolet, and it is attributed to the proteinaceous content of chitin. Cuticle proteins have been isolated from these chitin samples, and absorbance measurements support the presence of the aforementioned absorption band. The chitin optical constants are used to model the structural color of a shield bug: the Poecilocoris lewisi.

Azofeifa, Daniel E.; Arguedas, Humberto J.; Vargas, William E.

2012-12-01

328

Processing of ?-chitin nanofibers by dynamic high pressure homogenization: characterization and antifungal activity against A. niger.  

PubMed

Chitin nano-objects become more interesting and attractive material than native chitin because of their usable form, low density, high surface area and promising mechanical properties. This work suggests a straightforward and environmentally friendly method for processing chitin nanofibers using dynamic high pressure homogenization. This technique proved to be a remarkably simple way to get ?-chitin into ?-chitin nanofibers from yellow lobster wastes with a uniform width (bellow 100 nm) and high aspect ratio; and may contributes to a major breakthrough in chitin applications. Moreover, the resulting ?-chitin nanofibers were characterized and compared with native ?-chitin in terms of chemical and crystal structure, thermal degradation and antifungal activity. The biological assays highlighted that the nano nature of chitin nanofibers plays an important role in the antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. PMID:25458302

Salaberria, Asier M; Fernandes, Susana C M; Diaz, Rene Herrera; Labidi, Jalel

2015-02-13

329

Comparison of extraction methods of chitin from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom obtained in submerged culture.  

PubMed

The chitin was isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum submerged cultures mycelium as potential source of chitin under biotechnological processes. The extraction of chitin was carried out through 5 different assays which involved mainly three phases: pulverization of the mushroom, deproteinization of the mycelia with NaOH solution, and a process of decolorization with potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. The chitin contents extracted from 9-day mycelia were 413, 339, 87, 78, and 144 mg/g(-1) (milligrams of chitin/grams of dry biomass) for A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5, respectively. Obtained chitin was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by thermal analysis (TGA). The results showed that Ganoderma lucidum chitin has similar characteristic of chitin from different fonts. The advantage of the biotechnological processes and the fact that Ganoderma lucidum fungus may be used as a potential raw material for chitin production were demonstrated. PMID:24551839

Ospina Álvarez, Sandra Patricia; Ramírez Cadavid, David Alexander; Escobar Sierra, Diana Marcela; Ossa Orozco, Claudia Patricia; Rojas Vahos, Diego Fernando; Zapata Ocampo, Paola; Atehortúa, Lucía

2014-01-01

330

Comparison of Extraction Methods of Chitin from Ganoderma lucidum Mushroom Obtained in Submerged Culture  

PubMed Central

The chitin was isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum submerged cultures mycelium as potential source of chitin under biotechnological processes. The extraction of chitin was carried out through 5 different assays which involved mainly three phases: pulverization of the mushroom, deproteinization of the mycelia with NaOH solution, and a process of decolorization with potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. The chitin contents extracted from 9-day mycelia were 413, 339, 87, 78, and 144?mg/g?1 (milligrams of chitin/grams of dry biomass) for A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5, respectively. Obtained chitin was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by thermal analysis (TGA). The results showed that Ganoderma lucidum chitin has similar characteristic of chitin from different fonts. The advantage of the biotechnological processes and the fact that Ganoderma lucidum fungus may be used as a potential raw material for chitin production were demonstrated. PMID:24551839

Ospina Álvarez, Sandra Patricia; Ramírez Cadavid, David Alexander; Ossa Orozco, Claudia Patricia; Zapata Ocampo, Paola; Atehortúa, Lucía

2014-01-01

331

Chitin-microparticles for the control of intestinal inflammation  

PubMed Central

Chitin is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine with the ability to regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the detailed mechanisms of chitin-mediated regulation of intestinal inflammation are only partially known. In this study, Chitin-microparticles (CMPs) or PBS were orally administered to acute and chronic colitis models every three days for six consecutive weeks beginning at weaning age. The effects of this treatment were evaluated by histology, cytokine production, co-culture study and enteric bacterial analysis in DSS-induced colitis or TCR? knockout chronic colitis models. Histologically, chitin-treated mice showed significantly suppressed colitis as compared to PBS-treated mice in both animal models. The production of IFN? was upregulated in the mucosa of chitin-treated mice compared to control mice. The major source of IFN?-producing cells was CD4+ T cells. In mouse dendritic cells (DCs), we found that CMPs were efficiently internalized and processed within 48 hours. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) CD4+ T cells isolated from chitin-treated mice produced 7-fold higher amount of IFN? in the culture supernatant after being co-cultured with DCs and chitin as compared to the control. Proliferation of CFSElow CD4+ T cells in MLNs and enteric bacterial translocation rates were significantly reduced in chitin-treated mice when compared to the control. In addition, CMPs improved the imbalance of enteric bacterial compositions and significantly increased IL-10-producing cells in non-inflamed colon, indicating the immunoregulatory effects of CMPs in intestinal mucosa. In conclusion, CMPs significantly suppress the development of inflammation by modulating cytokine balance and microbial environment in colon. PMID:22241684

Nagatani, Katsuya; Wang, Sen; Llado, Victoria; Lau, Cindy W.; Li, Zongxi; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Nagler, Cathryn R.; Shibata, Yoshimi; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Mora, J. Rodrigo; Mizoguchi, Emiko

2013-01-01

332

Bacterial Chitin Hydrolysis in Two Lakes with Contrasting Trophic Statuses  

PubMed Central

Chitin, which is a biopolymer of the amino sugar glucosamine (GlcN), is highly abundant in aquatic ecosystems, and its degradation is assigned a key role in the recycling of carbon and nitrogen. In order to study the significance of chitin decomposition in two temperate freshwater lakes with contrasting trophic and redox conditions, we measured the turnover rate of the chitin analog methylumbelliferyl-N,N?-diacetylchitobioside (MUF-DC) and the presence of chitinase (chiA) genes in zooplankton, water, and sediment samples. In contrast to the eutrophic and partially anoxic lake, chiA gene fragments were detectable throughout the oligotrophic water column and chiA copy numbers per ml of water were up to 15 times higher than in the eutrophic waters. For both lakes, the highest chiA abundance was found in the euphotic zone—the main habitat of zooplankton, but also the site of production of easily degradable algal chitin. The bulk of chitinase activity was measured in zooplankton samples and the sediments, where recalcitrant chitin is deposited. Both, chiA abundance and chitinase activity correlated well with organic carbon, nitrogen, and concentrations of particulate GlcN. Our findings show that chitin, although its overall contribution to the total organic carbon is small (?0.01 to 0.1%), constitutes an important microbial growth substrate in these temperate freshwater lakes, particularly where other easily degradable carbon sources are scarce. PMID:22101058

Carstens, Dörte; Keller, Esther; Vazquez, Francisco; Schubert, Carsten J.; Zeyer, Josef; Bürgmann, Helmut

2012-01-01

333

Stilbene Synthase and Chalcone Synthase 1  

PubMed Central

Cultured cells of Picea excelsa capable of forming stilbenes and flavanoids have been established. Unlike needles of intact plants containing piceatannol (3,3?,4?,5-tetrahydroxystilbene) and stilbene glycosides the cultured cells converted phenylalanine and p-coumaric acid primarily into resveratrol monomethyl ether (3,4?-dihydroxy-5-methoxystilbene) and naringenin. Partially purified enzyme preparations were assayed for chalcone synthase as well as for stilbene synthase activity converting malonyl-CoA plus p-coumaroyl-CoA into 3,4?,5-trihydroxystilbene (resveratrol). Although stilbene synthase and chalcone synthase use the same substrates and exhibit similar molecular properties, i.e. molecular weight and subunit molecular weight, they are two different proteins. This difference was demonstrated by gel electrophoresis and by means of monospecific antibodies. PMID:16663649

Rolfs, Claus-Henning; Kindl, Helmut

1984-01-01

334

INHIBITOR STUDIES ON MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS MALATE SYNTHASE  

E-print Network

Mtb are forced to survive in a low nutrient environment, a short, two enzyme pathway that becomes heavily utilized and upregulated is the glyoxylate shunt. Since the glyoxylate shunt enzymes are not present in mammals, they make attractive drug...

Owen, Joshua

2008-08-03

335

Structural differences between chitin and chitosan extracted from three different marine sources.  

PubMed

Three marine sources of chitin from Tunisia were investigated. Structural differences between ?-chitin from shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) waste, crab (Carcinus mediterraneus) shells, and ?-chitin from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) bones were studied by the (13)C NMR, FTIR, and XRD diffractograms. The (13)C NMR analysis showed a splitting of the C3 and C5 carbon signals for ?-chitin, while that of ?-chitin was merged into a single resonance. The bands contour of deconvoluted and curve-fit FTIR spectra showed a more detailed structure of ?-chitin in the region of O-H, N-H and CO stretching regions. IR and (13)C NMR were used to determine the chitin degree of acetylation (DA). XRD analysis indicated that ?-chitins were more crystalline polymorph than ?-chitin. Shrimp chitin was obtained with a good yield (20% on raw material dry weight) and no residual protein and salts. Chitosans, with a DA lower than 20% and relatively low molecular masses were prepared from the wet chitins in the same experimental conditions. They were perfectly soluble in acidic medium. Nevertheless, chitin and chitosan characteristics were depending upon the chitin source. PMID:24468048

Hajji, Sawssen; Younes, Islem; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Hajji, Rachid; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Nasri, Moncef; Jellouli, Kemel

2014-04-01

336

Plant callose synthase complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of callose (ß-1,3-glucan) in plants has been a topic of much debate over the past several decades. Callose synthase could not be purified to homogeneity and most partially purified cellulose synthase preparations yielded ß-1,3-glucan in vitro, leading to the interpretation that cellulose synthase might be able to synthesize callose. While a rapid progress has been made on the genes involved

Desh Pal S. Verma; Zonglie Hong

2001-01-01

337

Development and Binding Mode Assessment of N-[4-[2-propyn-1-yl[(6S)-4,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-oxo-3H-cyclopenta[g]quinazolin-6-yl]amino]benzoyl]-L-?-glutamyl-D-glutamic acid (BGC 945), a Novel Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitor that Targets Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

N-[4-[2-propyn-1-yl[(6S)-4,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-oxo-3H-cyclopenta[g]quinazolin-6-yl]amino]benzoyl]-L-?-glutamyl-D-glutamic acid 1 (BGC 945, now known as ONX 0801), is a small molecule thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor discovered at the Institute of Cancer Research in London. It is licensed by Onyx Pharmaceuticals and is in Phase 1 clinical studies. It is a novel antifolate drug resembling TS inhibitors plevitrexed and raltitrexed that combines enzymatic inhibition of thymidylate synthase with ?-folate receptor-mediated targeting of tumor cells. Thus, it has potential for efficacy with lower toxicity due to selective intracellular accumulation through ?-folate receptor (?-FR) transport. The ?-FR, a cell-surface receptor glycoprotein, which is over expressed mainly in ovarian and lung cancer tumors, has an affinity for 1 similar to that for its natural ligand, folic acid. This study describes a novel synthesis of 1, an X-ray crystal structure of its complex with Escherichia coli TS and 2’-deoxyuridine-5’-monophosphate, and a model for a similar complex with human TS. PMID:23710599

Tochowicz, Anna; Dalziel, Sean; Eidam, Oliv; O’Connell, Joseph D.; Griner, Sarah; Finer-Moore, Janet S.; Stroud, Robert M.

2013-01-01

338

Aspergillus fumigatus devoid of cell wall ?-1,3-glucan is viable, massively sheds galactomannan and is killed by septum formation inhibitors.  

PubMed

Echinocandins inhibit ?-1,3-glucan synthesis and are one of the few antimycotic drug classes effective against Aspergillus spp. In this study, we characterized the ?-1,3-glucan synthase Fks1 of Aspergillus fumigatus, the putative target of echinocandins. Data obtained with a conditional mutant suggest that fks1 is not essential. In agreement, we successfully constructed a viable ?fks1 deletion mutant. Lack of Fks1 results in characteristic growth phenotypes similar to wild type treated with echinocandins and an increased susceptibility to calcofluor white and sodium dodecyl sulfate. In agreement with Fks1 being the only ?-1,3-glucan synthase in A.?fumigatus, the cell wall is devoid of ?-1,3-glucan. This is accompanied by a compensatory increase of chitin and galactosaminogalactan and a significant decrease in cell wall galactomannan due to a massively enhanced galactomannan shedding. Our data furthermore suggest that inhibition of hyphal septation can overcome the limitations of echinocandin therapy. Compounds inhibiting septum formation boosted the antifungal activity of caspofungin. Thus, development of clinically applicable inhibitors of septum formation is a promising strategy to improve existing antifungal therapy. PMID:25425041

Dichtl, Karl; Samantaray, Sweta; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Zhu, Zhaojun; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Ebel, Frank; Wagener, Johannes

2015-02-01

339

Chitin hydrolysis by Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria spp., including the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, are ubiquitous microorganisms in the environment and thus are difficult to exclude from food processing plants. The factors that contribute to their multiplication and survival in nature are not well understood, but the ability to catabolize various carbohydrates is likely to be very important. One major source of carbon and nitrogen in nature is chitin, an insoluble linear beta-1,4-linked polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Chitin is found in cell walls of fungi and certain algae, in the cuticles of arthropods, and in shells and radulae of molluscs. In the present study, we demonstrated that L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. are able to hydrolyze alpha-chitin. The chitinolytic activity is repressed by the presence of glucose in the medium, suggesting that chitinolytic activity is subjected to catabolite repression. Activity is also regulated by temperature and is higher at 30 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. In L. monocytogenes EGD, chitin hydrolysis depends on genes encoding two chitinases, lmo0105 (chiB) and lmo1883 (chiA), but not on a gene encoding a putative chitin binding protein (lmo2467). The chiB and chiA genes are phylogenetically related to various well-characterized chitinases. The potential biological implications of chitinolytic activity of Listeria are discussed. PMID:18424542

Leisner, J J; Larsen, M H; Jørgensen, R L; Brøndsted, L; Thomsen, L E; Ingmer, H

2008-06-01

340

Cartilage regeneration by novel polyethylene oxide/chitin/chitosan scaffolds.  

PubMed

This study presents the application of novel PEO/chitin/chitosan scaffolds for the cultivation of bovine knee chondrocytes (BKCs). The results reveled that the composition strongly affected physicochemical characteristics of the ternary scaffolds. Based on the contours of porosity, the percentage of void space in these scaffolds was estimated to be higher than 90%. In regard to mechanical strength, the composition of 50% chitin and 50% chitosan in the scaffold led to the maximum of Young's modulus. Moreover, large extensibility of the scaffolds occurred at the following range of the composition: PEO > 37.5%, chitin < 25%, and chitosan <62.5%. After cultivation of BKCs over 4 weeks, the percentage of biodegradation was normally between 30 and 60%. The formation of neocartilage was assessed by the amounts of BKCs, glycosaminoglycans and collagens in the cultured BKC-polymer constructs. Better chondrogenesis was obtained at the following range of the composition: 25% < PEO < 40%, 12.5% < chitin < 37.5%, and 30% < chitosan < 50%. Thus, the regeneration of cartilaginous components could be manipulated simply by controlling the composition of PEO, chitin, and chitosan in the hybrid scaffolds. PMID:18771317

Kuo, Yung-Chih; Ku, I-Nan

2008-10-01

341

Chitosan-sheath and chitin-core nanowhiskers.  

PubMed

Chitosan-sheath and ?-chitin-core nanowhiskers (CsNWs) have been successfully generated by surface deacetylation of chitin nanowhiskers (CtNWs) in the never-dried state. Acid hydrolysis (3N HCl, 30 mL/g, 104°C) of pure chitin derived from crab shell yielded 65% 4-10nm thick, 16 nm wide and 214 nm long chitin whiskers (CtNWs) that were 86% crystalline and 81% acetylated. Surface deacetylation of CtNWs was robust in their never-dried state in 50% NaOH at a moderate 50°C for 6h, yielding 92% CsNWs. All deacetylated CsNWs retain the same ?-chitin crystalline core at reduced 50% crystallinity and similar dimensions (4-12 nm thick, 15 nm wide, 247 long) as CtNWs, but reduced 60% acetylation reflecting the deacetylated surface layers. Progressive surface deacetylation was evident by the increased IP as well as increased positive charges under acidic pH and reduced negative charges at alkaline pH with increasing reaction time. PMID:24702931

Pereira, Antonio G B; Muniz, Edvani C; Hsieh, You-Lo

2014-07-17

342

Serratia marcescens is one of the most effective bacteria for degradation of chitin, a  

E-print Network

Abstract Serratia marcescens is one of the most effective bacteria for degradation of chitin, a 1 enzymes and a chitin-binding protein. Studies of the enzymology and the structures of the enzymes provide applications as biocontrol agents against fungi and insects. Introduction Chitin, a 1,4--linked polymer of N

van Aalten, Daan

343

Interplay of liquid-crystallinity and gelation: the two limiting cases of chitin and actin suspensions  

E-print Network

Interplay of liquid-crystallinity and gelation: the two limiting cases of chitin and actin-elastic suspensions of rod-like polymers always really liquid-crystalline ? #12;Chitin (commercial product) Acid] [c] [d] SAXS patterns obtained at LURE (D24) with suspensions at different chitin and HCl

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

344

Structure and Mechanism of Chitin Deacetylase from the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum,  

E-print Network

Structure and Mechanism of Chitin Deacetylase from the Fungal Pathogen ColletotrichumVised Manuscript ReceiVed June 6, 2006 ABSTRACT: The fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum secretes an endo-chitin de-N-acetylase (ClCDA) to modify exposed hyphal chitin during penetration and infection of plants

van Aalten, Daan

345

Ultrasonication and steam-explosion as chitin pretreatments for chitin oligosaccharide production by chitinases of Lecanicillium lecanii.  

PubMed

In this study, chitin oligosaccharides have been successfully produced using chitinases from submerged fermentation of Lecanicillium lecanii. The highest Hex, Chit and Prot production was 0.14, 0.26 and 2.05 U/mg of protein, respectively, which were attained varying pH from 5 to 8 after 96 h. Culture conditions conducted at constant pH of 6 resulted in significantly lower enzyme production. The crude enzyme was partially purified by salting out with (NH4)2SO4 followed by size exclusion chromatography to isolate the chitinase mixture for further chitin hydrolysis assays. In this regard, chitin substrates were pretreated with sonication and steam explosion prior to enzymatic reaction. Structural changes were observed with steam explosion with 11.28% reduction of the crystallinity index attained with the lowest chitin/water ratio (0.1g/mL). Pretreated chitins reached the highest production of reducing sugars (0.37 mg/mL) and GlcNAc (0.59 mg/mL) in 23.6% yield. PMID:23993287

Villa-Lerma, Guadalupe; González-Márquez, Humberto; Gimeno, Miquel; López-Luna, Alberto; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

2013-10-01

346

Immobilization of nisin producer Lactococcus lactis strains to chitin with surface-displayed chitin-binding domain.  

PubMed

In this study, nisin producer Lactococcus lactis strains displaying cell surface chitin-binding domain (ChBD) and capable of immobilizing to chitin flakes were constructed. To obtain ChBD-based cell immobilization, Usp45 signal sequence with ChBD of chitinase A1 enzyme from Bacillus circulans was fused with different lengths of PrtP (153, 344, and 800 aa) or AcmA (242 aa) anchors derived from L. lactis. According to the whole cell ELISA analysis, ChBD was successfully expressed on the surface of L. lactis cells. Scanning electron microscope observations supported the conclusion of the binding analysis that L. lactis cells expressing the ChBD with long PrtP anchor (800 aa) did bind to chitin surfaces more efficiently than cells with the other ChBD anchors. The attained binding affinity of nisin producers for chitin flakes retained them in the fermentation during medium changes and enabled storage for sequential productions. Initial nisin production was stably maintained with many cycles. These results demonstrate that an efficient immobilization of L. lactis cells to chitin is possible for industrial scale repeated cycle or continuous nisin fermentation. PMID:23354445

Sim?ek, Ömer; Sabano?lu, Seba; Çon, Ahmet Hilmi; Karasu, Nihat; Akçelik, Mustafa; Saris, Per E J

2013-05-01

347

Comparison of the hydrothermal decomposition reactivities of chitin and cellulose  

SciTech Connect

The hydrothermal decomposition of chitin and cellulose was carried out using a stainless steel tube reactor of 6-mL capacity at 300--400 C for 30--120 s under pressures of 15--30 MPa in order to clarify the influential factors on their reactivities based on their structural analyses. Cellulose was 3 times more reactive than chitin despite their similar unit skeleton structures, probably because their functional groups at C-2 differ (OH for cellulose; NHCOCH{sub 3} for chitin). Cellulose gave a higher conversion of 100% based on methanol-insoluble (MI) yield at 350 C for 120 s. Their structural analyses before and after the hydrothermal treatment indicate that their intra- and intermolecular structures through the hydrogen bonds may be the keys to their different hydrothermal reactivities, although solvation behaviors in hot water and reaction conditions were also influential on the hydrothermal reactivity.

Sakanishi, Kinya; Ikeyama, Nobuhide [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Material Study] [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Material Study; Sakaki, Tsuyoshi; Shibata, Masao; Miki, Toshiharu [Kyushu National Industrial Research Inst., Tosu, Saga (Japan)] [Kyushu National Industrial Research Inst., Tosu, Saga (Japan)

1999-06-01

348

Microbial destruction of chitin in soils under different moisture conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most favorable moisture conditions for the microbial destruction of chitin in soils are close to the total water capacity. The water content has the most pronounced effect on chitin destruction in soils in comparison with other studied substrates. It was found using gas-chromatographic and luminescent-microscopic methods that the maximum specific activity of the respiration of the chitinolytic community was at a rather low redox potential with the soil moisture close to the total water capacity. The range of moisture values under which the most intense microbial transformation of chitin occurred was wider in clayey and clay loamy soils as compared with sandy ones. The increase was observed due to the contribution of mycelial bacteria and actinomycetes in the chitinolytic complex as the soil moisture increased.

Yaroslavtsev, A. M.; Manucharova, N. A.; Stepanov, A. L.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

2009-07-01

349

Glycan-functionalized fluorescent chitin nanocrystals for biorecognition applications.  

PubMed

A new platform based on chitin nanocrystals has been developed for biorecognition applications. TEMPO-oxidized chitin nanocrystals (TCNs) were labeled with a fluorescent imidazoisoquinolinone dye, and simultaneously conjugated with carbohydrate ligands, resulting in dually functionalized TCNs. The biorecognition properties of the nanocrystals were probed with lectins and bacteria, resulting in selective interactions with their corresponding cognate carbohydrate-binding proteins, as visualized by optical, fluorescence, STEM, and TEM imaging. This represents a new approach to multifunctional nanomaterials based on naturally occurring polymers, holding high potential for biomedical applications. PMID:24625204

Zhou, Juan; Butchosa, Núria; Jayawardena, H Surangi N; Zhou, Qi; Yan, Mingdi; Ramström, Olof

2014-04-16

350

Glycan-Functionalized Fluorescent Chitin Nanocrystals for Biorecognition Applications  

PubMed Central

A new platform based on chitin nanocrystals has been developed for biorecognition applications. TEMPO-oxidized chitin nanocrystals (TCNs) were labeled with a fluorescent imidazoisoquinolinone dye, and simultaneously conjugated with carbohydrate ligands, resulting in dually functionalized TCNs. The biorecognition properties of the nanocrystals were probed with lectins and bacteria, resulting in selective interactions with their corresponding cognate carbohydrate-binding proteins, as visualized by optical, fluorescence, STEM, and TEM imaging. This represents a new approach to multifunctional nanomaterials based on naturally occurring polymers, holding high potential for biomedical applications. PMID:24625204

2015-01-01

351

Nikkomycin Z is an effective inhibitor of the chytrid fungus linked to global amphibian declines.  

PubMed

Fungal infections in humans, wildlife, and plants are a growing concern because of their devastating effects on human and ecosystem health. In recent years, populations of many amphibian species have declined, and some have become extinct due to chytridiomycosis caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. For some endangered amphibian species, captive colonies are the best intermediate solution towards eventual reintroduction, and effective antifungal treatments are needed to cure chytridiomycosis and limit the spread of this pathogen in such survival assurance colonies. Currently, the best accepted treatment for infected amphibians is itraconazole, but its toxic side effects reduce its usefulness for many species. Safer antifungal treatments are needed for disease control. Here, we show that nikkomycin Z, a chitin synthase inhibitor, dramatically alters the cell wall stability of B. dendrobatidis cells and completely inhibits growth of B. dendrobatidis at 250 ?M. Low doses of nikkomycin Z enhanced the effectiveness of natural antimicrobial skin peptide mixtures tested in vitro. These studies suggest that nikkomycin Z would be an effective treatment to significantly reduce the fungal burden in frogs infected by B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24433676

Holden, Whitney M; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

2014-01-01

352

Preparation of monolithic silica-chitin composite under extreme biomimetic conditions.  

PubMed

Chitin is a widespread renewable biopolymer that is extensively distributed in the natural world. The high thermal stability of chitin provides an opportunity to develop novel inorganic-organic composites under hydrothermal synthesis conditions in vitro. For the first time, in this work we prepared monolithic silica-chitin composite under extreme biomimetic conditions (80°C and pH 1.5) using three dimensional chitinous matrices isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina cauliformis. The resulting material was studied using light and fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A mechanism for the silica-chitin interaction after exposure to these hydrothermal conditions is proposed and discussed. PMID:25701776

Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wysokowski, Marcin; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Stawski, Dawid; Sapozhnikov, Philipp; Born, René; Stelling, Allison L; Kaiser, Sabine; Jesionowski, Teofil

2015-05-01

353

Preparation of chitin-silica composites by in vitro silicification of two-dimensional Ianthella basta demosponge chitinous scaffolds under modified Stöber conditions.  

PubMed

Chitin is a biopolymer found in cell walls of various fungi and skeletal structures of numerous invertebrates. The occurrence of chitin within calcium- and silica-containing biominerals has inspired development of chitin-based hybrids and composites in vitro with specific physico-chemical and material properties. We show here for the first time that the two-dimensional ?-chitin scaffolds isolated from the skeletons of marine demosponge Ianthella basta can be effectively silicified by the two-step method with the use of Stöber silica micro- and nanodispersions under Extreme Biomimetic conditions. The chitin-silica composites obtained at 120 °C were characterized by the presence of spherical SiO2 particles homogeneously distributed over the chitin fibers, which probably follows from the compatibility of Si-OH groups to the hydroxyl groups of chitin. The biocomposites obtained were characterized by various analytical techniques such as energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy to determine possible interactions between silica and chitin molecule. The results presented proved that the character and course of the in vitro chitin silicification in Stöber dispersions depended considerably on the degree of hydrolysis of the SiO2 precursor. PMID:23910299

Wysokowski, Marcin; Behm, Thomas; Born, René; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Meissner, Heike; Richter, Gert; Szwarc-Rzepka, Karolina; Makarova, Anna; Vyalikh, Denis; Schupp, Peter; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann

2013-10-01

354

Fabrication of ?-chitin whisker-reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite nanofibres by electrospinning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present contribution reports, for the first time, the successful fabrication of ?-chitin whisker-reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite nanofibres by electrospinning. The ?-chitin whiskers were prepared from ?-chitin flakes from shrimp shells by acid hydrolysis. The as-prepared chitin whiskers exhibited lengths in the range 231-969 nm and widths in the range 12-65 nm, with the average length and width being about 549 and 31 nm, respectively. Successful incorporation of the chitin whiskers within the as-spun PVA/chitin whisker nanocomposite nanofibres was verified by infrared spectroscopic and thermogravimetric methods. The incorporation of chitin whiskers within the as-spun nanocomposite fibre mats increased the Young's modulus by about 4-8 times over that of the neat as-spun PVA fibre mat.

Junkasem, Jirawut; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Supaphol, Pitt

2006-09-01

355

Dynamics of Gram-negative bacteria population density in a soil in the course of the succession initiated by chitin and cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functions of actinomycetes in polymer destruction in soil traditionally considered as the dominant, compare to another groups of bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria also have ecological functions in destruction of soil organic matter. The role of Gram-negative bacteria has been researched in the microbial succession in terms of polymers destruction, which are widely spreads in soils: chitin and cellulose. The method with nalidixic acid as an inhibitor of DNA division of Gram-negative bacteria was modified. By modified method microbial succession of Gram-negative bacteria in the different horizons of a chernozem under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was researched. Chitin and cellulose as the source of nutrients with moistening was used in experiments. The introduction of chitin had no positive effect on the population density of Gram-negative bacteria in a chernozem, but it advanced the date of their appearance in microbial succession: the maximum of Gram-negative bacteria population density was registered on the 3rd- 7th day of the experiment with adding chitin. Compare to the control, which one was without any nutrient adding this dynamics registered much earlier. Consequently, the introduction of chitin as an additional source of nutrition promoted revealing of the Gram-negative bacteria in soil already at the early stages of the succession. In the course of the succession, when the fungal mycelium begins to die off, the actinomycetic mycelium increases in length, i.e., Gram-negative bacteria are replaced at this stage with Gram-positive ones, the leading role among which belongs to actinomycetes. The growth rate of Gram-negative bacteria is higher than that of actinomycetes, so they start chitin utilization at the early stages of the succession, whereas actinomycetes dominate at the late stages. The population density of Gram-negative bacteria was lower under the anaerobic conditions as compared with that in the aerobic ones. The population density of Gram-negative bacteria in the lower layer of the A horizon of the chernozem and in the B horizon was slightly higher only in the case of the chitin introduction. When cellulose was introduced into the soil under aerobic conditions, the population density of Gram-negative bacteria in all the layers of the A horizon of the chernozem was maximal from the 14th to the 22nd day of the experiment. Simultaneously, an increase in the length of the actinomycetal mycelium was observed, as these organisms also perform cellulose hydrolysis in soils. The Gram-negative bacteria began to develop at the stage of the fungal mycelium destruction, which indirectly confirmed the chitinolytic activity of these bacteria.

Konstantin, Ivanov; Lubov, Polyanskaya

2014-05-01

356

Chitin and collagen as universal and alternative templates in biomineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomineralized structures and tissues are composites, containing a biologically produced organic matrix and nano- or microscale amorphous or crystalline minerals. Two main examples of organic matrices – the amino-polysaccharide chitin and the asymmetric protein collagen – are presented and discussed as the basic structural modules and organo-templates for calcium and silica biomineralization in nature. Both serve as templates, providing preferential

Hermann Ehrlich

2010-01-01

357

Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan Molecular Structure in Aqueous Solution  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to characterize the structure of chitin and chitosan fibers in aqueous solutions. Chitin fibers, whether isolated or in the form of a ?-chitin nanoparticle, adopt the so-called 2-fold helix with ? and ? values similar to its crystalline state. In solution, the intramolecular hydrogen bond HO3(n)?O5(n+1) responsible for the 2-fold helical motif is stabilized by hydrogen bonds with water molecules in a well-defined orientation. On the other hand, chitosan can adopt five distinct helical motifs and its conformational equilibrium is highly dependent on pH. The hydrogen bond pattern and solvation around the O3 atom of insoluble chitosan (basic pH) are nearly identical to these quantities in chitin. Our findings suggest that the solubility and conformation of these polysaccharides are related to the stability of the intrachain HO3(n)?O5(n+1) hydrogen bond, which is affect by the water exchange around the O3-HO3 hydroxyl group.

Franca, Eduardo D.; Lins, Roberto D.; Freitas, Luiz C.; Straatsma, TP

2008-12-01

358

Physiology of microbial degradation of chitin and chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin is produced in enormous quantities in the biosphere, chiefly as the major structural component of most fungi and invertebrates. Its degradation is chiefly by bacteria and fungi, by chitinolysis via chitinases, but also via deacetylation to chitosan, which is hydrolysed by chitosanases. Chitinases and chitosanases have a range of roles in the organisms producing them: autolytic, morphogenetic or nutritional.

Graham W. Gooday

1990-01-01

359

Pharmacological characterization of N-tert-butyl-N'-[2-(4'-methylphenylamino)-5-nitrobenzenesulfonyl]urea (BM-573), a novel thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor in a rat model of arterial thrombosis and its effects on bleeding time.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to characterize the antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of BM-573 [N-tert-butyl-N'-[2-(4'-methylphenylamino)-5-nitrobenzenesulfonyl]urea], an original combined thromboxane receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor in rats, and to determine its effects on mice bleeding time. Intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 5 mg/kg BM-573 to rats inhibited U-46619 (9,11-dideoxy-9,11-methanoepoxy-prostaglandin F(2))-induced washed platelet aggregation 30 min and 1, 2, and 4 h after drug administration with a maximum antiplatelet effect observed after 1 and 2 h. In a rat model of thrombosis induced by ferric chloride application on the abdominal aorta, BM-573 significantly reduced the thrombus weight by 92.53, 80.20, 64.75, and 18.21% at doses of 5, 2, 0.5, and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively. Time to occlusion of abdominal aorta in the BM-573-treated group (41.50 +/- 5.21 min) was significantly prolonged compared with the vehicle-treated rats (16.16 +/- 0.79 min). Like furegrelate, seratrodast, and acetylsalicylic acid, BM-573 did not affect the tail bleeding time induced by tail transection in mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Moreover, BM-573, a close derivative of the loop diuretic torasemide, failed to induce a significant increase in diuresis in rat and did not produce a decrease in blood glucose concentration as observed with the sulfonylurea glibenclamide. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the nitrobenzenic sulfonylurea BM-573, an original combined thromboxane receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor, is a potent antithrombotic agent that does not affect bleeding time. Moreover, BM-573 lost the diuretic property of torasemide and has no impact on glycemia. PMID:14742735

Dogné, Jean-Michel; Hanson, Julien; de Leval, Xavier; Kolh, Philippe; Tchana-Sato, Vincent; de Leval, Laurence; Rolin, Stéphanie; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Segers, Patrick; Lambermont, Bernard; Masereel, Bernard; Pirotte, Bernard

2004-05-01

360

A chalcone synthase/stilbene synthase DNA probe for conifers.  

PubMed

A probe for chalcone synthase (CHS) was generated by PCR using chalcone synthase conserved sequences. The cloned PCR product has high similarity to both chalcone synthase and stilbene synthase sequences. The probe was used to examine the organization of chalcone synthase and stilbene synthase genes in Abies procera, Pinus lambertiana, P. monticola, Picea glauca, P. sitchensis, Pseudostuga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata. A large number of hybridizing bands were found in all species except T. plicata which did not cross hybridize. The hybridization patterns are highly polymorphic between the species and are also polymorphic within several of them. PMID:24166547

Baker, S M; White, E E

1996-05-01

361

ATP Synthase Inhibition of Mycobacterium avium Is Not Bactericidal?  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of ATP synthase inhibitor TMC207 was assessed in early and late Mycobacterium avium infections in mice. In contrast to what was earlier observed for M. tuberculosis, a bacteriostatic effect was obtained. In vitro, the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)/MIC ratio was very high. The MBC was more relevant for assessment of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships than the MIC. PMID:19738016

Lounis, Nacer; Gevers, Tom; Van Den Berg, Joke; Vranckx, Luc; Andries, Koen

2009-01-01

362

IMBB -PATENTS Title : Analysing the Binding of Cell Membrane Bound Molecules [UK0718073.0  

E-print Network

. Goustouridis, I. Zergioti, S. Chatzindroulis, P. Normand, D. Tsoukalas Title : Purified Chitin Deacetylase Encoding Chitin Deacetylase [International W09413815] Inventors : G. Thireos, D. Kafetzopoulos Title - PATENTS INACTIVE Title : An inhibitor of Arthropod Chitin Synthase [European 03.005.489.4] Inventors : G

363

Customizing Properties of ?-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius) by Chemical Treatments  

PubMed Central

The squid pen (gladius) from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of ?-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The ?-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the ?-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the ?-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between ?-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these ?-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications. PMID:25517216

Ianiro, Alessandro; Di Giosia, Matteo; Fermani, Simona; Samorì, Chiara; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Pellegrini, Graziella; Biscarini, Fabio; Zerbetto, Francesco; Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

364

Customizing properties of ?-chitin in squid pen (gladius) by chemical treatments.  

PubMed

The squid pen (gladius) from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of ?-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The ?-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the ?-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the ?-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between ?-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these ?-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications. PMID:25517216

Ianiro, Alessandro; Giosia, Matteo Di; Fermani, Simona; Samorì, Chiara; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Pellegrini, Graziella; Biscarini, Fabio; Zerbetto, Francesco; Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe

2014-12-01

365

Functionality of chitin as a direct compression excipient: an acetaminophen comparative study.  

PubMed

The particle and tableting properties of chitin extracted from shrimp exoskeletons were evaluated and compared with common excipients used for the preparation of tablets. Chitin offered more benefits in terms of functionality than calcium diphosphate, lactose monohydrate and pregelatinized starch. Further, highly plastic deforming materials such as sorbitol and PVP K30 and microcrystalline cellulose showed the best compactibility and dilution potential, whereas brittle deforming materials such as lactose monohydrate and calcium diphosphate were poorly compactable. Chitin had better compactibility than pregelatinized starch, calcium diphosphate and lactose monohydrate. Further, along with calcium diphosphate, chitin was the least sensitive material to compaction speed due to a combination of a plastic and brittle behavior. Moreover, chitin was less sensitive to magnesium stearate and possessed better acetaminophen loading capacity than pregelatinized starch, calcium diphosphate and lactose monohydrate. Chitin showed potential for use as a direct compression excipient. PMID:24528710

Rojas, John; Ciro, Yhors; Correa, Luisa

2014-03-15

366

Effect of soluble polysaccharides addition on rheological properties and microstructure of chitin nanocrystal aqueous dispersions.  

PubMed

Mixtures of chitin nanocrystal aqueous dispersions (at pH 3.0) with soluble polysaccharides of varying molecular features were examined rheologically and microscopically, under different conditions of biopolymer concentration, ionic strength, pH and temperature. The addition of non-adsorbing polysaccharides (guar gum, locust bean gum and xanthan) as well as oppositely charged (?-carrageenan) to a chitin nanocrystal dispersion, resulted in a network formation and the gel strength increased with the chitin nanocrystal concentration. In contrast, the chitin nanocrystal - chitosan or - pullulan mixed dispersions did not show any network formation (tan?>1) at the concentration range examined. An increase in ionic strength and pH also resulted in an enhanced elasticity of the chitin nanocrystal-guar gum dispersions. Furthermore, an increase in the elastic modulus, which was irreversible upon cooling, was observed upon heating the chitin nanocrystal-polysaccharide mixed dispersions. PMID:23618276

Tzoumaki, Maria V; Moschakis, Thomas; Biliaderis, Costas G

2013-06-01

367

Electrospinning and characterization of chitin nanofibril/polycaprolactone nanocomposite fiber mats.  

PubMed

Nanocomposite fiber mats based on biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) and chitin nanofibril (n-chitin) were produced via electrospinning. The morphologies, thermal and mechanical properties as well as surface wettability of the fiber mats were studied by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis and static water-contact-angle analysis, respectively. The addition of chitin nanofibrils into PCL resulted in a small change in thermal behavior, but a significant improvement in mechanical properties. Moreover, the surface wettability of electrospun fiber mats transformed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity when the chitin nanofibril content was more than 25 wt%. In addition, in vitro cell culture results indicated that the addition of chitin nanofibrils can strongly improve the cellular infiltration and migration confirming that the chitin nanofibril was a good reinforcing as well as bioactive filler for PCL. PMID:24299750

Ji, Yali; Liang, Kai; Shen, Xinyuan; Bowlin, Gary L

2014-01-30

368

An Arabidopsis callose synthase.  

PubMed

Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially complements a yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase mutant. AtGsl5 is developmentally expressed at highest levels in flowers, consistent with flowers having high beta-1,3-glucan synthase activities for deposition of callose in pollen. A role for AtGsl5 in callose synthesis is also indicated by AtGsl5 expression in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant. PMID:12081364

Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

2002-08-01

369

Preparation of chitin nanofiber-reinforced carboxymethyl cellulose films.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the preparation of chitin nanofiber (CNF)-reinforced carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) films by their electrostatic interaction. First, CMC films and self-assembled CNF dispersions with methanol were prepared by casting technique and regeneration from chitin ion gels with an ionic liquid, respectively. Then, the CMC films were immersed in the dispersions with the different CNF contents, followed by centrifugation to obtain the desired composite films. The amounts of the absorbed CNFs on the films were calculated by the weight increases after the above compatibilization procedure. The presence of CNFs on the films was also confirmed by the SEM and IR measurements. The mechanical properties of the composite films were evaluated by tensile testing, which suggested the reinforcing effect of CNFs present on the CMC films. PMID:24857869

Hatanaka, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Kadokawa, Jun-ichi

2014-08-01

370

Characterization of Organics Consistent with ?-Chitin Preserved in the Late Eocene Cuttlefish Mississaepia mississippiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPreservation of original organic components in fossils across geological time is controversial, but the potential such molecules have for elucidating evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships is invaluable. Chitin is one such molecule. Ancient chitin has been recovered from both terrestrial and marine arthropods, but prior to this study had not been recovered from fossil marine mollusks.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsOrganics consistent with ?-chitin

Patricia G. Weaver; Larisa A. Doguzhaeva; Daniel R. Lawver; R. Christopher Tacker; Charles N. Ciampaglio; Jon M. Crate; Wenxia Zheng

2011-01-01

371

Response of the chitinolytic microbial community to chitin amendments of dune soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of culturable chitin-degrading microorganisms were studied during a 16-week incubation of chitin-amended coastal\\u000a dune soils that differed in acidity. Soil samples were incubated at normal (5% w\\/w) and high (15% w\\/w) moisture levels. More\\u000a than half of the added chitin was decomposed within 4 weeks of incubation in most soils. This rapid degradation was most likely\\u000a due to

W. De Boer; S. Gerards; P. J. A. Klein Gunnewiek; R. Modderman

1999-01-01

372

In vitro and in vivo degradation of films of chitin and its deacetylated derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin was deacetylated to various extents with NaOH to obtain partially and thoroughly deacetylated chitins. The specimens used in this study were deacetylated by 0 (chitin), 68.8, 73.3, 84.0, 90.1 and 100 mol% (chitosan). Films with a thickness of 150 ?m were prepared from these specimens by the solution casting method. The equilibrated water contents of the films were 52.4

Kenji Tomihata; Yoshito Ikada

1997-01-01

373

Facile preparation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on chitin nanofiber surfaces to endow antifungal activities.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles were prepared on chitin nanofiber surfaces by UV light reduction of silver ions. The chitin nanofibers could be efficient substrates to immobilize silver nanoparticles with stable dispersion states. The dispersion and the nanocomposite film with acrylic resin showed characteristic absorption property in the visible light region due to the effect of the silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles endowed strong antifungal activity to chitin nanofibers. PMID:25498704

Ifuku, Shinsuke; Tsukiyama, Yui; Yukawa, Taisuke; Egusa, Mayumi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

2015-03-01

374

Structure of insect chitin isolated from beetle larva cuticle and silkworm ( Bombyx mori) pupa exuvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin samples in a ?-form structure were isolated from beetle larva cuticle and silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupa exuvia by treatment with 1 N HCl and 1 N NaOH. Chitosan was prepared by treating them in 40% NaOH containing NaBH4. Chitin and chitosan were analyzed by X-ray, [13C]CP\\/MAS NMR, [13C]FT-NMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. Insect chitin degraded more readily

M. Zhang; A. Haga; H. Sekiguchi; S. Hirano

2000-01-01

375

Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing  

E-print Network

Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing are 1.569, 1.556 and 1.548, respectively. The dispersion spectra of the chitin in the butterfly scales.517 and B = 8.80·103 nm2 for the butterfly chitin and A = 1.532 and B = 5.89·103 nm2 for the bird keratin

376

Recent development of two chitinase inhibitors, Argifin and Argadin, produced by soil microorganisms.  

PubMed

Chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, occurs in fungi, some algae and many invertebrates, including insects. Thus, chitin synthesis and degradation could represent specific targets for fungicides and insecticides. Chitinases hydrolyze chitin into oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine at key points in the life cycles of organisms, consequently, chitinase inhibitors have become subject of increasing interest. This review covers the development of two chitinase inhibitors of natural origin, Argifin and Argadin, isolated from the cultured broth of microorganisms in our laboratory. In particular, the practical total synthesis of these natural products, the synthesis of lead compounds via computer-aided rational molecular design, and discovery methods that generate only highly-active compounds using a kinetic target(chitinase)-guided synthesis approach (termed in situ click chemistry) are described. PMID:20154467

Hirose, Tomoyasu; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Omura, Satoshi

2010-01-01

377

Preparation of chitin butyrate by using phosphoryl mixed anhydride system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acylation of chitin with butyric acid was performed in the presence of trifluoroacetic anhydride\\/phosphoric acid mediated system. The products were characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy and their solubility was tested in different organic solvents. Inclusion of butyric acid moieties into the parent molecule was confirmed from the 1H NMR and FT-IR spectra. FT-IR analysis revealed that the degree

Lok Ranjan Bhatt; Bo Mi Kim; Kim Hyun; Kyung Hee Kang; Chichong Lu; Kyu Yun Chai

2011-01-01

378

The role of chitin in uranium adsorption by R. arrhizus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to further refine and support the uranium biosorption mechanism hypothesis proposed for Rhizopus arrhizus, uranium competitive equilibrium uptake isotherms by chitin were determined at two different solution pH levels and in the presence of different concentrations of competing ions, namely, Cu\\/sup 2 +\\/, Zn\\/sup 2 +\\/, and Fe\\/sup 2 +\\/. The co-ion effect became more pronounced as the

Marios Tsezos

1983-01-01

379

An infrared investigation in relation with chitin and chitosan characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of infrared spectroscopy for characterization of the composition of chitin and chitosan covering the entire range of degree of acetylation (DA) and a wide variety of raw materials is examined further. The ratio of absorbance bands selected was calibrated using 1H liquid and 13C CP-MAS solid-state NMR as absolute techniques. IR spectra of the structural units of these

J Brugnerotto; J Lizardi; F. M Goycoolea; W Argüelles-Monal; J Desbrières; M Rinaudo

2001-01-01

380

Mechanical and viscoelastic properties of chitin fiber reinforced poly( ?-caprolactone)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(?-caprolactone)\\/chitin fiber (PCL-CF) composites as potential bone substitutes were prepared using a simple melt-processing method. The results from differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) showed that there was interaction between PCL and CF. Static mechanical testing showed that tensile strength, Young’s modulus and flexural strength were increased by the addition of CF. The measurements from DMTA and

Biqiong Chen; Kang Sun; Tao Ren

2005-01-01

381

Chitin purification from shrimp wastes by microbial deproteination and decalcification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin was purified from Penaeus monodon and Crangon crangon shells using a two-stage fermentation process with anaerobic deproteination followed by decalcification through homofermentative\\u000a lactic acid fermentation. Deproteinating enrichment cultures from sewage sludge and ground meat (GM) were used with a proteolytic\\u000a activity of 59 and 61 mg N l?1 h?1 with dried and 26 and 35 mg N l?1 h?1 with wet

Y. Xu; C. Gallert; J. Winter

2008-01-01

382

Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint  

DOEpatents

A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

1999-03-02

383

Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint  

DOEpatents

A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wildung, Mark Raymond (Colfax, WA); Burke, Charles Cullen (Moscow, ID); Gershenzon, Jonathan (Jena, DE)

1999-01-01

384

The role of chitin in uranium adsorption by R. arrhizus  

SciTech Connect

In order to further refine and support the uranium biosorption mechanism hypothesis proposed for Rhizopus arhizus, uranium competitive equilibrium uptake isotherms by chitin were determined at two different solution pH levels and in the presence of different concentrations of competiting ions, namely, Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, and Fe/sup 2 +/. The co-ion effect became more pronounced as the co-ion concentration in solution and pH increased. Obtained equilibrium data are in agreement with uranium biosorption data reported earlier. Infrared, mass, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of chitin before and after uranium uptake in the presence of the competing ions Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, and Fe/sup 2 +/ were recorded. The combination of the spectral data and the information from equilibrium studies supported the hypothesis advanced earlier on the mechanism of uranium uptake by R. arrhizus. In addition, the data suggested the participation of a free radical in uranium coordination by the cell wall chitin. The mechanism of reduction of the uranium uptake capacity of the biomass in the presence of competing ions was also elucidated further.

Tsczos, M.

1983-08-01

385

The role of chitin in uranium adsorption by R. arrhizus  

SciTech Connect

In order to further refine and support the uranium biosorption mechanism hypothesis proposed for Rhizopus arrhizus, uranium competitive equilibrium uptake isotherms by chitin were determined at two different solution pH levels and in the presence of different concentrations of competing ions, namely, Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, and Fe/sup 2 +/. The co-ion effect became more pronounced as the co-ion concentration in solution and pH increased. Obtained equilibrium data are in agreement with uranium biosorption data reported earlier. Infrared, mass, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of chitin before and after uranium uptake in the presence of the competing ions Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, and Fe/sup 2 +/ were recorded. The combination of the spectral data and the information from equilibrium studies supported the hypothesis advanced earlier on the mechanism of uranium uptake by R. arrhizus. In addition, the data suggested the participation of a free radical in uranium coordination by the cell wall chitin. The mechanism of reduction of the uranium uptake capacity of the biomass in the presence of competing ions was also elucidated further.

Tsezos, M.

1983-08-01

386

Human gastric juice contains chitinase that can degrade chitin.  

PubMed

Chitin digestion by humans has generally been questioned or denied. Only recently chitinases have been found in several human tissues and their role has been associated with defense against parasite infections and to some allergic conditions. In this pilot study we tested the gastric juices of 25 Italian subjects on the artificial substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-N,N',diacetylchitobiose or/and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) chitin to demonstrate the presence of a chitinase activity. Since this chitinase activity was demonstrated at acidic pH, it is currently referred to acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). AMCase activity was present in gastric juices of twenty of 25 Italian patients in a range of activity from 0.21 to 36.27 nmol/ml/h and from 8,881 to 1,254,782 fluorescence emission (CPS), according to the used methods. In the remaining five of 25 gastric juices, AMCase activity was almost absent in both assay methods. An allosamidine inhibition test and the measurement at different pH values confirmed that this activity was characteristic of AMCase. The absence of activity in 20% of the gastric juices may be a consequence of virtual absence of chitinous food in the Western diet. PMID:17587796

Paoletti, Maurizio G; Norberto, Lorenzo; Damini, Roberta; Musumeci, Salvatore

2007-01-01

387

Versatile carboxymethyl chitin and chitosan nanomaterials: a review.  

PubMed

Biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cost of chitin and chitosan have drawn immense attention in many fields including medicine, bioinspired material science, pharmaceuticals, and agriculture. Their handling and processing are difficult owing to its insolubility in neutral aqueous solution or organic solvents. One of the methods used to improve the solubility characteristics of chitin and chitosan is chemical modification. Introducing a carboxymethyl group is the most advantageous method of increasing the solubility of chitosan at neutral and alkaline pH. Carboxymethyl chitin (CMC) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) are water soluble derivatives formed by introducing CH?COOH function into the polymer which endows it with better biological properties. The functional group makes CMC/CMCS nanoparticles (NPs) efficient vehicles for the delivery of DNA, proteins, and drugs. This review provides an overview of the characteristics of CMC/CMCS NPs as well as fulfills the task of describing and discussing its important roles primarily in cancer nanomedicine detailing the targeted drug delivery aspect. The application of these NPs in imaging, agriculture, and textiles has also been highlighted. The review also elaborates the advantages of using the CMC and CMCS NPs for drug and gene delivery. PMID:25266740

Narayanan, Deepa; Jayakumar, R; Chennazhi, K P

2014-01-01

388

Discussion remarks on the role of wood and chitin constituents during carbonization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature is a source of some biomaterials like wood and chitin which can be successfully transformed into chars of advanced structural/surface parameters. The manuscript is discursive and suggests that particular components of the materials (cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, alfa-chitin fibrils, mineral-protein matrix) play a specific role in the manufacturing of porous chars. It is proposed that some of the components (hemicellulose and mineral-protein matrixes) behave like a natural soft template during carbonization of wood and chitin. It is suggested why particular components and derivatives of wood and chitin (cellulose and chitosan) can not form porous carbonaceous matrixes when are carbonized separately.

Ilnicka, Anna; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy

2015-03-01

389

Nanostructured biocomposite films of high toughness based on native chitin nanofibers and chitosan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chitosan is widely used in films for packaging applications. Chitosan reinforcement by stiff particles or fibers is usually obtained at the expense of lowered ductility and toughness. Here, chitosan film reinforcement by a new type of native chitin nanofibers is reported. Films are prepared by casting from colloidal suspensions of chitin in dissolved chitosan. The nanocomposite films are chitin nanofiber networks in chitosan matrix. Characterization is carried out by dynamic light scattering, quartz crystal microbalance, field emission scanning electron microscopy, tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis. The nanostructured biocomposite was produced in volume fractions of 0, 8, 22 and 56% chitin nanofibers. Favorable chitin-chitosan synergy for colloidal dispersion is demonstrated. Also, lowered moisture sorption is observed for the composites, probably due to the favorable chitin-chitosan interface. The highest toughness (area under stress-strain curve) was observed at 8 vol% chitin content. The toughening mechanisms and the need for well-dispersed chitin nanofibers is discussed. Finally, desired structural characteristics of ductile chitin biocomposites are discussed.

Mushi, Ngesa; Utsel, Simon; Berglund, Lars

2014-11-01

390

A comparative study of sorption of chromium (III) onto chitin and chitosan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals have always been the most hazardous components in the wastewater of industries like electroplating, automobiles, mining facilities and fertilizer manufacturers. Treatment of heavy metal laden wastewater requires expensive operational and maintenance systems. Food processing industries create a huge amount of shell waste which is sold to poultry farms in powdered form but the quantity thus used is still not comparable to the left over waste. The shell contains chitin which acts as an adsorbent for the heavy metals and can be used to treat heavy metal wastewater. The paper presents a study on the use of chitin and its processed product, chitosan, to remove chromium. Shake flask experiment was conducted to compare the adsorptive capacity of chitin and chitosan for chromium removal from simulated solution and isotherm studies were carried out. The studies showed that the chitosan was a better adsorbent than chitin. Both chitin and chitosan gave best adsorption results at pH 3. Chitin exhibited maximum chromium removal of 49.98 % in 20 min, whereas chitosan showed 50 % removal efficiency at a contact time of 20 min showing higher adsorptive capacity for chromium than chitin. The Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm studies showed very good adsorption capacity and monolayer interaction according to the regression coefficient 0.973 for chitosan and 0.915 for chitin. The regression coefficient for Freundlich isotherm was 0.894 and 0.831 for chitosan and chitin, respectively.

Singh, Pooja; Nagendran, R.

2014-07-01

391

Recent trends in biological extraction of chitin from marine shell wastes: a review.  

PubMed

The natural biopolymer chitin and its deacetylated product chitosan are widely used in innumerable applications ranging from biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, food, agriculture and personal care products to environmental sector. The abundant and renewable marine processing wastes are commercially exploited for the extraction of chitin. However, the traditional chitin extraction processes employ harsh chemicals at elevated temperatures for a prolonged time which can harm its physico-chemical properties and are also held responsible for the deterioration of environmental health. In view of this, green extraction methods are increasingly gaining popularity due to their environmentally friendly nature. The bioextraction of chitin from crustacean shell wastes has been increasingly researched at the laboratory scale. However, the bioextraction of chitin is not currently exploited to its maximum potential on the commercial level. Bioextraction of chitin is emerging as a green, cleaner, eco-friendly and economical process. Specifically in the chitin extraction, microorganisms-mediated fermentation processes are highly desirable due to easy handling, simplicity, rapidity, controllability through optimization of process parameters, ambient temperature and negligible solvent consumption, thus reducing environmental impact and costs. Although, chitin production from crustacean shell waste through biological means is still at its early stage of development, it is undergoing rapid progress in recent years and showing a promising prospect. Driven by reduced energy, wastewater or solvent, advances in biological extraction of chitin along with valuable by-products will have high economic and environmental impact. PMID:24083454

Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh

2015-03-01

392

Nanostructured biocomposite films of high toughness based on native chitin nanofibers and chitosan  

PubMed Central

Chitosan is widely used in films for packaging applications. Chitosan reinforcement by stiff particles or fibers is usually obtained at the expense of lowered ductility and toughness. Here, chitosan film reinforcement by a new type of native chitin nanofibers is reported. Films are prepared by casting from colloidal suspensions of chitin in dissolved chitosan. The nanocomposite films are chitin nanofiber networks in chitosan matrix. Characterization is carried out by dynamic light scattering, quartz crystal microbalance, field emission scanning electron microscopy, tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis. The polymer matrix nanocomposites were produced in volume fractions of 8, 22, and 56% chitin nanofibers. Favorable chitin-chitosan synergy for colloidal dispersion is demonstrated. Also, lowered moisture sorption is observed for the composites, probably due to the favorable chitin-chitosan interface. The highest toughness (area under stress-strain curve) was observed at 8 vol% chitin content. The toughening mechanisms and the need for well-dispersed chitin nanofibers is discussed. Finally, desired structural characteristics of ductile chitin biocomposites are discussed. PMID:25478558

Mushi, Ngesa E.; Utsel, Simon; Berglund, Lars A.

2014-01-01

393

Tapentadol and nitric oxide synthase systems.  

PubMed

Tapentadol, a new analgesic drug with a dual mechanism of action (?-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition), is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain. In this paper, the possible additional involvement of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system in the antinociceptive activity of tapentadol was investigated using an unspecific inhibitor of NOS, L-NOArg, a relatively specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS, 7-NI, a relatively selective inhibitor of inducible NOS, L-NIL, and a potent inhibitor of endothelial NOS, L-NIO. Tapentadol (1-10?mg/kg, intraperitoneal) increased the threshold for mechanical (Randall-Selitto test) and thermal (tail-flick test) nociceptive stimuli in a dose-dependent manner. All four NOS inhibitors, administered intraperitoneally in the dose range 0.1-10?mg/kg, potentiated the analgesic action of tapentadol at a low dose of 2?mg/kg in both models of pain. We conclude that NOS systems participate in tapentadol analgesia. PMID:25485639

Bujalska-Zadro?ny, Magdalena; Woli?ska, Renata; G?si?ska, Emilia; Nagraba, ?ukasz

2015-04-01

394

Inhibition of cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase by substituted benzo-fused heterocycles.  

PubMed

The cobalamin-dependent cytosolic enzyme, methionine synthase (EC.2.1.1.13), catalyzes the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine using 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as the methyl donor. The products of this remethylation--methionine and tetrahydrofolate--participate in the active methionine and folate pathways. Impaired methionine synthase activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of anaemias, cancer and neurological disorders. Although the need for potent and specific inhibitors of methionine synthase has been recognized, there is a lack of such agents. In this study, we designed, synthesized and evaluated the inhibitory activity of a series of substituted benzimidazoles and small benzothiadiazoles. Kinetic analysis revealed that the benzimidazoles act as competitive inhibitors of the rat liver methionine synthase, whilst the most active benzothiadiazole (IC(50) = 80 microm) exhibited characteristics of uncompetitive inhibition. A model of the methyltetrahydrofolate-binding site of the rat liver methionine synthase was constructed; docking experiments were designed to elucidate, in greater detail, the binding mode and reveal structural requirements for the design of inhibitors of methionine synthase. Our results indicate that the potency of the tested compounds is related to a planar region of the inhibitor that can be positioned in the centre of the active site, the presence of a nitro functional group and two or three probable hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:17222188

Banks, Elizabeth C; Doughty, Stephen W; Toms, Steven M; Wheelhouse, Richard T; Nicolaou, Anna

2007-01-01

395

Production, properties, and some new applications of chitin and its derivatives.  

PubMed

Chitin is a polysaccharide composed from N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth and found mainly in invertebrates, insects, marine diatoms, algae, fungi, and yeasts. Recent investigations confirm the suitability of chitin and its derivatives in chemistry, biotechnology, medicine, veterinary, dentistry, agriculture, food processing, environmental protection, and textile production. The development of technologies based on the utilization of chitin derivatives is caused by their polyelectrolite properties, the presence of reactive functional groups, gel-forming ability, high adsorption capacity, biodegradability and bacteriostatic, and fungistatic and antitumour influence. Resources of chitin for industrial processing are crustacean shells and fungal mycelia. Fungi contain also chitosan, the product of N-deacetylation of chitin. Traditionally, chitin is isolated from crustacean shells by demineralization with diluted acid and deproteinization in a hot base solution. Furthermore, chitin is converted to chitosan by deacetylation in concentrated NaOH solution. It causes changes in molecular weight and a degree of deacetylation of the product and degradation of nutritionally valuable proteins. Thus, enzymatic procedures for deproteinization of the shells or mold mycelia and for chitin deacetylation were investigated. These studies show that chitin is resistant to enzymatic deacetylation. However, chitin deacetylated partially by chemical treatment can be processed further by deacetylase. Efficiency of enzymatic deproteinization depends on the source of crustacean offal and the process conditions. Mild enzymatic treatment removes about 90% of the protein and carotenoids from shrimp-processing waste, and the carotenoprotein produced is useful for feed supplementation. In contrast, deproteinization of shrimp shells by Alcalase led to the isolation of chitin containing about 4.5% of protein impurities and recovery of protein hydrolysate. PMID:12705640

Synowiecki, Józef; Al-Khateeb, Nadia Ali

2003-01-01

396

Physicochemical comparison of chitin and chitosan obtained from larvae and adult Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).  

PubMed

Chitins and chitosans obtained from larva and adult Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) were physico-chemically characterized and differences between adults and larvae were identified. The dry weight chitin contents of the adult Colorado potato beetles and larvae were determined as 20% and 7%, respectively. The chitin produced chitosan yields of 72% from the adult Colorado potato beetles and 67% from the larvae. FTIR analysis showed that the isolated chitins were in the alpha form. Crystalline index values, determined by XRD, were 72% for larvae and 76% for adults. The degradation temperatures of the isolated chitin structures were measured by TGA, and this showed that the chitin from adult Colorado potato beetles had a more stable structure than that from the larvae. The surface morphologies of the isolated chitin and chitosan structures were analysed with SEM and it was revealed that these structures consisted of nanofibres. According to elemental analysis, the purity of chitin and chitosan from adults was greater than that from the larvae. The results of molecular analysis showed that the chitosans from adults (2.722 kDa) and larvae (2.676 kDa) of the Colorado potato beetle have low molecular weights. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of both adult and larval chitosans were determined. The adult potato beetle is more appropriate than the larvae as an alternative chitin source because of the fact that its dry weight chitin content, chitosan yield and purity of chitin are higher than those from the larvae, and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities are also higher than those from the larvae. PMID:25491803

Kaya, Murat; Baran, Talat; Erdo?an, Sevil; Mente?, Ayfer; Özüsa?lam, Meltem A?an; Çakmak, Yavuz Selim

2014-12-01

397

Chitin utilisation by broilers and its effect on body composition and blood metabolites.  

PubMed

1. Little is known about the ability of farmed poultry to digest chitin and derive nutrients from the ingestion of insects. 2. Commercial chitin derived from crustacean shell waste was found to contain 373 g crude protein, 265 g ash, 23.5 g ether extract, 130 g calcium and 16.4 g phosphorus per kg, on an air-dry basis. 3. It was included in diets at 0, 25, 50 and 75 g chitin per kg and fed to 320 1-d-old broiler males, over a 21-d period. There were no statistically significant treatment effects on weight gain or feed efficiency. Apparent digestibility of chitin protein was 0.48, 0.50 and 0.45, at the 25, 50 and 75 g per kg inclusions, respectively. Mean AME and AMEN values of chitin were determined as 8.97 and 8.86 MJ/kg. 4. In a subsequent study, mean TME and TMEN values of chitin were determined to be 8.23 and 8.21 MJ per kg, respectively. Addition of chitinase to the diet increased TME and TMEN of chitin to 8.81 and 8.79 MJ per kg, respectively (P<0.05). True digestibility of chitin protein was determined to be 0.87. 5. Triglyceride concentrations in liver and breast meat were significantly reduced by chitin inclusion. No significant differences in carcase yield at 21 d of age were found. Serum cholesterol and triglycerol concentrations were reduced significantly by dietary chitin, the lowest levels being observed at the 50 g per kg inclusion level. 6. These findings indicate the ability of modern poultry to digest chitin but suggest that the ingestion of insects is not an important source of nutrients, at least from the exoskeleton. PMID:17364538

Hossain, S M; Blair, R

2007-02-01

398

Anti-obesity effect of carboxymethyl chitin by AMPK and aquaporin-7 pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of carboxymethyl-chitin (CM-chitin), a water-soluble derivative of chitin, by measuring lipid accumulation and adipogenesis related factors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CM-chitin was synthesized by means of carboxymethylation reaction. Its inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation was investigated by measuring triglyceride content and glycerol release level. The gene and protein levels associated

Chang-Suk Kong; Jung-Ae Kim; Soon-Sun Bak; Hee-Guk Byun; Se-Kwon Kim

2011-01-01

399

The recovery of protein hydrolysate during enzymatic isolation of chitin from shrimp Crangon crangon processing discards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell waste from shrimp Crangon crangon processing is a good source of chitin and proteins, contained on a dry basis of the offals in amounts 17.8% and 40.6%, respectively. The digestion of the shells with proteolytic enzymes allow to recovery of the chitin and nutritionally valuable protein hydrolysate. These products were prepared from the shells preliminarily demineralized with 10% HCl

Józef Synowiecki; Nadia Ali Abdul Quawi Al-Khateeb

2000-01-01

400

Production, Properties, and Some New Applications of Chitin and Its Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin is a polysaccharide composed from N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth and found mainly in invertebrates, insects, marine diatoms, algae, fungi, and yeasts. Recent investigations confirm the suitability of chitin and its derivatives in chemistry, biotechnology, medicine, veterinary, dentistry, agriculture, food processing, environmental protection, and textile production. The development of technologies based on the

Józef Synowiecki; Nadia Ali Al-Khateeb

2003-01-01

401

Cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by chitin: kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental investigation on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by chitin was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were measured. The influence of different experimental parameters such as time contact, initial concentration of cadmium, chitin mass, particles size, agitation speed, temperature and the nature of cadmium salt, on the kinetics of cadmium removal

B Benguella; H Benaissa

2002-01-01

402

Application of chitin- and chitosan-based materials for enzyme immobilizations: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

As functional materials, chitin and chitosan offer a unique set of characteristics: biocompatibility, biodegradability to harmless products, nontoxicity, physiological inertness, antibacterial properties, heavy metal ions chelation, gel forming properties and hydrophilicity, and remarkable affinity to proteins. Owing to these characteristics, chitin- and chitosan-based materials, as yet underutilized, are predicted to be widely exploited in the near future especially in environmentally

Barbara Krajewska

2004-01-01

403