Science.gov

Sample records for chlamydomonas lacking photosystem

  1. Limited photosynthetic electron flow but no CO2 fixation in Chlamydomonas mutants lacking photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Cournac, L; Redding, K; Bennoun, P; Peltier, G

    1997-10-13

    By measuring O2 and CO2 exchange in mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in which genes encoding the reaction center of photosystem I (psaA or psaB) have been deleted, we found that a photosystem II-dependent electron flow using O2 as the final acceptor can be sustained in the light. However, in contrast with recent reports using other Chlamydomonas mutants (B4 and F8), we show here that CO2 fixation does not occur in the absence of photosystem I. By deleting the psaA gene in both B4 and F8 strains, we conclude that the ability of these mutants to fix CO2 in the light is due to the presence of residual amounts of photosystem I. PMID:9369234

  2. Carbon dioxide fixation and photoevolution of hydrogen and oxygen in a mutant of Chlamydomonas lacking Photosystem I

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V.

    1995-09-01

    Sustained photoassimilation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen has been observed in a Photosystem I deficient mutant B4 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that contains only Photosystem II. The data indicate that Photosystem II alone is capable of spanning the potential difference between water oxidation/oxygen evolution and ferredoxin reduction. The rates of both CO{sub 2} fixation and hydrogen and oxygen evolution are similar in the mutant to that of the wild-type C. reinhardtii 137c containing both photosystems. The wild-type had stable photosynthetic activity, measured as CO{sub 2} fixation, under both air and anaerobic conditions, while the mutant was stable only under anaerobic conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the fundamental mechanisms and energetics of photosynthesis and possible implications for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  3. Ultrastructure - function relationship in Chlamydomonas reinhartii thylakoids, by means of a comparison between the wild type and the F34 mutant which lacks the photosystem II reaction center.

    PubMed

    Olive, J; Wollman, F A; Bennoun, P; Recouvreur, M

    1979-08-31

    The F34 mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhartii is deficient in photosystem II reaction centers. The E fracture faces of the thylakoid membranes of this mutant show a considerable reduction in the number of particles present ant in their size compared with the wild type. We conclude that the polypeptides associated with photosystem II reaction centers, which are missing in SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of proteins from this mutant strain, are part of the EF particles and are required for assembly of these particles. PMID:492157

  4. Loss of phylloquinone in Chlamydomonas affects plastoquinone pool size and photosystem II synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre-Legendre, Linnka; Rappaport, Fabrice; Finazzi, Giovanni; Ceol, Mauro; Grivet, Chantal; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Rochaix, Jean-David

    2007-05-01

    Phylloquinone functions as the electron transfer cofactor at the A(1) site of photosystem I. We have isolated and characterized a mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, menD1, that is deficient in MenD, which encodes 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase, an enzyme that catalyzes the first specific step of the phylloquinone biosynthetic pathway. The mutant is photosynthetically active but light-sensitive. Analysis of total pigments by mass spectrometry reveals that phylloquinone is absent in menD1, but plastoquinone levels are not affected. This is further confirmed by the rescue of menD1 by addition of phylloquinone to the growth medium. Analysis of electron transfer by absorption spectroscopy indicates that plastoquinone replaces phylloquinone in photosystem I and that electron transfer from A(1) to the iron-sulfur centers is slowed down at least 40-fold. Consistent with a replacement of phylloquinone by plastoquinone, the size of the free plastoquinone pool of menD1 is reduced by 20-30%. In contrast to cyanobacterial MenD-deficient mutants, photosystem I accumulates normally in menD1, whereas the level of photosystem II declines. This decrease is because of reduced synthesis of the photosystem II core subunits. The relationship between plastoquinone occupancy of the A(1) site in photosystem I and the reduced accumulation of photosystem II is discussed. PMID:17339322

  5. Energy-dissipative supercomplex of photosystem II associated with LHCSR3 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Tokutsu, Ryutaro; Minagawa, Jun

    2013-06-11

    Plants and green algae have a low pH-inducible mechanism in photosystem II (PSII) that dissipates excess light energy, measured as the nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (qE). Recently, nonphotochemical quenching 4 (npq4), a mutant strain of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that is qE-deficient and lacks the light-harvesting complex stress-related protein 3 (LHCSR3), was reported [Peers G, et al. (2009) Nature 462(7272):518-521]. Here, applying a newly established procedure, we isolated the PSII supercomplex and its associated light-harvesting proteins from both WT C. reinhardtii and the npq4 mutant grown in either low light (LL) or high light (HL). LHCSR3 was present in the PSII supercomplex from the HL-grown WT, but not in the supercomplex from the LL-grown WT or mutant. The purified PSII supercomplex containing LHCSR3 exhibited a normal fluorescence lifetime at a neutral pH (7.5) by single-photon counting analysis, but a significantly shorter lifetime at pH 5.5, which mimics the acidified lumen of the thylakoid membranes in HL-exposed chloroplasts. The switch from light-harvesting mode to energy-dissipating mode observed in the LHCSR3-containing PSII supercomplex was sensitive to dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, a protein-modifying agent specific to protonatable amino acid residues. We conclude that the PSII-LHCII-LHCSR3 supercomplex formed in the HL-grown C. reinhardtii cells is capable of energy dissipation on protonation of LHCSR3. PMID:23716695

  6. TEF30 Interacts with Photosystem II Monomers and Is Involved in the Repair of Photodamaged Photosystem II in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Ligia Segatto; Rütgers, Mark; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Heublein, Anja; Geimer, Stefan; Wollman, Francis-André; Schroda, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The remarkable capability of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water comes along with its vulnerability to oxidative damage. Accordingly, organisms harboring PSII have developed strategies to protect PSII from oxidative damage and to repair damaged PSII. Here, we report on the characterization of the THYLAKOID ENRICHED FRACTION30 (TEF30) protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is conserved in the green lineage and induced by high light. Fractionation studies revealed that TEF30 is associated with the stromal side of thylakoid membranes. By using blue native/Deriphat-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, sucrose density gradients, and isolated PSII particles, we found TEF30 to quantitatively interact with monomeric PSII complexes. Electron microscopy images revealed significantly reduced thylakoid membrane stacking in TEF30-underexpressing cells when compared with control cells. Biophysical and immunological data point to an impaired PSII repair cycle in TEF30-underexpressing cells and a reduced ability to form PSII supercomplexes after high-light exposure. Taken together, our data suggest potential roles for TEF30 in facilitating the incorporation of a new D1 protein and/or the reintegration of CP43 into repaired PSII monomers, protecting repaired PSII monomers from undergoing repeated repair cycles or facilitating the migration of repaired PSII monomers back to stacked regions for supercomplex reassembly. PMID:26644506

  7. Hydrogen Production in Chlamydomonas: Photosystem II-Dependent and -Independent Pathways Differ in Their Requirement for Starch Metabolism1[W

    PubMed Central

    Chochois, Vincent; Dauvillée, David; Beyly, Audrey; Tolleter, Dimitri; Cuiné, Stéphan; Timpano, Hélène; Ball, Steven; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Under sulfur deprivation conditions, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii produces hydrogen in the light in a sustainable manner thanks to the contribution of two pathways, direct and indirect. In the direct pathway, photosystem II (PSII) supplies electrons to hydrogenase through the photosynthetic electron transport chain, while in the indirect pathway, hydrogen is produced in the absence of PSII through a photosystem I-dependent process. Starch metabolism has been proposed to contribute to both pathways by feeding respiration and maintaining anoxia during the direct pathway and by supplying reductants to the plastoquinone pool during the indirect pathway. At variance with this scheme, we report that a mutant lacking starch (defective for sta6) produces similar hydrogen amounts as the parental strain in conditions of sulfur deprivation. However, when PSII is inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, conditions where hydrogen is produced by the indirect pathway, hydrogen production is strongly reduced in the starch-deficient mutant. We conclude that starch breakdown contributes to the indirect pathway by feeding electrons to the plastoquinone pool but is dispensable for operation of the direct pathway that prevails in the absence of DCMU. While hydrogenase induction was strongly impaired in the starch-deficient mutant under dark anaerobic conditions, wild-type-like induction was observed in the light. Because this light-driven hydrogenase induction is DCMU insensitive and strongly inhibited by carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone or 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, we conclude that this process is regulated by the proton gradient generated by cyclic electron flow around PSI. PMID:19700559

  8. Site-specific mutagenesis of the D1 subunit of photosystem II in wild-type Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Przibilla, E; Heiss, S; Johanningmeier, U; Trebst, A

    1991-01-01

    The structure and functional mode of photosystem II reaction center protein D1 can be studied by analyzing the effects of amino acid substitutions within the binding niche for QB, the second stable electron acceptor of photosystem II, on herbicide binding. Here we report on site-directed mutagenesis of the psbA gene coding for the D1 protein in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The chloroplasts of wild-type cells were transformed using the particle gun. The plasmids introduced carried an in vitro mutated fragment of the psbA gene. We obtained a double mutant with replacements of amino acids 264 and 266 and a triple mutant having an additional substitution in position 259. The sensitivities of both mutants toward several types of herbicides are given and compared with those of a mutant having only a substitution at position 264. PMID:1840907

  9. Photoproduction of Hydrogen by Sulfur-Deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutants with Impaired Photosystem II Photochemical Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Makarova, V. V.; Kosourov, S.; Krendeleva, T. E.; Semin, B. K.; Kukarskikh, G. P.; Rubin, A. B.; Sayre, R. T.; Ghirardi, M. L.; Seibert, M.

    2007-01-01

    Photoproduction of H2 was examined in a series of sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii D1-R323 mutants with progressively impaired PSII photochemical activity. In the R323H, R323D, and R323E D1 mutants, replacement of arginine affects photosystem II (PSII) function, as demonstrated by progressive decreases in O2-evolving activity and loss of PSII photochemical activity. Significant changes in PSII activity were found when the arginine residue was replaced by negatively charged amino acid residues (R323D and R323E). However, the R323H (positively charged or neutral, depending on the ambient pH) mutant had minimal changes in PSII activity. The R323H, R323D, and R323E mutants and the pseudo-wild-type (pWt) with restored PSII function were used to study the effects of sulfur deprivation on H2-production activity. All of these mutants exhibited significant changes in the normal parameters associated with the H2-photoproduction process, such as a shorter aerobic phase, lower accumulation of starch, a prolonged anaerobic phase observed before the onset of H2-production, a shorter duration of H2-production, lower H2 yields compared to the pWt control, and slightly higher production of dark fermentation products such as acetate and formate. The more compromised the PSII photochemical activity, the more dramatic was the effect of sulfur deprivation on the H2-production process, which depends both on the presence of residual PSII activity and the amount of stored starch.

  10. Psychrophily is associated with differential energy partitioning, photosystem stoichiometry and polypeptide phosphorylation in Chlamydomonas raudensis.

    PubMed

    Szyszka, Beth; Ivanov, Alexander G; Hüner, Norman P A

    2007-06-01

    Chlamydomonas raudensis UWO 241 and SAG 49.72 represent the psychrophilic and mesophilic strains of this green algal species. This novel discovery was exploited to assess the role of psychrophily in photoacclimation to growth temperature and growth irradiance. At their optimal growth temperatures of 8 degrees C and 28 degrees C respectively, UWO 241 and SAG 49.72 maintained comparable photostasis, that is energy balance, as measured by PSII excitation pressure. Although UWO 241 exhibited higher excitation pressure, measured as 1-qL, at all growth light intensities, the relative changes in 1-qL were similar to that of SAG 49.72 in response to growth light. In response to suboptimal temperatures and increased growth irradiance, SAG 49.72 favoured energy partitioning of excess excitation energy through inducible, down regulatory processes (Phi(NPQ)) associated with the xanthophyll cycle and antenna quenching, while UWO 241 favoured xanthophyll cycle-independent energy partitioning through constitutive processes involved in energy dissipation (Phi(NO)). In contrast to SAG 49.72, an elevation in growth temperature induced an increase in PSI/PSII stoichiometry in UWO 241. Furthermore, SAG 49.72 showed typical threonine-phosphorylation of LHCII, whereas UWO 241 exhibited phosphorylation of polypeptides of comparable molecular mass to PSI reaction centres but the absence of LHCII phosphorylation. Thus, although both strains maintain an energy balance irrespective of their differences in optimal growth temperatures, the mechanisms used to maintain photostasis were distinct. We conclude that psychrophily in C. raudensis is complex and appears to involve differential energy partitioning, photosystem stoichiometry and polypeptide phosphorylation. PMID:17234152

  11. The Antarctic Psychrophile Chlamydomonas sp. UWO 241 Preferentially Phosphorylates a Photosystem I-Cytochrome b6/f Supercomplex1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Szyszka-Mroz, Beth; Pittock, Paula; Ivanov, Alexander G.; Lajoie, Gilles; Hüner, Norman P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydomonas sp. UWO 241 (UWO 241) is a psychrophilic green alga isolated from Antarctica. A unique characteristic of this algal strain is its inability to undergo state transitions coupled with the absence of photosystem II (PSII) light-harvesting complex protein phosphorylation. We show that UWO 241 preferentially phosphorylates specific polypeptides associated with an approximately 1,000-kD pigment-protein supercomplex that contains components of both photosystem I (PSI) and the cytochrome b6/f (Cyt b6/f) complex. Liquid chromatography nano-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify three major phosphorylated proteins associated with this PSI-Cyt b6/f supercomplex, two 17-kD PSII subunit P-like proteins and a 70-kD ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease, FtsH. The PSII subunit P-like protein sequence exhibited 70.6% similarity to the authentic PSII subunit P protein associated with the oxygen-evolving complex of PSII in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Tyrosine-146 was identified as a unique phosphorylation site on the UWO 241 PSII subunit P-like polypeptide. Assessment of PSI cyclic electron transport by in vivo P700 photooxidation and the dark relaxation kinetics of P700+ indicated that UWO 241 exhibited PSI cyclic electron transport rates that were 3 times faster and more sensitive to antimycin A than the mesophile control, Chlamydomonas raudensis SAG 49.72. The stability of the PSI-Cyt b6/f supercomplex was dependent upon the phosphorylation status of the PsbP-like protein and the zinc metalloprotease FtsH as well as the presence of high salt. We suggest that adaptation of UWO 241 to its unique low-temperature and high-salt environment favors the phosphorylation of a PSI-Cyt b6/f supercomplex to regulate PSI cyclic electron transport rather than the regulation of state transitions through the phosphorylation of PSII light-harvesting complex proteins. PMID:26169679

  12. The Antarctic Psychrophile Chlamydomonas sp. UWO 241 Preferentially Phosphorylates a Photosystem I-Cytochrome b6/f Supercomplex.

    PubMed

    Szyszka-Mroz, Beth; Pittock, Paula; Ivanov, Alexander G; Lajoie, Gilles; Hüner, Norman P A

    2015-09-01

    Chlamydomonas sp. UWO 241 (UWO 241) is a psychrophilic green alga isolated from Antarctica. A unique characteristic of this algal strain is its inability to undergo state transitions coupled with the absence of photosystem II (PSII) light-harvesting complex protein phosphorylation. We show that UWO 241 preferentially phosphorylates specific polypeptides associated with an approximately 1,000-kD pigment-protein supercomplex that contains components of both photosystem I (PSI) and the cytochrome b₆/f (Cyt b₆/f) complex. Liquid chromatography nano-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify three major phosphorylated proteins associated with this PSI-Cyt b₆/f supercomplex, two 17-kD PSII subunit P-like proteins and a 70-kD ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease, FtsH. The PSII subunit P-like protein sequence exhibited 70.6% similarity to the authentic PSII subunit P protein associated with the oxygen-evolving complex of PSII in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Tyrosine-146 was identified as a unique phosphorylation site on the UWO 241 PSII subunit P-like polypeptide. Assessment of PSI cyclic electron transport by in vivo P700 photooxidation and the dark relaxation kinetics of P700(+) indicated that UWO 241 exhibited PSI cyclic electron transport rates that were 3 times faster and more sensitive to antimycin A than the mesophile control, Chlamydomonas raudensis SAG 49.72. The stability of the PSI-Cyt b₆/f supercomplex was dependent upon the phosphorylation status of the PsbP-like protein and the zinc metalloprotease FtsH as well as the presence of high salt. We suggest that adaptation of UWO 241 to its unique low-temperature and high-salt environment favors the phosphorylation of a PSI-Cyt b₆/f supercomplex to regulate PSI cyclic electron transport rather than the regulation of state transitions through the phosphorylation of PSII light-harvesting complex proteins. PMID:26169679

  13. Replacement of tyrosine D with phenylalanine affects the normal proton transfer pathways for the reduction of P680+ in oxygen-evolving photosystem II particles from Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Jeans, C; Schilstra, M J; Ray, N; Husain, S; Minagawa, J; Nugent, J H A; Klug, D R

    2002-12-31

    We have probed the electrostatics of P680(+) reduction in oxygenic photosynthesis using histidine-tagged and histidine-tagged Y(D)-less Photosystem II cores. We make two main observations: (i) that His-tagged Chlamydomonas cores show kinetics which are essentially identical to those of Photosystem II enriched thylakoid membranes from spinach; (ii) that the microsecond kinetics, previously shown to be proton/hydrogen transfer limited [Schilstra et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 3974-3981], are significantly different in Y(D)-less Chlamydomonas particles when compared with both the His-tagged Chlamydomonas particles and the spinach membranes. The oscillatory nature of the kinetics in both Chlamydomonas samples is normal, indicating that S-state cycling is unaffected by either the histidine-tagging or the replacement of tyrosine D with phenylalanine. We propose that the effects on the proton-coupled electron transfers of P680(+) reduction in the absence of Y(D) are likely to be due to pK shifts of residues in a hydrogen-bonded network of amino acids in the vicinity of Y(Z). Tyrosine D is 35 A from Y(Z) and yet has a significant influence on proton-coupled electron transfer events in the vicinity of Y(Z). This finding emphasizes the delicacy of the proton balance that Photosystem II has to achieve during the water splitting process. PMID:12501204

  14. Chlorophyll antenna proteins of photosystem I: topology, synthesis, and regulation of the 20-kDa subunit of Chlamydomonas light-harvesting complex of photosystem I

    SciTech Connect

    Herrin, D.L.; Plumley, F.G.; Ikeuchi, M.; Michaels, A.S.; Schmidt, G.W.

    1987-05-01

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHCI) was isolated from wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; the Chl a/b-protein complex contains four major polypeptides of approximately 27, 26, 24, and 20 kDa (polypeptides 14, 15, 17.2, and 22, respectively, in the nomenclature for Chlamydomonas thylakoid proteins). Antiserum against the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI was prepared and used to determine the membrane topology, subcellular site of synthesis, and cell-cycle regulation of this polypeptide. The results indicate that the 20-kDa subunit as well as the other major LHCI polypeptides are integral membrane proteins. Moreover, protease digestion experiments reveal that the 20-kDa polypeptide is completely protected by the membrane bilayer but the 27- and 26-kDa LHCI polypeptides are exposed at the membrane surface. In vivo synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is sensitive to cycloheximide but not to chloramphenicol; the form of the polypeptide recovered from in vitro translations of polyadenylated RNA is approximately 24 kDa, 4 kDa larger than the mature polypeptide. It is concluded that this LHCI polypeptide is nuclear encoded and synthesized in the cytoplasm as a higher molecular weight precursor. Synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is restricted to the light period in light-dark synchronized cells. Translatable mRNA for this polypeptide accumulates during the light but levels are dramatically reduced during the dark period. Thus, synthesis of the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI appears to be transcriptionally regulated during the cell cycle.

  15. Chlorophyll antenna proteins of photosystem I: topology, synthesis, and regulation of the 20-kDa subunit of Chlamydomonas light-harvesting complex of photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Herrin, D L; Plumley, F G; Ikeuchi, M; Michaels, A S; Schmidt, G W

    1987-05-01

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHCI) was isolated from wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; the Chl a/b-protein complex contains four major polypeptides of approximately 27, 26, 24, and 20 kDa (polypeptides 14, 15, 17.2, and 22, respectively, in the nomenclature for Chlamydomonas thylakoid proteins). Antiserum against the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI was prepared and used to determine the membrane topology, subcellular site of synthesis, and cell-cycle regulation of this polypeptide. The results indicate that the 20-kDa subunit as well as the other major LHCI polypeptides are integral membrane proteins. Moreover, protease digestion experiments reveal that the 20-kDa polypeptide is completely protected by the membrane bilayer but the 27- and 26-kDa LHCI polypeptides are exposed at the membrane surface. In vivo synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is sensitive to cycloheximide but not to chloramphenicol; the form of the polypeptide recovered from in vitro translations of polyadenylated RNA is approximately 24 kDa, 4 kDa larger than the mature polypeptide. It is concluded that this LHCI polypeptide is nuclear encoded and synthesized in the cytoplasm as a higher molecular weight precursor. Synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is restricted to the light period in light-dark synchronized cells. Translatable mRNA for this polypeptide accumulates during the light but levels are dramatically reduced during the dark period. Thus, synthesis of the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI appears to be transcriptionally regulated during the cell cycle. PMID:3555343

  16. A Nucleus-Encoded Chloroplast Phosphoprotein Governs Expression of the Photosystem I Subunit PsaC in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Douchi, Damien; Qu, Yujiao; Longoni, Paolo; Legendre-Lefebvre, Linnka; Johnson, Xenie; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The nucleo-cytoplasmic compartment exerts anterograde control on chloroplast gene expression through numerous proteins that intervene at posttranscriptional steps. Here, we show that the maturation of psaC mutant (mac1) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is defective in photosystem I and fails to accumulate psaC mRNA. The MAC1 locus encodes a member of the Half-A-Tetratricopeptide (HAT) family of super-helical repeat proteins, some of which are involved in RNA transactions. The Mac1 protein localizes to the chloroplast in the soluble fraction. MAC1 acts through the 5' untranslated region of psaC transcripts and is required for their stability. Small RNAs that map to the 5'end of psaC RNA in the wild type but not in the mac1 mutant are inferred to represent footprints of MAC1-dependent protein binding, and Mac1 expressed in bacteria binds RNA in vitro. A coordinate response to iron deficiency, which leads to dismantling of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain and in particular of photosystem I, also causes a decrease of Mac1. Overexpression of Mac1 leads to a parallel increase in psaC mRNA but not in PsaC protein, suggesting that Mac1 may be limiting for psaC mRNA accumulation but that other processes regulate protein accumulation. Furthermore, Mac 1 is differentially phosphorylated in response to iron availability and to conditions that alter the redox balance of the electron transfer chain. PMID:27113776

  17. Light-Harvesting Complex Protein LHCBM9 Is Critical for Photosystem II Activity and Hydrogen Production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Sabrina; Ballottari, Matteo; Alcocer, Marcelo; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Blifernez-Klassen, Olga; Hankamer, Ben; Mussgnug, Jan H; Bassi, Roberto; Kruse, Olaf

    2014-04-01

    Photosynthetic organisms developed multiple strategies for balancing light-harvesting versus intracellular energy utilization to survive ever-changing environmental conditions. The light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein family is of paramount importance for this function and can form light-harvesting pigment protein complexes. In this work, we describe detailed analyses of the photosystem II (PSII) LHC protein LHCBM9 of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in terms of expression kinetics, localization, and function. In contrast to most LHC members described before, LHCBM9 expression was determined to be very low during standard cell cultivation but strongly increased as a response to specific stress conditions, e.g., when nutrient availability was limited. LHCBM9 was localized as part of PSII supercomplexes but was not found in association with photosystem I complexes. Knockdown cell lines with 50 to 70% reduced amounts of LHCBM9 showed reduced photosynthetic activity upon illumination and severe perturbation of hydrogen production activity. Functional analysis, performed on isolated PSII supercomplexes and recombinant LHCBM9 proteins, demonstrated that presence of LHCBM9 resulted in faster chlorophyll fluorescence decay and reduced production of singlet oxygen, indicating upgraded photoprotection. We conclude that LHCBM9 has a special role within the family of LHCII proteins and serves an important protective function during stress conditions by promoting efficient light energy dissipation and stabilizing PSII supercomplexes. PMID:24706511

  18. Excitation pressure regulates the activation energy for recombination events in the photosystem II reaction centres of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pocock, Tessa; Sane, P V; Falk, S; Hüner, N P A

    2007-12-01

    Using in vivo thermoluminescence, we examined the effects of growth irradiance and growth temperature on charge recombination events in photosystem II reaction centres of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We report that growth at increasing irradiance at either 29 or 15 degrees C resulted in comparable downward shifts in the temperature peak maxima (T(M)) for S2QB- charge pair recombination events, with minimal changes in S2QA- recombination events. This indicates that such growth conditions decrease the activation energy required for S2QB- charge pair recombination events with no concomitant change in the activation energy for S2QA- recombination events. This resulted in a decrease in the DeltaT(M) between S2QA- and S2QB- recombination events, which was reversible when shifting cells from low to high irradiance and back to low irradiance at 29 degrees C. We interpret these results to indicate that the redox potential of QB was modulated independently of QA, which consequently narrowed the redox potential gap between QA and QB in photosystem II reaction centres. Since a decrease in the DeltaT(M) between S2QA- and S2QB- recombination events correlated with growth at increasing excitation pressure, we conclude that acclimation to growth under high excitation pressure narrows the redox potential gap between QA and QB in photosystem II reaction centres, enhancing the probability for reaction center quenching in C. reinhardtii. We discuss the molecular basis for the modulation of the redox state of QB, and suggest that the potential for reaction center quenching complements antenna quenching via the xanthophyll cycle in the photoprotection of C. reinhardtii from excess light. PMID:18059530

  19. TEF30 Interacts with Photosystem II Monomers and Is Involved in the Repair of Photodamaged Photosystem II in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bujaldon, Sandrine; Geimer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable capability of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water comes along with its vulnerability to oxidative damage. Accordingly, organisms harboring PSII have developed strategies to protect PSII from oxidative damage and to repair damaged PSII. Here, we report on the characterization of the THYLAKOID ENRICHED FRACTION30 (TEF30) protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is conserved in the green lineage and induced by high light. Fractionation studies revealed that TEF30 is associated with the stromal side of thylakoid membranes. By using blue native/Deriphat-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, sucrose density gradients, and isolated PSII particles, we found TEF30 to quantitatively interact with monomeric PSII complexes. Electron microscopy images revealed significantly reduced thylakoid membrane stacking in TEF30-underexpressing cells when compared with control cells. Biophysical and immunological data point to an impaired PSII repair cycle in TEF30-underexpressing cells and a reduced ability to form PSII supercomplexes after high-light exposure. Taken together, our data suggest potential roles for TEF30 in facilitating the incorporation of a new D1 protein and/or the reintegration of CP43 into repaired PSII monomers, protecting repaired PSII monomers from undergoing repeated repair cycles or facilitating the migration of repaired PSII monomers back to stacked regions for supercomplex reassembly. PMID:26644506

  20. State transitions redistribute rather than dissipate energy between the two photosystems in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, Wojciech J; Santabarbara, Stefano; Mosebach, Laura; Wollman, Francis-André; Rappaport, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis converts sunlight into biologically useful compounds, thus fuelling practically the entire biosphere. This process involves two photosystems acting in series powered by light harvesting complexes (LHCs) that dramatically increase the energy flux to the reaction centres. These complexes are the main targets of the regulatory processes that allow photosynthetic organisms to thrive across a broad range of light intensities. In microalgae, one mechanism for adjusting the flow of energy to the photosystems, state transitions, has a much larger amplitude than in terrestrial plants, whereas thermal dissipation of energy, the dominant regulatory mechanism in plants, only takes place after acclimation to high light. Here we show that, at variance with recent reports, microalgal state transitions do not dissipate light energy but redistribute it between the two photosystems, thereby allowing a well-balanced influx of excitation energy. PMID:27249564

  1. Expression of the nuclear encoded OEE1 protein is required for oxygen evolution and stability of photosystem II particles in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, S P; Bennoun, P; Rochaix, J D

    1987-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 (OEE1), which is part of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II (PS II), is coded for by a single nuclear gene (psb1). The nuclear mutant FuD44 specifically lacks the OEE1 polypeptide and is completely deficient in photosynthetic oxygen evolution. In this mutant a 5 kb DNA insertion into the 5' region of the psb1 gene results in the complete absence of OEE1 mRNA and protein. A revertant, FuD44-R 2, which is capable of 30% of the photosynthetic oxygen evolution of wild-type cells, has lost 4 kb of the 5 kb DNA insert, and accumulates both OEE1 mRNA and protein, although at levels somewhat less than those of wild-type cells. Absence of the OEE1 protein in the FuD44 mutant does not affect the accumulation of other nuclear encoded PS II peripheral polypeptides. OEE1 absence does, however, result in a more rapid turnover of the chloroplast encoded PS II core polypeptides, thus resulting in a substantial deficiency of PS II core polypeptides in FuD44 cells. These PS II core proteins again accumulate in revertant FuD44-R2 cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3556163

  2. Posttranslational events leading to the assembly of photosystem II protein complex: a study using photosynthesis mutants from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    de Vitry, C; Olive, J; Drapier, D; Recouvreur, M; Wollman, F A

    1989-09-01

    We studied the assembly of photosystem II (PSII) in several mutants from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which were unable to synthesize either one PSII core subunit (P6 [43 kD], D1, or D2) or one oxygen-evolving enhancer (OEE1 or OEE2) subunit. Synthesis of the PSII subunits was analyzed on electrophoretograms of cells pulse labeled with [14C]acetate. Their accumulation in thylakoid membranes was studied on immunoblots, their chlorophyll-binding ability on nondenaturating gels, their assembly by detergent fractionation, their stability by pulse-chase experiments and determination of in vitro protease sensitivity, and their localization by immunocytochemistry. In Chlamydomonas, the PSII core subunits P5 (47 kD), D1, and D2 are synthesized in a concerted manner while P6 synthesis is independent. P5 and P6 accumulate independently of each other in the stacked membranes. They bind chlorophyll soon after, or concomitantly with, their synthesis and independently of the presence of the other PSII subunits. Resistance to degradation increases step by step: beginning with assembly of P5, D1, and D2, then with binding of P6, and, finally, with binding of the OEE subunits on two independent high affinity sites (one for OEE1 and another for OEE2 to which OEE3 binds). In the absence of PSII cores, the OEE subunits accumulate independently in the thylakoid lumen and bind loosely to the membranes; OEE1 was found on stacked membranes, but OEE2 was found on either stacked or unstacked membranes depending on whether or not P6 was synthesized. PMID:2670960

  3. Two Chlamydomonas OPR proteins stabilize chloroplast mRNAs encoding small subunits of photosystem II and cytochrome b6 f.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Johnson, Xenie; Cavaiuolo, Marina; Bohne, Alexandra-Viola; Nickelsen, Joerg; Vallon, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    In plants and algae, chloroplast gene expression is controlled by nucleus-encoded proteins that bind to mRNAs in a specific manner, stabilizing mRNAs or promoting their splicing, editing, or translation. Here, we present the characterization of two mRNA stabilization factors of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which both belong to the OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) family. MCG1 is necessary to stabilize the petG mRNA, encoding a small subunit of the cytochrome b6 f complex, while MBI1 stabilizes the psbI mRNA, coding for a small subunit of photosystem II. In the mcg1 mutant, the small RNA footprint corresponding to the 5'-end of the petG transcript is reduced in abundance. In both cases, the absence of the small subunit perturbs assembly of the cognate complex. Whereas PetG is essential for formation of a functional cytochrome b6 f dimer, PsbI appears partly dispensable as a low level of PSII activity can still be measured in its absence. Thus, nuclear control of chloroplast gene expression is not only exerted on the major core subunits of the complexes, but also on small subunits with a single transmembrane helix. While OPR proteins have thus far been involved in translation or trans-splicing of plastid mRNAs, our results expand the potential roles of this repeat family to their stabilization. PMID:25898982

  4. Refactoring the Six-Gene Photosystem II Core in the Chloroplast of the Green Algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Gimpel, Javier A; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H; Scranton, Melissa A; Li, Daphne; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2016-07-15

    Oxygenic photosynthesis provides the energy to produce all food and most of the fuel on this planet. Photosystem II (PSII) is an essential and rate-limiting component of this process. Understanding and modifying PSII function could provide an opportunity for optimizing photosynthetic biomass production, particularly under specific environmental conditions. PSII is a complex multisubunit enzyme with strong interdependence among its components. In this work, we have deleted the six core genes of PSII in the eukaryotic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and refactored them in a single DNA construct. Complementation of the knockout strain with the core PSII synthetic module from three different green algae resulted in reconstitution of photosynthetic activity to 85, 55, and 53% of that of the wild-type, demonstrating that the PSII core can be exchanged between algae species and retain function. The strains, synthetic cassettes, and refactoring strategy developed for this study demonstrate the potential of synthetic biology approaches for tailoring oxygenic photosynthesis and provide a powerful tool for unraveling PSII structure-function relationships. PMID:26214707

  5. Site Energies of Active and Inactive Pheophytins in the Reaction Center of Photosystem II from Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, K.; Neupane, B.; Zazubovich, V.; Sayre, R. T.; Picorel, R.; Seibert, M.; Jankowiak, R.

    2012-03-29

    It is widely accepted that the primary electron acceptor in various Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center (RC) preparations is pheophytin {alpha} (Pheo {alpha}) within the D1 protein (Pheo{sub D1}), while Pheo{sub D2} (within the D2 protein) is photochemically inactive. The Pheo site energies, however, have remained elusive, due to inherent spectral congestion. While most researchers over the past two decades placed the Q{sub y}-states of Pheo{sub D1} and Pheo{sub D2} bands near 678-684 and 668-672 nm, respectively, recent modeling [Raszewski et al. Biophys. J. 2005, 88, 986-998; Cox et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 12364-12374] of the electronic structure of the PSII RC reversed the assignment of the active and inactive Pheos, suggesting that the mean site energy of Pheo{sub D1} is near 672 nm, whereas Pheo{sub D2} ({approx}677.5 nm) and Chl{sub D1} ({approx}680 nm) have the lowest energies (i.e., the Pheo{sub D2}-dominated exciton is the lowest excited state). In contrast, chemical pigment exchange experiments on isolated RCs suggested that both pheophytins have their Q{sub y} absorption maxima at 676-680 nm [Germano et al. Biochemistry 2001, 40, 11472-11482; Germano et al. Biophys. J. 2004, 86, 1664-1672]. To provide more insight into the site energies of both Pheo{sub D1} and Pheo{sub D2} (including the corresponding Q{sub x} transitions, which are often claimed to be degenerate at 543 nm) and to attest that the above two assignments are most likely incorrect, we studied a large number of isolated RC preparations from spinach and wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (at different levels of intactness) as well as the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant (D2-L209H), in which the active branch Pheo{sub D1} is genetically replaced with chlorophyll {alpha} (Chl {alpha}). We show that the Q{sub x}-/Q{sub y}-region site energies of Pheo{sub D1} and Pheo{sub D2} are {approx}545/680 nm and {approx}541.5/670 nm, respectively, in good agreement with our previous assignment

  6. PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT R Is Required for Efficient Binding of LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX STRESS-RELATED PROTEIN3 to Photosystem II-Light-Harvesting Supercomplexes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Huidan; Tokutsu, Ryutaro; Bergner, Sonja Verena; Scholz, Martin; Minagawa, Jun; Hippler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX STRESS-RELATED PROTEIN3 (LHCSR3) protein is crucial for efficient energy-dependent thermal dissipation of excess absorbed light energy and functionally associates with photosystem II-light-harvesting complex II (PSII-LHCII) supercomplexes. Currently, it is unknown how LHCSR3 binds to the PSII-LHCII supercomplex. In this study, we investigated the role of PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT R (PSBR) an intrinsic membrane-spanning PSII subunit, in the binding of LHCSR3 to PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. Down-regulation of PSBR expression diminished the efficiency of oxygen evolution and the extent of nonphotochemical quenching and had an impact on the stability of the oxygen-evolving complex as well as on PSII-LHCII-LHCSR3 supercomplex formation. Its down-regulation destabilized the PSII-LHCII supercomplex and strongly reduced the binding of LHCSR3 to PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, as revealed by quantitative proteomics. PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT P deletion, on the contrary, destabilized PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT Q binding but did not affect PSBR and LHCSR3 association with PSII-LHCII. In summary, these data provide clear evidence that PSBR is required for the stable binding of LHCSR3 to PSII-LHCII supercomplexes and is essential for efficient energy-dependent quenching and the integrity of the PSII-LHCII-LHCSR3 supercomplex under continuous high light. PMID:25699588

  7. Crystal structure and functional characterization of photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase CAH3 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Benlloch, Reyes; Shevela, Dmitriy; Hainzl, Tobias; Grundström, Christin; Shutova, Tatyana; Messinger, Johannes; Samuelsson, Göran; Sauer-Eriksson, A Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy is stored in the form of chemical energy by converting CO2 and water into carbohydrates. The light-driven oxidation of water that provides the electrons and protons for the subsequent CO2 fixation takes place in photosystem II (PSII). Recent studies show that in higher plants, HCO3 (-) increases PSII activity by acting as a mobile acceptor of the protons produced by PSII. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a luminal carbonic anhydrase, CrCAH3, was suggested to improve proton removal from PSII, possibly by rapid reformation of HCO3 (-) from CO2. In this study, we investigated the interplay between PSII and CrCAH3 by membrane inlet mass spectrometry and x-ray crystallography. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry measurements showed that CrCAH3 was most active at the slightly acidic pH values prevalent in the thylakoid lumen under illumination. Two crystal structures of CrCAH3 in complex with either acetazolamide or phosphate ions were determined at 2.6- and 2.7-Å resolution, respectively. CrCAH3 is a dimer at pH 4.1 that is stabilized by swapping of the N-terminal arms, a feature not previously observed in α-type carbonic anhydrases. The structure contains a disulfide bond, and redox titration of CrCAH3 function with dithiothreitol suggested a possible redox regulation of the enzyme. The stimulating effect of CrCAH3 and CO2/HCO3 (-) on PSII activity was demonstrated by comparing the flash-induced oxygen evolution pattern of wild-type and CrCAH3-less PSII preparations. We showed that CrCAH3 has unique structural features that allow this enzyme to maximize PSII activity at low pH and CO2 concentration. PMID:25617045

  8. Mutations of photosystem II D1 protein that empower efficient phenotypes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under extreme environment in space.

    PubMed

    Giardi, Maria Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Lambreva, Maya D; Antonacci, Amina; Pastorelli, Sandro; Bertalan, Ivo; Johanningmeier, Udo; Mattoo, Autar K

    2013-01-01

    Space missions have enabled testing how microorganisms, animals and plants respond to extra-terrestrial, complex and hazardous environment in space. Photosynthetic organisms are thought to be relatively more prone to microgravity, weak magnetic field and cosmic radiation because oxygenic photosynthesis is intimately associated with capture and conversion of light energy into chemical energy, a process that has adapted to relatively less complex and contained environment on Earth. To study the direct effect of the space environment on the fundamental process of photosynthesis, we sent into low Earth orbit space engineered and mutated strains of the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which has been widely used as a model of photosynthetic organisms. The algal mutants contained specific amino acid substitutions in the functionally important regions of the pivotal Photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre D1 protein near the QB binding pocket and in the environment surrounding Tyr-161 (YZ) electron acceptor of the oxygen-evolving complex. Using real-time measurements of PSII photochemistry, here we show that during the space flight while the control strain and two D1 mutants (A250L and V160A) were inefficient in carrying out PSII activity, two other D1 mutants, I163N and A251C, performed efficient photosynthesis, and actively re-grew upon return to Earth. Mimicking the neutron irradiation component of cosmic rays on Earth yielded similar results. Experiments with I163N and A251C D1 mutants performed on ground showed that they are better able to modulate PSII excitation pressure and have higher capacity to reoxidize the QA (-) state of the primary electron acceptor. These results highlight the contribution of D1 conformation in relation to photosynthesis and oxygen production in space. PMID:23691201

  9. Mutations of Photosystem II D1 Protein That Empower Efficient Phenotypes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under Extreme Environment in Space

    PubMed Central

    Lambreva, Maya D.; Antonacci, Amina; Pastorelli, Sandro; Bertalan, Ivo; Johanningmeier, Udo; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2013-01-01

    Space missions have enabled testing how microorganisms, animals and plants respond to extra-terrestrial, complex and hazardous environment in space. Photosynthetic organisms are thought to be relatively more prone to microgravity, weak magnetic field and cosmic radiation because oxygenic photosynthesis is intimately associated with capture and conversion of light energy into chemical energy, a process that has adapted to relatively less complex and contained environment on Earth. To study the direct effect of the space environment on the fundamental process of photosynthesis, we sent into low Earth orbit space engineered and mutated strains of the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which has been widely used as a model of photosynthetic organisms. The algal mutants contained specific amino acid substitutions in the functionally important regions of the pivotal Photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre D1 protein near the QB binding pocket and in the environment surrounding Tyr-161 (YZ) electron acceptor of the oxygen-evolving complex. Using real-time measurements of PSII photochemistry, here we show that during the space flight while the control strain and two D1 mutants (A250L and V160A) were inefficient in carrying out PSII activity, two other D1 mutants, I163N and A251C, performed efficient photosynthesis, and actively re-grew upon return to Earth. Mimicking the neutron irradiation component of cosmic rays on Earth yielded similar results. Experiments with I163N and A251C D1 mutants performed on ground showed that they are better able to modulate PSII excitation pressure and have higher capacity to reoxidize the QA− state of the primary electron acceptor. These results highlight the contribution of D1 conformation in relation to photosynthesis and oxygen production in space. PMID:23691201

  10. Genetic Manipulation of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Development of Strains Lacking Photosystem I for the Analysis of Mutations in Photosystem II).

    PubMed Central

    Smart, L. B.; Bowlby, N. R.; Anderson, S. L.; Sithole, I.; McIntosh, L.

    1994-01-01

    We have taken a genetic approach to eliminating the presence of photosystem I (PSI) in site-directed mutants of photosystem II (PSII) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By selecting under light-activated heterotrophic conditions, we have inactivated the psaA-psaB operon encoding the PSI reaction center proteins in cells containing deletions of the three psbA genes. We have also introduced deletions into both copies of psbD in a strain containing a mutation that inactivates psaA (ADK9). These strains, designated D1-/PSI- and D2-/PSI-, may serve as recipient strains for the incorporation of site-directed mutations in either psbA2 or psbD1. The characterization of these cells, which lack both PSI and PSII, is described. PMID:12232086

  11. Fluorescence decay kinetics of wild type and D2-H117N mutant photosystem II reaction centers isolated from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, H.G.; Want, J.; Ruffle, S.V.; Sayre, R.T.; Gustafson, T.L.

    2000-05-18

    The authors compare the chlorophyll fluorescence decay kinetics of the wild type and the D2-H117N mutant photosystem II reaction centers isolated from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The histidine residue located at site 117 on the D2 polypeptide of photosystem II is a proposed binding site for one of two peripheral accessory chlorophylls located in the reaction center complex. The peripheral accessory chlorophylls are thought to be coupled with the primary electron donor, P680, and thus involved in energy transfer with P680. The conservative replacement of the histidine residue with an asparagine residue allows the chlorophyll to remain bound to the reaction center. However, slight changes in the structural organization of the reaction center may exist that can affect the energy transfer kinetics. The authors show that the D2-H117N mutation causes a shift in the 20--30 ps lifetime component that has been associated with energy equilibration among coupled chlorophylls in the photosystem II reaction center.

  12. Biochemical characterization of photosystem I-associated light-harvesting complexes I and II isolated from state 2 cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroko; Okamuro, Akira; Minagawa, Jun; Takahashi, Yuichiro

    2014-08-01

    Two photosystems, PSI and PSII, drive electron transfer in series for oxygenic photosynthesis using light energy. To balance the activity of the two photosystems under varying light conditions, mobile antenna complexes, light-harvesting complex IIs (LHCIIs), shuttle between the two photosystems during state transitions. PSI forms a complex consisting of PSI core and its peripheral light-harvesting complex (LHCI) in plants and algae. In a previous study, we isolated a PSI-LHCI-LHCII supercomplex containing both LHCI and LHCII from state 2 cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In the present study, we isolated a PSI-LHCI-LHCII supercomplex associating with more LHCII complexes under a further optimized protocol. We determined its antenna size by three independent methods and revealed that the associated LHCIIs increased the antenna size by about 70 Chls and transferred light energy to the PSI core. Uniform labeling of total cellular proteins with (14)C indicated that the PSI-LHCI-LHCII supercomplex contains 1.85 copies of LhcbM5 and CP29 and 1.29 copies of CP26. PSI-LHCI-LHCII also stably bound 0.4 copy of ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR) that catalyzes light-induced electron transfer from PSI to NADP(+) in the presence of ferredoxin. We discuss the possible organization of these LHCIIs in the PSI-LHCI-LHCII supercomplex. PMID:24867888

  13. Disturbed excitation energy transfer in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking minor antenna complexes of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Ünlü, Caner; Cazzaniga, Stefano; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2014-12-01

    Minor light-harvesting complexes (Lhcs) CP24, CP26 and CP29 occupy a position in photosystem II (PSII c' plants between the major light-harvesting complexes LHCII and the PSII core subunits. Lack of minor Lhcs in vivo causes impairment of PSII organization, and negatively affects electron transport rates anc photoprotection capacity. Here we used picosecond-fluorescence spectroscopy to study excitation-energy transfer (EET) in thylakoid membranes isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type plants and knockout lines depleted of either two (koCP26/24 and koCP29/24) or all minor Lhcs (NoM). In the absence of all minor Lhcs. the functional connection ofLHCII to the PSII cores appears to be seriously impaired whereas the "disconnected" LHCII is substantially quenched. For both double knock-out mutants, excitation trapping in PSII is faster than in NoM thylakoids but slower than in WT thylakoids. In NoM thylakoids, the loss of all minor Lhcs is accompanied by an over-accumulation ofLHCII, suggesting a compensating response to the reduced trapping efficiency in limiting light, which leads to a photosynthetic phenotype resembling that of low-light-acclimated plants. Finally. fluorescence kinetics and biochemical results show that the missing minor complexes are not replaced by other Lhcs, implying that they are unique among the antenna subunits and crucial for the functioning and macroorganization of PSII. PMID:25291424

  14. Quenching in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking monomeric antenna proteins of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Miloslavina, Yuliya; de Bianchi, Silvia; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto; Holzwarth, Alfred R

    2011-10-21

    The minor light-harvesting complexes CP24, CP26, and CP29 have been proposed to play a key role in the zeaxanthin (Zx)-dependent high light-induced regulation (NPQ) of excitation energy in higher plants. To characterize the detailed roles of these minor complexes in NPQ and to determine their specific quenching effects we have studied the ultrafast fluorescence kinetics in knockout (ko) mutants koCP26, koCP29, and the double mutant koCP24/CP26. The data provide detailed insight into the quenching processes and the reorganization of the Photosystem (PS) II supercomplex under quenching conditions. All genotypes showed two NPQ quenching sites. Quenching site Q1 is formed by a light-induced functional detachment of parts of the PSII supercomplex and a pronounced quenching of the detached antenna parts. The antenna remaining bound to the PSII core was also quenched substantially in all genotypes under NPQ conditions (quenching site Q2) as compared with the dark-adapted state. The latter quenching was about equally strong in koCP26 and the koCP24/CP26 mutants as in the WT. Q2 quenching was substantially reduced, however, in koCP29 mutants suggesting a key role for CP29 in the total NPQ. The observed quenching effects in the knockout mutants are complicated by the fact that other minor antenna complexes do compensate in part for the lack of the CP24 and/or CP29 complexes. Their lack also causes some LHCII dissociation already in the dark. PMID:21844190

  15. Quenching in Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants Lacking Monomeric Antenna Proteins of Photosystem II*

    PubMed Central

    Miloslavina, Yuliya; de Bianchi, Silvia; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto; Holzwarth, Alfred R.

    2011-01-01

    The minor light-harvesting complexes CP24, CP26, and CP29 have been proposed to play a key role in the zeaxanthin (Zx)-dependent high light-induced regulation (NPQ) of excitation energy in higher plants. To characterize the detailed roles of these minor complexes in NPQ and to determine their specific quenching effects we have studied the ultrafast fluorescence kinetics in knockout (ko) mutants koCP26, koCP29, and the double mutant koCP24/CP26. The data provide detailed insight into the quenching processes and the reorganization of the Photosystem (PS) II supercomplex under quenching conditions. All genotypes showed two NPQ quenching sites. Quenching site Q1 is formed by a light-induced functional detachment of parts of the PSII supercomplex and a pronounced quenching of the detached antenna parts. The antenna remaining bound to the PSII core was also quenched substantially in all genotypes under NPQ conditions (quenching site Q2) as compared with the dark-adapted state. The latter quenching was about equally strong in koCP26 and the koCP24/CP26 mutants as in the WT. Q2 quenching was substantially reduced, however, in koCP29 mutants suggesting a key role for CP29 in the total NPQ. The observed quenching effects in the knockout mutants are complicated by the fact that other minor antenna complexes do compensate in part for the lack of the CP24 and/or CP29 complexes. Their lack also causes some LHCII dissociation already in the dark. PMID:21844190

  16. Mutation of Photosystem II D1 protein that empower efficient phenotypes of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii under extreme environment in space

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenic photosynthesis involves capture and conversion of light energy into chemical energy, a process fundamental to life including plant productivity on Earth. Photosynthetic electron transport is catalyzed by two photochemical reaction centres in series, photosystem II (PS II) and photosytem I (...

  17. Photosynthetic Light Utilization Efficiency, Photosystem II Heterogeneity, and Fluorescence Quenching in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Induction of the CO2-Concentrating Mechanism 1

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Stefan; Palmqvist, Kristin

    1992-01-01

    The photosynthetic light-response curve, the relative amounts of the different photosystem II (PSII) units, and fluorescence quenching were altered in an adaptive manner when CO2-enriched wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were transferred to low levels of CO2. This treatment is known to result in the induction of an energy-dependent CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that increases the internal inorganic carbon concentration and thus the photosynthetic CO2 utilization efficiency. After 3 to 6 h of low inorganic carbon treatment, several changes in the photosynthetic energy-transducing reactions appeared and proceeded for about 12 h. After this time, the fluorescence parameter variable/maximal fluorescence yield and the amounts of both PSIIα and PSIIβ (secondary quinone electron acceptor of PSII-reducing) centers had decreased, whereas the amount of PSIIβ (secondary quinone electron acceptor of PSII-nonreducing) centers had increased. The yield of noncyclic electron transport also decreased during the induction of the CCM, whereas both photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching of PSII fluorescence increased. Concurrent with these changes, the photosynthetic light-utilization efficiency also decreased significantly, largely attributed to a decline in the curvature parameter θ, the convexity of the photosynthetic light-response curve. Thus, it is concluded that the increased CO2 utilization efficiency in algal cells possessing the CCM is maintained at the cost of a reduced light utilization efficiency, most probably due to the reduced energy flow through PSII. PMID:16653047

  18. Ascorbate accumulation during sulphur deprivation and its effects on photosystem II activity and H2 production of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Valéria; Vidal-Meireles, André; Tengölics, Roland; Rákhely, Gábor; Garab, Győző; Kovács, László; Tóth, Szilvia Z

    2016-07-01

    In nature, H2 production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii serves as a safety valve during the induction of photosynthesis in anoxia, and it prevents the over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Sulphur deprivation of C. reinhardtii also triggers a complex metabolic response resulting in the induction of various stress-related genes, down-regulation of photosynthesis, the establishment of anaerobiosis and expression of active hydrogenase. Photosystem II (PSII) plays dual role in H2 production because it supplies electrons but the evolved O2 inhibits the hydrogenase. Here, we show that upon sulphur deprivation, the ascorbate content in C. reinhardtii increases about 50-fold, reaching the mM range; at this concentration, ascorbate inactivates the Mn-cluster of PSII, and afterwards, it can donate electrons to tyrozin Z(+) at a slow rate. This stage is followed by donor-side-induced photoinhibition, leading to the loss of charge separation activity in PSII and reaction centre degradation. The time point at which maximum ascorbate concentration is reached in the cell is critical for the establishment of anaerobiosis and initiation of H2 production. We also show that ascorbate influenced H2 evolution via altering the photosynthetic electron transport rather than hydrogenase activity and starch degradation. PMID:26714836

  19. Photosystem II Subunit PsbS Is Involved in the Induction of LHCSR Protein-dependent Energy Dissipation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Correa-Galvis, Viviana; Redekop, Petra; Guan, Katharine; Griess, Annika; Truong, Thuy B; Wakao, Setsuko; Niyogi, Krishna K; Jahns, Peter

    2016-08-12

    Non-photochemical quenching of excess excitation energy is an important photoprotective mechanism in photosynthetic organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a high quenching capacity is constitutively present and depends on the PsbS protein. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, non-photochemical quenching becomes activated upon high light acclimation and requires the accumulation of light harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) proteins. Expression of the PsbS protein in C. reinhardtii has not been reported yet. Here, we show that PsbS is a light-induced protein in C. reinhardtii, whose accumulation under high light is further controlled by CO2 availability. PsbS accumulated after several hours of high light illumination at low CO2 At high CO2, however, PsbS was only transiently expressed under high light and was degraded after 1 h of high light exposure. PsbS accumulation correlated with an enhanced non-photochemical quenching capacity in high light-acclimated cells grown at low CO2 However, PsbS could not compensate for the function of LHCSR in an LHCSR-deficient mutant. Knockdown of PsbS accumulation led to reduction of both non-photochemical quenching capacity and LHCSR3 accumulation. Our data suggest that PsbS is essential for the activation of non-photochemical quenching in C. reinhardtii, possibly by promoting conformational changes required for activation of LHCSR3-dependent quenching in the antenna of photosystem II. PMID:27358399

  20. A Nucleus-Encoded Chloroplast Protein Regulated by Iron Availability Governs Expression of the Photosystem I Subunit PsaA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre-Legendre, Linnka; Choquet, Yves; Kuras, Richard; Loubéry, Sylvain; Douchi, Damien; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The biogenesis of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain in the thylakoid membranes requires the concerted expression of genes in the chloroplast and the nucleus. Chloroplast gene expression is subjected to anterograde control by a battery of nucleus-encoded proteins that are imported in the chloroplast, where they mostly intervene at posttranscriptional steps. Using a new genetic screen, we identify a nuclear mutant that is required for expression of the PsaA subunit of photosystem I (PSI) in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This mutant is affected in the stability and translation of psaA messenger RNA. The corresponding gene, TRANSLATION OF psaA1 (TAA1), encodes a large protein with two domains that are thought to mediate RNA binding: an array of octatricopeptide repeats (OPR) and an RNA-binding domain abundant in apicomplexans (RAP) domain. We show that as expected for its function, TAA1 is localized in the chloroplast. It was previously shown that when mixotrophic cultures of C. reinhardtii (which use both photosynthesis and mitochondrial respiration for growth) are shifted to conditions of iron limitation, there is a strong decrease in the accumulation of PSI and that this is rapidly reversed when iron is resupplied. Under these conditions, TAA1 protein is also down-regulated through a posttranscriptional mechanism and rapidly reaccumulates when iron is restored. These observations reveal a concerted regulation of PSI and of TAA1 in response to iron availability. PMID:25673777

  1. Molecular and biophysical analysis of herbicide-resistant mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: structure-function relationship of the photosystem II D1 polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, J M; Pfister, K; Rahire, M; Togasaki, R K; Mets, L; Rochaix, J D

    1989-01-01

    Plants and green algae can develop resistance to herbicides that block photosynthesis by competing with quinones in binding to the chloroplast photosystem II (PSII) D1 polypeptide. Because numerous herbicide-resistant mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with different patterns of resistance to such herbicides are readily isolated, this system provides a powerful tool for examining the interactions of herbicides and endogenous quinones with the photosynthetic membrane, and for studying the structure-function relationship of the D1 protein with respect to PSII electron transfer. Here we report the results of DNA sequence analysis of the D1 gene from four mutants not previously characterized at the molecular level, the correlation of changes in specific amino acid residues of the D1 protein with levels of resistance to the herbicides atrizine, diuron, and bromacil, and the kinetics of fluorescence decay for each mutant, which show that changes at two different amino acid residues dramatically slow PSII electron transfer. Our analyses, which identify a region of 57 amino acids of the D1 polypeptide involved in herbicide binding and which define a D1 binding niche for the second quinone acceptor, QB of PSII, provide a strong basis of support for structural and functional models of the PSII reaction center. PMID:2535507

  2. Enhanced excision repair and lack of PSII activity contribute to higher UV survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells in dark.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Vishalsingh R; Vyawahare, Aniket; Bhattacharjee, Swapan K; Rao, Basuthkar J

    2015-03-01

    Plant cells are known to differentiate their responses to stress depending up on the light conditions. We observed that UVC sensitive phenotype of light grown asynchronous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii culture (Light culture: LC) can be converted to relatively resistant form by transfer to dark condition (Dark culture: DC) before UVC exposure. The absence of photosystem II (PSII) function, by either atrazine treatment in wild type or in D1 (psbA) null mutant, conferred UV protection even in LC. We provide an indirect support for involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling by showing higher UV survival on exposures to mild dose of H2O2 or Methyl Viologen. Circadian trained culture also showed a rhythmic variation in UV sensitivity in response to alternating light-dark (12 h:12 h) entrainment, with maximum UV survival at the end of 12 h dark and minimum at the end of 12 h light. This rhythm failed to maintain in "free running" conditions, making it a non-circadian phenotype. Moreover, atrazine strongly inhibited rhythmic UV sensitivity and conferred a constitutively high resistance, without affecting internal circadian rhythm marker expression. Dampening of UV sensitivity rhythm in Thymine-dimer excision repair mutant (cc-888) suggested the involvement of DNA repair in this phenomenon. DNA excision repair (ER) assays in cell-free extracts revealed that dark incubated cells exhibit higher ER compared to those growing in light, underscoring the role of ER in conferring differential UV sensitivity in dark versus light incubation. We suggest that multiple factors such as ROS changes triggered by differences in PSII activity, concomitant with differential ER efficiency collectively contribute to light-dark (12 h: 12 h) rhythmicity in C. reinhardtii UV sensitivity. PMID:25660990

  3. Lack of mutagenic activity of crude and refined oils in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Vandermeulen, J.H.; Lee, R.W.

    1986-02-01

    Over the past several years, an increasing number of studies have presented evidence for the mutagenicity and/or carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. These most usually were obtained with individual hydrocarbons, and using either specialized bacterial strains (e.g. Ames' strains) or mammalian tissue preparations. While providing important insights into mutagenic mechanisms involving xenobiotic compounds, the relevance of these studies to the natural aquatic environment is not always evident. This applies especially to the mutagenic potential of water-soluble fractions of hydrocarbon mixtures, as in whole oils or in complex distillate fractions, and involving typical marine biota. Accordingly, the authors have examined the mutagenic potential of the water-soluble fractions of four oils (two crude oils and two refined oils) using the unicellular haploid alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  4. Apparent lack of an O/sup 6/-methylguanine repair mechanism in the unicellular alga, Chlamydomonas ReinhardtII

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, B.; Small, G.D.

    1986-05-01

    O/sup 6/-Methylguanine (O/sup 6/meG) is the presumed major mutagenic lesion formed by the treatment of DNA with methylating agents such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). The repair of this lesion has been shown to involve a protein which selectively removes the O/sup 6/-methyl group by transferring the group to one of the protein's cysteinyl residues. Several prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms have this O/sup 6/-meG transferase (O/sup 6/MGT) activity, while other (e.g., yeast) lack any apparent O/sup 6/MGT. In some organisms, the O/sup 6/MGT is inducible in response to sublethal doses of methylating agent. The authors have examined Chlamydomonas for such a repair system. This is the first report of a search for O/sup 6/meG repair in a plant system. O/sup 6/meG repair was examined on three levels: in vivo removal of O/sup 6/meG, inducible repair of O/sup 6/meG, the presence of O/sup 6/MGT activity in cellular extracts. They observed no obvious removal of O/sup 6/meG from cellular DNA at various times (up to 30 hours) after treatment of cells with MNNG. The authors were unable to detect any inducible repair of O/sup 6/meG upon pretreatment of cells with sublethal doses of MNNG. Finally, they observed no apparent O/sup 6/MGT activity in cell-free extracts prepared two different ways following the protocols used in E. coli and in rat liver. These results suggest Chlamydomonas apparently lacks a repair mechanism for O/sup 6/meG.

  5. Effects of the lack of phosphatidylglycerol on the donor side of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Isamu; Mizusawa, Naoki; Ohashi, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Masami; Wada, Hajime

    2007-07-01

    Our previous studies with the pgsA mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (hereafter termed pgsA mutant), which is defective for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), revealed an important role for PG in the electron acceptor side of photosystem II (PSII), especially in the electron transport between plastoquinones Q(A) and Q(B). This study now shows that PG also plays an important role in the electron donor side of PSII, namely, the oxygen-evolving system. Analyses of purified PSII complexes indicated that PSII from PG-depleted pgsA mutant cells sustained only approximately 50% of the oxygen-evolving activity compared to wild-type cells. Dissociation of the extrinsic proteins PsbO, PsbV, and PsbU, which are required for stabilization of the manganese (Mn) cluster, followed by the release of a Mn atom, was observed in PSII of the PG-depleted mutant cells. The released PsbO rebound to PSII when PG was added back to the PG-depleted mutant cells, even when de novo protein synthesis was inhibited. Changes in photosynthetic activity of the PG-depleted pgsA mutant cells induced by heat treatment or dark incubation resembled those of DeltapsbO, DeltapsbV, and DeltapsbU mutant cells. These results suggest that PG plays an important role in binding extrinsic proteins required for sustaining a functional Mn cluster on the donor side of PSII. PMID:17513482

  6. Effect of chromium oxide (III) nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species and photosystem II activity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristina Henning da; Perreault, François; Oukarroum, Abdallah; Melegari, Sílvia Pedroso; Popovic, Radovan; Matias, William Gerson

    2016-09-15

    With the growth of nanotechnology and widespread use of nanomaterials, there is an increasing risk of environmental contamination by nanomaterials. However, the potential implications of such environmental contamination are hard to evaluate since the toxicity of nanomaterials if often not well characterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a chromium-based nanoparticle, Cr2O3-NP, used in a wide diversity of industrial processes and commercial products, on the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The deleterious impacts of Cr2O3-NP were characterized using cell density measurements, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), esterase enzymes activity, and photosystem II electron transport as indicators of toxicity. Cr2O3-NP exposure inhibited culture growth and significantly lowered cellular Chlorophyll a content. From cell density measurements, EC50 values of 2.05±0.20 and 1.35±0.06gL(-1) Cr2O3-NP were obtained after 24 and 72h of exposure, respectively. In addition, ROS levels were increased to 160.24±2.47% and 59.91±0.15% of the control value after 24 and 72h of exposition to 10gL(-1) Cr2O3-NP. At 24h of exposure, the esterase activity increased to 160.24% of control value, revealing a modification of the short-term metabolic response of algae to Cr2O3-NP exposure. In conclusion, the metabolism of C. reinhardtii was the most sensitive to Cr2O3-NP after 24h of treatment. PMID:26803219

  7. The ultrastructure of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant strain lacking phytoene synthase resembles that of a colorless alga.

    PubMed

    Inwood, William; Yoshihara, Corinne; Zalpuri, Reena; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Kustu, Sydney

    2008-11-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains lacking phytoene synthase, the first enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis, are white. They lack carotenoid pigments, have very low levels of chlorophyll, and can grow only heterotrophically in the dark. Our electron and fluorescence microscopic studies showed that such a mutant strain (lts1-204) had a proliferated plastid envelope membrane but no stacks of thylakoid membranes within the plastid. It accumulated cytoplasmic compartments that appeared to be autophagous vacuoles filled with membranous material. The lts1 mutants apparently lacked pyrenoid bodies, which normally house ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), and accumulated many starch granules. Although these mutant strains cannot synthesize the carotenoid and carotenoid-derived pigments present in the phototactic organelle (eyespot), the mutant we examined made a vestigial eyespot that was disorganized and often mislocalized to the posterior end of the cell. The absence of a pyrenoid body, the accumulation of starch, and the disorganization of the eyespot may all result from the absence of thylakoids. The ultrastructure of lts1 mutant strains is similar to but distinct from that of previously described white and yellow mutant strains of C. reinhardtii and is similar to that of naturally colorless algae of the Polytoma group. PMID:19825593

  8. Photosystem II Peripheral Accessory Chlorophyll Mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochemical Characterization and Sensitivity to Photo-Inhibition12

    PubMed Central

    Ruffle, Stuart V.; Wang, Jun; Johnston, Heather G.; Gustafson, Terry L.; Hutchison, Ronald S.; Minagawa, Jun; Crofts, Anthony; Sayre, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to the four chlorophylls (Chls) involved in primary charge separation, the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center polypeptides, D1 and D2, coordinate a pair of symmetry-related, peripheral accessory Chls. These Chls are axially coordinated by the D1-H118 and D2-H117 residues and are in close association with the proximal Chl antennae proteins, CP43 and CP47. To gain insight into the function(s) of each of the peripheral Chls, we generated site-specific mutations of the amino acid residues that coordinate these Chls and characterized their energy and electron transfer properties. Our results demonstrate that D1-H118 and D2-H117 mutants differ with respect to: (a) their relative numbers of functional PSII complexes, (b) their relative ability to stabilize charge-separated states, (c) light-harvesting efficiency, and (d) their sensitivity to photo-inhibition. The D2-H117N and D2-H117Q mutants had reduced levels of functional PSII complexes and oxygen evolution capacity as well as reduced light-harvesting efficiencies relative to wild-type cells. In contrast, the D1-H118Q mutant was capable of near wild-type rates of oxygen evolution at saturating light intensities. The D1-H118Q mutant also was substantially more resistant to photo-inhibition than wild type. This reduced sensitivity to photo-inhibition is presumably associated with a reduced light-harvesting efficiency in this mutant. Finally, it is noted that the PSII peripheral accessory Chls have similarities to a to a pair of Chls also present in the PSI reaction center complex. PMID:11598237

  9. Alteration of Proteins and Pigments Influence the Function of Photosystem I under Iron Deficiency from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Yadavalli, Venkateswarlu; Jolley, Craig C.; Malleda, Chandramouli; Thangaraj, Balakumar; Fromme, Petra; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential micronutrient for all organisms because it is a component of enzyme cofactors that catalyze redox reactions in fundamental metabolic processes. Even though iron is abundant on earth, it is often present in the insoluble ferric [Fe (III)] state, leaving many surface environments Fe-limited. The haploid green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is used as a model organism for studying eukaryotic photosynthesis. This study explores structural and functional changes in PSI-LHCI supercomplexes under Fe deficiency as the eukaryotic photosynthetic apparatus adapts to Fe deficiency. Results 77K emission spectra and sucrose density gradient data show that PSI and LHCI subunits are affected under iron deficiency conditions. The visible circular dichroism (CD) spectra associated with strongly-coupled chlorophyll dimers increases in intensity. The change in CD signals of pigments originates from the modification of interactions between pigment molecules. Evidence from sucrose gradients and non-denaturing (green) gels indicates that PSI-LHCI levels were reduced after cells were grown for 72 h in Fe-deficient medium. Ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy suggests that red-shifted pigments in the PSI-LHCI antenna were lost during Fe stress. Further, denaturing gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis reveals that levels of the PSI subunits PsaC and PsaD decreased, while PsaE was completely absent after Fe stress. The light harvesting complexes were also susceptible to iron deficiency, with Lhca1 and Lhca9 showing the most dramatic decreases. These changes in the number and composition of PSI-LHCI supercomplexes may be caused by reactive oxygen species, which increase under Fe deficiency conditions. Conclusions Fe deficiency induces rapid reduction of the levels of photosynthetic pigments due to a decrease in chlorophyll synthesis. Chlorophyll is important not only as a light-harvesting pigment, but also has a structural role, particularly in the

  10. Ultrafast transient absorption studies on photosystem I reaction centers from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 2: mutations near the P700 reaction center chlorophylls provide new insight into the nature of the primary electron donor.

    PubMed

    Holzwarth, Alfred R; Müller, Marc G; Niklas, Jens; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2006-01-15

    The energy transfer and charge separation kinetics in several core Photosystem I particles of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with point mutations around the PA and PB reaction center chlorophylls (Chls) have been studied using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy in the femtosecond to nanosecond time range to characterize the influence on the early electron transfer processes. The data have been analyzed in terms of kinetic compartment models. The adequate description of the transient absorption kinetics requires three different radical pairs in the time range up to approximately 100 ps. Also a charge recombination process from the first radical pair back to the excited state is present in all the mutants, as already shown previously for the wild-type (Müller, M. G., J. Niklas, W. Lubitz, and A. R. Holzwarth. 2003. Biophys. J. 85:3899-3922; and Holzwarth, A. R., M. G. Müller, J. Niklas, and W. Lubitz. 2005. J. Phys. Chem. B. 109:5903-59115). In all mutants, the primary charge separation occurs with the same effective rate constant within the error limits as in the wild-type (>350 ns(-1)), which implies an intrinsic rate constant of charge separation of <1 ps(-1). The rate constant of the secondary electron transfer process is slowed down by a factor of approximately 2 in the mutant B-H656C, which lacks the ligand to the central metal of Chl PB. For the mutant A-T739V, which breaks the hydrogen bond to the keto carbonyl of Chl PA, only a slight slowing down of the secondary electron transfer is observed. Finally for mutant A-W679A, which has the Trp near the PA Chl replaced, either no pronounced effect or, at best, a slight increase on the secondary electron transfer rate constants is observed. The effective charge recombination rate constant is modified in all mutants to some extent, with the strongest effect observed in mutant B-H656C. Our data strongly suggest that the Chls of the PA and PB pair, constituting what is traditionally called the "primary electron

  11. Loss of inhibition by formate in newly constructed photosystem II D1 mutants, D1-R257E and D1-R257M, of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Xiong, J; Minagawa, J; Crofts, A; Govindjee

    1998-07-20

    Formate is known to cause significant inhibition in the electron and proton transfers in photosystem II (PSII); this inhibition is uniquely reversed by bicarbonate. It has been suggested that bicarbonate functions by providing ligands to the non-heme iron and by facilitating protonation of the secondary plastoquinone QB. Numerous lines of evidence indicate an intimate relationship of bicarbonate and formate binding of PSII. To investigate the potential amino acid binding environment of bicarbonate/formate in the QB niche, arginine 257 of the PSII D1 polypeptide in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was mutated into a glutamate (D1-R257E) and a methionine (DQ-R257M). The two mutants share the following characteristics. (1) Both have a drastically reduced sensitivity to formate. (2) A larger fraction of QA- persists after flash illumination, which indicates an altered equilibrium constant of the reaction QA-QB<-->QA QB-, in the direction of [QA-], or a larger fraction of non-QB centers. However, there appears to be no significant difference in the rate of electron transfer from QA- to QB. (3) The overall rate of oxygen evolution is significantly reduced, most likely due to changes in the equilibrium constant on the electron acceptor side of PSII or due to a larger fraction in non-QB centers. Additional effects on the donor side cannot yet be excluded. (4) The binding affinity for the herbicide DCMU is unaltered. (5) The mutants grow photosynthetically, but at a decreased (approximately 70% of the wild type) level. (6) The Fo level was elevated (approximately 40-50%) which could be due to a decrease in the excitation energy transfer from the antenna to the PSII reaction center, and/or to an increased level of [QA-] in the dark. (7) A decreased (approximately 10%) ratio of F685 (mainly from CP43) and F695 (mainly from CP47) to F715 (mainly from PSI) emission bands at 77 K suggests a change in the antenna complex. Taken together these results lead to

  12. Altered Fermentative Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutants Lacking Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Both Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Catalanotti, C.; Dubini, A.; Subramanian, V.; Yang, W. Q.; Magneschi, L.; Mus, F.; Seibert, M.; Posewitz, M. C.; Grossman, A. R.

    2012-02-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, often experiences hypoxic/anoxic soil conditions that activate fermentation metabolism. We isolated three Chlamydomonas mutants disrupted for the pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1) gene; the encoded PFL1 protein catalyzes a major fermentative pathway in wild-type Chlamydomonas cells. When the pfl1 mutants were subjected to dark fermentative conditions, they displayed an increased flux of pyruvate to lactate, elevated pyruvate decarboxylation, ethanol accumulation, diminished pyruvate oxidation by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and lowered H2 production. The pfl1-1 mutant also accumulated high intracellular levels of lactate, succinate, alanine, malate, and fumarate. To further probe the system, we generated a double mutant (pfl1-1 adh1) that is unable to synthesize both formate and ethanol. This strain, like the pfl1 mutants, secreted lactate, but it also exhibited a significant increase in the levels of extracellular glycerol, acetate, and intracellular reduced sugars and a decrease in dark, fermentative H2 production. Whereas wild-type Chlamydomonas fermentation primarily produces formate and ethanol, the double mutant reroutes glycolytic carbon to lactate and glycerol. Although the metabolic adjustments observed in the mutants facilitate NADH reoxidation and sustained glycolysis under dark, anoxic conditions, the observed changes could not have been predicted given our current knowledge of the regulation of fermentation metabolism.

  13. The Arabidopsis nox mutant lacking carotene hydroxylase activity reveals a critical role for xanthophylls in photosystem I biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Piques, Maria; Ronzani, Michela; Molesini, Barbara; Alboresi, Alessandro; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    Carotenes, and their oxygenated derivatives xanthophylls, are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus. They contribute to the assembly of photosynthetic complexes and participate in light absorption and chloroplast photoprotection. Here, we studied the role of xanthophylls, as distinct from that of carotenes, by characterizing a no xanthophylls (nox) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which was obtained by combining mutations targeting the four carotenoid hydroxylase genes. nox plants retained α- and β-carotenes but were devoid in xanthophylls. The phenotype included depletion of light-harvesting complex (LHC) subunits and impairment of nonphotochemical quenching, two effects consistent with the location of xanthophylls in photosystem II antenna, but also a decreased efficiency of photosynthetic electron transfer, photosensitivity, and lethality in soil. Biochemical analysis revealed that the nox mutant was specifically depleted in photosystem I function due to a severe deficiency in PsaA/B subunits. While the stationary level of psaA/B transcripts showed no major differences between genotypes, the stability of newly synthesized PsaA/B proteins was decreased and translation of psaA/B mRNA was impaired in nox with respect to wild-type plants. We conclude that xanthophylls, besides their role in photoprotection and LHC assembly, are also needed for photosystem I core translation and stability, thus making these compounds indispensable for autotrophic growth. PMID:23396829

  14. Photosystem II Repair and Plant Immunity: Lessons Learned from Arabidopsis Mutant Lacking the THYLAKOID LUMEN PROTEIN 18.3

    PubMed Central

    Järvi, Sari; Isojärvi, Janne; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Mamedov, Fikret; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts play an important role in the cellular sensing of abiotic and biotic stress. Signals originating from photosynthetic light reactions, in the form of redox and pH changes, accumulation of reactive oxygen and electrophile species or stromal metabolites are of key importance in chloroplast retrograde signaling. These signals initiate plant acclimation responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the molecular responses activated by rapid fluctuations in growth light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and the tlp18.3 mutant plants, the latter showing a stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light conditions (Biochem. J, 406, 415–425). Expression pattern of genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain did not differ between fluctuating and constant light conditions, neither in wild type nor in tlp18.3 plants, and the composition of the thylakoid membrane protein complexes likewise remained unchanged. Nevertheless, the fluctuating light conditions repressed in wild-type plants a broad spectrum of genes involved in immune responses, which likely resulted from shade-avoidance responses and their intermixing with hormonal signaling. On the contrary, in the tlp18.3 mutant plants there was an imperfect repression of defense-related transcripts upon growth under fluctuating light, possibly by signals originating from minor malfunction of the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle, which directly or indirectly modulated the transcript abundances of genes related to light perception via phytochromes. Consequently, a strong allocation of resources to defense reactions in the tlp18.3 mutant plants presumably results in the stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light. PMID:27064270

  15. Photosystem II Repair and Plant Immunity: Lessons Learned from Arabidopsis Mutant Lacking the THYLAKOID LUMEN PROTEIN 18.3.

    PubMed

    Järvi, Sari; Isojärvi, Janne; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Mamedov, Fikret; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts play an important role in the cellular sensing of abiotic and biotic stress. Signals originating from photosynthetic light reactions, in the form of redox and pH changes, accumulation of reactive oxygen and electrophile species or stromal metabolites are of key importance in chloroplast retrograde signaling. These signals initiate plant acclimation responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the molecular responses activated by rapid fluctuations in growth light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and the tlp18.3 mutant plants, the latter showing a stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light conditions (Biochem. J, 406, 415-425). Expression pattern of genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain did not differ between fluctuating and constant light conditions, neither in wild type nor in tlp18.3 plants, and the composition of the thylakoid membrane protein complexes likewise remained unchanged. Nevertheless, the fluctuating light conditions repressed in wild-type plants a broad spectrum of genes involved in immune responses, which likely resulted from shade-avoidance responses and their intermixing with hormonal signaling. On the contrary, in the tlp18.3 mutant plants there was an imperfect repression of defense-related transcripts upon growth under fluctuating light, possibly by signals originating from minor malfunction of the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle, which directly or indirectly modulated the transcript abundances of genes related to light perception via phytochromes. Consequently, a strong allocation of resources to defense reactions in the tlp18.3 mutant plants presumably results in the stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light. PMID:27064270

  16. Manganese deficiency in Chlamydomonas results in loss of photosystem II and MnSOD function, sensitivity to peroxides, and secondary phosphorus and iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Allen, Michael D; Kropat, Janette; Tottey, Stephen; Del Campo, José A; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-01-01

    For photoheterotrophic growth, a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell requires at least 1.7 x 10(7) manganese ions in the medium. At lower manganese ion concentrations (typically <0.5 microm), cells divide more slowly, accumulate less chlorophyll, and the culture reaches stationary phase at lower cell density. Below 0.1 microm supplemental manganese ion in the medium, the cells are photosynthetically defective. This is accompanied by decreased abundance of D1, which binds the Mn(4)Ca cluster, and release of the OEE proteins from the membrane. Assay of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) indicates loss of activity of two isozymes in proportion to the Mn deficiency. The expression of MSD3 through MSD5, encoding various isoforms of the MnSODs, is up-regulated severalfold in Mn-deficient cells, but neither expression nor activity of the plastid Fe-containing superoxide dismutase is changed, which contrasts with the dramatically increased MSD3 expression and plastid MnSOD activity in Fe-deficient cells. Mn-deficient cells are selectively sensitive to peroxide but not methyl viologen or Rose Bengal, and GPXs, APX, and MSRA2 genes (encoding glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and methionine sulfoxide reductase 2) are slightly up-regulated. Elemental analysis indicates that the Mn, Fe, and P contents of cells in the Mn-deficient cultures were reduced in proportion to the deficiency. A natural resistance-associated macrophage protein homolog and one of five metal tolerance proteins were induced in Mn-deficient cells but not in Fe-deficient cells, suggesting that the corresponding gene products may be components of a Mn(2+)-selective assimilation pathway. PMID:17085511

  17. Manganese Deficiency in Chlamydomonas Results in Loss of Photosystem II and MnSOD Function, Sensitivity to Peroxides, and Secondary Phosphorus and Iron Deficiency1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Michael D.; Kropat, Janette; Tottey, Stephen; Del Campo, José A.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2007-01-01

    For photoheterotrophic growth, a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell requires at least 1.7 × 107 manganese ions in the medium. At lower manganese ion concentrations (typically <0.5 μm), cells divide more slowly, accumulate less chlorophyll, and the culture reaches stationary phase at lower cell density. Below 0.1 μm supplemental manganese ion in the medium, the cells are photosynthetically defective. This is accompanied by decreased abundance of D1, which binds the Mn4Ca cluster, and release of the OEE proteins from the membrane. Assay of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) indicates loss of activity of two isozymes in proportion to the Mn deficiency. The expression of MSD3 through MSD5, encoding various isoforms of the MnSODs, is up-regulated severalfold in Mn-deficient cells, but neither expression nor activity of the plastid Fe-containing superoxide dismutase is changed, which contrasts with the dramatically increased MSD3 expression and plastid MnSOD activity in Fe-deficient cells. Mn-deficient cells are selectively sensitive to peroxide but not methyl viologen or Rose Bengal, and GPXs, APX, and MSRA2 genes (encoding glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and methionine sulfoxide reductase 2) are slightly up-regulated. Elemental analysis indicates that the Mn, Fe, and P contents of cells in the Mn-deficient cultures were reduced in proportion to the deficiency. A natural resistance-associated macrophage protein homolog and one of five metal tolerance proteins were induced in Mn-deficient cells but not in Fe-deficient cells, suggesting that the corresponding gene products may be components of a Mn2+-selective assimilation pathway. PMID:17085511

  18. Characterization of a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 double mutant lacking the CyanoP and Ycf48 proteins of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Simon A; Eaton-Rye, Julian J

    2015-05-01

    Homologs of the Photosystem II (PS II) subunit PsbP are found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. In higher plants, PsbP is associated with mature PS II centers, but in cyanobacteria, the homologous CyanoP protein appears sub-stoichiometric to PS II. We have investigated the role of CyanoP by characterizing knockout mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Removal of CyanoP resulted in changes to phycobilisome coupling and energy transfer to PS II, but the function of PS II itself remained similar to wild type. We therefore investigated the hypothesis that CyanoP is involved in the biogenesis or repair of PS II by creating a double mutant lacking both CyanoP and the PS II assembly factor Ycf48. This strain exhibited an additive reduction in the amplitude of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence induction relative to either of the single mutants but displayed increased oxygen evolution, slight increases in PS II monomer and dimer levels, and a reduction in accumulation of an early PS II assembly complex containing CP47, compared to the ΔYcf48 strain. PMID:25800516

  19. Altered Fermentative Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutants Lacking Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Both Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Alcohol Dehydrogenase[W

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Dubini, Alexandra; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Yang, Wenqiang; Magneschi, Leonardo; Mus, Florence; Seibert, Michael; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, often experiences hypoxic/anoxic soil conditions that activate fermentation metabolism. We isolated three Chlamydomonas mutants disrupted for the pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1) gene; the encoded PFL1 protein catalyzes a major fermentative pathway in wild-type Chlamydomonas cells. When the pfl1 mutants were subjected to dark fermentative conditions, they displayed an increased flux of pyruvate to lactate, elevated pyruvate decarboxylation, ethanol accumulation, diminished pyruvate oxidation by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and lowered H2 production. The pfl1-1 mutant also accumulated high intracellular levels of lactate, succinate, alanine, malate, and fumarate. To further probe the system, we generated a double mutant (pfl1-1 adh1) that is unable to synthesize both formate and ethanol. This strain, like the pfl1 mutants, secreted lactate, but it also exhibited a significant increase in the levels of extracellular glycerol, acetate, and intracellular reduced sugars and a decrease in dark, fermentative H2 production. Whereas wild-type Chlamydomonas fermentation primarily produces formate and ethanol, the double mutant reroutes glycolytic carbon to lactate and glycerol. Although the metabolic adjustments observed in the mutants facilitate NADH reoxidation and sustained glycolysis under dark, anoxic conditions, the observed changes could not have been predicted given our current knowledge of the regulation of fermentation metabolism. PMID:22353371

  20. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2010-09-01

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  1. Iron economy in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Glaesener, Anne G.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.

    2013-01-01

    While research on iron nutrition in plants has largely focused on iron-uptake pathways, photosynthetic microbes such as the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii provide excellent experimental systems for understanding iron metabolism at the subcellular level. Several paradigms in iron homeostasis have been established in this alga, including photosystem remodeling in the chloroplast and preferential retention of some pathways and key iron-dependent proteins in response to suboptimal iron supply. This review presents our current understanding of iron homeostasis in Chlamydomonas, with specific attention on characterized responses to changes in iron supply, like iron-deficiency. An overview of frequently used methods for the investigation of iron-responsive gene expression, physiology and metabolism is also provided, including preparation of media, the effect of cell size, cell density and strain choice on quantitative measurements and methods for the determination of metal content and assessing the effect of iron supply on photosynthetic performance. PMID:24032036

  2. The Arabidopsis nox Mutant Lacking Carotene Hydroxylase Activity Reveals a Critical Role for Xanthophylls in Photosystem I Biogenesis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Osto, Luca; Piques, Maria; Ronzani, Michela; Molesini, Barbara; Alboresi, Alessandro; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Carotenes, and their oxygenated derivatives xanthophylls, are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus. They contribute to the assembly of photosynthetic complexes and participate in light absorption and chloroplast photoprotection. Here, we studied the role of xanthophylls, as distinct from that of carotenes, by characterizing a no xanthophylls (nox) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which was obtained by combining mutations targeting the four carotenoid hydroxylase genes. nox plants retained α- and β-carotenes but were devoid in xanthophylls. The phenotype included depletion of light-harvesting complex (LHC) subunits and impairment of nonphotochemical quenching, two effects consistent with the location of xanthophylls in photosystem II antenna, but also a decreased efficiency of photosynthetic electron transfer, photosensitivity, and lethality in soil. Biochemical analysis revealed that the nox mutant was specifically depleted in photosystem I function due to a severe deficiency in PsaA/B subunits. While the stationary level of psaA/B transcripts showed no major differences between genotypes, the stability of newly synthesized PsaA/B proteins was decreased and translation of psaA/B mRNA was impaired in nox with respect to wild-type plants. We conclude that xanthophylls, besides their role in photoprotection and LHC assembly, are also needed for photosystem I core translation and stability, thus making these compounds indispensable for autotrophic growth. PMID:23396829

  3. Lack of isocitrate lyase in Chlamydomonas leads to changes in carbon metabolism and in the response to oxidative stress under mixotrophic growth.

    PubMed

    Plancke, Charlotte; Vigeolas, Helene; Höhner, Ricarda; Roberty, Stephane; Emonds-Alt, Barbara; Larosa, Véronique; Willamme, Remi; Duby, Franceline; Onga Dhali, David; Thonart, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Franck, Fabrice; Eppe, Gauthier; Cardol, Pierre; Hippler, Michael; Remacle, Claire

    2014-02-01

    Isocitrate lyase is a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle. This cycle plays an essential role in cell growth on acetate, and is important for gluconeogenesis as it bypasses the two oxidative steps of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in which CO₂ is evolved. In this paper, a null icl mutant of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is described. Our data show that isocitrate lyase is required for growth in darkness on acetate (heterotrophic conditions), as well as for efficient growth in the light when acetate is supplied (mixotrophic conditions). Under these latter conditions, reduced acetate assimilation and concomitant reduced respiration occur, and biomass composition analysis reveals an increase in total fatty acid content, including neutral lipids and free fatty acids. Quantitative proteomic analysis by ¹⁴N/¹⁵N labelling was performed, and more than 1600 proteins were identified. These analyses reveal a strong decrease in the amounts of enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis in parallel with a shift of the TCA cycle towards amino acid synthesis, accompanied by an increase in free amino acids. The decrease of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis, as well as the decrease in enzymes involved in β-oxidation of fatty acids in the icl mutant are probably major factors that contribute to remodelling of lipids in the icl mutant. These modifications are probably responsible for the elevation of the response to oxidative stress, with significantly augmented levels and activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, and increased resistance to paraquat. PMID:24286363

  4. The Requirement for Carotenoids in the Assembly and Function of the Photosynthetic Complexes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Santabarbara, Stefano; Casazza, Anna Paola; Ali, Kulsam; Economou, Chloe K.; Wannathong, Thanyanun; Zito, Francesca; Redding, Kevin E.; Rappaport, Fabrice; Purton, Saul

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the importance of carotenoids on the accumulation and function of the photosynthetic apparatus using a mutant of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lacking carotenoids. The FN68 mutant is deficient in phytoene synthase, the first enzyme of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, and therefore is unable to synthesize any carotenes and xanthophylls. We find that FN68 is unable to accumulate the light-harvesting complexes associated with both photosystems as well as the RC subunits of photosystem II. The accumulation of the cytochrome b6f complex is also strongly reduced to a level approximately 10% that of the wild type. However, the residual fraction of assembled cytochrome b6f complexes exhibits single-turnover electron transfer kinetics comparable to those observed in the wild-type strain. Surprisingly, photosystem I is assembled to significant levels in the absence of carotenoids in FN68 and possesses functional properties that are very similar to those of the wild-type complex. PMID:23161889

  5. Functional characterization of mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacking short domains within the large, lumen-exposed loop of the chlorophyll protein CP47 in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Gleiter, H M; Haag, E; Shen, J R; Eaton-Rye, J J; Inoue, Y; Vermaas, W F; Renger, G

    1994-10-11

    Several autotrophic mutant strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 carrying short deletions or a single-site mutation within the large, lumen-exposed loop (loop E) of the chlorophyll a-binding photosystem II core protein, CP47, are analyzed for their functional properties by measuring the flash-induced pattern of thermoluminescence, oxygen yield, and fluorescence quantum yield. A physiological and biochemical characterization of these mutant strains has been given in two previous reports [Eaton-Rye, J.J., & Vermaas, W.F.J. (1991) Plant Mol. Biol. 17, 1165-1177; Haag, E., Eaton-Rye, J.J., Renger, G., & Vermaas, S. F.J. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 4444-4454]. The results of the present study show that deletion of charged and conserved amino acids in a region roughly located between residues 370 and 390 decreases the binding affinity of the extrinsic PS II-O protein to photosystem II. Marked differences with PSII-O deletion mutants are observed with respect to Ca2+ requirement and the flash-induced pattern of oxygen evolution. Under conditions where a sufficient light activation is provided, the psbB mutants assayed in this study reveal normal S-state parameters and lifetimes. The results bear two basic implications: (i) the manganese involved in water oxidation can still be bound in a functionally normal or only slightly distorted manner, and (ii) the binding of the extrinsic PS II-O protein to photosystem II is impaired in mutants carrying a deletion in the domain between residues 370 and 390, but the presence of the PS II-O protein is still of functional relevance for the PS II complex, e.g., for maintenance of a high-affinity binding site for Ca2+ and/or involvement during the process of photoactivation. PMID:7918426

  6. Salinity affects the photoacclimation of Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl UWO241.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Hüner, Norman P A; Minagawa, Jun

    2009-03-01

    Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl UWO241, a natural variant of C. raudensis, is deficient in state transitions. Its habitat, the deepest layer of Lake Bonney in Antarctica, features low irradiance, low temperature, and high salinity. Although psychrophily and low-light acclimation of this green alga has been described, very little information is available on the effect of salinity. Here, we demonstrate that this psychrophile is halotolerant, not halophilic, and it shows energy redistribution between photosystem I and II based on energy spillover under low-salt conditions. Furthermore, we revealed that C. raudensis exhibits higher non-photochemical quenching in comparison with the mesophile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, when grown with low-salt, which is due to the lower proton conductivity across the thylakoid membrane. Significance of the C. raudensis UWO241 traits found in the low salinity culture are implicated with their natural habitats, including the high salinity and extremely stable light environments. PMID:19137412

  7. Photo-oxidative stress in a xanthophyll-deficient mutant of Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Baroli, Irene; Gutman, Benjamin L; Ledford, Heidi K; Shin, Jai W; Chin, Brian L; Havaux, Michel; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2004-02-20

    When there is an imbalance between the light energy absorbed by a photosynthetic organism and that which can be utilized in photosynthesis, photo-oxidative stress can damage pigments, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. In this work we compared the wild type and a xanthophyll-deficient mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in their response to high amounts of light. Wild-type Chlamydomonas cells were able to acclimate to high amounts of light following transfer from low light conditions. In contrast, the npq1 lor1 double mutant, which lacks protective xanthophylls (zeaxanthin and lutein) in the chloroplast, progressively lost viability and photosynthetic capacity along with destruction of thylakoid membrane protein-pigment complexes and accumulation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxides. Loss of viability was partially rescued by lowered oxygen tension, suggesting that the high sensitivity of the mutant to light stress is caused by the production of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast. Cell death was not prevented by the addition of an organic carbon source to the growth medium, demonstrating that the photo-oxidative damage can target other essential chloroplast processes besides photosynthesis. From the differential sensitivity of the mutant to exogenously added pro-oxidants, we infer that the reactive oxygen species produced during light stress in npq1 lor1 may be singlet oxygen and/or superoxide but not hydrogen peroxide. The bleaching phenotype of npq1 lor1 was not due to enhanced photodamage to photosystem II but rather to a less localized phenomenon of accumulation of photo-oxidation products in chloroplast membranes. PMID:14665619

  8. Studies in photosystem II using artificial donors. Final report, January 1, 1985-August 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Radmer, R.J.

    1986-09-10

    This report describes studies aimed at elucidation of the path of oxygen in photosyntheses. Briefly described are studies which suggest that O/sub 2/ evolution takes place during the S/sub 4/ ..-->.. S/sub 0/ transition, studies on the effect of D/sub 2/O on photosynthesis, and differences in the oxidizing side of photosystem II in herbicide resistant versus wild type Chlamydomonas reinhardi. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. UV-B Perception and Acclimation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Dubois, Marine; Crocco, Carlos D; Yin, Ruohe; Chappuis, Richard; Allorent, Guillaume; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel; Ulm, Roman

    2016-04-01

    Plants perceive UV-B, an intrinsic component of sunlight, via a signaling pathway that is mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and induces UV-B acclimation. To test whether similar UV-B perception mechanisms exist in the evolutionarily distant green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we identified Chlamydomonas orthologs of UVR8 and the key signaling factor CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Cr-UVR8 shares sequence and structural similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8, has conserved tryptophan residues for UV-B photoreception, monomerizes upon UV-B exposure, and interacts with Cr-COP1 in a UV-B-dependent manner. Moreover, Cr-UVR8 can interact with At-COP1 and complement the Arabidopsis uvr8 mutant, demonstrating that it is a functional UV-B photoreceptor. Chlamydomonas shows apparent UV-B acclimation in colony survival and photosynthetic efficiency assays. UV-B exposure, at low levels that induce acclimation, led to broad changes in the Chlamydomonas transcriptome, including in genes related to photosynthesis. Impaired UV-B-induced activation in the Cr-COP1 mutant hit1 indicates that UVR8-COP1 signaling induces transcriptome changes in response to UV-B. Also, hit1 mutants are impaired in UV-B acclimation. Chlamydomonas UV-B acclimation preserved the photosystem II core proteins D1 and D2 under UV-B stress, which mitigated UV-B-induced photoinhibition. These findings highlight the early evolution of UVR8 photoreceptor signaling in the green lineage to induce UV-B acclimation and protection. PMID:27020958

  10. The Chlamydomonas Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Frederick R.; Umen, James G.

    2015-01-01

    The position of Chlamydomonas within the eukaryotic phylogeny makes it a unique model in at least two important ways: as a representative of the critically important, early-diverging lineage leading to plants, and as a microbe retaining important features of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that have been lost in the highly studied yeast lineages. Its cell biology has been studied for many decades, and it has well-developed experimental genetic tools, both classical (Mendelian) and molecular. Unlike land plants, it is a haploid with very few gene duplicates, making it ideal for loss-of-function genetic studies. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle has a striking temporal and functional separation between cell growth and rapid cell divisions, probably connected to the interplay between diurnal cycles that drive photosynthetic cell growth with the cell division cycle; it also exhibits a highly choreographed interaction between the cell cycle and its centriole/basal body/flagellar cycle. Here we review the current status of studies of the Chlamydomonas cell cycle. We begin with an overview of cell cycle control in the well-studied yeast and animal systems, which has yielded a canonical, well-supported model. We discuss briefly what is known about similarities and differences in plant cell cycle control compared to this model. We next review the cytology and cell biology of the multiple fission cell cycle of Chlamydomonas. Lastly we review recent genetic approaches and insights into Chlamydomonas cell cycle regulation that have been enabled by a new generation of genomics-based tools. PMID:25690512

  11. Tools for regulated gene expression in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Rochaix, Jean-David; Surzycki, Raymond; Ramundo, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has emerged as a very attractive model system for chloroplast genetic engineering. Algae can be transformed readily at the chloroplast level through bombardment of cells with a gene gun, and transformants can be selected using antibiotic resistance or phototrophic growth. An inducible chloroplast gene expression system could be very useful for several reasons. First, it could be used to elucidate the function of essential chloroplast genes required for cell growth and survival. Second, it could be very helpful for expressing proteins which are toxic to the algal cells. Third, it would allow for the reversible depletion of photosynthetic complexes thus making it possible to study their biogenesis in a controlled fashion. Fourth, it opens promising possibilities for hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas. Here we describe an inducible/repressible chloroplast gene expression system in Chlamydomonas in which the copper-regulated Cyc6 promoter drives the expression of the nuclear Nac2 gene encoding a protein which is targeted to the chloroplast where it acts specifically on the chloroplast psbD 5'-untranslated region and is required for the stable accumulation of the psbD mRNA and photosystem II. The system can be used for any chloroplast gene or transgene by placing it under the control of the psbD 5'-untranslated region. PMID:24599871

  12. Metabolic and photosynthetic consequences of blocking starch biosynthesis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii sta6 mutant.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anagha; Kumaraswamy, G Kenchappa; Vinyard, David J; Gu, Huiya; Ananyev, Gennady; Posewitz, Matthew C; Dismukes, G Charles

    2015-03-01

    Upon nutrient deprivation, microalgae partition photosynthate into starch and lipids at the expense of protein synthesis and growth. We investigated the role of starch biosynthesis with respect to photosynthetic growth and carbon partitioning in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii starchless mutant, sta6, which lacks ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. This mutant is unable to convert glucose-1-phosphate to ADP-glucose, the precursor of starch biosynthesis. During nutrient-replete culturing, sta6 does not re-direct metabolism to make more proteins or lipids, and accumulates 20% less biomass. The underlying molecular basis for the decreased biomass phenotype was identified using LC-MS metabolomics studies and flux methods. Above a threshold light intensity, photosynthetic electron transport rates (water → CO2) decrease in sta6 due to attenuated rates of NADPH re-oxidation, without affecting photosystems I or II (no change in isolated photosynthetic electron transport). We observed large accumulations of carbon metabolites that are precursors for the biosynthesis of lipids, amino acids and sugars/starch, indicating system-wide consequences of slower NADPH re-oxidation. Attenuated carbon fixation resulted in imbalances in both redox and adenylate energy. The pool sizes of both pyridine and adenylate nucleotides in sta6 increased substantially to compensate for the slower rate of turnover. Mitochondrial respiration partially relieved the reductant stress; however, prolonged high-light exposure caused accelerated photoinhibition. Thus, starch biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas plays a critical role as a principal carbon sink influencing cellular energy balance however, disrupting starch biosynthesis does not redirect resources to other bioproducts (lipids or proteins) during nutrient-replete culturing, resulting in cells that are susceptible to photochemical damage caused by redox stress. PMID:25645872

  13. Metabolic Flexibility of the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as Revealed by the Link between State Transitions and Cyclic Electron Flow.

    PubMed

    Finazzi, Giovanni; Forti, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    In this Review we focus on the conversion of linear photosynthetic electron transport from water to NADP to the cyclic pathway around Photosystem I in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We discuss the strict relationship that exists between the changes in pathways of electron transport and state transitions, i.e., the reversible functional association of light harvesting proteins with one of the two photosystems of oxygenic photosynthesis. Such a link has not been reported in the case of other photosynthetic organisms, where the state transitions do not affect the pathway of electron transport. Rather, they provide a tool to optimise the rate of linear flow. We propose a kinetic-structural model that explains the mechanism of this particular relationship in Chlamydomonas, and discuss the advantages that this peculiar situation gives to the energetic metabolism of this alga. PMID:16143844

  14. Excitation energy transfer in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii deficient in the PSI core or the PSII core under conditions mimicking state transitions.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Lucyna M; Dinc, Emine; Croce, Roberta; Dekker, Jan P

    2016-06-01

    The efficient use of excitation energy in photosynthetic membranes is achieved by a dense network of pigment-protein complexes. These complexes fulfill specific functions and interact dynamically with each other in response to rapidly changing environmental conditions. Here, we studied how in the intact cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C.r.) the lack of the photosystem I (PSI) core or the photosystem II (PSII) core affects these interactions. To that end the mutants F15 and M18 (both PSI-deficient) and FUD7 (PSII-deficient) were incubated under conditions known to promote state transitions in wild-type. The intact cells were then instantly frozen to 77K and the full-spectrum time-resolved fluorescence emission of the cells was measured by means of streak camera. In the PSI-deficient mutants excitation energy transfer (EET) towards light-harvesting complexes of PSI (Lhca) occurs in less than 0.5 ns, and fluorescence from Lhca decays in 3.1 ns. Decreased trapping by PSII and increased fluorescence of Lhca upon state 1 (S1)→state 2 (S2) transition appears in the F15 and less in the M18 mutant. In the PSII-deficient mutant FUD7, quenched (0.5 ns) and unquenched (2 ns) light-harvesting complexes of PSII (LHCII) are present in both states, with the quenched form more abundant in S2 than in S1. Moreover, EET of 0.4 ns from the remaining LHCII to PSI increases upon S1→S2 transition. We relate the excitation energy kinetics observed in F15, M18 and FUD7 to the remodeling of the photosynthetic apparatus in these mutants under S1 and S2 conditions. PMID:26946087

  15. Differential thermal effects on the energy distribution between photosystem II and photosystem I in thylakoid membranes of a psychrophilic and a mesophilic alga.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Kiss, Rachael; Ivanov, Alexander G; Williams, John; Mobashsher Khan; Huner, Norman P A

    2002-04-12

    Sensitivity of the photosynthetic thylakoid membranes to thermal stress was investigated in the psychrophilic Antarctic alga Chlamydomonas subcaudata. C. subcaudata thylakoids exhibited an elevated heat sensitivity as indicated by a temperature-induced rise in F(o) fluorescence in comparison with the mesophilic species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This was accompanied by a loss of structural stability of the photosystem (PS) II core complex and functional changes at the level of PSI in C. reinhardtii, but not in C. subcaudata. Lastly, C. subcaudata exhibited an increase in unsaturated fatty acid content of membrane lipids in combination with unique fatty acid species. The relationship between lipid unsaturation and the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus under elevated temperatures is discussed. PMID:11997125

  16. Polymer coating of copper oxide nanoparticles increases nanoparticles uptake and toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Perreault, François; Oukarroum, Abdallah; Melegari, Silvia Pedroso; Matias, William Gerson; Popovic, Radovan

    2012-06-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are frequently used in a polymer-coated form, to be included in paints or fabrics for antimicrobial properties. Their application in antifouling paints may lead to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. However, the toxicological risk of NPs in the environment is hard to evaluate due to a lack of knowledge on the mechanisms of NP interaction with biological systems. In this study, we investigated the effect of polymer coating on CuO NP toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by comparing bare and polymer-coated CuO NPs prepared from the same CuO nanopowder. Both CuO NP suspensions were toxic to C. reinhardtii after 6 h treatment to concentrations of 0.005-0.04 g L(-1). Bare and polymer-coated CuO NPs induced a decrease of Photosystem II activity and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Polymer-coated CuO NP was found to be more toxic than the uncoated CuO NP. The higher toxicity of CS-CuO NP was mainly associated with the increased capacity of polymer-coated CuO NP to penetrate the cell compared to bare CuO NPs. These results indicates that the high toxicity of polymer-coated CuO NPs in algal cells results of intracellular interactions between NPs and the cellular system. PMID:22445953

  17. Blue Light Regulation of Cell Division in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 1

    PubMed Central

    Münzner, Petra; Voigt, Jürgen

    1992-01-01

    A delay in cell division was observed when synchronized cultures of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growing under heterotrophic conditions were exposed to white light during the second half of the growth period. This effect was also observed when photosynthesis was blocked by addition of the photosystem II inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. Light pulses of 10 minutes were sufficient to induce a delay in cell division in the presence or absence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. A delay in cell division was induced by blue light but not by illumination with red or far-red light. The equal intensity action spectrum revealed two peaks at 400 and 500 nm. PMID:16669046

  18. Structure and dynamics in Photosystem I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, Craig Charles

    Photosystem I (PSI) is a transmembrane protein complex that uses incident light energy to drive an energetically unfavorable electron transfer reaction across a membrane in the early steps of oxygenic photosynthesis. This electron transfer reaction provides energy for the fixing of carbon dioxide and for the subsequent synthesis of nearly all biological material on Earth. Despite the morphological variety of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms---ranging from single-celled aquatic cyanobacteria to large, complex terrestrial plants---the structure and function of PSI are remarkably well-conserved across phyla. PSI has been the subject of extensive interdisciplinary research involving fields ranging from molecular genetics to condensed matter physics, and many aspects of its function still remain unclear. This study presents a variety of theoretical and experimental approaches to aspects of PSI structure and dynamics. An atomic-level structural model of higher plant PSI has been constructed based on recent protein crystal structures, and provides insight into the evolution of eukaryotic PSI. Time-resolved optical spectroscopic studies of PSI supercomplexes from the green freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii illustrate how this organism adapts its photosynthetic apparatus to deal with changing environmental conditions and highlight the importance of structure-function relationships in light-harvesting systems. A novel computational approach using constrained geometric simulations has been used to model a portion of the PSI assembly process, shedding some light on how the heterodimeric PSI reaction center evolved from the more ancient homodimeric photosynthetic reaction centers found in green sulfur bacteria and heliobacteria. A new method is also demonstrated in which constrained geometric simulations are used to flexibly fit a high-resolution protein structure to a low-resolution density map obtained with cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) or low-resolution x

  19. The uni chromosome of Chlamydomonas: histone genes and nucleosome structure.

    PubMed

    Walther, Z; Hall, J L

    1995-09-25

    The uni linkage group (ULG) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains many genes involved in the basal body-flagellar system. Recent evidence suggests that the corresponding uni chromosome is located in close proximity to the basal body complex. In the course of studies into its molecular organization, we have found a cluster of four histone genes on the ULG. The genes are arranged as divergently-transcribed pairs: H3-H4 and H2B-H2A. Genomic sequencing reveals that these genes lack introns and contain characteristic 3' palindromes similar to those of animals. The predicted amino acid sequences are highly conserved across species, with greatest similarities to the histone genes of Volvox. Southern analysis shows that each histone gene is present in 15-20 copies in Chlamydomonas and suggests a dispersed genomic organization. Northern analysis of mitotically-synchronized cells shows that, like the replication-dependent histones of higher eukaryotes, Chlamydomonas histone genes are expressed during S-phase. Using a gene-specific probe on Northern blots, we provide evidence that the ULG H4 gene is regulated in the same manner as other Chlamydomonas histone genes. Finally, micrococcal nuclease protection experiments show that the uni chromosome itself associates with histone proteins and displays a conventional nucleosomal banding pattern. PMID:7479007

  20. (Unraveling photosystems: Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogorad, L.

    1987-01-09

    This project addresses the identification and characterization of thylakoid proteins and to understand their organization and function in photosynthesis. One segment of the work is to develop a reliable system for transforming, with foreign DNA, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 (S. 6803), which carries out oxygenic photosynthesis in the same manner as higher plants do and is a facultative photoheterotroph. The second part of the program deals with identifying photosynthetic genes coded by chloroplast DNA in higher plants. In the course of sequencing maize chloroplast DNA, unidentified open reading frames for proteins have been encountered. The protein products of these genes are found in photosynthetic membranes of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria; in some cases traced to a functional thylakoid complex. To date, two S. 6803 genes corresponding to chloroplast genes for hitherto unrecognized thylakoid proteins have been identified and cloned. Another objective of the development of the transformation-gene deletion-gene replacement system is to be able to study functions of parts of a protein for which an individual gene codes and thus to understand the function of each component of the photosynthetic apparatus and its relationship with other proteins. We have explored the mechanism by which Cu/sup 2 +/ regulates the expression of plastocyanin vs cyt c/sub 552/ in Chlamydomonas rheinhardi. 65 refs.

  1. The Antarctic psychrophile, Chlamydomonas subcaudata, is deficient in state I-state II transitions.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Ivanov, Alexander G; Huner, Norman P A

    2002-01-01

    State I-State II transitions were monitored in vivo and in vitro in the Antarctic, psychrophillic, green alga, Chlamydomonas subcaudata, as changes in the low-temperature (77 K) chlorophyll fluorescence emission maxima at 722 nm (F722) relative to 699 nm (F699). As expected, the control mesophillic species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was able to modulate the light energy distribution between photosystem II and photosystem I in response to exposure to four different conditions: (i) dark/anaerobic conditions, (ii) a change in Mg2+ concentration, (iii) red light, and (iv) increased incubation temperature. This was correlated with the ability to phosphorylate both of its major light-harvesting polypeptides. In contrast, exposure of C. subcaudata to the same four conditions induced minimum alterations in the 77 K fluorescence emission spectra, which was correlated with the ability to phosphorylate only one of its major light-harvesting polypeptides. Thus, C. subcaudata appears to be deficient in the ability to undergo a State I-State II transition. Functionally, this is associated with alterations in the apparent redox status of the intersystem electron transport chain and with higher rates of photosystem I cyclic electron transport in the psychrophile than in the mesophile, based on in vivo P700 measurements. Structurally, this deficiency is associated with reduced levels of Psa A/B relative to D1, the absence of specific photosystem I light-harvesting polypeptides [R.M. Morgan et al. (1998) Photosynth Res 56:303-314] and a cytochrome b6/f complex that exhibits a form of cytochrome f that is approximately 7 kDa smaller than that observed in C. reinhardtii. We conclude that the Antarctic psychrophile, C. subcaudata, is an example of a natural variant deficient in State I-State II transitions. PMID:11859846

  2. Functional Organization of the Chlorophyll-Containing Complexes of Chlamydomonas reinhardi1

    PubMed Central

    Gershoni, Jonathan M.; Shochat, Susana; Malkin, Shmuel; Ohad, Itzhak

    1982-01-01

    The stepwise synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic membrane components in the y-1 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardi have been previously demonstrated (Ohad 1975 In Membrane Biogenesis, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts and Bacteria, Plenum, pp 279-350). This experimental system was used here in order to investigate the process of formation and interconnection of the energy collecting chlorophylls with the reaction centers of both photosystems I and II. The following measurements were carried out: photosynthetic electron flow at various light intensities, including parts or the entire electron transfer chain; analysis of the kinetics of fluorescence emission at room temperature and fluorescence emission spectra at 77 K, and electrophoretic separation of membrane polypeptides and chlorophyll protein complexes. Based on the data obtained it is concluded that: (a) each photosystem (PSI and PSII) contains, in addition to the reaction center, an interconnecting antenna and a main or light harvesting antenna complex; (b) the formation of the light harvesting complex, interconnecting antenna, and reaction centers for each photosystem can occur independently. (c) the interconnecting antennae link the light harvesting complexes with the respective reaction centers. In their absence, energy transfer between the light harvesting chlorophylls and the reaction centers is inefficient. The formation of the interconnecting antennae and efficient assembly of photosystem components occur simultaneously with the de novo synthesis of chlorophyll and at least three polypeptides, one translated in the cytoplasm and two translated in the chloroplast. The synthesis of these polypeptides was found to be light dependent. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 PMID:16662548

  3. Unraveling photosystems. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report highlights four main points. (1) A residue substitution in phosphoribulokinase of Synechocystis PCC 6803 renders the mutant light-sensitive. The authors isolated a light-sensitive mutant (BRLS) of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 that does not survive exposure to bright light; 70% of BRLS cells die upon exposure to light of > 3000 lux for 2 hr. (2) Excitation energy transfer from phycocyanin to chlorophyll in an apcA-defective mutant of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. A greenish mutant of the normally bule-green cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PC 6803, designated UV6p, was isolated and characterized. UV6p possesses functional photosystems I and II but lacks normal light harvesting phycobilisomes because allophycocyanin is absent and core-specific linker proteins are almost entirely absent. (3) Deletion of the psbG1 gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 leads to the activation of the cryptic psbG2 gene. The genes psbG1 and psbG2 in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 are homologous. The psbG1 gene is located on the chromosome and is part of the ndhC-psbG1-ORF157 operon, while psbG2 is located on a plasmid and is not flanked by equivalent ndhC or ORF157 genes. (4) Deletion of the structural gene for the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 4 of Synechocystis 6803 alters respiratory properties. Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain genes encoding polypeptides homologous to some subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory NADH-ubiquinol oxidoreductase complex (NADH dehydrogenase). Nothing is known of the role of the NADH dehydrogenase complex in photosynthesis, respiration, or other functions in chloroplasts, and little is known about their specific roles in the perhaps 42 subunits of this complex in the mitochondrion.

  4. UV-B Perception and Acclimation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chappuis, Richard; Allorent, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Plants perceive UV-B, an intrinsic component of sunlight, via a signaling pathway that is mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and induces UV-B acclimation. To test whether similar UV-B perception mechanisms exist in the evolutionarily distant green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we identified Chlamydomonas orthologs of UVR8 and the key signaling factor CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1). Cr-UVR8 shares sequence and structural similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana UVR8, has conserved tryptophan residues for UV-B photoreception, monomerizes upon UV-B exposure, and interacts with Cr-COP1 in a UV-B-dependent manner. Moreover, Cr-UVR8 can interact with At-COP1 and complement the Arabidopsis uvr8 mutant, demonstrating that it is a functional UV-B photoreceptor. Chlamydomonas shows apparent UV-B acclimation in colony survival and photosynthetic efficiency assays. UV-B exposure, at low levels that induce acclimation, led to broad changes in the Chlamydomonas transcriptome, including in genes related to photosynthesis. Impaired UV-B-induced activation in the Cr-COP1 mutant hit1 indicates that UVR8-COP1 signaling induces transcriptome changes in response to UV-B. Also, hit1 mutants are impaired in UV-B acclimation. Chlamydomonas UV-B acclimation preserved the photosystem II core proteins D1 and D2 under UV-B stress, which mitigated UV-B-induced photoinhibition. These findings highlight the early evolution of UVR8 photoreceptor signaling in the green lineage to induce UV-B acclimation and protection. PMID:27020958

  5. Chlamydomonas: A Model Green Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the instructional potential of Chlamydomonas in providing a basis for a range of experimental investigations to illustrate basic biological phenomena. Describes the use of this algae genus in studies of population growth, photosynthesis, and mating behavior. Procedures for laboratory exercises are included. (ML)

  6. Electron transport and photophosphorylation by Photosystem I in vivo in plants and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fork, D C; Herbert, S K

    1993-06-01

    Recently, a number of techniques, some of them relatively new and many often used in combination, have given a clearer picture of the dynamic role of electron transport in Photosystem I of photosynthesis and of coupled cyclic photophosphorylation. For example, the photoacoustic technique has detected cyclic electron transport in vivo in all the major algal groups and in leaves of higher plants. Spectroscopic measurements of the Photosystem I reaction center and of the changes in light scattering associated with thylakoid membrane energization also indicate that cyclic photophosphorylation occurs in living plants and cyanobacteria, particularly under stressful conditions.In cyanobacteria, the path of cyclic electron transport has recently been proposed to include an NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, a complex that may also participate in respiratory electron transport. Photosynthesis and respiration may share common electron carriers in eukaryotes also. Chlororespiration, the uptake of O2 in the dark by chloroplasts, is inhibited by excitation of Photosystem I, which diverts electrons away from the chlororespiratory chain into the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Chlororespiration in N-starved Chlamydomonas increases ten fold over that of the control, perhaps because carbohydrates and NAD(P)H are oxidized and ATP produced by this process.The regulation of energy distribution to the photosystems and of cyclic and non-cyclic phosphorylation via state 1 to state 2 transitions may involve the cytochrome b 6-f complex. An increased demand for ATP lowers the transthylakoid pH gradient, activates the b 6-f complex, stimulates phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex of Photosystem II and decreases energy input to Photosystem II upon induction of state 2. The resulting increase in the absorption by Photosystem I favors cyclic electron flow and ATP production over linear electron flow to NADP and 'poises' the system by slowing down the flow of

  7. Acclimation of Photosynthetic Light Reactions during Induction of Inorganic Carbon Accumulation in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii12

    PubMed Central

    Palmqvist, Kristin; Sundblad, Lars-Göran; Wingsle, Gunnar; Samuelsson, Göran

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grown in high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations (supplied with 50 milliliters per liter CO2[g]) and transferred to low DIC concentrations (supplied with ≤ 100 microliters per liter CO2[g]). Immediately after transfer from high to low DIC the emission of photosystem II related chlorophyll a fluorescence was substantially quenched. It is hypothesized that the suddenly induced inorganic carbon limitation of photosynthesis resulted in a phosphorylation of LHCII, leading to the subsequent state 1 to state 2 transition. After 2 hours of low-DIC acclimation, 77 K fluorescence measurements revealed an increase in the fluorescence emitted from photosystem I, due to direct excitation, suggesting a change in photosystem II/photosystem I stoichiometry or an increased light harvesting capacity of photosystem I. After 5 to 6 hours of acclimation a considerable increase in spillover from photosystem II to photosystem I was observed. These adjustments of the photosynthetic light reactions reached steady-state after about 12 hours of low DIC treatment. The quencher of fluorescence could be removed by 5 minutes of dark treatment followed by 5 minutes of weak light treatment, of any of four different light qualities. It is hypothesized that this restoration of fluorescence was due to a state 2 to state 1 transition in low-DIC acclimated cells. A decreased ratio of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin was also observed in 12 hour low DIC treated cells, compared with high DIC grown cells. This ratio was not coupled to the level of fluorescence quenching. The role of different processes during the induction of a DIC accumulating mechanism is discussed. PMID:16667710

  8. Nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Finazzi, Giovanni; Johnson, Giles N; Dall'Osto, Luca; Zito, Francesca; Bonente, Giulia; Bassi, Roberto; Wollman, Francis-André

    2006-02-01

    Unlike plants, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii shows a restricted ability to develop nonphotochemical quenching upon illumination. Most of this limited quenching is due to state transitions instead of DeltapH-driven high-energy state quenching, qE. The latter could only be observed when the ability of the cells to perform photosynthesis was impaired, either by lowering temperature to approximately 0 degrees C or in mutants lacking RubisCO activity. Two main features were identified that account for the low level of qE in Chlamydomonas. On one hand, the electrochemical proton gradient generated upon illumination is apparently not sufficient to promote fluorescence quenching. On the other hand, the capacity to transduce the presence of a DeltapH into a quenching response is also intrinsically decreased in this alga, when compared to plants. The possible mechanism leading to these differences is discussed. PMID:16445291

  9. Vibrational spectroscopy of photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy (FTIR DS) has been widely used to study the structural details of electron transfer cofactors (and their binding sites) in many types of photosynthetic protein complexes. This review focuses in particular on work that has been done to investigate the A₁cofactor in photosystem I photosynthetic reaction centers. A review of this subject area last appeared in 2006 [1], so only work undertaken since then will be covered here. Following light excitation of intact photosystem I particles the P700⁺A⁻(1) secondary radical pair state is formed within 100ps. This state decays within 300ns at room temperature, or 300μs at 77K. Given the short-lived nature of this state, it is not easily studied using "static" photo-accumulation FTIR difference techniques at either temperature. Time-resolved techniques are required. This article focuses on the use of time-resolved step-scan FTIR DS for the study of the P700⁺A⁻(1) state in intact photosystem I. Up until now, only our group has undertaken studies in this area. So, in this article, recent work undertaken in our lab is described, where we have used low-temperature (77K), microsecond time-resolved step-scan FTIR DS to study the P700⁺A⁻(1) state in photosystem I. In photosystem I a phylloquinone molecule occupies the A₁binding site. However, different quinones can be incorporated into the A1 binding site, and here work is described for photosystem I particles with plastoquinone-9, 2-phytyl naphthoquinone and 2-methyl naphthoquinone incorporated into the A₁binding site. Studies in which ¹⁸O isotope labeled phylloquinone has been incorporated into the A1 binding site are also discussed. To fully characterize PSI particles with different quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site nanosecond to millisecond visible absorption spectroscopy has been shown to be of considerable value, especially so when undertaken using identical samples under identical conditions

  10. 13th International Conference on Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Silflow, Carolyn D.

    2014-03-11

    The 13th International Conference on Chlamydomonas (EMBO Workshop on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas) was held May 27 to June 1, 2008 in Hyeres, France. The conference was the biennial meeting for all researchers studying the green algal systems Chlamydomonas and Volvox. The conference brought together approximately 200 investigators from around the world (North America, Asia, Europe and Australia) representing different fields and disciplines (cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, plant physiology, genomics). It provided an opportunity for investigators from different countries to share methodologies and to discuss recent results with a focus on the Chlamydomonas experimental system.

  11. The Chlamydomonas heat stress response.

    PubMed

    Schroda, Michael; Hemme, Dorothea; Mühlhaus, Timo

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves occurring at increased frequency as a consequence of global warming jeopardize crop yield safety. One way to encounter this problem is to genetically engineer crop plants toward increased thermotolerance. To identify entry points for genetic engineering, a thorough understanding of how plant cells perceive heat stress and respond to it is required. Using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system to study the fundamental mechanisms of the plant heat stress response has several advantages. Most prominent among them is the suitability of Chlamydomonas for studying stress responses system-wide and in a time-resolved manner under controlled conditions. Here we review current knowledge on how heat is sensed and signaled to trigger temporally and functionally grouped sub-responses termed response elements to prevent damage and to maintain cellular homeostasis in plant cells. PMID:25754362

  12. A Conserved Rubredoxin Is Necessary for Photosystem II Accumulation in Diverse Oxygenic Photoautotrophs*

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Robert H.; García-Cerdán, José G.; Malnoë, Alizée; Cook, Ron; Russell, James J.; Gaw, Cynthia; Dent, Rachel M.; de Vitry, Catherine; Niyogi, Krishna K.

    2013-01-01

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, two photosystems work in tandem to harvest light energy and generate NADPH and ATP. Photosystem II (PSII), the protein-pigment complex that uses light energy to catalyze the splitting of water, is assembled from its component parts in a tightly regulated process that requires a number of assembly factors. The 2pac mutant of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was isolated and found to have no detectable PSII activity, whereas other components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, including photosystem I, were still functional. PSII activity was fully restored by complementation with the RBD1 gene, which encodes a small iron-sulfur protein known as a rubredoxin. Phylogenetic evidence supports the hypothesis that this rubredoxin and its orthologs are unique to oxygenic phototrophs and distinct from rubredoxins in Archaea and bacteria (excluding cyanobacteria). Knockouts of the rubredoxin orthologs in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and the plant Arabidopsis thaliana were also found to be specifically affected in PSII accumulation. Taken together, our data suggest that this rubredoxin is necessary for normal PSII activity in a diverse set of organisms that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:23900844

  13. Forward and reverse genetic analysis of microtubule motors in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Pazour, G J; Witman, G B

    2000-12-01

    The ability to integrate biochemical, cell biological, and genetic approaches makes Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the premier model organism for studies of the eukaryotic flagellum and its associated molecular motors. Hundreds of motility mutations have been identified in Chlamydomonas, including many that affect dyneins and kinesins. These mutations have yielded much information on the structure and function of the motors as well as the roles of individual subunits within the motors. The development of insertional mutagenesis has opened the door to powerful new approaches for genetic analysis in Chlamydomonas. Insertional mutants are created by transforming cells with DNA-containing selectable markers. The DNA is randomly integrated throughout the genome and usually deletes part of the chromosome at the site of insertion, thereby creating mutations that are marked by the integrated DNA. These mutations can be used for forward genetic approaches where one characterizes a mutant phenotype and then clones the relevant gene using the integrated DNA as a tag. The insertional mutants also may be used in a reverse genetic approach in which mutants lacking a gene of interest are identified by DNA hybridization. We describe methods to generate and characterize insertional mutants, using mutations that affect the outer dynein arm as examples. PMID:11133235

  14. Missense mutation in the Chlamydomonas chloroplast gene that encodes the Rubisco large subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Spreitzer, R.J.; Brown, T.; Chen, Zhixiang; Zhang, Donghong; Al-Abed, S.R. )

    1988-04-01

    The 69-12Q mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lacks ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, but retains holoenzyme protein. It results from a mutation in the chloroplast large-subunit gene that causes an isoleucine-for-threonine substitution at amino-acid residue 173. Considering that lysine-175 is involved in catalysis, it appears that mutations cluster at the active site.

  15. Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Different Growth Irradiances*

    PubMed Central

    Bonente, Giulia; Pippa, Sara; Castellano, Stefania; Bassi, Roberto; Ballottari, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We report on the changes the photosynthetic apparatus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii undergoes upon acclimation to different light intensity. When grown in high light, cells had a faster growth rate and higher biomass production compared with low and control light conditions. However, cells acclimated to low light intensity are indeed able to produce more biomass per photon available as compared with high light-acclimated cells, which dissipate as heat a large part of light absorbed, thus reducing their photosynthetic efficiency. This dissipative state is strictly dependent on the accumulation of LhcSR3, a protein related to light-harvesting complexes, responsible for nonphotochemical quenching in microalgae. Other changes induced in the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus upon high light acclimation consist of an increase of carotenoid content on a chlorophyll basis, particularly zeaxanthin, and a major down-regulation of light absorption capacity by decreasing the chlorophyll content per cell. Surprisingly, the antenna size of both photosystem I and II is not modulated by acclimation; rather, the regulation affects the PSI/PSII ratio. Major effects of the acclimation to low light consist of increased activity of state 1 and 2 transitions and increased contributions of cyclic electron flow. PMID:22205699

  16. Mechanism of Cd2+ toxicity: Cd2+ inhibits photoactivation of Photosystem II by competitive binding to the essential Ca2+ site.

    PubMed

    Faller, Peter; Kienzler, Katharina; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is a well-known highly toxic element. The molecular mechanisms of the Cd2+ toxicity are not well understood. In photosynthetic organisms, toxic Cd2+ concentrations are often in the low-microM range. It has been proposed that low-microM Cd2+ concentrations affect photosynthesis at the level of Photosystem II by inhibiting oxygen evolution. However, in vitro studies on isolated, functional Photosystem II showed that much higher Cd2+ concentrations (mM range) were needed for inhibition. Here we show that Cd2+ in the low-microM range inhibited photoactivation (i.e., assembly of the water splitting complex) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and in isolated Photosystem II. Photoactivation is the last step in the assembly of Photosystem II before it becomes functional. The exact Cd2+ concentration necessary for inhibition depended on the concentration of calcium. It is proposed that Cd2+ binds competitively to the essential Ca2+ site in Photosystem II during photoactivation. The low Cd2+ concentration needed to inhibit photoactivation suggests that this event is also involved in the Cd2+-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in vivo. This mechanism is likely to be important for Cd2+ toxicity towards photosynthetic organisms in general, at least in unicellular like C. reinhardtii where Cd2+ has easy access to the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:15620376

  17. Photosystem II antenna phosphorylation-dependent protein diffusion determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Masakazu; Pack, Chan-Gi; Takenaka, Yoshiko; Sako, Yasushi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Flexibility of chloroplast thylakoid membrane proteins is essential for plant fitness and survival under fluctuating light environments. Phosphorylation of light-harvesting antenna complex II (LHCII) is known to induce dynamic protein reorganization that fine-tunes the rate of energy conversion in each photosystem. However, molecular details of how LHCII phosphorylation causes light energy redistribution throughout thylakoid membranes still remain unclear. By using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we here determined the LHCII phosphorylation-dependent protein diffusion in thylakoid membranes isolated from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. As compared to the LHCII dephosphorylation-induced condition, the diffusion coefficient of LHCII increased nearly twofold under the LHCII phosphorylation-induced condition. We also verified the results by using the LHCII phosphorylation-deficient mutant. Our observation suggests that LHCII phosphorylation-dependent protein reorganization occurs along with the changes in the rate of protein diffusion, which would have an important role in mediating light energy redistribution throughout thylakoid membranes. PMID:24088948

  18. Cell and molecular biology of Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This document contains only the abstracts of 92 presentations on the biology of Chlamydomonas. Topics include gene transformations, gene regulation, biosynthetic pathways, cell surfaces, circadian clocks, and the development and structure of the flagellar apparatus. (TEM)

  19. Inhibition of Plastocyanin to P700+ Electron Transfer in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Hyperosmotic Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Jeffrey A.; Salbilla, Brian A.; Kanazawa, Atsuko; Kramer, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen electrode and fluorescence studies demonstrate that linear electron transport in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be completely abolished by abrupt hyperosmotic shock. We show that the most likely primary site of inhibition of electron transfer by hyperosmotic shock is a blockage of electron transfer between plastocyanin (PC) or cytochrome c6 and P700. The effects on this reaction were reversible upon dilution of the osmolytes and the stability of plastocyanin or photosystem (PS) I was unaffected. Electron micrographs of osmotically shocked cells showed a significant decrease in the thylakoid lumen volume. Comparison of estimated lumenal width with the x-ray structures of plastocyanin and PS I suggest that lumenal space contracts during HOS so as to hinder the movement of docking to PS I of plastocyanin or cytochrome c6. PMID:11706196

  20. Brownian dynamics and molecular dynamics study of the association between hydrogenase and ferredoxin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Long, Hai; Chang, Christopher H; King, Paul W; Ghirardi, Maria L; Kim, Kwiseon

    2008-10-01

    The [FeFe] hydrogenase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can catalyze the reduction of protons to hydrogen gas using electrons supplied from photosystem I and transferred via ferredoxin. To better understand the association of the hydrogenase and the ferredoxin, we have simulated the process over multiple timescales. A Brownian dynamics simulation method gave an initial thorough sampling of the rigid-body translational and rotational phase spaces, and the resulting trajectories were used to compute the occupancy and free-energy landscapes. Several important hydrogenase-ferredoxin encounter complexes were identified from this analysis, which were then individually simulated using atomistic molecular dynamics to provide more details of the hydrogenase and ferredoxin interaction. The ferredoxin appeared to form reasonable complexes with the hydrogenase in multiple orientations, some of which were good candidates for inclusion in a transition state ensemble of configurations for electron transfer. PMID:18621810

  1. Topological studies of spinach 22 kDa protein of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Pichersky, E; Yocum, C F

    1994-12-30

    An intrinsic 22 kDa polypeptide is associated with the O2-evolving Photosystem II core complex in a variety of green plants, although it does not appear to be required for O2 evolution. Digestion of thylakoid membranes and isolated Photosystem II preparations with trypsin, followed by immunoblotting using spinach anti-22 kDa antibodies, leads to two observations: (1) the domain between the 2nd and 3rd transmembrane helices of the 22 kDa protein is stromally exposed, and (2) only in a reaction center complex preparation, lacking the chlorophyll a/b-light harvesting complex II, is there extensive proteolytic cleavage of the 22 kDa protein. We also found that after, but not prior to, selective extraction of the 22 and 10 kDa proteins from Photosystem II membranes, the chlorophyll a/b-light harvesting complex II can be separated from the Photosystem II reaction center core by precipitation with MgCl2. This result suggests that the 22 kDa polypeptide is located between the Photosystem II reaction center polypeptides and light-harvesting complex II; it is possible that the protein serves as a link between the two protein complexes. The presence of the 22 kDa protein in several species was also examined by immunoblotting with polyclonal spinach anti-22 kDa antibodies. PMID:7803450

  2. Katanin Localization Requires Triplet Microtubules in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, Jessica M.; O’Toole, Eileen; Li, Linya; Giddings, Thomas H.; Kozak, Benjamin; Albee, Alison J.; Dutcher, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Centrioles and basal bodies are essential for a variety of cellular processes that include the recruitment of proteins to these structures for both centrosomal and ciliary function. This recruitment is compromised when centriole/basal body assembly is defective. Mutations that cause basal body assembly defects confer supersensitivity to Taxol. These include bld2, bld10, bld12, uni3, vfl1, vfl2, and vfl3. Flagellar motility mutants do not confer sensitivity with the exception of mutations in the p60 (pf19) and p80 (pf15) subunits of the microtubule severing protein katanin. We have identified additional pf15 and bld2 (ε-tubulin) alleles in screens for Taxol sensitivity. Null pf15 and bld2 alleles are viable and are not essential genes in Chlamydomonas. Analysis of double mutant strains with the pf15-3 and bld2-6 null alleles suggests that basal bodies in Chlamydomonas may recruit additional proteins beyond katanin that affect spindle microtubule stability. The bld2-5 allele is a hypomorphic allele and its phenotype is modulated by nutritional cues. Basal bodies in bld2-5 cells are missing proximal ends. The basal body mutants show aberrant localization of an epitope-tagged p80 subunit of katanin. Unlike IFT proteins, katanin p80 does not localize to the transition fibers of the basal bodies based on an analysis of the uni1 mutant as well as the lack of colocalization of katanin p80 with IFT74. We suggest that the triplet microtubules are likely to play a key role in katanin p80 recruitment to the basal body of Chlamydomonas rather than the transition fibers that are needed for IFT localization. PMID:23320108

  3. Involvement of histidine 190 on the D1 protein in electron/proton transfer reactions on the donor side of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, F; Sayre, R T; Styring, S

    1998-10-01

    Flash-induced chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics from photosystem II in thylakoids from the dark-grown wild type and two site-directed mutants of the D1 protein His190 residue (D1-H190) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been characterized. Induction of the chlorophyll fluorescence on the first flash, reflecting electron transport from YZ to P680(+), exhibited a strong pH dependence with a pK of 7.6 in the dark-grown wild type which lacks the Mn cluster. The chlorophyll fluorescence decay, measured in the presence of DCMU, which reflects recombination between QA- and YZox, was also pH-dependent with a similar pK of 7.5. These results indicate participation by the same base, which is suggested to be D1-H190, in oxidation and reduction of YZ in forward electron transfer and recombination pathways, respectively. This hypothesis was tested in the D1-H190 mutants. Induction of chlorophyll fluorescence in these H190 mutants has been observed to be inefficient due to slow electron transfer from YZ to P680(+) [Roffey, R. A., et al. (1994) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1185, 257-270]. We show that this reaction is pH-dependent, with a pK of 8. 1, and at pH >/=9, the fluorescence induction is efficient in the H190 mutants, suggesting direct titration of YZ. The efficient oxidation of YZ ( approximately 70% at pH 9.0) at high pH was confirmed by kinetic EPR measurements. In contrast to the wild type, the H190 mutants show little or no observable fluorescence decay. Our data suggest that H190 is an essential component in the electron transfer reactions in photosystem II and acts as a proton acceptor upon YZ oxidation. In the H190 mutants, this reaction is inefficient and YZ oxidation only occurs at elevated pHs when YZ itself probably is deprotonated. We also propose that H190 is able to return a proton to YZox during electron recombination from QA- in a reaction which does not take place in the D1-H190 mutants. PMID:9760263

  4. Atomic Resolution Modeling of the Ferredoxin:[FeFe] Hydrogenase Complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christopher H.; King, Paul W.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Kim, Kwiseon

    2007-01-01

    The [FeFe] hydrogenases HydA1 and HydA2 in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii catalyze the final reaction in a remarkable metabolic pathway allowing this photosynthetic organism to produce H2 from water in the chloroplast. A [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin is a critical branch point in electron flow from Photosystem I toward a variety of metabolic fates, including proton reduction by hydrogenases. To better understand the binding determinants involved in ferredoxin:hydrogenase interactions, we have modeled Chlamydomonas PetF1 and HydA2 based on amino-acid sequence homology, and produced two promising electron-transfer model complexes by computational docking. To characterize these models, quantitative free energy calculations at atomic resolution were carried out, and detailed analysis of the interprotein interactions undertaken. The protein complex model we propose for ferredoxin:HydA2 interaction is energetically favored over the alternative candidate by 20 kcal/mol. This proposed model of the electron-transfer complex between PetF1 and HydA2 permits a more detailed view of the molecular events leading up to H2 evolution, and suggests potential mutagenic strategies to modulate electron flow to HydA2. PMID:17660315

  5. Energy transfer and trapping in the photosystem I core antenna. A temperature study.

    PubMed Central

    Werst, M; Jia, Y; Mets, L; Fleming, G R

    1992-01-01

    The fluorescence decay kinetics of the photosystem I-only mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, A4d, are used to study energy transfer and structural organization in photosystem I (PSI). Time-resolved measurements over a wide temperature range (36-295 K) have been made both on cells containing approximately 65 core chl a/P700 and an additional 60-70 chl a + b from LHC proteins and on PSI particles containing 40-50 chl a/P700. In each case, the fluorescence decay kinetics is dominated by a short component, tau 1 which is largely attributed to the lifetime of the excitations in the core complex. The results are discussed in terms of simulations of the temperature dependence of tau 1 in model systems. Spectral inhomogeneity and the temperature dependence of the spectral lineshapes are included explicitly in the simulations. Various kinds of antenna arrangements are modeled with and without the inclusion of pigments with lower absorption energies than the trap (red pigments). We conclude that funnel arrangements are not consistent with our measurements. A random model that includes one or two red pigments placed close to the trap shows temperature and wavelength dependence similar to that observed experimentally. A comparison of the temperature dependence of tau 1 for cells and PSI particles is included. PMID:1581501

  6. Solar energy conversion by green microalgae: a photosystem for hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, F F; Montes, O; Galván, F

    2001-09-20

    A photosystem for solar energy conversion, comprised of a culture of green microalgae supplemented with methyl viologen, is proposed. The capture of solar energy is based on the Mehler reaction. The reduction of methyl viologen by the photosynthetic apparatus and its subsequent reoxidation by oxygen produces hydrogen peroxide. This is a rich-energy compound that can be used as a nonpollutant and efficient fuel. Four different species of green microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (21gr) C. reinhardtii (CW15), Chlorella fusca, and Monoraphidium braunii, were tested as a possible biocatalyst. Each species presented a different efficiency level in the transformation of energy. Azide was an efficient inhibitor of the hydrogen peroxide scavenging system while maintaining photosynthetic activity of the microalgae, and thus significantly increasing the production of the photosystem. The strain C. reinhardtii (21gr), among the species studied, was the most efficient with an initial production rate of 185 micromol H(2)O(2)/h x mg Chl and reaching a maximum of 42.5 micromol H(2)O(2)/mg Chl when assayed in the presence of azide inhibitor. PMID:11494222

  7. Antenna complexes protect Photosystem I from Photoinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Alboresi, Alessandro; Ballottari, Matteo; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Background Photosystems are composed of two moieties, a reaction center and a peripheral antenna system. In photosynthetic eukaryotes the latter system is composed of proteins belonging to Lhc family. An increasing set of evidences demonstrated how these polypeptides play a relevant physiological function in both light harvesting and photoprotection. Despite the sequence similarity between antenna proteins associated with the two Photosystems, present knowledge on their physiological role is mostly limited to complexes associated to Photosystem II. Results In this work we analyzed the physiological role of Photosystem I antenna system in Arabidopsis thaliana both in vivo and in vitro. Plants depleted in individual antenna polypeptides showed a reduced capacity for photoprotection and an increased production of reactive oxygen species upon high light exposure. In vitro experiments on isolated complexes confirmed that depletion of antenna proteins reduced the resistance of isolated Photosystem I particles to high light and that the antenna is effective in photoprotection only upon the interaction with the core complex. Conclusion We show that antenna proteins play a dual role in Arabidopsis thaliana Photosystem I photoprotection: first, a Photosystem I with an intact antenna system is more resistant to high light because of a reduced production of reactive oxygen species and, second, antenna chlorophyll-proteins are the first target of high light damages. When photoprotection mechanisms become insufficient, the antenna chlorophyll proteins act as fuses: LHCI chlorophylls are degraded while the reaction center photochemical activity is maintained. Differences with respect to photoprotection strategy in Photosystem II, where the reaction center is the first target of photoinhibition, are discussed. PMID:19508723

  8. Evidence for a Role of VIPP1 in the Structural Organization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Chlamydomonas[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nordhues, André; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Geimer, Stefan; Schönfelder, Stephanie; Schmollinger, Stefan; Rütgers, Mark; Finazzi, Giovanni; Soppa, Barbara; Sommer, Frederik; Mühlhaus, Timo; Roach, Thomas; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Lokstein, Heiko; Crespo, José Luis; Schroda, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vesicle-inducing protein in plastids (VIPP1) was suggested to play a role in thylakoid membrane formation via membrane vesicles. As this functional assignment is under debate, we investigated the function of VIPP1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Using immunofluorescence, we localized VIPP1 to distinct spots within the chloroplast. In VIPP1-RNA interference/artificial microRNA cells, we consistently observed aberrant, prolamellar body-like structures at the origin of multiple thylakoid membrane layers, which appear to coincide with the immunofluorescent VIPP1 spots and suggest a defect in thylakoid membrane biogenesis. Accordingly, using quantitative shotgun proteomics, we found that unstressed vipp1 mutant cells accumulate 14 to 20% less photosystems, cytochrome b6f complex, and ATP synthase but 30% more light-harvesting complex II than control cells, while complex assembly, thylakoid membrane ultrastructure, and bulk lipid composition appeared unaltered. Photosystems in vipp1 mutants are sensitive to high light, which coincides with a lowered midpoint potential of the QA/QA− redox couple and increased thermosensitivity of photosystem II (PSII), suggesting structural defects in PSII. Moreover, swollen thylakoids, despite reduced membrane energization, in vipp1 mutants grown on ammonium suggest defects in the supermolecular organization of thylakoid membrane complexes. Overall, our data suggest a role of VIPP1 in the biogenesis/assembly of thylakoid membrane core complexes, most likely by supplying structural lipids. PMID:22307852

  9. Evidence for a role of VIPP1 in the structural organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Nordhues, André; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Geimer, Stefan; Schönfelder, Stephanie; Schmollinger, Stefan; Rütgers, Mark; Finazzi, Giovanni; Soppa, Barbara; Sommer, Frederik; Mühlhaus, Timo; Roach, Thomas; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Lokstein, Heiko; Crespo, José Luis; Schroda, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The vesicle-inducing protein in plastids (VIPP1) was suggested to play a role in thylakoid membrane formation via membrane vesicles. As this functional assignment is under debate, we investigated the function of VIPP1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Using immunofluorescence, we localized VIPP1 to distinct spots within the chloroplast. In VIPP1-RNA interference/artificial microRNA cells, we consistently observed aberrant, prolamellar body-like structures at the origin of multiple thylakoid membrane layers, which appear to coincide with the immunofluorescent VIPP1 spots and suggest a defect in thylakoid membrane biogenesis. Accordingly, using quantitative shotgun proteomics, we found that unstressed vipp1 mutant cells accumulate 14 to 20% less photosystems, cytochrome b(6)f complex, and ATP synthase but 30% more light-harvesting complex II than control cells, while complex assembly, thylakoid membrane ultrastructure, and bulk lipid composition appeared unaltered. Photosystems in vipp1 mutants are sensitive to high light, which coincides with a lowered midpoint potential of the Q(A)/Q(A)(-) redox couple and increased thermosensitivity of photosystem II (PSII), suggesting structural defects in PSII. Moreover, swollen thylakoids, despite reduced membrane energization, in vipp1 mutants grown on ammonium suggest defects in the supermolecular organization of thylakoid membrane complexes. Overall, our data suggest a role of VIPP1 in the biogenesis/assembly of thylakoid membrane core complexes, most likely by supplying structural lipids. PMID:22307852

  10. A Dual Strategy to Cope with High Light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[W

    PubMed Central

    Allorent, Guillaume; Tokutsu, Ryutaro; Roach, Thomas; Peers, Graham; Cardol, Pierre; Girard-Bascou, Jacqueline; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Kuntz, Marcel; Breyton, Cécile; Franck, Fabrice; Wollman, Francis-André; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Minagawa, Jun; Finazzi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Absorption of light in excess of the capacity for photosynthetic electron transport is damaging to photosynthetic organisms. Several mechanisms exist to avoid photodamage, which are collectively referred to as nonphotochemical quenching. This term comprises at least two major processes. State transitions (qT) represent changes in the relative antenna sizes of photosystems II and I. High energy quenching (qE) is the increased thermal dissipation of light energy triggered by lumen acidification. To investigate the respective roles of qE and qT in photoprotection, a mutant (npq4 stt7-9) was generated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by crossing the state transition–deficient mutant (stt7-9) with a strain having a largely reduced qE capacity (npq4). The comparative phenotypic analysis of the wild type, single mutants, and double mutants reveals that both state transitions and qE are induced by high light. Moreover, the double mutant exhibits an increased photosensitivity with respect to the single mutants and the wild type. Therefore, we suggest that besides qE, state transitions also play a photoprotective role during high light acclimation of the cells, most likely by decreasing hydrogen peroxide production. These results are discussed in terms of the relative photoprotective benefit related to thermal dissipation of excess light and/or to the physical displacement of antennas from photosystem II. PMID:23424243

  11. The regulation of photosynthetic structure and function during nitrogen deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Juergens, Matthew T; Deshpande, Rahul R; Lucker, Ben F; Park, Jeong-Jin; Wang, Hongxia; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Holguin, F Omar; Disbrow, Bradley; Schaub, Tanner; Skepper, Jeremy N; Kramer, David M; Gang, David R; Hicks, Leslie M; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2015-02-01

    The accumulation of carbon storage compounds by many unicellular algae after nutrient deprivation occurs despite declines in their photosynthetic apparatus. To understand the regulation and roles of photosynthesis during this potentially bioenergetically valuable process, we analyzed photosynthetic structure and function after nitrogen deprivation in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolite, and lipid profiling and microscopic time course data were combined with multiple measures of photosynthetic function. Levels of transcripts and proteins of photosystems I and II and most antenna genes fell with differing trajectories; thylakoid membrane lipid levels decreased, while their proportions remained similar and thylakoid membrane organization appeared to be preserved. Cellular chlorophyll (Chl) content decreased more than 2-fold within 24 h, and we conclude from transcript protein and (13)C labeling rates that Chl synthesis was down-regulated both pre- and posttranslationally and that Chl levels fell because of a rapid cessation in synthesis and dilution by cellular growth rather than because of degradation. Photosynthetically driven oxygen production and the efficiency of photosystem II as well as P700(+) reduction and electrochromic shift kinetics all decreased over the time course, without evidence of substantial energy overflow. The results also indicate that linear electron flow fell approximately 15% more than cyclic flow over the first 24 h. Comparing Calvin-Benson cycle transcript and enzyme levels with changes in photosynthetic (13)CO2 incorporation rates also pointed to a coordinated multilevel down-regulation of photosynthetic fluxes during starch synthesis before the induction of high triacylglycerol accumulation rates. PMID:25489023

  12. The Regulation of Photosynthetic Structure and Function during Nitrogen Deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Matthew T.; Deshpande, Rahul R.; Lucker, Ben F.; Park, Jeong-Jin; Wang, Hongxia; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Holguin, F. Omar; Disbrow, Bradley; Schaub, Tanner; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Kramer, David M.; Gang, David R.; Hicks, Leslie M.; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of carbon storage compounds by many unicellular algae after nutrient deprivation occurs despite declines in their photosynthetic apparatus. To understand the regulation and roles of photosynthesis during this potentially bioenergetically valuable process, we analyzed photosynthetic structure and function after nitrogen deprivation in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolite, and lipid profiling and microscopic time course data were combined with multiple measures of photosynthetic function. Levels of transcripts and proteins of photosystems I and II and most antenna genes fell with differing trajectories; thylakoid membrane lipid levels decreased, while their proportions remained similar and thylakoid membrane organization appeared to be preserved. Cellular chlorophyll (Chl) content decreased more than 2-fold within 24 h, and we conclude from transcript protein and 13C labeling rates that Chl synthesis was down-regulated both pre- and posttranslationally and that Chl levels fell because of a rapid cessation in synthesis and dilution by cellular growth rather than because of degradation. Photosynthetically driven oxygen production and the efficiency of photosystem II as well as P700+ reduction and electrochromic shift kinetics all decreased over the time course, without evidence of substantial energy overflow. The results also indicate that linear electron flow fell approximately 15% more than cyclic flow over the first 24 h. Comparing Calvin-Benson cycle transcript and enzyme levels with changes in photosynthetic 13CO2 incorporation rates also pointed to a coordinated multilevel down-regulation of photosynthetic fluxes during starch synthesis before the induction of high triacylglycerol accumulation rates. PMID:25489023

  13. Biogenesis of Thylakoid Membranes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii y1 (A Kinetic Study of Initial Greening).

    PubMed Central

    White, R. A.; Hoober, J. K.

    1994-01-01

    Initiation of thylakoid membrane assembly was examined in degreened cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii y1 cells depleted of thylakoid membranes and photosynthetic activity by growth in the dark for 3 to 4 d. Photoreductive activities of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) increased with no apparent lag when degreened cells were exposed to light at 38[deg]C. However, fluorescence transients induced by actinic light, which reflect the functional state of PSII, changed only slightly during the first 2 h of greening. When these cells were treated with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) or saturating light, fluorescence increased commensurate with the cellular content of chlorophyll. In similar experiments with greening cells of C. reinhardtii CC-2341 (ac-u-g-2.3), a PSI-minus strain, fluorescence increased with chlorophyll without treatment with DCMU. These data suggested that fluorescence of initial PSII centers in greening y1 cells was quenched by activity of PSI. Continuous monitoring of fluorescence in the presence or absence of DCMU showed that assembly of quenched PSII centers occurred within seconds after exposure of y1 cells to light. These results are consistent with initial assembly of PSI and PSII within localized domains, where their proximity allows efficient energy coupling. PMID:12232351

  14. A dual strategy to cope with high light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Allorent, Guillaume; Tokutsu, Ryutaro; Roach, Thomas; Peers, Graham; Cardol, Pierre; Girard-Bascou, Jacqueline; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Kuntz, Marcel; Breyton, Cécile; Franck, Fabrice; Wollman, Francis-André; Niyogi, Krishna K; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Minagawa, Jun; Finazzi, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Absorption of light in excess of the capacity for photosynthetic electron transport is damaging to photosynthetic organisms. Several mechanisms exist to avoid photodamage, which are collectively referred to as nonphotochemical quenching. This term comprises at least two major processes. State transitions (qT) represent changes in the relative antenna sizes of photosystems II and I. High energy quenching (qE) is the increased thermal dissipation of light energy triggered by lumen acidification. To investigate the respective roles of qE and qT in photoprotection, a mutant (npq4 stt7-9) was generated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by crossing the state transition-deficient mutant (stt7-9) with a strain having a largely reduced qE capacity (npq4). The comparative phenotypic analysis of the wild type, single mutants, and double mutants reveals that both state transitions and qE are induced by high light. Moreover, the double mutant exhibits an increased photosensitivity with respect to the single mutants and the wild type. Therefore, we suggest that besides qE, state transitions also play a photoprotective role during high light acclimation of the cells, most likely by decreasing hydrogen peroxide production. These results are discussed in terms of the relative photoprotective benefit related to thermal dissipation of excess light and/or to the physical displacement of antennas from photosystem II. PMID:23424243

  15. Cu(2+) inhibits photosystem II activities but enhances photosystem I quantum yield of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chunnuan; Pan, Xiangliang; Wang, Shuzhi; Zhang, Daoyong

    2014-08-01

    Responses of photosystem I and II activities of Microcystis aeruginosa to various concentrations of Cu(2+) were simultaneously examined using a Dual-PAM-100 fluorometer. Cell growth and contents of chlorophyll a were significantly inhibited by Cu(2+). Photosystem II activity [Y(II)] and electron transport [rETRmax(II)] were significantly altered by Cu(2+). The quantum yield of photosystem II [Y(II)] decreased by 29 % at 100 μg L(-1) Cu(2+) compared to control. On the contrary, photosystem I was stable under Cu(2+) stress and showed an obvious increase of quantum yield [Y(I)] and electron transport [rETRmax(I)] due to activation of cyclic electron flow (CEF). Yield of cyclic electron flow [Y(CEF)] was enhanced by 17 % at 100 μg L(-1) Cu(2+) compared to control. The contribution of linear electron flow to photosystem I [Y(II)/Y(I)] decreased with increasing Cu(2+) concentration. Yield of cyclic electron flow [Y(CEF)] was negatively correlated with the maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency (F v/F m). In summary, photosystem II was the major target sites of toxicity of Cu(2+), while photosystem I activity was enhanced under Cu(2+) stress. PMID:24920130

  16. Propulsive Forces on the Flagellum during Locomotion of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Bayly, P.V.; Lewis, B.L.; Ranz, E.C.; Okamoto, R.J.; Pless, R.B.; Dutcher, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The distributed propulsive forces exerted on the flagellum of the swimming alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by surrounding fluid were estimated from experimental image data. Images of uniflagellate mutant Chlamydomonas cells were obtained at 350 frames/s with 125-nm spatial resolution, and the motion of the cell body and the flagellum were analyzed in the context of low-Reynolds-number fluid mechanics. Wild-type uniflagellate cells, as well as uniflagellate cells lacking inner dynein arms (ida3) or outer dynein arms (oda2) were studied. Ida3 cells exhibit stunted flagellar waveforms, whereas oda2 cells beat with lower frequency. Image registration and sorting algorithms provided high-resolution estimates of the motion of the cell body, as well as detailed kinematics of the flagellum. The swimming cell was modeled as an ellipsoid in Stokes flow, propelled by viscous forces on the flagellum. The normal and tangential components of force on the flagellum (fN and fT) were related by resistive coefficients (CN and CT) to the corresponding components of velocity (VN and VT).The values of these coefficients were estimated by satisfying equilibrium requirements for force and torque on the cell. The estimated values of the resistive coefficients are consistent among all three genotypes and similar to theoretical predictions. PMID:21641317

  17. Potassium Fluxes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (II. Compartmental Analysis).

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, B.; Glass, ADM.

    1995-01-01

    42K+ and 86Rb+ were used to determine the subcellular distribution of potassium in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by compartmental analysis. In both wild type and a mutant strain, three distinct compartments (referred to as I, II, and III) were apparent. Using 42K+, we found that these had half-lives for K+ exchange of 1.07 min, 12.8 min, and 2.9 h, respectively, in wild-type cells and 0.93 min, 14.7 min, and 9.8 h, respectively, for the mutants. Half-lives were not significantly different when 86Rb+ was used to trace K+. Compartments I and II probably correspond to the cell wall and cytoplasm, respectively. Based on the lack of a large central vacuole in Chlamydomonas, the effect of a dark pretreatment on the kinetic properties of compartment III and the similarity between the [K+] of compartment III and that of isolated chloroplasts, this slowly exchanging compartment was identified as the chloroplast. Growth of wild-type cells at 100 [mu]M (instead of 10 mM K+) caused no change of cytoplasmic [K+] but reduced chloroplast [K+] very substantially. The mutants failed to grow at 100 [mu]M K+. PMID:12228560

  18. Photosynthetic H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular green algae).

    PubMed

    Melis, Anastasios

    2007-10-01

    Unicellular green algae have the ability to operate in two distinctly different environments (aerobic and anaerobic), and to photosynthetically generate molecular hydrogen (H2). A recently developed metabolic protocol in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii permitted separation of photosynthetic O2-evolution and carbon accumulation from anaerobic consumption of cellular metabolites and concomitant photosynthetic H2-evolution. The H2 evolution process was induced upon sulfate nutrient deprivation of the cells, which reversibly inhibits photosystem-II and O2-evolution in their chloroplast. In the absence of O2, and in order to generate ATP, green algae resorted to anaerobic photosynthetic metabolism, evolved H2 in the light and consumed endogenous substrate. This study summarizes recent advances on green algal hydrogen metabolism and discusses avenues of research for the further development of this method. Included is the mechanism of a substantial tenfold starch accumulation in the cells, observed promptly upon S-deprivation, and the regulated starch and protein catabolism during the subsequent H2-evolution. Also discussed is the function of a chloroplast envelope-localized sulfate permease, and the photosynthesis-respiration relationship in green algae as potential tools by which to stabilize and enhance H2 metabolism. In addition to potential practical applications of H2, approaches discussed in this work are beginning to address the biochemistry of anaerobic H2 photoproduction, its genes, proteins, regulation, and communication with other metabolic pathways in microalgae. Photosynthetic H2 production by green algae may hold the promise of generating a renewable fuel from nature's most plentiful resources, sunlight and water. The process potentially concerns global warming and the question of energy supply and demand. PMID:17721788

  19. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  20. Photomixing of chlamydomonas rheinhardtii suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dervaux, Julien; Capellazzi Resta, Marina; Abou, Bérengère; Brunet, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii is a fast swimming unicellular alga able to bias its swimming direction in gradients of light intensity, an ability know as phototaxis. We have investigated experimentally both the swimming behavior of individual cells and the macroscopic response of shallow suspensions of these micro-organisms in response to a localized light source. At low light intensity, algae exhibit positive phototaxis and accumulate beneath the excitation light. In weakly concentrated thin layers, the balance between phototaxis and cell motility results in steady symmetrical patterns compatible with a purely diffusive model using effective diffusion coefficients extracted from the analysis of individual cell trajectories. However, at higher cell density and layer depth, collective effects induce convective flows around the light source. These flows disturb the cell concentration patterns which spread and may then becomes unstable. Using large passive tracer particles, we have characterized the velocity fields associated with this forced bioconvection and their dependence on the cell density and layer depth. By tuning the light distribution, this mechanism of photo-bioconvection allows a fine control over the local fluid flows, and thus the mixing efficiency, in algal suspensions.

  1. Effect of Triacontanol on Chlamydomonas1

    PubMed Central

    Houtz, Robert L.; Ries, Stanley K.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells, cultured at 5% CO2, with 1 to 1000 micrograms triacontanol (TRIA) per liter resulted in 21 to 35% increases in cell density, 7 to 31% increases in total chlorophyll, and 20 to 100% increases in photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. The increase in CO2 fixation with TRIA treatment occurred before, and was independent of, increases in total chlorophyll or cell number. Chlamydomonas cells responded to a broad range of TRIA concentrations that were at least one order of magnitude above the optimum concentration established for higher plants. The necessity for larger concentrations of TRIA may be due to destabilizing effects of Ca2+ and K+ present in the Chlamydomonas growth medium. These ions caused flocculation of the colloidally dispersed TRIA in apparent competition with binding of [14C]TRIA to Chlamydomonas cells. Octacosanol inhibited the effect of TRIA on photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. TRIA treatment did not alter the distribution of 14C-label among photosynthetic products. The effect of TRIA on photosynthetic CO2 assimilation increased with time after treatment up to 3 days. Chlamydomonas cells that had been grown at low-CO2 (air) did not respond to TRIA, and transfer of high-CO2 (5%) grown cells that had responded to TRIA to a low-CO2 atmosphere resulted in a loss of the effect of TRIA. The effect of pH on photosynthetic CO2 assimilation indicated that CO2 is probably the species of inorganic carbon utilized by control and TRIA-treated Chlamydomonas cells. PMID:16664414

  2. A steering mechanism for phototaxis in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rachel R; Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydomonas shows both positive and negative phototaxis. It has a single eyespot near its equator, and as the cell rotates during the forward motion, the light signal received by the eyespot varies. We use a simple mechanical model of Chlamydomonas that couples the flagellar beat pattern to the light intensity at the eyespot to demonstrate a mechanism for phototactic steering that is consistent with observations. The direction of phototaxis is controlled by a parameter in our model, and the steering mechanism is robust to noise. Our model shows switching between directed phototaxis when the light is on and run-and-tumble behaviour in the dark. PMID:25589576

  3. A steering mechanism for phototaxis in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Rachel R.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydomonas shows both positive and negative phototaxis. It has a single eyespot near its equator, and as the cell rotates during the forward motion, the light signal received by the eyespot varies. We use a simple mechanical model of Chlamydomonas that couples the flagellar beat pattern to the light intensity at the eyespot to demonstrate a mechanism for phototactic steering that is consistent with observations. The direction of phototaxis is controlled by a parameter in our model, and the steering mechanism is robust to noise. Our model shows switching between directed phototaxis when the light is on and run-and-tumble behaviour in the dark. PMID:25589576

  4. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PsbS Protein Is Functional and Accumulates Rapidly and Transiently under High Light.

    PubMed

    Tibiletti, Tania; Auroy, Pascaline; Peltier, Gilles; Caffarri, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic organisms must respond to excess light in order to avoid photo-oxidative stress. In plants and green algae the fastest response to high light is non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), a process that allows the safe dissipation of the excess energy as heat. This phenomenon is triggered by the low luminal pH generated by photosynthetic electron transport. In vascular plants the main sensor of the low pH is the PsbS protein, while in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii LhcSR proteins appear to be exclusively responsible for this role. Interestingly, Chlamydomonas also possesses two PsbS genes, but so far the PsbS protein has not been detected and its biological function is unknown. Here, we reinvestigated the kinetics of gene expression and PsbS and LhcSR3 accumulation in Chlamydomonas during high light stress. We found that, unlike LhcSR3, PsbS accumulates very rapidly but only transiently. In order to determine the role of PsbS in NPQ and photoprotection in Chlamydomonas, we generated transplastomic strains expressing the algal or the Arabidopsis psbS gene optimized for plastid expression. Both PsbS proteins showed the ability to increase NPQ in Chlamydomonas wild-type and npq4 (lacking LhcSR3) backgrounds, but no clear photoprotection activity was observed. Quantification of PsbS and LhcSR3 in vivo indicates that PsbS is much less abundant than LhcSR3 during high light stress. Moreover, LhcSR3, unlike PsbS, also accumulates during other stress conditions. The possible role of PsbS in photoprotection is discussed. PMID:27329221

  5. CP29, a monomeric light-harvesting complex II protein, is essential for state transitions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Tokutsu, Ryutaro; Iwai, Masakazu; Minagawa, Jun

    2009-03-20

    In oxygen-evolving photosynthesis, the two photosystems, photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII), function in parallel, and their excitation levels must be balanced to maintain an optimal photosynthetic rate under various light conditions. State transitions balance excitation energy between the two photosystems by redistributing light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins. Here we describe two RNA interference (RNAi) mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with one of the minor monomeric LHCII proteins, CP29 or CP26, knocked down. These two proteins have been identified in PSI-LHCI supercomplexes that harbor mobile LHCII proteins from PSII under a state where PSII is preferentially excited (State 2). We show that both the CP29 and CP26 RNAi mutants undergo reductions in the PSII antenna size during a transition from State 1 (a state where PSI is preferentially excited) to State 2, as reflected by nonphotochemical quenching of fluorescence, low temperature fluorescence spectra, and functional absorption cross-section. However, the undocked LHCIIs from PSII do not re-associate with PSI in the CP29-RNAi (b4i) mutant because the antenna size of PSI was not complementary increased. The mobile LHCIIs in the CP26-RNAi (b5i) mutant, however, re-associate with PSI, whose PSI-LHCI/II supercomplex is visualized on a sucrose density gradient. This study clarifies that CP29, not CP26, is an essential component in state transitions and demonstrates that CP29 is crucial when mobile LHCIIs re-associate with PSI under State 2 conditions. PMID:19144643

  6. Mechanosensitive physiology of chlamydomonas reinhardtii under direct membrane distortion

    PubMed Central

    Min, Seul Ki; Yoon, Gwang Heum; Joo, Jung Hyun; Sim, Sang Jun; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2014-01-01

    Cellular membrane distortion invokes variations in cellular physiology. However, lack of an appropriate system to control the stress and facilitate molecular analyses has hampered progress of relevant studies. In this study, a microfluidic system that finely manipulates membrane distortion of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) was developed. The device facilitated a first-time demonstration that directs membrane distortion invokes variations in deflagellation, cell cycle, and lipid metabolism. C. reinhardtii showed a prolonged G1 phase with an extended total cell cycle time, and upregulated Mat3 regulated a cell size and cell cycle. Additionally, increased TAG compensated for the loss of cell mass. Overall, this study suggest that cell biology that requires direct membrane distortion can be realized using this system, and the implication of cell cycle with Mat3 expression of C. reinhardtii was first demonstrated. Finally, membrane distortion can be an attractive inducer for biodiesel production since it is reliable and robust. PMID:24728350

  7. Biogenesis of water splitting by photosystem II during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Shevela, Dmitriy; Arnold, Janine; Reisinger, Veronika; Berends, Hans-Martin; Kmiec, Karol; Koroidov, Sergey; Bue, Ann Kristin; Messinger, Johannes; Eichacker, Lutz A

    2016-07-01

    Etioplasts lack thylakoid membranes and photosystem complexes. Light triggers differentiation of etioplasts into mature chloroplasts, and photosystem complexes assemble in parallel with thylakoid membrane development. Plastids isolated at various time points of de-etiolation are ideal to study the kinetic biogenesis of photosystem complexes during chloroplast development. Here, we investigated the chronology of photosystem II (PSII) biogenesis by monitoring assembly status of chlorophyll-binding protein complexes and development of water splitting via O2 production in plastids (etiochloroplasts) isolated during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Assembly of PSII monomers, dimers and complexes binding outer light-harvesting antenna [PSII-light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplexes] was identified after 1, 2 and 4 h of de-etiolation, respectively. Water splitting was detected in parallel with assembly of PSII monomers, and its development correlated with an increase of bound Mn in the samples. After 4 h of de-etiolation, etiochloroplasts revealed the same water-splitting efficiency as mature chloroplasts. We conclude that the capability of PSII to split water during de-etiolation precedes assembly of the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. Taken together, data show a rapid establishment of water-splitting activity during etioplast-to-chloroplast transition and emphasize that assembly of the functional water-splitting site of PSII is not the rate-limiting step in the formation of photoactive thylakoid membranes. PMID:26836813

  8. A new method to identify flanking sequence tags in chlamydomonas using 3’-RACE

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, although a premier model organism in biology, still lacks extensive insertion mutant libraries with well-identified Flanking Sequence Tags (FSTs). Rapid and efficient methods are needed for FST retrieval. Results Here, we present a novel method to identify FSTs in insertional mutants of Chlamydomonas. Transformants can be obtained with a resistance cassette lacking a 3’ untranslated region (UTR), suggesting that the RNA that is produced from the resistance marker terminates in the flanking genome when it encounters a cleavage/polyadenylation signal. We have used a robust 3’-RACE method to specifically amplify such chimeric cDNAs. Out of 38 randomly chosen transformants, 27 (71%) yielded valid FSTs, of which 23 could be unambiguously mapped to the genome. Eighteen of the mutants lie within a predicted gene. All but two of the intragenic insertions occur in the sense orientation with respect to transcription, suggesting a bias against situations of convergent transcription. Among the 14 insertion sites tested by genomic PCR, 12 could be confirmed. Among these are insertions in genes coding for PSBS3 (possibly involved in non-photochemical quenching), the NimA-related protein kinase CNK2, the mono-dehydroascorbate reductase MDAR1, the phosphoglycerate mutase PGM5 etc.. Conclusion We propose that our 3’-RACE FST method can be used to build large scale FST libraries in Chlamydomonas and other transformable organisms. PMID:22735168

  9. Fermentative metabolism of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Gfeller, R.P.; Gibbs, M.

    1984-05-01

    The anaerobic starch breakdown into end-products in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii F-60 has been investigated in the dark and in the light. The effects of 3-(3,4-dicholorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (FCCP) on the fermentation in the light have also been investigated. Anaerobic starch breakdown rate (13.1 +/- 3.5 micromoles C per milligram chlorophyll per hour) is increased 2-fold by FCCP in the dark. Light (100 watts per square meter) decreases up to 4-fold the dark rate, an inhibition reversed by FCCP. In the dark, formate, acetate, and ethanol are formed in the ratios of 2.07:1.07:0.91, and account for roughly 100% of the C from the starch. H/sub 2/ production is 0.43 mole per mole glucose in the starch. Glycerol, D-lactate, and CO/sub 2/ have been detected in minor amounts. In the light, with DCMU and FCCP present, acetate is produced in a 1:1 ratio to formate, and H/sub 2/ evolution is 2.13 moles per mole glucose. When FCCP only is present, acetate production is lower, and CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ evolutions is 1.60 and 4.73 moles per mole glucose, respectively. When DCMU alone is present, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ photoevolution is higher than in the dark. Without DCMU, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ evolution is about 100% higher than in its presence. In both conditions, acetate is not formed. In all conditions in the light, ethanol is a minor product. Formate production is least affected by light. The stoichiometry in the dark indicates that starch is degraded via the glycolytic pathway, and pyruvate is broken down into acetyl-CoA and formate. Acetyl-CoA is further dissimilated into acetate and ethanol. In the light, acetate is produced only in the presence of FCCP and, when photophosphorylation is possible, it is used in unidentified reactions. Ethanol formation is inhibited by the light in all conditions. 30 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Excitation energy transfer in the photosystem I

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Andrew N

    2012-09-25

    Photosystem I is a multimeric pigment protein complex in plants, green alage and cyanobacteria that functions in series with Photosystem II to use light energy to oxidize water and reduce carbon dioxide. The Photosystem I core complex contains 96 chlorophyll a molecules and 22 carotenoids that are involved in light harvesting and electron transfer. In eucaryotes, PSI also has a peripheral light harvesting complex I (LHCI). The role of specific chlorophylls in excitation and electron transfer are still unresolved. In particular, the role of so-called bridging chlorophylls, located between the bulk antenna and the core electron transfer chain, in the transfer of excitation energy to the reaction center are unknown. During the past funding period, site directed mutagenesis has been used to create mutants that effect the physical properties of these key chlorophylls, and to explore how this alters the function of the photosystem. Studying these mutants using ultrafast absorption spectroscopy has led to a better understanding of the process by which excitation energy is transferred from the antenna chlorophylls to the electron transfer chain chlorophylls, and what the role of connecting chlorophylls and A_0 chlorophylls is in this process. We have also used these mutants to investigate whch of the central group of six chlorophylls are involved in the primary steps of charge separation and electron transfer.

  11. Structure of plant photosystem I revealed by theoretical modeling.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Craig; Ben-Shem, Adam; Nelson, Nathan; Fromme, Petra

    2005-09-30

    Photosystem (PS) I is a large membrane protein complex vital for oxygenic photosynthesis, one of the most important biological processes on the planet. We present an "atomic" model of higher plant PSI, based on theoretical modeling using the recent 4.4 angstroms x-ray crystal structure of PSI from pea. Because of the lack of information on the amino acid side chains in the x-ray structural model and the high cofactor content in this system, novel modeling techniques were developed. Our model reveals some important structural features of plant PSI that were not visible in the crystal structure, and our model sheds light on the evolutionary relationship between plant and cyanobacterial PSI. PMID:15955818

  12. Evidence for the involvement of cyclic electron transport in the protection of photosystem II against photoinhibition: influence of a new phenolic compound.

    PubMed

    Allakhverdiev, S I; Klimov, V V; Carpentier, R

    1997-04-01

    Organisms that perform oxygenic photosynthesis are subjected to inhibition of their photosynthetic functions when they are exposed to excessive illumination. Photoinhibition occurs mainly at the level of photosystem II, where a cyclic electron transport has often been proposed to be involved in photoprotection. However, a demonstration of direct protection by cyclic photosystem II against photoinhibitory damage has been lacking. In this report, we used the newly characterized compound 4-[methoxybis(trifluoromethyl)methyl]-2,6-dinitrophenylhydrazine methyl ketone (K-15), known to stimulate cyclic electron transport between the acceptor and donor sides of the photosystem [Klimov, V. V., Zharmukhamedov, S. K., Allakhverdiev, S. I., Kolobanova, L. P., & Baskakov, Y. A. (1993) Biol. Membr. 6, 715-732], to verify if photosystem II is significantly protected by cyclic electron transport against aerobic and anaerobic photoinhibitory damage. The photoinhibitory quenching of the maximal level of fluorescence and the decrease of the absorbance change at 685 nm related to pheophytin photoreduction observed during photoinhibitory illumination of untreated or Mn-depleted photosystem II submembrane fractions are significantly attenuated in the presence of K-15. The photodegradation of cytochrome b559 and the photobleaching of beta-carotene and chlorophyll-670 measured in Mn-depleted photosystem II preparations are also strongly retarded when K-15 is present. The detection, by photoacoustic spectroscopy, of the energy stored during the cyclic electron transport is also reported in Mn-depleted photosystem II submembrane fractions and in photosystem II reaction center complexes. This reaction is also gradually photoinhibited due to the progressive photodegradation of the required electron transport intermediates but is significantly more stable in the presence of K-15. It is deduced that cyclic electron transport around photosystem II constitutes an effective protective mechanism

  13. Reversed-phase HPLC determination of chlorophyll a' and phylloquinone in Photosystem I of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Universal existence of one chlorophyll a' molecule in Photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akimasa; Akai, Masahiko; Yoshida, Emi; Taki, Takashi; Watanabe, Tadashi

    2003-06-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) a', the C132-epimer of Chl a, is a constituent of the primary electron donor (P700) of Photosystem (PS) I of a thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus (Thermosynechococcus) elongatus, as was recently demonstrated by X-ray crystallography. To determine whether PS I of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms universally contains one molecule of Chl a', pigment compositions of thylakoid membranes and PS I complexes isolated from the cyanobacteria T. elongatus and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the green plant spinach, were examined by simultaneous detection of phylloquinone (the secondary electron acceptor of PS I) and Chl a' by reversed-phase HPLC. The results were compared with the Chl a/P700 ratio determined spectrophotometrically. The Chl a'/PS I ratios of thylakoid membranes and PS I were about 1 for all the organisms examined, and one Chl a' molecule was found in PS I even after most of the peripheral subunits were removed. Chl a' showed a characteristic extraction behaviour significantly different from the bulk Chl a in acetone/methanol extraction upon varying the mixing ratio. These findings confirm that a single Chl a' molecule in P700 is the universal feature of PS I of the Chl a-based oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. PMID:12755700

  14. Primary light harvesting system: the relationship of phycobilisomes to Photosystem I and II. Progress report, September 1983-May 1985. [Porphyridium cruentum

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, E.

    1985-01-01

    The association of phycobilisomes, the primary photosynthetic antennae systems in red algae and cyanobacteria, with Photosystem II, previously expected from energy transfer measurements, has now been established. Photosystem-II-phycobilisome particles from the red alga Porphyridium cruentum were isolated. These particles lack photosystem I components, have high O/sub 2/-evolution rates, which are sensitive to DCMU and are abolished by 10 mM hydroxylamine. The phycobilisomes were functionally attached, since green light which is absorbed by phycoerythrin was most effective in driving O/sub 2/-evolution and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol reduction. The majority of the particles appear by electron microscopy to retain small membrane fragments at their base. Selective removal of the phycobilisome components results in the enrichment of a 50 kD polypeptide which is considered to be the putative photosystem II reaction center. 14 refs.

  15. Double reduction of plastoquinone to plastoquinol in photosystem 1.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Michael D; Cowgill, John B; Baker, Patricia L; Rappaport, Fabrice; Redding, Kevin E

    2011-12-27

    In Photosystem 1 (PS1), phylloquinone (PhQ) acts as a secondary electron acceptor from chlorophyll ec(3) and also as an electron donor to the iron-sulfur cluster F(X). PS1 possesses two virtually equivalent branches of electron transfer (ET) cofactors from P(700) to F(X), and the lifetime of the semiquinone intermediate displays biphasic kinetics, reflecting ET along the two different branches. PhQ in PS1 serves only as an intermediate in ET and is not normally fully reduced to the quinol form. This is in contrast to PS2, in which plastoquinone (PQ) is doubly reduced to plastoquinol (PQH(2)) as the terminal electron acceptor. We purified PS1 particles from the menD1 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that cannot synthesize PhQ, resulting in replacement of PhQ by PQ in the quinone-binding pocket. The magnitude of the stable flash-induced P(700)(+) signal of menD1 PS1, but not wild-type PS1, decreased during a train of laser flashes, as it was replaced by a ~30 ns back-reaction from the preceding radical pair (P(700)(+)A(0)(-)). We show that this process of photoinactivation is due to double reduction of PQ in the menD1 PS1 and have characterized the process. It is accelerated at lower pH, consistent with a rate-limiting protonation step. Moreover, a point mutation (PsaA-L722T) in the PhQ(A) site that accelerates ET to F(X) ~2-fold, likely by weakening the sole H-bond to PhQ(A), also accelerates the photoinactivation process. The addition of exogenous PhQ can restore activity to photoinactivated PS1 and confer resistance to further photoinactivation. This process also occurs with PS1 purified from the menB PhQ biosynthesis mutant of Synechocystis PCC 6803, demonstrating that it is a general phenomenon in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic PS1. PMID:22103567

  16. A comparison of hydrogen photoproduction by sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Kosourov, Sergey; Patrusheva, Elena; Ghirardi, Maria L; Seibert, Michael; Tsygankov, Anatoly

    2007-03-10

    Continuous photoproduction of H(2) by the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is observed after incubating the cultures for about a day in the absence of sulfate and in the presence of acetate. Sulfur deprivation causes the partial and reversible inactivation of photosynthetic O(2) evolution in algae, resulting in the light-induced establishment of anaerobic conditions in sealed photobioreactors, expression of two [FeFe]-hydrogenases in the cells, and H(2) photoproduction for several days. We have previously demonstrated that sulfur-deprived algal cultures can produce H(2) gas in the absence of acetate, when appropriate experimental protocols were used (Tsygankov, A.A., Kosourov, S.N., Tolstygina, I.V., Ghirardi, M.L., Seibert, M., 2006. Hydrogen production by sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under photoautotrophic conditions. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 31, 1574-1584). We now report the use of an automated photobioreactor system to compare the effects of photoautotrophic, photoheterotrophic and photomixotrophic growth conditions on the kinetic parameters associated with the adaptation of the algal cells to sulfur deprivation and H(2) photoproduction. This was done under the experimental conditions outlined in the above reference, including controlled pH. From this comparison we show that both acetate and CO(2) are required for the most rapid inactivation of photosystem II and the highest yield of H(2) gas production. Although, the presence of acetate in the system is not critical for the process, H(2) photoproduction under photoautotrophic conditions can be increased by optimizing the conditions for high starch accumulation. These results suggest ways of engineering algae to improve H(2) production, which in turn may have a positive impact on the economics of applied systems for H(2) production. PMID:17275940

  17. A steering mechanism for phototaxis in Chlamydomonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Rachel; Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydomonas shows both positive and negative phototaxis. It has a single eyespot near its equator and as the cell rotates during forward motion the light signal received by the eyespot varies. We use a simple mechanical model of Chlamydomonas that couples the flagellar beat pattern to the light intensity at the eyespot to demonstrate a mechanism for phototactic steering that is consistent with observations. The direction of phototaxis is controlled by a parameter in our model and the steering mechanism is robust to noise. In the dark, our model shows emergent run-and-tumble behavior and we see switching between directed phototaxis and run-and-tumble when we switch the light on and off.

  18. Chlamydomonas sajao nov. sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Ralph A.

    1984-06-01

    A new species of Chlamydomonas, namely, C. sajao nov. sp. of the Volvocales, Chlorophyta was isolated from a duckweed growing near a ricefield in the vicinity of Guangzhou, China. This interesting unicellular green alga, similar to C. mexicana from Mexico, secretes quantities of extracellular mucilaginous polysaccharides, and may be employed in improving soil quality. The new species resembles C. waldenburgensis Moewus in most characteristics but differs in three important features.

  19. The Dynein Gene Family in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Porter, M. E.; Knott, J. A.; Myster, S. H.; Farlow, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    To correlate dynein heavy chain (Dhc) genes with flagellar mutations and gain insight into the function of specific dynein isoforms, we placed eight members of the Dhc gene family on the genetic map of Chlamydomonas. Using a PCR-based strategy, we cloned 11 Dhc genes from Chlamydomonas. Comparisons with other Dhc genes indicate that two clones correspond to genes encoding the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer dynein arm. Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences spanning the nucleotide binding site indicates that the remaining nine clones can be subdivided into three groups that are likely to include representatives of the inner-arm Dhc isoforms. Gene-specific probes reveal that each clone represents a single-copy gene that is expressed as a transcript of the appropriate size (>13 kb) sufficient to encode a high molecular weight Dhc polypeptide. The expression of all nine genes is upregulated in response to deflagellation, suggesting a role in axoneme assembly or motility. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms between divergent C. reinhardtii strains have been used to place each Dhc gene on the genetic map of Chlamydomonas. These studies lay the groundwork for correlating defects in different Dhc genes with specific flagellar mutations. PMID:8889521

  20. Effect of Triacontanol on Chlamydomonas1

    PubMed Central

    Houtz, Robert L.; Ries, Stanley K.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic CO2 assimilation by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells treated with triacontanol (TRIA) was not due to changes in glycolate excretion, CO2 compensation point, or the sensitivity of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation to O2. Kinetic analysis of TRIA-treated cells showed that the increase in photosynthetic CO2 assimilation was a result of an increase in the apparent Vmax for intact cells. The total activity of ribulose-P2 carboxylase/oxygenase was higher in cell lysates from TRIA-treated cells. However quantification of this enzyme concentration by binding of [14C]carboxyarabinitol-P2 did not show an increase in TRIA-treated cells. Thus, there was an increase in the specific activity of ribulose-P2 carboxylase/oxygenase extracted from Chlamydomonas cells treated with TRIA. TRIA alone had no effect on the activity of the enzyme in cell lysates from Chlamydomonas or purified from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. The ribulose-P2 pool was 50 to 60% higher in cells treated with TRIA that were assayed for photosynthetic CO2 assimilation at high- and low-CO2. TRIA also increased ribulose-P2 levels in the absence of CO2 in the light with atmospheres of N2 or N2 with 21% O2. PMID:16664415

  1. Modulation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by TLA1 gene over-expression and RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Mautusi; Kirst, Henning; Dewez, David; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Truncated light-harvesting antenna 1 (TLA1) is a nuclear gene proposed to regulate the chlorophyll (Chl) antenna size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The Chl antenna size of the photosystems and the chloroplast ultrastructure were manipulated upon TLA1 gene over-expression and RNAi downregulation. The TLA1 over-expressing lines possessed a larger chlorophyll antenna size for both photosystems and contained greater levels of Chl b per cell relative to the wild type. Conversely, TLA1 RNAi transformants had a smaller Chl antenna size for both photosystems and lower levels of Chl b per cell. Western blot analyses of the TLA1 over-expressing and RNAi transformants showed that modulation of TLA1 gene expression was paralleled by modulation in the expression of light-harvesting protein, reaction centre D1 and D2, and VIPP1 genes. Transmission electron microscopy showed that modulation of TLA1 gene expression impacts the organization of thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast. Over-expressing lines showed well-defined grana, whereas RNAi transformants possessed loosely held together and more stroma-exposed thylakoids. Cell fractionation suggested localization of the TLA1 protein in the inner chloroplast envelope and potentially in association with nascent thylakoid membranes, indicating a role in Chl antenna assembly and thylakoid membrane biogenesis. The results provide a mechanistic understanding of the Chl antenna size regulation by the TLA1 gene. PMID:23148270

  2. Chlamydomonas Xanthophyll Cycle Mutants Identified by Video Imaging of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Quenching.

    PubMed Central

    Niyogi, K. K.; Bjorkman, O.; Grossman, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in plants is protected against oxidative damage by processes that dissipate excess absorbed light energy as heat within the light-harvesting complexes. This dissipation of excitation energy is measured as nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Nonphotochemical quenching depends primarily on the [delta]pH that is generated by photosynthetic electron transport, and it is also correlated with the amounts of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin that are formed from violaxanthin by the operation of the xanthophyll cycle. To perform a genetic dissection of nonphotochemical quenching, we have isolated npq mutants of Chlamydomonas by using a digital video-imaging system. In excessive light, the npq1 mutant is unable to convert violaxanthin to antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin; this reaction is catalyzed by violaxanthin de-epoxidase. The npq2 mutant appears to be defective in zeaxanthin epoxidase activity, because it accumulates zeaxanthin and completely lacks antheraxanthin and violaxanthin under all light conditions. Characterization of these mutants demonstrates that a component of nonphotochemical quenching that develops in vivo in Chlamydomonas depends on the accumulation of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin via the xanthophyll cycle. However, observation of substantial, rapid, [delta]pH-dependent nonphotochemical quenching in the npq1 mutant demonstrates that the formation of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin via violaxanthin de-epoxidase activity is not required for all [delta]pH-dependent nonphotochemical quenching in this alga. Furthermore, the xanthophyll cycle is not required for survival of Chlamydomonas in excessive light. PMID:12237386

  3. Mutants of Chlamydomonas: tools to study thylakoid membrane structure, function and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Vitry, C; Vallon, O

    1999-06-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model system for the study of photosynthesis and chloroplast biogenesis. C. reinhardtii has a photosynthesis apparatus similar to that of higher plants and it grows at rapid rate (generation time about 8 h). It is a facultative phototroph, which allows the isolation of mutants unable to perform photosynthesis and its sexual cycle allows a variety of genetic studies. Transformation of the nucleus and chloroplast genomes is easily performed. Gene transformation occurs mainly by homologous recombination in the chloroplast and heterologous recombination in the nucleus. Mutants are precious tools for studies of thylakoid membrane structure, photosynthetic function and assembly. Photosynthesis mutants affected in the biogenesis of a subunit of a protein complex usually lack the entire complex; this pleiotropic effect has been used in the identification of the other subunits, in the attribution of spectroscopic signals and also as a 'genetic cleaning' process which facilitates both protein complex purification, absorption spectroscopy studies or freeze-fracture analysis. The cytochrome b6f complex is not required for the growth of C. reinhardtii, unlike the case of photosynthetic prokaryotes in which the cytochrome complex is also part of the respiratory chain, and can be uniquely studied in Chlamydomonas by genetic approaches. We describe in greater detail the use of Chlamydomonas mutants in the study of this complex. PMID:10433117

  4. Chloroplast remodeling during state transitions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as revealed by noninvasive techniques in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gergely; Ünnep, Renáta; Zsiros, Ottó; Tokutsu, Ryutaro; Takizawa, Kenji; Porcar, Lionel; Moyet, Lucas; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Garab, Győző; Finazzi, Giovanni; Minagawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to changes in light quality by regulating the absorption capacity of their photosystems. These short-term adaptations use redox-controlled, reversible phosphorylation of the light-harvesting complexes (LHCIIs) to regulate the relative absorption cross-section of the two photosystems (PSs), commonly referred to as state transitions. It is acknowledged that state transitions induce substantial reorganizations of the PSs. However, their consequences on the chloroplast structure are more controversial. Here, we investigate how state transitions affect the chloroplast structure and function using complementary approaches for the living cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we found a strong periodicity of the thylakoids in state 1, with characteristic repeat distances of ∼200 Å, which was almost completely lost in state 2. As revealed by circular dichroism, changes in the thylakoid periodicity were paralleled by modifications in the long-range order arrangement of the photosynthetic complexes, which was reduced by ∼20% in state 2 compared with state 1, but was not abolished. Furthermore, absorption spectroscopy reveals that the enhancement of PSI antenna size during state 1 to state 2 transition (∼20%) is not commensurate to the decrease in PSII antenna size (∼70%), leading to the possibility that a large part of the phosphorylated LHCIIs do not bind to PSI, but instead form energetically quenched complexes, which were shown to be either associated with PSII supercomplexes or in a free form. Altogether these noninvasive in vivo approaches allow us to present a more likely scenario for state transitions that explains their molecular mechanism and physiological consequences. PMID:24639515

  5. Expression of chloroplast protein genes during the cell cycle of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: evidence for transcriptional and translocational control

    SciTech Connect

    Herrin, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells, growing synchronously under a repeating 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, were used to investigate the synthesis and regulation of chloroplast proteins. The cells accumulate chlorophyll, the major thylakoid membrane proteins, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) during the light (G1) period of the cell cycle. Pulse-labeling in vivo with (/sup 3/H)arginine, and analysis of the protein synthetic capacity of thylakoid-bound polysomes in vitro, shows that these proteins are synthesized de novo during the light. Specific antibody and cloned DNA probes were obtained and used to estimate translatable and/or steady-state mRNA levels for light-harvesting (LHCII) and reaction center (D-1 and D-2) polypeptides of photosystem II, a light-harvesting polypeptide of photosystem I (LHCI), and the large (LS) and small (SS) subunits of RuBPCase. Levels of mRNA for the nuclear-encoded LHCI, LHCII and SS correlated with the synthesis of these polypeptides in vivo; they were higher in the light period and several-folded lower or absent during the dark period. The results suggest that synthesis of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins are regulated primarily by the level of mRNA. In contrast, regulation of chloroplast-encoded genes is achieved by controlling the translation of mRNA that is constitutively present, and by transcriptional mechanisms during light induction.

  6. Combined increases in mitochondrial cooperation and oxygen photoreduction compensate for deficiency in cyclic electron flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Dang, Kieu-Van; Plet, Julie; Tolleter, Dimitri; Jokel, Martina; Cuiné, Stéphan; Carrier, Patrick; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Johnson, Xenie; Alric, Jean; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    During oxygenic photosynthesis, metabolic reactions of CO2 fixation require more ATP than is supplied by the linear electron flow operating from photosystem II to photosystem I (PSI). Different mechanisms, such as cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI, have been proposed to participate in reequilibrating the ATP/NADPH balance. To determine the contribution of CEF to microalgal biomass productivity, here, we studied photosynthesis and growth performances of a knockout Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant (pgrl1) deficient in PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION LIKE1 (PGRL1)-mediated CEF. Steady state biomass productivity of the pgrl1 mutant, measured in photobioreactors operated as turbidostats, was similar to its wild-type progenitor under a wide range of illumination and CO2 concentrations. Several changes were observed in pgrl1, including higher sensitivity of photosynthesis to mitochondrial inhibitors, increased light-dependent O2 uptake, and increased amounts of flavodiiron (FLV) proteins. We conclude that a combination of mitochondrial cooperation and oxygen photoreduction downstream of PSI (Mehler reactions) supplies extra ATP for photosynthesis in the pgrl1 mutant, resulting in normal biomass productivity under steady state conditions. The lower biomass productivity observed in the pgrl1 mutant in fluctuating light is attributed to an inability of compensation mechanisms to respond to a rapid increase in ATP demand. PMID:24989042

  7. A Light Switch Based on Protein S-Nitrosylation Fine-Tunes Photosynthetic Light Harvesting in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Berger, Hanna; De Mia, Marcello; Morisse, Samuel; Marchand, Christophe H; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Wobbe, Lutz; Kruse, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    Photosynthetic eukaryotes are challenged by a fluctuating light supply, demanding for a modulated expression of nucleus-encoded light-harvesting proteins associated with photosystem II (LHCII) to adjust light-harvesting capacity to the prevailing light conditions. Here, we provide clear evidence for a regulatory circuit that controls cytosolic LHCII translation in response to light quantity changes. In the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the cytosolic RNA-binding protein NAB1 represses translation of certain LHCII isoform mRNAs. Specific nitrosylation of Cys-226 decreases NAB1 activity and could be demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The less active, nitrosylated form of NAB1 is found in cells acclimated to limiting light supply, which permits accumulation of light-harvesting proteins and efficient light capture. In contrast, elevated light supply causes its denitrosylation, thereby activating the repression of light-harvesting protein synthesis, which is needed to control excitation pressure at photosystem II. Denitrosylation of recombinant NAB1 is efficiently performed by the cytosolic thioredoxin system in vitro. To our knowledge, NAB1 is the first example of stimulus-induced denitrosylation in the context of photosynthetic acclimation. By identifying this novel redox cross-talk pathway between chloroplast and cytosol, we add a new key element required for drawing a precise blue print of the regulatory network of light harvesting. PMID:27208221

  8. A Comparison Between Plant Photosystem I and Photosystem II Architecture and Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Caffarri, Stefano; Tibiletti, Tania; Jennings, Robert C.; Santabarbara, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is indispensable both for the development and maintenance of life on earth by converting light energy into chemical energy and by producing molecular oxygen and consuming carbon dioxide. This latter process has been responsible for reducing the CO2 from its very high levels in the primitive atmosphere to the present low levels and thus reducing global temperatures to levels conducive to the development of life. Photosystem I and photosystem II are the two multi-protein complexes that contain the pigments necessary to harvest photons and use light energy to catalyse the primary photosynthetic endergonic reactions producing high energy compounds. Both photosystems are highly organised membrane supercomplexes composed of a core complex, containing the reaction centre where electron transport is initiated, and of a peripheral antenna system, which is important for light harvesting and photosynthetic activity regulation. If on the one hand both the chemical reactions catalysed by the two photosystems and their detailed structure are different, on the other hand they share many similarities. In this review we discuss and compare various aspects of the organisation, functioning and regulation of plant photosystems by comparing them for similarities and differences as obtained by structural, biochemical and spectroscopic investigations. PMID:24678674

  9. A rapid, modular and marker-free chloroplast expression system for the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Bertalan, Ivo; Munder, Matthias C; Weiß, Caroline; Kopf, Judith; Fischer, Dirk; Johanningmeier, Udo

    2015-02-10

    In search of alternative expression platforms heterologous protein production in microalgae has gained increasing importance in the last years. Particularly, the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been adopted to successfully express foreign proteins like vaccines and antibodies. However, when compared with other expression systems, the development of the algal chloroplast to a powerful production platform for recombinant proteins is still in its early stages. In an effort to further improve methods for a reliable and rapid generation of transplastomic Chlamydomonas strains we constructed the key plasmid pMM2 containing the psbA gene and a multiple cloning site for foreign gene insertion. The psbA gene allows a marker-free selection procedure using as a recipient the Fud7 strain of Chlamydomonas, which grows on media containing acetate as a carbon source, but is unable to grow photoautotrophically due to the lack of an intact psbA gene. Biolistic transformation of Fud7 with vectors containing this gene restores photoautotrophic growth and thus permits selection in the light on media without carbon sources and antibiotics. The multiple cloning site with a BsaI recognition sequence allows type IIs restriction enzyme-based modular cloning which rapidly generates new gene constructs without sequences, which could influence the expression and characteristics of the foreign protein. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, a codon optimized version of the gene for the bacterial protein MPT64 has been integrated into the plastome. Several strains with different promoter/UTR combinations show a stable expression of the HA tagged MPT64 protein in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts. PMID:25554634

  10. Crystal structure of plant photosystem I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Shem, Adam; Frolow, Felix; Nelson, Nathan

    2003-12-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal producer of both oxygen and organic matter on Earth. The conversion of sunlight into chemical energy is driven by two multisubunit membrane protein complexes named photosystem I and II. We determined the crystal structure of the complete photosystem I (PSI) from a higher plant (Pisum sativum var. alaska) to 4.4Å resolution. Its intricate structure shows 12 core subunits, 4 different light-harvesting membrane proteins (LHCI) assembled in a half-moon shape on one side of the core, 45 transmembrane helices, 167 chlorophylls, 3 Fe-S clusters and 2 phylloquinones. About 20 chlorophylls are positioned in strategic locations in the cleft between LHCI and the core. This structure provides a framework for exploration not only of energy and electron transfer but also of the evolutionary forces that shaped the photosynthetic apparatus of terrestrial plants after the divergence of chloroplasts from marine cyanobacteria one billion years ago.

  11. MEETING: Chlamydomonas Annotation Jamboree - October 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Arthur R

    2007-04-13

    Shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas throughout) was performed at an approximate 10X coverage by JGI. Roughly half of the genome is now contained on 26 scaffolds, all of which are at least 1.6 Mb, and the coverage of the genome is ~95%. There are now over 200,000 cDNA sequence reads that we have generated as part of the Chlamydomonas genome project (Grossman, 2003; Shrager et al., 2003; Grossman et al. 2007; Merchant et al., 2007); other sequences have also been generated by the Kasuza sequence group (Asamizu et al., 1999; Asamizu et al., 2000) or individual laboratories that have focused on specific genes. Shrager et al. (2003) placed the reads into distinct contigs (an assemblage of reads with overlapping nucleotide sequences), and contigs that group together as part of the same genes have been designated ACEs (assembly of contigs generated from EST information). All of the reads have also been mapped to the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome and the cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences have been reassembled, and the resulting assemblage is called an ACEG (an Assembly of contiguous EST sequences supported by genomic sequence) (Jain et al., 2007). Most of the unique genes or ACEGs are also represented by gene models that have been generated by the Joint Genome Institute (JGI, Walnut Creek, CA). These gene models have been placed onto the DNA scaffolds and are presented as a track on the Chlamydomonas genome browser associated with the genome portal (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Chlre3/Chlre3.home.html). Ultimately, the meeting grant awarded by DOE has helped enormously in the development of an annotation pipeline (a set of guidelines used in the annotation of genes) and resulted in high quality annotation of over 4,000 genes; the annotators were from both Europe and the USA. Some of the people who led the annotation initiative were Arthur Grossman, Olivier Vallon, and Sabeeha Merchant (with many individual

  12. Arabidopsis Mutants Deleted in the Light-Harvesting Protein Lhcb4 Have a Disrupted Photosystem II Macrostructure and Are Defective in Photoprotection[C][W

    PubMed Central

    de Bianchi, Silvia; Betterle, Nico; Kouril, Roman; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Boekema, Egbert; Bassi, Roberto; Dall’Osto, Luca

    2011-01-01

    The role of the light-harvesting complex Lhcb4 (CP29) in photosynthesis was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana by characterizing knockout lines for each of the three Lhcb4 isoforms (Lhcb4.1/4.2/4.3). Plants lacking all isoforms (koLhcb4) showed a compensatory increase of Lhcb1 and a slightly reduced photosystem II/I ratio with respect to the wild type. The absence of Lhcb4 did not result in alteration in electron transport rates. However, the kinetic of state transition was faster in the mutant, and nonphotochemical quenching activity was lower in koLhcb4 plants with respect to either wild type or mutants retaining a single Lhcb4 isoform. KoLhcb4 plants were more sensitive to photoinhibition, while this effect was not observed in knockout lines for any other photosystem II antenna subunit. Ultrastructural analysis of thylakoid grana membranes showed a lower density of photosystem II complexes in koLhcb4. Moreover, analysis of isolated supercomplexes showed a different overall shape of the C2S2 particles due to a different binding mode of the S-trimer to the core complex. An empty space was observed within the photosystem II supercomplex at the Lhcb4 position, implying that the missing Lhcb4 was not replaced by other Lhc subunits. This suggests that Lhcb4 is unique among photosystem II antenna proteins and determinant for photosystem II macro-organization and photoprotection. PMID:21803939

  13. Arabidopsis mutants deleted in the light-harvesting protein Lhcb4 have a disrupted photosystem II macrostructure and are defective in photoprotection.

    PubMed

    de Bianchi, Silvia; Betterle, Nico; Kouril, Roman; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Boekema, Egbert; Bassi, Roberto; Dall'Osto, Luca

    2011-07-01

    The role of the light-harvesting complex Lhcb4 (CP29) in photosynthesis was investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana by characterizing knockout lines for each of the three Lhcb4 isoforms (Lhcb4.1/4.2/4.3). Plants lacking all isoforms (koLhcb4) showed a compensatory increase of Lhcb1 and a slightly reduced photosystem II/I ratio with respect to the wild type. The absence of Lhcb4 did not result in alteration in electron transport rates. However, the kinetic of state transition was faster in the mutant, and nonphotochemical quenching activity was lower in koLhcb4 plants with respect to either wild type or mutants retaining a single Lhcb4 isoform. KoLhcb4 plants were more sensitive to photoinhibition, while this effect was not observed in knockout lines for any other photosystem II antenna subunit. Ultrastructural analysis of thylakoid grana membranes showed a lower density of photosystem II complexes in koLhcb4. Moreover, analysis of isolated supercomplexes showed a different overall shape of the C₂S₂ particles due to a different binding mode of the S-trimer to the core complex. An empty space was observed within the photosystem II supercomplex at the Lhcb4 position, implying that the missing Lhcb4 was not replaced by other Lhc subunits. This suggests that Lhcb4 is unique among photosystem II antenna proteins and determinant for photosystem II macro-organization and photoprotection. PMID:21803939

  14. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambreva, M.; Rea, G.; Antonacci, A.; Serafini, A.; Damasso, M.; Pastorelli, S.; Margonelli, A.; Johanningmeier, U.; Bertalan, I.; Pezzotti, G.; Giardi, M. T.

    2008-09-01

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plants- or algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stresstolerant strains. Photosystem II D1 protein sitedirected and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [1] were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. For this purpose some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls were included in the study [2]. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton- M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence detector, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for several different algae strains (Fig.1). Twelve different C. reinhardti strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space

  15. The oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 (OEE) of photosystem II in green algae exhibits thioredoxin activity.

    PubMed

    Heide, Heinrich; Kalisz, Henryk M; Follmann, Hartmut

    2004-02-01

    A thioredoxin-like chloroplast protein of the fructosebisphosphatase-stimulating f-type, but with an unusually high molecular mass of 28 kDa has previously been identified and purified to homogeneity in a fractionation scheme for resolution of the acid- and heat-stable, regular-size (12kDa) thioredoxins of the unicellular green algae, Scenedesmus obliquus. An apparently analogous protein of 26 kDa was described in a cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp., but no such large thioredoxin species f exists in the thioredoxin profiles of higher plants. The structure of the 28 kDa protein, which had been envisaged to represent a precursor, or fusion product of the two more specialized, common chloroplast thioredoxins f and m has now been determined by amino acid sequencing. Although it exhibits virtually all the properties and enzyme-modulating activities of a thioredoxin proper this algal protein, surprisingly, does not belong to the thioredoxin family of small redox proteins but is identical with OEE (oxygen evolving enhancer) protein 1, an auxiliary component of the photosystem II manganese cluster. Extracts of Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii also contain heat-stable protein fractions of 23-26 kDa capable of specifically stimulating chloroplast fructosebisphosphatase in vitro. In contrast, OEE protein 1 from spinach is not able to modulate FbPase or NADP malate dehydrogenase from spinach chloroplasts. A dual function of the OEE protein in algal photosynthesis is envisaged. PMID:15022827

  16. Effect of endocrine disrupters on photosystem II energy fluxes of green algae and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Perron, Marie-Claude; Juneau, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Among the numerous toxics found in the aquatic environment, endocrine disrupters can interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system of several organisms, leading to important consequences. Even if algae and cyanobacteria are non-target organisms without endocrine system, our goals were to verify if endocrine disrupters can affect photosynthetic activity and how energy flows through photosystem II (PSII) were altered. To reach these objectives, we exposed, for 15 min, two green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC125, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata strain CPCC37) and a toxic and a non-toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa (CPCC299 and CPCC632 respectively) to 4-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and β-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5 μg/mL. We have shown for the first time that endocrine disrupters may have drastic effects on PSII energy fluxes. Furthermore, we showed that various species have different sensitivity to endocrine disrupters. P. subcapitata was tolerant to each endocrine disrupter tested, while flows of energy through PSII were affected similarly, but at different extent, for the other species. Cyanobacterial PSII energy fluxes were more affected than green algae, suggesting that the prokaryotic characteristics of these organisms are responsible of their high sensitivity. PMID:21439565

  17. Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Endo, Kaichiro; Kobayashi, Koichi; Nakamura, Yuki; Wada, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) is an indispensable phospholipid class with photosynthetic function in plants and cyanobacteria. However, its biosynthesis in eukaryotic green microalgae is poorly studied. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two homologs (CrPGP1 and CrPGP2) of phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase (PGPS), the rate-limiting enzyme in PG biosynthesis, in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Heterologous complementation of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 pgsA mutant by CrPGP1 and CrPGP2 rescued the PG-dependent growth phenotype, but the PG level and its fatty acid composition were not fully rescued in the complemented strains. As well, oxygen evolution activity was not fully recovered, although electron transport activity of photosystem II was restored to the wild-type level. Gene expression study of CrPGP1 and CrPGP2 in nutrient-starved C. reinhardtii showed differential response to phosphorus and nitrogen deficiency. Taken together, these results highlight the distinct and overlapping function of PGPS in cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. PMID:26379630

  18. Advances in the biotechnology of hydrogen production with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Torzillo, Giuseppe; Scoma, Alberto; Faraloni, Cecilia; Giannelli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production is being evaluated for use as a fuel, since it is a promising substitute for carbonaceous fuels owing to its high conversion efficiency and high specific energy content. The basic advantages of biological hydrogen production over other "green" energy sources are that it does not compete for agricultural land use, and it does not pollute, as water is the only by-product of the combustion. These characteristics make hydrogen a suitable fuel for the future. Among several biotechnological approaches, photobiological hydrogen production carried out by green microalgae has been intensively investigated in recent years. A select group of photosynthetic organisms has evolved the ability to harness light energy to drive hydrogen gas production from water. Of these, the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is considered one of the most promising eukaryotic H2 producers. In this model microorganism, light energy, H2O and H2 are linked by two excellent catalysts, the photosystem 2 (PSII) and the [FeFe]-hydrogenase, in a pathway usually referred to as direct biophotolysis. This review summarizes the main advances made over the past decade as an outcome of the discovery of the sulfur-deprivation process. Both the scientific and technical barriers that need to be overcome before H2 photoproduction can be scaled up to an industrial level are examined. Actual and theoretical limits of the efficiency of the process are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on algal biohydrogen production outdoors, and guidelines for an optimal photobioreactor design are suggested. PMID:24754449

  19. Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Endo, Kaichiro; Kobayashi, Koichi; Nakamura, Yuki; Wada, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) is an indispensable phospholipid class with photosynthetic function in plants and cyanobacteria. However, its biosynthesis in eukaryotic green microalgae is poorly studied. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two homologs (CrPGP1 and CrPGP2) of phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase (PGPS), the rate-limiting enzyme in PG biosynthesis, in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Heterologous complementation of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 pgsA mutant by CrPGP1 and CrPGP2 rescued the PG-dependent growth phenotype, but the PG level and its fatty acid composition were not fully rescued in the complemented strains. As well, oxygen evolution activity was not fully recovered, although electron transport activity of photosystem II was restored to the wild-type level. Gene expression study of CrPGP1 and CrPGP2 in nutrient-starved C. reinhardtii showed differential response to phosphorus and nitrogen deficiency. Taken together, these results highlight the distinct and overlapping function of PGPS in cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. PMID:26379630

  20. Effect of aluminum on cellular division and photosynthetic electron transport in Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas acidophila.

    PubMed

    Perreault, François; Dewez, David; Fortin, Claude; Juneau, Philippe; Diallo, Amirou; Popovic, Radovan

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated aluminum's effect on cellular division and the photosynthetic processes in Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas acidophila at pH 3.0, at which Al is present mostly as Al(3+), AlSO(4) (+), and Al(SO(4))(2) (-). These algal species were exposed to 100, 188, and 740 microM Al, and after 24 h cell-bound Al was significantly different from control only for the highest concentration tested. However, very different effects of Al on algal cellular division, biomass per cell, and photosynthetic activity were found. Aluminum stimulated cell division but decreased at some level biomass per cell in C. acidophila. Primary photochemistry of photosynthesis, as Photosystem II quantum yield, and energy dissipation via nonphotochemical activity were slightly affected. However, for E. gracilis, under the same conditions, Al did not show a stimulating effect on cellular division or photosynthetic activity. Primary photochemical activity was diminished, and energy dissipation via nonphotochemical pathways was strongly increased. Therefore, when Al is highly available in aquatic ecosystems, these effects may indicate very different response mechanisms that are dependent on algal species. PMID:20821518

  1. Process development for hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on growth and product formation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Florian; Morweiser, Michael; Rosello Sastre, Rosa; Kruse, Olaf; Posten, Clemens

    2012-11-30

    Certain strains of microalgae are long known to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase enzyme recombines electrons from the chloroplast electron transport chain with protons to form molecular hydrogen directly inside the chloroplast. A sustained hydrogen production can be obtained under low sulfur conditions in C. reinhardtii, reducing the net oxygen evolution by reducing the photosystem II activity and thereby overcoming the inhibition of the hydrogenases. The development of specially adapted hydrogen production strains led to higher yields and optimized biological process preconditions. So far sustainable hydrogen production required a complete exchange of the growth medium to establish sulfur-deprived conditions after biomass growth. In this work we demonstrate the transition from the biomass growth phase to the hydrogen production phase in a single batch culture only by exact dosage of sulfur. This eliminates the elaborate and energy intensive solid-liquid separation step and establishes a process strategy to proceed further versus large scale production. This strategy has been applied to determine light dependent biomass growth and hydrogen production kinetics to assess the potential of H₂ production with C. reinhardtii as a basis for scale up and further process optimization. PMID:22750091

  2. Controlling expression of genes in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a vitamin-repressible riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Ramundo, Silvia; Rochaix, Jean-David

    2015-01-01

    Chloroplast genomes of land plants and algae contain generally between 100 and 150 genes. These genes are involved in plastid gene expression and photosynthesis and in various other tasks. The function of some chloroplast genes is still unknown and some of them appear to be essential for growth and survival. Repressible and reversible expression systems are highly desirable for functional and biochemical characterization of these genes. We have developed a genetic tool that allows one to regulate the expression of any coding sequence in the chloroplast genome of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our system is based on vitamin-regulated expression of the nucleus-encoded chloroplast Nac2 protein, which is specifically required for the expression of any plastid gene fused to the psbD 5'UTR. With this approach, expression of the Nac2 gene in the nucleus and, in turn, that of the chosen chloroplast gene artificially driven by the psbD 5'UTR, is controlled by the MetE promoter and Thi4 riboswitch, which can be inactivated in a reversible way by supplying vitamin B12 and thiamine to the growth medium, respectively. This system opens interesting possibilities for studying the assembly and turnover of chloroplast multiprotein complexes such as the photosystems, the ribosome, and the RNA polymerase. It also provides a way to overcome the toxicity often associated with the expression of proteins of biotechnological interest in the chloroplast. PMID:25605390

  3. Regulation of Flagellar Length in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nedra F.; Iyer, Janaki Kannan; Buchheim, Julie A.; Meek, William

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has two apically localized flagella that are maintained at an equal and appropriate length. Assembly and maintenance of flagella requires a microtubule-based transport system known as intraflagellar transport (IFT). During IFT, proteins destined for incorporation into or removal from a flagellum are carried along doublet microtubules via IFT particles. Regulation of IFT activity therefore is pivotal in determining the length of a flagellum. Reviewed is our current understanding of the role of IFT and signal transduction pathways in the regulation of flagellar length. PMID:18692148

  4. Light stress and photoprotection in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Erika; Wakao, Setsuko; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2015-05-01

    Plants and algae require light for photosynthesis, but absorption of too much light can lead to photo-oxidative damage to the photosynthetic apparatus and sustained decreases in the efficiency and rate of photosynthesis (photoinhibition). Light stress can adversely affect growth and viability, necessitating that photosynthetic organisms acclimate to different environmental conditions in order to alleviate the detrimental effects of excess light. The model unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, employs diverse strategies of regulation and photoprotection to avoid, minimize, and repair photo-oxidative damage in stressful light conditions, allowing for acclimation to different and changing environments. PMID:25758978

  5. [An experiment with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii on the Kosmos-2044 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, O V; Gabova, A V; Goriainova, L N; Filatova, E V

    1992-01-01

    Space experiment with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii demonstrated that the microgravity effects were noted in Chlamydomonas at both cellular and population levels: in space the cell size is increased, stage of active growth of the culture is extended, it contains the juvenile vegetative motile cells in greater quantities. Ultrastructural analysis indicated that in microgravity the changes in shape, structure and distribution of intracellular organelles and in volume ratio of organelles and cytoplasma are absent. Chlamydomonas data are in line with the results of the Infusoria and Chlorella experiments. PMID:1307032

  6. Different roles of alpha- and beta-branch xanthophylls in photosystem assembly and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Fiore, Alessia; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Giuliano, Giovanni; Bassi, Roberto

    2007-11-30

    Xanthophylls (oxygenated carotenoids) are essential components of the plant photosynthetic apparatus, where they act in photosystem assembly, light harvesting, and photoprotection. Nevertheless, the specific function of individual xanthophyll species awaits complete elucidation. In this work, we analyze the photosynthetic phenotypes of two newly isolated Arabidopsis mutants in carotenoid biosynthesis containing exclusively alpha-branch (chy1chy2lut5) or beta-branch (chy1chy2lut2) xanthophylls. Both mutants show complete lack of qE, the rapidly reversible component of nonphotochemical quenching, and high levels of photoinhibition and lipid peroxidation under photooxidative stress. Both mutants are much more photosensitive than npq1lut2, which contains high levels of viola- and neoxanthin and a higher stoichiometry of light-harvesting proteins with respect to photosystem II core complexes, suggesting that the content in light-harvesting complexes plays an important role in photoprotection. In addition, chy1chy2lut5, which has lutein as the only xanthophyll, shows unprecedented photosensitivity even in low light conditions, reduced electron transport rate, enhanced photobleaching of isolated LHCII complexes, and a selective loss of CP26 with respect to chy1chy2lut2, highlighting a specific role of beta-branch xanthophylls in photoprotection and in qE mechanism. The stronger photosystem II photoinhibition of both mutants correlates with the higher rate of singlet oxygen production from thylakoids and isolated light-harvesting complexes, whereas carotenoid composition of photosystem II core complex was not influential. In depth analysis of the mutant phenotypes suggests that alpha-branch (lutein) and beta-branch (zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin) xanthophylls have distinct and complementary roles in antenna protein assembly and in the mechanisms of photoprotection. PMID:17913714

  7. Nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes in Chlamydomonas flagella.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Flavin, M

    1976-01-10

    Nucleotides have at least two functions in eukaryotic cilia and flagella. ATP, originating in the cells, is utilized for motility by energy-transducing protein(s) called dynein, and the binding of guanine nucleotides to tubulin, and probably certain transformations of the bound nucleotides, are prerequisites for the assembly of microtubules. Besides dynein, which can be solubulized from Chlamydomonas flagella as a heterogeneous, Mg2+ or Ca2+-activated ATPase, we have purified and characterized five other flagellar enzymes involved in nucleotide transformations. A homogeneous, low molecular weight, Ca2+-specific adenosine triphosphatase was isolated, which was inhibited by Mg2+ and was not specific for ATP. This enzyme was not formed by treating purified dynein with proteases. It was absent from extracts of Tetrahymena cilia. Its function might be an auxiliary energy transducer, or in steering or tactic responses. Two species of adenylate kinase were isolated, one of which was much elevated in regenerating flagella; the latter was also present in cell bodies. A large part of flagellar nucleoside diphosphokinase activity could not be solubilized. Two soluble enzyme species were identified, one of which was also present in cell bodies. Since these enzymes are of interest because they might function in microtubule assembly, we studied the extent to which brain nucleoside diphosphokinase co-polymerizes with tubulin purified by repeated cycles of polymerization. Arginine kinase was not detected in Chlamydomonas flagellar extracts. PMID:397

  8. Light-Harvesting Complex Stress-Related Proteins Catalyze Excess Energy Dissipation in Both Photosystems of Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Pinnola, Alberta; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Alboresi, Alessandro; Nevo, Reinat; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Reich, Ziv; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Two LHC-like proteins, Photosystem II Subunit S (PSBS) and Light-Harvesting Complex Stress-Related (LHCSR), are essential for triggering excess energy dissipation in chloroplasts of vascular plants and green algae, respectively. The mechanism of quenching was studied in Physcomitrella patens, an early divergent streptophyta (including green algae and land plants) in which both proteins are active. PSBS was localized in grana together with photosystem II (PSII), but LHCSR was located mainly in stroma-exposed membranes together with photosystem I (PSI), and its distribution did not change upon high-light treatment. The quenched conformation can be preserved by rapidly freezing the high-light-treated tissues in liquid nitrogen. When using green fluorescent protein as an internal standard, 77K fluorescence emission spectra on isolated chloroplasts allowed for independent assessment of PSI and PSII fluorescence yield. Results showed that both photosystems underwent quenching upon high-light treatment in the wild type in contrast to mutants depleted of LHCSR, which lacked PSI quenching. Due to the contribution of LHCII, P. patens had a PSI antenna size twice as large with respect to higher plants. Thus, LHCII, which is highly abundant in stroma membranes, appears to be the target of quenching by LHCSR. PMID:26508763

  9. Lacking "Lack": A Reply to Joldersma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, James D.

    2007-01-01

    First I would like to thank Clarence Joldersma for his review of our "Poststructuralism, Philosophy, Pedagogy" (Marshall, 2004-PPP). In particular, I would thank him for his opening sentence: "[t]his book is a response to a lack." It is the notion of a lack, noted again later in his review, which I wish to take up mainly in this response. Rather…

  10. Water oxidation chemistry of photosystem II.

    PubMed Central

    Vrettos, John S; Brudvig, Gary W

    2002-01-01

    The O(2)-evolving complex of photosystem II catalyses the light-driven four-electron oxidation of water to dioxygen in photosynthesis. In this article, the steps leading to photosynthetic O(2) evolution are discussed. Emphasis is given to the proton-coupled electron-transfer steps involved in oxidation of the manganese cluster by oxidized tyrosine Z (Y(*)(Z)), the function of Ca(2+) and the mechanism by which water is activated for formation of an O-O bond. Based on a consideration of the biophysical studies of photosystem II and inorganic manganese model chemistry, a mechanism for photosynthetic O(2) evolution is presented in which the O-O bond-forming step occurs via nucleophilic attack on an electron-deficient Mn(V)=O species by a calcium-bound water molecule. The proposed mechanism includes specific roles for the tetranuclear manganese cluster, calcium, chloride, Y(Z) and His190 of the D1 polypeptide. Recent studies of the ion selectivity of the calcium site in the O(2)-evolving complex and of a functional inorganic manganese model system that test key aspects of this mechanism are also discussed. PMID:12437878

  11. An energy balance from absorbed photons to new biomass for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas acidophila under neutral and extremely acidic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Langner, Uwe; Jakob, Torsten; Stehfest, Katja; Wilhelm, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Chlamydomonas is one of the most well-studied photosynthetic organisms that had important biotechnological potential for future bioproductions of biofuels. However, an energy balance from incident photons to the energy stored in the new biomass is still lacking. In this study, we applied a recently developed system to measure the energy balance for steady state growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii grown at pH 6.5, and C. acidophila that was grown at pH 6.5 and 2.6. Energy use efficiency was quantified on the basis of light absorption, photosynthetic quantum yield, photosynthetic and respiratory quotient, and electron partitioning into proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. The results showed that lower growth rates of C. acidophila under both pH conditions were not caused by the differences in the photosynthetic quantum yield or in alternative electron cycling, but rather by differences in the efficiency of light absorption and increased dark respiration. Analysis of the macromolecular composition of the cells during the light phase showed that C. acidophila uses biosynthetic electrons preferentially for carbohydrate synthesis but not for synthesis of lipids. This led to a strong diurnal cycle of the C/N ratio and could explain the higher dark respiration of C. acidophila compared with C. reinhardtii. PMID:19054351

  12. International Conference on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Stephen Miller

    2010-06-10

    The 2010 Conference on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas was held June 6-10 near Boston, MA, and attracted a record 273 participants, 146 from US labs, 10 from Canada, and the remainder from 18 other countries. The single-celled algal protist Chlamydomonas is a key research organism for many investigators, including those who study photosynthesis, cell motility, adaptation to environmental stresses, the evolution of multicellularity, and the production of biofuels. Chlamydomonas researchers gather every two years at a research conference to exchange methods, develop collaborative efforts, disseminate recent findings, and plan large-scale studies to improve the usefulness of this unique research organism. This conference provides the only opportunity for Chlamydomonas scientists who work on different research problems to meet face to face, and greatly speeds progress in their respective fields. An important function of these Chlamydomonas conferences is to promote and showcase the work of younger scientists, and to attract new investigators into the Chlamydomonas community. DOE award SC0004085 was used to offset the travel and registration costs for 18 young investigators, 9 of whom were women, including one African American. Most of these scientists would not have been able to attend the conference without DOE support. A total of 208 research presentations were made at the meeting, 80 talks (63 presented by students, postdocs, and pre-tenured faculty) and 128 posters. Cell motility and biofuels/metabolism were the best-represented research areas, with a total of 77 presentations. This fact underscores the growing importance of Chlamydomonas as a research and production tool in the rapidly expanding world of biofuels research. A total of 28 talks and posters were presented on the topics of photosynthesis and stress responses, which were among the next best-represented research areas. As at several recent Chlamydomonas meetings, important advances were

  13. The involvement of hydrogen-producing and ATP-dependent NADPH-consuming pathways in setting the redox poise in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in anoxia.

    PubMed

    Clowez, Sophie; Godaux, Damien; Cardol, Pierre; Wollman, Francis-André; Rappaport, Fabrice

    2015-03-27

    Photosynthetic microalgae are exposed to changing environmental conditions. In particular, microbes found in ponds or soils often face hypoxia or even anoxia, and this severely impacts their physiology. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is one among such photosynthetic microorganisms recognized for its unusual wealth of fermentative pathways and the extensive remodeling of its metabolism upon the switch to anaerobic conditions. As regards the photosynthetic electron transfer, this remodeling encompasses a strong limitation of the electron flow downstream of photosystem I. Here, we further characterize the origin of this limitation. We show that it stems from the strong reducing pressure that builds up upon the onset of anoxia, and this pressure can be relieved either by the light-induced synthesis of ATP, which promotes the consumption of reducing equivalents, or by the progressive activation of the hydrogenase pathway, which provides an electron transfer pathway alternative to the CO2 fixation cycle. PMID:25691575

  14. Identification of an NADP/thioredoxin system in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huppe, H. C.; Picaud, A.; Buchanan, B. B.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.

    1991-01-01

    The protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system, NADP-thioredoxin reductase (NTR) and thioredoxin h, have been purified and characterized from the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The analysis of this system confirms that photoautotrophic Chlamydomonas cells resemble leaves in having both an NADP- and ferrodoxin-linked thioredoxin redox system. Chlamydomonas thioredoxin h, which is smaller on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis than thioredoxin m from the same source, cross-reacted with antisera to thioredoxin h from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and wheat germ (Triticum vulgaris L.) but not with antisera to m or f thioredoxins. In these properties, the thioredoxin h resembled a thioredoxin from Chlamydomonas, designated Ch1, whose sequence was reported recently (P. Decottignies et al., 1991, Eur. J. Biochem. 198, 505-512). The differential reactivity of thioredoxin h with antisera was used to demonstrate that thioredoxin h is enriched outside the chloroplast. The NTR was purified from Chlamydomonas using thioredoxin h from the same source. Similar to its counterpart from other organisms, Chlamydomonas NTR had a subunit size of approx. 36 kDa and was specific for NADPH. Chlamydomonas NTR effectively reduced thioredoxin h from the same source but showed little activity with the other thioredoxins tested, including spinach thioredoxin h and Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Comparison of the reduction of Chlamydomonas thioredoxins m and h by each of the endogenous thioredoxin reductases, NTR and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase, revealed a differential specificity of each enzyme for thioredoxin. Thus, NTR showed increased activity with thioredoxin h and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase with thioredoxins m and f.

  15. Achieving solar overall water splitting with hybrid photosystems of photosystem II and artificial photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wangyin; Chen, Jun; Li, Can; Tian, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    Solar overall water splitting is a promising sustainable approach for solar-to-chemical energy conversion, which harnesses solar irradiation to oxidize water to oxygen and reduce the protons to hydrogen. The water oxidation step is vital but difficult to achieve through inorganic photocatalysis. However, nature offers an efficient light-driven water-oxidizing enzyme, photosystem II (PSII). Here we report an overall water splitting natural-artificial hybrid system, in which the plant PSII and inorganic photocatalysts (for example, Ru/SrTiO3:Rh), coupled with an inorganic electron shuttle [Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-)], are integrated and dispersed in aqueous solutions. The activity of this hybrid photosystem reaches to around 2,489 mol H2 (mol PSII)(-1) h(-1) under visible light irradiation, and solar overall water splitting is also achieved under solar irradiation outdoors. The optical imaging shows that the hybrid photosystems are constructed through the self-assembly of PSII adhered onto the inorganic photocatalyst surface. Our work may provide a prototype of natural-artificial hybrids for developing autonomous solar water splitting system. PMID:25115942

  16. Achieving solar overall water splitting with hybrid photosystems of photosystem II and artificial photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wangyin; Chen, Jun; Li, Can; Tian, Wenming

    2014-08-01

    Solar overall water splitting is a promising sustainable approach for solar-to-chemical energy conversion, which harnesses solar irradiation to oxidize water to oxygen and reduce the protons to hydrogen. The water oxidation step is vital but difficult to achieve through inorganic photocatalysis. However, nature offers an efficient light-driven water-oxidizing enzyme, photosystem II (PSII). Here we report an overall water splitting natural-artificial hybrid system, in which the plant PSII and inorganic photocatalysts (for example, Ru/SrTiO3:Rh), coupled with an inorganic electron shuttle [Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64-], are integrated and dispersed in aqueous solutions. The activity of this hybrid photosystem reaches to around 2,489 mol H2 (mol PSII)-1 h-1 under visible light irradiation, and solar overall water splitting is also achieved under solar irradiation outdoors. The optical imaging shows that the hybrid photosystems are constructed through the self-assembly of PSII adhered onto the inorganic photocatalyst surface. Our work may provide a prototype of natural-artificial hybrids for developing autonomous solar water splitting system.

  17. In Vivo Identification of Photosystem II Light Harvesting Complexes Interacting with PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT S.

    PubMed

    Gerotto, Caterina; Franchin, Cinzia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2015-08-01

    Light is the primary energy source for photosynthetic organisms, but in excess, it can generate reactive oxygen species and lead to cell damage. Plants evolved multiple mechanisms to modulate light use efficiency depending on illumination intensity to thrive in a highly dynamic natural environment. One of the main mechanisms for protection from intense illumination is the dissipation of excess excitation energy as heat, a process called nonphotochemical quenching. In plants, nonphotochemical quenching induction depends on the generation of a pH gradient across thylakoid membranes and on the presence of a protein called PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT S (PSBS). Here, we generated Physcomitrella patens lines expressing histidine-tagged PSBS that were exploited to purify the native protein by affinity chromatography. The mild conditions used in the purification allowed copurifying PSBS with its interactors, which were identified by mass spectrometry analysis to be mainly photosystem II antenna proteins, such as LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX B (LHCB). PSBS interaction with other proteins appears to be promiscuous and not exclusive, although the major proteins copurified with PSBS were components of the LHCII trimers (LHCB3 and LHCBM). These results provide evidence of a physical interaction between specific photosystem II light-harvesting complexes and PSBS in the thylakoids, suggesting that these subunits are major players in heat dissipation of excess energy. PMID:26069151

  18. Interaction of photosystem I from Phaeodactylum tricornutum with plastocyanins as compared with its native cytochrome c6: Reunion with a lost donor.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Bayard, Pilar; Pallara, Chiara; Carmen Castell, M; Molina-Heredia, Fernando P; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Hervás, Manuel; Navarro, José A

    2015-12-01

    In the Phaeodactylum tricornutum alga, as in most diatoms, cytochrome c6 is the only electron donor to photosystem I, and thus they lack plastocyanin as an alternative electron carrier. We have investigated, by using laser-flash absorption spectroscopy, the electron transfer to Phaeodactylum photosystem I from plastocyanins from cyanobacteria, green algae and plants, as compared with its own cytochrome c6. Diatom photosystem I is able to effectively react with eukaryotic acidic plastocyanins, although with less efficiency than with Phaeodactylum cytochrome c6. This efficiency, however, increases in some green alga plastocyanin mutants mimicking the electrostatics of the interaction site on the diatom cytochrome. In addition, the structure of the transient electron transfer complex between cytochrome c6 and photosystem I from Phaeodactylum has been analyzed by computational docking and compared to that of green lineage and mixed systems. Taking together, the results explain why the Phaeodactylum system shows a lower efficiency than the green systems, both in the formation of the properly arranged [cytochrome c6-photosystem I] complex and in the electron transfer itself. PMID:26407632

  19. The Hsp70 and Hsp40 Chaperones Influence Microtubule Stability in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Silflow, Carolyn D.; Sun, Xiaoqing; Haas, Nancy A.; Foley, Joseph W.; Lefebvre, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations at the APM1 and APM2 loci in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii confer resistance to phosphorothioamidate and dinitroaniline herbicides. Genetic interactions between apm1 and apm2 mutations suggest an interaction between the gene products. We identified the APM1 and APM2 genes using a map-based cloning strategy. Genomic DNA fragments containing only the DNJ1 gene encoding a type I Hsp40 protein rescue apm1 mutant phenotypes, conferring sensitivity to the herbicides and rescuing a temperature-sensitive growth defect. Lesions at five apm1 alleles include missense mutations and nucleotide insertions and deletions that result in altered proteins or very low levels of gene expression. The HSP70A gene, encoding a cytosolic Hsp70 protein known to interact with Hsp40 proteins, maps near the APM2 locus. Missense mutations found in three apm2 alleles predict altered Hsp70 proteins. Genomic fragments containing the HSP70A gene rescue apm2 mutant phenotypes. The results suggest that a client of the Hsp70–Hsp40 chaperone complex may function to increase microtubule dynamics in Chlamydomonas cells. Failure of the chaperone system to recognize or fold the client protein(s) results in increased microtubule stability and resistance to the microtubule-destabilizing effect of the herbicides. The lack of redundancy of genes encoding cytosolic Hsp70 and Hsp40 type I proteins in Chlamydomonas makes it a uniquely valuable system for genetic analysis of the function of the Hsp70 chaperone complex. PMID:21940683

  20. Structural studies on photosystem II of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Gabdulkhakov, A G; Dontsova, M V

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the most important chemical processes in the biosphere responsible for the maintenance of life on Earth. Light energy is converted into energy of chemical bonds in photoreaction centers, which, in particular, include photosystem II (PS II). PS II is a multisubunit pigment-protein complex located in the thylakoid membrane of cyanobacteria, algae and plants. PS II realizes the first stage of solar energy conversion that results in decomposition of water to molecular oxygen, protons, and bound electrons via a series of consecutive reactions. During recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in determination of the spatial structures of PS II from various cyanobacteria. In the present review, we outline the current state of crystallographic studies on PS II. PMID:24490738

  1. Analysis of photosystem II biogenesis in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Steffen; Liauw, Pasqual; Nickelsen, Jörg; Nowaczyk, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), a large multisubunit membrane protein complex found in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae and plants, catalyzes light-driven oxygen evolution from water and reduction of plastoquinone. Biogenesis of PSII requires coordinated assembly of at least 20 protein subunits, as well as incorporation of various organic and inorganic cofactors. The stepwise assembly process is facilitated by numerous protein factors that have been identified in recent years. Further analysis of this process requires the development or refinement of specific methods for the identification of novel assembly factors and, in particular, elucidation of the unique role of each. Here we summarize current knowledge of PSII biogenesis in cyanobacteria, focusing primarily on the impact of methodological advances and innovations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Conrad Mullineaux. PMID:26592144

  2. Water oxidation chemistry of photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Brudvig, Gary W

    2007-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) uses light energy to split water into protons, electrons and O2. In this reaction, nature has solved the difficult chemical problem of efficient four-electron oxidation of water to yield O2 without significant amounts of reactive intermediate species such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. In order to use nature's solution for the design of artificial catalysts that split water, it is important to understand the mechanism of the reaction. The recently published X-ray crystal structures of cyanobacterial PSII complexes provide information on the structure of the Mn and Ca ions, the redox-active tyrosine called YZ and the surrounding amino acids that comprise the O2-evolving complex (OEC). The emerging structure of the OEC provides constraints on the different hypothesized mechanisms for O2 evolution. The water oxidation mechanism of PSII is discussed in the light of biophysical and computational studies, inorganic chemistry and X-ray crystallographic information. PMID:17954436

  3. Applications of Delayed Fluorescence from Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ya; Tan, Jinglu

    2013-01-01

    While photosystem II (PSII) of plants utilizes light for photosynthesis, part of the absorbed energy may be reverted back and dissipated as long-term fluorescence (delayed fluorescence or DF). Because the generation of DF is coupled with the processes of forward photosynthetic activities, DF contains the information about plant physiological states and plant-environment interactions. This makes DF a potentially powerful biosensing mechanism to measure plant photosynthetic activities and environmental conditions. While DF has attracted the interest of many researchers, some aspects of it are still unknown because of the complexity of photosynthetic system. In order to provide a holistic picture about the usefulness of DF, it is meaningful to summarize the research on DF applications. In this short review, available literature on applications of DF from PSII is summarized. PMID:24351639

  4. Revisiting the photosystem II repair cycle.

    PubMed

    Theis, Jasmine; Schroda, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The ability of photosystem (PS) II to catalyze the light-driven oxidation of water comes along with its vulnerability to oxidative damage, in particular of the D1 core subunit. Photodamaged PSII undergoes repair in a multi-step process involving (i) reversible phosphorylation of PSII core subunits; (ii) monomerization and lateral migration of the PSII core from grana to stroma thylakoids; (iii) partial disassembly of PSII; (iv) proteolytic degradation of damaged D1; (v) replacement of damaged D1 protein with a new copy; (vi) reassembly of PSII monomers and migration back to grana thylakoids for dimerization and supercomplex assembly. Here we review the current knowledge on the PSII repair cycle. PMID:27494214

  5. Modeling electron transfer in photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Makita, Hiroki; Hastings, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond to millisecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy has been used to study electron transfer processes in photosystem I particles from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with eight different quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site, at both 298 and 77K. A detailed kinetic model was constructed and solved within the context of Marcus electron transfer theory, and it was found that all of the data could be well described only if the in situ midpoint potentials of the quinones fell in a tightly defined range. For photosystem I with phylloquinone incorporated into the A1 binding site all of the time-resolved optical data is best modeled when the in situ midpoint potential of phylloquinone on the A/B branch is -635/-690 mV, respectively. With the midpoint potential of the F(X) iron sulfur cluster set at -680 mV, this indicates that forward electron transfer from A(1)(-) to F(X) is slightly endergonic/exergonic on the A/B branch, respectively. Additionally, for forward electron transfer from A(1)(-) to F(X), on both the A and B branches the reorganization energy is close to 0.7 eV. Reorganization energies of 0.4 or 1.0 eV are not possible. For the eight different quinones incorporated, the same kinetic model was used, allowing us to establish in situ redox potentials for all of the incorporated quinones on both branches. A linear correlation was found between the in situ and in vitro midpoint potentials of the quinones on both branches. PMID:26994812

  6. Reciprocal expression of two candidate di-iron enzymes affecting photosystem I and light-harvesting complex accumulation.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Jeffrey L; Page, M Dudley; Alder, Nancy P; Eriksson, Mats; Quinn, Jeanette; Soto, Feiris; Theg, Steven M; Hippler, Michael; Merchant, Sabeeha

    2002-03-01

    Crd1 (Copper response defect 1), which is required for the maintenance of photosystem I and its associated light-harvesting complexes in copper-deficient (-Cu) and oxygen-deficient (-O(2)) Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells, is localized to the thylakoid membrane. A related protein, Cth1 (Copper target homolog 1), is shown to have a similar but not identical function by genetic suppressor analysis of gain-of-function sct1 (suppressor of copper target 1) strains that are transposon-containing alleles at CTH1. The pattern of Crd1 versus Cth1 accumulation is reciprocal; Crd1 abundance is increased in -Cu or -O(2) cells, whereas Cth1 accumulates in copper-sufficient (+Cu), oxygenated cells. This expression pattern is determined by a single trans-acting regulatory locus, CRR1 (COPPER RESPONSE REGULATOR 1), which activates transcription in -Cu cells. In +Cu cells, a 2.1-kb Cth1 mRNA is produced and translated, whereas Crd1 is transcribed only at basal levels, leading to Cth1 accumulation in +Cu cells. In -Cu cells, CRR1 function determines the activation of Crd1 expression and the production of an alternative 3.1-kb Cth1 mRNA that is extended at the 5' end relative to the 2.1-kb mRNA. Synthesis of the 3.1-kb mRNA, which encodes six small upstream open reading frames that possibly result in poor translation, blocks the downstream promoter through transcriptional occlusion. Fluorescence analysis of wild-type, crd1, and sct1 strains indicates that copper-responsive adjustment of the Cth1:Crd1 ratio results in modification of the interactions between photosystem I and associated light-harvesting complexes. The tightly coordinated CRR1-dependent regulation of isoenzymes Cth1 and Crd1 reinforces the notion that copper plays a specific role in the maintenance of chlorophyll proteins. PMID:11910013

  7. Analysis of cyanobacterial photosystem 2 genes by cloning and mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The major goal of this current proposal was to isolate, clone, sequence and mutagenize specific proteins associated with the photosynthetic membrane and photosystem II in cyanobacteria. The analysis of photosystem II proteins led to investigate the growth of cyanobacteria under iron-deficient conditions and to detect a number of new proteins involved in the photosynthetic membrane. This work led to isolate proteins that are localized in the cytoplasmic membrane or in the cell wall membrane. 15 refs.

  8. PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN33, a protein conserved in the plastid lineage, is associated with the chloroplast thylakoid membrane and provides stability to photosystem II supercomplexes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fristedt, Rikard; Herdean, Andrei; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Mamedov, Fikret; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Last, Robert L; Lundin, Björn

    2015-02-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a multiprotein complex that catalyzes the light-driven water-splitting reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis. Light absorption by PSII leads to the production of excited states and reactive oxygen species that can cause damage to this complex. Here, we describe Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) At1g71500, which encodes a previously uncharacterized protein that is a PSII auxiliary core protein and hence is named PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN33 (PSB33). We present evidence that PSB33 functions in the maintenance of PSII-light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplex organization. PSB33 encodes a protein with a chloroplast transit peptide and one transmembrane segment. In silico analysis of PSB33 revealed a light-harvesting complex-binding motif within the transmembrane segment and a large surface-exposed head domain. Biochemical analysis of PSII complexes further indicates that PSB33 is an integral membrane protein located in the vicinity of LHCII and the PSII CP43 reaction center protein. Phenotypic characterization of mutants lacking PSB33 revealed reduced amounts of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, very low state transition, and a lower capacity for nonphotochemical quenching, leading to increased photosensitivity in the mutant plants under light stress. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PSB33 in regulating and optimizing photosynthesis in response to changing light levels. PMID:25511433

  9. Segregation of photosystems in thylakoid membranes as a critical phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Rojdestvenski, Igor; Ivanov, Alexander G; Cottam, M G; Borodich, Andrei; Huner, Norman P A; Oquist, Gunnar

    2002-04-01

    The distribution of the two photosystems, PSI and PSII, in grana and stroma lamellae of the chloroplast membranes is not uniform. PSII are mainly concentrated in grana and PSI in stroma thylakoids. The dynamics and factors controlling the spatial segregation of PSI and PSII are generally not well understood, and here we address the segregation of photosystems in thylakoid membranes by means of a molecular dynamics method. The lateral segregation of photosystems was studied assuming a model comprising a two-dimensional (in-plane), two-component, many-body system with periodic boundary conditions and competing interactions between the photosystems in the thylakoid membrane. PSI and PSII are represented by particles with different values of negative charge. The pair interactions between particles include a screened Coulomb repulsive part and an exponentially decaying attractive part. The modeling results suggest a complicated phase behavior of the system, including quasi-crystalline phase of randomly distributed complexes of PSII and PSI at low ionic screening, well defined clustered state of segregated complexes at high screening, and in addition, an intermediate agglomerate phase where the photosystems tend to aggregate together without segregation. The calculations demonstrated that the ordering of photosystems within the membrane was the result of interplay between electrostatic and lipid-mediated interactions. At some values of the model parameters the segregation can be represented visually as well as by analyzing the correlation functions of the configuration. PMID:11916833

  10. Segregation of photosystems in thylakoid membranes as a critical phenomenon.

    PubMed Central

    Rojdestvenski, Igor; Ivanov, Alexander G; Cottam, M G; Borodich, Andrei; Huner, Norman P A; Oquist, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of the two photosystems, PSI and PSII, in grana and stroma lamellae of the chloroplast membranes is not uniform. PSII are mainly concentrated in grana and PSI in stroma thylakoids. The dynamics and factors controlling the spatial segregation of PSI and PSII are generally not well understood, and here we address the segregation of photosystems in thylakoid membranes by means of a molecular dynamics method. The lateral segregation of photosystems was studied assuming a model comprising a two-dimensional (in-plane), two-component, many-body system with periodic boundary conditions and competing interactions between the photosystems in the thylakoid membrane. PSI and PSII are represented by particles with different values of negative charge. The pair interactions between particles include a screened Coulomb repulsive part and an exponentially decaying attractive part. The modeling results suggest a complicated phase behavior of the system, including quasi-crystalline phase of randomly distributed complexes of PSII and PSI at low ionic screening, well defined clustered state of segregated complexes at high screening, and in addition, an intermediate agglomerate phase where the photosystems tend to aggregate together without segregation. The calculations demonstrated that the ordering of photosystems within the membrane was the result of interplay between electrostatic and lipid-mediated interactions. At some values of the model parameters the segregation can be represented visually as well as by analyzing the correlation functions of the configuration. PMID:11916833

  11. Effects of extracellular pH on the metabolic pathways in sulfur-deprived, H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures.

    PubMed

    Kosourov, Sergey; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria L

    2003-02-01

    Sustained photoproduction of H(2) by the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, can be obtained by incubating cells in sulfur-deprived medium [Ghirardi et al. (2000b) Trends Biotechnol. 18: 506; Melis et al. (2000) Plant Physiol. 122: 127]. The current work focuses on (a) the effects of different initial extracellular pHs on the inactivation of photosystem II (PSII) and O(2)-sensitive H(2)-production activity in sulfur-deprived algal cells and (b) the relationships among H(2)-production, photosynthetic, aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms under different pH regimens. The maximum rate and yield of H(2) production occur when the pH at the start of the sulfur deprivation period is 7.7 and decrease when the initial pH is lowered to 6.5 or increased to 8.2. The pH profile of hydrogen photoproduction correlates with that of the residual PSII activity (optimum pH 7.3-7.9), but not with the pH profiles of photosynthetic electron transport through photosystem I or of starch and protein degradation. In vitro hydrogenase activity over this pH range is much higher than the actual in situ rates of H(2) production, indicating that hydrogenase activity per se is not limiting. Starch and protein catabolisms generate formate, acetate and ethanol; contribute some reductant for H(2) photoproduction, as indicated by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and 2,5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone inhibition results; and are the primary sources of reductant for respiratory processes that remove photosynthetically generated O(2). Carbon balances demonstrate that alternative metabolic pathways predominate at different pHs, and these depend on whether residual photosynthetic activity is present or not. PMID:12610217

  12. The RNA Structure of cis-acting Translational Elements of the Chloroplast psbC mRNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Mir Munir A.; Vigneault, Frederic; Zerges, William

    2016-01-01

    Photosystem II is the first of two light-driven oxidoreductase complexes in oxygenic photosynthesis. The biogenesis of photosystem II requires the synthesis of polypeptide subunits encoded by the genomes in the chloroplast and the nucleus. In the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the synthesis of each subunit requires interactions between the 5′ UTR of the mRNA encoding it and gene-specific translation factors. Here, we analyze the sequences and structures in the 5′ UTR of the psbC mRNA, which are known to be required to promote translation and genetic interaction with TBC1, a nuclear gene required specifically for psbC translation. Results of enzymatic probing in vitro and chemical probing in vivo and in vitro support three secondary structures and reveal that one participates in a pseudoknot structure. Analyses of the effects of mutations affecting pseudoknot sequences, by structural mapping and thermal gradient gel electrophoresis, reveal that flexibility at the base of the major stem-loop is required for translation and higher order RNA conformation, and suggest that this conformation is stabilized by TBC1. This RNA pseudoknot tertiary structure is analogous to the internal ribosome entry sites that promote translation of certain viruses and cellular mRNAs in the nuclear-cytoplasmic systems of eukaryotes. PMID:27379123

  13. NAB1 Is an RNA Binding Protein Involved in the Light-Regulated Differential Expression of the Light-Harvesting Antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Mussgnug, Jan H.; Wobbe, Lutz; Elles, Ingolf; Claus, Christina; Hamilton, Mary; Fink, Andreas; Kahmann, Uwe; Kapazoglou, Aliki; Mullineaux, Conrad W.; Hippler, Michael; Nickelsen, Jörg; Nixon, Peter J.; Kruse, Olaf

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms respond to changes in ambient light by modulating the size and composition of their light-harvesting complexes, which in the case of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii consists of >15 members of a large extended family of chlorophyll binding subunits. How their expression is coordinated is unclear. Here, we describe the analysis of an insertion mutant, state transitions mutant3 (stm3), which we show has increased levels of LHCBM subunits associated with the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II. The mutated nuclear gene in stm3 encodes the RNA binding protein NAB1 (for putative nucleic acid binding protein). In vitro and in vivo RNA binding and protein expression studies have confirmed that NAB1 differentially binds to LHCBM mRNA in a subpolysomal high molecular weight RNA–protein complex. Binding of NAB1 stabilizes LHCBM mRNA at the preinitiation level via sequestration and thereby represses translation. The specificity and affinity of binding are determined by an RNA sequence motif similar to that used by the Xenopus laevis translation repressor FRGY2, which is conserved to varying degrees in the LHCBM gene family. We conclude from our results that NAB1 plays an important role in controlling the expression of the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II at the posttranscriptional level. The similarity of NAB1 and FRGY2 of Xenopus implies the existence of similar RNA-masking systems in animals and plants. PMID:16284312

  14. Combined Increases in Mitochondrial Cooperation and Oxygen Photoreduction Compensate for Deficiency in Cyclic Electron Flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Kieu-Van; Plet, Julie; Tolleter, Dimitri; Jokel, Martina; Cuiné, Stéphan; Carrier, Patrick; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Johnson, Xenie; Alric, Jean; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    During oxygenic photosynthesis, metabolic reactions of CO2 fixation require more ATP than is supplied by the linear electron flow operating from photosystem II to photosystem I (PSI). Different mechanisms, such as cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI, have been proposed to participate in reequilibrating the ATP/NADPH balance. To determine the contribution of CEF to microalgal biomass productivity, here, we studied photosynthesis and growth performances of a knockout Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant (pgrl1) deficient in PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION LIKE1 (PGRL1)–mediated CEF. Steady state biomass productivity of the pgrl1 mutant, measured in photobioreactors operated as turbidostats, was similar to its wild-type progenitor under a wide range of illumination and CO2 concentrations. Several changes were observed in pgrl1, including higher sensitivity of photosynthesis to mitochondrial inhibitors, increased light-dependent O2 uptake, and increased amounts of flavodiiron (FLV) proteins. We conclude that a combination of mitochondrial cooperation and oxygen photoreduction downstream of PSI (Mehler reactions) supplies extra ATP for photosynthesis in the pgrl1 mutant, resulting in normal biomass productivity under steady state conditions. The lower biomass productivity observed in the pgrl1 mutant in fluctuating light is attributed to an inability of compensation mechanisms to respond to a rapid increase in ATP demand. PMID:24989042

  15. The RNA Structure of cis-acting Translational Elements of the Chloroplast psbC mRNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Mir Munir A; Vigneault, Frederic; Zerges, William

    2016-01-01

    Photosystem II is the first of two light-driven oxidoreductase complexes in oxygenic photosynthesis. The biogenesis of photosystem II requires the synthesis of polypeptide subunits encoded by the genomes in the chloroplast and the nucleus. In the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the synthesis of each subunit requires interactions between the 5' UTR of the mRNA encoding it and gene-specific translation factors. Here, we analyze the sequences and structures in the 5' UTR of the psbC mRNA, which are known to be required to promote translation and genetic interaction with TBC1, a nuclear gene required specifically for psbC translation. Results of enzymatic probing in vitro and chemical probing in vivo and in vitro support three secondary structures and reveal that one participates in a pseudoknot structure. Analyses of the effects of mutations affecting pseudoknot sequences, by structural mapping and thermal gradient gel electrophoresis, reveal that flexibility at the base of the major stem-loop is required for translation and higher order RNA conformation, and suggest that this conformation is stabilized by TBC1. This RNA pseudoknot tertiary structure is analogous to the internal ribosome entry sites that promote translation of certain viruses and cellular mRNAs in the nuclear-cytoplasmic systems of eukaryotes. PMID:27379123

  16. Induction of Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation in Anoxia Relies on Hydrogenase Activity and Proton-Gradient Regulation-Like1-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Benjamin; Berne, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is frequently subject to periods of dark and anoxia in its natural environment. Here, by resorting to mutants defective in the maturation of the chloroplastic oxygen-sensitive hydrogenases or in Proton-Gradient Regulation-Like1 (PGRL1)-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (PSI-CEF), we demonstrate the sequential contribution of these alternative electron flows (AEFs) in the reactivation of photosynthetic carbon fixation during a shift from dark anoxia to light. At light onset, hydrogenase activity sustains a linear electron flow from photosystem II, which is followed by a transient PSI-CEF in the wild type. By promoting ATP synthesis without net generation of photosynthetic reductants, the two AEF are critical for restoration of the capacity for carbon dioxide fixation in the light. Our data also suggest that the decrease in hydrogen evolution with time of illumination might be due to competition for reduced ferredoxins between ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase and hydrogenases, rather than due to the sensitivity of hydrogenase activity to oxygen. Finally, the absence of the two alternative pathways in a double mutant pgrl1 hydrogenase maturation factor G-2 is detrimental for photosynthesis and growth and cannot be compensated by any other AEF or anoxic metabolic responses. This highlights the role of hydrogenase activity and PSI-CEF in the ecological success of microalgae in low-oxygen environments. PMID:25931521

  17. Induction of Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation in Anoxia Relies on Hydrogenase Activity and Proton-Gradient Regulation-Like1-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Godaux, Damien; Bailleul, Benjamin; Berne, Nicolas; Cardol, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    The model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is frequently subject to periods of dark and anoxia in its natural environment. Here, by resorting to mutants defective in the maturation of the chloroplastic oxygen-sensitive hydrogenases or in Proton-Gradient Regulation-Like1 (PGRL1)-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (PSI-CEF), we demonstrate the sequential contribution of these alternative electron flows (AEFs) in the reactivation of photosynthetic carbon fixation during a shift from dark anoxia to light. At light onset, hydrogenase activity sustains a linear electron flow from photosystem II, which is followed by a transient PSI-CEF in the wild type. By promoting ATP synthesis without net generation of photosynthetic reductants, the two AEF are critical for restoration of the capacity for carbon dioxide fixation in the light. Our data also suggest that the decrease in hydrogen evolution with time of illumination might be due to competition for reduced ferredoxins between ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase and hydrogenases, rather than due to the sensitivity of hydrogenase activity to oxygen. Finally, the absence of the two alternative pathways in a double mutant pgrl1 hydrogenase maturation factor G-2 is detrimental for photosynthesis and growth and cannot be compensated by any other AEF or anoxic metabolic responses. This highlights the role of hydrogenase activity and PSI-CEF in the ecological success of microalgae in low-oxygen environments. PMID:25931521

  18. Photoproduction of hydrogen by sulfur-deprived C. reinhardtii mutants with impaired photosystem II photochemical activity.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Valeria V; Kosourov, Sergey; Krendeleva, Tatiana E; Semin, Boris K; Kukarskikh, Galina P; Rubin, Andrei B; Sayre, Richard T; Ghirardi, Maria L; Seibert, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Photoproduction of H2 was examined in a series of sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii D1-R323 mutants with progressively impaired PSII photochemical activity. In the R323H, R323D, and R323E D1 mutants, replacement of arginine affects photosystem II (PSII) function, as demonstrated by progressive decreases in O2-evolving activity and loss of PSII photochemical activity. Significant changes in PSII activity were found when the arginine residue was replaced by negatively charged amino acid residues (R323D and R323E). However, the R323H (positively charged or neutral, depending on the ambient pH) mutant had minimal changes in PSII activity. The R323H, R323D, and R323E mutants and the pseudo-wild-type (pWt) with restored PSII function were used to study the effects of sulfur deprivation on H2-production activity. All of these mutants exhibited significant changes in the normal parameters associated with the H2-photoproduction process, such as a shorter aerobic phase, lower accumulation of starch, a prolonged anaerobic phase observed before the onset of H2-production, a shorter duration of H2-production, lower H2 yields compared to the pWt control, and slightly higher production of dark fermentation products such as acetate and formate. The more compromised the PSII photochemical activity, the more dramatic was the effect of sulfur deprivation on the H2-production process, which depends both on the presence of residual PSII activity and the amount of stored starch. PMID:17701084

  19. Rubisco mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii enhance photosynthetic hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Pinto, T S; Malcata, F X; Arrabaça, J D; Silva, J M; Spreitzer, R J; Esquível, M G

    2013-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an ideal fuel characterized by high enthalpy change and lack of greenhouse effects. This biofuel can be released by microalgae via reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen catalyzed by hydrogenases. The main competitor for the reducing power required by the hydrogenases is the Calvin cycle, and rubisco plays a key role therein. Engineered Chlamydomonas with reduced rubisco levels, activity and stability was used as the basis of this research effort aimed at increasing hydrogen production. Biochemical monitoring in such metabolically engineered mutant cells proceeded in Tris/acetate/phosphate culture medium with S-depletion or repletion, both under hypoxia. Photosynthetic activity, maximum photochemical efficiency, chlorophyll and protein levels were all measured. In addition, expression of rubisco, hydrogenase, D1 and Lhcb were investigated, and H2 was quantified. At the beginning of the experiments, rubisco increased followed by intense degradation. Lhcb proteins exhibited monomeric isoforms during the first 24 to 48 h, and D1 displayed sensitivity under S-depletion. Rubisco mutants exhibited a significant decrease in O2 evolution compared with the control. Although the S-depleted medium was much more suitable than its complete counterpart for H2 production, hydrogen release was observed also in sealed S-repleted cultures of rubisco mutated cells under low-moderate light conditions. In particular, the rubisco mutant Y67A accounted for 10-15-fold higher hydrogen production than the wild type under the same conditions and also displayed divergent metabolic parameters. These results indicate that rubisco is a promising target for improving hydrogen production rates in engineered microalgae. PMID:23649352

  20. Carbonic anhydrase activity in isolated chloroplasts of chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, G.; Togasaki, R.K. ); Marcus, Y. ); Moroney, J.V. )

    1989-04-01

    In a new assay of carbonic anhydrase, NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} solution at the bottom of a sealed vessel releases {sup 14}CO{sub 3} which diffuses to the top of the vessel to be assimilated by actively photosynthesizing Chlamydomonas cells. The assay is initiated by illuminating cells and stopped by turning the light off and killing the cells with acid. Enzyme activity was estimated from acid stable radioactivity above the uncatalyzed background level. With bovine carbonic anhydrase, 1.5 Wilbur Anderson Unit (WAU) can be consistantly measured at 5-6 fold above background. Sonicated whole cells of air adapted wild type (+)gave 741.1 {plus minus} 12.4 WAU/mg chl. Intact washed cells of mixotrophically grown wall-less mutant CWD(-) and a high CO2 requiring wall-less double mutant CIA-3/CW15 (-) gave 7.1 {plus minus} 1.9 and 2.8 {plus minus} 7.8 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplasts isolated from CWD and CIA-3/CW15 and subsequently disrupted gave 64.0 {plus minus} 14.7 and 2.8 {plus minus} 3.2 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplast sonicate from another wall-less mutant CW15(-) gave activity comparable to CWD. Thus on a chlorophyll basis, enzyme activity in chloroplasts from mixotrophically grown cells is about 1/10th of the level found in air adapted wild type cells. CIA-3 seems to lack this activity.

  1. Novel structural aspect of the diatom thylakoid membrane: lateral segregation of photosystem I under red-enhanced illumination.

    PubMed

    Bína, David; Herbstová, Miroslava; Gardian, Zdenko; Vácha, František; Litvín, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Spatial segregation of photosystems in the thylakoid membrane (lateral heterogeneity) observed in plants and in the green algae is usually considered to be absent in photoautotrophs possessing secondary plastids, such as diatoms. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast of a marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, contain large areas occupied exclusively by a supercomplex of photosystem I (PSI) and its associated Lhcr antenna. These membrane areas, hundreds of nanometers in size, comprise hundreds of tightly packed PSI-antenna complexes while lacking other components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Analyses of the spatial distribution of the PSI-Lhcr complexes have indicated elliptical particles, each 14 × 17 nm in diameter. On larger scales, the red-enhanced illumination exerts a significant effect on the ultrastructure of chloroplasts, creating superstacks of tens of thylakoid membranes. PMID:27149693

  2. Light-dependent chlorophyll f synthase is a highly divergent paralog of PsbA of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Yang; Shen, Gaozhong; Canniffe, Daniel P; Zhao, Chi; Bryant, Donald A

    2016-08-26

    Chlorophyll f (Chl f) permits some cyanobacteria to expand the spectral range for photosynthesis by absorbing far-red light. We used reverse genetics and heterologous expression to identify the enzyme for Chl f synthesis. Null mutants of "super-rogue" psbA4 genes, divergent paralogs of psbA genes encoding the D1 core subunit of photosystem II, abolished Chl f synthesis in two cyanobacteria that grow in far-red light. Heterologous expression of the psbA4 gene, which we rename chlF, enables Chl f biosynthesis in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Because the reaction requires light, Chl f synthase is probably a photo-oxidoreductase that employs catalytically useful Chl a molecules, tyrosine YZ, and plastoquinone (as does photosystem II) but lacks a Mn4Ca1O5 cluster. Introduction of Chl f biosynthesis into crop plants could expand their ability to use solar energy. PMID:27386923

  3. Novel structural aspect of the diatom thylakoid membrane: lateral segregation of photosystem I under red-enhanced illumination

    PubMed Central

    Bína, David; Herbstová, Miroslava; Gardian, Zdenko; Vácha, František; Litvín, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Spatial segregation of photosystems in the thylakoid membrane (lateral heterogeneity) observed in plants and in the green algae is usually considered to be absent in photoautotrophs possessing secondary plastids, such as diatoms. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast of a marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, contain large areas occupied exclusively by a supercomplex of photosystem I (PSI) and its associated Lhcr antenna. These membrane areas, hundreds of nanometers in size, comprise hundreds of tightly packed PSI-antenna complexes while lacking other components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Analyses of the spatial distribution of the PSI-Lhcr complexes have indicated elliptical particles, each 14 × 17 nm in diameter. On larger scales, the red-enhanced illumination exerts a significant effect on the ultrastructure of chloroplasts, creating superstacks of tens of thylakoid membranes. PMID:27149693

  4. Expression of chimeric genes by the light-regulated cabII-1 promoter in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a cabII-1/nit1 gene functions as a dominant selectable marker in a nit1- nit2- strain.

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, J E; Kindle, K L

    1992-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, expression of the cabII-1 gene increases dramatically in response to light (cabII-1 encodes one of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of photosystem II). We have used a region upstream of the cabII-1 gene in translational fusions to the bacterial uidA gene (encodes beta-glucuronidase) and transcriptional fusions to the Chlamydomonas nitrate reductase gene (nit1). Chlamydomonas transformants carrying intact copies of the chimeric uidA gene do not express beta-glucuronidase at the level of enzyme activity or mRNA accumulation. Methylation in the cabII-1 promoter region of the introduced gene is extensive in these strains, suggesting that newly introduced foreign genes may be recognized and silenced by a cellular mechanism that is correlated with increased methylation. Transformants that express the chimeric cabII-1/nit1 gene have been recovered. In contrast to the endogenous nit1 gene, the chimeric cabII-1/nit1 gene is expressed in ammonium-containing medium. Moreover, nit1 mRNA accumulation is dramatically stimulated by light, with a time course that is indistinguishable from that of the endogenous cabII-1 gene. The cabII-1/nit1 gene has been used to select transformants in a nit1- nit2- Chlamydomonas strain (CC400G) and should be useful for transformation of the large number of mutants in the Ebersold-Levine lineage, which carry the same mutations. Images PMID:1406696

  5. High-Level Accumulation of Triacylglycerol and Starch in Photoautotrophically Grown Chlamydomonas debaryana NIES-2212.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Masakazu; Sato, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae have the potential to produce triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch, which provide alternative sources of biofuel. A problem in using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model for TAG production has been that this alga lacks phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is thought to be important for TAG synthesis in plants. We found that C. debaryana is one of the rare species of Chlamydomonas having PC. Here we show that this strain, grown under complete photoautotrophic conditions, accumulated TAG and starch up to 20 and 250 pg per cell, respectively, during the stationary phase without nutrient deprivation. Addition of nutrients in this state did not cause loss of TAG, which was found in dilution with fresh medium. The photosynthetically produced TAG contained a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, which is a preferred property as a material for biodiesel. The oil bodies were present in the cytoplasm, either between the cytoplasmic membrane and the chloroplast or between the chloroplast and the nucleus, whereas the starch granules were present within the chloroplast. Oil bodies were also deposited as a broad layer in the peripheral space of the cytoplasm outside the chloroplast, and might be easily released from the cells by genetic, chemical or mechanical manipulation. These results suggest that C. debaryana is a promising seed organism for developing a good biofuel producer. PMID:26542110

  6. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.C.

    1995-11-01

    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b{sub 559} and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q{sub y}-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of {approximately} 1 cm{sup -1}/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  7. Swimming of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in weakly elastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Gollub, Jerry; Arratia, Paulo

    2012-11-01

    The swimming behavior of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in weakly elastic fluids is investigated in experiments using microscopy and tracking methods. The effects of fluid viscosity and elasticity on the swimming speed, flagellar shape, beating frequency, and efficiency are examined. Here, the fluid viscosity is varied using water and sucrose solutions, while fluid elasticity is introduced by adding flexible polymer CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) to the buffer solution. Swimming experiments are performed in a thin-film apparatus equipped with a microscope and high-speed camera. We find that even small amounts of fluid elasticity can have a significant effect on the swimming kinematics and dynamics of Chlamydomonas because of the relatively high beating frequency of its flagella (50-60 Hz). For example, the Chlamydomonas swimming speed is hindered by fluid elasticity compared to Newtonian fluids. In addition, the algae swimming speed decreases as the fluid elasticity is increased. This research is supported by the NSF through grant DMR-1104705.

  8. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission and ground irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Serafini, Agnese; Damasso, Mario; Margonelli, Andrea; Johanningmeier, Udo; Bertalan, Ivo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plantsor algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stress-tolerant strains. Site-directed and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii of Photosystem II D1 protein were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. Metabolite profiling by quantitative HPLC methods revealed the organisms and the stress conditions capable to accumulate the highest pigment levels. In order to develop a project for a rationale metabolic engineering of algal secondary metabolites overproduction, we are performing expression analyses on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway under physiological and mimicked space conditions. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton-M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence biosensor, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device

  9. Studies on flagellar shortening in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Cherniack, J.

    1985-01-01

    Flagellar shortening of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was promoted by sodium chloride, pyrophosphate (sodium, potassium and ammonium salts), EDTA and EGTA, succinate, citrate and oxalate (sodium salts), caffeine and aminophylline. Removal of calcium from the medium potentiated the effects of these agents in inducing shortening. Investigations of the release of phosphorylated compounds to the medium during pyrophosphate-induced flagellar shortening of cells pre-labelled with /sup 32/P, revealed an as yet unidentified /sup 32/P-labelled compound with distinct chromatographic properties. Chromatography and electrophoresis indicates that it is a small, highly polar molecule with a high charge to mass ratio, containing thermo- and acid-labile phosphate linkages. Investigations showed of the release of /sup 35/S-labelled protein to the medium from cells pre-labelled with /sup 35/S-sulfate showed that flagellated cells released two prominent polypeptides which comigrated with ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-flagellar tubulin on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, while deflagellated cells did not.

  10. Patching Holes in the Chlamydomonas Genome.

    PubMed

    Tulin, Frej; Cross, Frederick R

    2016-01-01

    The Chlamydomonas genome has been sequenced, assembled, and annotated to produce a rich resource for genetics and molecular biology in this well-studied model organism. However, the current reference genome contains ∼1000 blocks of unknown sequence ('N-islands'), which are frequently placed in introns of annotated gene models. We developed a strategy to search for previously unknown exons hidden within such blocks, and determine the sequence, and exon/intron boundaries, of such exons. These methods are based on assembly and alignment of short cDNA and genomic DNA reads, completely independent of prior reference assembly or annotation. Our evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the annotated intronic N-islands contain hidden exons. For most of these, our algorithm recovers full exonic sequence with associated splice junctions and exon-adjacent intronic sequence. These new exons represent de novo sequence generally present nowhere in the assembled genome, and the added sequence improves evolutionary conservation of the predicted encoded peptides. PMID:27175017

  11. Patching Holes in the Chlamydomonas Genome

    PubMed Central

    Tulin, Frej; Cross, Frederick R.

    2016-01-01

    The Chlamydomonas genome has been sequenced, assembled, and annotated to produce a rich resource for genetics and molecular biology in this well-studied model organism. However, the current reference genome contains ∼1000 blocks of unknown sequence (‘N-islands’), which are frequently placed in introns of annotated gene models. We developed a strategy to search for previously unknown exons hidden within such blocks, and determine the sequence, and exon/intron boundaries, of such exons. These methods are based on assembly and alignment of short cDNA and genomic DNA reads, completely independent of prior reference assembly or annotation. Our evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the annotated intronic N-islands contain hidden exons. For most of these, our algorithm recovers full exonic sequence with associated splice junctions and exon-adjacent intronic sequence. These new exons represent de novo sequence generally present nowhere in the assembled genome, and the added sequence improves evolutionary conservation of the predicted encoded peptides. PMID:27175017

  12. Testing directed evolution strategies for space exploration: genetic modification of photosystem II to increase stress tolerance under space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertalan, I.; Giardi, M. T.; Johanningmeier, U.

    Plants and many microorganisms are able to convert and store solar energy in chemical bonds by a process called photosynthesis They remove CO 2 from the atmosphere fix it as carbohydrate and simultaneously evolve oxygen Oxygen evolution is of supreme relevance for all higher life forms and results from the splitting of water molecules This process is catalyzed by the so called photosystem II PSII complex and represents the very beginning of biomass production PS II is also a central point of regulation being responsive to various physical and physiological parameters Complex space radiation is damaging PS II and reduces photosynthetic efficiency Thus bioregenerative life-support systems are severely disturbed at this point Genetic manipulation of photosynthesis checkpoints offer the possibility to adjust biomass and oxygen production to changing environmental conditions As the photosynthetic apparatus has adapted to terrestrial and not to space conditions we are trying to adapt a central and particularly stress-susceptible element of the photosynthesis apparatus - the D1 subunit of PS II - to space radiation by a strategy of directed evolution The D1 subunit together with its sister subunit D2 form the reaction centre of PS II D1 presents a central weak point for radiation energy that hits the chloroplast We have constructed a mutant of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a defect D1 protein This mutant is easily transformable with D1-encoding PCR fragments without purification and cloning steps 1 When

  13. Light-harvesting in photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Croce, Roberta; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2013-10-01

    This review focuses on the light-harvesting properties of photosystem I (PSI) and its LHCI outer antenna. LHCI consists of different chlorophyll a/b binding proteins called Lhca's, surrounding the core of PSI. In total, the PSI-LHCI complex of higher plants contains 173 chlorophyll molecules, most of which are there to harvest sunlight energy and to transfer the created excitation energy to the reaction center (RC) where it is used for charge separation. The efficiency of the complex is based on the capacity to deliver this energy to the RC as fast as possible, to minimize energy losses. The performance of PSI in this respect is remarkable: on average it takes around 50 ps for the excitation to reach the RC in plants, without being quenched in the meantime. This means that the internal quantum efficiency is close to 100% which makes PSI the most efficient energy converter in nature. In this review, we describe the light-harvesting properties of the complex in relation to protein and pigment organization/composition, and we discuss the important parameters that assure its very high quantum efficiency. Excitation energy transfer and trapping in the core and/or Lhcas, as well as in the supercomplexes PSI-LHCI and PSI-LHCI-LHCII are described in detail with the aim of giving an overview of the functional behavior of these complexes. PMID:23645376

  14. Charge recombination and thermoluminescence in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Fabrice; Cuni, Aude; Xiong, Ling; Sayre, Richard; Lavergne, Jérôme

    2005-03-01

    In the recombination process of Photosystem II (S(2)Q(A)(-)-->S(1)Q(A)) the limiting step is the electron transfer from the reduced primary acceptor pheophytin Ph(-) to the oxidized primary donor P(+) and the rate depends on the equilibrium constant between states S(2)PPhQ(A)(-) and S(1)P(+)Ph(-)Q(A). Accordingly, mutations that affect the midpoint potential of Ph or of P result in a modified recombination rate. A strong correlation is observed between the effects on the recombination rate and on thermoluminescence (TL, the light emission from S(2)Q(A)(-) during a warming ramp): a slower recombination corresponds to a large enhancement and higher temperature of the TL peak. The current theory of TL does not account for these effects, because it is based on the assumption that the rate-limiting step coincides with the radiative process. When implementing the known fact that the radiative pathway represents a minor leak, the modified TL theory readily accounts qualitatively for the observed behavior. However, the peak temperature is still lower than predicted from the temperature-dependence of recombination. We argue that this reflects the heterogeneity of the recombination process combined with the enhanced sensitivity of TL to slower components. The recombination kinetics are accurately fitted as a sum of two exponentials and we show that this is not due to a progressive stabilization of the charge-separated state, but to a pre-existing conformational heterogeneity. PMID:15653722

  15. Photosystem I - based biohybrid photoelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Peter N; Hijazi, Frederick M; Scott, Amanda M; Faulkner, Christopher J; Beard, Lisa; Emmett, Kevin; Rosenthal, Sandra J; Cliffel, David; Kane Jennings, G

    2010-05-01

    Photosynthesis is the process by which Nature coordinates a tandem of protein complexes of impressive complexity that function to harness staggering amounts of solar energy on a global scale. Advances in biochemistry and nanotechnology have provided tools to isolate and manipulate the individual components of this process, thus opening a door to a new class of highly functional and vastly abundant biological resources. Here we show how one of these components, Photosystem I (PSI), is incorporated into an electrochemical system to yield a stand-alone biohybrid photoelectrochemical cell that converts light energy into electrical energy. The cells make use of a dense multilayer of PSI complexes assembled on the surface of the cathode to produce a photocatalytic effect that generates photocurrent densities of approximately 2 microA/cm(2) at moderate light intensities. We describe the relationship between the current and voltage production of the cells and the photoinduced interactions of PSI complexes with electrochemical mediators, and show that the performance of the present device is limited by diffusional transport of the electrochemical mediators through the electrolyte. These biohybrid devices display remarkable stability, as they remain active in ambient conditions for at least 280 days. Even at bench-scale production, the materials required to fabricate the cells described in this manuscript cost approximately 10 cents per cm(2) of active electrode area. PMID:20064713

  16. Photoelectrochemistry of photosystem I bound in nafion.

    PubMed

    Baker, David R; Simmerman, Richard F; Sumner, James J; Bruce, Barry D; Lundgren, Cynthia A

    2014-11-18

    Developing a solid state Photosystem I (PSI) modified electrode is attractive for photoelectrochemical applications because of the quantum yield of PSI, which approaches unity in the visible spectrum. Electrodes are constructed using a Nafion film to encapsulate PSI as well as the hole-scavenging redox mediator Os(bpy)2Cl2. The photoactive electrodes generate photocurrents of 4 μA/cm(2) when illuminated with 1.4 mW/cm(2) of 676 nm band-pass filtered light. Methyl viologen (MV(2+)) is present in the electrolyte to scavenge photoelectrons from PSI in the Nafion film and transport charges to the counter electrode. Because MV(2+) is positively charged in both reduced and oxidized states, it is able to diffuse through the cation permeable channels of Nafion. Photocurrent is produced when the working electrode is set to voltages negative of the Os(3+)/Os(2+) redox potential. Charge transfer through the Nafion film and photohole scavenging at the PSI luminal surface by Os(bpy)2Cl2 depends on the reduction of Os redox centers to Os(2+) via hole scavenging from PSI. The optimal film densities of Nafion (10 μg/cm(2) Nafion) and PSI (100 μg/cm(2) PSI) are determined to provide the highest photocurrents. These optimal film densities force films to be thin to allow the majority of PSI to have productive electrical contact with the backing electrode. PMID:25341002

  17. Photosystem II: an enzyme of global significance.

    PubMed

    Barber, J

    2006-11-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a multisubunit enzyme embedded in the lipid environment of the thylakoid membranes of plants, algae and cyanobacteria. Powered by light, this enzyme catalyses the chemically and thermodynamically demanding reaction of water splitting. In so doing, it releases dioxygen into the atmosphere and provides the reducing equivalents required for the conversion of CO2 into the organic molecules of life. Recently, a fully refined structure of a 700 kDa cyanobacterial dimeric PSII complex was elucidated by X-ray crystallography which gave organizational and structural details of the 19 subunits (16 intrinsic and three extrinsic) which make up each monomer and provided information about the position and protein environments of 57 different cofactors. The water-splitting site was revealed as a cluster of four Mn ions and a Ca2+ ion surrounded by amino acid side chains, of which six or seven form direct ligands to the metals. The metal cluster was modelled as a cubane-like structure composed of three Mn ions and the Ca2+ linked by oxo-bonds with the fourth Mn attached to the cubane via one of its oxygens. The overall structure of the catalytic site is providing a framework to develop a mechanistic scheme for the water-splitting process, knowledge which could have significant implications for mimicking the reaction in an artificial chemical system. PMID:17052167

  18. Multistep organic synthesis of modular photosystems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Quite extensive synthetic achievements vanish in the online supporting information of publications on functional systems. Underappreciated, their value is recognized by experts only. As an example, we here focus in on the recent synthesis of multicomponent photosystems with antiparallel charge-transfer cascades in co-axial hole- and electron-transporting channels. The synthetic steps are described one-by-one, starting with commercial starting materials and moving on to key intermediates, such as asparagusic acid, an intriguing natural product, as well as diphosphonate “feet”, and panchromatic naphthalenediimides (NDIs), to finally reach the target molecules. These products are initiators and propagators for self-organizing surface-initiated polymerization (SOSIP), a new method introduced to secure facile access to complex architectures. Chemoorthogonal to the ring-opening disulfide exchange used for SOSIP, hydrazone exchange is then introduced to achieve stack exchange, which is a “switching” technology invented to drill giant holes into SOSIP architectures and fill them with functional π-stacks of free choice. PMID:23015840

  19. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  20. Analysis of Axonemal Assembly During Ciliary Regeneration in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Emily L; Sale, Winfield S; Alford, Lea M

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an outstanding model genetic organism for study of assembly of cilia. Here, methods are described for synchronization of ciliary regeneration in Chlamydomonas to analyze the sequence in which ciliary proteins assemble. In addition, the methods described allow analysis of the mechanisms involved in regulation of ciliary length, the proteins required for ciliary assembly, and the temporal expression of genes encoding ciliary proteins. Ultimately, these methods can contribute to discovery of conserved genes that when defective lead to abnormal ciliary assembly and human disease. PMID:27514926

  1. Moderate Photoinhibition of Photosystem II Protects Photosystem I from Photodamage at Chilling Stress in Tobacco Leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. PMID:26941755

  2. Moderate Photoinhibition of Photosystem II Protects Photosystem I from Photodamage at Chilling Stress in Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m-2 s-1) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. PMID:26941755

  3. Origin of pronounced differences in 77 K fluorescence of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in state 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Caner; Polukhina, Iryna; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    In response to changes in the reduction state of the plastoquinone pool in its thylakoid membrane, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtti is performing state transitions: remodelling of its thylakoid membrane leads to a redistribution of excitations over photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII). These transitions are accompanied by marked changes in the 77 K fluorescence spectrum, which form the accepted signature of state transitions. The changes are generally thought to reflect a redistribution of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) over PSII (fluorescing below 700 nm) and PSI (fluorescing above 700 nm). Here we studied the picosecond fluorescence properties of C. reinhardtti over a broad range of wavelengths with very low excitation intensities (0.2 nJ per laser pulse). Cells were directly used for time-resolved fluorescence measurements at 77 K without further treatment, such as medium exchange with glycerol. It is observed that upon going from state 1 (relatively more fluorescence below 700 nm) to state 2 (relatively more fluorescence above 700 nm), a large part of the fluorescence of LHC/PSII becomes substantially quenched in concurrence with LHC detachment from PSII, whereas the absolute amount of PSI fluorescence hardly changes. These results are in agreement with the recent proposal that the amount of LHC moving from PSII to PSI upon going from state 1 to state 2 is rather limited (Unlu et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111 (9):3460-3465, 2014). PMID:26518693

  4. Structure-based design of novel Chlamydomonas reinhardtii D1-D2 photosynthetic proteins for herbicide monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Giuseppina; Polticelli, Fabio; Antonacci, Amina; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Katiyar, Prashant; Kulkarni, Sudhir A; Johanningmeier, Udo; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The D1-D2 heterodimer in the reaction center core of phototrophs binds the redox plastoquinone cofactors, QA and QB, the terminal acceptors of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain in the photosystem II (PSII). This complex is the target of the herbicide atrazine, an environmental pollutant competitive inhibitor of QB binding, and consequently it represents an excellent biomediator to develop biosensors for pollutant monitoring in ecosystems. In this context, we have undertaken a study of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii D1-D2 proteins aimed at designing site directed mutants with increased affinity for atrazine. The three-dimensional structure of the D1 and D2 proteins from C. reinhardtii has been homology modeled using the crystal structure of the highly homologous Thermosynechococcus elongatus proteins as templates. Mutants of D1 and D2 were then generated in silico and the atrazine binding affinity of the mutant proteins has been calculated to predict mutations able to increase PSII affinity for atrazine. The computational approach has been validated through comparison with available experimental data and production and characterization of one of the predicted mutants. The latter analyses indicated an increase of one order of magnitude of the mutant sensitivity and affinity for atrazine as compared to the control strain. Finally, D1-D2 heterodimer mutants were designed and selected which, according to our model, increase atrazine binding affinity by up to 20 kcal/mol, representing useful starting points for the development of high affinity biosensors for atrazine. PMID:19693932

  5. A type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase mediates light-independent plastoquinone reduction in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Jans, Frédéric; Mignolet, Emmanuel; Houyoux, Pierre-Alain; Cardol, Pierre; Ghysels, Bart; Cuiné, Stéphan; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles; Remacle, Claire; Franck, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    In photosynthetic eukaryotes, nonphotochemical plastoquinone (PQ) reduction is important for the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow. In green microalgae where this process has been demonstrated, the chloroplastic enzyme that catalyses nonphotochemical PQ reduction has not been identified yet. Here, we show by an RNA interference (RNAi) approach that the NDA2 gene, belonging to a type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases family in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, encodes a chloroplastic dehydrogenase that functions to reduce PQ nonphotochemically in this alga. Using a specific antibody, we show that the Nda2 protein is localized in chloroplasts of wild-type cells and is absent in two Nda2-RNAi cell lines. In both mutant cell lines, nonphotochemical PQ reduction is severely affected, as indicated by altered chlorophyll fluorescence transients after saturating illumination. Compared with wild type, change in light excitation distribution between photosystems (‘state transition’) upon inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport is strongly impaired in transformed cells because of inefficient PQ reduction. Furthermore, the amount of hydrogen produced by Nda2-RNAi cells under sulfur deprivation is substantially decreased compared with wild type, which supports previous assumptions that endogenous substrates serve as source of electrons for hydrogen formation. These results demonstrate the importance of Nda2 for nonphotochemical PQ reduction and associated processes in C. reinhardtii. PMID:19074271

  6. Control of Hydrogen Photoproduction by the Proton Gradient Generated by Cyclic Electron Flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[W

    PubMed Central

    Tolleter, Dimitri; Ghysels, Bart; Alric, Jean; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Tolstygina, Irina; Krawietz, Danuta; Happe, Thomas; Auroy, Pascaline; Adriano, Jean-Marc; Beyly, Audrey; Cuiné, Stéphan; Plet, Julie; Reiter, Ilja M.; Genty, Bernard; Cournac, Laurent; Hippler, Michael; Peltier, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen photoproduction by eukaryotic microalgae results from a connection between the photosynthetic electron transport chain and a plastidial hydrogenase. Algal H2 production is a transitory phenomenon under most natural conditions, often viewed as a safety valve protecting the photosynthetic electron transport chain from overreduction. From the colony screening of an insertion mutant library of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on the analysis of dark-light chlorophyll fluorescence transients, we isolated a mutant impaired in cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF) due to a defect in the Proton Gradient Regulation Like1 (PGRL1) protein. Under aerobiosis, nonphotochemical quenching of fluorescence (NPQ) is strongly decreased in pgrl1. Under anaerobiosis, H2 photoproduction is strongly enhanced in the pgrl1 mutant, both during short-term and long-term measurements (in conditions of sulfur deprivation). Based on the light dependence of NPQ and hydrogen production, as well as on the enhanced hydrogen production observed in the wild-type strain in the presence of the uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, we conclude that the proton gradient generated by CEF provokes a strong inhibition of electron supply to the hydrogenase in the wild-type strain, which is released in the pgrl1 mutant. Regulation of the trans-thylakoidal proton gradient by monitoring pgrl1 expression opens new perspectives toward reprogramming the cellular metabolism of microalgae for enhanced H2 production. PMID:21764992

  7. Acclimation to hypoxia in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: can biophotolysis be the major trigger for long-term H2 production?

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Durante, Lorenzo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    In anaerobiosis, the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is able to produce H2 gas. Electrons mainly derive from mobilization of internal reserves or from water through biophotolysis. However, the exact mechanisms triggering this process are still unclear. Our hypothesis was that, once a proper redox state has been achieved, H2 production is eventually observed. To avoid nutrient depletion, which would result in enhanced fermentative pathways, we aimed to induce long-lasting H2 production solely through a photosynthesis : respiration equilibrium. Thus, growing cells were incubated in Tris Acetate Phosphate (TAP) medium under low light and high chlorophyll content. After a 250-h acclimation phase, a 350-h H2 production phase was observed. The light-to-H2 conversion efficiency was comparable to that given in some reports operating under sulphur starvation. Electron sources were found to be water, through biophotolysis, and proteins, particularly through photofermentation. Nonetheless, a substantial contribution from acetate could not be ruled out. In addition, photosystem II (PSII) inhibition by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) showed that it actively contributed to maintaining a redox balance during cell acclimation. In appropriate conditions, PSII may represent the major source of reducing power to feed the H2 evolution process, by inducing and maintaining an ideal excess of reducing power. PMID:25103459

  8. Structure determination and improved model of plant photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Amunts, Alexey; Toporik, Hila; Borovikova, Anna; Nelson, Nathan

    2010-01-29

    Photosystem I functions as a sunlight energy converter, catalyzing one of the initial steps in driving oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Functionally, Photosystem I captures sunlight and transfers the excitation energy through an intricate and precisely organized antenna system, consisting of a pigment network, to the center of the molecule, where it is used in the transmembrane electron transfer reaction. Our current understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms underlying these processes has profited greatly from elucidation of the crystal structures of the Photosystem I complex. In this report, we describe the developments that ultimately led to enhanced structural information of plant Photosystem I. In addition, we report an improved crystallographic model at 3.3-A resolution, which allows analysis of the structure in more detail. An improved electron density map yielded identification and tracing of subunit PsaK. The location of an additional ten beta-carotenes as well as five chlorophylls and several loop regions, which were previously uninterpretable, are now modeled. This represents the most complete plant Photosystem I structure obtained thus far, revealing the locations of and interactions among 17 protein subunits and 193 non-covalently bound photochemical cofactors. Using the new crystal structure, we examine the network of contacts among the protein subunits from the structural perspective, which provide the basis for elucidating the functional organization of the complex. PMID:19923216

  9. The RUBISCO to Photosystem II Ratio Limits the Maximum Photosynthetic Rate in Picocyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zorz, Jackie K.; Allanach, Jessica R.; Murphy, Cole D.; Roodvoets, Mitchell S.; Campbell, Douglas A.; Cockshutt, Amanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are picocyanobacteria predominating in subtropical, oligotrophic marine environments, a niche predicted to expand with climate change. When grown under common low light conditions Synechococcus WH 8102 and Prochlorococcus MED 4 show similar Cytochrome b6f and Photosystem I contents normalized to Photosystem II content, while Prochlorococcus MIT 9313 has twice the Cytochrome b6f content and four times the Photosystem I content of the other strains. Interestingly, the Prochlorococcus strains contain only one third to one half of the RUBISCO catalytic subunits compared to the marine Synechococcus strain. The maximum Photosystem II electron transport rates were similar for the two Prochlorococcus strains but higher for the marine Synechococcus strain. Photosystem II electron transport capacity is highly correlated to the molar ratio of RUBISCO active sites to Photosystem II but not to the ratio of cytochrome b6f to Photosystem II, nor to the ratio of Photosystem I: Photosystem II. Thus, the catalytic capacity for the rate-limiting step of carbon fixation, the ultimate electron sink, appears to limit electron transport rates. The high abundance of Cytochrome b6f and Photosystem I in MIT 9313, combined with the slower flow of electrons away from Photosystem II and the relatively low level of RUBISCO, are consistent with cyclic electron flow around Photosystem I in this strain. PMID:25658887

  10. Binding sites associated with inhibition of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of experimental and theoretical evidence has been integrated into coherent molecular mechanisms for the action of photosystem II herbicides. Photosystem II herbicides act by inhibiting electron transfers between the first and second plastoquinones on the reducing side of photosystem II. Each herbicide molecule must have a flat polar component with hydrophobic substituents to be active. The hydrophobic substituents serve to partition the molecule into lipid regions of the cell and to fit the hydrophobic region of the herbicide binding site. The flat polar portion of the herbicide is used for electrostatic binding to the polar region of the herbicide binding site. Theoretical calculations have been carried out to investigate the binding of herbicides to model proteinaceous binding sites.

  11. Carotenoids Assist in Cyanobacterial Photosystem II Assembly and Function

    PubMed Central

    Zakar, Tomas; Laczko-Dobos, Hajnalka; Toth, Tunde N.; Gombos, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) are ubiquitous constituents of living organisms. They are protective agents against oxidative stresses and serve as modulators of membrane microviscosity. As antioxidants they can protect photosynthetic organisms from free radicals like reactive oxygen species that originate from water splitting, the first step of photosynthesis. We summarize the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in connection with cyanobacterial Photosystem II. Although carotenoids are hydrophobic molecules, their complexes with proteins also allow cytoplasmic localization. In cyanobacterial cells such complexes are called orange carotenoid proteins, and they protect Photosystem II and Photosystem I by preventing their overexcitation through phycobilisomes (PBS). Recently it has been observed that carotenoids are not only required for the proper functioning, but also for the structural stability of PBSs. PMID:27014318

  12. The structure of photosystem I and evolution of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nathan; Ben-Shem, Adam

    2005-09-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal producer of both oxygen and organic matter on earth. The primary step in this process--the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy--is driven by four multi-subunit membrane protein complexes named photosystem I, photosystem II, cytochrome b(6)f complex and F-ATPase. Photosystem I generates the most negative redox potential in nature and thus largely determines the global amount of enthalpy in living systems. The recent structural determination of PSI complexes from cyanobacteria and plants sheds light on the evolutionary forces that shaped oxygenic photosynthesis. The fortuitous formation of our solar system in a space plentiful of elements, our distance from the sun and the long time of uninterrupted evolution enabled the perfection of photosynthesis and the evolution of advanced organisms. The available structural information complements the knowledge gained from genomic and proteomic data to illustrate a more precise scenario for the evolution of life systems on earth. PMID:16108066

  13. Photosystem II Supercomplex Remodeling Serves as an Entry Mechanism for State Transitions in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dietzel, Lars; Bräutigam, Katharina; Steiner, Sebastian; Schüffler, Kristin; Lepetit, Bernard; Grimm, Bernhard; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Pfannschmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Within dense plant populations, strong light quality gradients cause unbalanced excitation of the two photosystems resulting in reduced photosynthetic efficiency. Plants redirect such imbalances by structural rearrangements of the photosynthetic apparatus via state transitions and photosystem stoichiometry adjustments. However, less is known about the function of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes in this context. Here, we show in Arabidopsis thaliana that PSII supercomplex remodeling precedes and facilitates state transitions. Intriguingly, the remodeling occurs in the short term, paralleling state transitions, but is also present in a state transition–deficient mutant, indicating that PSII supercomplex generation is independently regulated and does not require light-harvesting complex phosphorylation and movement. Instead, PSII supercomplex remodeling involves reversible phosphorylation of PSII core subunits (preferentially of CP43) and requires the luminal PSII subunit Psb27 for general formation and structural stabilization. Arabidopsis knockout mutants lacking Psb27 display highly accelerated state transitions, indicating that release of PSII supercomplexes is required for phosphorylation and subsequent movement of the antenna. Downregulation of PSII supercomplex number by physiological light treatments also results in acceleration of state transitions confirming the genetic analyses. Thus, supercomplex remodeling is a prerequisite and an important kinetic determinant of state transitions. PMID:21880991

  14. LHCII can substitute for LHCI as an antenna for photosystem I but with reduced light-harvesting capacity.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Mauro; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bargigia, Ilaria; Alcocer, Marcelo J P; Viola, Daniele; Cerullo, Giulio; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Bassi, Roberto; Ballottari, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) are major constituents of the antenna systems in higher plant photosystems. Four Lhca subunits are tightly bound to the photosystem I (PSI) core complex, forming its outer antenna moiety called LHCI. The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant ΔLhca lacks all Lhca1-4 subunits and compensates for its decreased antenna size by binding LHCII trimers, the main constituent of the photosystem II antenna system, to PSI. In this work we have investigated the effect of LHCI/LHCII substitution by comparing the light harvesting and excitation energy transfer efficiency properties of PSI complexes isolated from ΔLhca mutants and from the wild type, as well as the consequences for plant growth. We show that the excitation energy transfer efficiency was not compromised by the substitution of LHCI with LHCII but a significant reduction in the absorption cross-section was observed. The absence of LHCI subunits in PSI thus significantly limits light harvesting, even on LHCII binding, inducing, as a consequence, a strong reduction in growth. PMID:27564313

  15. Systemic Cold Stress Adaptation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Valledor, Luis; Furuhashi, Takeshi; Hanak, Anne-Mette; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is one of the most important model organisms nowadays phylogenetically situated between higher plants and animals (Merchant et al. 2007). Stress adaptation of this unicellular model algae is in the focus because of its relevance to biomass and biofuel production. Here, we have studied cold stress adaptation of C. reinhardtii hitherto not described for this algae whereas intensively studied in higher plants. Toward this goal, high throughput mass spectrometry was employed to integrate proteome, metabolome, physiological and cell-morphological changes during a time-course from 0 to 120 h. These data were complemented with RT-qPCR for target genes involved in central metabolism, signaling, and lipid biosynthesis. Using this approach dynamics in central metabolism were linked to cold-stress dependent sugar and autophagy pathways as well as novel genes in C. reinhardtii such as CKIN1, CKIN2 and a hitherto functionally not annotated protein named CKIN3. Cold stress affected extensively the physiology and the organization of the cell. Gluconeogenesis and starch biosynthesis pathways are activated leading to a pronounced starch and sugar accumulation. Quantitative lipid profiles indicate a sharp decrease in the lipophilic fraction and an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids suggesting this as a mechanism of maintaining membrane fluidity. The proteome is completely remodeled during cold stress: specific candidates of the ribosome and the spliceosome indicate altered biosynthesis and degradation of proteins important for adaptation to low temperatures. Specific proteasome degradation may be mediated by the observed cold-specific changes in the ubiquitinylation system. Sparse partial least squares regression analysis was applied for protein correlation network analysis using proteins as predictors and Fv/Fm, FW, total lipids, and starch as responses. We applied also Granger causality analysis and revealed correlations between proteins and

  16. Manganese encrustation of zygospores of a chlamydomonas (chlorophyta: volvocales).

    PubMed

    Schulz-Baldes, M; Lewin, R A

    1975-06-13

    In media containing normal trace-element supplements, but not in manganese-deficient media, zygospores of a new species of Chlamydomonas (isolated from soil) become encrusted with a dark brown mineral coating. Staining with benzidine indicates that the encrustation is rich in manganese. This has been confirmed by x-ray analysis in combination with a scanning electron microscope. PMID:17798436

  17. A novel protein involved in the functional assembly of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Kufryk, G I; Vermaas, W F

    2001-08-01

    Mutation of Glu69 to Gln in the D2 protein of photosystem II is known to lead to a loss of photoautotrophic growth in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. However, second-site mutants (pseudorevertants) with restored photoautotrophic growth but still maintaining the E69Q mutation in D2 are easily obtained. Using a genomic mapping technique involving functional complementation, the secondary mutation was mapped to slr0286 in two independent mutants. The mutations in Slr0286 were R42M or R394H. To study the function of Slr0286, mutants of E69Q and of the wild-type strain were made that lacked slr0286. Deletion of slr0286 did not affect photoautotrophic capacity in wild type but led to a marked decrease in the apparent affinity of Ca(2+) to its binding site at the water-splitting system of photosystem II and to a reduced heat tolerance of the oxygen-evolving system, particularly in E69Q. Moreover, a small increase in the half-time for photoactivation of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II for both wild type and the E69Q mutant was observed in the absence of Slr0286. The accumulation of photosystem II reaction centers, dark stability of the oxygen-evolving apparatus, stability of oxygen evolution, and the kinetics of charge recombination between Q(A)(-) and the donor side were not affected by deletion of slr0286. Slr0286 lacks clear functional motifs, and no homologues are apparent in other organisms, even not in other cyanobacteria. In any case, Slr0286 appears to help the functional assembly and stability of the water-splitting system of photosystem II. PMID:11478892

  18. Preparation protocols for high-activity photosystem II membrane particles of green algae and higher plants, pH dependence of oxygen evolution and comparison of the S2-state multiline signal by X-band EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schiller, H; Dau, H

    2000-01-01

    Photosystem II (PS II) membrane particles are particularly well suited for various types of spectroscopic investigations on the PS II manganese complex. Here we present: (1) a preparation protocol for PS II membrane particles of higher plants, which yields exceptionally high oxygen-evolution activity due to the use of glycinebetaine as a PS II-stabilizing agent; (2) preparation protocols for highly active PS II membrane particles for the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; (3) a determination of pH dependence of oxygen evolution for spinach and Scenedesmus; (4) a comparison of the EPR multiline signal observed in the S2-state of green algae and higher plants of PS II membrane particles. A clearly broader type of multiline EPR signal is observed in green algae. PMID:10942078

  19. Developing molecular tools for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor-Mohammadi, Samaneh

    Microalgae have garnered increasing interest over the years for their ability to produce compounds ranging from biofuels to neutraceuticals. A main focus of researchers has been to use microalgae as a natural bioreactor for the production of valuable and complex compounds. Recombinant protein expression in the chloroplasts of green algae has recently become more routine; however, the heterologous expression of multiple proteins or complete biosynthetic pathways remains a significant challenge. To take full advantage of these organisms' natural abilities, sophisticated molecular tools are needed to be able to introduce and functionally express multiple gene biosynthetic pathways in its genome. To achieve the above objective, we have sought to establish a method to construct, integrate and express multigene operons in the chloroplast and nuclear genome of the model microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here we show that a modified DNA Assembler approach can be used to rapidly assemble multiple-gene biosynthetic pathways in yeast and then integrate these assembled pathways at a site-specific location in the chloroplast, or by random integration in the nuclear genome of C. reinhardtii. As a proof of concept, this method was used to successfully integrate and functionally express up to three reporter proteins (AphA6, AadA, and GFP) in the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii and up to three reporter proteins (Ble, AphVIII, and GFP) in its nuclear genome. An analysis of the relative gene expression of the engineered strains showed significant differences in the mRNA expression levels of the reporter genes and thus highlights the importance of proper promoter/untranslated-region selection when constructing a target pathway. In addition, this work focuses on expressing the cofactor regeneration enzyme phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH) in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of C. reinhardtii. The PTDH enzyme converts phosphite into phosphate and NAD(P)+ into NAD(P)H. The reduced

  20. D1-protein dynamics in photosystem II: the lingering enigma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The D1/D2 heterodimer core dominates the photosystem II reaction center. A characteristic feature of this heterodimer is the differentially rapid, light-dependent degradation of the D1 protein. The D1 protein is possibly the most researched photosynthetic polypeptide, with aspects of structure–funct...

  1. Photoinhibition of Photosystems I and II Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiles, Maria Jose

    2005-01-01

    In this study the photoinhibition of photosystems (PS) I and II caused by exposure to high intensity light in oat ("Avena sativa," var Prevision) is measured by the emission of chlorophyll fluorescence in intact leaves adapted to darkness. The maximal quantum yield of PS II was lower in plants grown under high light intensity than in plants grown…

  2. Biogenesis, assembly and turnover of photosystem II units.

    PubMed Central

    Baena-González, Elena; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2002-01-01

    Assembly of photosystem II, a multiprotein complex embedded in the thylakoid membrane, requires stoichiometric production of over 20 protein subunits. Since part of the protein subunits are encoded in the chloroplast genome and part in the nucleus, a signalling network operates between the two genetic compartments in order to prevent wasteful production of proteins. Coordinated synthesis of proteins also takes place among the chloroplast-encoded subunits, thus establishing a hierarchy in the protein components that allows a stepwise building of the complex. In addition to this dependence on assembly partners, other factors such as the developmental stage of the plastid and various photosynthesis-related parameters exert a strict control on the accumulation, membrane targeting and assembly of the PSII subunits. Here, we briefly review recent results on this field obtained with three major approaches: biogenesis of photosystem II during the development of chloroplasts from etioplasts, use of photosystem II-specific mutants and photosystem II turnover during its repair cycle. PMID:12437884

  3. Fluorescence changes accompanying short-term light adaptations in photosystem I and photosystem II of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and phycobiliprotein-impaired mutants: State 1/State 2 transitions and carotenoid-induced quenching of phycobilisomes.

    PubMed

    Stadnichuk, Igor N; Lukashev, Evgeny P; Elanskaya, Irina V

    2009-03-01

    The features of the two types of short-term light-adaptations of photosynthetic apparatus, State 1/State 2 transitions, and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching of phycobilisomes (PBS) by orange carotene-protein (OCP) were compared in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 wild type, CK pigment mutant lacking phycocyanin, and PAL mutant totally devoid of phycobiliproteins. The permanent presence of PBS-specific peaks in the in situ action spectra of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII), as well as in the 77 K fluorescence excitation spectra for chlorophyll emission at 690 nm (PSII) and 725 nm (PSI) showed that PBS are constitutive antenna complexes of both photosystems. The mutant strains compensated the lack of phycobiliproteins by higher PSII content and by intensification of photosynthetic linear electron transfer. The detectable changes of energy migration from PBS to the PSI and PSII in the Synechocystis wild type and the CK mutant in State 1 and State 2 according to the fluorescence excitation spectra measurements were not registered. The constant level of fluorescence emission of PSI during State 1/State 2 transitions and simultaneous increase of chlorophyll fluorescence emission of PSII in State 1 in Synechocystis PAL mutant allowed to propose that spillover is an unlikely mechanism of state transitions. Blue-green light absorbed by OCP diminished the rout of energy from PBS to PSI while energy migration from PBS to PSII was less influenced. Therefore, the main role of OCP-induced quenching of PBS is the limitation of PSI activity and cyclic electron transport under relatively high light conditions. PMID:19169839

  4. Functional specialization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cytosolic thioredoxin h1 in the response to alkylation-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Nandita; Lemaire, Stéphane; Wu-Scharf, Danxia; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Cerutti, Heriberto

    2005-02-01

    DNA damage occurs as a by-product of intrinsic cellular processes, like DNA replication, or as a consequence of exposure to genotoxic agents. Organisms have evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid, tolerate, or repair DNA lesions. To gain insight into these processes, we have isolated mutants hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. One mutant, Ble-1, showed decreased survival when it was treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), bleomycin, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but behaved like the wild type when it was exposed to UVC irradiation. Ble-1 carries an extensive chromosomal deletion that includes the gene encoding cytosolic thioredoxin h1 (Trxh1). Transformation of Ble-1 with a wild-type copy of Trxh1 fully corrected the MMS hypersensitivity and partly restored the tolerance to bleomycin. Trxh1 also complemented a defect in the repair of MMS-induced DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. In addition, a Trxh1-beta-glucuronidase fusion protein translocated to the nucleus in response to treatment with MMS. However, somewhat surprisingly, Trxh1 failed to correct the Ble-1 hypersensitivity to H2O2. Moreover, Trxh1 suppression by RNA interference in a wild-type strain resulted in enhanced sensitivity to MMS and DNA repair defects but no increased cytotoxicity to H2O2. Thioredoxins have been implicated in oxidative-stress responses in many organisms. Yet our results indicate a specific role of Chlamydomonas Trxh1 in the repair of MMS-induced DNA damage, whereas it is dispensable for the response to H2O2. These observations also suggest functional specialization among cytosolic thioredoxins since another Chlamydomonas isoform (Trxh2) does not compensate for the lack of Trxh1. PMID:15701788

  5. Photosystem I (PSI)/Photosystem II (PSII)-based photo-bioelectrochemical cells revealing directional generation of photocurrents.

    PubMed

    Yehezkeli, Omer; Tel-Vered, Ran; Michaeli, Dorit; Nechushtai, Rachel; Willner, Itamar

    2013-09-01

    Layered assemblies of photosystem I, PSI, and/or photosystem II, PSII, on ITO electrodes are constructed using a layer-by-layer deposition process, where poly N,N'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (poly-benzyl viologen, PBV(2+) ) is used as an inter-protein "glue". While the layered assembly of PSI generates an anodic photocurrent only in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor system, such as dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP)/ascorbate, the PSII-modified electrode leads, upon irradiation, to the formation of an anodic photocurrent (while evolving oxygen), in the absence of any sacrificial component. The photocurrent is generated by transferring the electrons from the PSII units to the PBV(2+) redox polymer. The charge-separated species allow, then, the injection of the electrons to the electrode, with the concomitant evolution of O2 . A layered assembly, consisting of a PSI layer attached to a layer of PSII by the redox polymer PBV(2+) , leads to an anodic photocurrent that is 2-fold higher, as compared to the anodic photocurrent generated by a PSII-modified electrode. This observation is attributed to an enhanced charge separation in the two-photosystem assembly. By the further nano-engineering of the two photosystems on the electrode using two different redox polymers, vectorial electron transfer to the electrode is demonstrated, resulting in a ca. 6-fold enhancement in the photocurrent. The reversed bi-layer assembly, consisting of a PSII layer linked to a layer of PSI by the PBV(2+) redox polymer, yields, upon irradiation, an inefficient cathodic current. This observation is attributed to a mixture of photoinduced electron transfer reactions of opposing effects on the photocurrent directions in the two-photosystem assembly. PMID:23606348

  6. Downregulation of a putative plastid PDC E1α subunit impairs photosynthetic activity and triacylglycerol accumulation in nitrogen-starved photoautotrophic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Shtaida, Nastassia; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Solovchenko, Alexei; Chekanov, Konstantin; Didi-Cohen, Shoshana; Leu, Stefan; Cohen, Zvi; Boussiba, Sammy

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (cpPDC) catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate forming acetyl-CoA, an immediate primer for the initial reactions of de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Little is known about the source of acetyl-CoA in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic microalgae, which are capable of producing high amounts of the storage lipid triacylglycerol (TAG) under conditions of nutrient stresses. We generated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-1618 mutants with decreased expression of the PDC2_E1α gene, encoding the putative chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E1α, using artificial microRNA. A comparative study on the effects of PDC2_E1α silencing on FAs and TAG production in C. reinhardtii, grown photoautotrophically and mixotrophically, with and without a nitrogen source in the nutrient medium, was carried out. Reduced expression of PDC2 _E1α led to a severely hampered photoautotrophic growth phenotype with drastic impairment in TAG accumulation under nitrogen deprivation. In the presence of acetate, downregulation of PDC2_E1α exerted little to no effect on TAG production and photosynthetic activity. In contrast, under photoautotrophic conditions, especially in the absence of a nitrogen source, a dramatic decline in photosynthetic oxygen evolution and photosystem II quantum yield against a background of the apparent over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron chain was recorded. Our results suggest an essential role of cpPDC in the supply of carbon precursors for de novo FA synthesis in microalgae under conditions of photoautotrophy. A shortage of this supply is detrimental to the nitrogen-starvation-induced synthesis of storage TAG, an important carbon and energy sink in stressed Chlamydomonas cells, thereby impairing the acclimation ability of the microalga. PMID:25210079

  7. Downregulation of a putative plastid PDC E1α subunit impairs photosynthetic activity and triacylglycerol accumulation in nitrogen-starved photoautotrophic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Shtaida, Nastassia; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Solovchenko, Alexei; Chekanov, Konstantin; Didi-Cohen, Shoshana; Leu, Stefan; Cohen, Zvi; Boussiba, Sammy

    2014-12-01

    The chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (cpPDC) catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate forming acetyl-CoA, an immediate primer for the initial reactions of de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Little is known about the source of acetyl-CoA in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic microalgae, which are capable of producing high amounts of the storage lipid triacylglycerol (TAG) under conditions of nutrient stresses. We generated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-1618 mutants with decreased expression of the PDC2_E1α gene, encoding the putative chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E1α, using artificial microRNA. A comparative study on the effects of PDC2_E1α silencing on FAs and TAG production in C. reinhardtii, grown photoautotrophically and mixotrophically, with and without a nitrogen source in the nutrient medium, was carried out. Reduced expression of PDC2 _E1α led to a severely hampered photoautotrophic growth phenotype with drastic impairment in TAG accumulation under nitrogen deprivation. In the presence of acetate, downregulation of PDC2_E1α exerted little to no effect on TAG production and photosynthetic activity. In contrast, under photoautotrophic conditions, especially in the absence of a nitrogen source, a dramatic decline in photosynthetic oxygen evolution and photosystem II quantum yield against a background of the apparent over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron chain was recorded. Our results suggest an essential role of cpPDC in the supply of carbon precursors for de novo FA synthesis in microalgae under conditions of photoautotrophy. A shortage of this supply is detrimental to the nitrogen-starvation-induced synthesis of storage TAG, an important carbon and energy sink in stressed Chlamydomonas cells, thereby impairing the acclimation ability of the microalga. PMID:25210079

  8. Three light-inducible heat shock genes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    von Gromoff, E D; Treier, U; Beck, C F

    1989-01-01

    Genomic clones representing three Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genes homologous to the Drosophila hsp70 heat shock gene were isolated. The mRNAs of genes hsp68, hsp70, and hsp80 could be translated in vitro into proteins of Mr 68,000, 70,000, and 80,000, respectively. Transcription of these genes increased dramatically upon heat shock, and the corresponding mRNAs rapidly accumulated, reaching a peak at around 30 min after a shift to the elevated temperature. Light also induced the accumulation of the mRNAs encoded by these heat shock genes. A shift of dark-grown cells to light resulted in a drastic increase in mRNA levels, which reached a maximum at around 1 h after the shift. Thus, in Chlamydomonas, expression of hsp70-homologous heat shock genes appears to be regulated by thermal stress and light. Images PMID:2779571

  9. Relevance of nutrient media composition for hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ballester, David; Jurado-Oller, Jose Luis; Fernandez, Emilio

    2015-09-01

    Microalgae are capable of biological H2 photoproduction from water, solar energy, and a variety of organic substrates. Acclimation responses to different nutrient regimes finely control photosynthetic activity and can influence H2 production. Hence, nutrient stresses are an interesting scenario to study H2 production in photosynthetic organisms. In this review, we mainly focus on the H2-production mechanisms in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the physiological relevance of the nutrient media composition when producing H2. PMID:25952745

  10. D-lactate metabolism in the alga, Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Husic, D.W.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1986-05-01

    (/sup 14/C)D-lactate rapidly accumulates in Chlamydomonas cells under anaerobic conditions from the sugar-phosphate pools which are labeled during photosynthesis with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. A soluble D-lactate dehydrogenase (30 ..mu..mol NADH oxidized/h/mg Chl), which functions only in the direction of pyruvate reduction, has been partially purified and characterized. The D-lactate is reoxidized in Chlamydomonas by a mitochondrial membrane-bound dehydrogenase. This enzyme is known in the plant literature as glycolate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the oxidative photosynthetic carbon (C/sub 2/) cycle. This dehydrogenase may be linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain, although the direct electron acceptor is unknown. Therefore, D-lactate accumulation may be, in part, due to the shut down of electron transport during anaerobiosis. In vivo chase experiments have shown that the D-lactate turns over rapidly when algal cells, which have been grown with air levels of CO/sub 2/ (0.04%), are returned to aerobic conditions in the light. Such turnover is not observed in cells which had been grown with 1 to 5% CO/sub 2/. Cells grown with high CO/sub 2/ have lower levels of glycolate dehydrogenase activity. They are currently using mutants of Chlamydomonas deficient in mitochondrial respiration to study the role of D-lactate oxidation in these algae.

  11. N6-Methyldeoxyadenosine Marks Active Transcription Start Sites in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Deng, Xin; Yu, Miao; Han, Dali; Hao, Ziyang; Liu, Jianzhao; Lu, Xingyu; Dore, Louis C; Weng, Xiaocheng; Ji, Quanjiang; Mets, Laurens; He, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY N6-methyldeoxyadenosine (6mA or m6A) is a DNA modification preserved in prokaryotes to eukaryotes. It is widespread in bacteria, and functions in DNA mismatch repair, chromosome segregation, and virulence regulation. In contrast, the distribution and function of 6mA in eukaryotes have been unclear. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the 6mA landscape in the genome of Chlamydomonas using new sequencing approaches. We identified the 6mA modification in 84% of genes in Chlamydomonas. We found that 6mA mainly locates at ApT dinucleotides around transcription start sites (TSS) with a bimodal distribution, and appears to mark active genes. A periodic pattern of 6mA deposition was also observed at base resolution, which is associated with nucleosome distribution near the TSS, suggesting a possible role in nucleosome positioning. The new genome-wide mapping of 6mA and its unique distribution in the Chlamydomonas genome suggest potential regulatory roles of 6mA in gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25936837

  12. Activation of Autophagy by Metals in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martín, Marta; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Andrés-Garrido, Ascensión; Blaby, Ian K.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular self-degradation pathway by which eukaryotic cells recycle their own material in response to specific stress conditions. Exposure to high concentrations of metals causes cell damage, although the effect of metal stress on autophagy has not been explored in photosynthetic organisms. In this study, we investigated the effect of metal excess on autophagy in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show in cells treated with nickel an upregulation of ATG8 that is independent of CRR1, a global regulator of copper signaling in Chlamydomonas. A similar effect on ATG8 was observed with copper and cobalt but not with cadmium or mercury ions. Transcriptome sequencing data revealed an increase in the abundance of the protein degradation machinery, including that responsible for autophagy, and a substantial overlap of that increased abundance with the hydrogen peroxide response in cells treated with nickel ions. Thus, our results indicate that metal stress triggers autophagy in Chlamydomonas and suggest that excess nickel may cause oxidative damage, which in turn activates degradative pathways, including autophagy, to clear impaired components and recover cellular homeostasis. PMID:26163317

  13. Activation of Autophagy by Metals in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Marta; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Andrés-Garrido, Ascensión; Blaby, Ian K; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Crespo, José L

    2015-09-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular self-degradation pathway by which eukaryotic cells recycle their own material in response to specific stress conditions. Exposure to high concentrations of metals causes cell damage, although the effect of metal stress on autophagy has not been explored in photosynthetic organisms. In this study, we investigated the effect of metal excess on autophagy in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show in cells treated with nickel an upregulation of ATG8 that is independent of CRR1, a global regulator of copper signaling in Chlamydomonas. A similar effect on ATG8 was observed with copper and cobalt but not with cadmium or mercury ions. Transcriptome sequencing data revealed an increase in the abundance of the protein degradation machinery, including that responsible for autophagy, and a substantial overlap of that increased abundance with the hydrogen peroxide response in cells treated with nickel ions. Thus, our results indicate that metal stress triggers autophagy in Chlamydomonas and suggest that excess nickel may cause oxidative damage, which in turn activates degradative pathways, including autophagy, to clear impaired components and recover cellular homeostasis. PMID:26163317

  14. Actin is required for IFT regulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Prachee; Onishi, Masayuki; Karpiak, Joel; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Mackinder, Luke; Jonikas, Martin C.; Sale, Winfield S.; Shoichet, Brian; Pringle, John R.; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Assembly of cilia and flagella requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a highly regulated kinesin-based transport system that moves cargo from the basal body to the tip of flagella [1]. The recruitment of IFT components to basal bodies is a function of flagellar length, with increased recruitment in rapidly growing short flagella [2]. The molecular pathways regulating IFT are largely a mystery. Since actin network disruption leads to changes in ciliary length and number, actin has been proposed to have a role in ciliary assembly. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, conventional actin is found in both the cell body and the inner dynein arm complexes within flagella [3, 4]. Previous work showed that treating Chlamydomonas cells with the actin-depolymerizing compound cytochalasin D resulted in reversible flagellar shortening [5], but how actin is related to flagellar length or assembly remains unknown. Here, we utilize small-molecule inhibitors and genetic mutants to analyze the role of actin dynamics in flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that actin plays a role in IFT recruitment to basal bodies during flagellar elongation, and that when actin is perturbed, the normal dependence of IFT recruitment on flagellar length is lost. We also find that actin is required for sufficient entry of IFT material into flagella during assembly. These same effects are recapitulated with a myosin inhibitor suggesting actin may act via myosin in a pathway by which flagellar assembly is regulated by flagellar length. PMID:25155506

  15. Actin is required for IFT regulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Prachee; Onishi, Masayuki; Karpiak, Joel; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Mackinder, Luke; Jonikas, Martin C; Sale, Winfield S; Shoichet, Brian; Pringle, John R; Marshall, Wallace F

    2014-09-01

    Assembly of cilia and flagella requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a highly regulated kinesin-based transport system that moves cargo from the basal body to the tip of flagella [1]. The recruitment of IFT components to basal bodies is a function of flagellar length, with increased recruitment in rapidly growing short flagella [2]. The molecular pathways regulating IFT are largely a mystery. Because actin network disruption leads to changes in ciliary length and number, actin has been proposed to have a role in ciliary assembly. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, conventional actin is found in both the cell body and the inner dynein arm complexes within flagella [3, 4]. Previous work showed that treating Chlamydomonas cells with the actin-depolymerizing compound cytochalasin D resulted in reversible flagellar shortening [5], but how actin is related to flagellar length or assembly remains unknown. Here we utilize small-molecule inhibitors and genetic mutants to analyze the role of actin dynamics in flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that actin plays a role in IFT recruitment to basal bodies during flagellar elongation and that when actin is perturbed, the normal dependence of IFT recruitment on flagellar length is lost. We also find that actin is required for sufficient entry of IFT material into flagella during assembly. These same effects are recapitulated with a myosin inhibitor, suggesting that actin may act via myosin in a pathway by which flagellar assembly is regulated by flagellar length. PMID:25155506

  16. Nucleated assembly of Chlamydomonas and Volvox cell walls.

    PubMed

    Adair, W S; Steinmetz, S A; Mattson, D M; Goodenough, U W; Heuser, J E

    1987-11-01

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell wall is made up of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, arranged in five distinct layers. The W6 (crystalline) layer contains three major glycoproteins (GP1, GP2, GP3), selectively extractable with chaotropic agents, that self-assemble into crystals in vitro. A system to study W6 assembly in a quantitative fashion was developed that employs perchlorate-extracted Chlamydomonas cells as nucleating agents. Wall reconstitution by biotinylated W6 monomers was monitored by FITC-streptavidin fluorescence and quick-freeze/deep-etch electron microscopy. Optimal reconstitution was obtained at monomer concentrations (0.2-0.3 mg/ml) well below those required for nonnucleated assembly. Assembly occurred from multiple nucleation sites, and faithfully reflected the structure of the intact W6 layer. Specificity of nucleated assembly was demonstrated using two cell-wall mutants (cw-2 and cw-15); neither served as a substrate for assembly of wild-type monomers. In addition, W6 sublayers were assembled from purified components: GP2 and GP3 coassembled to form the inner (W6A) sublayer; this then served as a substrate for self-assembly of GP1 into the outer (W6B) sublayer. Finally, evolutionary relationships between C. reinhardtii and two additional members of the Volvocales (Chlamydomonas eugametos and Volvox carteri) were explored by performing interspecific reconstitutions. Hybrid walls were obtained between C. reinhardtii and Volvox but not with C. eugametos, confirming taxonomic assignments based on structural criteria. PMID:3680387

  17. H2 and CO2 Evolution by Anaerobically Adapted Chlamydomonas reinhardtii F-60 1

    PubMed Central

    Bamberger, Elchanan S.; King, Dan; Erbes, David L.; Gibbs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    Using manometric and enzymic techniques, H2 and CO2 evolution in darkness and light has been studied in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii F-60. F-60 is a mutant strain characterized by an incomplete photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle but an intact electron transport chain. In the dark, starch was broken down, and H2 and CO2 was released. The uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-fluorophenylhydrazone with an optimum concentration of 5 to 10 micromolar, increased the rate of CO2 release and starch breakdown but depressed H2 formation. It was suggested that carbonyl cyanide m-fluorophenylhydrazone increased the rate of starch breakdown by making the chloroplast membrane permeable to H+, removing a rate-limiting step, and leading to an altered fermentative pattern. Photoevolution of H2 and CO2, but not starch breakdown, was stimulated by acetate. Maximum stimulation occurred at concentrations from 1 to 10 millimolar. Carbonyl cyanide m-fluorophenylhydrazone stimulated starch breakdown and CO2 and H2 release in the light, but not to the extent of acetate. Inasmuch as the uptake and subsequent metabolism of acetate required ATP, it was suggested that acetate, like carbonyl cyanide m-fluorophenylhydrazone, stimulated H2 photoproduction by removing ATP which limited the sequence of reactions. The contribution of photosystem II to the photoproduction of H2, as judged from the effect of 10 micromolar 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea, was at least 80%. CO2 photoevolution increased linearly with time, but H2 photoevolution occurred in two phases: a rapid initial phase followed by a second slower phase. The rate of H2 release increased hyperbolically with light intensity, but the rate of CO2 production tended to level off and decrease with increasing light intensity, up to 145 watts per square meter. It was proposed that a changing CO2 and H2 ratio is the result of interaction between the carbon and hydrogen metabolism and the photosynthetic electron transport chain

  18. Plastidial Expression of Type II NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase Increases the Reducing State of Plastoquinones and Hydrogen Photoproduction Rate by the Indirect Pathway in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1.

    PubMed

    Baltz, Anthony; Dang, Kieu-Van; Beyly, Audrey; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-05-12

    Biological conversion of solar energy into hydrogen is naturally realized by some microalgae species due to a coupling between the photosynthetic electron transport chain and a plastidial hydrogenase. While promising for the production of clean and sustainable hydrogen, this process requires improvement to be economically viable. Two pathways, called direct and indirect photoproduction, lead to sustained hydrogen production in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures. The indirect pathway allows an efficient time-based separation of O2 and H2 production, thus overcoming the O2 sensitivity of the hydrogenase, but its activity is low. With the aim of identifying the limiting step of hydrogen production, we succeeded in overexpressing the plastidial type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDA2). We report that transplastomic strains overexpressing NDA2 show an increased activity of nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones (PQs). While hydrogen production by the direct pathway, involving the linear electron flow from photosystem II to photosystem I, was not affected by NDA2 overexpression, the rate of hydrogen production by the indirect pathway was increased in conditions, such as nutrient limitation, where soluble electron donors are not limiting. An increased intracellular starch was observed in response to nutrient deprivation in strains overexpressing NDA2. It is concluded that activity of the indirect pathway is limited by the nonphotochemical reduction of PQs, either by the pool size of soluble electron donors or by the PQ-reducing activity of NDA2 in nutrient-limited conditions. We discuss these data in relation to limitations and biotechnological improvement of hydrogen photoproduction in microalgae. PMID:24820024

  19. The slow S to M rise of chlorophyll a fluorescence reflects transition from state 2 to state 1 in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kodru, Sireesha; Malavath, Tirupathi; Devadasu, Elsinraju; Nellaepalli, Sreedhar; Stirbet, Alexandrina; Subramanyam, Rajagopal; Govindjee

    2015-08-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas (C.) reinhardtii is a model organism for photosynthesis research. State transitions regulate redistribution of excitation energy between photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) to provide balanced photosynthesis. Chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence induction (the so-called OJIPSMT transient) is a signature of several photosynthetic reactions. Here, we show that the slow (seconds to minutes) S to M fluorescence rise is reduced or absent in the stt7 mutant (which is locked in state 1) in C. reinhardtii. This suggests that the SM rise in wild type C. reinhardtii may be due to state 2 (low fluorescence state; larger antenna in PS I) to state 1 (high fluorescence state; larger antenna in PS II) transition, and thus, it can be used as an efficient and quick method to monitor state transitions in algae, as has already been shown in cyanobacteria (Papageorgiou et al. 1999, 2007; Kaňa et al. 2012). We also discuss our results on the effects of (1) 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dimethyl urea, an inhibitor of electron transport; (2) n-propyl gallate, an inhibitor of alternative oxidase (AOX) in mitochondria and of plastid terminal oxidase in chloroplasts; (3) salicylhydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX in mitochondria; and (4) carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, an uncoupler of phosphorylation, which dissipates proton gradient across membranes. Based on the data presented in this paper, we conclude that the slow PSMT fluorescence transient in C. reinhardtii is due to the superimposition of, at least, two phenomena: qE dependent non-photochemical quenching of the excited state of Chl, and state transitions. PMID:25663564

  20. Chloramphenicol Mediates Superoxide Production in Photosystem II and Enhances Its Photodamage in Isolated Membrane Particles

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Ateeq Ur; Kodru, Sandeesha; Vass, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is an inhibitor of protein synthesis, which is frequently used to decouple photodamage and protein synthesis dependent repair of Photosystem II during the process of photoinhibition. It has been reported earlier that CAP is able to mediate superoxide production by transferring electrons from the acceptor side of Photosystem I to oxygen. Here we investigated the interaction of CAP with Photosystem II electron transport processes by oxygen uptake and variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Our data show that CAP can accept electrons at the acceptor side of Photosystem II, most likely from Pheophytin, and deliver them to molecular oxygen leading to superoxide production. In addition, the presence of CAP enhances photodamage of Photosystem II electron transport in isolated membrane particles, which effect is reversible by superoxide dismutase. It is concluded that CAP acts as electron acceptor in Photosystem II and mediates its superoxide dependent photodamage. This effect has potential implications for the application of CAP in photoinhibitory studies in intact systems. PMID:27092170

  1. Evolution and functional properties of photosystem II light harvesting complexes in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ballottari, Matteo; Girardon, Julien; Dall'osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Photoautotrophic organisms, the major agent of inorganic carbon fixation into biomass, convert light energy into chemical energy. The first step of photosynthesis consists of the absorption of solar energy by pigments binding protein complexes named photosystems. Within photosystems, a family of proteins called Light Harvesting Complexes (LHC), responsible for light harvesting and energy transfer to reaction centers, has evolved along with eukaryotic organisms. Besides light absorption, these proteins catalyze photoprotective reactions which allowed functioning of oxygenic photosynthetic machinery in the increasingly oxidant environment. In this work we review current knowledge of LHC proteins serving Photosystem II. Balance between light harvesting and photoprotection is critical in Photosystem II, due to the lower quantum efficiency as compared to Photosystem I. In particular, we focus on the role of each antenna complex in light harvesting, energy transfer, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, chlorophyll triplet quenching and thermal dissipation of excess energy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosystem II. PMID:21704018

  2. Integrated photosystem II-based photo-bioelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Yehezkeli, Omer; Tel-Vered, Ran; Wasserman, Julian; Trifonov, Alexander; Michaeli, Dorit; Nechushtai, Rachel; Willner, Itamar

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a sustainable process that converts light energy into chemical energy. Substantial research efforts are directed towards the application of the photosynthetic reaction centres, photosystems I and II, as active components for the light-induced generation of electrical power or fuel products. Nonetheless, no integrated photo-bioelectrochemical device that produces electrical power, upon irradiation of an aqueous solution that includes two inter-connected electrodes is known. Here we report the assembly of photobiofuel cells that generate electricity upon irradiation of biomaterial-functionalized electrodes in aqueous solutions. The cells are composed of electrically contacted photosystem II-functionalized photoanodes and an electrically wired bilirubin oxidase/carbon nanotubes-modified cathode. Illumination of the photoanodes yields the oxidation of water to O(2) and the transfer of electrons through the external circuit to the cathode, where O(2) is re-reduced to water. PMID:22415833

  3. Rapid Degradation of the Tetrameric Mn Cluster in Illuminated, PsbO-Depleted Photosystem II Preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Semin, B. K.; Davletshina, L. N.; Ivanov, I. I.; Seibert, M.; Rubin, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    A 'decoupling effect' (light-induced electron transport without O{sub 2} evolution) was observed in Ca-depleted photosystem II (PSII(-Ca)) membranes, which lack PsbP and PsbQ (Semin et al. (2008) Photosynth. Res., 98, 235-249). Here PsbO-depleted PSII (PSII(-PsbO)) membranes (which also lack PsbP and PsbQ) were used to examine effects of PsbO on the decoupling. PSII(-PsbO) membranes do not reduce the acceptor 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP), in contrast to PSII(-Ca) membranes. To understand why DCIP reduction is lost, we studied light effects on the Mn content of PSII(-PsbO) samples and found that when they are first illuminated, Mn cations are rapidly released from the Mn cluster. Addition of an electron acceptor to PSII(-PsbO) samples accelerates the process. No effect of light was found on the Mn cluster in PSII(-Ca) membranes. Our results demonstrate that: (a) the oxidant, which directly oxidizes an as yet undefined substrate in PSII(-Ca) membranes, is the Mn cluster (not the Y{sub Z} radical or P680{sup +}); (b) light causes rapid release of Mn cations from the Mn cluster in PSII(-PsbO) membranes, and the mechanism is discussed; and (c) rapid degradation of the Mn cluster under illumination is significant for understanding the lack of functional activity in some PSII(-PsbO) samples reported by others.

  4. Species-dependent alteration of electron transfer in the early stages of charge stabilization in Photosystem I.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Michael D; Sun, Junlei; Siavashi, Reza; Webber, Andrew; Redding, Kevin E; Golbeck, John H; van der Est, Art

    2015-01-01

    Electron transfer (ET) in Photosystem I (PS I) is bidirectional, occurring in two pseudosymmetric branches of cofactors. The relative use of two branches in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been studied by changing the Met axial ligands of the chlorophyll a acceptor molecules, A0A and A0B, to His. The nature of the effect on the ET is found to be species dependent. In C. reinhardtii, transient absorption and transient EPR data show that in the M688HPsaA variant, forward ET from A0A to the quinone, A1A, is blocked in 100% of the PS I complexes. In contrast, in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, forward ET from A0A to A1A is blocked in only 50% of the PS I complexes, but in those PS I complexes in which electrons reach A1A, further transfer to the iron-sulfur cluster FX is blocked. Similar species differences are found for the corresponding B-branch variants. One possible explanation of this behavior is that it is the result of two conformers in which an H-bond between the His side chain and the O1 carbonyl group of A1 is either present or absent. The spectroscopic data suggest that the two conformers are present in nearly equal amounts in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 variants, while only the conformer without the H-bond is present in the same variants of C. reinhardtii. PMID:25656440

  5. Purification and photobiochemical profile of photosystem 1 from a high-salt tolerant, oleaginous Chlorella (Trebouxiophycaea, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    McConnell, Michael D; Lowry, David; Rowan, Troy N; van Dijk, Karin; Redding, Kevin E

    2015-06-01

    The eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been studied extensively within the biofuel industry as a model organism, as researchers look towards algae to provide chemical feedstocks (i.e., lipids) for the production of liquid transportation fuels. C. reinhardtii, however, is unsuitable for high-level production of such precursors due to its relatively poor lipid accumulation and fresh-water demand. In this study we offer insight into the primary light harvesting and electron transfer reactions that occur during phototropic growth in a high-salt tolerant strain of Chlorella (a novel strain introduced here as NE1401), a single-celled eukaryotic algae also in the phylum Chlorophyta. Under nutrient starvation many eukaryotic algae increase dramatically the amount of lipids stored in lipid bodies within their cell interiors. Microscopy and lipid analyses indicate that Chlorella sp. NE1401 may become a superior candidate for algal biofuels production. We have purified highly active Photosystem 1 (PS1) complexes to study in vitro, so that we may understand further the photobiochemisty of this promising biofuel producer and how its characteristics compare and contrast with that of the better understood C. reinhardtii. Our findings suggest that the PS1 complex from Chlorella sp. NE1401 demonstrates similar characteristics to that of C. reinhardtii with respect to light-harvesting and electron transfer reactions. We also illustrate that the relative extent of the light state transition performed by Chlorella sp. NE1401 is smaller compared to C. reinhardtii, although they are triggered by the same dynamic light stresses. PMID:25600216

  6. Efficient Heterologous Transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii npq2 Mutant with the Zeaxanthin Epoxidase Gene Isolated and Characterized from Chlorella zofingiensis

    PubMed Central

    Couso, Inmaculada; Cordero, Baldo F.; Vargas, María Ángeles; Rodríguez, Herminia

    2012-01-01

    In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis (Czzep) has been isolated. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 596 amino acids. A single copy of Czzep has been found in the C. zofingiensis genome by Southern blot analysis. qPCR analysis has shown that transcript levels of Czzep were increased after zeaxanthin formation under high light conditions. The functionality of Czzep gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the Chlamydomonas mutant npq2, which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. The Czzep gene was adequately inserted in the pSI105 vector and expressed in npq2. The positive transformants were able to efficiently convert zeaxanthin into violaxanthin, as well as to restore their maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII (Fv/Fm). These results show that Chlamydomonas can be an efficient tool for heterologous expression and metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications. PMID:23118714

  7. Cyclostomes Lack Clustered Protocadherins.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Vydianathan; Yu, Wei-Ping; Pillai, Nisha E; Lian, Michelle M; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tohari, Sumanty; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2016-02-01

    The brain, comprising billions of neurons and intricate neural networks, is arguably the most complex organ in vertebrates. The diversity of individual neurons is fundamental to the neuronal network complexity and the overall function of the vertebrate brain. In jawed vertebrates, clustered protocadherins provide the molecular basis for this neuronal diversity, through stochastic and combinatorial expression of their various isoforms in individual neurons. Based on analyses of transcriptomes from the Japanese lamprey brain and sea lamprey embryos, genome assemblies of the two lampreys, and brain expressed sequence tags of the inshore hagfish, we show that extant jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes) lack the clustered protocadherins. Our findings indicate that the clustered protocadherins originated from a nonclustered protocadherin in the jawed vertebrate ancestor, after the two rounds of whole-genome duplication. In the absence of clustered protocadherins, cyclostomes might have evolved novel molecules or mechanisms for generating neuronal diversity which remains to be discovered. PMID:26545918

  8. VAN method lacks validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David D.; Kagan, Yan Y.

    Varotsos and colleagues (the VAN group) claim to have successfully predicted many earthquakes in Greece. Several authors have refuted these claims, as reported in the May 27,1996, special issue of Geophysical Research Letters and a recent book, A Critical Review of VAN [Lighthill 1996]. Nevertheless, the myth persists. Here we summarize why the VAN group's claims lack validity.The VAN group observes electrical potential differences that they call “seismic electric signals” (SES) weeks before and hundreds of kilometers away from some earthquakes, claiming that SES are somehow premonitory. This would require that increases in stress or decreases in strength cause the electrical variations, or that some regional process first causes the electrical signals and then helps trigger the earthquakes. Here we adopt their notation SES to refer to the electrical variations, without accepting any link to the quakes.

  9. Wiring of Photosystem II to Hydrogenase for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Mersch, Dirk; Lee, Chong-Yong; Zhang, Jenny Zhenqi; Brinkert, Katharina; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C; Rutherford, A William; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-07-01

    In natural photosynthesis, light is used for the production of chemical energy carriers to fuel biological activity. The re-engineering of natural photosynthetic pathways can provide inspiration for sustainable fuel production and insights for understanding the process itself. Here, we employ a semiartificial approach to study photobiological water splitting via a pathway unavailable to nature: the direct coupling of the water oxidation enzyme, photosystem II, to the H2 evolving enzyme, hydrogenase. Essential to this approach is the integration of the isolated enzymes into the artificial circuit of a photoelectrochemical cell. We therefore developed a tailor-made hierarchically structured indium-tin oxide electrode that gives rise to the excellent integration of both photosystem II and hydrogenase for performing the anodic and cathodic half-reactions, respectively. When connected together with the aid of an applied bias, the semiartificial cell demonstrated quantitative electron flow from photosystem II to the hydrogenase with the production of H2 and O2 being in the expected two-to-one ratio and a light-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 5.4% under low-intensity red-light irradiation. We thereby demonstrate efficient light-driven water splitting using a pathway inaccessible to biology and report on a widely applicable in vitro platform for the controlled coupling of enzymatic redox processes to meaningfully study photocatalytic reactions. PMID:26046591

  10. Photosystem II reaction centre quenching: mechanisms and physiological role.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander G; Sane, Prafullachandra V; Hurry, Vaughan; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2008-01-01

    Dissipation of excess absorbed light energy in eukaryotic photoautotrophs through zeaxanthin- and DeltapH-dependent photosystem II antenna quenching is considered the major mechanism for non-photochemical quenching and photoprotection. However, there is mounting evidence of a zeaxanthin-independent pathway for dissipation of excess light energy based within the PSII reaction centre that may also play a significant role in photoprotection. We summarize recent reports which indicate that this enigma can be explained, in part, by the fact that PSII reaction centres can be reversibly interconverted from photochemical energy transducers that convert light into ATP and NADPH to efficient, non-photochemical energy quenchers that protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. In our opinion, reaction centre quenching complements photoprotection through antenna quenching, and dynamic regulation of photosystem II reaction centre represents a general response to any environmental condition that predisposes the accumulation of reduced Q(A) in the photosystem II reaction centres of prokaryotic and eukaryotic photoautotrophs. Since the evolution of reaction centres preceded the evolution of light harvesting systems, reaction centre quenching may represent the oldest photoprotective mechanism. PMID:18821028

  11. Protein-protein interactions by molecular modeling and biochemical characterization of PSI-LHCI supercomplexes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Yadavalli, Venkateswarlu; Malleda, Chandramouli; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2011-11-01

    The physiological function of Photosystem I (PSI) is a sunlight energy converter, catalyzing one of the initial steps in driving oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PSI structure was not known since it contains a unique structure having additional light harvesting complex I (LHCI) subunits, which play a major role in the transfer of sunlight energy to the reaction center. Here, individual subunits of LHC and core subunits are built based on the PDB taken from RCSB Protein Data Bank. The model gives information about the geometrical existence of subunits following a flanking order of Lhca5, Lhca1, Lhca6, Lhca4, Lhca2, Lhca8, Lhca9, Lhca7, and Lhca3. The new subunit PsaO is located close to the PsaH, PsaI and PsaL subunits, thus it may be involved in the state transition mechanism and stabilization of PSI-LHCI supercomplexes. The modeled PSI-LHCI structure of C. reinhardtii shows a unique arrangement of PsaN, PsaO of PSI core subunits and Lhca5 to Lhca9 of LHCI subunits. There are many non-covalent interactions among the PSI and LHCI subunits, which suggest that C. reinhardtii PSI-LHCI supercomplexes are more complex than higher plants. These results strongly support the experimental data that, even with harsh treatment of the PSI-LHCI supercomplexes with detergent, the complexes do not dissociate due to strong interactions between the PSI core and LHCI. Thus, our 3D model may give valid structural information of the PSI-LHCI arrangement and its physiological role in C. reinhardtii. PMID:21915394

  12. High light-induced hydrogen peroxide production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is increased by high CO2 availability.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Na, Chae Sun; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable part of photosynthesis. Stress that accompanies high light levels and low CO2 availability putatively includes enhanced ROS production in the so-called Mehler reaction. Such conditions are thought to encourage O2 to become an electron acceptor at photosystem I, producing the ROS superoxide anion radical (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). In contrast, here it is shown in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that CO2 depletion under high light levels lowered cellular H2 O2 production, and that elevated CO2 levels increased H2 O2 production. Using various photosynthetic and mitochondrial mutants of C. reinhardtii, the chloroplast was identified as the main source of elevated H2 O2 production under high CO2 availability. High light levels under low CO2 availability induced photoprotective mechanisms called non-photochemical quenching, or NPQ, including state transitions (qT) and high energy state quenching (qE). The qE-deficient mutant npq4 produced more H2 O2 than wild-type cells under high light levels, although less so under high CO2 availability, whereas it demonstrated equal or greater enzymatic H2 O2 -degrading capacity. The qT-deficient mutant stt7-9 produced the same H2 O2 as wild-type cells under high CO2 availability. Physiological levels of H2 O2 were able to hinder qT and the induction of state 2, providing an explanation for why under high light levels and high CO2 availability wild-type cells behaved like stt7-9 cells stuck in state 1. PMID:25619314

  13. Mutagenesis and phenotypic selection as a strategy toward domestication of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains for improved performance in photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Bonente, Giulia; Formighieri, Cinzia; Mantelli, Manuela; Catalanotti, Claudia; Giuliano, Giovanni; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Microalgae have a valuable potential for biofuels production. As a matter of fact, algae can produce different molecules with high energy content, including molecular hydrogen (H(2)) by the activity of a chloroplastic hydrogenase fueled by reducing power derived from water and light energy. The efficiency of this reaction, however, is limited and depends from an intricate relationships between oxygenic photosynthesis and mitochondrial respiration. The way toward obtaining algal strains with high productivity in photobioreactors requires engineering of their metabolism at multiple levels in a process comparable to domestication of crops that were derived from their wild ancestors through accumulation of genetic traits providing improved productivity under conditions of intensive cultivation as well as improved nutritional/industrial properties. This holds true for the production of any biofuels from algae: there is the need to isolate multiple traits to be combined and produce organisms with increased performances. Among the different limitations in H(2) productivity, we identified three with a major relevance, namely: (i) the light distribution through the mass culture; (ii) the strong sensitivity of the hydrogenase to even very low oxygen concentrations; and (iii) the presence of alternative pathways, such as the cyclic electron transport, competing for reducing equivalents with hydrogenase and H(2) production. In order to identify potentially favorable mutations, we generated a collection of random mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which were selected through phenotype analysis for: (i) a reduced photosynthetic antenna size, and thus a lower culture optical density; (ii) an altered photosystem II activity as a tool to manipulate the oxygen concentration within the culture; and (iii) State 1-State 2 transition mutants, for a reduced cyclic electron flow and maximized electrons flow toward the hydrogenase. Such a broad approach has been possible thanks to the

  14. Improved survival of very high light and oxidative stress is conferred by spontaneous gain-of-function mutations in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Förster, Britta; Osmond, C Barry; Pogson, Barry J

    2005-08-15

    Investigations into high light and oxidative stress in photosynthetic organisms have focussed primarily on genetic impairment of different photoprotective functions. There are few reports of "gain-of-function" mutations that provide enhanced resistance to high light and/or oxidative stress without reduced productivity. We have isolated at least four such very high light resistant (VHL(R)) mutations in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, that permit near maximal growth rates at light intensities lethal to wild type. This resistance is not due to an alteration in electron transport rate or quantity and functionality of the two photosystems that could have enhanced photochemical quenching. Nor is it due to reduced excitation pressure by downregulation of the light harvesting antennae or increased nonphotochemical quenching. In fact, photosynthetic activity is unaffected in more than 30 VHL(R) isolates. Instead, the basis of the VHL(R) phenotype is a combination of traits, which appears to be dominated by enhanced capacity to tolerate reactive oxygen species generated by excess light, methylviologen, rose bengal or hydrogen peroxide. This is further evidenced in lower levels of ROS after exposure to very high light in the VHL(R)-S9 mutant. Additionally, the VHL(R) phenotype is associated with increased zeaxanthin accumulation, maintenance of fast synthesis and degradation rates of the D1 protein, and sustained balanced electron flow into and out of PSI under very high light. We conclude that the VHL(R) mutations arose from a selection pressure that favors changes to the regulatory system(s) that coordinates several photoprotective processes amongst which repair of PSII and enhanced detoxification of reactive oxygen species play seminal roles. PMID:16002040

  15. The stoichiometry of the two photosystems in higher plants revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Da-Yong; Hope, Alexander B; Smith, Paul J; Jia, Husen; Pace, Ronald J; Anderson, Jan M; Chow, Wah Soon

    2007-08-01

    The stoichiometry of Photosystem II (PSII) to Photosystem I (PSI) reaction centres in spinach leaf segments was determined by two methods, each capable of being applied to monitor the presence of both photosystems in a given sample. One method was based on a fast electrochromic (EC) signal, which in the millisecond time scale represents a change in the delocalized electric potential difference across the thylakoid membrane resulting from charge separation in both photosystems. This method was applied to leaf segments, thus avoiding any potential artefacts associated with the isolation of thylakoid membranes. Two variations of this method, suppressing PSII activity by prior photoinactivation (in spinach and poplar leaf segments) or suppressing PSI by photo-oxidation of P700 (the chlorophyll dimer in PSI) with background far-red light (in spinach, poplar and cucumber leaf segments), each gave the separate contribution of each photosystem to the fast EC signal; the PSII/PSI stoichiometry obtained by this method was in the range 1.5-1.9 for the three plant species, and 1.5-1.8 for spinach in particular. A second method, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), gave values in a comparable range of 1.7-2.1 for spinach. A third method, which consisted of separately determining the content of functional PSII in leaf segments by the oxygen yield per single turnover-flash and that of PSI by photo-oxidation of P700 in thylakoids isolated from the corresponding leaves, gave a PSII/PSI stoichiometry (1.5-1.7) that was consistent with the above values. It is concluded that the ratio of PSII to PSI reaction centres is considerably higher than unity in typical higher plants, in contrast to a surprisingly low PSII/PSI ratio of 0.88, determined by EPR, that was reported for spinach grown in a cabinet under far-red-deficient light in Sweden [Danielsson et al. (2004) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1608: 53-61]. We suggest that the low PSII/PSI ratio in the Swedish spinach, grown in far

  16. In Vivo Identification of Photosystem II Light Harvesting Complexes Interacting with PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT S1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gerotto, Caterina; Franchin, Cinzia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Light is the primary energy source for photosynthetic organisms, but in excess, it can generate reactive oxygen species and lead to cell damage. Plants evolved multiple mechanisms to modulate light use efficiency depending on illumination intensity to thrive in a highly dynamic natural environment. One of the main mechanisms for protection from intense illumination is the dissipation of excess excitation energy as heat, a process called nonphotochemical quenching. In plants, nonphotochemical quenching induction depends on the generation of a pH gradient across thylakoid membranes and on the presence of a protein called PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT S (PSBS). Here, we generated Physcomitrella patens lines expressing histidine-tagged PSBS that were exploited to purify the native protein by affinity chromatography. The mild conditions used in the purification allowed copurifying PSBS with its interactors, which were identified by mass spectrometry analysis to be mainly photosystem II antenna proteins, such as LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX B (LHCB). PSBS interaction with other proteins appears to be promiscuous and not exclusive, although the major proteins copurified with PSBS were components of the LHCII trimers (LHCB3 and LHCBM). These results provide evidence of a physical interaction between specific photosystem II light-harvesting complexes and PSBS in the thylakoids, suggesting that these subunits are major players in heat dissipation of excess energy. PMID:26069151

  17. A systematic survey of conserved histidines in the core subunits of Photosystem I by site-directed mutagenesis reveals the likely axial ligands of P700.

    PubMed

    Redding, K; MacMillan, F; Leibl, W; Brettel, K; Hanley, J; Rutherford, A W; Breton, J; Rochaix, J D

    1998-01-01

    The Photosystem I complex catalyses the transfer of an electron from lumenal plastocyanin to stromal ferredoxin, using the energy of an absorbed photon. The initial photochemical event is the transfer of an electron from the excited state of P700, a pair of chlorophylls, to a monomer chlorophyll serving as the primary electron acceptor. We have performed a systematic survey of conserved histidines in the last six transmembrane segments of the related polytopic membrane proteins PsaA and PsaB in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These histidines, which are present in analogous positions in both proteins, were changed to glutamine or leucine by site-directed mutagenesis. Double mutants in which both histidines had been changed to glutamine were screened for changes in the characteristics of P700 using electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared and visible spectroscopy. Only mutations in the histidines of helix 10 (PsaA-His676 and PsaB-His656) resulted in changes in spectroscopic properties of P700, leading us to conclude that these histidines are most likely the axial ligands to the P700 chlorophylls. PMID:9427740

  18. Identification of precise electrostatic recognition sites between cytochrome c6 and the photosystem I subunit PsaF using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Frederik; Drepper, Friedel; Haehnel, Wolfgang; Hippler, Michael

    2006-11-17

    The reduction of the photo-oxidized special chlorophyll pair P700 of photosystem I (PSI) in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of eukaryotic organisms is facilitated by the soluble copper-containing protein plastocyanin (pc). In the absence of copper, pc is functionally replaced by the heme-containing protein cytochrome c6 (cyt c6) in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Binding and electron transfer between both donors and PSI follows a two-step mechanism that depends on electrostatic and hydrophobic recognition between the partners. Although the electrostatic and hydrophobic recognition sites on pc and PSI are well known, the precise electrostatic recognition site on cyt c6 is unknown. To specify the interaction sites on a molecular level, we cross-linked cyt c6 and PSI using a zero-length cross-linker and obtained a cross-linked complex competent in fast and efficient electron transfer. As shown previously, cyt c6 cross-links specifically with the PsaF subunit of PSI. Mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides from the cross-linked product revealed specific interaction sites between residues Lys27 of PsaF and Glu69 of cyt c6 and between Lys23 of PsaF and Glu69/Glu70 of cyt c6. Using these new data, we present a molecular model of the intermolecular electron transfer complex between eukaryotic cyt c6 and PSI. PMID:16984911

  19. Responses of photosystems I and II of Acutodesmus obliquus to chemical stress caused by the use of recycled nutrients.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Dominik J; Hindersin, Stefan; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients derived from hydrothermal gasification of Acutodesmus obliquus were tested on its biological compatibility to support growth of the same microalgae. Photosynthetic parameters of photosystems I and II (PS I and PS II) were investigated to study physiological effects on the microalgal cell. The nutrients were collected as liquid residues. Dilutions of 1:500 showed no effect on both photosystems. Lower dilutions affected PS II initially and later also PS I. Cyclic electron flow around PS I compensated for loss of electrons due to partially inhibited PS II. The highest tested concentration of liquid residue erased any photosynthetic activity of PS II after 28 min and onwards. In contrast, PS I remained active. The results suggest that PS I is less susceptible than PS II and that the mixture of chemicals in the liquid residue did not directly affect PS I but PS II. The toxicants in the residues seemed to interfere with linear electron flow of PS II even though light-driven formation of radicals and subsequent damage to one of the photosystems can be excluded as demonstrated in darkness. Lowered photosynthetic activity of PS I during actinic irradiation was caused due to lack of supply of electrons from PS II. The cyclic electron flow might play a key role in delivering the energy needed to restore PS II activity and to biodegrade the toxicants when linear electron flow failed. These negative effects of liquid residue towards microalgal cells require a remediation step for direct application of the liquid residue to substitute commercial fertilizers in microalgal mass cultures. PMID:26433968

  20. Antenna structure and excitation dynamics in photosystem I. I. Studies of detergent-isolated photosystem I preparations using time-resolved fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Owens, T G; Webb, S P; Alberte, R S; Mets, L; Fleming, G R

    1988-01-01

    The temporal and spectral properties of fluorescence decay in isolated photosystem I (PS I) preparations from algae and higher plants were measured using time-correlated single photon counting. Excitations in the PS I core antenna decay with lifetimes of 15-40 ps and 5-6 ns. The fast decay results from efficient photochemical quenching by P700, whereas the slow decay is attributed to core antenna complexes lacking a trap. Samples containing core and peripheral antenna complexes exhibited an additional intermediate lifetime (150-350 ps) decay. The PS I core antenna is composed of several spectral forms of chlorophyll a that are not temporally resolved in the decays. Analysis of the temporal and spectral properties of the decays provides a description of the composition, structure, and dynamics of energy transfer and trapping reactions in PS I. The core antenna size dependence of the spectral properties and the contributions of the spectral forms to the time-resolved decays show that energy is not concentrated in the longest wavelength absorbing pigments but is nearly homogenized among the spectral forms. These data suggest that the "funnel" description of antenna structure and energy transfer (Seely, G. R. 1973. J. Theor. Biol. 40:189-199) may not be applicable to the PS I core antenna. PMID:3134059

  1. Antenna structure and excitation dynamics in photosystem I. I. Studies of detergent-isolated photosystem I preparations using time-resolved fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Owens, T G; Webb, S P; Alberte, R S; Mets, L; Fleming, G R

    1988-05-01

    The temporal and spectral properties of fluorescence decay in isolated photosystem I (PS I) preparations from algae and higher plants were measured using time-correlated single photon counting. Excitations in the PS I core antenna decay with lifetimes of 15-40 ps and 5-6 ns. The fast decay results from efficient photochemical quenching by P700, whereas the slow decay is attributed to core antenna complexes lacking a trap. Samples containing core and peripheral antenna complexes exhibited an additional intermediate lifetime (150-350 ps) decay. The PS I core antenna is composed of several spectral forms of chlorophyll a that are not temporally resolved in the decays. Analysis of the temporal and spectral properties of the decays provides a description of the composition, structure, and dynamics of energy transfer and trapping reactions in PS I. The core antenna size dependence of the spectral properties and the contributions of the spectral forms to the time-resolved decays show that energy is not concentrated in the longest wavelength absorbing pigments but is nearly homogenized among the spectral forms. These data suggest that the "funnel" description of antenna structure and energy transfer (Seely, G. R. 1973. J. Theor. Biol. 40:189-199) may not be applicable to the PS I core antenna. PMID:3134059

  2. Subunit composition of CP43-less photosystem II complexes of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: implications for the assembly and repair of photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, M.; Yu, J.; Reisinger, V.; Beckova, M.; Eichacker, L. A.; Schlodder, E.; Komenda, J.; Nixon, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) mutants are useful experimental tools to trap potential intermediates involved in the assembly of the oxygen-evolving PSII complex. Here, we focus on the subunit composition of the RC47 assembly complex that accumulates in a psbC null mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 unable to make the CP43 apopolypeptide. By using native gel electrophoresis, we showed that RC47 is heterogeneous and mainly found as a monomer of 220 kDa. RC47 complexes co-purify with small Cab-like proteins (ScpC and/or ScpD) and with Psb28 and its homologue Psb28-2. Analysis of isolated His-tagged RC47 indicated the presence of D1, D2, the CP47 apopolypeptide, plus nine of the 13 low-molecular-mass (LMM) subunits found in the PSII holoenzyme, including PsbL, PsbM and PsbT, which lie at the interface between the two momomers in the dimeric holoenzyme. Not detected were the LMM subunits (PsbK, PsbZ, Psb30 and PsbJ) located in the vicinity of CP43 in the holoenzyme. The photochemical activity of isolated RC47-His complexes, including the rate of reduction of P680+, was similar to that of PSII complexes lacking the Mn4CaO5 cluster. The implications of our results for the assembly and repair of PSII in vivo are discussed. PMID:23148271

  3. Microoxic Niches within the Thylakoid Stroma of Air-Grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Protect [FeFe]-Hydrogenase and Support Hydrogen Production under Fully Aerobic Environment.

    PubMed

    Liran, Oded; Semyatich, Rinat; Milrad, Yuval; Eilenberg, Haviva; Weiner, Iddo; Yacoby, Iftach

    2016-09-01

    Photosynthetic hydrogen production in the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is catalyzed by two [FeFe]-hydrogenase isoforms, HydA1 and HydA2, both irreversibly inactivated upon a few seconds exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Until recently, it was thought that hydrogenase is not active in air-grown microalgal cells. In contrast, we show that the entire pool of cellular [FeFe]-hydrogenase remains active in air-grown cells due to efficient scavenging of oxygen. Using membrane inlet mass spectrometry, (18)O2 isotope, and various inhibitors, we were able to dissect the various oxygen uptake mechanisms. We found that both chlororespiration, catalyzed by plastid terminal oxidase, and Mehler reactions, catalyzed by photosystem I and Flavodiiron proteins, significantly contribute to oxygen uptake rate. This rate is considerably enhanced with increasing light, thus forming local anaerobic niches at the proximity of the stromal face of the thylakoid membrane. Furthermore, we found that in transition to high light, the hydrogen production rate is significantly enhanced for a short duration (100 s), thus indicating that [FeFe]-hydrogenase functions as an immediate sink for surplus electrons in aerobic as well as in anaerobic environments. In summary, we show that an anaerobic locality in the chloroplast preserves [FeFe]-hydrogenase activity and supports continuous hydrogen production in air-grown microalgal cells. PMID:27443604

  4. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions impairs photosynthetic electron transport between photosystem II and photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P A; Ensminger, Ingo

    2008-05-01

    Changes in temperature and daylength trigger physiological and seasonal developmental processes that enable evergreen trees of the boreal forest to withstand severe winter conditions. Climate change is expected to increase the autumn air temperature in the northern latitudes, while the natural decreasing photoperiod remains unaffected. As shown previously, an increase in autumn air temperature inhibits CO2 assimilation, with a concomitant increased capacity for zeaxanthin-independent dissipation of energy exceeding the photochemical capacity in Pinus banksiana. In this study, we tested our previous model of antenna quenching and tested a limitation in intersystem electron transport in plants exposed to elevated autumn air temperatures. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of temperature and photoperiod on the function as well as the stoichiometry of the major components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in P. banksiana. Natural summer conditions (16-h photoperiod/22 degrees C) and late autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/7 degrees C) were compared with a treatment of autumn photoperiod with increased air temperature (SD/HT: 8-h photoperiod/22 degrees C) and a treatment with summer photoperiod and autumn temperature (16-h photoperiod/7 degrees C). Exposure to SD/HT resulted in an inhibition of the effective quantum yield associated with a decreased photosystem II/photosystem I stoichiometry coupled with decreased levels of Rubisco. Our data indicate that a greater capacity to keep the primary electron donor of photosystem I (P700) oxidized in plants exposed to SD/HT compared with the summer control may be attributed to a reduced rate of electron transport from the cytochrome b6f complex to photosystem I. Photoprotection under increased autumn air temperature conditions appears to be consistent with zeaxanthin-independent antenna quenching through light-harvesting complex II aggregation and a decreased efficiency in energy transfer from the

  5. Increased Air Temperature during Simulated Autumn Conditions Impairs Photosynthetic Electron Transport between Photosystem II and Photosystem I1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P.A.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    Changes in temperature and daylength trigger physiological and seasonal developmental processes that enable evergreen trees of the boreal forest to withstand severe winter conditions. Climate change is expected to increase the autumn air temperature in the northern latitudes, while the natural decreasing photoperiod remains unaffected. As shown previously, an increase in autumn air temperature inhibits CO2 assimilation, with a concomitant increased capacity for zeaxanthin-independent dissipation of energy exceeding the photochemical capacity in Pinus banksiana. In this study, we tested our previous model of antenna quenching and tested a limitation in intersystem electron transport in plants exposed to elevated autumn air temperatures. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of temperature and photoperiod on the function as well as the stoichiometry of the major components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in P. banksiana. Natural summer conditions (16-h photoperiod/22°C) and late autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/7°C) were compared with a treatment of autumn photoperiod with increased air temperature (SD/HT: 8-h photoperiod/22°C) and a treatment with summer photoperiod and autumn temperature (16-h photoperiod/7°C). Exposure to SD/HT resulted in an inhibition of the effective quantum yield associated with a decreased photosystem II/photosystem I stoichiometry coupled with decreased levels of Rubisco. Our data indicate that a greater capacity to keep the primary electron donor of photosystem I (P700) oxidized in plants exposed to SD/HT compared with the summer control may be attributed to a reduced rate of electron transport from the cytochrome b6f complex to photosystem I. Photoprotection under increased autumn air temperature conditions appears to be consistent with zeaxanthin-independent antenna quenching through light-harvesting complex II aggregation and a decreased efficiency in energy transfer from the antenna to the photosystem

  6. Individual Flagellar Waveform Affects Collective Behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kage, Azusa; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    Bioconvection is a form of collective motion that occurs spontaneously in the suspension of swimming microorganisms. In a previous study, we quantitatively described the "pattern transition," a phase transition phenomenon that so far has exclusively been observed in bioconvection of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas. We suggested that the transition could be induced by changes in the balance between the gravitational and shear-induced torques, both of which act to determine the orientation of the organism in the shear flow. As both of the torques should be affected by the geometry of the Chlamydomonas cell, alteration in the flagellar waveform might change the extent of torque generation by altering overall geometry of the cell. Based on this working hypothesis, we examined bioconvection behavior of two flagellar mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ida1 and oda2, making reference to the wild type. Flagella of ida1 beat with an abnormal waveform, while flagella of oda2 show a normal waveform but lower beat frequency. As a result, both mutants had swimming speed of less than 50% of the wild type. ida1 formed bioconvection patterns with smaller spacing than those of wild type and oda2. Two-axis view revealed the periodic movement of the settling blobs of ida1, while oda2 showed qualitatively similar behavior to that of wild type. Unexpectedly, ida1 showed stronger negative gravitaxis than did wild type, while oda2 showed relatively weak gravitaxis. These findings suggest that flagellar waveform, not swimming speed or beat frequency, strongly affect bioconvection behavior in C. reinhardtii. PMID:26245228

  7. Effective viscosity of non-gravitactic Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii microswimmer suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussler, Matthias; Rafaï, Salima; Peyla, Philippe; Wagner, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Active microswimmers are known to affect the macroscopic viscosity of suspensions in a more complex manner than passive particles. For puller-like microswimmers an increase in the viscosity has been observed. It has been suggested that the persistence of the orientation of the microswimmers hinders the rotation that is normally caused by the vorticity. It was previously shown that some sorts of algae are bottom-heavy swimmers, i.e., their centre of mass is not located in the centre of the body. In this way, the algae affect the vorticity of the flow when they are perpendicularly oriented to the axis of gravity. This orientation of gravity to vorticity is given in a rheometer that is equipped with a cone-plate geometry. Here we present measurements of the viscosity both in a cone-plate and a Taylor-Couette cell. The two set-ups yielded the same increase in viscosity although the axis of gravitation in the Taylor-Couette cell is parallel to the direction of vorticity. In a complementary experiment we tested the orientation of the direction of swimming through microscopic observation of single Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and could not identify a preferred orientation, i.e., our specific strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are not bottom-heavy swimmers. We thus conclude that bottom heaviness is not a prerequisite for the increase of viscosity and that the effect of gravity on the rheology of our strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is negligible. This finding reopens the question of whether the origin of persistence in the orientation of cells is actually responsible for the increased viscosity of the suspension.

  8. Production of therapeutic proteins in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast transformation in the photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used to explore the potential to use it as an inexpensive and easily scalable system for the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins. Diverse proteins, such as bacterial and viral antigens, antibodies and, immunotoxins have been successfully expressed in the chloroplast using endogenous and chimeric promoter sequences. In some cases, proteins have accumulated to high level, demonstrating that this technology could compete with current production platforms. This review focuses on the works that have engineered the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii with the aim of producing recombinant proteins intended for therapeutical use in humans or animals. PMID:25136510

  9. Flagellar force production during regeneration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukich, John N.; Clodfelter, Catherine; Bernd, Karen K.

    2009-11-01

    Several respiratory, digestive, and reproductive disorders originate with motional dysfunction of cilia and flagella. The usefulness of cilia and flagella is understood, but the internal mechanism for creating their breast stroke-like motion is not. This study reports on standardization of calibration, trapping and cell movement recording methods. Our techniques permit us to measure the flagellar swimming force of Chlamydomonas during flagella regeneration. We find that as flagella length increases, the flagellar force is maximized after 50% of full length is achieved except for a significant dip at 75% of full length. These results raise many questions regarding the flagella infrastructure.

  10. Production of therapeutic proteins in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Almaraz-Delgado, Alma Lorena; Flores-Uribe, José; Pérez-España, Víctor Hugo; Salgado-Manjarrez, Edgar; Badillo-Corona, Jesús Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast transformation in the photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used to explore the potential to use it as an inexpensive and easily scalable system for the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins. Diverse proteins, such as bacterial and viral antigens, antibodies and, immunotoxins have been successfully expressed in the chloroplast using endogenous and chimeric promoter sequences. In some cases, proteins have accumulated to high level, demonstrating that this technology could compete with current production platforms. This review focuses on the works that have engineered the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii with the aim of producing recombinant proteins intended for therapeutical use in humans or animals. PMID:25136510

  11. PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN33, a Protein Conserved in the Plastid Lineage, Is Associated with the Chloroplast Thylakoid Membrane and Provides Stability to Photosystem II Supercomplexes in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fristedt, Rikard; Herdean, Andrei; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.; Mamedov, Fikret; Lundin, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a multiprotein complex that catalyzes the light-driven water-splitting reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis. Light absorption by PSII leads to the production of excited states and reactive oxygen species that can cause damage to this complex. Here, we describe Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) At1g71500, which encodes a previously uncharacterized protein that is a PSII auxiliary core protein and hence is named PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN33 (PSB33). We present evidence that PSB33 functions in the maintenance of PSII-light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplex organization. PSB33 encodes a protein with a chloroplast transit peptide and one transmembrane segment. In silico analysis of PSB33 revealed a light-harvesting complex-binding motif within the transmembrane segment and a large surface-exposed head domain. Biochemical analysis of PSII complexes further indicates that PSB33 is an integral membrane protein located in the vicinity of LHCII and the PSII CP43 reaction center protein. Phenotypic characterization of mutants lacking PSB33 revealed reduced amounts of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, very low state transition, and a lower capacity for nonphotochemical quenching, leading to increased photosensitivity in the mutant plants under light stress. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PSB33 in regulating and optimizing photosynthesis in response to changing light levels. PMID:25511433

  12. Contrasting behavior of higher plant photosystem I and II antenna systems during acclimation.

    PubMed

    Ballottari, Matteo; Dall'Osto, Luca; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto

    2007-03-23

    In this work we analyzed the photosynthetic apparatus in Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to different light intensity and temperature conditions. Plants showed the ability to acclimate into different environments and avoid photoinhibition. When grown in high light, plants had a faster activation rate for energy dissipation (qE). This ability was correlated to higher accumulation levels of a specific photosystem II subunit, PsbS. The photosystem II antenna size was also regulated according to light exposure; smaller antenna size was observed in high light-acclimated plants with respect to low light plants. Different antenna polypeptides did not behave similarly, and Lhcb1, Lchb2, and Lhcb6 (CP24) are shown to undergo major levels of regulation, whereas Lhcb4 and Lhcb5 (CP29 and CP26) maintained their stoichiometry with respect to the reaction center in all growth conditions. The effect of acclimation on photosystem I antenna was different; in fact, the stoichiometry of any Lhca antenna proteins with respect to photosystem I core complex was not affected by growth conditions. Despite this stability in antenna stoichiometry, photosystem I light harvesting function was shown to be regulated through different mechanisms like the control of photosystem I to photosystem II ratio and the association or dissociation of Lhcb polypeptides to photosystem I. PMID:17229724

  13. A sex recognition glycoprotein is encoded by the plus mating-type gene fus1 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, P J; Woessner, J P; Goodenough, U W

    1996-01-01

    Sexual fusion between plus and minus gametes of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii entails adhesion between plus-specific and minus-specific "fringe" proteins displayed on the plasma membrane of gametic mating structures. We report the identification of the gene (fus1) encoding the plus fringe glycoprotein, which resides in a unique domain of the mating-type plus (mt+) locus, and which was identified by transposon insertions in three fusion-defective mutant strains. Transformation with fus1+ restores fringe and fusion competence to these mutants and to the pseudo-plus mutant imp11 mt-, defective in minus differentiation. The fus1 gene is remarkable in lacking the codon bias found in all other nuclear genes of C. reinhardtii. Images PMID:8856667

  14. High-efficiency biolistic transformation of Chlamydomonas mitochondria can be used to insert mutations in complex I genes.

    PubMed

    Remacle, Claire; Cardol, Pierre; Coosemans, Nadine; Gaisne, Mauricette; Bonnefoy, Nathalie

    2006-03-21

    Mitochondrial transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been optimized by using a particle-gun device and cloned mitochondrial DNA or PCR fragments. A respiratory-deficient strain lacking a 1.2-kb mitochondrial DNA region including the left telomere and part of the cob gene could be rescued as well as a double-frameshift mutant in the mitochondrial cox1 and nd1 genes. High transformation efficiency has been achieved (100-250 transformants per microgram of DNA), the best results being obtained with linearized plasmid DNA. Molecular analysis of the transformants suggests that the right telomere sequence can be copied to reconstruct the left telomere by recombination. In addition, both nondeleterious and deleterious mutations could be introduced. Myxothiazol-resistant transformants have been created by introducing a nucleotide substitution into the cob gene. Similarly, an in-frame deletion of 23 codons has been created in the nd4 mitochondrial gene of both the deleted and frameshift recipient strains. These 23 codons are believed to encode the first transmembrane segment of the ND4 protein. This Deltand4 mutation causes a misassembly of complex I, with the accumulation of a subcomplex that is 250-kDa smaller than the wild-type complex I. The availability of efficient mitochondrial transformation in Chlamydomonas provides an invaluable tool for the study of mitochondrial biogenesis and, more specifically, for site-directed mutagenesis of mitochondrially encoded subunits of complex I, of special interest because the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose mitochondrial genome can be manipulated virtually at will, is lacking complex I. PMID:16537419

  15. Photosystem II: The Light-Driven Water: Plastoquinone Odixoreductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wydrzynski, Thomas J.; Satoh, Kimiyuki

    Dedicated to the memory of one of the early pioneers in this field of research, Professor Gerald T. Babcock, the 34 inclusive chapters of the present volume cover all major aspects of the molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics and physiology of Photosystem II. The chapters were variously authored by a total of 75 scientific experts from leading research centers in Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, making the book a truly international effort. The book is divided into several parts which detail the protein constituents, functional sites, tertiary structure, molecular dynamics and mechanisms of subunit assembly and homeostasis.

  16. Electron transfer pathways in photosystem I reaction centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashin, Nikolaj; Larsson, Sven

    2003-07-01

    Electron transfer following charge separation in the photosystem I (PSI) reaction center of Synechococcus elongatus is studied using theoretical methods. The difference in rate between two almost symmetrical A- and B-branches is caused by a difference in a single residue (Trp B673 versus Gly A693), close to the F X iron-sulfur cluster. Partly due to its polar environment, Trp B673 acts as an electron acceptor in its π-system. The rate increases on the B-side due to shortened distances for electron transfer.

  17. Probing active electron transfer branch in photosystem I reaction center.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savikhin, Sergei; Dashdorj, Naranbaatar; Xu, Wu; Martinsson, Peter; Chitnis, Parag

    2003-03-01

    Complimentary point mutations were introduced at the primary electron acceptor sites in A and B branches of the photosystem I (PS I) reaction center (RC) from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and their effect on the kinetics of the electron transfer process was studied by means of ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. The results indicate that in these species the electron transfer occurs primarily along the A-branch. Previous optical experiments on PS I complexes from Chlorella sorokiniana demonstrated that both branches of RC are equally active. That suggests that the directionality of electron transfer in PS I is species dependent.

  18. Identification of Global Ferredoxin Interaction Networks in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Peden, Erin A.; Boehm, Marko; Mulder, David W.; Davis, ReAnna; Old, William M.; King, Paul W.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Dubini, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Ferredoxins (FDXs) can distribute electrons originating from photosynthetic water oxidation, fermentation, and other reductant-generating pathways to specific redox enzymes in different organisms. The six FDXs identified in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are not fully characterized in terms of their biological function. In this report, we present data from the following: (a) yeast two-hybrid screens, identifying interaction partners for each Chlamydomonas FDX; (b) pairwise yeast two-hybrid assays measuring FDX interactions with proteins from selected biochemical pathways; (c) affinity pulldown assays that, in some cases, confirm and even expand the interaction network for FDX1 and FDX2; and (d) in vitro NADP+ reduction and H2 photo-production assays mediated by each FDX that verify their role in these two pathways. Our results demonstrate new potential roles for FDX1 in redox metabolism and carbohydrate and fatty acid biosynthesis, for FDX2 in anaerobic metabolism, and possibly in state transition. Our data also suggest that FDX3 is involved in nitrogen assimilation, FDX4 in glycolysis and response to reactive oxygen species, and FDX5 in hydrogenase maturation. Finally, we provide experimental evidence that FDX1 serves as the primary electron donor to two important biological pathways, NADPH and H2 photo-production, whereas FDX2 is capable of driving these reactions at less than half the rate observed for FDX1. PMID:24100040

  19. Chloroplast Genetics of Chlamydomonas. III. Closing the Circle

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Burt; Sager, Ruth; Ramanis, Zenta

    1976-01-01

    A novel mapping procedure is presented for organelle genes or any other genetic system exhibiting a measurable frequency of exchanges occurring at a constant rate over a measurable time interval. For a set of markers in a multiply-marked cross, the exchange rates measure relative map distances from a centromere-like attachment point. With this method, we present mapping data and a linear map of genes in the chlcroplast genome of Chlamydomonas. The data are plotted as log (percent remaining heterozygotes) against time and map distances are taken as proportional to slope. A statistical method which is an adaptation of jackknife methodology to a regression problem was developed to estimate slope values. A single line is fitted to pooled data for each marker from several crosses, and then lines are re-fit to a series of pooled data sets in each of which the observations from a single cross have been omitted. From these data sets a final summary slope is computed as well as a statement of its variability. The relative positions of new markers present in single crosses can then be estimated utilizing data from many crosses. The method does not distinguish between one-armed and two-armed linear or circular maps. However, evaluation of this map in conjunction with cosegregation frequency data (Sager and Ramanis 1976b) provides unambiguous evidence of the genetic circularity of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast genome. PMID:17248718

  20. Molecular techniques to interrogate and edit the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome.

    PubMed

    Jinkerson, Robert E; Jonikas, Martin C

    2015-05-01

    The success of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism is to a large extent due to the wide range of molecular techniques that are available for its characterization. Here, we review some of the techniques currently used to modify and interrogate the C. reinhardtii nuclear genome and explore several technologies under development. Nuclear mutants can be generated with ultraviolet (UV) light and chemical mutagens, or by insertional mutagenesis. Nuclear transformation methods include biolistic delivery, agitation with glass beads, and electroporation. Transforming DNA integrates into the genome at random sites, and multiple strategies exist for mapping insertion sites. A limited number of studies have demonstrated targeted modification of the nuclear genome by approaches such as zinc-finger nucleases and homologous recombination. RNA interference is widely used to knock down expression levels of nuclear genes. A wide assortment of transgenes has been successfully expressed in the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome, including transformation markers, fluorescent proteins, reporter genes, epitope tagged proteins, and even therapeutic proteins. Optimized expression constructs and strains help transgene expression. Emerging technologies such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system, high-throughput mutant identification, and a whole-genome knockout library are being developed for this organism. We discuss how these advances will propel future investigations. PMID:25704665

  1. Metabolism of acyl-lipids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Riekhof, Wayne

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae are emerging platforms for production of a suite of compounds targeting several markets, including food, nutraceuticals, green chemicals, and biofuels. Many of these products, such as biodiesel or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), derive from lipid metabolism. A general picture of lipid metabolism in microalgae has been deduced from well characterized pathways of fungi and land plants, but recent advances in molecular and genetic analyses of microalgae have uncovered unique features, pointing out the necessity to study lipid metabolism in microalgae themselves. In the past 10 years, in addition to its traditional role as a model for photosynthetic and flagellar motility processes, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has emerged as a model organism to study lipid metabolism in green microalgae. Here, after summarizing data on total fatty acid composition, distribution of acyl-lipid classes, and major acyl-lipid molecular species found in C. reinhardtii, we review the current knowledge on the known or putative steps for fatty acid synthesis, glycerolipid desaturation and assembly, membrane lipid turnover, and oil remobilization. A list of characterized or putative enzymes for the major steps of acyl-lipid metabolism in C. reinhardtii is included, and subcellular localizations and phenotypes of associated mutants are discussed. Biogenesis and composition of Chlamydomonas lipid droplets and the potential importance of lipolytic processes in increasing cellular oil content are also highlighted. PMID:25660108

  2. Analysis of the ciliary/flagellar beating of Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth W

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are alternative names, for the slender cylindrical protrusions of a cell (240nm diameter, approximately 12,800nm-long in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) that propel a cell or move fluid. Cilia are extraordinarily successful complex organelles abundantly found in animals performing many tasks. They play a direct or developmental role in the sensors of fluid flow, light, sound, gravity, smells, touch, temperature, and taste in mammals. The failure of cilia can lead to hydrocephalus, infertility, and blindness. However, in spite of their large role in human function and pathology, there is as yet no consensus on how cilia beat and perform their many functions, such as moving fluids in brain ventricles and lungs and propelling and steering sperm, larvae, and many microorganisms. One needs to understand and analyze ciliary beating and its hydrodynamic interactions. This chapter provides a guide for measuring, analyzing, and interpreting ciliary behavior in various contexts studied in the model system of Chlamydomonas. It describes: (1) how cilia work as self-organized beating structures (SOBSs), (2) the overlaid control in the cilia that optimizes the SOBS to achieve cell dispersal, phototaxis steering, and avoidance of obstacles, (3) the assay of a model intracellular signal processing system that responds to multiple external and internal inputs, choosing mode of behavior and then controlling the cilia, (4) how cilia sense their environment, and (5) potentially an assay of ciliary performance for toxicology or medical assessment. PMID:20409788

  3. Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, Setsuko; Chin, Brian L; Ledford, Heidi K; Dent, Rachel M; Casero, David; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Niyogi, Krishna K

    2014-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly toxic and inevitable byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of acclimating specifically to singlet oxygen stress, but the retrograde signaling pathway from the chloroplast to the nucleus mediating this response is unknown. Here we describe a mutant, singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out 1 (sak1), that lacks the acclimation response to singlet oxygen. Analysis of genome-wide changes in RNA abundance during acclimation to singlet oxygen revealed that SAK1 is a key regulator of the gene expression response during acclimation. The SAK1 gene encodes an uncharacterized protein with a domain conserved among chlorophytes and present in some bZIP transcription factors. The SAK1 protein is located in the cytosol, and it is induced and phosphorylated upon exposure to singlet oxygen, suggesting that it is a critical intermediate component of the retrograde signal transduction pathway leading to singlet oxygen acclimation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.001 PMID:24859755

  4. Lumped pathway metabolic model of organic carbon accumulation and mobilization by the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Guest, Jeremy S; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Skerlos, Steven J; Love, Nancy G

    2013-04-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms have significant potential as bioenergy feedstocks, but the sustainability of large-scale cultivation will require the use of wastewater as a renewable resource. A key barrier to this advancement is a lack of bioprocess understanding that would enable the design and implementation of efficient and resilient mixed community, naturally lit cultivation systems. In this study, a lumped pathway metabolic model (denoted the phototrophic process model or PPM) was developed for mixed phototrophic communities subjected to day/night cycling. State variables included functional biomass (XCPO), stored carbohydrates (XCH), stored lipids (XLI), nitrate (SNO), phosphate (SP), and others. PPM metabolic reactions and stoichiometry were based on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , but experiments for model calibration and validation were performed in flat panel photobioreactors (PBRs) originally inoculated with biomass from a phototrophic system at a wastewater treatment plant. PBRs were operated continuously as cyclostats to poise cells for intrinsic kinetic parameter estimation in batch studies, which included nutrient-available conditions in light and dark as well as nitrogen-starved and phosphorus-starved conditions in light. The model was calibrated and validated and was shown to be a reasonable predictor of growth, lipid and carbohydrate storage, and lipid and carbohydrate mobilization by a mixed microbial community. PMID:23452258

  5. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in chlamydomonas chloroplast

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2010-03-16

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery or proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  6. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in Chlamydomonas chloroplast

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-01-13

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery of proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  7. Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO/sub 2/-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas. [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1987-07-01

    Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO/sub 2/. Both air-grown cells, that have a CO/sub 2/ concentrating system, and 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO/sub 2/ fixation by high CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase.

  8. Structural analysis of photosystem I polypeptides using chemical crosslinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armbrust, T. S.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes, obtained from leaves of 14 d soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Williams) plants, were treated with the chemical crosslinkers glutaraldehyde or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) to investigate the structural organization of photosystem I. Polypeptides were resolved using lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and were identified by western blot analysis using a library of polyclonal antibodies specific for photosystem I subunits. An electrophoretic examination of crosslinked thylakoids revealed numerous crosslinked products, using either glutaraldehyde or EDC. However, only a few of these could be identified by western blot analysis using subunit-specific polyclonal antibodies. Several glutaraldehyde dependent crosslinked species were identified. A single band was identified minimally composed of PsaC and PsaD, documenting the close interaction between these two subunits. The most interesting aspect of these studies was a crosslinked species composed of the PsaB subunit observed following EDC treatment of thylakoids. This is either an internally crosslinked species, which will provide structural information concerning the topology of the complex PsaB protein, a linkage with a polypeptide for which we do not yet have an immunological probe, or a masking of epitopes by the EDC linkage at critical locations in the peptide which is linked to PsaB.

  9. Diversity of viral photosystem-I psaA genes

    PubMed Central

    Hevroni, Gur; Enav, Hagay; Rohwer, Forest; Béjà, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Marine photosynthesis is one of the major contributors to the global carbon cycle and the world's oxygen supply. This process is largely driven by cyanobacteria, namely Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus. Genes encoding photosystem-II (PSII) reaction center proteins are found in many cyanophage genomes, and are expressed during the infection of their hosts. On the basis of metagenomics, cyanophage photosystem-I (PSI) gene cassettes were recently discovered with two gene arrangements psaJF→C→A→B→K→E→D and psaD→C→A→B. It was suggested that the horizontal transfer of PSII and PSI genes is increasing phage fitness. To better understand their diversity, we designed degenerate primers to cover a wide diversity of organisms, and using PCR we targeted the psaC→A arrangement, which is unique to cyanophages cassettes. We examined viral concentrates from four islands in the Pacific Ocean and found samples containing the psaC→A arrangement. Analyses of the amplified viral psaA gene revealed six subgroups varying in their level of similarity and %G+C content, suggesting that the diversity of cyanophage PSI genes is greater than originally thought. PMID:25535938

  10. Structure and energy transfer in photosystems of oxygenic photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nathan; Junge, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal converter of sunlight into chemical energy on Earth. Cyanobacteria and plants provide the oxygen, food, fuel, fibers, and platform chemicals for life on Earth. The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy is catalyzed by two multisubunit membrane protein complexes, photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). Light is absorbed by the pigment cofactors, and excitation energy is transferred among the antennae pigments and converted into chemical energy at very high efficiency. Oxygenic photosynthesis has existed for more than three billion years, during which its molecular machinery was perfected to minimize wasteful reactions. Light excitation transfer and singlet trapping won over fluorescence, radiation-less decay, and triplet formation. Photosynthetic reaction centers operate in organisms ranging from bacteria to higher plants. They are all evolutionarily linked. The crystal structure determination of photosynthetic protein complexes sheds light on the various partial reactions and explains how they are protected against wasteful pathways and why their function is robust. This review discusses the efficiency of photosynthetic solar energy conversion. PMID:25747397

  11. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  12. Isolation of a highly active photosystem II preparation from Synechocystis 6803 using a histidine-tagged mutant of CP 47.

    PubMed

    Bricker, T M; Morvant, J; Masri, N; Sutton, H M; Frankel, L K

    1998-11-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was used to produce a Synechocystis mutant containing a histidine tag at the C terminus of the CP 47 protein of Photosystem II. This mutant cell line, designated HT-3, exhibited slightly above normal rates of oxygen evolution and appeared to accumulate somewhat more Photosystem II reaction centers than a control strain. A rapidly isolatable (<7 h) oxygen-evolving Photosystem II preparation was prepared from HT-3 using dodecyl-beta-d-maltoside solubilization and Co2+ metal affinity chromatography. This histidine-tagged Photosystem II preparation stably evolved oxygen at a high rate (2440 micromol O2 (mg chl)-1 h-1), exhibited an alpha-band absorption maximum at 674 nm, and was highly enriched in a number of Photosystem II components including cytochrome c550. Fluorescence yield analysis using water or hydroxylamine as an electron donor to the Photosystem II preparation indicated that virtually all of the Photosystem II reaction centers were capable of evolving oxygen. Proteins associated with Photosystem II were highly enriched in this preparation. 3,3',5, 5'-Tetramethylbenzidine staining indicated that the histidine-tagged preparation was enriched in cytochromes c550 and b559 and depleted of cytochrome f. This result was confirmed by optical difference spectroscopy. This histidine-tagged Photosystem II preparation may be very useful for the isolation of Photosystem II preparations from mutants containing lesions in other Photosystem II proteins. PMID:9804889

  13. Lateral heterogeneity of photosystems in thylakoid membranes studied by Brownian dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Borodich, Andrei; Rojdestvenski, Igor; Cottam, Michael

    2003-08-01

    The aggregation and segregation of photosystems in higher plant thylakoid membranes as stromal cation-induced phenomena are studied by the Brownian dynamics method. A theoretical model of photosystems lateral movement within the membrane plane is developed, assuming their pairwise effective potential interaction in aqueous and lipid media and their diffusion. Along with the screened electrostatic repulsive interaction the model accounts for the van der Waals-type, elastic, and lipid-induced attractive forces between photosystems of different sizes and charges. Simulations with a priori estimated parameters demonstrate that all three studied repulsion-attraction alternatives might favor the local segregation of photosystems under physiologically reasonable conditions. However, only the lipid-induced potential combined with the size-corrected screened Coulomb interaction provides the segregated configurations with photosystems II localized in the central part of the grana-size simulation cell and photosystems I occupying its margins, as observed experimentally. Mapping of thermodynamic states reveals that the coexistence curves between isotropic and aggregated phases are the sigmoidlike functions regardless of the effective potential type. It correlates with measurements of the chlorophyll content of thylakoid fragments. Also the universality of the phase curves characterizes the aggregation and segregation of photosystems as order-disorder phase transitions with the Debye radius as a governing parameter. PMID:12885627

  14. Lateral Heterogeneity of Photosystems in Thylakoid Membranes Studied by Brownian Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Borodich, Andrei; Rojdestvenski, Igor; Cottam, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The aggregation and segregation of photosystems in higher plant thylakoid membranes as stromal cation-induced phenomena are studied by the Brownian dynamics method. A theoretical model of photosystems lateral movement within the membrane plane is developed, assuming their pairwise effective potential interaction in aqueous and lipid media and their diffusion. Along with the screened electrostatic repulsive interaction the model accounts for the van der Waals-type, elastic, and lipid-induced attractive forces between photosystems of different sizes and charges. Simulations with a priori estimated parameters demonstrate that all three studied repulsion-attraction alternatives might favor the local segregation of photosystems under physiologically reasonable conditions. However, only the lipid-induced potential combined with the size-corrected screened Coulomb interaction provides the segregated configurations with photosystems II localized in the central part of the grana-size simulation cell and photosystems I occupying its margins, as observed experimentally. Mapping of thermodynamic states reveals that the coexistence curves between isotropic and aggregated phases are the sigmoidlike functions regardless of the effective potential type. It correlates with measurements of the chlorophyll content of thylakoid fragments. Also the universality of the phase curves characterizes the aggregation and segregation of photosystems as order-disorder phase transitions with the Debye radius as a governing parameter. PMID:12885627

  15. Chloroplast lipid transfer processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii involving a TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL 2 (TGD2) orthologue.

    PubMed

    Warakanont, Jaruswan; Tsai, Chia-Hong; Michel, Elena J S; Murphy, George R; Hsueh, Peter Y; Roston, Rebecca L; Sears, Barbara B; Benning, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    In plants, lipids of the photosynthetic membrane are synthesized by parallel pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the chloroplast envelope membranes. Lipids derived from the two pathways are distinguished by their acyl-constituents. Following this plant paradigm, the prevalent acyl composition of chloroplast lipids suggests that Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) does not use the ER pathway; however, the Chlamydomonas genome encodes presumed plant orthologues of a chloroplast lipid transporter consisting of TGD (TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL) proteins that are required for ER-to-chloroplast lipid trafficking in plants. To resolve this conundrum, we identified a mutant of Chlamydomonas deleted in the TGD2 gene and characterized the respective protein, CrTGD2. Notably, the viability of the mutant was reduced, showing the importance of CrTGD2. Galactoglycerolipid metabolism was altered in the tgd2 mutant with monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) synthase activity being strongly stimulated. We hypothesize this to be a result of phosphatidic acid accumulation in the chloroplast outer envelope membrane, the location of MGDG synthase in Chlamydomonas. Concomitantly, increased conversion of MGDG into triacylglycerol (TAG) was observed. This TAG accumulated in lipid droplets in the tgd2 mutant under normal growth conditions. Labeling kinetics indicate that Chlamydomonas can import lipid precursors from the ER, a process that is impaired in the tgd2 mutant. PMID:26496373

  16. Resolving the phylogenetic relationship between Chlamydomonas sp. UWO 241 and Chlamydomonas raudensis sag 49.72 (Chlorophyceae) with nuclear and plastid DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Possmayer, Marc; Gupta, Rajesh K; Szyszka-Mroz, Beth; Maxwell, Denis P; Lachance, Marc-André; Hüner, Norman P A; Smith, David Roy

    2016-04-01

    The Antarctic psychrophilic green alga Chlamy-domonas sp. UWO 241 is an emerging model for studying microbial adaptation to polar environments. However, little is known about its evolutionary history and its phylogenetic relationship with other chlamydomonadalean algae is equivocal. Here, we attempt to clarify the phylogenetic position of UWO 241, specifically with respect to Chlamydomonas rau-densis SAG 49.72. Contrary to a previous report, we show that UWO 241 is a distinct species from SAG 49.72. Our phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and plastid DNA sequences reveal that UWO 241 represents a unique lineage within the Moewusinia clade (sensu Nakada) of the Chlamydomonadales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta), closely affiliated to the marine species Chlamydomonas parkeae SAG 24.89. PMID:27037594

  17. Dissecting the Sequential Assembly and Localization of Intraflagellar Transport Particle Complex B in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Elizabeth A.; Qin, Hongmin

    2012-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT), the key mechanism for ciliogenesis, involves large protein particles moving bi-directionally along the entire ciliary length. IFT particles contain two large protein complexes, A and B, which are constructed with proteins in a core and several peripheral proteins. Prior studies have shown that in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, IFT46, IFT52, and IFT88 directly interact with each other and are in a subcomplex of the IFT B core. However, ift46, bld1, and ift88 mutants differ in phenotype as ift46 mutants are able to form short flagella, while the other two lack flagella completely. In this study, we investigated the functional differences of these individual IFT proteins contributing to complex B assembly, stability, and basal body localization. We found that complex B is completely disrupted in bld1 mutant, indicating an essential role of IFT52 for complex B core assembly. Ift46 mutant cells are capable of assembling a relatively intact complex B, but such complex is highly unstable and prone to degradation. In contrast, in ift88 mutant cells the complex B core still assembles and remains stable, but the peripheral proteins no longer attach to the B core. Moreover, in ift88 mutant cells, while complex A and the anterograde IFT motor FLA10 are localized normally to the transition fibers, complex B proteins instead are accumulated at the proximal ends of the basal bodies. In addition, in bld2 mutant, the IFT complex B proteins still localize to the proximal ends of defective centrioles which completely lack transition fibers. Taken together, these results revealed a step-wise assembly process for complex B, and showed that the complex first localizes to the proximal end of the centrioles and then translocates onto the transition fibers via an IFT88-dependent mechanism. PMID:22900094

  18. Resonance assignment of PsbP: an extrinsic protein from photosystem II of Spinacia oleracea.

    PubMed

    Rathner, Adriana; Chandra, Kousik; Rathner, Petr; Horničáková, Michaela; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Kohoutová, Jaroslava; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Müller, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    PsbP (23 kDa) is an extrinsic eukaryotic protein of photosystem II found in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants and green algae. It has been proven to be indispensable for proper functioning of the oxygen evolving complex. By interaction with other extrinsic proteins (PsbQ, PsbO and PsbR), it modulates the concentration of two cofactors of the water splitting reaction, Ca(2+) and Cl(-). The crystallographic structure of PsbP from Spinacia oleracea lacks the N-terminal part as well as two inner regions which were modelled as loops. Those unresolved parts are believed to be functionally crucial for the binding of PsbP to the thylakoid membrane. In this NMR study we report (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonance assignments of the backbone and side chain atoms of the PsbP protein. Based on these data, an estimate of the secondary structure has been made. The structural motifs found fit the resolved parts of the crystallographic structure very well. In addition, the complete assignment set provides preliminary insight into the dynamic regions. PMID:25903141

  19. Detection of hydrogen peroxide in Photosystem II (PSII) using catalytic amperometric biosensor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ankush; Kumar, Aditya; Suzuki, Makoto; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Sugai, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Pospíšil, Pavel; Tada, Mika; Kasai, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is known to be generated in Photosystem II (PSII) via enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Detection of H2O2 by different spectroscopic techniques has been explored, however its sensitive detection has always been a challenge in photosynthetic research. During the recent past, fluorescence probes such as Amplex Red (AR) has been used but is known to either lack specificity or limitation with respect to the minimum detection limit of H2O2. We have employed an electrochemical biosensor for real time monitoring of H2O2 generation at the level of sub-cellular organelles. The electrochemical biosensor comprises of counter electrode and working electrodes. The counter electrode is a platinum plate, while the working electrode is a mediator based catalytic amperometric biosensor device developed by the coating of a carbon electrode with osmium-horseradish peroxidase which acts as H2O2 detection sensor. In the current study, generation and kinetic behavior of H2O2 in PSII membranes have been studied under light illumination. Electrochemical detection of H2O2 using the catalytic amperometric biosensor device is claimed to serve as a promising technique for detection of H2O2 in photosynthetic cells and subcellular structures including PSII or thylakoid membranes. It can also provide a precise information on qualitative determination of H2O2 and thus can be widely used in photosynthetic research. PMID:26528319

  20. Targeted genetic inactivation of the photosystem I reaction center in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, L B; Anderson, S L; McIntosh, L

    1991-01-01

    We describe the first complete segregation of a targeted inactivation of psaA encoding one of the P700-chlorophyll a apoproteins of photosystem (PS) I. A kanamycin resistance gene was used to interrupt the psaA gene in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Selection of a fully segregated mutant, ADK9, was performed under light-activated heterotrophic growth (LAHG) conditions; complete darkness except for 5 min of light every 24 h and 5 mM glucose. Under these conditions, wild-type cells showed a 4-fold decrease in chlorophyll (chl) per cell, primarily due to a decrease of PS I reaction centers. Evidence for the absence of PS I in ADK9 includes: the lack of EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) signal I, from P700+; undetectable P700-apoprotein; greatly reduced whole-chain photosynthesis rates; and greatly reduced chl per cell, resulting in a turquoise blue phenotype. The PS I peripheral proteins PSA-C and PSA-D were not detected in this mutant. ADK9 does assemble near wild-type levels of functional PS II per cell, evidenced by: EPR signal II from YD+; high rates of oxygen evolution with 2,6-dichloro-p-benzoquinone (DCBQ), an electron acceptor from PS II; and accumulation of D1, a PS II core polypeptide. The success of this transformation indicates that this cyanobacterium may be utilized for site-directed mutagenesis of the PS I core. Images PMID:1717264

  1. Effect of Antenna-Depletion in Photosystem II on Excitation Energy Transfer in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    van Oort, Bart; Alberts, Marieke; de Bianchi, Silvia; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto; Trinkunas, Gediminas; Croce, Roberta; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The role of individual photosynthetic antenna complexes of Photosystem II (PSII) both in membrane organization and excitation energy transfer have been investigated. Thylakoid membranes from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana, and three mutants lacking light-harvesting complexes CP24, CP26, or CP29, respectively, were studied by picosecond-fluorescence spectroscopy. By using different excitation/detection wavelength combinations it was possible for the first time, to our knowledge, to separate PSI and PSII fluorescence kinetics. The sub-100 ps component, previously ascribed entirely to PSI, turns out to be due partly to PSII. Moreover, the migration time of excitations from antenna to PSII reaction center (RC) was determined for the first time, to our knowledge, for thylakoid membranes. It is four times longer than for PSII-only membranes, due to additional antenna complexes, which are less well connected to the RC. The results in the absence of CP26 are very similar to those of wild-type, demonstrating that the PSII organization is not disturbed. However, the kinetics in the absence of CP29 and, especially, of CP24 show that a large fraction of the light-harvesting complexes becomes badly connected to the RCs. Interestingly, the excited-state lifetimes of the disconnected light-harvesting complexes seem to be substantially quenched. PMID:20197046

  2. Effect of antenna-depletion in Photosystem II on excitation energy transfer in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    van Oort, Bart; Alberts, Marieke; de Bianchi, Silvia; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto; Trinkunas, Gediminas; Croce, Roberta; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2010-03-01

    The role of individual photosynthetic antenna complexes of Photosystem II (PSII) both in membrane organization and excitation energy transfer have been investigated. Thylakoid membranes from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana, and three mutants lacking light-harvesting complexes CP24, CP26, or CP29, respectively, were studied by picosecond-fluorescence spectroscopy. By using different excitation/detection wavelength combinations it was possible for the first time, to our knowledge, to separate PSI and PSII fluorescence kinetics. The sub-100 ps component, previously ascribed entirely to PSI, turns out to be due partly to PSII. Moreover, the migration time of excitations from antenna to PSII reaction center (RC) was determined for the first time, to our knowledge, for thylakoid membranes. It is four times longer than for PSII-only membranes, due to additional antenna complexes, which are less well connected to the RC. The results in the absence of CP26 are very similar to those of wild-type, demonstrating that the PSII organization is not disturbed. However, the kinetics in the absence of CP29 and, especially, of CP24 show that a large fraction of the light-harvesting complexes becomes badly connected to the RCs. Interestingly, the excited-state lifetimes of the disconnected light-harvesting complexes seem to be substantially quenched. PMID:20197046

  3. The PsbW protein stabilizes the supramolecular organization of photosystem II in higher plants.

    PubMed

    García-Cerdán, José G; Kovács, Laszlo; Tóth, Tünde; Kereïche, Sami; Aseeva, Elena; Boekema, Egbert J; Mamedov, Fikret; Funk, Christiane; Schröder, Wolfgang P

    2011-02-01

    PsbW, a 6.1-kDa low-molecular-weight protein, is exclusive to photosynthetic eukaryotes, and associates with the photosystem II (PSII) protein complex. In vivo and in vitro comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type plants with T-DNA insertion knock-out mutants completely lacking the PsbW protein, or with antisense inhibition plants exhibiting decreased levels of PsbW, demonstrated that the loss of PsbW destabilizes the supramolecular organization of PSII. No PSII-LHCII supercomplexes could be detected or isolated in the absence of the PsbW protein. These changes in macro-organization were accompanied by a minor decrease in the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter F(V) /F(M) , a strongly decreased PSII core protein phosphorylation and a modification of the redox state of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool in dark-adapted leaves. In addition, the absence of PsbW protein led to faster redox changes in the PQ pool, i.e. transitions from state 1 to state 2, as measured by changes in stationary fluorescence (F(S) ) kinetics, compared with the wild type. Despite these dramatic effects on macromolecular structure, the transgenic plants exhibited no significant phenotype under normal growth conditions. We suggest that the PsbW protein is located close to the minor antenna of the PSII complex, and is important for the contact and stability between several PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. PMID:21265891

  4. Detection of hydrogen peroxide in Photosystem II (PSII) using catalytic amperometric biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ankush; Kumar, Aditya; Suzuki, Makoto; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Sugai, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Pospíšil, Pavel; Tada, Mika; Kasai, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is known to be generated in Photosystem II (PSII) via enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Detection of H2O2 by different spectroscopic techniques has been explored, however its sensitive detection has always been a challenge in photosynthetic research. During the recent past, fluorescence probes such as Amplex Red (AR) has been used but is known to either lack specificity or limitation with respect to the minimum detection limit of H2O2. We have employed an electrochemical biosensor for real time monitoring of H2O2 generation at the level of sub-cellular organelles. The electrochemical biosensor comprises of counter electrode and working electrodes. The counter electrode is a platinum plate, while the working electrode is a mediator based catalytic amperometric biosensor device developed by the coating of a carbon electrode with osmium-horseradish peroxidase which acts as H2O2 detection sensor. In the current study, generation and kinetic behavior of H2O2 in PSII membranes have been studied under light illumination. Electrochemical detection of H2O2 using the catalytic amperometric biosensor device is claimed to serve as a promising technique for detection of H2O2 in photosynthetic cells and subcellular structures including PSII or thylakoid membranes. It can also provide a precise information on qualitative determination of H2O2 and thus can be widely used in photosynthetic research. PMID:26528319

  5. When Lack of Evidence Is Evidence of Lack.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In their recent article "A Gentle Ethical Defence of Homeopathy," Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff use the claim that "lack of evidence is not equivalent to evidence of lack" as a component of their ethical defence of homeopathy. In response, this article argues that they cannot use this claim to shore up their ethical arguments. This is because it is false. PMID:26631232

  6. Effects of light on gravitaxis and velocity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Sineshchekov, O; Lebert, M; Hader, D P

    2000-09-01

    The effects of light on gravitaxis and velocity in the bi-flagellated green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were investigated using a real time automatic tracking system. Three distinct light effects on gravitaxis and velocity with parallel kinetics were found. Photosynthetically active continuous red light reversibly enhances the swimming velocity and increases or decreases the precision of gravitaxis, depending on its initial level. Blue light flashes induce fast transient increases in velocity immediately after the photophobic response, and transiently decrease or even reverse negative gravitaxis. The calcium dependence of this response, its fluence-response curve and its spectral characteristics strongly suggest the participation of chlamy-rhodopsin in this effect. The third response, a prolonged activation of velocity and gravitaxis, is also induced by blue light flashes, which can be observed even in calcium-free medium. PMID:12090268

  7. Antiphase Synchronization in a Flagellar-Dominance Mutant of Chlamydomonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos C.; Wan, Kirsty Y.; Polin, Marco; Tuval, Idan; Pesci, Adriana I.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-10-01

    Groups of beating flagella or cilia often synchronize so that neighboring filaments have identical frequencies and phases. A prime example is provided by the unicellular biflagellate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which typically displays synchronous in-phase beating in a low-Reynolds number version of breaststroke swimming. We report the discovery that ptx1, a flagellar-dominance mutant of C. reinhardtii, can exhibit synchronization in precise antiphase, as in the freestyle swimming stroke. High-speed imaging shows that ptx1 flagella switch stochastically between in-phase and antiphase states, and that the latter has a distinct waveform and significantly higher frequency, both of which are strikingly similar to those found during phase slips that stochastically interrupt in-phase beating of the wild-type. Possible mechanisms underlying these observations are discussed.

  8. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids from Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Gille, Andrea; Trautmann, Andreas; Posten, Clemens; Briviba, Karlis

    2015-08-01

    Microalgae can contribute to a balanced diet because of their composition. Beside numerous essential nutrients, carotenoids are in the focus for food applications. The bioavailability of carotenoids from photoautotrophic-cultivated Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) was compared. An in vitro digestion model was used to investigate carotenoid bioaccessibility. Furthermore, the effect of sonication on bioaccessibility was assessed. Lutein was the main carotenoid in both species. C. reinhardtii showed higher amounts of lutein and β-carotene than C. vulgaris. In contrast to C. reinhardtii, no β-carotene and only 7% of lutein were bioaccessible in nonsonicated C. vulgaris. Sonication increased the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from C. vulgaris to a level comparable with C. reinhardtii (β-carotene: ≥ 10%; lutein: ≥ 15%). Thus, C. reinhardtii represents a good carotenoid source for potential use in foods without processing, while the application of processing methods, like sonication, is necessary for C. vulgaris. PMID:27146695

  9. Wiring photosystem I for direct solar hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Lubner, Carolyn E; Grimme, Rebecca; Bryant, Donald A; Golbeck, John H

    2010-01-26

    The generation of H(2) by the use of solar energy is a promising way to supply humankind's energy needs while simultaneously mitigating environmental concerns that arise due to climate change. The challenge is to find a way to connect a photochemical module that harnesses the sun's energy to a catalytic module that generates H(2) with high quantum yields and rates. In this review, we describe a technology that employs a "molecular wire" to connect a terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster of Photosystem I directly to a catalyst, which can be either a Pt nanoparticle or the distal [4Fe-4S] cluster of an [FeFe]- or [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzyme. The keys to connecting these two moieties are surface-located cysteine residues, which serve as ligands to Fe-S clusters and which can be changed through site-specific mutagenesis to glycine residues, and the use of a molecular wire terminated in sulfhydryl groups to connect the two modules. The sulfhydryl groups at the end of the molecular wire form a direct chemical linkage to a suitable catalyst or can chemically rescue a [4Fe-4S] cluster, thereby generating a strong coordination bond. Specifically, the molecular wire can connect the F(B) iron-sulfur cluster of Photosystem I either to a Pt nanoparticle or, by using the same type of genetic modification, to the differentiated iron atom of the distal [4Fe-4S].(Cys)(3)(Gly) cluster of hydrogenase. When electrons are supplied by a sacrificial donor, this technology forms the cathode of a photochemical half-cell that evolves H(2) when illuminated. If such a device were connected to the anode of a photochemical half-cell that oxidizes water, an in vitro solar energy converter could be realized that generates only O(2) and H(2) in the light. A similar methodology can be used to connect Photosystem I to other redox proteins that have surface-located [4Fe-4S] clusters. The controlled light-driven production of strong reductants by such systems can be used to produce other biofuels or to provide

  10. Glucose respiration in the intact chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Changguo Chen; Gibbs, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Chloroplastic respiration was monitored by measuring {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from {sup 14}C glucose in the darkened Chlamydomonas reinhardtii F-60 chloroplast, The patterns of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from labeled glucose in the absence and presence of the inhibitors iodoacetamide, glycolate-2-phosphate, and phosphoenolypyruvate were those expected from the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle and glycolysis. The K{sub m} for glucose was 56 micromolar and for MgATP was 200 micromolar. Release of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was inhibited by phloretin and inorganic phosphate. Comparing the inhibition of CO{sub 2} evolution generated by pH 7.5 with respect to pH 8.2 (optimum) in chloroplasts given C-1, C-2, and C-6 labeled glucose indicated that a suboptimum pH affects the recycling of the pentose phosphate intermediates to a greater extent than CO{sub 2} evolution from C-1 of glucose. Respiratory inhibition by pH 7.5 in the darkened chloroplast was alleviated by NH{sub 4}Cl and KCl (stromal alkalating agents), iodoacetamide (an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), or phosphoenolypyruvate (an inhibitor of phosphofructokinase). It is concluded that the site which primarily mediates respiration in the darkened Chlamydomonas chloroplast is the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase/phosphofructokinase junction. The respiratory pathways described here can account for the total oxidation of a hexose to Co{sub 2} and for interactions between carbohydrate metabolism and the oxyhydrogen reaction in algal cells adapted to a hydrogen metabolism.

  11. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie TDT; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach. Significance Statement Chlamydomonas reinhardtii offers potential as a host for the production of high value compounds for industrial biotechnology. Synthetic biology provides a mechanism to generate generic, well characterised tools for application in the rational genetic manipulation of organisms: if synthetic biology principles were adopted for manipulation of C. reinhardtii, development of this microalga as an industrial biotechnology platform would be expedited. PMID:25641561

  12. O2 Uptake in the Light in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Peltier, Gilles; Thibault, Pierre

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the process responsible for the stationary O2 uptake occurring in the light under saturating CO2 concentration in Chlamydomonas reinhardii has been investigated. For this purpose, a mass spectrometer with a membrane inlet system was used to measure O2 uptake and evolution in the algal suspension. First, we observed that the O2 uptake rate was constant (about 0.5 micromoles of O2 per milligram chlorophyll per minute) during a light to dark transition and was not affected by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. Salicylhydroxamic acid had no effect on O2 uptake in the dark or in the light, but was found to have the same inhibitory effect either in the dark or in the light when added to cyanide-treated algae. The stimulation of the O2 uptake rate due to the uncoupling effect of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone was about the same in the dark or in the light. From these results, we conclude that mitochondrial respiration is maintained during illumination and therefore is not inhibited by high ATP levels. Another conclusion is that in conditions where photorespiration is absent, no other light-dependent O2 uptake process occurs. If Mehler reactions are involved, in Chlamydomonas, under conditions where both photosynthetic carbon oxidation and reduction cycles cannot operate (as in cyanide-treated algae), their occurrence in photosynthesizing algae either under saturating CO2 concentration or at the CO2 compensation point appears very unlikely. The comparison with the situation previously reported in Scenedesmus (R. J. Radmer and B. Kok 1976 Plant Physiol 58: 336-340) suggests that different O2 uptake processes might be present in these two algal species. PMID:16664375

  13. A High-Throughput Fatty Acid Profiling Screen Reveals Novel Variations in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Related Algae

    PubMed Central

    Pflaster, Erin L.; Schwabe, Michael J.; Becker, Joyanne; Wilkinson, Melissa S.; Parmer, Ashley; Clemente, Thomas E.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by gas chromatography (GC) is a common technique for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of acyl lipids. Methods for FAME preparation are typically time-consuming and labor-intensive and require multiple transfers of reagents and products between reaction tubes and autosampler vials. In order to increase throughput and lower the time and materials costs required for FAME preparation prior to GC analysis, we have developed a method in which 10-to-20-mg samples of microbial biomass are transferred to standard GC autosampler vials, transesterified using an emulsion of methanolic trimethylsulfonium hydroxide and hexane, and analyzed directly by GC without further sample handling. This method gives results that are essentially identical to those obtained by the more labor- and material-intensive FAME preparation methods, such as transmethylation with methanolic HCl. We applied this method to the screening of laboratory and environmental isolates of the green alga Chlamydomonas for variations in fatty acid composition. This screening method facilitated two novel discoveries. First, we identified a common laboratory strain of C. reinhardtii, CC-620, completely lacking all ω-3 fatty acids normally found in this organism and showed that this strain contains an inactivating mutation in the CrFAD7 gene, encoding the sole ω-3 desaturase activity in this organism. Second, we showed that some species of Chlamydomonas make Δ6-unsaturated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) rather than the Δ5 species normally made by the previously characterized laboratory strains of Chlamydomonas, suggesting that there is species-specific variation in the regiospecificity and substrate selectivity of front-end desaturases in this algal genus. PMID:25239975

  14. Inactivation of the clpC1 gene encoding a chloroplast Hsp100 molecular chaperone causes growth retardation, leaf chlorosis, lower photosynthetic activity, and a specific reduction in photosystem content.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Lars L E; MacDonald, Tara M; Sutinen, Sirkka; Clarke, Adrian K

    2004-12-01

    ClpC is a molecular chaperone of the Hsp100 family. In higher plants there are two chloroplast-localized paralogs (ClpC1 and ClpC2) that are approximately 93% similar in primary sequence. In this study, we have characterized two independent Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) clpC1 T-DNA insertion mutants lacking on average 65% of total ClpC content. Both mutants display a retarded-growth phenotype, leaves with a homogenous chlorotic appearance throughout all developmental stages, and more perpendicular secondary influorescences. Photosynthetic performance was also impaired in both knockout lines, with relatively fewer photosystem I and photosystem II complexes, but no changes in ATPase and Rubisco content. However, despite the specific drop in photosystem I and photosystem II content, no changes in leaf cell anatomy or chloroplast ultrastructure were observed in the mutants compared to the wild type. Previously proposed functions for envelope-associated ClpC in chloroplast protein import and degradation of mistargeted precursors were examined and shown not to be significantly impaired in the clpC1 mutants. In the stroma, where the majority of ClpC protein is localized, marked increases of all ClpP paralogs were observed in the clpC1 mutants but less variation for the ClpR paralogs and a corresponding decrease in the other chloroplast-localized Hsp100 protein, ClpD. Increased amounts of other stromal molecular chaperones (Cpn60, Hsp70, and Hsp90) and several RNA-binding proteins were also observed. Our data suggest that overall ClpC as a stromal molecular chaperone plays a vital role in chloroplast function and leaf development and is likely involved in photosystem biogenesis. PMID:15563614

  15. Primary charge separation in isolated photosystem II reaction centers

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, M.; Toon, S. ); Govindjee ); O'Neil, M.P.; Wasielewski, M.R. )

    1992-08-24

    Primary charge-separation in isolated bacterial reaction center (RC) complex occurs in 2.8 ps at room temperature and 0.7--1.2 ps at 10 K. Because of similarities between the bacterial and photosystem II (PSII) RCs, it has been of considerable interest to obtain analogous charge-separation rates in the higher plant system. Our previous femtosecond transient absorption studies used PSII RC material stabilized with PEG or by exchanging dodecyl maltoside (DM) for Triton in the isolation procedure. These materials gave charge-separation 1/e times of 3.0 [plus minus] 0.6 ps at 4[degree]C and 1.4[plus minus] 0.2 ps at 15 K based on the risetime of transient absorption kinetics at 820 nm. These values were thought to represent the time required for formation of the P680[sup +]-Pheo[sup [minus

  16. Nano-sized manganese-calcium cluster in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, M M; Ghobadi, M Z; Haghighi, B; Eaton-Rye, J J; Tomo, T; Shen, J-R; Allakhverdiev, S I

    2014-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, algae, and plants are the manufacturers that release O2 via water oxidation during photosynthesis. Since fossil resources are running out, researchers are now actively trying to use the natural catalytic center of water oxidation found in the photosystem II (PS II) reaction center of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms to synthesize a biomimetic supercatalyst for water oxidation. Success in this area of research will transcend the current bottleneck for the development of energy-conversion schemes based on sunlight. In this review, we go over the structure and function of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) found in Nature by focusing on the recent advances made by the international research community dedicated to achieve the goal of artificial water splitting based on the WOC of PS II. PMID:24910206

  17. Isolation of Plant Photosystem II Complexes by Fractional Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Haniewicz, Patrycja; Floris, Davide; Farci, Domenica; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Loi, Maria C; Büchel, Claudia; Bochtler, Matthias; Piano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) occurs in different forms and supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes. Using a transplastomic strain of Nicotiana tabacum histidine tagged on the subunit PsbE, we have previously shown that a mild extraction protocol with β-dodecylmaltoside enriches PSII characteristic of lamellae and grana margins. Here, we characterize residual granal PSII that is not extracted by this first solubilization step. Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers, and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. Our findings represent an alternative demonstration of different PSII populations in thylakoid membranes, and they make it possible to prepare PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in high yield. PMID:26697050

  18. Isolation of Plant Photosystem II Complexes by Fractional Solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Haniewicz, Patrycja; Floris, Davide; Farci, Domenica; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Loi, Maria C.; Büchel, Claudia; Bochtler, Matthias; Piano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) occurs in different forms and supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes. Using a transplastomic strain of Nicotiana tabacum histidine tagged on the subunit PsbE, we have previously shown that a mild extraction protocol with β-dodecylmaltoside enriches PSII characteristic of lamellae and grana margins. Here, we characterize residual granal PSII that is not extracted by this first solubilization step. Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers, and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. Our findings represent an alternative demonstration of different PSII populations in thylakoid membranes, and they make it possible to prepare PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in high yield. PMID:26697050

  19. Manganese Deficiency in Plants: The Impact on Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability. PMID:27150384

  20. Polarization-dependent single-molecule spectroscopy on photosystem I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skandary, S.; Konrad, A.; Hussels, M.; Meixner, A. J.; Brecht, M.

    2015-08-01

    Single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS) at low temperature was used to study the spectral properties, heterogeneities and spectral dynamics of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) molecules responsible for the fluorescence emission of photosystem I (PS I). The fluorescence spectra of single PS I complexes are dominated by several red-shifted Chl a molecules categorized into red pools called C708 and C719. By polarization dependent measurements we demonstrate spectrally separate emissions corresponding to C708 and C719 in single PS I monomers and trimers. Moreover, we compared the results of SMS polarization dependent between monomeric and trimeric PS I complexes and give an estimation for the orientation between these red pools. As a consequence, we get new insight into the energy transfer towards and between the red Chl a molecules in PS I complexes.

  1. Mechanism of proton-coupled quinone reduction in Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Keisuke; Rutherford, A. William; Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II uses light to drive water oxidation and plastoquinone (PQ) reduction. PQ reduction involves two PQ cofactors, QA and QB, working in series. QA is a one-electron carrier, whereas QB undergoes sequential reduction and protonation to form QBH2. QBH2 exchanges with PQ from the pool in the membrane. Based on the atomic coordinates of the Photosystem II crystal structure, we analyzed the proton transfer (PT) energetics adopting a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach. The potential-energy profile suggests that the initial PT to QB•– occurs from the protonated, D1-His252 to QB•– via D1-Ser264. The second PT is likely to occur from D1-His215 to QBH− via an H-bond with an energy profile with a single well, resulting in the formation of QBH2 and the D1-His215 anion. The pathway for reprotonation of D1-His215– may involve bicarbonate, D1-Tyr246 and water in the QB site. Formate ligation to Fe2+ did not significantly affect the protonation of reduced QB, suggesting that formate inhibits QBH2 release rather than its formation. The presence of carbonate rather than bicarbonate seems unlikely because the calculations showed that this greatly perturbed the potential of the nonheme iron, stabilizing the Fe3+ state in the presence of QB•–, a situation not encountered experimentally. H-bonding from D1-Tyr246 and D2-Tyr244 to the bicarbonate ligand of the nonheme iron contributes to the stability of the semiquinones. A detailed mechanistic model for QB reduction is presented. PMID:23277574

  2. Mechanism of proton-coupled quinone reduction in Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keisuke; Rutherford, A William; Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-15

    Photosystem II uses light to drive water oxidation and plastoquinone (PQ) reduction. PQ reduction involves two PQ cofactors, Q(A) and Q(B), working in series. Q(A) is a one-electron carrier, whereas Q(B) undergoes sequential reduction and protonation to form Q(B)H(2). Q(B)H(2) exchanges with PQ from the pool in the membrane. Based on the atomic coordinates of the Photosystem II crystal structure, we analyzed the proton transfer (PT) energetics adopting a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach. The potential-energy profile suggests that the initial PT to Q(B)(•-) occurs from the protonated, D1-His252 to Q(B)(•)(-) via D1-Ser264. The second PT is likely to occur from D1-His215 to Q(B)H(-) via an H-bond with an energy profile with a single well, resulting in the formation of Q(B)H(2) and the D1-His215 anion. The pathway for reprotonation of D1-His215(-) may involve bicarbonate, D1-Tyr246 and water in the Q(B) site. Formate ligation to Fe(2+) did not significantly affect the protonation of reduced Q(B), suggesting that formate inhibits Q(B)H(2) release rather than its formation. The presence of carbonate rather than bicarbonate seems unlikely because the calculations showed that this greatly perturbed the potential of the nonheme iron, stabilizing the Fe(3+) state in the presence of Q(B)(•-), a situation not encountered experimentally. H-bonding from D1-Tyr246 and D2-Tyr244 to the bicarbonate ligand of the nonheme iron contributes to the stability of the semiquinones. A detailed mechanistic model for Q(B) reduction is presented. PMID:23277574

  3. Long-range energy transport in photosystem II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, Jan J. J.; Bennett, Doran I. G.; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2016-06-01

    We simulate the long-range inter-complex electronic energy transfer in photosystem II - from the antenna complex, via a core complex, to the reaction center - using a non-Markovian (ZOFE) quantum master equation description that allows the electronic coherence involved in the energy transfer to be explicitly included at all length scales. This allows us to identify all locations where coherence is manifested and to further identify the pathways of the energy transfer in the full network of coupled chromophores using a description based on excitation probability currents. We investigate how the energy transfer depends on the initial excitation - localized, coherent initial excitation versus delocalized, incoherent initial excitation - and find that the overall energy transfer is remarkably robust with respect to such strong variations of the initial condition. To explore the importance of vibrationally enhanced transfer and to address the question of optimization in the system parameters, we systematically vary the strength of the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational degrees of freedom. We find that the natural parameters lie in a (broad) region that enables optimal transfer efficiency and that the overall long-range energy transfer on a ns time scale appears to be very robust with respect to variations in the vibronic coupling of up to an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, vibrationally enhanced transfer appears to be crucial to obtain a high transfer efficiency, with the latter falling sharply for couplings outside the optimal range. Comparison of our full quantum simulations to results obtained with a "classical" rate equation based on a modified-Redfield/generalized-Förster description previously used to simulate energy transfer dynamics in the entire photosystem II complex shows good agreement for the overall time scales of excitation energy transport.

  4. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    PubMed

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m '), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm ) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows of

  5. Differential Roles of Carotenes and Xanthophylls in Photosystem I Photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bressan, Mauro; Carbonera, Donatella; Agostini, Alessandro; Dall'Osto, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Carotenes and their oxygenated derivatives, xanthophylls, are structural elements of the photosynthetic apparatus and contribute to increasing both the light-harvesting and photoprotective capacity of the photosystems. β-Carotene is present in both the core complexes and light-harvesting system (LHCI) of Photosystem (PS) I, while xanthophylls lutein and violaxanthin bind exclusively to its antenna moiety; another xanthophyll, zeaxanthin, which protects chloroplasts against photooxidative damage, binds to the LHCI complexes under conditions of excess light. We functionally dissected various components of the xanthophyll- and carotene-dependent photoprotection mechanism of PSI by analyzing two Arabidopsis mutants: szl1 plants, with a carotene content lower than that of the wild type, and npq1, with suppressed zeaxanthin formation. When exposed to excess light, the szl1 genotype displayed PSI photoinhibition stronger than that of wild-type plants, while removing zeaxanthin had no such effect. The PSI-LHCI complex purified from szl1 was more photosensitive than the corresponding wild-type and npq1 complexes, as is evident from its faster photobleaching and increased rate of singlet oxygen release, suggesting that β-carotene is crucial in controlling chlorophyll triplet formation. Accordingly, fluorescence-detected magnetic resonance analysis showed an increase in the amplitude of signals assigned to chlorophyll triplets in β-carotene-depleted complexes. When PSI was fractioned into its functional moieties, it was revealed that the boost in the rate of singlet oxygen release caused by β-carotene depletion was greater in LHCI than in the core complex. We conclude that PSI-LHCI complex-bound β-carotene elicits a protective response, consisting of a reduction in the yield of harmful triplet excited states, while accumulation of zeaxanthin plays a minor role in restoring phototolerance. PMID:27290879

  6. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/Fm′), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows of

  7. Cytochrome f from the Antarctic psychrophile, Chlamydomonas raudensis UWO 241: structure, sequence, and complementation in the mesophile, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Gudynaite-Savitch, Loreta; Gretes, Michael; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Savitch, Leonid V; Simmonds, John; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Hüner, Norman P A

    2006-04-01

    Although cytochrome f from the Antarctic psychrophile, Chlamydomonas raudensis UWO 241, exhibits a lower apparent molecular mass (34 kD) than that of the mesophile C. reinhardtii (41 kD) based on SDS-PAGE, both proteins are comparable in calculated molecular mass and show 79% identity in amino acid sequence. The difference in apparent molecular mass was maintained after expression of petA from both Chlamydomonas species in either E. coli or a C. reinhardtii DeltapetA mutant and after substitution of a unique third cysteine-292 to phenylalanine in the psychrophilic cytochrome f. Moreover, the heme of the psychrophilic form of cytochrome f was less stable upon heating than that of the mesophile. In contrast to C. raudensis, a C. reinhardtii DeltapetA mutant transformed with petA from C. raudensis exhibited the ability to undergo state transitions and a capacity for intersystem electron transport comparable to that of C. reinhardtii wild type. However, the C. reinhardtii petA transformants accumulated lower levels of cytochrome b ( 6 ) /f complexes and exhibited lower light saturated rates of O(2) evolution than C. reinhardtii wild type. We show that the presence of an altered form of cytochrome f in C. raudensis does not account for its inability to undergo state transitions or its impaired capacity for intersystem electron transport as previously suggested. A combined survey of the apparent molecular mass, thermal stability and amino acid sequences of cytochrome f from a broad range of mesophilic species shows unequivocally that the observed differences in cytochrome f structure are not related to psychrophilly. Thus, caution must be exercised in relating differences in amino acid sequence and thermal stability to adaptation to cold environments. PMID:16425016

  8. Structure and functional role of supercomplexes of IsiA and Photosystem I in cyanobacterial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kouril, Roman; Arteni, Ana A; Lax, Julia; Yeremenko, Nataliya; D'Haene, Sandrine; Rögner, Matthias; Matthijs, Hans C P; Dekker, Jan P; Boekema, Egbert J

    2005-06-13

    Cyanobacteria express large quantities of the iron stress-inducible protein IsiA under iron deficiency. IsiA can assemble into numerous types of single or double rings surrounding Photosystem I. These supercomplexes are functional in light-harvesting, empty IsiA rings are effective energy dissipaters. Electron microscopy studies of these supercomplexes show that Photosystem I trimers bind 18 IsiA copies in a single ring, whereas monomers may bind up to 35 copies in two rings. Work on mutants indicates that the PsaF/J and PsaL subunits facilitate the formation of closed rings around Photosystem I monomers but are not obligatory components in the formation of Photosystem I-IsiA supercomplexes. PMID:15943969

  9. Assembly of photo-bioelectrochemical cells using photosystem I-functionalized electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efrati, Ariel; Lu, Chun-Hua; Michaeli, Dorit; Nechushtai, Rachel; Alsaoub, Sabine; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Willner, Itamar

    2016-02-01

    The design of photo-bioelectrochemical cells based on native photosynthetic reaction centres is attracting substantial recent interest as a means for the conversion of solar light energy into electrical power. In the natural photosynthetic apparatus, the photosynthetic reaction centres are coupled to biocatalytic transformations leading to CO2 fixation and O2 evolution. Although significant progress in the integration of native photosystems with electrodes for light-to-electrical energy conversion has been achieved, the conjugation of the photosystems to enzymes to yield photo-bioelectrocatalytic solar cells remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate the assembly of integrated photosystem I/glucose oxidase or glucose dehydrogenase photo-bioelectrochemical electrodes. We highlight the photonic wiring of the biocatalysts by means of photosystem I using glucose as fuel. Our results provide a general approach to assemble photo-bioelectrochemical solar cells with wide implications for solar energy conversion, bioelectrocatalysis and sensing.

  10. Use of chlorophyll a fluorescence to detect the effect of microcystins on photosynthesis and photosystem II energy fluxes of green algae.

    PubMed

    Perron, Marie-Claude; Qiu, Baosheng; Boucher, Nathalie; Bellemare, François; Juneau, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of cyanobacteria bloom occurs widely in lakes, reservoirs, ponds and slow flowing rivers. Those blooms can have important repercussions, at once on recreational and commercial activities but also on the health of animals and human beings. Indeed, many species are known to produce toxins which are released in water mainly at cellular death. The cyanotoxin most frequently encountered is the microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin which counts more than 70 variants. The use of fast tests for the detection of this toxin is thus a necessity for the protection of the ecosystems and the human health. A promising method for their detection is a bioassay based on the chlorophyll a fluorescence of algae. Many studies have shown that algae are sensible to diverse pollutants, but were almost never used for cyanotoxins. Therefore, our goals were to evaluate the effect of microcystin on the fluorescence of different species of algae and how it can affect the flow of energy through photosystem II. To reach these objectives, we exposed four green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC5, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC125, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata CPCC37 and Chlorella vulgaris CPCC111) to microcystin standards (variants MC-LF, LR, RR, YR) and to microcystin extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa (CPCC299), which is known to produce mainly MC-LR. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured by PEA (Plant Efficiency Analyzer) and LuminoTox. The results of our experiment showed that microcystins affect the photosynthetic efficiency and the flow of energy through photosystem II from 0.01 μg/mL, within only 15 min. From exposure to standard of microcystin, we showed that MC-LF was the most potent variant, followed by MC-YR, LR and RR. Moreover, green algae used in this study demonstrated different sensitivity to MCs, S. obliquus being the more sensitive. We finally demonstrated that LuminoTox was more sensitive to MCs than parameters measured with PEA, although the latter brings

  11. Assembly of the Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll Antenna in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Requires Expression of the TLA2-CpFTSY Gene1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Henning; García-Cerdán, Jose Gines; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    The truncated light-harvesting antenna2 (tla2) mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii showed a lighter-green phenotype, had a lower chlorophyll (Chl) per-cell content, and higher Chl a/b ratio than corresponding wild-type strains. Physiological analyses revealed a higher intensity for the saturation of photosynthesis and greater Pmax values in the tla2 mutant than in the wild type. Biochemical analyses showed that the tla2 strain was deficient in the Chl a-b light-harvesting complex, and had a Chl antenna size of the photosystems that was only about 65% of that in the wild type. Molecular and genetic analyses showed a single plasmid insertion in the tla2 strain, causing a chromosomal DNA rearrangement and deletion/disruption of five nuclear genes. The TLA2 gene, causing the tla2 phenotype, was cloned by mapping the insertion site and upon complementation with each of the genes that were deleted. Successful complementation was achieved with the C. reinhardtii TLA2-CpFTSY gene, whose occurrence and function in green microalgae has not hitherto been investigated. Functional analysis showed that the nuclear-encoded and chloroplast-localized CrCpFTSY protein specifically operates in the assembly of the peripheral components of the Chl a-b light-harvesting antenna. In higher plants, a cpftsy null mutation inhibits assembly of both the light-harvesting complex and photosystem complexes, thus resulting in a seedling-lethal phenotype. The work shows that cpftsy deletion in green algae, but not in higher plants, can be employed to generate tla mutants. The latter exhibit improved solar energy conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity under mass culture and bright sunlight conditions. PMID:22114096

  12. Plastidial Expression of Type II NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase Increases the Reducing State of Plastoquinones and Hydrogen Photoproduction Rate by the Indirect Pathway in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, Anthony; Dang, Kieu-Van; Beyly, Audrey; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Biological conversion of solar energy into hydrogen is naturally realized by some microalgae species due to a coupling between the photosynthetic electron transport chain and a plastidial hydrogenase. While promising for the production of clean and sustainable hydrogen, this process requires improvement to be economically viable. Two pathways, called direct and indirect photoproduction, lead to sustained hydrogen production in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures. The indirect pathway allows an efficient time-based separation of O2 and H2 production, thus overcoming the O2 sensitivity of the hydrogenase, but its activity is low. With the aim of identifying the limiting step of hydrogen production, we succeeded in overexpressing the plastidial type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDA2). We report that transplastomic strains overexpressing NDA2 show an increased activity of nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones (PQs). While hydrogen production by the direct pathway, involving the linear electron flow from photosystem II to photosystem I, was not affected by NDA2 overexpression, the rate of hydrogen production by the indirect pathway was increased in conditions, such as nutrient limitation, where soluble electron donors are not limiting. An increased intracellular starch was observed in response to nutrient deprivation in strains overexpressing NDA2. It is concluded that activity of the indirect pathway is limited by the nonphotochemical reduction of PQs, either by the pool size of soluble electron donors or by the PQ-reducing activity of NDA2 in nutrient-limited conditions. We discuss these data in relation to limitations and biotechnological improvement of hydrogen photoproduction in microalgae. PMID:24820024

  13. Proton gradient regulation 5-mediated cyclic electron flow under ATP- or redox-limited conditions: a study of ΔATpase pgr5 and ΔrbcL pgr5 mutants in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Xenie; Steinbeck, Janina; Dent, Rachel M; Takahashi, Hiroko; Richaud, Pierre; Ozawa, Shin-Ichiro; Houille-Vernes, Laura; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Rappaport, Fabrice; Grossman, Arthur R; Niyogi, Krishna K; Hippler, Michael; Alric, Jean

    2014-05-01

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii proton gradient regulation5 (Crpgr5) mutant shows phenotypic and functional traits similar to mutants in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog, Atpgr5, providing strong evidence for conservation of PGR5-mediated cyclic electron flow (CEF). Comparing the Crpgr5 mutant with the wild type, we discriminate two pathways for CEF and determine their maximum electron flow rates. The PGR5/proton gradient regulation-like1 (PGRL1) ferredoxin (Fd) pathway, involved in recycling excess reductant to increase ATP synthesis, may be controlled by extreme photosystem I acceptor side limitation or ATP depletion. Here, we show that PGR5/PGRL1-Fd CEF functions in accordance with an ATP/redox control model. In the absence of Rubisco and PGR5, a sustained electron flow is maintained with molecular oxygen instead of carbon dioxide serving as the terminal electron acceptor. When photosynthetic control is decreased, compensatory alternative pathways can take the full load of linear electron flow. In the case of the ATP synthase pgr5 double mutant, a decrease in photosensitivity is observed compared with the single ATPase-less mutant that we assign to a decreased proton motive force. Altogether, our results suggest that PGR5/PGRL1-Fd CEF is most required under conditions when Fd becomes overreduced and photosystem I is subjected to photoinhibition. CEF is not a valve; it only recycles electrons, but in doing so, it generates a proton motive force that controls the rate of photosynthesis. The conditions where the PGR5 pathway is most required may vary in photosynthetic organisms like C. reinhardtii from anoxia to high light to limitations imposed at the level of carbon dioxide fixation. PMID:24623849

  14. Characterization of a purified photosystem II-phycobilisome particle preparation from Porphyridium cruentum

    SciTech Connect

    Chereskin, B.M.; Clement-Metral, J.D.; Gantt, E.

    1985-01-01

    Detergent preparations isolated from thylakoids of the red alga Porphyridium cruentum, in a sucrose, phosphate, citrate, magnesium chloride medium consist of phycobilisomes and possess high rates of photosystem II activity. Characterization of these particles shows that the O/sub 2/-evolving activity is stable for several hours and the pH optimum is about 6.5 to 7.2. Response of the system to light, electron donors and acceptors, and inhibitors verify that the observed activity, measured both as O/sub 2/ evolution and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reduction, is due to photosystem II. Furthermore, photosystem II is functionally coupled to the phycobilisome in this preparation since green light, absorbed by phycobilisomes of P. cruentum, is effective in promoting both O/sub 2/ evolution and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reduction. Photosystem II activity declines when light with wavelengths shorter than 665 nm is removed. Both 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and atrazine inhibit photosystem II activity in this preparation, indicating that the herbicide binding site is a component of the photosystem II-phycobilisome particle. 24 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Evidence that cytochrome b{sub 559} protects photosystem II against photoinhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, M.; Samson, G.; Whitmarsh, J.

    1995-08-29

    Light that exceeds the photosynthetic capacity of a plant can impair the ability of photosystem II to oxidize water. The light-induced inhibition is initiated by inopportune electron transport reactions that create damaging redox states. There is evidence that secondary electron transport pathways within the photosystem II reaction center can protect against potentially damaging redox states. Experiments using thylakoid membranes poised at different ambient redox potentials demonstrate that light-induced damage to photosystem II can be controlled by a redox component within the reaction center. The rate of photoinhibition is slow when the redox component is oxidized, but increases by more than 10-fold when the redox. component is reduced. Here, using spinach thylakoid membranes, we provide evidence that the redox component is cytochrome b{sub 559}, an intrinsic heme protein of the photosystem II reaction center. The results support a model in which the low-potential (LP) form of cytochrome b{sub 559} protects photosystem II by deactivating a rarely formed, but hazardous redox state of photosystem II, namely, P680/Pheo{sup -}/Q{sub A}{sup -}. Cytochrome b{sub 559}LP is proposed to deactivate this potentially lethal redox state by accepting electrons from reduced pheophytin.

  16. Effects of Light, Food Availability and Temperature Stress on the Function of Photosystem II and Photosystem I of Coral Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Campbell, Douglas A.; Beraud, Eric; DeZeeuw, Katrina; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background Reef corals are heterotrophic coelenterates that achieve high productivity through their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. Excessive seawater temperature destabilises this symbiosis and causes corals to “bleach,” lowering their photosynthetic capacity. Bleaching poses a serious threat to the persistence of coral reefs on a global scale. Despite expanding research on the causes of bleaching, the mechanisms remain a subject of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings This study determined how light and food availability modulate the effects of temperature stress on photosynthesis in two reef coral species. We quantified the activities of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and whole chain electron transport under combinations of normal and stressful growth temperatures, moderate and high light levels and the presence or absence of feeding of the coral hosts. Our results show that PS1 function is comparatively robust against temperature stress in both species, whereas PS2 and whole chain electron transport are susceptible to temperature stress. In the symbiotic dinoflagellates of Stylophora pistillata the contents of chlorophyll and major photosynthetic complexes were primarily affected by food availability. In Turbinaria reniformis growth temperature was the dominant influence on the contents of the photosynthetic complexes. In both species feeding the host significantly protected photosynthetic function from high temperature stress. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the photoinhibition model of coral bleaching and demonstrate that PS1 is not a major site for thermal damage during bleaching events. Feeding mitigates bleaching in two scleractinian corals, so that reef responses to temperature stresses will likely be influenced by the coinciding availabilities of prey for the host. PMID:22253915

  17. Interactions between marine facultative epiphyte Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyta) and ceramiaceaen algae (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Klochkova, Tatyana A; Cho, Ga Youn; Boo, Sung Min; Chung, Ki Wha; Kim, Song Ja; Kim, Gwang Hoon

    2008-07-01

    Previously unrecorded marine Chlamydomonas that grew epiphytic on ceramiaceaen algae was collected from the western coast of Korea and isolated into a unialgal culture. The isolate was subjected to 18S rDNA phylogenetic analysis as well as ultrastructure and life cycle studies. It had an affinity with the marine Chlamydomonas species and was less related to freshwater/terrestrial representatives of this genus. It had flagella shorter than the cell body two-layered cell wall with striated outer surface and abundant mucilaginous material beneath the innermost layer and no contractile vacuoles. This alga grew faster in mixed cultures with ceramiaceaen algae rather than in any tested unialgal culture condition; the cells looked healthier and zoosporangia and motile flagellated vegetative cells appeared more often. These results suggested that this Chlamydomonas might be a facultative epiphyte benefiting from its hosts. Several ceramiaceaen algae were tested as host plants. Meanwhile, cell deformation or collapse of the whole thallus was caused to Aglaothamnion byssoides, and preliminary study suggested that a substance released from Chlamydomonas caused the response. This is first report on harmful epiphytic interactions between Chlamydomonas species and red ceramiaceaen algae. PMID:19195375

  18. Inhibition of Target of Rapamycin Signaling and Stress Activate Autophagy in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[W

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Florencio, Francisco J.; Crespo, José L.

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic membrane-trafficking process whereby cells recycle cytosolic proteins and organelles under stress conditions or during development. This degradative process is mediated by autophagy-related (ATG) proteins that have been described in yeast, animals, and more recently in plants. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of autophagy in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that the ATG8 protein from Chlamydomonas (CrATG8) is functionally conserved and may be used as a molecular autophagy marker. Like yeast ATG8, CrATG8 is cleaved at the carboxyl-terminal conserved glycine and is associated with membranes in Chlamydomonas. Cell aging or different stresses such as nutrient limitation, oxidative stress, or the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum caused an increase in CrATG8 abundance as well as the detection of modified forms of this protein, both landmarks of autophagy activation. Furthermore, rapamycin-mediated inhibition of the Target of Rapamycin signaling pathway, a major regulator of autophagy in eukaryotes, results in identical effects on CrATG8 and a relocalization of this protein in Chlamydomonas cells similar to the one observed upon nutrient limitation. Thus, our findings indicate that Chlamydomonas cells may respond to stress conditions by inducing autophagy via Target of Rapamycin signaling modulation. PMID:20107021

  19. Metabolism of D-lactate and structurally related organic acids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Husic, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    During the initial minutes of anaerobiosis, /sup 14/C-labeled D-lactate, derived from the photosynthetic sugar phosphate pool, accumulated in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The production of the D-isomer of lactate by algae is in contrast to plant and mammalian cells in which L-lactate is formed. After initial lactate formation, Chlamydomonas exhibits a mixed-acid type fermentation, thereby avoiding lactate accumulation and enabling the cells to tolerate extended periods of anaerobiosis. A pyruvate reductase which catalyzes the formation of D-lactate in Chlamydomonas was partially purified and characterized. Lactate produced anaerobically was metabolized only when Chlamydomonas cells were returned to aerobic conditions, and reoxidation of the D-lactate was apparently catalyzed by a mitochondrial membrane-bound dehydrogenase, rather than by the soluble pyruvate reductase. Mutants of Chlamydomonas, deficient in mitochondrial respiration, were used to demonstrate that lactate metabolism was linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain. In addition, the oxidation of glycolate, a structural analog of lactate, was also linked to mitochondrial electron transport in vivo.

  20. Activation of a chloroplast type of fructose bisphosphatase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by light-mediated agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huppe, H. C.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1989-01-01

    A chloroplast type of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, a central regulatory enzyme of photosynthetic carbon metabolism, has been partially purified from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Unlike its counterpart from spinach chloroplasts, the algal FBPase showed a strict requirement for a dithiol reductant irrespective of Mg2+ concentration. The enzymes from the two sources resembled each other immunologically, in subunit molecular mass and response to pH. In the presence of dithiothreitol, the pH optimum for both the algal and spinach enzymes shifted from 8.5 to a more physiologic value of 8.0 as the Mg2+ concentration was increased from 1 to 16 mM. At 1 mM Mg2+, a concentration estimated to be close to physiological, the Chlamydomonas FBPase was active only in the presence of reduced thioredoxin and was most active with Chlamydomonas thioredoxin f. Under these conditions, the enzyme showed a pH optimum of 8.0. The data suggest that the Chlamydomonas enzyme resembles its spinach counterpart in most respects, but it has a stricter requirement for reduction and less strict reductant specificity. A comparison of the properties of the FBPases from Chlamydomonas and spinach will be helpful for elucidating the mechanism of the reductive activation of this enzyme.

  1. DNA repair in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii induced by heat shock and gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Boreham, D R; Mitchel, R E

    1993-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii respond to a sublethal exposure of ionizing radiation by increasing their resistance to killing by a second exposure. We demonstrate here that the two lower eukaryotes apparently achieve this by different mechanisms. We have shown that induced radioresistance in yeast results from increased capacity for recombinational repair, which we believe to occur in G2-phase haploid cells by recombination between homologous chromosomes. This is not possible in G1-phase haploid cells, which lack a second copy of DNA. Haploid C. reinhardtii cells, however, show induced resistance when irradiated asynchronously or in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We have shown previously that the development of radiation resistance in yeast is proportional to the magnitude of the inducing dose and clearly demonstrates an oxygen effect. There was no oxygen effect for induced radiation resistance in C. reinhardtii cells, but induction remained proportional to dose. In yeast we have reported that both increased radioresistance and thermotolerance are inducible by a heat shock. Here, C. reinhardtii showed induced thermotolerance but no induced radioresistance in response to a heat stress. We have also determined previously that the induced recombinational DNA repair system in yeast recognizes alkylation lesions and therefore confers increased resistance to mutation by MNNG. In these experiments, C. reinhardtii induced for radioresistance were not more resistant to MNNG mutagenesis. These data indicate that haploid C. reinhardtii has a unique DSB repair mechanism. We propose that one possible mechanism may involve chloroplast DNA in a cooperative chloroplast/nuclear recombinational repair process. PMID:8378529

  2. Late steps in cytoplasmic maturation of assembly-competent axonemal outer arm dynein in Chlamydomonas require interaction of ODA5 and ODA10 in a complex

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Anudariya B.; Mitchell, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are multisubunit enzymes that must be preassembled in the cytoplasm, transported into cilia by intraflagellar transport, and bound to specific sites on doublet microtubules, where their activity facilitates microtubule sliding-based motility. Outer dynein arms (ODAs) require assembly factors to assist their preassembly, transport, and attachment to cargo (specific doublet A-tubule sites). In Chlamydomonas, three assembly factors—ODA5, ODA8, and ODA10—show genetic interactions and have been proposed to interact in a complex, but we recently showed that flagellar ODA8 does not copurify with ODA5 or ODA10. Here we show that ODA5 and ODA10 depend on each other for stability and coexist in a complex in both cytoplasmic and flagellar extracts. Immunofluorescence and immuno–electron microscopy reveal that ODA10 in flagella localizes strictly to a proximal region of doublet number 1, which completely lacks ODAs in Chlamydomonas. Studies of the in vitro binding of ODAs to axonemal doublets reveal a role for the ODA5/ODA10 assembly complex in cytoplasmic maturation of ODAs into a form that can bind to doublet microtubules. PMID:26310446

  3. Crystal structure of the Chlamydomonas starch debranching enzyme isoamylase ISA1 reveals insights into the mechanism of branch trimming and complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Sim, Lyann; Beeren, Sophie R; Findinier, Justin; Dauvillée, David; Ball, Steven G; Henriksen, Anette; Palcic, Monica M

    2014-08-15

    The starch debranching enzymes isoamylase 1 and 2 (ISA1 and ISA2) are known to exist in a large complex and are involved in the biosynthesis and crystallization of starch. It is suggested that the function of the complex is to remove misplaced branches of growing amylopectin molecules, which would otherwise prevent the association and crystallization of adjacent linear chains. Here, we investigate the function of ISA1 and ISA2 from starch producing alga Chlamydomonas. Through complementation studies, we confirm that the STA8 locus encodes for ISA2 and sta8 mutants lack the ISA1·ISA2 heteromeric complex. However, mutants retain a functional dimeric ISA1 that is able to partly sustain starch synthesis in vivo. To better characterize ISA1, we have overexpressed and purified ISA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrISA1) and solved the crystal structure to 2.3 Å and in complex with maltoheptaose to 2.4 Å. Analysis of the homodimeric CrISA1 structure reveals a unique elongated structure with monomers connected end-to-end. The crystal complex reveals details about the mechanism of branch binding that explains the low activity of CrISA1 toward tightly spaced branches and reveals the presence of additional secondary surface carbohydrate binding sites. PMID:24993830

  4. Vipp1 Is Essential for the Biogenesis of Photosystem I but Not Thylakoid Membranes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyi; Shen, Gaozhong; Li, Zhongkui; Golbeck, John H.; Bryant, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    The biogenesis of thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria is presently not well understood, but the vipp1 gene product has been suggested to play an important role in this process. Previous studies in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 reported that vipp1 (sll0617) was essential. By constructing a fully segregated null mutant in vipp1 (SynPCC7002_A0294) in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, we show that Vipp1 is not essential. Spectroscopic studies revealed that Photosystem I (PS I) was below detection limits in the vipp1 mutant, but Photosystem II (PS II) was still assembled and was active. Thylakoid membranes were still observed in vipp1 mutant cells and resembled those in a psaAB mutant that completely lacks PS I. When the vipp1 mutation was complemented with the orthologous vipp1 gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that was expressed from the strong PcpcBA promoter, PS I content and activities were restored to normal levels, and cells again produced thylakoids that were indistinguishable from those of wild type. Transcription profiling showed that psaAB transcripts were lower in abundance in the vipp1 mutant. However, when the yfp gene was expressed from the PpsaAB promoter in the presence and the absence of Vipp1, no difference in YFP expression was observed, which shows that Vipp1 is not a transcription factor for the psaAB genes. This study shows that thylakoids are still produced in the absence of Vipp1 and that normal thylakoid biogenesis in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 requires expression and biogenesis of PS I, which in turn requires Vipp1. PMID:24764304

  5. Environmental pH and the Requirement for the Extrinsic Proteins of Photosystem II in the Function of Cyanobacterial Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jaz N.; Eaton-Rye, Julian J.; Summerfield, Tina C.

    2016-01-01

    In one of the final stages of cyanobacterial Photosystem II (PS II) assembly, binding of up to four extrinsic proteins to PS II stabilizes the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Growth of cyanobacterial mutants deficient in certain combinations of these thylakoid-lumen-associated polypeptides is sensitive to changes in environmental pH, despite the physical separation of the membrane-embedded PS II complex from the external environment. In this perspective we discuss the effect of environmental pH on OEC function and photoautotrophic growth in cyanobacteria with reference to pH-sensitive PS II mutants lacking extrinsic proteins. We consider the possibilities that, compared to pH 10.0, pH 7.5 increases susceptibility to PS II-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing photoinhibition and reducing PS II assembly in some mutants, and that perturbations to channels in the lumenal regions of PS II might alter the accessibility of water to the active site as well as egress of oxygen and protons to the thylakoid lumen. Reduced levels of PS II in these mutants, and reduced OEC activity arising from the disruption of substrate/product channels, could reduce the trans-thylakoid pH gradient (ΔpH), leading to the impairment of photosynthesis. Growth of some PS II mutants at pH 7.5 can be rescued by elevating CO2 levels, suggesting that the pH-sensitive phenotype might primarily be an indirect result of back-pressure in the electron transport chain that results in heightened production of ROS by the impaired photosystem. PMID:27555848

  6. Environmental pH and the Requirement for the Extrinsic Proteins of Photosystem II in the Function of Cyanobacterial Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jaz N; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Summerfield, Tina C

    2016-01-01

    In one of the final stages of cyanobacterial Photosystem II (PS II) assembly, binding of up to four extrinsic proteins to PS II stabilizes the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Growth of cyanobacterial mutants deficient in certain combinations of these thylakoid-lumen-associated polypeptides is sensitive to changes in environmental pH, despite the physical separation of the membrane-embedded PS II complex from the external environment. In this perspective we discuss the effect of environmental pH on OEC function and photoautotrophic growth in cyanobacteria with reference to pH-sensitive PS II mutants lacking extrinsic proteins. We consider the possibilities that, compared to pH 10.0, pH 7.5 increases susceptibility to PS II-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing photoinhibition and reducing PS II assembly in some mutants, and that perturbations to channels in the lumenal regions of PS II might alter the accessibility of water to the active site as well as egress of oxygen and protons to the thylakoid lumen. Reduced levels of PS II in these mutants, and reduced OEC activity arising from the disruption of substrate/product channels, could reduce the trans-thylakoid pH gradient (ΔpH), leading to the impairment of photosynthesis. Growth of some PS II mutants at pH 7.5 can be rescued by elevating CO2 levels, suggesting that the pH-sensitive phenotype might primarily be an indirect result of back-pressure in the electron transport chain that results in heightened production of ROS by the impaired photosystem. PMID:27555848

  7. A novel alpha-type carbonic anhydrase associated with the thylakoid membrane in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is required for growth at ambient CO2.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, J; Clarke, A K; Chen, Z Y; Hugghins, S Y; Park, Y I; Husic, H D; Moroney, J V; Samuelsson, G

    1998-08-10

    A 29.5 kDa intracellular alpha-type carbonic anhydrase, designated Cah3, from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the first of this type discovered inside a photosynthetic eukaryote cell. We describe the cloning of a cDNA which encodes the protein. Immunoblot studies with specific antibodies raised against Cah3 demonstrate that the polypeptide is associated exclusively with the thylakoid membrane. The putative transit peptide suggests that Cah3 is directed to the thylakoid lumen, which is confirmed further by the presence of mature sized Cah3 after thermolysin treatment of intact thylakoids. Complementation of the high inorganic carbon concentration-requiring mutant, cia-3, with a subcloned cosmid containing the cah3 gene yielded transformants that grew on atmospheric levels of CO2 (0.035%) and contained an active 29.5 kDa alpha-type carbonic anhydrase. Although, cia-3 has reduced internal carbonic anhydrase activity, unexpectedly the level of Cah3 was similar to that of the wild-type, suggesting that the mutant accumulates an inactive Cah3 polypeptide. Genomic sequence analysis of the mutant revealed two amino acid changes in the transit peptide. Results from photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter measurements show that the cia-3 mutant is photosynthetically impaired. Our results indicate that the carbonic anhydrase, extrinsically located within the chloroplast thylakoid lumen, is essential for growth of C.reinhardtii at ambient levels of CO2, and that at these CO2 concentrations the enzyme is required for optimal photosystem II photochemistry. PMID:9482718

  8. The Type II NADPH Dehydrogenase Facilitates Cyclic Electron Flow, Energy-Dependent Quenching, and Chlororespiratory Metabolism during Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Nitrogen Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Saroussi, Shai I; Wittkopp, Tyler M; Grossman, Arthur R

    2016-04-01

    When photosynthetic organisms are deprived of nitrogen (N), the capacity to grow and assimilate carbon becomes limited, causing a decrease in the productive use of absorbed light energy and likely a rise in the cellular reduction state. Although there is a scarcity of N in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, a mechanistic understanding of how photosynthesis adjusts to low-N conditions and the enzymes/activities integral to these adjustments have not been described. In this work, we use biochemical and biophysical analyses of photoautotrophically grown wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the integration of electron transport pathways critical for maintaining active photosynthetic complexes even after exposure of cells to N deprivation for 3 d. Key to acclimation is the type II NADPH dehydrogenase, NDA2, which drives cyclic electron flow (CEF), chlororespiration, and the generation of an H(+) gradient across the thylakoid membranes. N deprivation elicited a doubling of the rate of NDA2-dependent CEF, with little contribution from PGR5/PGRL1-dependent CEF The H(+) gradient generated by CEF is essential to sustain nonphotochemical quenching, while an increase in the level of reduced plastoquinone would promote a state transition; both are necessary to down-regulate photosystem II activity. Moreover, stimulation of NDA2-dependent chlororespiration affords additional relief from the elevated reduction state associated with N deprivation through plastid terminal oxidase-dependent water synthesis. Overall, rerouting electrons through the NDA2 catalytic hub in response to photoautotrophic N deprivation sustains cell viability while promoting the dissipation of excess excitation energy through quenching and chlororespiratory processes. PMID:26858365

  9. Negative Impact on Growth and Photosynthesis in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the Presence of the Estrogen 17α-Ethynylestradiol

    PubMed Central

    Pocock, Tessa; Falk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that estrogenic compounds affect development of fertilized eggs of many species of birds, fish and amphibians through disrupted activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA). The most potent activity comes from the most commonly occurring synthetic sterol, 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2). Less is known about the responses of aquatic phytoplankton to these compounds. Here we show for the first time that, in comparision to the control, the addition of 7 µM EE2 reduced the growth rate of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by 68% for cells grown at high CO2. When cells were grown in ambient air (low Ci) with a fully activated carbon concentrating mechanism through the induction of CA activity, the growth rates were reduced by as much as 119%. A reduced growth rate could be observed at EE2 concentrations as low as 10 pM. This was accompanied by a reduced maximum capacity for electron transport in photosystem II as determined by a lower FV/FM for low Ci-grown cells, which indicates the involvement of CAH3, a CA specifically located in the thylakoid lumen involved in proton pumping across the thylakoid membranes. These results were in agreement with an observed reduction in the chloroplastic affinity for Ci as shown by a strong increase in the Michaelis-Menten K0.5 for HCO3−. In itself, a lowering of the growth rate of a green alga by addition of the sterol EE2 warrants further investigation into the potential environmental impact by the release of treated waste water. PMID:25310092

  10. The Type II NADPH Dehydrogenase Facilitates Cyclic Electron Flow, Energy-Dependent Quenching, and Chlororespiratory Metabolism during Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Nitrogen Deprivation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Arthur R.

    2016-01-01

    When photosynthetic organisms are deprived of nitrogen (N), the capacity to grow and assimilate carbon becomes limited, causing a decrease in the productive use of absorbed light energy and likely a rise in the cellular reduction state. Although there is a scarcity of N in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, a mechanistic understanding of how photosynthesis adjusts to low-N conditions and the enzymes/activities integral to these adjustments have not been described. In this work, we use biochemical and biophysical analyses of photoautotrophically grown wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the integration of electron transport pathways critical for maintaining active photosynthetic complexes even after exposure of cells to N deprivation for 3 d. Key to acclimation is the type II NADPH dehydrogenase, NDA2, which drives cyclic electron flow (CEF), chlororespiration, and the generation of an H+ gradient across the thylakoid membranes. N deprivation elicited a doubling of the rate of NDA2-dependent CEF, with little contribution from PGR5/PGRL1-dependent CEF. The H+ gradient generated by CEF is essential to sustain nonphotochemical quenching, while an increase in the level of reduced plastoquinone would promote a state transition; both are necessary to down-regulate photosystem II activity. Moreover, stimulation of NDA2-dependent chlororespiration affords additional relief from the elevated reduction state associated with N deprivation through plastid terminal oxidase-dependent water synthesis. Overall, rerouting electrons through the NDA2 catalytic hub in response to photoautotrophic N deprivation sustains cell viability while promoting the dissipation of excess excitation energy through quenching and chlororespiratory processes. PMID:26858365

  11. A conserved flagella-associated protein in Chlamydomonas, FAP234, is essential for axonemal localization of tubulin polyglutamylase TTLL9.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tomohiro; Yanagisawa, Haru-aki; Liu, Zhongmei; Shibuya, Rie; Hirono, Masafumi; Kamiya, Ritsu

    2014-01-01

    Tubulin undergoes various posttranslational modifications, including polyglutamylation, which is catalyzed by enzymes belonging to the tubulin tyrosine ligase-like protein (TTLL) family. A previously isolated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant, tpg1, carries a mutation in a gene encoding a homologue of mammalian TTLL9 and displays lowered motility because of decreased polyglutamylation of axonemal tubulin. Here we identify a novel tpg1-like mutant, tpg2, which carries a mutation in the gene encoding FAP234, a flagella-associated protein of unknown function. Immunoprecipitation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation experiments show that FAP234 and TTLL9 form a complex. The mutant tpg1 retains FAP234 in the cell body and flagellar matrix but lacks it in the axoneme. In contrast, tpg2 lacks both TTLL9 and FAP234 in all fractions. In fla10, a temperature-sensitive mutant deficient in intraflagellar transport (IFT), both TTLL9 and FAP234 are lost from the flagellum at nonpermissive temperatures. These and other results suggest that FAP234 functions in stabilization and IFT-dependent transport of TTLL9. Both TTLL9 and FAP234 are conserved in most ciliated organisms. We propose that they constitute a polyglutamylation complex specialized for regulation of ciliary motility. PMID:24196831

  12. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Prochnik, Simon E.; Vallon, Olivier; Harris, Elizabeth H.; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Witman, George B.; Terry, Astrid; Salamov, Asaf; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Marshall, Wallace F.; Qu, Liang-Hu; Nelson, David R.; Sanderfoot, Anton A.; Spalding, Martin H.; Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Ren, Qinghu; Ferris, Patrick; Lindquist, Erika; Shapiro, Harris; Lucas, Susan M.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Cardol, Pierre; Cerutti, Heriberto; Chanfreau, Guillaume; Chen, Chun-Long; Cognat, Valérie; Croft, Martin T.; Dent, Rachel; Dutcher, Susan; Fernández, Emilio; Ferris, Patrick; Fukuzawa, Hideya; González-Ballester, David; González-Halphen, Diego; Hallmann, Armin; Hanikenne, Marc; Hippler, Michael; Inwood, William; Jabbari, Kamel; Kalanon, Ming; Kuras, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul A.; Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Lobanov, Alexey V.; Lohr, Martin; Manuell, Andrea; Meier, Iris; Mets, Laurens; Mittag, Maria; Mittelmeier, Telsa; Moroney, James V.; Moseley, Jeffrey; Napoli, Carolyn; Nedelcu, Aurora M.; Niyogi, Krishna; Novoselov, Sergey V.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Pazour, Greg; Purton, Saul; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Riekhof, Wayne; Rymarquis, Linda; Schroda, Michael; Stern, David; Umen, James; Willows, Robert; Wilson, Nedra; Zimmer, Sara Lana; Allmer, Jens; Balk, Janneke; Bisova, Katerina; Chen, Chong-Jian; Elias, Marek; Gendler, Karla; Hauser, Charles; Lamb, Mary Rose; Ledford, Heidi; Long, Joanne C.; Minagawa, Jun; Page, M. Dudley; Pan, Junmin; Pootakham, Wirulda; Roje, Sanja; Rose, Annkatrin; Stahlberg, Eric; Terauchi, Aimee M.; Yang, Pinfen; Ball, Steven; Bowler, Chris; Dieckmann, Carol L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Green, Pamela; Jorgensen, Richard; Mayfield, Stephen; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Rajamani, Sathish; Sayre, Richard T.; Brokstein, Peter; Dubchak, Inna; Goodstein, David; Hornick, Leila; Huang, Y. Wayne; Jhaveri, Jinal; Luo, Yigong; Martínez, Diego; Ngau, Wing Chi Abby; Otillar, Bobby; Poliakov, Alexander; Porter, Aaron; Szajkowski, Lukasz; Werner, Gregory; Zhou, Kemin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the ∼120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella. PMID:17932292

  13. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-04-09

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the 120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella.

  14. Isolation, growth, ultrastructure, and metal tolerance of the green alga, Chlamydomonas acidophila (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Tominaga, N

    2001-12-01

    An acidophilic volvocine flagellate, Chlamydomonas acidophila (Volvocales) that was isolated from an acid lake, Katanuma, in Miyagi prefecture, Japan was studied for growth, ultrastructural characterization, and metal tolerance. Chlamydomonas acidophila is obligately photoautotrophic, and did not grow in the cultures containing acetate or citrate even in the light. The optimum pH for growth was 3.5-4.5. To characterize metal tolerance, the toxic effects of Cd, Co, Cu, and Zn on this alga were also studied. Effective metal concentrations, which limited the growth by 50%, EC50 were measured, after 72 h of static exposure. EC50s were 14.4 microM Cd2+, 81.3 microM Co2+, 141 microM Cu2+, and 1.16 mM Zn2+ for 72 h of exposure. Thus, this alga had stronger tolerance to these metals than other species in the genus Chlamydomonas. PMID:11826960

  15. Phase-dependent forcing and synchronization in the three-sphere model of Chlamydomonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Rachel R.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2013-07-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas swims with synchronized beating of its two flagella, and is experimentally observed to exhibit run-and-tumble behaviour similar to bacteria. Recently, we studied a simple hydrodynamic three-sphere model of Chlamydomonas with a phase-dependent driving force that can produce run-and-tumble behaviour when intrinsic noise is added, due to the nonlinear mechanics of the system. Here, we consider the noiseless case and explore numerically the parameter space in the driving force profiles, which determine whether or not the synchronized state evolves from a given initial condition, as well as the stability of the synchronized state. We find that phase-dependent forcing, or a beat pattern, is necessary for stable synchronization in the geometry we work with. The phase-dependent forcing allows this simple model of Chlamydomonas to produce a rich variety of behaviours.

  16. Phylogenomic analysis of the Chlamydomonas genome unmasks proteins potentially involved in photosynthetic function and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Karpowicz, Steven J.; Heinnickel, Mark; Dewez, David; Hamel, Blaise; Dent, Rachel; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Johnson, Xenie; Alric, Jean; Wollman, Francis-André; Li, Huiying; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, has been exploited as a reference organism for identifying proteins and activities associated with the photosynthetic apparatus and the functioning of chloroplasts. Recently, the full genome sequence of Chlamydomonas was generated and a set of gene models, representing all genes on the genome, was developed. Using these gene models, and gene models developed for the genomes of other organisms, a phylogenomic, comparative analysis was performed to identify proteins encoded on the Chlamydomonas genome which were likely involved in chloroplast functions (or specifically associated with the green algal lineage); this set of proteins has been designated the GreenCut. Further analyses of those GreenCut proteins with uncharacterized functions and the generation of mutant strains aberrant for these proteins are beginning to unmask new layers of functionality/regulation that are integrated into the workings of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:20490922

  17. Balancing the two photosystems: photosynthetic electron transfer governs transcription of reaction centre genes in chloroplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J F; Pfannschmidt, T

    2000-01-01

    Chloroplasts are cytoplasmic organelles whose primary function is photosynthesis, but which also contain small, specialized and quasi-autonomous genetic systems. In photosynthesis, two energy converting photosystems are connected, electrochemically, in series. The connecting electron carriers are oxidized by photosystem I (PS I) and reduced by photosystem II (PS II). It has recently been shown that the oxidation reduction state of one connecting electron carrier, plastoquinone, controls transcription of chloroplast genes for reaction centre proteins of the two photosystems. The control counteracts the imbalance in electron transport that causes it: oxidized plastoquinone induces PS II and represses PS I; reduced plastoquinone induces PS I and represses PS II. This complementarity is observed both in vivo, using light favouring one or other photosystem, and in vitro, when site-specific electron transport inhibitors are added to transcriptionally and photosynthetically active chloroplasts. There is thus a transcriptional level of control that has a regulatory function similar to that of purely post-translational 'state transitions' in which the redistribution of absorbed excitation energy between photosystems is mediated by thylakoid membrane protein phosphorylation. The changes in rates of transcription that are induced by spectral changes in vivo can be detected even before the corresponding state transitions are complete, suggesting the operation of a branched pathway of redox signal transduction. These findings suggest a mechanism for adjustment of photosystem stoichiometry in which initial events involve a sensor of the redox state of plastoquinone, and may thus be the same as the initial events of state transitions. Redox control of chloroplast transcription is also consistent with the proposal that a direct regulatory coupling between electron transport and gene expression determines the function and composition of the chloroplast's extra-nuclear genetic

  18. Transport and metabolism of glycolic acid by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the excretion of glycolate from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the conditions affecting glycolate synthesis and metabolism were investigated. Although glycolate is synthesized only in the light, the metabolism occurs in the light and dark with greater metabolism in the light due to refixation of photorespiratory CO/sub 2/. The amount of internal glycolate will affect the metabolism of externally added glycolate. When glycolate synthesis exceeds the metabolic capacity, glycolate is excreted from the cell. The transport of glycolate into the cells occurs very rapidly. Equilibrium is achieved at 4/sup 0/C within the time cells are pelleted by the silicone oil centrifugation technique through a layer of (/sup 14/C) glycolate. Glycolate uptake does not show the same time, temperature and pH dependencies as diffusion of benzoate. Uptake can be inhibited by treatment of cells with N-ethylmaleimide and stimulated in the presence of valino-mycin/KCl. Acetate and lactate are taken up as quickly as glycolate. The hypothesis was made that glycolate is transported by a protein carrier that transports monocarboxylic acids. The equilibrium concentration of glycolate is dependent on the cell density, implying that there may be a large number of transporter sites and that uptake is limited by substrate availability.

  19. Activation and de novo synthesis of hydrogenase in chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Roessler, P G; Lien, S

    1984-12-01

    Two distinct processes are involved in the formation of active hydrogenase during anaerobic adaptation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. In the first 30 minutes of anaerobiosis, nearly all of the hydrogenase activity can be attributed to activation of a constituitive polypeptide precursor, based on the insensitivity of the process to treatment with cycloheximide (15 micrograms per milliliter). This concentration of cycloheximide inhibits protein synthesis by greater than 98%. After the initial activation period, de novo protein synthesis plays a critical role in the adaptation process since cycloheximide inhibits the expression of hydrogense in maximally adapted cells by 70%. Chloramphenicol (500 micrograms per milliliter) has a much lesser effect on the adaptation process.Incubation of cell-free extracts under anaerobic conditions in the presence of dithionite, dithiothreitol, NADH, NADP, ferredoxin, ATP, Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and iron does not lead to active hydrogenase formation. Futhermore, in vivo reactivation of oxygen-inactivated hydrogenase does not appear to take place.The adaptation process is very sensitive to the availability of iron. Iron-deficient cultures lose the ability to form active hydrogenase before growth, photosynthesis, and respiration are significantly affected. Preincubation of iron-deficient cells with iron 2 hours prior to the adaptation period fully restores the capacity of the cells to synthesize functional hydrogenase. PMID:16663954

  20. Identification of the Elusive Pyruvate Reductase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Steven J; Taha, Hussein; Yeoman, Justin A; Iamshanova, Oksana; Chan, Kher Xing; Boehm, Marko; Behrends, Volker; Bundy, Jacob G; Bialek, Wojciech; Murray, James W; Nixon, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Under anoxic conditions the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii activates various fermentation pathways leading to the creation of formate, acetate, ethanol and small amounts of other metabolites including d-lactate and hydrogen. Progress has been made in identifying the enzymes involved in these pathways and their subcellular locations; however, the identity of the enzyme involved in reducing pyruvate to d-lactate has remained unclear. Based on sequence comparisons, enzyme activity measurements, X-ray crystallography, biochemical fractionation and analysis of knock-down mutants, we conclude that pyruvate reduction in the chloroplast is catalyzed by a tetrameric NAD(+)-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase encoded by Cre07.g324550. Its expression during aerobic growth supports a possible function as a 'lactate valve' for the export of lactate to the mitochondrion for oxidation by cytochrome-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenases and by glycolate dehydrogenase. We also present a revised spatial model of fermentation based on our immunochemical detection of the likely pyruvate decarboxylase, PDC3, in the cytoplasm. PMID:26574578

  1. Metabolic acclimation to excess light intensity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maria C; Fiehn, Oliver; Durnford, Dion G

    2013-07-01

    There are several well-described acclimation responses to excess light in green algae but the effect on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examines the metabolic changes during photoacclimation to high-light (HL) stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Using principal component analysis, a clear metabolic response to HL intensity was observed on global metabolite pools, with major changes in the levels of amino acids and related nitrogen metabolites. Amino acid pools increased during short-term photoacclimation, but were especially prominent in HL-acclimated cultures. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in mitochondrial metabolism through downstream photorespiratory pathways. The expression of two genes encoding key enzymes in the photorespiratory pathway, glycolate dehydrogenase and malate synthase, were highly responsive to the HL stress. We propose that this pathway contributes to metabolite pools involved in nitrogen assimilation and may play a direct role in photoacclimation. Our results suggest that primary and secondary metabolism is highly pliable and plays a critical role in coping with the energetic imbalance during HL exposure and a necessary adjustment to support an increased growth rate that is an effective energy sink for the excess reducing power generated during HL stress. PMID:23346954

  2. Singlet oxygen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ankush; Ferretti, Ursula; Sedlářová, Michaela; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, singlet oxygen formation by lipid peroxidation induced by heat stress (40 °C) was studied in vivo in unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Primary and secondary oxidation products of lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde, were generated under heat stress as detected using swallow-tailed perylene derivative fluorescence monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was initiated by enzymatic reaction as inhibition of lipoxygenase by catechol and caffeic acid prevented hydroperoxide formation. Ultra-weak photon emission showed formation of electronically excited species such as triplet excited carbonyl, which, upon transfer of excitation energy, leads to the formation of either singlet excited chlorophyll or singlet oxygen. Alternatively, singlet oxygen is formed by direct decomposition of hydroperoxide via Russell mechanisms. Formation of singlet oxygen was evidenced by the nitroxyl radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping spectroscopy and the imaging of green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Suppression of singlet oxygen formation by lipoxygenase inhibitors indicates that singlet oxygen may be formed via enzymatic lipid peroxidation initiated by lipoxygenase. PMID:26831215

  3. Chlamydomonas Flavodiiron Proteins Facilitate Acclimation to Anoxia During Sulfur Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Jokel, Martina; Kosourov, Sergey; Battchikova, Natalia; Tsygankov, Anatoly A.; Aro, Eva Mari; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut

    2015-01-01

    The flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are involved in the detoxification of oxidative compounds, such as nitric oxide (NO) or O2 in Archaea and Bacteria. In cyanobacteria, the FDPs Flv1 and Flv3 are essential in the light-dependent reduction of O2 downstream of PSI. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two genes (flvA and flvB) in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii show high homology to flv1 and flv3 genes of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The physiological role of these FDPs in eukaryotic green algae is not known, but it is of a special interest since these phototrophic organisms perform oxygenic photosynthesis similar to higher plants, which do not possess FDP homologs. We have analyzed the levels of flvA and flvB transcripts in C. reinhardtii cells under various environmental conditions and showed that these genes are highly expressed under ambient CO2 levels and during the early phase of acclimation to sulfur deprivation, just before the onset of anaerobiosis and the induction of efficient H2 photoproduction. Importantly, the increase in transcript levels of the flvA and flvB genes was also corroborated by protein levels. These results strongly suggest the involvement of FLVA and FLVB proteins in alternative electron transport. PMID:26063391

  4. Isolation and characterization of glutamine synthetase genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Silflow, C D

    1996-11-01

    To elucidate the role of glutamine synthetase (GS) in nitrogen assimilation in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii we used maize GS1 (the cytosolic form) and GS2 (the chloroplastic form) cDNAs as hybridization probes to isolate C. reinhardtii cDNA clones. The amino acid sequences derived from the C. reinhardtii clones have extensive homology with GS enzymes from higher plants. A putative amino-terminal transit peptide encoded by the GS2 cDNA suggests that the protein localizes to the chloroplast. Genomic DNA blot analysis indicated that GS1 is encoded by a single gene, whereas two genomic fragments hybridized to the GS2 cDNA probe. All GS2 cDNA clones corresponded to only one of the two GS2 genomic sequences. We provide evidence that ammonium, nitrate, and light regulate GS transcript accumulation in green algae. Our results indicate that the level of GS1 transcripts is repressed by ammonium but induced by nitrate. The level of GS2 transcripts is not affected by ammonium or nitrate. Expression of both GS1 and GS2 genes is regulated by light, but perhaps through different mechanisms. Unlike in higher plants, no decreased level of GS2 transcripts was detected when cells were grown under conditions that repress photorespiration. Analysis of GS transcript levels in mutants with defects in the nitrate assimilation pathway show that nitrate assimilation and ammonium assimilation are regulated independently. PMID:8938407

  5. Lipidomic Analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under Nitrogen and Sulfur Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dawei; Song, Donghui; Kind, Tobias; Ma, Yan; Hoefkens, Jens; Fiehn, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii accumulates lipids under complete nutrient starvation conditions while overall growth in biomass stops. In order to better understand biochemical changes under nutrient deprivation that maintain production of algal biomass, we used a lipidomic assay for analyzing the temporal regulation of the composition of complex lipids in C. reinhardtii in response to nitrogen and sulfur deprivation. Using a chip-based nanoelectrospray direct infusion into an ion trap mass spectrometer, we measured a diversity of lipid species reported for C. reinhardtii, including PG phosphatidylglycerols, PI Phosphatidylinositols, MGDG monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, DGDG digalactosyldiacylglycerols, SQDG sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols, DGTS homoserine ether lipids and TAG triacylglycerols. Individual lipid species were annotated by matching mass precursors and MS/MS fragmentations to the in-house LipidBlast mass spectral database and MS2Analyzer. Multivariate statistics showed a clear impact on overall lipidomic phenotypes on both the temporal and the nutrition stress level. Homoserine-lipids were found up-regulated at late growth time points and higher cell density, while triacyclglycerols showed opposite regulation of unsaturated and saturated fatty acyl chains under nutritional deprivation. PMID:26375463

  6. Activation and de novo synthesis of hydrogenase in Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Roessler, P.G.; Lien, S.

    1984-12-01

    Two distinct processes are involved in the formation of active hydrogenase during anaerobic adaptation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. In the first 30 minutes of anaerobiosis, nearly all of the hydrogenase activity can be attributed to activation of constituitive polypeptide precursor, based on the insensitivity of the process to treatment with cycloheximide (15 micrograms per milliliter). This concentration of cycloheximide inhibits protein synthesis by greater than 98%. After the initial activation period, de novo protein synthesis plays a critical role in the adaptation process since cycloheximide inhibits the expression of hydrogenase in maximally adapted cells by 70%. Chloramphenicol (500 micrograms per milliliter) has a much lesser effect on the adaptation process. Incubation of cell-free extracts under anaerobic conditions in the presence of dithionite, dithiothreitol, NADH, NADP, ferredoxin, ATP, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and iron does not lead to active hydrogenase formation. Furthermore, in vivo reactivation of oxygen-inactivated hydrogenase does not appear to take place. The adaptation process is very sensitive to the availability of iron. Iron-deficient cultures lose the ability to form active hydrogenase before growth, photosynthesis, and respiration are significantly affected. Preincubation of iron-deficient cells with iron 2 hours prior to the adaptation period fully restores the capacity of the cells to synthesize functional hydrogenase.

  7. Targeted disruption of the NIT8 gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, J A; Lefebvre, P A

    1995-01-01

    We have used homologous recombination to disrupt the nuclear gene NIT8 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This is the first report of targeted gene disruption of an endogenous locus in C. reinhardtii and only the second for a photosynthetic eukaryote. NIT8 encodes a protein necessary for nitrate and nitrite assimilation by C. reinhardtii. A disruption vector was constructed by placing the CRY1-1 selectable marker gene, which confers emetine resistance, within the NIT8 coding region. nit8 mutants are unable to grow on nitrate as their sole nitrogen source (Nit-) and are resistant to killing by chlorate. One of 2,000 transformants obtained after selection on emetine-chlorate medium contained a homologous insertion of five copies of the disruption plasmid into the NIT8 gene, producing an emetine-resistant, chlorate-resistant Nit- phenotype. The mutant phenotype was rescued by the wild-type NIT8 gene upon transformation. Seven other mutations at the nit8 locus, presumably resulting from homologous recombination with the disruption plasmid, were identified but were shown to be accompanied by deletions of the surrounding genomic region. PMID:7565729

  8. The pH tolerance of Chlamydomonas applanata (Volvocales, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Visviki, I; Santikul, D

    2000-02-01

    The effects of hydrogen ions on the growth and ultrastructure of Chlamydomonas applanata Pringsheim were examined. This species exhibits wide tolerance growing at pH values ranging from 3.4 to 8.4, with optimum growth obtained at 7.4. Growth is noticeably depressed at pH 4.4 and 3.4. At the ultrastructural level, exposure to pH 4.4 results in a 10% decrease in cell volume of single vegetative cells, an increase in pyrenoidal volume, and reduction of starch reserves. Palmelloid colonies also appear. pH 3.4 induces excessive production of mucilage and leads to the preponderance of palmelloid colonies. Cell death of both colony and single cells is seen, as well as loss of motility and abnormal cell division. Surviving single cells are significantly larger than controls, with thicker cell walls, smaller chloroplasts, and larger vacuome. Such cells entering dormancy ensure the survival of the species in times of stress. PMID:10629274

  9. Insight into Protein S-nitrosylation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Morisse, Samuel; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Gao, Xing-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein S-nitrosylation, a post-translational modification (PTM) consisting of the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO) to a cysteine thiol moiety, plays a major role in cell signaling and is recognized to be involved in numerous physiological processes and diseases in mammals. The importance of nitrosylation in photosynthetic eukaryotes has been less studied. The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge on protein nitrosylation by performing a large-scale proteomic analysis of proteins undergoing nitrosylation in vivo in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells under nitrosative stress. Results: Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 492 nitrosylated proteins were identified. They participate in a wide range of biological processes and pathways, including photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, translation, protein folding or degradation, cell motility, and stress. Several proteins were confirmed in vitro by western blot, site-directed mutagenesis and activity measurements. Moreover, 392 sites of nitrosylation were also identified. These results strongly suggest that S-nitrosylation could constitute a major mechanism of regulation in C. reinhardtii under nitrosative stress conditions. Innovation: This study constitutes the largest proteomic analysis of protein nitrosylation reported to date. Conclusion: The identification of 381 previously unrecognized targets of nitrosylation further extends our knowledge on the importance of this PTM in photosynthetic eukaryotes. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange repository with identifier PXD000569. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1271–1284. PMID:24328795

  10. Ammonium removal from anaerobically treated effluent by Chlamydomonas acidophila.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Ania; Blanco, Fernando; Lacalle, Arrate; Pinto, Miriam

    2014-02-01

    Several batch culture studies were carried out to evaluate an anaerobically treated effluent as a low-cost growth medium for the microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila and to study the effectiveness of the microalga in removing NH4-N from the effluent. An initial decrease in the effluent pH to 3 was required for adequate growth of C. acidophila and removal of NH4-N. Growth of the microalgae was inhibited at high light intensity (224μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1) at the surface of the vessels). However, the growth was not greatly affected by the high solid content and turbidity of the effluent. The microalga was able to grow in media containing NH4-N at concentrations of up to 1000mgL(-1) (50% of effluent) and to remove 88mg of NH4-NL(-1) in 10days. C. acidophila therefore appears a promising agent for the removal of NH4-N from anaerobically treated effluents. PMID:24342946

  11. Chlamydomonas Flavodiiron Proteins Facilitate Acclimation to Anoxia During Sulfur Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jokel, Martina; Kosourov, Sergey; Battchikova, Natalia; Tsygankov, Anatoly A; Aro, Eva Mari; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut

    2015-08-01

    The flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are involved in the detoxification of oxidative compounds, such as nitric oxide (NO) or O(2) in Archaea and Bacteria. In cyanobacteria, the FDPs Flv1 and Flv3 are essential in the light-dependent reduction of O(2) downstream of PSI. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two genes (flvA and flvB) in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii show high homology to flv1 and flv3 genes of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The physiological role of these FDPs in eukaryotic green algae is not known, but it is of a special interest since these phototrophic organisms perform oxygenic photosynthesis similar to higher plants, which do not possess FDP homologs. We have analyzed the levels of flvA and flvB transcripts in C. reinhardtii cells under various environmental conditions and showed that these genes are highly expressed under ambient CO(2) levels and during the early phase of acclimation to sulfur deprivation, just before the onset of anaerobiosis and the induction of efficient H(2) photoproduction. Importantly, the increase in transcript levels of the flvA and flvB genes was also corroborated by protein levels. These results strongly suggest the involvement of FLVA and FLVB proteins in alternative electron transport. PMID:26063391

  12. Characterizing the anaerobic response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Terashima, Mia; Specht, Michael; Naumann, Bianca; Hippler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic response is also remarkable in the context of renewable energy because C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic (induced by 8 h of argon bubbling) conditions were isolated and analyzed using comparative proteomics. A total of 2315 proteins were identified. Further analysis based on spectral counting clearly localized 606 of these proteins to the chloroplast, including many proteins of the fermentative metabolism. Comparative quantitative analyses were performed with the chloroplast-localized proteins using stable isotopic labeling of amino acids ([(13)C(6)]arginine/[(12)C(6)]arginine in an arginine auxotrophic strain). The quantitative data confirmed proteins previously characterized as induced at the transcript level as well as identified several new proteins of unknown function induced under anaerobic conditions. These proteins of unknown function provide new candidates for further investigation, which could bring insights for the engineering of hydrogen-producing alga strains. PMID:20190198

  13. Singlet oxygen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ankush; Ferretti, Ursula; Sedlářová, Michaela; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, singlet oxygen formation by lipid peroxidation induced by heat stress (40 °C) was studied in vivo in unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Primary and secondary oxidation products of lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde, were generated under heat stress as detected using swallow-tailed perylene derivative fluorescence monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was initiated by enzymatic reaction as inhibition of lipoxygenase by catechol and caffeic acid prevented hydroperoxide formation. Ultra-weak photon emission showed formation of electronically excited species such as triplet excited carbonyl, which, upon transfer of excitation energy, leads to the formation of either singlet excited chlorophyll or singlet oxygen. Alternatively, singlet oxygen is formed by direct decomposition of hydroperoxide via Russell mechanisms. Formation of singlet oxygen was evidenced by the nitroxyl radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping spectroscopy and the imaging of green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Suppression of singlet oxygen formation by lipoxygenase inhibitors indicates that singlet oxygen may be formed via enzymatic lipid peroxidation initiated by lipoxygenase. PMID:26831215

  14. Calcium titration of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin and its structural changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, Wanda; Pastrana-Ríos, Belinda

    2014-07-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin is a highly conserved calcium binding protein belonging to the EF-hand superfamily. Centrin, like other calcium binding proteins, changes conformation upon calcium binding. In addition, the calcium binding sites are comprised mainly of aspartates and glutamates which would serve as probes for a calcium binding event. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy has proven to be a valuable technique to determine the differences in the molecular behavior of the EF-hand domains within centrin. Moreover, the differences in affinity for calcium displayed by these domains were correlated to differences in the molecular behavior of these EF-hand domains when compared with each other and the full-length protein. We were able to confirm the nature of the two independent domains within centrin. Furthermore, we established the mechanism of aggregation was self-association due to adsorption of centrin to the ZnSe ATR crystal and estimated the extent of aggregation of the full-length protein.

  15. Transport of urea at low concentrations in Chlamydomonas reinhardi.

    PubMed

    Williams, S K; Hodson, R C

    1977-04-01

    Urea transport into the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardi was investigated to further our understanding of controls operating on urea catabolism in this organism. Transport into cells grown with acetate and deprived of ammonia is a saturable process, mediated by at least two systems operating maximally at different external urea concentrations. The lower concentration system, with an apparent Km for urea of 5.1 micron, was the object of detailed study. Transport of urea from a saturating concentration (57 micron) into ammonia- and acetate-grown cells freshly suspended in ammonia-limited medium was not detected. Upon further culturing in the absence of ammonia, derepression occurred with transport ability, first appearing at about 1 h , reaching a maximum at about 2 h, and maintaining this maximum at least 5 h. In contrast to this, CO2-grown cells became derepressed more slowly, and maximum transport ability was not maintained. Addition of ammonia or methylamine (5 mM) during nitrogen deprivation prevented further increases in transport ability and caused loss of previously acquired transport ability. Cycloheximide (10 microng/ml) had a similar effect. Energy uncouplers or dark, anaerobic conditions depressed transport. By these criteria, transport from low urea concentrations is mediated by a process that requires protein synthesis and activation by cellular energy, and the process has a rapid rate of turnover and of deactivation by ammonia. PMID:856784

  16. Identification of the Elusive Pyruvate Reductase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Steven J.; Taha, Hussein; Yeoman, Justin A.; Iamshanova, Oksana; Chan, Kher Xing; Boehm, Marko; Behrends, Volker; Bundy, Jacob G.; Bialek, Wojciech; Murray, James W.; Nixon, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Under anoxic conditions the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii activates various fermentation pathways leading to the creation of formate, acetate, ethanol and small amounts of other metabolites including d-lactate and hydrogen. Progress has been made in identifying the enzymes involved in these pathways and their subcellular locations; however, the identity of the enzyme involved in reducing pyruvate to d-lactate has remained unclear. Based on sequence comparisons, enzyme activity measurements, X-ray crystallography, biochemical fractionation and analysis of knock-down mutants, we conclude that pyruvate reduction in the chloroplast is catalyzed by a tetrameric NAD+-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase encoded by Cre07.g324550. Its expression during aerobic growth supports a possible function as a ‘lactate valve’ for the export of lactate to the mitochondrion for oxidation by cytochrome-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenases and by glycolate dehydrogenase. We also present a revised spatial model of fermentation based on our immunochemical detection of the likely pyruvate decarboxylase, PDC3, in the cytoplasm. PMID:26574578

  17. MLT1 links cytoskeletal asymmetry to organelle placement in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Mittelmeier, Telsa M.; Thompson, Mark D.; Lamb, Mary Rose; Lin, Huawen; Dieckmann, Carol L.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric placement of the photosensory eyespot organelle in Chlamydomonas is patterned by mother-daughter differences between the two basal bodies, which template the anterior flagella. Each basal body is associated with two bundled microtubule rootlets, one with two microtubules and one with four, forming a cruciate pattern. In wild type cells, the single eyespot is positioned at the equator in close proximity to the plus end of the daughter rootlet comprising four microtubules, the D4. Here we identify mutations in two linked loci, MLT1 and MLT2, which cause multiple eyespots. Antiserum raised against MLT1 localized the protein along the D4 rootlet microtubules, from the basal bodies to the eyespot. MLT1 associates immediately with the new D4 as it extends during cell division, before microtubule acetylation. MLT1 is a low-complexity protein of over 300,000 daltons. The expression or stability of MLT1 is dependent on MLT2, predicted to encode a second large, low-complexity protein. MLT1 was not restricted to the D4 rootlet in cells with the vfl2-220 mutation in the gene encoding the basal body-associated protein centrin. The cumulative data highlight the role of mother-daughter basal body differences in establishing asymmetry in associated rootlets, and suggest that eyespot components are directed to the correct location by MLT1 on the D4 microtubules. PMID:25809438

  18. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation. PMID:24166861

  19. Stimulation of growth and photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with triacontanol

    SciTech Connect

    Houtz, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard cells (-, strain N. 90), cultured at 5% CO/sub 2/, with 1 to 1000 ..mu..g/L triacontanol (TRIA) resulted in a 21% to 35% increase in cell density, 7% to 31% increase in total chlorophyll, and 20% to 100% increase in photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ assimilation. Chlamydomonas cells responded to a broad range of TRIA concentrations that were at least 10-fold above the optimum concentration for higher plants. Octacosanol inhibited the effect of TRIA on photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ assimilation. TRIA did not alter glycolate excretion, the CO/sub 2/ compensation point or sensitivity of photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ assimilation to O/sub 2/ in Chlamydomonas. Kinetic analysis of TRIA-treated cells showed that the increase in photosynthetic CO/sub 2/ assimilation was a result of an increase in the whole-cell apparent Vmax. The activity of RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase was significantly higher in cell lysates from TRIA-treated cells than those from control cells. However, quantification of RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase levels by /sup 14/CABP binding did not show increased enzyme levels in TRIA-treated cells. Therefore, there was an increase in the specific activity of RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase extracted from Chlamydomonas cells treated with TRIA. TRIA alone had no effect in vitro on the activity of RuBPcarboxylase/oxygenase purified from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves or from cell lysates of Chlamydomonas. RuBP levels were significantly higher in TRIA-treated cells at high and low CO/sub 2/. Increased RuBP levels in TRIA-treated Chlamydomonas cells were also observed in the absence of CO/sub 2/ with atmospheres of N/sub 2/ and 21% O/sub 2/.

  20. Effect of Triacontanol on Chlamydomonas: I. Stimulation of Growth and Photosynthetic CO(2) Assimilation.

    PubMed

    Houtz, R L; Ries, S K; Tolbert, N E

    1985-10-01

    Treatment of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells, cultured at 5% CO(2), with 1 to 1000 micrograms triacontanol (TRIA) per liter resulted in 21 to 35% increases in cell density, 7 to 31% increases in total chlorophyll, and 20 to 100% increases in photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation. The increase in CO(2) fixation with TRIA treatment occurred before, and was independent of, increases in total chlorophyll or cell number. Chlamydomonas cells responded to a broad range of TRIA concentrations that were at least one order of magnitude above the optimum concentration established for higher plants. The necessity for larger concentrations of TRIA may be due to destabilizing effects of Ca(2+) and K(+) present in the Chlamydomonas growth medium. These ions caused flocculation of the colloidally dispersed TRIA in apparent competition with binding of [(14)C]TRIA to Chlamydomonas cells. Octacosanol inhibited the effect of TRIA on photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation. TRIA treatment did not alter the distribution of (14)C-label among photosynthetic products. The effect of TRIA on photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation increased with time after treatment up to 3 days. Chlamydomonas cells that had been grown at low-CO(2) (air) did not respond to TRIA, and transfer of high-CO(2) (5%) grown cells that had responded to TRIA to a low-CO(2) atmosphere resulted in a loss of the effect of TRIA. The effect of pH on photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation indicated that CO(2) is probably the species of inorganic carbon utilized by control and TRIA-treated Chlamydomonas cells. PMID:16664414

  1. Picosecond time-resolved fluorescence studies on excitation energy transfer in a histidine 117 mutant of the D2 protein of photosystem II in Synechocystis 6803.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, S; Bruce, D

    2000-11-21

    The role of the peripheral reaction center chlorophyll a molecule associated with His117 of the D2 polypeptide in photosystem II was investigated in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using a combination of steady state, pump-probe, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Data were obtained from intact cells and isolated thylakoid membranes of a control mutant and a D2-H117T mutant, both of which lacked photosystem I. Excitation energy transfer and trapping were investigated by analyzing the data with a kinetic model that used an exact numerical solution of the Pauli master equation, taking into account available photosystem II spectral and structural information. The results of our kinetic analysis revealed the observed difference in excited-state dynamics between the H117T mutant and the control to be consistent with a retardation of the rate of excitation energy transfer from the peripheral chlorophyll of D2 (Chl at His117) to the electron-transfer pigments and an increase of the rate constant for charge recombination in the H117T mutant. The kinetic model was able to account for the experimentally observed changes in absorption cross section and fluorescence decay kinetics between the control and mutant by invoking changes in only these two rate constants. The results rule out quenching of excitation by a chlorophyll cation radical as a mechanism responsible for the lower efficiency of excitation energy utilization in the H117T mutant. Our work also demonstrates the importance of the chlorophyll associated with His117 of the D2 protein for excitation energy transfer to the PSII electron-transfer pigments and for the effective stabilization of the primary radical pair. PMID:11087370

  2. Functional study of diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 family in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Ho, Ming-Yang; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2013-08-01

    Algal triacylglycerol biosynthesis is of increasing interest for potential biodiesel production. A model microalga, Chlamydomonas, has multiple isoforms of diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 (DGTT) catalyzing the final step of triacylglycerol biosynthesis; however, the functions of the isoforms are poorly understood. Here, we performed heterologous complementation assay of Chlamydomonas DGTT1 to 4 in a yeast mutant defective in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. DGTT1, 2 and 3 but not 4 complemented the phenotype, including triacylglycerol levels. Interestingly, complementation by DGTT2 increased triacylglycerol content by 9-fold. PMID:23770092

  3. Photosystem II Function and Dynamics in Three Widely Used Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lan; Fristedt, Rikard; Vener, Alexander V.; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Columbia-0 (Col-0), Wassilewskija-4 (Ws-4), and Landsberg erecta-0 (Ler-0) are used as background lines for many public Arabidopsis mutant collections, and for investigation in laboratory conditions of plant processes, including photosynthesis and response to high-intensity light (HL). The photosystem II (PSII) complex is sensitive to HL and requires repair to sustain its function. PSII repair is a multistep process controlled by numerous factors, including protein phosphorylation and thylakoid membrane stacking. Here we have characterized the function and dynamics of PSII complex under growth-light and HL conditions. Ws-4 displayed 30% more thylakoid lipids per chlorophyll and 40% less chlorophyll per carotenoid than Col-0 and Ler-0. There were no large differences in thylakoid stacking, photoprotection and relative levels of photosynthetic complexes among the three accessions. An increased efficiency of PSII closure was found in Ws-4 following illumination with saturation flashes or continuous light. Phosphorylation of the PSII D1/D2 proteins was reduced by 50% in Ws-4 as compared to Col-0 and Ler-0. An increase in abundance of the responsible STN8 kinase in response to HL treatment was found in all three accessions, but Ws-4 displayed 50% lower levels than Col-0 and Ler-0. Despite this, the HL treatment caused in Ws-4 the lagest extent of PSII inactivation, disassembly, D1 protein degradation, and the largest decrease in the size of stacked thylakoids. The dilution of chlorophyll-protein complexes with additional lipids and carotenoids in Ws-4 may represent a mechanism to facilitate lateral protein traffic in the membrane, thus compensating for the lack of a full complement of STN8 kinase. Nevertheless, additional PSII damage occurs in Ws-4, which exceeds the D1 protein synthesis capacity, thus leading to enhanced photoinhibition. Our findings are valuable for selection of appropriate background line for PSII characterization in Arabidopsis mutants, and also

  4. Identification of surface-exposed domains on the reducing side of photosystem I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Q.; Guikema, J. A.; Chitnis, P. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) is a multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes the light-driven oxidation of plastocyanin or cytochrome c6 and the concomitant photoreduction of ferredoxin or flavodoxin. To identify the surface-exposed domains in PSI of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we mapped the regions in PsaE, PsaD, and PsaF that are accessible to proteases and N-hydroxysuccinimidobiotin (NHS-biotin). Upon exposure of PSI complexes to a low concentration of endoproteinase glutamic acid (Glu)-C, PsaE was cleaved to 7.1- and 6.6-kD N-terminal fragments without significant cleavage of other subunits. Glu63 and Glu67, located near the C terminus of PsaE, were the most likely cleavage sites. At higher protease concentrations, the PsaE fragments were further cleaved and an N-terminal 9.8-kD PsaD fragment accumulated, demonstrating the accessibility of Glu residue(s) in the C-terminal domain of PsaD to the protease. Besides these major, primary cleavage products, several secondary cleavage sites on PsaD, PsaE, and PsaF were also identified. PsaF resisted proteolysis when PsaD and PsaE were intact. Glu88 and Glu124 of PsaF became susceptible to endoproteinase Glu-C upon extensive cleavage of PsaD and PsaE. Modification of PSI proteins with NHS-biotin and subsequent cleavage by endoproteinase Glu-C or thermolysin showed that the intact PsaE and PsaD, but not their major degradation products lacking C-terminal domains, were heavily biotinylated. Therefore, lysine-74 at the C terminus of PsaE was accessible for biotinylation. Similarly, lysine-107, or lysine-118, or both in PsaD could be modified by NHS-biotin.

  5. Distinctive Photosystem II Photoinactivation and Protein Dynamics in Marine Diatoms1[W

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongyan; Cockshutt, Amanda M.; McCarthy, Avery; Campbell, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms host chlorophyll a/c chloroplasts distinct from green chloroplasts. Diatoms now dominate the eukaryotic oceanic phytoplankton, in part through their exploitation of environments with variable light. We grew marine diatoms across a range of temperatures and then analyzed their PSII function and subunit turnover during an increase in light to mimic an upward mixing event. The small diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana initially responds to increased photoinactivation under blue or white light with rapid acceleration of the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle. Increased red light provoked only modest PSII photoinactivation but triggered a rapid clearance of a subpool of PsbA. Furthermore, PsbD and PsbB content was greater than PsbA content, indicating a large pool of partly assembled PSII repair cycle intermediates lacking PsbA. The initial replacement rates for PsbD (D2) were, surprisingly, comparable to or higher than those for PsbA (D1), and even the supposedly stable PsbB (CP47) dropped rapidly upon the light shift, showing a novel aspect of rapid protein subunit turnover in the PSII repair cycle in small diatoms. Under sustained high light, T. pseudonana induces sustained nonphotochemical quenching, which correlates with stabilization of PSII function and the PsbA pool. The larger diatom Coscinodiscus radiatus showed generally similar responses but had a smaller allocation of PSII complexes relative to total protein content, with nearly equal stiochiometries of PsbA and PsbD subunits. Fast turnover of multiple PSII subunits, pools of PSII repair cycle intermediates, and photoprotective induction of nonphotochemical quenching are important interacting factors, particularly for small diatoms, to withstand and exploit high, fluctuating light. PMID:21617029

  6. Cryo-EM structure of a tetrameric cyanobacterial photosystem I complex reveals novel subunit interactions.

    PubMed

    Semchonok, Dmitry A; Li, Meng; Bruce, Barry D; Oostergetel, Gert T; Boekema, Egbert J

    2016-09-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp. TS-821 (TS-821) forms tetramers Li et al. (2014). Two-dimensional maps obtained by single particle electron microscopy (EM) clearly show that the tetramer lacks four-fold symmetry and is actually composed of a dimer of dimers with C2 symmetry. The resolution of these negative stain 2D maps did not permit the placement of most of the small PSI subunits, except for PsaL. Therefore cryo-EM was used for 3D reconstruction of the PSI tetramer complex. A 3D model at ~11.5Å resolution was obtained and a 2D map within the membrane plane of ~6.1Å. This data was used to build a model that was compared with the high-resolution structure of the PSI of Thermosynechococcus elongatus (T. elongatus) at 2.5Å. This comparison reveals key differences in which subunits are involved in the two different interfaces, interface type 1 within a dimer and interface type 2 between dimers. The type 1 interface in TS-821 is similar to the monomer interface in the trimeric PSI from T. elongatus, with interactions between subunits PsaA, -B, -I, -L and M. In type 2 the interaction is only between PsaA, -B and -L. Unlike the trimeric PSI, the central cavity of the complex is not filled with the PsaL-derived helical bundle, but instead seems filled with lipids. The physiological or evolutionary advantage of the tetramer is unknown. However, the presence of both dimers and tetramers in the thylakoid membrane suggest a dynamic equilibrium that shifts towards the tetramers in high light. PMID:27392600

  7. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M.; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystalline state is known to be triggered by abiotic factors, the functional significance of this protein organization has not yet been understood. Taking advantage of an Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid desaturase mutant (fad5) that constitutively forms semicrystalline arrays, we systematically test the functional implications of protein crystals in photosynthetic membranes. Here, we show that the change into an ordered state facilitates molecular diffusion of photosynthetic components in crowded thylakoid membranes. The increased mobility of small lipophilic molecules like plastoquinone and xanthophylls has implications for diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotective energy-dependent quenching. The mobility of the large photosystem II supercomplexes, however, is impaired, leading to retarded repair of damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that supramolecular changes into more ordered states have differing impacts on photosynthesis that favor either diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotection or protein repair processes, thus fine-tuning the photosynthetic energy conversion. PMID:25897076

  8. Primary charge separation in isolated photosystem II reaction centers

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, M.; Toon, S.; Govindjee; O`Neil, M.P.; Wasielewski, M.R.

    1992-08-24

    Primary charge-separation in isolated bacterial reaction center (RC) complex occurs in 2.8 ps at room temperature and 0.7--1.2 ps at 10 K. Because of similarities between the bacterial and photosystem II (PSII) RCs, it has been of considerable interest to obtain analogous charge-separation rates in the higher plant system. Our previous femtosecond transient absorption studies used PSII RC material stabilized with PEG or by exchanging dodecyl maltoside (DM) for Triton in the isolation procedure. These materials gave charge-separation 1/e times of 3.0 {plus_minus} 0.6 ps at 4{degree}C and 1.4{plus_minus} 0.2 ps at 15 K based on the risetime of transient absorption kinetics at 820 nm. These values were thought to represent the time required for formation of the P680{sup +}-Pheo{sup {minus}} state. Recent results of Hastings et al. obtained at high data acquisition rates and low flash intensities, suggest that the Pheo{sup {minus}} state may form more slowly. In light of this work, we have carried out additional time domain studies of both electron transport and energy transfer phenomena in stabilized DM PSII RCs at room temperature. We used a 1-kHz repetition rate femtosecond transient absorption spectrometer with a 200 fs instrumental time resolution and compared the results with those obtained by others using frequency domain hole-burning techniques.

  9. The action spectrum of Photosystem II photoinactivation in visible light.

    PubMed

    Zavafer, Alonso; Chow, Wah Soon; Cheah, Mun Hon

    2015-11-01

    Photosynthesis is always accompanied by light induced damage to the Photosystem II (PSII) which is compensated by its subsequent repair. Photoinhibition of PSII is a complex process, balancing between photoinactivation, protective and repair mechanisms. Current understanding of photoinactivation is limited with competing hypotheses where the photosensitiser is either photosynthetic pigments or the Mn4CaO5 cluster itself, with little consensus on the mechanisms and consequences of PSII photoinactivation. The mechanism of photoinactivation should be reflected in the action spectrum of PSII photoinactivation, but there is a great diversity of the action spectra reported thus far. The only consensus is that PSII photoinactivation is greatest in the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this review, the authors revisit the methods, technical constraints and the different action spectra of PSII photoinactivation reported to date and compare them against the diverse mechanisms proposed. Upon critical examination of the reported action spectra, a hybrid mechanism of photoinactivation, sensitised by both photosynthetic pigments and the Mn4CaO5 appears to be the most plausible rationalisation. PMID:26298696

  10. Water in Photosystem II: structural, functional and mechanistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Linke, Katrin; Ho, Felix M

    2014-01-01

    Water is clearly important for the functioning of Photosystem II (PSII). Apart from being the very substrate that needs to be transported in this water oxidation enzyme, water is also vital for the transport of protons to and from the catalytic center as well as other important co-factors and key residues in the enzyme. The latest crystal structural data of PSII have enabled detailed analyses of the location and possible function of water molecules in the enzyme. Significant progress has also been made recently in the investigation of channels and pathways through the protein complex. Through these studies, the mechanistic significance of water for PSII is becoming increasingly clear. An overview and discussion of key aspects of the current research on water in PSII is presented here. The role of water in three other systems (aquaporin, bacteriorhodopsin and cytochrome P450) is also outlined to illustrate further points concerning the central significance that water can have, and potential applications of these ideas for continued research on PSII. It is advocated that water be seen as an integral part of the protein and far from a mere solvent. PMID:23978393

  11. Redox potentials of chlorophylls in the photosystem II reaction center.

    PubMed

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Loll, Bernhard; Biesiadka, Jacek; Saenger, Wolfram; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2005-03-15

    Water oxidation generating atmospheric oxygen occurs in photosystem II (PSII), a large protein-pigment complex located in the thylakoid membrane. The recent crystal structures at 3.2 and 3.5 A resolutions provide novel details on amino acid side chains, especially in the D1/D2 subunits. We calculated the redox potentials for one-electron oxidation of the chlorophyll a (Chla) molecules in PSII, considering the protein environment in atomic detail. The calculated redox potentials for the dimer Chla (P(D1/D2)) and accessory Chla (Chl(D1/D2)) were 1.11-1.30 V relative to the normal hydrogen electrode at pH 7, which is high enough for water oxidation. The D1/D2 proteins and their cofactors contribute approximately 390 mV to the enormous upshift of 470 mV compared to the redox potential of monomeric Chla in dimethylformamide. The other subunits are responsible for the remaining 80 mV. The high redox potentials of the two accessory Chla Chl(D1/D2) suggests that they also participate in the charge separation process. PMID:15751989

  12. Deformation of chlorin rings in the Photosystem II crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keisuke; Umena, Yasufumi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Shen, Jian-Ren; Kamiya, Nobuo; Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2012-05-29

    The crystal structure of Photosystem II (PSII) analyzed at a resolution of 1.9 Å revealed deformations of chlorin rings in the chlorophylls for the first time. We investigated the degrees of chlorin ring deformation and factors that contributed to them in the PSII crystal structure, using a normal-coordinate structural decomposition procedure. The out-of-plane distortion of the P(D1) chlorin ring can be described predominantly by a large "doming mode" arising from the axial ligand, D1-His198, as well as the chlorophyll side chains and PSII protein environment. In contrast, the deformation of P(D2) was caused by a "saddling mode" arising from the D2-Trp191 ring and the doming mode arising from D2-His197. Large ruffling modes, which were reported to lower the redox potential in heme proteins, were observed in P(D1) and Chl(D1), but not in P(D2) and Chl(D2). Furthermore, as P(D1) possessed the largest doming mode among the reaction center chlorophylls, the corresponding bacteriochlorophyll P(L) possessed the largest doming mode in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the majority of the redox potential shift in the protein environment was determined by the electrostatic environment. The difference in the chlorin ring deformation appears to directly refer to the difference in "the local steric protein environment" rather than the redox potential value in PSII. PMID:22568617

  13. Function of redox-active tyrosine in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2006-06-01

    Water oxidation at photosystem II Mn-cluster is mediated by the redox-active tyrosine Y(Z). We calculated the redox potential (E(m)) of Y(Z) and its symmetrical counterpart Y(D), by solving the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The calculated E(m)(Y( )/Y(-)) were +926 mV/+694 mV for Y(Z)/Y(D) with the Mn-cluster in S2 state. Together with the asymmetric position of the Mn-cluster relative to Y(Z/D), differences in H-bond network between Y(Z) (Y(Z)/D1-His(190)/D1-Asn(298)) and Y(D) (Y(D)/D2-His(189)/D2-Arg(294)/CP47-Glu(364)) are crucial for E(m)(Y(Z/D)). When D1-His(190) is protonated, corresponding to a thermally activated state, the calculated E(m)(Y(Z)) was +1216 mV, which is as high as the E(m) for P(D1/D2). We observed deprotonation at CP43-Arg(357) upon S-state transition, which may suggest its involvement in the proton exit pathway. E(m)(Y(D)) was affected by formation of P(D2)(+) (but not P(D1)(+)) and sensitive to the protonation state of D2-Arg(180). This points to an electrostatic link between Y(D) and P(D2). PMID:16513785

  14. Dissipative pathways in the photosystem-II antenna in plants.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Christopher D P; Ruban, Alexander V

    2015-11-01

    The antenna of photosystem II in plants possesses a remarkable functional flexibility, allowing for the photoprotective regulation of light-harvesting in the face of rapid fluctuations in light intensity. Central to this adaptability is the reversible formation of dissipative energy transfer pathways within the antenna that protect the reaction centres from a potentially damaging excess of excitation energy. The exact molecular nature of these pathways and the mechanism by which they form are still open questions within the field of photosynthesis research. We present a review of current knowledge on the subject. We discuss the multi-scale nature of these pathways, how intrinsic structural and electronic changes within individual antenna proteins are coupled to large scale changes in the structure and energetic connectivity of the membrane as a whole. We review the physical properties and likely validity of current competing models of the dissipation mechanism before discussing a recently studied general property of the dissipative pathways--the slow and economic nature of the NPQ quencher. This property reflects the finely-tuned nature of the quenching pathway, i.e., its ability to offer protection to the photosynthetic machinery without compromising normal photosynthetic function. PMID:26404506

  15. Photosystem II repair in marine diatoms with contrasting photophysiologies.

    PubMed

    Lavaud, Johann; Six, Christophe; Campbell, Douglas A

    2016-02-01

    Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum are model marine diatoms with differing strategies for non-photochemical dissipation of excess excitation energy within photosystem II (PSII). We showed that S. costatum, with connectivity across the pigment bed serving PSII, and limited capacity for induction of sustained non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), maintained a large ratio of [PSII(Total)]/[PSII(Active)] to buffer against fluctuations in light intensity. In contrast, P. tricornutum, with a larger capacity to induce sustained NPQ, could maintain a lower [PSII(Total)]/[PSII(Active)]. Induction of NPQ was correlated with an active PSII repair cycle in both species, and inhibition of chloroplastic protein synthesis with lincomycin leads to run away over-excitation of remaining PSII(Active), particularly in S. costatum. We discuss these distinctions in relation to the differing capacities, induction and relaxation rates for NPQ, and as strain adaptations to the differential light regimes of their originating habitats. The present work further confirms the important role for the light-dependent fast regulation of photochemistry by NPQ interacting with PSII repair cycle capacity in the ecophysiology of both pennate and centric diatoms. PMID:26156125

  16. (Unraveling photosystems): Progress report, July 1, 1982-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bogorad, L.

    1983-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to identify and characterize genes for components of the photosynthetic apparatus - especially genes for components of photosystem II (PS II). During the past year two atrazine resistant mutants of the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans R-2 have been isolated and partially characterized. Thylakoid membranes have been prepared from these cells as well as from wild type cells and their rates of oxygen evolution measured in the presence and absence of atrazine. The I/sub 50/ for the two mutants was approximately 2 x 10/sup -8/M whereas for wild type cells it was 7.5 x 10/sup -10/M. Visible absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of the mutant and wild type cells have been compared. One of the mutants possesses spectra similar to the wild type while the second mutant does not. The latter mutant appears to have increased absorption peaks due to phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. DNA has been purified from both atrazine resistant mutants and used to transform wild type cells to atrazine resistance. Transformation of cells to the resistant phenotype is reproducible although the frequency of transformation varies. ''Mutant DNA'' subjected to restriction enzyme cleavage prior to use for transformation yields transformants but the frequency is generally about one order of magnitude lower than with uncut DNA. 54 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-05-29

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystalline state is known to be triggered by abiotic factors, the functional significance of this protein organization has not yet been understood. Taking advantage of an Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid desaturase mutant (fad5) that constitutively forms semicrystalline arrays, we systematically test the functional implications of protein crystals in photosynthetic membranes. Here, we show that the change into an ordered state facilitates molecular diffusion of photosynthetic components in crowded thylakoid membranes. The increased mobility of small lipophilic molecules like plastoquinone and xanthophylls has implications for diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotective energy-dependent quenching. The mobility of the large photosystem II supercomplexes, however, is impaired, leading to retarded repair of damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that supramolecular changes into more ordered states have differing impacts on photosynthesis that favor either diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotection or protein repair processes, thus fine-tuning the photosynthetic energy conversion. PMID:25897076

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopy of excitation transfer in Photosystem 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerji, I.

    1990-12-01

    This thesis centers on the study of excitation transfer in a photosynthetic antenna array. The spectroscopic properties of two pigment-protein complexes were investigated. These complexes, isolated from higher plants, display an unusual temperature dependent fluorescence behavior. The author have chosen to study this fluorescence behavior with respect to energy transfer to the reaction center and in an isolated intact antenna preparation. A Photosystem 1 complex, PSI-200, was isolated from spinach. We have characterized this system by both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence polarization measurements indicate that this emission arises from pigments which absorb in the long wavelength region of the spectrum and comprise a relatively small portion of the antenna population. Comparison of spectral characteristics were made with a PSI complex isolated from the thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus, sp. To address the role of Chl b in stimulating long wavelength fluorescence and the temperature dependence of the system, we have studied the energy transfer dynamics in an antenna complex, LHC-I isolated from PSI-200. Kinetic measurements indicate that initially absorbed excitation is rapidly redistributed to longer wavelength emitting pigments within 40 ps. The temperature dependence of F685 results from increased back transfer from long wavelength emitters to F685. We suggest that changes in excitation transfer between the various emitting species and a non-radiative fluorescence quenching mechanism account for the temperature dependence of the system. 144 refs., 50 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Photoassembly of the Water-Oxidizing Complex in Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Jyotishman; Ananyev, Gennady M; Dismukes, G. Charles

    2008-01-01

    The light-driven steps in the biogenesis and repair of the inorganic core comprising the O2-evolving center of oxygenic photosynthesis (photosystem II water-oxidation complex, PSII-WOC) are reviewed. These steps, known collectively as photoactivation, involve the photoassembly of the free inorganic cofactors to the cofactor-depleted PSII-(apo-WOC) driven by light and produce the active O2-evolving core comprised of Mn4CaOxCly. We focus on the functional role of the inorganic components as seen through the competition with non-native cofactors (“inorganic mutants”) on water oxidation activity, the rate of the photoassembly reaction, and on structural insights gained from EPR spectroscopy of trapped intermediates formed in the initial steps of the assembly reaction. A chemical mechanism for the initial steps in photoactivation is given that is based on these data. Photoactivation experiments offer the powerful insights gained from replacement of the native cofactors, which together with the recent X-ray structural data for the resting holoenzyme provide a deeper understanding of the chemistry of water oxidation. We also review some new directions in research that photoactivation studies have inspired that look at the evolutionary history of this remarkable catalyst. PMID:19190725

  20. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    PubMed Central

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouřil, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C2S2M2 supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C2S2M2 at 12 Å resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching. PMID:19696744

  1. Multiscale model of light harvesting by photosystem II in plants

    PubMed Central

    Amarnath, Kapil; Bennett, Doran I. G.; Schneider, Anna R.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2016-01-01

    The first step of photosynthesis in plants is the absorption of sunlight by pigments in the antenna complexes of photosystem II (PSII), followed by transfer of the nascent excitation energy to the reaction centers, where long-term storage as chemical energy is initiated. Quantum mechanical mechanisms must be invoked to explain the transport of excitation within individual antenna. However, it is unclear how these mechanisms influence transfer across assemblies of antenna and thus the photochemical yield at reaction centers in the functional thylakoid membrane. Here, we model light harvesting at the several-hundred-nanometer scale of the PSII membrane, while preserving the dominant quantum effects previously observed in individual complexes. We show that excitation moves diffusively through the antenna with a diffusion length of 50 nm until it reaches a reaction center, where charge separation serves as an energetic trap. The diffusion length is a single parameter that incorporates the enhancing effect of excited state delocalization on individual rates of energy transfer as well as the complex kinetics that arise due to energy transfer and loss by decay to the ground state. The diffusion length determines PSII’s high quantum efficiency in ideal conditions, as well as how it is altered by the membrane morphology and the closure of reaction centers. We anticipate that the model will be useful in resolving the nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms that PSII employs in conditions of high light stress. PMID:26787911

  2. Structure/Function/Dynamics of Photosystem II Plastoquinone Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lambreva, Maya D.; Russo, Daniela; Polticelli, Fabio; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Antonacci, Amina; Zobnina, Veranika; Campi, Gaetano; Rea, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) continuously attracts the attention of researchers aiming to unravel the riddle of its functioning and efficiency fundamental for all life on Earth. Besides, an increasing number of biotechnological applications have been envisaged exploiting and mimicking the unique properties of this macromolecular pigment-protein complex. The PSII organization and working principles have inspired the design of electrochemical water splitting schemes and charge separating triads in energy storage systems as well as biochips and sensors for environmental, agricultural and industrial screening of toxic compounds. An intriguing opportunity is the development of sensor devices, exploiting native or manipulated PSII complexes or ad hoc synthesized polypeptides mimicking the PSII reaction centre proteins as bio-sensing elements. This review offers a concise overview of the recent improvements in the understanding of structure and function of PSII donor side, with focus on the interactions of the plastoquinone cofactors with the surrounding environment and operational features. Furthermore, studies focused on photosynthetic proteins structure/function/dynamics and computational analyses aimed at rational design of high-quality bio-recognition elements in biosensor devices are discussed. PMID:24678671

  3. Characterization of the Expression of the Photosystem II-Oxygen Evolving Complex in C4 Species of Flaveria 1

    PubMed Central

    Ketchner, Susan L.; Sayre, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    We have determined the levels of photosystem II activity and polypeptide abundance in whole leaves and isolated bundle sheath and mesophyll cells of C4, “C4-like,” and C3 species of the genus Flaveria (Asteraceae). On a chlorophyll basis, the whole leaf levels of the D1, D2, and 34-kilodalton photosystem II polypeptides were similar for each Flaveria species. Photosystem II activity varied twofold, but was not correlated with photosynthetic type (C3 or C4). The bundle sheath cell levels of photosystem II activity and associated polypeptides in C4-like and C4 Flaveria species were approximately one-half those observed in mesophyll cells but equivalent to those in bundle sheath cells of the C3 species, Flaveria cronquistii. Analyses of the steady-state levels of transcripts encoding photosystem II polypeptides indicated that there were no differences in transcript abundance between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of the C4 Flaveria species. This pattern was in contrast to the three- to tenfold higher levels of transcripts encoding photosystem II polypeptides in mesophyll versus bundle sheath cells of maize. It is apparent that the higher mesophyll cell to bundle sheath ratio of photosystem II polypeptides in C4- and C4-like species of Flaveria is the result of higher levels of photosystem II expression in mesophyll cells rather than lower levels of expression in bundle sheath cells. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668740

  4. Biosynthesis and intracellular processing of carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Toguri, T; Muto, S; Miyachi, S

    1986-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a glycoprotein of 35 kDa which is localized outside the plasma membrane. The activity of CA was increased when the CO2 concentration during photoautotrophic growth was decreased to air level. After decreasing the CO2 concentration from 4% to 0.04%, several polypeptides including CA were induced continuously or transiently. To investigate the biosynthesis and intracellular processing of CA, the cells of wall-less mutant CW-15, which secretes CA into the culture medium, were pulse-labeled with radioactive arginine, chased, and radioactive proteins were immunoprecipitated with anti-CA serum. A 42-kDa polypeptide with isoelectric point (pI) of 7.1-7.3 was first synthesized. Within 5 min the molecular mass of this polypeptide was decreased to 35 kDa and it was then secreted into the culture medium within 30 min. This indicates that the former is the precursor form and the latter the mature form of CA. The primary translation product from poly(A)-rich RNA in a cell-free reticulocyte lysate system from a rabbit was a 38-kDa polypeptide. This was cotranslationally converted into the 42-kDa precursor in vitro in the presence of dog pancreatic microsomal membranes. As the 42-kDa precursor had a high affinity to concanavalin A, it was assumed to have a high-mannose-type oligosaccharide. The mature enzyme had a pI of 6.1-6.2 and was composed of more than two isoforms, which had a complex-type oligosaccharide with low affinity to concanavalin A. Chemical deglycosylation of the mature enzyme by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid indicated that the molecular mass of the polypeptide moiety was 32 kDa and the difference between this and the primary translation product suggests that cleavage of the polypeptide occurs during its biosynthesis. PMID:2874027

  5. Functional and Spectroscopic Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Truncated Hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Droghetti, Enrica; Tundo, Grazia R.; Sanz-Luque, Emanuel; Polticelli, Fabio; Visca, Paolo; Smulevich, Giulietta; Ascenzi, Paolo; Coletta, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The single-cell green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii harbors twelve truncated hemoglobins (Cr-TrHbs). Cr-TrHb1-1 and Cr-TrHb1-8 have been postulated to be parts of the nitrogen assimilation pathway, and of a NO-dependent signaling pathway, respectively. Here, spectroscopic and reactivity properties of Cr-TrHb1-1, Cr-TrHb1-2, and Cr-TrHb1-4, all belonging to clsss 1 (previously known as group N or group I), are reported. The ferric form of Cr-TrHb1-1, Cr-TrHb1-2, and Cr-TrHb1-4 displays a stable 6cLS heme-Fe atom, whereas the hexa-coordination of the ferrous derivative appears less strongly stabilized. Accordingly, kinetics of azide binding to ferric Cr-TrHb1-1, Cr-TrHb1-2, and Cr-TrHb1-4 are independent of the ligand concentration. Conversely, kinetics of CO or NO2− binding to ferrous Cr-TrHb1-1, Cr-TrHb1-2, and Cr-TrHb1-4 are ligand-dependent at low CO or NO2− concentrations, tending to level off at high ligand concentrations, suggesting the presence of a rate-limiting step. In agreement with the different heme-Fe environments, the pH-dependent kinetics for CO and NO2−binding to ferrous Cr-TrHb1-1, Cr-TrHb1-2, and Cr-TrHb1-4 are characterized by different ligand-linked protonation events. This raises the question of whether the simultaneous presence in C. reinhardtii of multiple TrHb1s may be related to different regulatory roles. PMID:25993270

  6. Adaptation prevents the extinction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under toxic beryllium

    PubMed Central

    Baselga-Cervera, Beatriz; Costas, Eduardo; Bustillo-Avendaño, Estéfano

    2016-01-01

    The current biodiversity crisis represents a historic challenge for natural communities: the environmental rate of change exceeds the population’s adaptation capability. Integrating both ecological and evolutionary responses is necessary to make reliable predictions regarding the loss of biodiversity. The race against extinction from an eco-evolutionary perspective is gaining importance in ecological risk assessment. Here, we performed a classical study of population dynamics—a fluctuation analysis—and evaluated the results from an adaption perspective. Fluctuation analysis, widely used with microorganisms, is an effective empirical procedure to study adaptation under strong selective pressure because it incorporates the factors that influence demographic, genetic and environmental changes. The adaptation of phytoplankton to beryllium (Be) is of interest because human activities are increasing the concentration of Be in freshwater reserves; therefore, predicting the effects of human-induced pollutants is necessary for proper risk assessment. The fluctuation analysis was performed with phytoplankton, specifically, the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, under acute Be exposure. High doses of Be led to massive microalgae death; however, by conducting a fluctuation analysis experiment, we found that C. reinhardtii was able to adapt to 33 mg/l of Be due to pre-existing genetic variability. The rescuing adapting genotype presented a mutation rate of 9.61 × 10−6 and a frequency of 10.42 resistant cells per million wild-type cells. The genetic adaptation pathway that was experimentally obtained agreed with the theoretical models of evolutionary rescue (ER). Furthermore, the rescuing genotype presented phenotypic and physiologic differences from the wild-type genotype, was 25% smaller than the Be-resistant genotype and presented a lower fitness and quantum yield performance. The abrupt distinctions between the wild-type and the Be-resistant genotype

  7. Functional and Spectroscopic Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Truncated Hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Ciaccio, Chiara; Ocaña-Calahorro, Francisco; Droghetti, Enrica; Tundo, Grazia R; Sanz-Luque, Emanuel; Polticelli, Fabio; Visca, Paolo; Smulevich, Giulietta; Ascenzi, Paolo; Coletta, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The single-cell green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii harbors twelve truncated hemoglobins (Cr-TrHbs). Cr-TrHb1-1 and Cr-TrHb1-8 have been postulated to be parts of the nitrogen assimilation pathway, and of a NO-dependent signaling pathway, respectively. Here, spectroscopic and reactivity properties of Cr-TrHb1-1, Cr-TrHb1-2, and Cr-TrHb1-4, all belonging to clsss 1 (previously known as group N or group I), are reported. The ferric form of Cr-TrHb1-1, Cr-TrHb1-2, and Cr-TrHb1-4 displays a stable 6cLS heme-Fe atom, whereas the hexa-coordination of the ferrous derivative appears less strongly stabilized. Accordingly, kinetics of azide binding to ferric Cr-TrHb1-1, Cr-TrHb1-2, and Cr-TrHb1-4 are independent of the ligand concentration. Conversely, kinetics of CO or NO2- binding to ferrous Cr-TrHb1-1, Cr-TrHb1-2, and Cr-TrHb1-4 are ligand-dependent at low CO or NO2- concentrations, tending to level off at high ligand concentrations, suggesting the presence of a rate-limiting step. In agreement with the different heme-Fe environments, the pH-dependent kinetics for CO and NO2-binding to ferrous Cr-TrHb1-1, Cr-TrHb1-2, and Cr-TrHb1-4 are characterized by different ligand-linked protonation events. This raises the question of whether the simultaneous presence in C. reinhardtii of multiple TrHb1s may be related to different regulatory roles. PMID:25993270

  8. Adaptation prevents the extinction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under toxic beryllium.

    PubMed

    Baselga-Cervera, Beatriz; Costas, Eduardo; Bustillo-Avendaño, Estéfano; García-Balboa, Camino

    2016-01-01

    The current biodiversity crisis represents a historic challenge for natural communities: the environmental rate of change exceeds the population's adaptation capability. Integrating both ecological and evolutionary responses is necessary to make reliable predictions regarding the loss of biodiversity. The race against extinction from an eco-evolutionary perspective is gaining importance in ecological risk assessment. Here, we performed a classical study of population dynamics-a fluctuation analysis-and evaluated the results from an adaption perspective. Fluctuation analysis, widely used with microorganisms, is an effective empirical procedure to study adaptation under strong selective pressure because it incorporates the factors that influence demographic, genetic and environmental changes. The adaptation of phytoplankton to beryllium (Be) is of interest because human activities are increasing the concentration of Be in freshwater reserves; therefore, predicting the effects of human-induced pollutants is necessary for proper risk assessment. The fluctuation analysis was performed with phytoplankton, specifically, the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, under acute Be exposure. High doses of Be led to massive microalgae death; however, by conducting a fluctuation analysis experiment, we found that C. reinhardtii was able to adapt to 33 mg/l of Be due to pre-existing genetic variability. The rescuing adapting genotype presented a mutation rate of 9.61 × 10(-6) and a frequency of 10.42 resistant cells per million wild-type cells. The genetic adaptation pathway that was experimentally obtained agreed with the theoretical models of evolutionary rescue (ER). Furthermore, the rescuing genotype presented phenotypic and physiologic differences from the wild-type genotype, was 25% smaller than the Be-resistant genotype and presented a lower fitness and quantum yield performance. The abrupt distinctions between the wild-type and the Be-resistant genotype suggest

  9. NMR analysis of the transient complex between membrane photosystem I and soluble cytochrome c6.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Moreno, Irene; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Molina-Heredia, Fernando P; Nieto, Pedro M; Hansson, Orjan; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Karlsson, B Göran

    2005-03-01

    A structural analysis of the surface areas of cytochrome c(6), responsible for the transient interaction with photosystem I, was performed by NMR transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy. The hemeprotein was titrated by adding increasing amounts of the chlorophyllic photosystem, and the NMR spectra of the free and bound protein were analyzed in a comparative way. The NMR signals of cytochrome c(6) residues located at the hydrophobic and electrostatic patches, which both surround the heme cleft, were specifically modified by binding. The backbones of internal residues close to the hydrophobic patch of cytochrome c(6) were also affected, a fact that is ascribed to the conformational changes taking place inside the hemeprotein when interacting with photosystem I. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first structural analysis by NMR spectroscopy of a transient complex between soluble and membrane proteins. PMID:15611120

  10. Computer simulation of interaction of photosystem 1 with plastocyanin and ferredoxin.

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, Ilya B; Abaturova, Anna M; Riznichenko, Galina Yu; Rubin, Andrei B

    2011-02-01

    We designed 3D multiparticle computer models to simulate diffusion and interactions of spinach plastocyanin and ferredoxin with plant photosystem 1 in a solution. Using these models we studied kinetic characteristics of plastocyanin-photosystem 1 and ferredoxin-photosystem 1 complex formation at a variety of ionic strength values. The computer multiparticle models demonstrate non-monotonic dependences of complex formation rates on the ionic strength as the result of long-range electrostatic interactions. Our calculations show that the decrease in the association second-order rate constant at low values of the ionic strength is caused by the protein pairs spending more time in "wrong" orientations which do not satisfy the docking conditions and so do not form the final complex capable of the electron transfer. PMID:20934483

  11. Three-dimensional structure of photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongates in complex with terbutryn

    SciTech Connect

    Gabdulkhakov, A. G. Dontsova, M. V.; Saenger, W.

    2011-11-15

    Photosystem II is a key component of the photosynthetic pathway producing oxygen at the thylakoid membrane of cyanobacteria, green algae, and plants. The three-dimensional structure of photosystem II from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongates in a complex with herbicide terbutryn (a photosynthesis inhibitor) was determined for the first time by X-ray diffraction and refined at 3.2 Angstrom-Sign resolution (R{sub factor} = 26.9%, R{sub free} = 29.9%, rmsd for bond lengths is 0.013 Angstrom-Sign , and rmsd for bond angles is 2.2 Degree-Sign ). The terbutryn molecule was located in the binding pocket of the mobile plastoquinone. The atomic coordinates of the refined structure of photosystem II in a complex with terbutryn were deposited in the Protein Data Bank.

  12. Three-dimensional structure of cyanobacterial photosystem I at 2.5Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Patrick; Fromme, Petra; Witt, Horst Tobias; Klukas, Olaf; Saenger, Wolfram; Krauß, Norbert

    2001-06-01

    Life on Earth depends on photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy from the Sun to chemical energy. In plants, green algae and cyanobacteria, this process is driven by the cooperation of two large protein-cofactor complexes, photosystems I and II, which are located in the thylakoid photosynthetic membranes. The crystal structure of photosystem I from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus described here provides a picture at atomic detail of 12 protein subunits and 127 cofactors comprising 96 chlorophylls, 2 phylloquinones, 3 Fe4S4 clusters, 22 carotenoids, 4 lipids, a putative Ca2+ ion and 201 water molecules. The structural information on the proteins and cofactors and their interactions provides a basis for understanding how the high efficiency of photosystem I in light capturing and electron transfer is achieved.

  13. Polypeptide composition of the purified photosystem II pigment-protein complex from spinach.

    PubMed

    Satoh, K

    1979-04-11

    The Photosystem II pigment-protein complex, the chlorophyll alpha-protein comprising the reaction center of Photosystem II, was prepared from EDTA-treated spinach chloroplasts by digitonin extraction, sucrose-gradient centrifugation, DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and isoelectrofocussing on Ampholine. The dissociated pigment-protein complex exhibits two polypeptide subunits that migrate in SDS-polyacrylamide gel with electrophoretic mobilities corresponding to molecular weights of approximately 43,000 and 27,000. the chlorophyll was always found in the free pigment zone at the completion of the electrophoresis. Heat-treatment of the sample (100 degrees C, 90 s) for electrophoresis caused association of the two polypeptides into large aggregates. It is concluded that these two polypeptides, 43,000 and 27,000, are valid structural or functional components of Photosystem II pigment-protein complex. PMID:444494

  14. Electron spin resonance studies of urea-ferricyanide inactivated spinach photosystem I particles

    SciTech Connect

    Golbeck, J.H.; Warden, J.T.

    1981-09-01

    The photosystem I acceptor system of a subchloroplast particle from spinach was investigated by optical and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy following graduated inactivation of the bound iron-sulfur proteins by urea-ferricyanide. The chemical analysis of iron and sulfur and the ESR properties of centers A, B, and X are consistent with the participation of three iron-sulfur centers in photosystem I. A differential decrease in centers A, B, and X is observed under conditions which induce S= ..-->.. S/sup 0/ conversion in the bound iron-sulfur proteins. Center B is shown to be the most susceptible, while center X is the least susceptible component to oxidative denaturation. Stepwise inactivation experiments suggest that electron transport in photosystem I does not occur sequentially from X ..-->.. B ..-->.. A since there is quantitative photoreduction of center A in the absence of center B. We propose that center A is directly reduced by X.

  15. Consequences of Decreased Light Harvesting Capability on Photosystem II Function in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Aparna; Page, Lawrence E.; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria use large pigment-protein complexes called phycobilisomes to harvest light energy primarily for photosystem II (PSII). We used a series of mutants with partial to complete reduction of phycobilisomes to examine the effects of antenna truncation on photosystem function in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The antenna mutants CB, CK, and PAL expressed increasing levels of functional PSII centers to compensate for the loss of phycobilisomes, with a concomitant decrease in photosystem I (PSI). This increased PSII titer led to progressively higher oxygen evolution rates on a per chlorophyll basis. The mutants also exhibited impaired S-state transition profiles for oxygen evolution. Additionally, P700+ re-reduction rates were impacted by antenna reduction. Thus, a decrease in antenna size resulted in overall physiological changes in light harvesting and delivery to PSII as well as changes in downstream electron transfer to PSI. PMID:25513759

  16. Kinetics of phyllosemiquinone oxidation in the Photosystem I reaction centre of Acaryochloris marina.

    PubMed

    Santabarbara, Stefano; Bailleul, Benjamin; Redding, Kevin; Barber, James; Rappaport, Fabrice; Telfer, Alison

    2012-02-01

    Light-induced electron transfer reactions in the chlorophyll a/d-binding Photosystem I reaction centre of Acaryochloris marina were investigated in whole cells by pump-probe optical spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of ~5ns at room temperature. It is shown that phyllosemiquinone, the secondary electron transfer acceptor anion, is oxidised with bi-phasic kinetics characterised by lifetimes of 88±6ns and 345±10ns. These lifetimes, particularly the former, are significantly slower than those reported for chlorophyll a-binding Photosystem I, which typically range in the 5-30ns and 200-300ns intervals. The possible mechanism of electron transfer reactions in the chlorophyll a/d-binding Photosystem I and the slower oxidation kinetics of the secondary acceptors are discussed. PMID:22037394

  17. A Thylakoid Membrane Protein Harboring a DnaJ-type Zinc Finger Domain Is Required for Photosystem I Accumulation in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Fristedt, Rikard; Williams-Carrier, Rosalind; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Barkan, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) is a large pigment-protein complex and one of the two photosystems that drive electron transfer in oxygenic photosynthesis. We identified a nuclear gene required specifically for the accumulation of PSI in a forward genetic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis in maize. This gene, designated psa2, belongs to the “GreenCut” gene set, a group of genes found in green algae and plants but not in non-photosynthetic organisms. Disruption of the psa2 ortholog in Arabidopsis likewise resulted in the specific loss of PSI proteins. PSA2 harbors a conserved domain found in DnaJ chaperones where it has been shown to form a zinc finger and to have protein-disulfide isomerase activity. Accordingly, PSA2 exhibited protein-disulfide reductase activity in vitro. PSA2 localized to the thylakoid lumen and was found in a ∼250-kDa complex harboring the peripheral PSI protein PsaG but lacking several core PSI subunits. PSA2 mRNA is coexpressed with mRNAs encoding various proteins involved in the biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus with peak expression preceding that of genes encoding structural components. PSA2 protein abundance was not decreased in the absence of PSI but was reduced in the absence of the PSI assembly factor Ycf3. These findings suggest that a complex harboring PSA2 and PsaG mediates thiol transactions in the thylakoid lumen that are important for the assembly of PSI. PMID:25228689

  18. Photochemical reactions of photosystem II in ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hillier, W; Lukins, P; Seibert, M; Wydrzynski, T

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of photosystem II (PSII) reactions was investigated under conditions of decreasing water content by the addition of increasing concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG). The photosynthetic activities were measured for PSII samples either directly in aqueous solutions of EG or in the standard buffer medium following EG treatment. Several effects on PSII arise upon exposure to EG. Below 50% EG there are no significant irreversible changes, although there is a slowing of the QA-reoxidation kinetics in the presence of EG. At concentrations of 50-70% EG, protein structural changes occur that include the release of the 16, 23, and 33 kDa extrinsic proteins and two of the catalytic Mn ions. For these samples, the capacity for O2 evolution is considerably reduced and the formation of donor side H2O2 is enhanced. In 60% EG, the nanosecond components in the rate of P680+ reduction are converted entirely to microsecond kinetics which upon return of the sample to the standard buffer medium are partially restored, indicating that EG has a reversible, solvent effect on the PSII donor side. At concentrations of EG > 70% chlorophyll fluorescence measurements reveal reversible increases in the FO level concomitant with the generation and disappearance of a 5 microseconds decay component in the P680+ reduction kinetics. This result may indicate a solvent-induced uncoupling of the light harvesting pigment bed from the reaction center complex. As the EG concentration is increased to 80-100%, there is an irreversible loss of the primary charge separation. The use of EG as a cryoprotectant and as a water-miscible organic solvent for PSII is discussed. PMID:8993320

  19. Defining the Far-red Limit of Photosystem I

    PubMed Central

    Mokvist, Fredrik; Mamedov, Fikret; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The far-red limit of photosystem I (PS I) photochemistry was studied by EPR spectroscopy using laser flashes between 730 and 850 nm. In manganese-depleted spinach thylakoid membranes, the primary donor in PS I, P700, was oxidized simultaneously with tyrosine Z, the secondary donor in PS II. It was found that at 295 K PS I photochemistry, observed as P700+ formation, was functional up to 840 nm. This is 30 nm further to the red region than was reported for PS II photochemistry (Thapper, A., Mamedov, F., Mokvist, F., Hammarström, L., and Styring, S. (2009) Plant Cell 21, 2391–2401). The same far-red limit for the P700+ formation was observed in a PS I reaction center core preparation from Nostoc punctiforme. The reduction of the acceptor side of PS I, observed as reduction of the iron-sulfur centers FA and FB by low temperature EPR measurements, was also functional at 15 K with light up to >830 nm. Taken together, these results, obtained from both plants and cyanobacteria, most likely rule out involvement of the red-absorbing antenna chlorophylls in this reaction. Instead we propose the existence of weak charge transfer bands absorbing in the far-red region in the ensemble of excitonically coupled chlorophyll a molecules around P700 similar to what has been found in the reaction center of PS II. These charge transfer bands could be responsible for the far-red light absorption leading to PS I photochemistry at wavelengths up to 840 nm. PMID:25023284

  20. Overwintering Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.) Exhibits Increased Photosystem I Activity 1

    PubMed Central

    Huner, N. P. A.; Krol, M.; Williams, J. P.; Maissan, E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of natural, overwintering conditions on photosystem I and photosystem II activity were examined in isolated thylakoids of periwinkle (Vinca minor L.), an endemic, cold-tolerant, herbaceous evergreen. DCMU-Insensitive photosystem I activity (ascorbate/dichlorophenolindophenol → methylviologen) exhibited a twofold increase in light-saturated rates upon exposure to low temperature and freezing stress with no effect on the apparent quantum yield of this reaction. DCMU-Sensitive photosystem II activity (H2O → dichlorlophenolindophenol) exhibited only minor fluctuations in light-saturated rates but a 50% decrease in the apparent quantum yield of this reaction upon exposure to overwintering conditions. This was correlated with a decrease in the 77°K fluorescence emission at 694 nanometers. These functional changes occurred with no detectable changes in the relative chlorophyll contents of the chlorophyll-protein complexes or the chlorophyll-thylakoid protein. The chlorophyll a/b varied less than 10% during any single growth year. Analyses of total leaf extracts indicated that all lipid classes exhibited increased levels of linoleic and linolenic acid. Neither the trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid level nor the ratio of oligomeric:monomeric light harvesting of photosystem II was affected by exposure to winter stress. The content of the major chloroplast lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidyl-diacyl-glycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol exhibited minor fluctuations, whereas phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine content doubled on a mole percent or chlorophyll basis. We conclude that the previously reported increase in photosystem I activity during controlled, low temperature growth is observed during exposure to natural overwintering conditions. This appears to occur with minimal changes in the structure and composition of the photosynthetic apparatus of periwinkle. PMID:16666214

  1. Appearance of Novel Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Isoforms in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during Growth on Nitrate.

    PubMed Central

    Huppe, H. C.; Turpin, D. H.

    1996-01-01

    Extractable glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is higher from N-limited Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells than from N-sufficient cells. Native gels reveal that the isoform complexity varies depending on the form of N supplied. The isoforms associated with NO3- growth appear within 2 h of switching cells from NH4+ to NO3-. PMID:12226271

  2. Similar relative mutation rates in the three genetic compartments of Mesostigma and Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jimeng; Smith, David Roy; Borza, Tudor; Lee, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Levels of nucleotide substitution at silent sites in organelle versus nuclear DNAs have been used to estimate relative mutation rates among these compartments and explain lineage-specific features of genome evolution. Synonymous substitution divergence values in animals suggest that the rate of mutation in the mitochondrial DNA is 10-50 times higher than that of the nuclear DNA, whereas overall data for most seed plants support relative mutation rates in mitochondrial, plastid, and nuclear DNAs of 1:3:10. Little is known about relative mutation rates in green algae, as substitution rate data is limited to only the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas. Here, we measure silent-site substitution rates in the plastid DNA of Chlamydomonas and the three genetic compartments of the streptophyte green alga Mesostigma. In contrast to the situation in animals and land plants, our results support similar relative mutation rates among the three genetic compartments of both Chlamydomonas and Mesostigma. These data are discussed in relation to published intra-species genetic diversity data for the three genetic compartments of Chlamydomonas and are ultimately used to address contemporary hypotheses on the organelle genome evolution. To guide future work, we describe evolutionary divergence data of all publically available Mesostigma viride strains and identify, for the first time, three distinct lineages of Mesostigma. PMID:21621456

  3. Manipulating the chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas: Present realities and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, J.; Gillham, N.; Hauser, C.; Heifetz, P.; Lers, A.; Newman, S.; Osmond, B.

    1992-01-01

    Biotechnology is being applied in vitro modification and stable reintroduction of chloroplast genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Nicotiana tabacum by homologous recombination. We are attempting the function analyses of plastid encoded proteins involved in photosynthesis, characterization of sequences which regulate expression of plastid genes at the transcriptional and translational levels, targeted disruption of chloroplast genes and molecular analysis of processes involved in chloroplast recombination.

  4. Utilizing the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for microbial electricity generation: a living solar cell.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Miriam; Schröder, Uwe; Scholz, Fritz

    2005-10-01

    By employing living cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we demonstrate the possibility of direct electricity generation from microbial photosynthetic activity. The presented concept is based on an in situ oxidative depletion of hydrogen, photosynthetically produced by C. reinhardtii under sulfur-deprived conditions, by polymer-coated electrocatalytic electrodes. PMID:15696280

  5. Identification and Regulation of Plasma Membrane Sulfate Transporters in Chlamydomonas1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Gonzalez-Ballester, David; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) exhibits several responses following exposure to sulfur (S)-deprivation conditions, including an increased efficiency of import and assimilation of the sulfate anion (SO42−). Aspects of SO42− transport during S-replete and S-depleted conditions were previously studied, although the transporters had not been functionally identified. We employed a reverse genetics approach to identify putative SO42− transporters, examine their regulation, establish their biogenesis and subcellular locations, and explore their functionality. Upon S starvation of wild-type Chlamydomonas cells, the accumulation of transcripts encoding the putative SO42− transporters SLT1 (for SAC1-like transporter 1), SLT2, and SULTR2 markedly increased, suggesting that these proteins function in high-affinity SO42− transport. The Chlamydomonas sac1 and snrk2.1 mutants (defective for acclimation to S deprivation) exhibited much less of an increase in the levels of SLT1, SLT2, and SULTR2 transcripts and their encoded proteins in response to S deprivation compared with wild-type cells. All three transporters were localized to the plasma membrane, and their rates of turnover were significantly impacted by S availability; the turnover of SLT1 and SLT2 was proteasome dependent, while that of SULTR2 was proteasome independent. Finally, mutants identified for each of the S-deprivation-responsive transporters were used to establish their critical role in the transport of SO42− into S-deprived cells. PMID:20498339

  6. Validation of housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in an ice alga Chlamydomonas during freezing acclimation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenlin; Wu, Guangting; Huang, Xiaohang; Liu, Shenghao; Cong, Bailin

    2012-05-01

    Antarctic ice alga Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L can endure extreme low temperature and high salinity stress under freezing conditions. To elucidate the molecular acclimation mechanisms using gene expression analysis, the expression stabilities of ten housekeeping genes of Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L during freezing stress were analyzed. Some discrepancies were detected in the ranking of the candidate reference genes between geNorm and NormFinder programs, but there was substantial agreement between the groups of genes with the most and the least stable expression. RPL19 was ranked as the best candidate reference genes. Pairwise variation (V) analysis indicated the combination of two reference genes was sufficient for qRT-PCR data normalization under the experimental conditions. Considering the co-regulation between RPL19 and RPL32 (the most stable gene pairs given by geNorm program), we propose that the mean data rendered by RPL19 and GAPDH (the most stable gene pairs given by NormFinder program) be used to normalize gene expression values in Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L more accurately. The example of FAD3 gene expression calculation demonstrated the importance of selecting an appropriate category and number of reference genes to achieve an accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression during freeze acclimation in Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L. PMID:22527038

  7. Manipulating the chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas: Present realities and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, J.; Gillham, N.; Hauser, C.; Heifetz, P.; Lers, A.; Newman, S.; Osmond, B.

    1992-12-31

    Biotechnology is being applied in vitro modification and stable reintroduction of chloroplast genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Nicotiana tabacum by homologous recombination. We are attempting the function analyses of plastid encoded proteins involved in photosynthesis, characterization of sequences which regulate expression of plastid genes at the transcriptional and translational levels, targeted disruption of chloroplast genes and molecular analysis of processes involved in chloroplast recombination.

  8. Azolla filiculoides Nitrogenase Activity Decrease Induced by Inoculation with Chlamydomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Habte, M

    1986-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of Chlamydomonas sp. on nitrogen fixation (C(2)H(2) --> C(2)H(4)) in Azolla filiculoides and on the nitrogen fixation and growth of free-living Anabaena azollae 2B organisms. Inoculation of azolla medium with Chlamydomonas sp. was associated with decreased nitrogenase activity in A. filiculoides and with increases in the density of a fungal population identified as Acremonium sp. Subsequent inoculation of azolla medium with this fungus was also accompanied by a significant decrease in nitrogenase activity of A. filiculoides. However, the extent of depression of nitrogenase activity was significantly higher when azolla medium was inoculated with Chlamydomonas sp. than when it was inoculated with Acremonium sp. Inoculation of nitrogen-free Stanier medium with either Acremonium sp. or Chlamydomonas sp. did not adversely affect the growth or nitrogenase activity of free-living A. azollae. Decreased nitrogenase activity in A. filiculoides is apparently related to the adverse influence of the green alga and the fungus on the macrosymbiont. The mechanisms that might be involved are discussed. PMID:16347211

  9. Azolla filiculoides Nitrogenase Activity Decrease Induced by Inoculation with Chlamydomonas sp. †

    PubMed Central

    Habte, Mitiku

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of Chlamydomonas sp. on nitrogen fixation (C2H2 → C2H4) in Azolla filiculoides and on the nitrogen fixation and growth of free-living Anabaena azollae 2B organisms. Inoculation of azolla medium with Chlamydomonas sp. was associated with decreased nitrogenase activity in A. filiculoides and with increases in the density of a fungal population identified as Acremonium sp. Subsequent inoculation of azolla medium with this fungus was also accompanied by a significant decrease in nitrogenase activity of A. filiculoides. However, the extent of depression of nitrogenase activity was significantly higher when azolla medium was inoculated with Chlamydomonas sp. than when it was inoculated with Acremonium sp. Inoculation of nitrogen-free Stanier medium with either Acremonium sp. or Chlamydomonas sp. did not adversely affect the growth or nitrogenase activity of free-living A. azollae. Decreased nitrogenase activity in A. filiculoides is apparently related to the adverse influence of the green alga and the fungus on the macrosymbiont. The mechanisms that might be involved are discussed. PMID:16347211

  10. Procedures for the Generation of Mature Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Zygotes for Molecular and Biochemical Analyses 1

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Dorothee; Treier, Ulrike; Beck, Christoph F.

    1989-01-01

    Zygotes represent an important stage in the sexual cycle of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. To study zygote germination at a molecular level, a protocol was elaborated for the generation of zygotes in large quantities and a method was developed for the extraction from zygotes of RNA that could be translated in vitro. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:16666800

  11. PSR1 Is a Global Transcriptional Regulator of Phosphorus Deficiency Responses and Carbon Storage Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Bajhaiya, Amit K; Dean, Andrew P; Zeef, Leo A H; Webster, Rachel E; Pittman, Jon K

    2016-03-01

    Many eukaryotic microalgae modify their metabolism in response to nutrient stresses such as phosphorus (P) starvation, which substantially induces storage metabolite biosynthesis, but the genetic mechanisms regulating this response are poorly understood. Here, we show that P starvation-induced lipid and starch accumulation is inhibited in a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant lacking the transcription factor Pi Starvation Response1 (PSR1). Transcriptomic analysis identified specific metabolism transcripts that are induced by P starvation but misregulated in the psr1 mutant. These include transcripts for starch and triacylglycerol synthesis but also transcripts for photosynthesis-, redox-, and stress signaling-related proteins. To further examine the role of PSR1 in regulating lipid and starch metabolism, PSR1 complementation lines in the psr1 strain and PSR1 overexpression lines in a cell wall-deficient strain were generated. PSR1 expression in the psr1 lines was shown to be functional due to rescue of the psr1 phenotype. PSR1 overexpression lines exhibited increased starch content and number of starch granules per cell, which correlated with a higher expression of specific starch metabolism genes but reduced neutral lipid content. Furthermore, this phenotype was consistent in the presence and absence of acetate. Together, these results identify a key transcriptional regulator in global metabolism and demonstrate transcriptional engineering in microalgae to modulate starch biosynthesis. PMID:26704642

  12. Improving recombinant protein production in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast using vivid Verde Fluorescent Protein as a reporter.

    PubMed

    Braun-Galleani, Stephanie; Baganz, Frank; Purton, Saul

    2015-08-01

    Microalgae have potential as platforms for the synthesis of high-value recombinant proteins due to their many beneficial attributes including ease of cultivation, lack of pathogenic agents, and low-cost downstream processing. However, current recombinant protein levels are low compared to other microbial platforms and stable insertion of transgenes is available in only a few microalgal species. We have explored different strategies aimed at increasing growth rate and recombinant protein production in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast. A novel fluorescent protein (vivid Verde Fluorescent Protein, VFP) was expressed under the control of the native atpA promoter/5'UTR element. VFP levels were detected by western blotting, with increased protein levels observed when co-expressed with a gene encoding the Escherichia coli Spy chaperone. We used these transformant lines to study the effect of temperature, light and media on recombinant protein production and cell growth. VFP levels and fluorescence, assessed by flow cytometry, allowed a determination of improved cultivation conditions as 30°C under mixotrophic mode. These conditions were tested for the accumulation of an antimicrobial endolysin (Cpl-1) of potential commercial interest, observing that the outcome obtained for VFP could not be easily replicated for Cpl-1. This study suggests that recombinant protein expression is product-specific and needs to be optimized individually. PMID:26098300

  13. PSR1 Is a Global Transcriptional Regulator of Phosphorus Deficiency Responses and Carbon Storage Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bajhaiya, Amit K.; Dean, Andrew P.; Zeef, Leo A.H.; Webster, Rachel E.; Pittman, Jon K.

    2016-01-01

    Many eukaryotic microalgae modify their metabolism in response to nutrient stresses such as phosphorus (P) starvation, which substantially induces storage metabolite biosynthesis, but the genetic mechanisms regulating this response are poorly understood. Here, we show that P starvation-induced lipid and starch accumulation is inhibited in a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant lacking the transcription factor Pi Starvation Response1 (PSR1). Transcriptomic analysis identified specific metabolism transcripts that are induced by P starvation but misregulated in the psr1 mutant. These include transcripts for starch and triacylglycerol synthesis but also transcripts for photosynthesis-, redox-, and stress signaling-related proteins. To further examine the role of PSR1 in regulating lipid and starch metabolism, PSR1 complementation lines in the psr1 strain and PSR1 overexpression lines in a cell wall-deficient strain were generated. PSR1 expression in the psr1 lines was shown to be functional due to rescue of the psr1 phenotype. PSR1 overexpression lines exhibited increased starch content and number of starch granules per cell, which correlated with a higher expression of specific starch metabolism genes but reduced neutral lipid content. Furthermore, this phenotype was consistent in the presence and absence of acetate. Together, these results identify a key transcriptional regulator in global metabolism and demonstrate transcriptional engineering in microalgae to modulate starch biosynthesis. PMID:26704642

  14. Optimizing biodiesel production in marine Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 through metabolic profiling and an innovative salinity-gradient strategy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biodiesel production from marine microalgae has received much attention as microalgae can be cultivated on non-arable land without the use of potable water, and with the additional benefits of mitigating CO2 emissions and yielding biomass. However, there is still a lack of effective operational strategies to promote lipid accumulation in marine microalgae, which are suitable for making biodiesel since they are mainly composed of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms involved in lipid biosynthesis in microalgae under environmental stress are not well understood. Results In this work, the combined effects of salinity and nitrogen depletion stresses on lipid accumulation of a newly isolated marine microalga, Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4, were explored. Metabolic intermediates were profiled over time to observe transient changes during the lipid accumulation triggered by the combination of the two stresses. An innovative cultivation strategy (denoted salinity-gradient operation) was also employed to markedly improve the lipid accumulation and lipid quality of the microalga, which attained an optimal lipid productivity of 223.2 mg L-1 d-1 and a lipid content of 59.4% per dry cell weight. This performance is significantly higher than reported in most related studies. Conclusions This work demonstrated the synergistic integration of biological and engineering technologies to develop a simple and effective strategy for the enhancement of oil production in marine microalgae. PMID:25002905

  15. Improving recombinant protein production in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast using vivid Verde Fluorescent Protein as a reporter

    PubMed Central

    Baganz, Frank; Purton, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Microalgae have potential as platforms for the synthesis of high‐value recombinant proteins due to their many beneficial attributes including ease of cultivation, lack of pathogenic agents, and low‐cost downstream processing. However, current recombinant protein levels are low compared to other microbial platforms and stable insertion of transgenes is available in only a few microalgal species. We have explored different strategies aimed at increasing growth rate and recombinant protein production in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast. A novel fluorescent protein (vivid Verde Fluorescent Protein, VFP) was expressed under the control of the native atpA promoter/5'UTR element. VFP levels were detected by western blotting, with increased protein levels observed when co‐expressed with a gene encoding the Escherichia coli Spy chaperone. We used these transformant lines to study the effect of temperature, light and media on recombinant protein production and cell growth. VFP levels and fluorescence, assessed by flow cytometry, allowed a determination of improved cultivation conditions as 30°C under mixotrophic mode. These conditions were tested for the accumulation of an antimicrobial endolysin (Cpl‐1) of potential commercial interest, observing that the outcome obtained for VFP could not be easily replicated for Cpl‐1. This study suggests that recombinant protein expression is product‐specific and needs to be optimized individually. PMID:26098300

  16. Photosystem II repair in plant chloroplasts--Regulation, assisting proteins and shared components with photosystem II biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Järvi, Sari; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-09-01

    Photosystem (PS) II is a multisubunit thylakoid membrane pigment-protein complex responsible for light-driven oxidation of water and reduction of plastoquinone. Currently more than 40 proteins are known to associate with PSII, either stably or transiently. The inherent feature of the PSII complex is its vulnerability in light, with the damage mainly targeted to one of its core proteins, the D1 protein. The repair of the damaged D1 protein, i.e. the repair cycle of PSII, initiates in the grana stacks where the damage generally takes place, but subsequently continues in non-appressed thylakoid domains, where many steps are common for both the repair and de novo assembly of PSII. The sequence of the (re)assembly steps of genuine PSII subunits is relatively well-characterized in higher plants. A number of novel findings have shed light into the regulation mechanisms of lateral migration of PSII subcomplexes and the repair as well as the (re)assembly of the complex. Besides the utmost importance of the PSII repair cycle for the maintenance of PSII functionality, recent research has pointed out that the maintenance of PSI is closely dependent on regulation of the PSII repair cycle. This review focuses on the current knowledge of regulation of the repair cycle of PSII in higher plant chloroplasts. Particular emphasis is paid on sequential assembly steps of PSII and the function of the number of PSII auxiliary proteins involved both in the biogenesis and repair of PSII. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. PMID:25615587

  17. Thermal bleaching induced changes in photosystem II function not reflected by changes in photosystem II protein content of Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeans, J.; Szabó, M.; Campbell, D. A.; Larkum, A. W. D.; Ralph, P. J.; Hill, R.

    2014-03-01

    Scleractinian corals exist in a symbiosis with marine dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium that is easily disrupted by changes in the external environment. Increasing seawater temperatures cause loss of pigments and expulsion of the symbionts from the host in a process known as coral bleaching; though, the exact mechanism and trigger of this process has yet to be elucidated. We exposed nubbins of the coral Stylophora pistillata to bleaching temperatures over a period of 14 daylight hours. Fifty-nine percent of the symbiont population was expelled over the course of this short-term treatment. Maximum quantum yield ( F V/ F M) of photosystem (PS) II for the in hospite symbiont population did not change significantly over the treatment period, but there was a significant decline in the quantity of PSII core proteins (PsbA and PsbD) at the onset of the experimental increase in temperature. F V/ F M from populations of expelled symbionts dropped sharply over the first 6 h of temperature treatment, and then toward the end of the experiment, it increased to an F V/ F M value similar to that of the in hospite population. This suggests that the symbionts were likely damaged prior to expulsion from the host, and the most damaged symbionts were expelled earlier in the bleaching. The quantity of PSII core proteins, PsbA and PsbD, per cell was significantly higher in the expelled symbionts than in the remaining in hospite population over 6-10 h of temperature treatment. We attribute this to a buildup of inactive PSII reaction centers, likely caused by a breakdown in the PSII repair cycle. Thus, thermal bleaching of the coral S. pistillata induces changes in PSII content that do not follow the pattern that would be expected based on the results of PSII function.

  18. Oxygen-evolving photosystem II preparation from wild type and photosystem II mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilovsky, D.L.; Boussac, A.G.P.; van Mieghem, F.J.E.; Ducruet, J.M.R.C.; Setif, P.R.; Rutherford, A.W. ); Jiujiang Yu; Vermaas, W.F.J. )

    1992-02-25

    The authors present here a simple and rapid method which allows relatively large quantities of oxygen-evolving photosystem II- (PS-II-) enriched particles to be obtained from wild-type and mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. This method is based on that of Burnap et al. but is modified so that the whole preparation, from cells to PS-II particles, is achieved in 10 h and involves only one purification step. The purified preparation exhibits a 5-6-fold increase of O{sub 2}-evolution activity on a chlorophyll basis over the thylakoids. The ratio of PS-I to PS-II is about 0.14:1 in the preparation. The secondary quinone electron acceptor, Q{sub B}, is present in this preparation as demonstrated by thermoluminescence studies. These PS-II particles are well-suited to spectroscopic studies as demonstrated by the range of EPR signals arising from components of PS-II that are easily detectable. Among the EPR signals presented are those from a formal S{sub 3}-state, attributed to an oxidized amino acid interacting magnetically with the Mn complex in Ca{sup 2+}-deficient PS-II particles, and from S{sub 2} modified by the replacement of Ca{sup 2+} by Sr{sup 2+}. Neither of these signals has been previously reported in cyanobacteria. Their detection under these conditions indicates a similar lesion caused by Ca{sup 2+} depletion in both plants and cyanobacteria. The protocol has been applied to mutants which have site-specific changes in PS-II. Data are presented on mutants have changes on the electron donor (Y160F) and electron acceptor (G215W) side of the D{sub 2} polypeptide.

  19. High-Throughput Genetics Strategies for Identifying New Components of Lipid Metabolism in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobo; Jonikas, Martin C

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal lipid metabolism is of broad interest because microalgae accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAGs) that can be used for biodiesel production (Durrett et al Plant J 54(4):593-607, 2008; Hu et al Plant J 54(4):621-639, 2008). Additionally, green algae are close relatives of land plants and serve as models to understand conserved lipid metabolism pathways in the green lineage. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas hereafter) is a powerful model organism for understanding algal lipid metabolism. Various methods have been used to screen Chlamydomonas mutants for lipid amount or composition, and for identification of the mutated loci in mutants of interest. In this chapter, we summarize the advantages and caveats for each of these methods with a focus on screens for mutants with perturbed TAG content. We also discuss technical opportunities and new tools that are becoming available for screens of mutants altered in TAG content or perturbed in other processes in Chlamydomonas. PMID:27023238

  20. Lacking power impairs executive functions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pamela K; Jostmann, Nils B; Galinsky, Adam D; van Dijk, Wilco W

    2008-05-01

    Four experiments explored whether lacking power impairs executive functioning, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive presses of powerlessness increase vulnerability to performance decrements during complex executive tasks. In the first three experiments, low power impaired performance on executive-function tasks: The powerless were less effective than the powerful at updating (Experiment 1), inhibiting (Experiment 2), and planning (Experiment 3). Existing research suggests that the powerless have difficulty distinguishing between what is goal relevant and what is goal irrelevant in the environment. A fourth experiment established that the executive-function impairment associated with low power is driven by goal neglect. The current research implies that the cognitive alterations arising from powerlessness may help foster stable social hierarchies and that empowering employees may reduce costly organizational errors. PMID:18466404

  1. Sustained hydrogen photoproduction by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Effects of culture parameters.

    PubMed

    Kosourov, Sergey; Tsygankov, Anatoly; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria L

    2002-06-30

    The green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is capable of sustained H(2) photoproduction when grown under sulfur-deprived conditions. This phenomenon is a result of the partial deactivation of photosynthetic O(2)-evolution activity in response to sulfur deprivation. At these reduced rates of water-oxidation, oxidative respiration under continuous illumination can establish an anaerobic environment in the culture. After 10-15 hours of anaerobiosis, sulfur-deprived algal cells induce a reversible hydrogenase and start to evolve H(2) gas in the light. Using a computer-monitored photobioreactor system, we investigated the behavior of sulfur-deprived algae and found that: (1) the cultures transition through five consecutive phases: an aerobic phase, an O(2)-consumption phase, an anaerobic phase, a H(2)-production phase and a termination phase; (2) synchronization of cell division during pre-growth with 14:10 h light:dark cycles leads to earlier establishment of anaerobiosis in the cultures and to earlier onset of the H(2)-production phase; (3) re-addition of small quantities of sulfate (12.5-50 microM MgSO(4), final concentration) to either synchronized or unsynchronized cell suspensions results in an initial increase in culture density, a higher initial specific rate of H(2) production, an increase in the length of the H(2)-production phase, and an increase in the total amount of H(2) produced; and (4) increases in the culture optical density in the presence of 50 microM sulfate result in a decrease in the initial specific rates of H(2) production and in an earlier start of the H(2)-production phase with unsynchronized cells. We suggest that the effects of sulfur re-addition on H(2) production, up to an optimal concentration, are due to an increase in the residual water-oxidation activity of the algal cells. We also demonstrate that, in principle, cells synchronized by growth under light:dark cycles can be used in an outdoor H(2)-production system without loss of

  2. Role of the Reversible Xanthophyll Cycle in the Photosystem II Damage and Repair Cycle in Dunaliella salina1

    PubMed Central

    Jin, EonSeon; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak; Polle, Juergen E.W.; Melis, Anastasios

    2003-01-01

    The Dunaliella salina photosynthetic apparatus organization and function was investigated in wild type (WT) and a mutant (zea1) lacking all β,β-epoxycarotenoids derived from zeaxanthin (Z). The zea1 mutant lacked antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin from its thylakoid membranes but constitutively accumulated Z instead. It also lacked the so-called xanthophyll cycle, which, upon irradiance stress, reversibly converts violaxanthin to Z via a de-epoxidation reaction. Despite the pronounced difference observed in the composition of β,β-epoxycarotenoids between WT and zea1, no discernible difference could be observed between the two strains in terms of growth, photosynthesis, organization of the photosynthetic apparatus, photo-acclimation, sensitivity to photodamage, or recovery from photo-inhibition. WT and zea1 were probed for the above parameters over a broad range of growth irradiance and upon light shift experiments (low light to high light shift and vice versa). A constitutive accumulation of Z in the zea1 strain did not affect the acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to irradiance, as evidenced by indistinguishable irradiance-dependent adjustments in the chlorophyll antenna size and photosystem content of WT and zea1 strain. In addition, a constitutive accumulation of Z in the zea1 strain did not affect rates of photodamage or the recovery of the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-inhibition. However, Z in the WT accumulated in parallel with the accumulation of photodamaged PSII centers in the chloroplast thylakoids and decayed in tandem with a chloroplast recovery from photo-inhibition. These results suggest a role for Z in the protection of photodamaged and disassembled PSII reaction centers, apparently needed while PSII is in the process of degradation and replacement of the D1/32-kD reaction center protein. PMID:12746540

  3. Molecular basis of the heat denaturation of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L K; Blaylock, R; Sturtevant, J M; Brudvig, G W

    1989-08-01

    The thermal denaturation of the photosystem II (PSII) membrane protein complex is investigated by assigning the endothermic transitions observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to the denaturation of particular proteins of the PSII complex. In a prior DSC study of PSII membranes [Thompson, L. K., Sturtevant, J. M., & Brudvig, G. W. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 6161], five DSC peaks were observed in the 30-70 degrees C temperature range (A1, A2, B, C, and D). The A2 peak was assigned to denaturation of a component essential for water oxidation and the B peak to denaturation of a component critical to the remainder of the electron-transport chain. We have now extended these studies with thermal gel analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. Thermal gel analysis, a technique which relies on a change in the solubility properties of a membrane protein upon denaturation, has been used to determine the temperatures of denaturation of all of the major membrane proteins of the PSII complex. EPR experiments have been used to monitor chlorophyll photooxidation and the stability of TyrD+. Peaks B, C, and D in the DSC denaturation profile are each assigned to the denaturation of several proteins, which provides information on the organization of the PSII complex into structural and functional units. Peak B corresponds to the denaturation of peripheral core proteins and closely associated antenna proteins, peak C to the PSII core, and peak D to the loosely associated antenna proteins. No membrane protein is observed to denature during the A2 peak. The A2 peak is altered by the presence of catalase, superoxide dismutase, low chloride, and high pH. These results suggest that the abnormally sharp A2 peak occurs when the highly oxidizing, sequestered Mn complex (the active site in water oxidation) becomes accessible to the aqueous phase, at elevated temperatures. We propose a mechanism for the reaction of the Mn complex with hydroxide ions, which involves

  4. Hydrogen evolution as a consumption mode of reducing equivalents in green algal fermentation. [Chlamydomonas reinhardii; Chlorella pyrenoidosa; Chlorococcum minutum

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, S.; Miyamoto, K.; Miura, Y.

    1987-04-01

    Dark anaerobic fermentation in the green algae Chlamydomonas MGA 161, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and Chlorococcum minutum was studied. Their isolate, Chlamydomonas MGA 161, was unusual in having high H/sub 2/ but almost no formate. The fermentation pattern in Chlamydomonas MGA 161 was altered by changes in the NaCl or NH/sub 4/Cl concentration. Glycerol formation increased at low (0.1%) and high (7%) NaCl concentrations starch degradation, and formation of ethanol, H/sub 2/, and CO/sub 2/ increased with the addition of NH/sub 4/Cl to above 5 millimolar in N-deficient cells. C. reinhardtii and C.pyrenoidosa exhibited a very similar anaerobic metabolism, forming formate, acetate and ethanol in a ratio of about 2:2:1. C. minimum was also unusual in forming acetate, glycerol, and CO/sub 2/ as its main products, with H/sub 2/, formate, and ethanol being formed in negligible amounts. In the presence of CO, ethanol formation increased twofold in Chlamydomonas MGA 161 and C. reinhardtii, but the fermentation pattern in C. minimum did not change. An experiment with hypophosphite addition showed that dark H/sub 2/ evolution of the Escherichia coli type could be ruled out in Chlamydomonas MGA 161 and C. reinhardtii. Among the green algae investigated, three fermentation types were identified by the distribution pattern of the end products, which reflected the consumption model of reducing equivalents in the cells.

  5. Photosystem II inhibitor resistance in the Columbia Basin of Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato and mint (peppermint and spearmint) are commonly produced in the irrigated regions of the Pacific Northwest and both crops rely heavily on photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor herbicides metribuzin (potato) and terbacil (mint) for weed management. Seed was collected in 2010 from Powell amaranth, r...

  6. Effects of Photosystem II Interfering Herbicides Atrazine and Bentazon on the Soybean Transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atrazine and bentazon are both photosystem II inhibiting herbicides that interfere with photosynthetic electron transport provoking oxidative stress. While atrazine is lethal to soybean, bentazon does not kill soybeans because of the capability of soybeans to metabolize the herbicide. Gene expressio...

  7. Catalytic Oxygen Evolution by a Bioinorganic Model of the Photosystem II Oxygen-Evolving Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Derrick L.; Tinoco, Arthur D.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Vrettos, John S.; Allen, Bertha Connie

    2005-01-01

    Bioinorganic models of the manganese Mn4 cluster are important not only as aids in understanding the structure and function of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), but also in developing artificial water-oxidation catalysts. The mechanism of water oxidation by photosystem II (PSII) is thought to involve the formation of a high-valent terminal Mn-oxo…

  8. Copper Toxicity Affects Photosystem II Electron Transport at the Secondary Quinone Acceptor, QB1

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Narendranath; Vass, Imre; Demeter, Sándor

    1989-01-01

    The nature of Cu2+ inhibition of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in pea (Pisum sativum L.) thylakoids was investigated monitoring Hill activity and light emission properties of photosystem II. In Cu2+-inhibited thylakoids, diphenyl carbazide addition does not relieve the loss of Hill activity. The maximum yield of fluorescence induction restored by hydroxylamine in Tris-inactivated thylakoids is markedly reduced by Cu2+. This suggests that Cu2+ does not act on the donor side of PSII but on the reaction center of PSII or on components beyond. Thermoluminescence and delayed luminescence studies show that charge recombination between the positively charged intermediate in water oxidation cycle (S2) and negatively charged primary quinone acceptor of pSII (QA−) is largely unaffected by Cu2+. The S2QB− charge recombination, however, is drastically inhibited which parallels the loss of Hill activity. This indicates that Cu2+ inhibits photosystem II photochemistry primarily affecting the function of the secondary quinone electron acceptor, QB. We suggest that Cu2+ does not block electron flow between the primary and secondary quinone acceptor but modifies the QB site in such a way that it becomes unsuitable for further photosystem II photochemistry. PMID:16666731

  9. Studying the Effect of Light Quality on the Size of the Photosystem II Light Harvesting Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhoz, Romualdo; Quiles, Maria J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article the effect of light quality on the size of the photosystem II (PSII) light harvesting complex (LHCII) is studied by measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence emitted by leaf sections of oat ("Avena sativa," var. Prevision) plants previously treated with either white light or with light filtered through blue, green, red or farred…

  10. Self-consistent QM/MM methodologies for structural refinement of photosystem II and other macromolecules of biological interest

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, Enrique R; Sproviero, Eduardo M; Newcomer, Michael; Gascon, Jose A; Batista, Victor S

    2008-01-01

    The combination of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is one of the most promising approaches to study the structure, function, and properties of proteins and nucleic acids. However, there some instances in which the limitations of either the MM (lack of a proper electronic description) or QM (limited to a few number of atoms) methods prevent a proper description of the system. To address this issue, we review here our approach to fine-tune the structure of biological systems using post-QM/MM refinements. These protocols are based on spectroscopy data, and/or partitioning of the system to extend the QM description to a larger region of a protein. We illustrate these methodologies through applications to several biomolecules, which were pre-optimized at the QM/MM level and then further refined using postQM/MM refinement methodologies: mod(QM/MM), which refines the atomic charges of the residues included in the MM region accounting for polarization effects; mod(QM/MM)-opt that partition the MM region in smaller parts and optimizes each part in an iterative. self-consistent way, and the Polarized-Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (P-EXAFS) fitting procedure, which fine-tune the atomic coordinates to reproduce experimental polarized EXAFS spectra. The first two techniques were applied to the guanine quadruplex. while the P-EXAFS refinement was applied to the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II.

  11. Electrostatic influence of PsaC protein binding to the PsaA/PsaB heterodimer in photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Stehlik, Dietmar; Golbeck, John H; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2006-02-01

    The absence of the PsaC subunit in the photosystem I (PSI) complex (native PSI complex) by mutagenesis or chemical manipulation yields a PSI core (P700-F(X) core) that also lacks subunits PsaD and PsaE and the two iron-sulfur clusters F(A) and F(B), which constitute an integral part of PsaC. In this P700-F(X) core, the redox potentials (E(m)) of the two quinones A(1A/B) and the iron-sulfur cluster F(X) as well as the corresponding protonation patterns are investigated by evaluating the electrostatic energies from the solution of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The B-side specific Asp-B558 changes its protonation state significantly upon isolating the P700-F(X) core, being mainly protonated in the native PSI complex but ionized in the P700-F(X) core. In the P700-F(X) core, E(m)(A(1A/B)) remains practically unchanged, whereas E(m)(F(X)) is upshifted by 42 mV. With these calculated E(m) values, the electron transfer rate from A(1) to F(X) in the P700-F(X) core is estimated to be slightly faster on the A(1A) side than that of the wild type, which is consistent with kinetic measurements. PMID:16258043

  12. D1 fragmentation in photosystem II repair caused by photo-damage of a two-step model.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yusuke; Ozawa, Shin-Ichiro; Takahashi, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2015-12-01

    Light energy drives photosynthesis, but it simultaneously inactivates photosynthetic mechanisms. A major target site of photo-damage is photosystem II (PSII). It further targets one reaction center protein, D1, which is maintained efficiently by the PSII repair cycle. Two proteases, FtsH and Deg, are known to contribute to this process, respectively, by efficient degradation of photo-damaged D1 protein processively and endoproteolytically. This study tested whether the D1 cleavage accomplished by these proteases is affected by different monochromic lights such as blue and red light-emitting-diode light sources, remaining mindful that the use of these lights distinguishes the current models for photoinhibition: the excess-energy model and the two-step model. It is noteworthy that in the two-step model, primary damage results from the absorption of light energy in the Mn-cluster, which can be enhanced by a blue rather than a red light source. Results showed that blue and red lights affect D1 degradation differently. One prominent finding was that D1 fragmentation that is specifically generated by luminal Deg proteases was enhanced by blue light but not by red light in the mutant lacking FtsH2. Although circumstantial, this evidence supports a two-step model of PSII photo-damage. We infer that enhanced D1 fragmentation by luminal Deg proteases is a response to primary damage at the Mn-cluster. PMID:25893898

  13. MPH1 is a thylakoid membrane protein involved in protecting photosystem II from photodamage in land plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is highly susceptible to photoinhibition caused by environmental stimuli such as high light; therefore plants have evolved multifaceted mechanisms to efficiently protect PSII from photodamage. We previously published data suggesting that Maintenance of PSII under High light 1 (MPH1, encoded by AT5G07020), a PSII-associated proline-rich protein found in land plants, participates in the maintenance of normal PSII activity under photoinhibitory stress. Here we provide additional evidence for the role of MPH1 in protecting PSII against photooxidative damage. Two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking a functional MPH1 gene suffer from severe photoinhibition relative to the wild-type plants under high irradiance light. The mph1 mutants exhibit significantly decreased PSII quantum yield and electron transport rate after exposure to photoinhibitory light. The mutants also display drastically elevated photodamage to PSII reaction center proteins after high-light treatment. These data add further evidence that MPH1 is involved in PSII photoprotection in Arabidopsis. MPH1 homologs are found across phylogenetically diverse land plants but are not detected in algae or prokaryotes. Taken together, these results suggest that MPH1 protein began to play a role in protecting PSII against excess light following the transition from aquatic to terrestrial conditions. PMID:26337456

  14. Loss of peripheral polypeptides in the stromal side of photosystem I by light-chilling in cucumber leaves.

    PubMed

    Oh, Min-Hyuk; Safarova, Rana B; Eu, Young-Jae; Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Kim, Jin-Hong; Hwang, Hong Jin; Lee, Chin Bum; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2009-04-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) is severely damaged by chilling at 4 degrees C in low light, especially in the chilling sensitive plant cucumber. To investigate the early events in PSI photoinhibition, we examined structural changes in the level of pigment-protein complexes in cucumber leaves in comparison with pea leaves. The complexes were separated on a native green gel and an increase in the intensity of a band was observed only in light-chilled cucumber leaves. The 77 K fluorescence emission spectrum of this green band indicated that the band was mainly composed of PSI with light-harvesting complex I. Each lane was cut from the green gel and separated on a fully denaturing SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. The new green gel band observed after light-chilling in cucumber leaves lacked 19, 18, and 16.5 kDa polypeptides. These results suggest that light-chilling facilitates the release of three peripheral polypeptides as an early event of chilling stress in vivo, which results in the inactivation of PSI in intact cucumber leaves. PMID:19337668

  15. Isolation and purification of CP43 and CP47 photosystem II proximal antenna complexes from plants.

    PubMed

    Picorel, Rafael; Alfonso, Miguel; Seibert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A method to isolate and purify CP43 and CP47 pigment-protein complexes from Photosystem (PS) II of higher plants is presented. The method has been developed in spinach, but it may also be valid for other plant species, since there is high PSII core complex homology in all plants. Core complex, obtained from highly enriched PSII membrane fragments (the extrinsic proteins were previously removed by Tris treatment), is used as starting material. The core complex is first treated with the chaotropic agent, LiClO4, and the nonionic detergent, n-dodecyl β-D-maltoside. After dialysis against buffer lacking detergent or chaotropic agent, the solubilized material is separated by anion-exchange chromatography using a TSK Toyopearl DEAE 650s column. CP43 complex does not bind to the column under these conditions and elutes along with free pigments and few other contaminants. When the eluate becomes colorless, the column is subjected to a 0-170-mM LiClO4 linear gradient. The main pigment elution band corresponds to the CP47 complex with some contaminants. To obtain pure preparations of CP43 and CP47 complexes, other chromatographic steps were developed. The CP43 material is passed through a S-Sepharose cation-exchange column at room temperature and then through a Q-Sepharose anion-exchange column. After dialysis, the solution is passed through a new Q-Sepharose anion-exchange column at a different pH. The bound material is eluted with a 10-70-mM MgSO4 linear gradient, and the fractions with a prominent peak at 670 nm and a clear shoulder at 683 nm are combined. This constitutes the pure CP43 complex. The CP47 material from the first column is dialyzed, loaded onto a new TSK Toyopearl DEAE 650s column, and eluted with a 0-175-mM LiClO4 linear gradient. The fractions with a peak at 674.8 nm are combined and constitute the pure CP47 complex. PMID:20960125

  16. Rescue of a paralyzed-flagella mutant of Chlamydomonas by transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, D.R.; Curry, A.M.; Johnson, K.A.; Williams, B.D.; Rosenbaum, J.L. ); Lefebvre, P.A. ); Kindle, K.L. )

    1990-08-01

    The biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas has been used extensively in the genetic and biochemical analysis of flagellar assembly and motility. The authors have restored motility to a paralyzed-flagella mutant of Chlamydomonas by transforming with the corresponding wild-type gene. A nitrate reductase-deficient paralyzed-flagella strain, nit1-305 pf-14, carrying mutations in the genes for nitrate reductase and radial spoke protein 3, was transformed with wild-type copies of both genes. Two-thirds of the cells that survived nitrate selection also regained motility, indicating that they had been transformed with both the nitrate reductase and radial spoke protein 3 genes. Transformants typically contained multiple copies of both genes, genetically linked to each other, but not linked to the original mutant loci. Complementation of paralyzed-flagella mutants by transformation is a powerful tool for investigating flagellar assembly and function.

  17. Antimicrobial cocktails to control bacterial and fungal contamination in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Yang, Fengyuan; Chen, Huiyi; Fan, Zhiyue; Zhou, Yongkang; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga widely used for research in photosynthesis, cell cycle regulation, ciliary biogenesis, and other physiological processes. Sterile cultures are needed for these studies, but contamination from bacteria and fungi occurs frequently. Although the One-shot Solution cocktail consisting of carbendazim, ampicillin, and cefotaxime has been developed for removing these contaminants from algal cultures, it is not always effective. Here we report two new antimicrobial cocktails for treating mixed bacterial and fungal contamination of Chlamydomonas cultures. A combination of the bactericide nalidixic acid with one of two fungicides, azoxystrobin or tebuconazole, was more effective than the One-shot Solution cocktail. In some of our tests, we find that alternating use of our new cocktails with One-shot Solution is needed to remove obstinate contaminants. PMID:26956093

  18. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant defective in chlorophyll biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Mautusi

    2013-01-01

    The green micro-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an elegant model organism to study all aspects of oxygenic photosynthesis. Chlorophyll (Chl) and heme are major tetrapyrroles that play an essential role in energy metabolism in photosynthetic organisms and are synthesized via a common branched tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway. One of the enzymes in the pathway is Mg chelatase (MgChel) which inserts Mg 2+ into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX, proto) to form magnesium-protoporphyrin IX (MgPPIX, Mgproto), the first biosynthetic intermediate in the Chl branch. MgChel is a multimeric enzyme that consists of three subunits designated CHLD, CHLI and CHLH. Plants have two isozymes of CHLI (CHLI1 and CHLI2) which are 70%-81% identical in protein sequences. Although the functional role of CHLI1 is well characterized, that of CHLI2 is not. We have isolated a non-photosynthetic light sensitive mutant 5A7 by random DNA insertional mutagenesis that is devoid of any detectable Chl. PCR based analyses show that 5A7 is missing the CHLI1 gene and at least eight additional functionally uncharacterized genes. 5A7 has an intact CHLI2 gene. Complementation with a functional copy of the CHLI1 gene restored Chl biosynthesis, photo-autotrophic growth and light tolerance in 5A7. We have identified the first chli1 (chli1-1) mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and in green algae. Our results show that in the wild type Chlamydomonas CHLI2 protein amount is lower than that of CHLI1 and the chli1-1 mutant has a drastic reduction in CHLI2 protein levels although it possesses the CHLI2 gene. Our chli1-1 mutant opens up new avenues to explore the functional roles of CHLI1 and CHLI2 in Chl biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas, which has never been studied before. PMID:24555064

  19. Prolongation of H2 Photoproduction by Immobilized, Sulfur-Limited Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinavichene, T. V.; Kosourov, S. N.; Ghirardi, M. L.; Seibert, M.; Tsygankov, A. A.

    2008-04-30

    Two approaches to prolong the duration of hydrogen production by immobilized, sulfur-limited Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells are examined. The results demonstrate that continuous H{sub 2} photoproduction can occur for at least 90 days under constant flow of TAP medium containing micromolar sulfate concentrations. Furthermore, it is also possible to prolong the duration of H{sub 2} production by cycling immobilized cells between minus and plus sulfate conditions.

  20. Development of a forward genetic screen to isolate oil mutants in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oils produced by microalgae are precursors to biodiesel. To achieve a profitable production of biodiesel from microalgae, identification of factors governing oil synthesis and turnover is desirable. The green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is amenable to genetic analyses and has recently emerged as a model to study oil metabolism. However, a detailed method to isolate various types of oil mutants that is adapted to Chlamydomonas has not been reported. Results We describe here a forward genetic approach to isolate mutants altered in oil synthesis and turnover from C. reinhardtii. It consists of a three-step screening procedure: a primary screen by flow cytometry of Nile red stained transformants grown in 96-deep-well plates under three sequential conditions (presence of nitrogen, then absence of nitrogen, followed by oil remobilization); a confirmation step using Nile red stained biological triplicates; and a validation step consisting of the quantification by thin layer chromatography of oil content of selected strains. Thirty-one mutants were isolated by screening 1,800 transformants generated by random insertional mutagenesis (1.7%). Five showed increased oil accumulation under the nitrogen-replete condition and 13 had altered oil content under nitrogen-depletion. All mutants were affected in oil remobilization. Conclusion This study demonstrates that various types of oil mutants can be isolated in Chlamydomonas based on the method set-up here, including mutants accumulating oil under optimal biomass growth. The strategy conceived and the protocol set-up should be applicable to other microalgal species such as Nannochloropsis and Chlorella, thus serving as a useful tool in Chlamydomonas oil research and algal biotechnology. PMID:24295516

  1. Plectin-like proteins are present in cells of Chlamydomonas eugametos (Volvocales).

    PubMed

    Hendrychová, J; Vítová, M; Bisová, K; Wiche, G; Zachleder, V

    2002-01-01

    Using both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against mammalian plectin (multifunctional protein cross-linking cytoskeletal structures, mainly intermediate filaments, in mammalian cells), several putative isoforms of plectin-like proteins were found in protein extracts from the green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos (Volvocales). Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting revealed that some of the plectin-like proteins were present in perinuclear region or localized near the cell wall, probably being attached to the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:12503400

  2. Production of Recombinant Proteins in the Chloroplast of the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Zapata, Daniel; Macedo-Osorio, Karla Soledad; Almaraz-Delgado, Alma Lorena; Durán-Figueroa, Noé; Badillo-Corona, Jesus Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast transformation in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be used for the production of valuable recombinant proteins. Here, we describe chloroplast transformation of C. reinhardtii followed by protein detection. Genes of interest integrate stably by homologous recombination into the chloroplast genome following introduction by particle bombardment. Genes are inherited and expressed in lines recovered after selection in the presence of an antibiotic. Recombinant proteins can be detected by conventional techniques like immunoblotting and purified from liquid cultures. PMID:26614282

  3. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a model system for functional validation of abiotic stress responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Hema, R; Senthil-Kumar, M; Shivakumar, S; Chandrasekhara Reddy, P; Udayakumar, M

    2007-08-01

    Stress tolerance is a multigenic character and there are many stress responsive genes, which are stress specific. Although many of these have been cloned, their functional significance remains fragmentary. Hence it is important to identify the relevant stress genes involved in altering the metabolism for adaptation. Overexpression is one of the several approaches and Chlamydomonas is a suitable system to study the functional relevance of stress genes. Stress responses can only be assessed on prior exposure to sublethal induction stress. In this study the acclimation response of Chlamydomonas was assessed for different abiotic stresses using physiological screens like chlorophyll stability, membrane damage, cell viability, accumulation of free radicals, survival and recovery growth. We demonstrate that Chlamydomonas responds to diverse stresses and is a potential system to study the relevance of stress genes. The relevance of choline oxidase A (codA), a key enzyme in glycinebetaine biosynthesis, was examined by developing transformants expressing codA gene from Arthrobacter globiformis. Southern positive transformants showed enhanced accumulation of glycinebetaine. The transformants also showed enhanced growth under salinity, high light coupled with methylviologen-induced oxidative stress, high temperature and cold stress. However the transgenics were not tolerant to PEG-mediated simulated osmotic stress, LiCl, menadione and UV stress. Increased cell survival and decreased chlorophyll degradation in transformants under acclimated conditions further confirmed the relevance of codA in imparting stress tolerance. Our results indicated that the relevance of stress responsive genes can be efficiently validated for diverse abiotic stresses using Chlamydomonas system. PMID:17431668

  4. Fatty acid patterns in Chlamydomonas sp. as a marker for nutritional regimes and temperature under extremely acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Spijkerman, E; Langer, U

    2004-07-01

    Fatty acid profiles were used to characterize nutritional pathways in Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from an acidic mining lake (pH 2.7). Surprisingly, profiles of Chlamydomonas sp. grown in the lab under photoautotrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic conditions at in situ deep strata lake water temperatures (8 degrees C) were very similar, polyunsaturated fatty acids including alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) and 16:4omega3 along with palmitic acid (16:0) being most abundant. Therefore, heterotrophic growth of Chlamydomonas sp. at low temperatures can result in high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, as previously only described for some psychrophilic bacteria. By contrast, the cultivation of isolated Chlamydomonas sp. at 20 degrees C, reflecting surface water temperatures, provided fatty acid patterns characteristic of the nutrition strategy applied: the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased when the growth pathway changed from photoautotrophic via mixotrophic to heterotrophic. Total fatty acid concentration also diminished in this order. Principal component analysis confirmed the significance of FA profiling to mirror nutritional pathways. Lake-water analysis revealed low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, mainly consisting of polymeric fulvic acids that are unable to support heterotrophic growth of Chlamydomonas sp. Polymeric fulvic acids present in the deeper strata of the lake turned out to be formed in situ on the basis of organic monomers including reduced sulfur-containing ones, as revealed by thermochemolysis and pyrolysis. Growth of Chlamydomonas sp. in the deep chlorophyll maximum is therefore assumed to mainly result from photosynthesis, despite very low photon densities. Phytol-including metabolites proved to be significant biomarkers to indicate the nutritional pathway of Chlamydomonas sp. alpha, omega-Dicarboxylic acids-light-induced degradation products of unsaturated fatty acids-appeared to be good indicators

  5. Purification and cDNA isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    Kitayama, M; Togasaki, R K

    1995-01-01

    Chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) was purified to homogeneity from a soluble fraction of chloroplasts of a cell-wall-deficient mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (cw-15) using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Reactive Blue-72 column chromatography, and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PGK activity was attributed to a single polypeptide with a molecular mass of 42 kD. Relative purity and identity of the isolated enzyme was confirmed by N-terminal amino acid sequence determination. Antiserum against this enzyme was raised and a western blot analysis of whole-cell lysate from cw-15 cells using this anti-chloroplastic PGK serum detected a single polypeptide with a molecular mass of 42 kD. The cDNA clone corresponding to the Chlamydomonas chloroplastic PGK was isolated from a Chlamydomonas cDNA expression library using the anti-PGK serum. The cDNA sequence was determined and apparently codes for the entire precursor peptide, which consists of 461 codons. The results from Southern and northern blot analyses suggest that the chloroplastic PGK gene exists as a single copy in the nuclear genome of C. reinhardtii and is expressed as a 1.8-kb transcript. The C. reinhardtii chloroplastic PGK cDNA has 71 and 66% homology with wheat chloroplastic PGK and spinach chloroplastic PGK, respectively. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the chloroplastic PGK of C. reinhardtii has more similarity to plant PGKs than to other PGKs, having both prokaryotic and eukaryotic features. PMID:7724671

  6. Detection and characterization of phosphatidylcholine in various strains of the genus Chlamydomonas (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenta; Mori, Natsumi; Sato, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    The laboratory strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been reported to contain no phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is considered to be replaced by another zwitterionic lipid, diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS). According to the recently published classification, the strains belonged to the subgroup Reinhardtinia. Screening for PC in 13 selected strains of Chlamydomonas in the NIES Algal Collection, which are different in habitats and belong to different phylogenetic subgroups in the genus, revealed the presence of PC in four strains: a strain in the subgroup Polytominia, and three strains in Reinhardtinia. PC was not detected in three other strains of Reinhardtinia analyzed. The presence/absence of PC was not related to the phylogenetic relationship based on 18S rRNA. DGTS was detected in all the strains analyzed. The rare isomer of linolenic acid, 18:3(5,9,12), which has been found in the DGTS of C. reinhardtii, was found in the PC of the two strains and in the DGTS of the five strains. The occurrence of this fatty acid seems limited to a branch of Reinhardtinia. Acquisition and loss of PC in various strains of Chlamydomonas are discussed from the viewpoint of evolution of PC biosynthetic pathway. PMID:24947506

  7. Recharacterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and its relatives with new isolates from Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Takashi; Shinkawa, Haruka; Ito, Takuro; Tomita, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P. A. Dang. (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae) is one of the most intensely studied algae, and its whole genome was sequenced. Although this species was originally described based on materials from France and is often referred to as a cosmopolitan species, all culture strains available today have been isolated from eastern North America. The distinctions with similar and/or closely related species, such as Chlamydomonas globosa J. Snow and Chlamydomonas orbicularis E. G. Pringsh., are also contentious. In this study, new strains of C. reinhardtii and C. globosa were isolated from Japan and compared with several strains similar to C. reinhardtii. Based on the morphological, genealogical, phylogenetical, and mating studies including the new Japanese strains, the circumscription of C. reinhardtii was clarified. C. reinhardtii was most closely related to C. globosa, and they were shown to be different species. Although C. reinhardtii was similar to C. orbicularis, the authentic strain of C. orbicularis was morphologically distinguishable and phylogenetically distant from C. reinhardtii. Discovery of the Japanese strains of C. reinhardtii supports the cosmopolitan distribution of this species. Based on Japanese strains and/or strains from other countries, emended descriptions of C. reinhardtii, C. globosa, and C. orbicularis are given. PMID:19882207

  8. Isolation of the Chlamydomonas Regulatory Gene Nit2 by Transposon Tagging