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Sample records for chloramphenicol

  1. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  2. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Chloramphenicol: an Enzymological Microassay

    PubMed Central

    Lietman, Paul S.; White, Thomas J.; Shaw, William V.

    1976-01-01

    A new assay for chloramphenicol in biological fluids has been developed that offers sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy, economy, and ease of performance. The assay is based on the enzymological acetylation of chloramphenicol catalyzed by an R factor-mediated enzyme. [14C]acetyl coenzyme A serves as the donor of the labeled acetyl group, and the product, [14C]acetoxychloramphenicol, is separated from the labeled precursor by utilizing its preferential extraction into benzene. The product is then quantified by liquid scintillation counting. This assay measures chloramphenicol concentrations in both plasma and other biological specimens and in the presence of other antibiotics, hemolysis, or jaundice. Its rapidity and ease of performance are useful for clinical laboratories, and its sensitivity allows determinations on 10 μl of plasma. PMID:791098

  4. 21 CFR 522.390 - Chloramphenicol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloramphenicol. 522.390 Section 522.390 Food and... Chloramphenicol. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 100 milligrams of chloramphenicol. (b... susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order...

  5. 21 CFR 522.390 - Chloramphenicol injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol injection. 522.390 Section 522.390... Chloramphenicol injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 100 milligrams of chloramphenicol. (b... susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3) Limitations. Not for use in animals raised for food production....

  6. 21 CFR 522.390 - Chloramphenicol injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chloramphenicol injection. 522.390 Section 522.390... Chloramphenicol injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 100 milligrams of chloramphenicol. (b... susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3) Limitations. Not for use in animals raised for food production....

  7. 21 CFR 522.390 - Chloramphenicol injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloramphenicol injection. 522.390 Section 522.390... Chloramphenicol injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 100 milligrams of chloramphenicol. (b... susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3) Limitations. Not for use in animals raised for food production....

  8. 21 CFR 522.390 - Chloramphenicol injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloramphenicol injection. 522.390 Section 522.390... Chloramphenicol injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 100 milligrams of chloramphenicol. (b... susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3) Limitations. Not for use in animals raised for food production....

  9. Chloramphenicol-resistant Salmonella typhi in Saigon.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Duong Hong, M o; Rhoades, E R

    1975-01-13

    Chloramphenicol-resistant Salmonella typhi was detected in Saigon in September 1971. Subsequently, 163 strains of S typhi were isolated, 46 percent of which were resistant to choramphenicol by the agar-disk method. Sixty-two strains were studied by the broth-dilution method; 37 percent had minimal inhibitory concentrations for chloramphenicol greater than 250mug/ml, but all strains were susceptible to 0.4mug/ml of ampicillin and to a disk of a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim). Persons infected with chloramphenicol-resistant strains of S typhi responded poorly to chloramphenicol alone, but ampicillin or the combination drug was effective. PMID:1172682

  10. 21 CFR 520.390a - Chloramphenicol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Because of potential antagonism, chloramphenicol should not be administered simultaneously with penicillin.... Because of potential antagonism, chloramphenicol should not be administered simultaneously with...

  11. 21 CFR 520.390a - Chloramphenicol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Because of potential antagonism, chloramphenicol should not be administered simultaneously with penicillin.... Because of potential antagonism, chloramphenicol should not be administered simultaneously with...

  12. A pharmacological study of chloramphenicol in horses.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, C S; Kramer, L L; Gupta, V S; Lerner, D J; Taksas, L

    1975-04-01

    Pharmacological disposition of chloramphenicol was studied in horses. Minimum levels of the antibiotic (greater than or equal to 5 mu g/ml) in blood or plasma recommended to combat infections could not be achieved by 4.4 and 8.8 mg/kg I.V. or 30 and 50 mg/kg I.M. or 30 mg/kg oral (as palmitate salt) doses of chloramphenicol. Increasing the dose to 19.8 and 26.4 mg/kg I.V. provided such levels for about two and three hours respectively. A combination of 20 mg/kg I.V. and 30 mg/kg I.M. administered simultaneously did not provide more prolonged levels than 26.4 mg/kg I.V. alone. Chloramphenicol succinate produced higher but not more prolonged levels in blood and plasma than those produced by pure chloramphenicol. Succinate salt is very little, if at all, bound to red blood corpuscles. Plasma half life and the apparent volume of distribution of chloramphenicol in horses were determined as 0.98 hours and 0.92 L/kg, respectively. At 5-10 mu g/ml concentrations in equine plasma approximately 30 percent of the chloramphenicol is bound to plasma proteins. From these studies it is concluded that the biological half life of chloramphenicol may be too short for therapeutic application against systemic infections in horses. PMID:1125836

  13. Interaction of Chloramphenicol Tripeptide Analogs with Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenkov, A G; Shishkina, A V; Tashlitsky, V N; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A; Sumbatyan, N V

    2016-04-01

    Chloramphenicol amine peptide derivatives containing tripeptide fragments of regulatory "stop peptides" - MRL, IRA, IWP - were synthesized. The ability of the compounds to form ribosomal complexes was studied by displacement of the fluorescent erythromycin analog from its complex with E. coli ribosomes. It was found that peptide chloramphenicol analogs are able to bind to bacterial ribosomes. The dissociation constants were 4.3-10 µM, which is 100-fold lower than the corresponding values for chloramphenicol amine-ribosome complex. Interaction of the chloramphenicol peptide analogs with ribosomes was simulated by molecular docking, and the most probable contacts of "stop peptide" motifs with the elements of nascent peptide exit tunnel were identified. PMID:27293096

  14. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase should not provide methanogens with resistance to chloramphenicol. [Methanococcus voltae; Methanococcus vannielii; Methanococcus deltae; Methanobrevibacter smithii

    SciTech Connect

    Beckler, G.S.; Hook, L.A.; Reeve, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    Growth of the four methanogens investigated was inhibitied by chloramphenicol-3-acetate; therefore, introduction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-encoding genes should not confer chloramphenicol resistance on these methanogens. Reduction of the aryl nitro group of chloramphenicol produced a compound which did not inhibit the growth of these methanogens. 9 references.

  15. 21 CFR 524.390 - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. 524.390... § 524.390 Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains 10 milligrams chloramphenicol. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 043264 and 054771 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 524.390 - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. 524.390... § 524.390 Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains 10 milligrams chloramphenicol. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000856 and 043264 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 524.390 - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. 524.390... § 524.390 Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram contains 10 milligrams chloramphenicol. (b) Sponsors. See Nos. 000856 and 025463 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520... Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains chloramphenicol palmitate.... Treatment of bacterial pulmonary infections, infections of the urinary tract, enteritis, and...

  19. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520... Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains chloramphenicol palmitate.... Treatment of bacterial pulmonary infections, infections of the urinary tract, enteritis, and...

  20. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520... Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains chloramphenicol palmitate.... Treatment of bacterial pulmonary infections, infections of the urinary tract, enteritis, and...

  1. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520... Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains chloramphenicol palmitate.... Treatment of bacterial pulmonary infections, infections of the urinary tract, enteritis, and...

  2. 21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520... Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains chloramphenicol palmitate.... Treatment of bacterial pulmonary infections, infections of the urinary tract, enteritis, and...

  3. Metabolites of a blocked chloramphenicol producer.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Elizabeth A; Adamek, Tamara L; Vining, Leo C; White, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Addition of p-aminophenylalanine (4), an advanced biosynthetic precursor of the antibiotic chloramphenicol (5), to a Streptomyces venezuelae pabAB mutant (VS629) restored chloramphenicol production and led to formation of the non-chlorinated analogue corynecin II (6) and four acetanilide derivatives: p-(acetylamino)phenylalanine (7), p-(acetylamino)benzyl alcohol (13), p-(acetylamino)benzoic acid (14), and p-(acetylamino)phenol (acetaminophen, 16). Metabolite structures were deduced from NMR and MS-MS data and established by chromatographic and spectroscopic comparisons with authentic samples. Reference compound 13 was synthesized by reducing the acid chloride of 14. Shunt pathways are proposed to account for the formation of the metabolites from p-aminophenylalanine. PMID:12542347

  4. 21 CFR 524.390a - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bacterial conjunctivitis caused by pathogens susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3) Limitations. Continue... conjunctivitis, attempts should be made to determine through susceptibility testing, which antibiotics will...

  5. 21 CFR 524.390a - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bacterial conjunctivitis caused by pathogens susceptible to chloramphenicol. (3) Limitations. Continue... conjunctivitis, attempts should be made to determine through susceptibility testing, which antibiotics will...

  6. Comparison of enzymatic and liquid chromatographic chloramphenicol assays

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.F.; Opheim, K.E.; Koup, J.R.; Smith, A.L.

    1981-02-01

    A radioenzymatic assay and a ''high-performance'' liquid chromatographic assay for chloramphenicol were compared by using 52 patient specimens, 24 mock unknowns, and 13 quality control samples. Both methods were found to be rapid, precise, accurate, and sensitive, and either would be suitable for monitoring chloramphenicol concentrations in small volumes of serum. Linear regression analysis of serum chloramphenicol concentrations in patients receiving chloramphenicol succinate yielded a regression equation of Y . 1.04X + 0.274 (X . high-performance liquid chromatographic assay; Y . radioenzymatic assay), with a correlation coefficient of 0.971.

  7. Characterization of two metagenome-derived esterases that reactivate chloramphenicol by counteracting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weixin; Lee, Myung Hwan; Yoon, Mi-Young; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Malhotra, Shweta; Wu, Jing; Hwang, Eul Chul; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2011-12-01

    Function-driven metagenomic analysis is a powerful approach to screening for novel biocatalysts. In this study, we investigated lipolytic enzymes selected from an alluvial soil metagenomic library, and identified two novel esterases, EstDL26 and EstDL136. EstDL26 and EstDL136 reactivated chloramphenicol from its acetyl derivates by counteracting the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in Escherichia coli. These two enzymes showed only 27% identity in amino acid sequence to each other; however both preferentially hydrolyzed short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (< or =C5) and showed mesophilic properties. In vitro, EstDL136 catalyzed the deacetylation of 1- and 3- acetyl and 1,3-diacetyl derivates; in contrast, EstDL26 was not capable of the deacetylation at C1, indicating a potential regioselectivity. EstDL26 and EstDL136 were similar to microbial hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and since chloramphenicol acetate esterase (CAE) activity was detected from two other soil esterases in the HSL family, this suggests a distribution of CAE among the soil microorganisms. The isolation and characterization of EstDL26 and EstDL136 in this study may be helpful in understanding the diversity of CAE enzymes and their potential role in releasing active chloramphenicol in the producing bacteria. PMID:22210605

  8. Effect of nitroso-chloramphenicol on mitochondrial DNA polymerase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L.O.; Abou-Khalil, W.H.; Yunis, A.A.; Abou-Khalil, S.

    1984-08-01

    A study was made of the effects of nitroso-chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol, amino-chloramphenicol, and thiamphenicol on the activity of mitochondrial DNA polymerase of rat liver. /sup 3/H-thymidine triphosphate incorporation into DNA was used to measure the DNA polymerase activity in the mitochondrial matrix fraction. This fraction was in the supernatant of sonicated mitochondria obtained by ultracentrifugation. Under standard experimental conditions, thymidine triphosphate incorporation was time dependent up to 10 minutes. This activity was enhanced by ..beta..-mercaptoethanol and was blocked by the known polymerase inhibitors ethidium bromide and 2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate. Chloramphenicol and its analogues, amino-chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol, did not have a significant effect on the polymerase activity, whereas nitroso-chloramphenicol was inhibitory. The degree of inhibition was dependent on the experimental conditions. Thus, in the absence of ..beta..-mercaptoethanol, nitroso-chloramphenicol was inhibitory. The degree of inhibition was dependent on the experimental conditions. Under similar conditions, the addition of dithiothreitol also provided partial protection. On the other hand, the inhibition by nitroso-chloramphenicol was significantly enhanced with its preincubation in the mitochondrial matrix fraction before the addition of nucleotides and DNA; thus after 40 minutes of preincubation, nitroso-chloramphenicol at a concentration of 200 ..mu..mol/L gave 53% inhibition, and produced total inhibition at 600 ..mu..mol/L. The addition of NADH or NADPH to the preincubation medium produced substantial protection against nitroso-chloramphenicol, whereas nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide had no effect. These results suggest that mitochondrial DNA polymerase may be a target for nitroso-chloramphenicol action.

  9. 21 CFR 520.390 - Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms. 520.390 Section 520.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms....

  10. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloramphenicol capsules. 520.390b Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390b Chloramphenicol capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg)...

  11. 21 CFR 520.390 - Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms. 520.390 Section 520.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms....

  12. 21 CFR 520.390 - Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms. 520.390 Section 520.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms....

  13. 21 CFR 520.390 - Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms. 520.390 Section 520.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms....

  14. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloramphenicol capsules. 520.390b Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390b Chloramphenicol capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg)...

  15. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chloramphenicol capsules. 520.390b Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390b Chloramphenicol capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg)...

  16. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol capsules. 520.390b Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390b Chloramphenicol capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg)...

  17. 21 CFR 520.390 - Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms. 520.390 Section 520.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms....

  18. Chloramphenicol and acute esophagitis in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Andicochea, Chad T.; Portouw, Steven J.; Bokan, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Even with its broad spectrum and low cost, concern over chloramphenicol's adverse effects limited its use in the United States during the 1980s. Reports from United Kingdom and China in the 1990s demonstrated a low incidence of blood dyscrasias with the topical preparation of chloramphenicol, and showed continued good efficacy and low cost. Today, topical chloramphenicol is being used by some groups within otolaryngology and ophthalmology in the United States. As a result, emergency physicians are once again considering chloramphenicol-induced side effects in patients presenting to the emergency department. To date, there have been no published reports associating chest pain, dyspnea with chloramphenicol use, and there has only been one report of fungal esophagitis associated with topical chloramphenicol. We present a 31-year-old woman, 4 months status post tympanoplasty with a modified radical canal wall down mastoidectomy due to a cholesteatoma involving the epitympanum who had a residual tympanic membrane defect. She presented to the emergency department with chest “burning”, with no other symptoms shortly after starting treatment with an insufflated combination antibiotic containing chloramphenicol. After ruling out cardiopulmonary or vascular etiology, she was treated successfully with a gastrointestinal cocktail cocktail for presumed esophagitis secondary to newly prescribed chloramphenicol. PMID:25709259

  19. 21 CFR 520.390a - Chloramphenicol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloramphenicol tablets. 520.390a Section 520.390a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390a Chloramphenicol tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg); 1 or 2.5 grams (g)...

  20. 21 CFR 520.390a - Chloramphenicol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloramphenicol tablets. 520.390a Section 520.390a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390a Chloramphenicol tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50, 100, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg); 1 or 2.5 grams (g)...

  1. Rapid quantitative assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, J.R.; Morency, C.A.; Russian, K.O.

    1987-05-01

    Measuring the expression of exogenous genetic material in mammalian cells is commonly done by fusing the DNA of interest to a gene encoding an easily-detected enzyme. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase(CAT) is a convenient marker because it is not normally found in eukaryotes. CAT activity has usually been detected using a thin-layer chromatographic separation followed by autoradiography. An organic solvent extraction-based method for CAT detection has also been described, as well as a procedure utilizing HPLC analysis. Building on the extraction technique, they developed a rapid sensitive kinetic method for measuring CAT activity in cell homogenates. The method exploits the differential organic solubility of the substrate ((/sup 3/H) or (/sup 14/C)acetyl CoA) and the product (labeled acetylchloramphenicol). The assay is a simple one-vial, two-phase procedure and requires no tedious manipulations after the initial setup. Briefly, a 0.25 ml reaction with 100mM Tris-HCL, 1mM chloramphenicol, 0.1mM (/sup 14/C)acetyl CoA and variable amounts of cell homogenate is pipetted into a miniscintillation vial, overlaid with 5 ml of a water-immiscible fluor, and incubated at 37/sup 0/C. At suitable intervals the vial is counted and the CAT level is quantitatively determined as the rate of increase in counts/min of the labeled product as it diffuses into the fluor phase, compared to a standard curve. When used to measure CAT in transfected Balb 3T3 cells the method correlated well with the other techniques.

  2. Inhibition of existing denitrification enzyme activity by chloramphenicol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.H.; Smith, R.L.; Macalady, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chloramphenicol completely inhibited the activity of existing denitrification enzymes in acetylene-block incubations with (i) sediments from a nitrate-contaminated aquifer and (ii) a continuous culture of denitrifying groundwater bacteria. Control flasks with no antibiotic produced significant amounts of nitrous oxide in the same time period. Amendment with chloramphenicol after nitrous oxide production had begun resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of nitrous oxide production. Chloramphenicol also decreased (>50%) the activity of existing denitrification enzymes in pure cultures of Pseudomonas denitrificans that were harvested during log- phase growth and maintained for 2 weeks in a starvation medium lacking electron donor. Short-term time courses of nitrate consumption and nitrous oxide production in the presence of acetylene with P. denitrificans undergoing carbon starvation were performed under optimal conditions designed to mimic denitrification enzyme activity assays used with soils. Time courses were linear for both chloramphenicol and control flasks, and rate estimates for the two treatments were significantly different at the 95% confidence level. Complete or partial inhibition of existing enzyme activity is not consistent with the current understanding of the mode of action of chloramphenicol or current practice, in which the compound is frequently employed to inhibit de novo protein synthesis during the course of microbial activity assays. The results of this study demonstrate that chloramphenicol amendment can inhibit the activity of existing denitrification enzymes and suggest that caution is needed in the design and interpretation of denitrification activity assays in which chloramphenicol is used to prevent new protein synthesis.

  3. Influence of prednisolone on antipyrine and chloramphenicol disposition in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shukla, V K; Garg, S K; Mathur, V S

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to see the effect of 15- and 30-day corticosteroid therapy (prednisolone 0.25 mg/kg/day) on the metabolism of antipyrine and chloramphenicol in rabbits. Antipyrine and chloramphenicol were given to rabbits orally at doses of 20 and 50 mg/kg, respectively on days 0, 15 and 30 of prednisolone therapy. The half-life of antipyrine and chloramphenicol were significantly reduced (p less than 0.05) after 15 and 30 days of the corticosteroid therapy. It is concluded that this effect might be due to the induction of liver microsomal enzymes. PMID:6473505

  4. The effects of chloramphenicol on Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Leston, Sara; Nunes, Margarida; Viegas, Ivan; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2013-04-01

    The administration of pharmacological substances in the food producing industry is a crucial and long established practice in ensuring animal welfare. However, a very high percentage of the drugs used will directly or indirectly be present in the various compartments of natural ecosystems therefore constituting a source of pollution. The reactions that these active compounds may impose on non-target organisms are still widely unknown and further research is essential. Also, new approaches on monitoring are necessary and in this sense, the present work aimed to assess the persistence of chloramphenicol (a banned but illegally used antibiotic) in seawater, together with its effects on the growth of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Moreover, the potential use of this species as a bioindicator was assessed. Results showed CAP presented an exponential degradation pattern in seawater with concentrations decreasing faster than expected. As for the effects on U. lactuca it acted as a growth promoter also contradicting the initial assumptions. Regarding the role of this species in biomonitoring it successfully took up CAP in solution while reflecting the concentrations present conferring it good characteristics as a bioindicator. On the other hand, this ability points to a possibility of CAP being accumulated and transferred along the trophic web through the consumption of U. lactuca by organisms in higher levels. PMID:23395526

  5. New Insights into Chloramphenicol Biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Borsetto, Chiara; Gomez-Escribano, Juan Pablo; Bibb, Maureen J.; Al-Bassam, Mahmoud M.; Chandra, Govind

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genome analysis revealed seven uncharacterized genes, sven0909 to sven0915, adjacent to the previously identified chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster (sven0916–sven0928) of Streptomyces venezuelae strain ATCC 10712 that was absent in a closely related Streptomyces strain that does not produce chloramphenicol. Transcriptional analysis suggested that three of these genes might be involved in chloramphenicol production, a prediction confirmed by the construction of deletion mutants. These three genes encode a cluster-associated transcriptional activator (Sven0913), a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sven0914), and a Na+/H+ antiporter (Sven0915). Bioinformatic analysis also revealed the presence of a previously undetected gene, sven0925, embedded within the chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster that appears to encode an acyl carrier protein, bringing the number of new genes likely to be involved in chloramphenicol production to four. Microarray experiments and synteny comparisons also suggest that sven0929 is part of the biosynthetic gene cluster. This has allowed us to propose an updated and revised version of the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway. PMID:25267678

  6. Assaying the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Crabb, D.W.; Minth, C.D.; Dixon, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    These experiments document the presence of enzymatic activities in extracts of commonly used cell lines which interfere with the determination of CAT activity. We suspect that the deacetylase activity is the most important, as the extract of the H4IIE C3 cells was capable of completely deacetylating the mono- and diacetylchloramphenicol formed during a 2-hr incubation of CAT with chloramphenicol and acetyl-CoA. The results of the inhibitor experiments are consistent with the presence of proteases which degrade CAT, or a serine carboxylesterase. The interference was also reduced by about half by EDTA; a metalloenzyme (either a protease or esterase) may therefore be involved. This interference appears to be a common phenomenon. We have surveyed 23 different cell types for the presence of the interfering activity and found it in 15. The interference was particularly prominent in several neuroendocrine and hepatoma cells. We took advantage of the effect of EDTA and the heat stability of CAT to eliminate the interference. Addition of 5 mM EDTA and a 10-min incubation of the sonicated cell suspension at 60 degrees prior to centrifugation abolished the interference in all cell lines tested. It is important to note that in order to reveal any CAT activity in some of the extracts (e.g., PC-12 or Hep3B), it was necessary to run the CAT assay for 2 hr. The control assays were therefore run almost to completion, and were well beyond the linear range of the assay. Therefore, the small differences which we observed between the heat-treated and control samples in some instances (e.g., rice, corn, or HeLa cells) will be dramatically amplified when the CAT assay is performed under conditions in which only a small percentage of the substrate is converted to product.

  7. Rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Nordeen, S.K.; Green, P.P. III; Fowlkes, D.M.

    1987-04-01

    We present a rapid, sensitive enzymatic assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) that does not require chromatography, HPLC, or autoradiography. The assay is based on the use of an inexpensive substrate, tritiated acetate, instead of (/sup 14/C)chloramphenicol. The method is adapted from one originally used by de Crombrugghe et al. and by Shaw, but with simplifications appropriate for routine use. In our hands, the method is as sensitive as the customary thin-layer chromatography assay and is far more efficient for the performance of many assays, both in terms of labor and expense.

  8. Pharmacokinetic, residue and irritation aspects of chloramphenicol sodium succinate and a chloramphenicol base formulation following intramuscular administration to ruminants.

    PubMed

    Nouws, J F; Vree, T B; Holtkamp, J; Baakman, M; Driessens, F; Guelen, P J

    1986-07-01

    The disposition of chloramphenicol (CAP) and of its glucuronide metabolite in plasma and milk was studied following a single intramuscular injection of a chloramphenicol base formulation (Amicol Forte; product A) and of chloramphenicol sodium succinate (product B) to dairy cows. The dose applied of both formulations was equivalent to 50 mg CAP base/kg body weight. The HPLC determined CAP concentrations were microbiologically active. Product A revealed 30% higher plasma CAP peak concentrations (13.0 vs 9.0 micrograms/ml) and 36% larger areas under the plasma concentration-time curves than product B, whereas their absorption and elimination half-lives were of the same order of magnitude. In the onset phase (during 4 h p.i.) unhydrolysed CAP sodium succinate could be detected in plasma and the glucuronide fraction was 26% of the parent drug. After 25 h p.i. the glucuronide fraction equalled that of the parent drug. The maximum CAP concentration in milk was for product B equal to, and for product A 80% of, the CAP plasma concentration. In milk no chloramphenicol glucuronide metabolites could be detected. HPLC methods for detecting ultra-trace CAP concentrations in edible tissues were developed by the employment of extraction with or without a clean-up procedure. Seven days after i.m. administration of product A and B to calves, the CAP residue concentrations in the kidney, liver, and muscle were less than 2 nanogram/g tissue. Traces of CAP residues could be still found at the injection site and in the urine. Chloramphenicol sodium succinate (product B) caused extensive tissue irritation at the injection site, while in the case of product A the irritation was limited.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3750804

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of fluorinated analogs of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol.

    PubMed Central

    Syriopoulou, V P; Harding, A L; Goldmann, D A; Smith, A L

    1981-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Sch 24893, Sch 25298, and Sch 25393, three novel analogs of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol. All of the analogs had minimal inhibitory concentrations of less than or equal to 10 micrograms/ml for 18 chloramphenicol-thiamphenicol-resistant strains of Shigella dysenteriae and 21 strains of resistant Salmonella typhi. The analogs were also more active than were chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol against chloramphenicol-resistant enteric bacteria, including six strains of Escherichia coli, seven strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two strains of Enterobacter cloacae. Fifty-three strains of ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae were uniformly susceptible to chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and the three analogs. Sch 25298 was the most active compound tested (minimal inhibitory concentration, 0.5 microgram/ml for all strains). Four of seven chloramphenicol-thiamphenicol-resistant Haemophilus strains were susceptible to the fluorinated analogs. Of the three Haemophilus strains which were resistant to chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and the analogs, two contained less than 10% of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity of the strains which were resistant to only chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol. We conclude that fluorinated analogs of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol have considerable in vitro activity against a broad spectrum of chloramphenicol-thiamphenicol-resistant, gram-negative bacteria. PMID:6957162

  10. [Physiological Effect of Vallisneria natans Under Different Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Chloramphenicol].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen-zhen; Cui, Yi-bin; Li, Mei; Yu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The effects of peroxidase(POD), superoxide dismutase(SOD) activities and malondialdehyde(MDA), soluble proteins and chlorophyll in the leaves of Vallisneria natans exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the eutrophication water body and chloramphenicol after 7 days were investigated in the study. The soluble protein content increased significantly in group eutrophic water and 0.2 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol, and the concentration of protein was 2.38 times of that in group 0 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol. In group of eutrophic water and 0. 2 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol, POD activities decreased significantly to 33. 84% of that in group 0 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol. With the increasing of the joint concentration, SOD activities decreased. SOD activities in group of mesotrophic and 0. 2 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol was 28. 59% of that in group of 0 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol. PMID:26717684

  11. Analysis of some products from the irradiation of solid chloramphenicol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeegers, F.; Gibella, M.; Tilquin, B.

    1997-08-01

    After radiation sterilization, it is always necessary to demonstrate that any products formed in the irradiation are not harmful. The amounts of products formed in the gamma-irradiation of solid samples may be so small, that standard toxicity tests could be ineffective. Hence, analysis of the final products in the radiosterilized solid samples might be required. In this work, some chloramphenicol degradation products that are unique to radiolysis, i.e. different from the normal degradation products, were detected.

  12. Salmonella typhimurium resistant to silver nitrate, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin.

    PubMed

    McHugh, G L; Moellering, R C; Hopkins, C C; Swartz, M N

    1975-02-01

    A strain of Salmonella typhimurium appeared sequentially in three patients in a burn unit, and epidemiological study suggested the occurrence of person-to-person spread. This organism was responsible for both colonisation and invasive infection in these patients whose burn surfaces were receiving topical treatment with 0.5% silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The antibiotic and metal ionsusceptibility pattern of this strain of S. typhimurium was unique and disturbing: resistant to silver nitrate, mercuric chloride, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulphonamides. This pattern of multiple resistances could be transferred by invitro mating experiments to sensitive recipient strains of Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium. Further transfer of these resistances could be consumated between different strains of E. coli. A survey of other salmonella strains isolated from patients in this hospital without thermal burns did not reveal this pattern of resistance. Also, strains of S. typhimurium, isolated elsewhere and showing simultaneous resistance to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol, were not resistant to AgNO3 in vitro. The very real danger of this strain of S. typhimurium in burn units stems from its resistance to the two most effective antibiotics (ampicillin and chloramphenicol) available for systemic therapy; and this threat may be compounded through the selection effected by the widespread topical use of AgNO3 solutions and sulphonamide preparations on burned surfaces. PMID:46385

  13. Demonstration of chloramphenicol hypersensitivity by measurement of histone methylation in lymphocyte cultures

    PubMed Central

    Dobozy, A.; Hunyadi, J.; Simon, N.

    1971-01-01

    In PHA-stimulated lymphocyte cultures, chloramphenicol considerably inhibited the incorporation of thymidine, but had little influence on the methylation of histone. In lymphocyte cultures from chloramphenicol-sensitive patients, the antibiotic enhanced histone methylation, but reduced the incorporation of thymidine. The measurement of the increase of histone methylation seems to be a suitable method for the in vitro demonstration of hypersensitivity to chloramphenicol. PMID:5091617

  14. Post-transcriptional regulation of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, W H; Weisblum, B

    1984-01-01

    The +1 site for initiation of inducible chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) mRNA encoded by plasmid pC194 was determined experimentally by using [alpha-32P]ATP-labeled runoff transcripts partially digested with T1 RNase. By partial digestion of the in vitro transcripts with S1, T1, and cobra venom nucleases as probes of mRNA conformation, single- and double-stranded regions, respectively, were also identified. Thus, a prominent inverted complementary repeat sequence was demonstrated spanning the +14 to +50 positions, which contain the complementary sequences CCUCC and GGAGG (the Shine and Dalgarno sequence for synthesis of CAT) symmetrically apposed and paired as part of a perfect 12-base-pair inverted complementary repeat sequence (-19.5 kcal [ca. -81.7 kJ] per mol). The CAT mRNA was stable to digestion by T1 RNase at the four guanosine residues in the Shine and Dalgarno sequence GGAGG , even at 60 degrees C, suggesting that nascent CAT mRNA allows ribosomes to initiate protein synthesis inefficiently and that induction involves post-transcriptional unmasking of the Shine and Dalgarno sequence. Consistent with this model of regulation, we found that cells carrying pC194 , induced with chloramphenicol, contain about the same concentration of pulse-labeled CAT-specific RNA as do uninduced cells. Induction of CAT synthesis by the non- acetylatable chloramphenicol analog fluorothiamphenicol was tested by using minicells of Bacillus subtilis carrying pC194 as well as minicells containing the cloned pC194 derivatives in which parts of the CAT structural gene were deleted in vitro with BAL 31 exonuclease. Optimal induction of both full-length (active) and deleted (inactive) CAT required similar concentrations of fluorothiamphenicol, whereas induction by chloramphenicol required a higher concentration for the wild-type full-length (active) CAT than for the (inactive) deleted CAT. Because synthesis of deleted CAT was inducible, we infer that CAT plays no direct role

  15. Effects of ionizing radiations on a pharmaceutical compound, chloramphenicol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, L.; Patel, K. M.

    1994-05-01

    Chloramphenicol, a broad spectrum antibiotic, has been irradiated using Cobalt-60 γ radiation and electron beam at graded radiation doses upto 100 kGy. Several degradation products and free radicals are formed on irradiation. Purity, degradation products, free radicals, discolouration, crystallinity, solubility and entropy of radiation processing have been investigated. Aqueous solutions undergo extensive radiolysis even at low doses. Physico-chemical, microbiological and toxicological tests do not show significant degradation at sterilization dose. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-spectrophotometry, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) techniques were employed for the investigations.

  16. 21 CFR 524.390 - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic and topical dosage... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.390 Chloramphenicol ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  17. 21 CFR 524.390 - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.390 Section 524.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.390 Chloramphenicol ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  18. Clinical isolate of a porinless Salmonella typhi resistant to high levels of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed Central

    Toro, C S; Lobos, S R; Calderón, I; Rodríguez, M; Mora, G C

    1990-01-01

    We studied a clinical isolate of Salmonella typhi (strain 1895) characterized by resistance to 200 micrograms of chloramphenicol per ml despite the absence of chloramphenicol-inactivating activity. The outer membrane protein profile analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated a deficiency of one of the major protein species which may serve as a porin for entry of chloramphenicol. When the strain was transformed with a plasmid encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, chloramphenicol added to the culture was not inactivated, suggesting a drastic reduction of permeability towards the drug. Moreover, transformants bearing a plasmid coding for the Escherichia coli OmpF porin became considerably more susceptible to chloramphenicol (40 micrograms/ml). On the other hand, transformants carrying a plasmid encoding the Salmonella typhi ompC gene remained as resistant to the drug as the parental strain, even though they overexpressed OmpC. These findings indicate that the lack of OmpF plays a major role in the resistance to chloramphenicol in strain 1895. Images PMID:2285283

  19. Detoxification of the veterinary antibiotic chloramphenicol using electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Hwang, Seon Ah

    2015-07-01

    Electron beam irradiation has shown potential as an alternative process for the treatment of industrial effluents that contain toxic organic chemicals. This study investigated the effectiveness of electron beam in degrading chloramphenicol (CAP) in aqueous solution. The degradation efficiency was 32.4% at 1 kGy, 86.9% at 5 kGy, and 100% at 10 kGy. The total organic carbon (TOC) of CAP in aqueous solution declined 4.6% at 1 kGy, 12.1% at 5 kGy, and 17.1% at 10 kGy of irradiation with electron beam. The CAP degradation products after irradiation were CAP1 ([M + H] m/z 307.1), CAP2 ([M + H] m/z 291.1), and CAP3 ([M + H] m/z 321.1). The degradation products were tested for microbial toxicity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Bacillus subtilis and did not show any toxic antimicrobial effects caused by the CAP degradation products after irradiation with electron beam. The results of this study suggest that electron beam irradiation is the best technology for the comprehensive treatment of veterinary antibiotics at wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25616384

  20. Radiation induced degradation of pharmaceutical residues in water: Chloramphenicol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csay, Tamás; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2012-09-01

    The γ-radiolytic degradation of chloramphenicol (CPL) was investigated in 0.1-1 mmol dm-3 aqueous solutions at various radiation conditions. The destruction of CPL was monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometric method through the decrease in the intensity of the absorbance band at 276 nm. LC-MS/MS was used to identify the degradation products. Results indicate that •OH can add onto the CPL aromatic ring or can abstract H-atom from the side chain. The reductive dechlorination of CPL was also studied based on the reaction of eaq- with CPL. In 0.1 mmol dm-3 solution above 2.5 kGy dose complete CPL degradation was achieved. In the presence of dissolved oxygen at relatively low dose, various oxidation products were observed. In the presence of tertiary butanol radical scavenger tertiary butanol group containing products were also detected. The toxicity increased as a function of dose to 1.0 kGy. At doses higher than 1.0 kGy the toxicity decreased continuously due to further degradation. It was also demonstrated that the O2-•/HO2• pair has low reactivity in CPL solution.

  1. Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, C.M.; Moffat, L.F.; Howard, B.H.

    1982-09-01

    The authors constructed a series of recombinant genomes which directed expression of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in mammalian cells. The prototype recombinant in this series, pSV2-cat, consisted of the beta-lactamase gene and origin of replication from pBR322 coupled to a simian virus 40 (SV40) early transcription region into which CAT coding sequences were inserted. Readily measured levels of CAT accumulated within 48 h after the introduction of pSV2-cat DNA into African green monkey kidney CV-1 cells. Because endogenous CAT activity is not present in CV-1 or other mammalian cells, and because rapid, sensitive assays for CAT activity are available, these recombinants provided a uniquely convenient system for monitoring the expression of foreign DNAs in tissue culture cells. To demonstrate the usefulness of this system, we constructed derivatives of pSV2-cat from which part or all of the SV 40 promoter region was removed. Deletion of one copy of the 72-base-pair repeat sequence in the SV40 promoter caused no significant decrease in CAT synthesis in monkey kidney CV-1 cells; however, an additional deletion of 50 base pairs from the second copy of the repeats reduced CAT synthesis to 11% of its level in the wild type. They also constructed a recombinant, pSVO-cat, in which the entire SV40 promoter region was removed and a unique HindIII site was substituted for the insertion of other promoter sequences.

  2. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm(-1), 1344 cm(-1), 1596 cm(-1), which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm(-1) was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R(2)=0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples. PMID:25754387

  3. Rapid surface enhanced Raman scattering detection method for chloramphenicol residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Yao, Weirong

    2015-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a widely used amide alcohol antibiotics, which has been banned from using in food producing animals in many countries. In this study, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coupled with gold colloidal nanoparticles was used for the rapid analysis of CAP. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted with Gaussian 03 at the B3LYP level using the 3-21G(d) and 6-31G(d) basis sets to analyze the assignment of vibrations. Affirmatively, the theoretical Raman spectrum of CAP was in complete agreement with the experimental spectrum. They both exhibited three strong peaks characteristic of CAP at 1104 cm-1, 1344 cm-1, 1596 cm-1, which were used for rapid qualitative analysis of CAP residues in food samples. The use of SERS as a method for the measurements of CAP was explored by comparing use of different solvents, gold colloidal nanoparticles concentration and absorption time. The method of the detection limit was determined as 0.1 μg/mL using optimum conditions. The Raman peak at 1344 cm-1 was used as the index for quantitative analysis of CAP in food samples, with a linear correlation of R2 = 0.9802. Quantitative analysis of CAP residues in foods revealed that the SERS technique with gold colloidal nanoparticles was sensitive and of a good stability and linear correlation, and suited for rapid analysis of CAP residue in a variety of food samples.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of the antibiotic chloramphenicol and effluent toxicity effects.

    PubMed

    Lofrano, Giusy; Libralato, Giovanni; Adinolfi, Roberta; Siciliano, Antonietta; Iannece, Patrizia; Guida, Marco; Giugni, Maurizio; Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria; Carotenuto, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Chloramphenicol sodium succinate (CAP, C15H15Cl2N2 Na2O8) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic exhibiting activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as other groups of microorganisms only partially removed by conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Thus, CAP and its metabolites can be found in effluents. The present work deals with the photocatalytic degradation of CAP using TiO2 as photocatalyst. We investigated the optimization of reaction contact time and concentration of TiO2 considering CAP and its by-products removal as well as effluent ecotoxicity elimination. Considering a CAP real concentration of 25mgL(-1), kinetic degradation curves were determined at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2gL(-1) TiO2 after 5, 10, 30, 60 and 120min reaction time. Treated samples were checked for the presence of by-products and residual toxicity (V. fischeri, P. subcapitata, L. sativum and D. magna). Results evidenced that the best combination for CAP and its by-products removal could be set at 1.6gL(-1) of TiO2 for 120min with an average residual toxicity of approximately 10%, that is the threshold set for negative controls in most toxicity tests for blank and general toxicity test acceptability. PMID:26256248

  5. Isolation of bacteria producing chloramphenicol acetyltransferase from soil and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Datta, K; Mukherjee, S K; Majumdar, M K; Roy, S K

    1982-07-01

    After screening 107 soil samples collected from different spots around Calcutta, 579 chloramphenicol resistant colonies were isolated. Out of these only 58 colonies could inactivate chloramphenicol in detectable amounts. By noting the production of inactivating factor, 5 high yielding strains were further characterized to species level. Three of them were Escherichia coli strains, the two others were Alcaligenes faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. All strains inactivated chloramphenicol by acetylation, with the production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Production of this latter enzyme was not inducible. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for these 5 strains were studied against 14 antimicrobial agents. All strains were found to be resistant to most antimicrobial agents, but sensitive to polymyxin B. The strain A. faecalis was also sensitive to carbenicillin but other four strains were resistant to this antibiotic. PMID:6956790

  6. Biomimetic piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor with chloramphenicol-imprinted polymer sensing layer.

    PubMed

    Ebarvia, Benilda S; Ubando, Isaiah E; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2015-11-01

    The measurement of banned antibiotic like chloramphenicol is significant for customer protection and safety. The presence of residual antibiotics in foods and food products of animal origin could pose as health hazards and affect food quality for global acceptance. In this study, the potential of a chloramphenicol sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) coupled with a piezoelectric quartz crystal was explored. The MIP was prepared by precipitation polymerization at 60 °C. Methacrylic acid was used as monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as crosslinker, and chloramphenicol as the template. Template removal on the resulting polymer was done by extraction using methanol-acetic acid. Characterization of the MIP and NIP were conducted by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. These further supported the imprinting and rebinding process of chloramphenicol to the polymer matrix. The chloramphenicol sensor was devised by spin-coating onto one side of the 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal the MIP suspension in polyvinylchloride-tetrahydrofuran (6:2:1 w/w/v) solution. Optimization of sensor response was performed by varying the type of cross-linker, amount of MIP sensing layer, curing time, and pH. The sensor exhibited good sensitivity of about 73 Hz/log (conc., µg mL(-1)) and good repeatability (rsd<10%). A linear relationship (r(2)=0.9901) between frequency shift and chloramphenicol concentration in the range of 1×10(-6) up to 1×10(-1) µg/mL was obtained. The sensor response was highly selective to chloramphenicol than with other compounds of similar chemical structures. Acceptable percent recovery was obtained for real sample analysis using the sensor. The proposed sensor could be a promising low cost and highly sensitive approach for residual chloramphenicol quantification in food products. PMID:26452956

  7. γ-Cyclodextrin capped silver nanoparticles for molecular recognition and enhancement of antibacterial activity of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Gannimani, Ramesh; Ramesh, Muthusamy; Mtambo, Sphamandla; Pillay, Karen; Soliman, Mahmoud E; Govender, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Computational studies were conducted to identify the favourable formation of the inclusion complex of chloramphenicol with cyclodextrins. The results of molecular docking and molecular dynamics predicted the strongest interaction of chloramphenicol with γ-cyclodextrin. Further, the inclusion complex of chloramphenicol with γ-cyclodextrin was experimentally prepared and a phenomenon of inclusion was verified by using different characterization techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and two dimensional nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. From these results it was concluded that γ-cyclodextrins could be an appropriate cyclodextrin polymer which can be used to functionalize chloramphenicol on the surface of silver nanoparticles. In addition, γ-cyclodextrin capped silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and zeta potential analysis. Molecular recognition of chloramphenicol by these cyclodextrin capped silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS) experiments. Synergistic antibacterial effect of chloramphenicol with γ-cyclodextrin capped silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 5129), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300). The results from the antibacterial experiment were favourable thus allowing us to conclude that the approach of modifying organic drug molecules with cyclodextrin capped inorganic silver nanoparticles could help to enhance the antibacterial activity of them. PMID:26824520

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of chloramphenicol and its esters in complex drug mixtures.

    PubMed

    Devani, M B; Shishoo, C J; Doshi, K J; Shah, A K

    1981-05-01

    When aromatic nitro compounds are reduced with zinc and calcium chloride and reacted with trisodium pentacyanoaminoferrate they give a purple product having an absorbance maximum between 480 and 540 nm. Applying this reaction, a quantitative method has been developed for the determination of chloramphenicol and its esters. Various reaction conditions have been standardized. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 4 to 32 micrograms/mL reaction mixture. Average recoveries and standard deviations were 99.78 +/- 0.627 and 99.90 +/- 0.660; 101.06 +/- 0.702; and 99.90 +/- 0.880% for chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol sodium succinate, and chloramphenicol palmitate, respectively. The method has also been applied to determine chloramphenicol and its esters as well as chloramphenical in the presence of combination drugs in dosage forms. The presence of benzocaine, lignocaine, sulfadiazine, nitrofurantoin, ascorbic acid, hydrocortisone, prednisolone, streptomycin, and tetracycline does not interfere with the proposed spectrophotometric procedure. The method does not require prior separation of chloramphenicol from combination drugs. PMID:7240063

  9. Widespread ocular use of topical chloramphenicol: is there justifiable concern regarding idiosyncratic aplastic anaemia?

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, C N; Anastas, C N

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical but as yet not conclusively proved risk of chloramphenicol induced idiosyncratic aplastic anaemia exists with topical ophthalmic therapy, with the absolute, but highly improbable, maximum risk of death (equalling that of systemic therapy) being 1 in 50,000 to 90,000. To put this in realistic perspective, one must note that the comparable risk of fatal anaphylaxis resulting from penicillin therapy, from any route, is similar at 1 in 100,000. Indeed, it has been noted recently that with more than 200 million ocular chloramphenicol products dispensed in the UK in the past 10 years, only 11 reports (all non-fatal) of suspected topical chloramphenicol induced blood dyscrasia have been reported to the Committee on the Safety of Medicines since 1966. One also has to consider that inadvertent exposure to minute quantities of chloramphenicol (ng/ml) may occur through consumption of livestock that have been treated with chloramphenicol. Broad statements condemning topical chloramphenicol need to be tempered with its proved safety, tolerance, cost, and efficacy while acknowledging an extremely remote risk of the very serious adverse effect of drug induced aplastic anaemia. Risk-benefit assessment is the duty of all prescribing physicians and a decision to prescribe or not prescribe must be made on the basis of personal judgment and an awareness of the statistics in perspective. The only known factor to be associated with vulnerability in the case of topical chloramphenicol is family history. There is no evidence to date that suggests children are any more susceptible than adults. PMID:8814753

  10. Chloramphenicol Selection of IS10 Transposition in the cat Promoter Region of Widely Used Cloning Vectors.

    PubMed

    González-Prieto, Coral; Agúndez, Leticia; Llosa, Matxalen

    2015-01-01

    The widely used pSU8 family of cloning vectors is based on a p15A replicon and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance. We frequently observed an increase in the size of plasmids derived from these vectors. Analysis of the bigger molecular species shows that they have an IS10 copy inserted at a specific site between the promoter and the cat open reading frame. Promoter activity from both ends of IS10 has been reported, suggesting that the insertion events could lead to higher CAT production. Insertions were observed in certain constructions containing inserts that could lead to plasmid instability. To test the possibility that IS10 insertions were selected as a response to chloramphenicol selection, we have grown these constructs in the presence of different amounts of antibiotic and we observed that insertions arise promptly under higher chloramphenicol selective pressure. IS10 is present in many E. coli laboratory strains, so the possibility of insertion in constructions involving cat-containing vectors should be taken into account. Using lower chloramphenicol concentrations could solve this problem. PMID:26375469

  11. Chloramphenicol – A Potent Armament Against Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Gram Negative Bacilli?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria cause infections which are hard to treat and cause high morbidity and mortality. Due to limited therapeutic options there is a renewed interest upon older antimicrobials which had fallen into disuse as a result of toxic side effects. One such antibiotic is chloramphenicol which was sidelined due to reports linking its use with the development of aplastic anaemia. Aim A study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of chloramphenicol in light of the emerging problem of multi-drug resistant gram negative bacteria (MDR GNB). Materials and Methods A total of 483 MDR GNB of the 650 consecutive Gram Negative Bacteria isolated from various clinical samples of patients admitted at a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur between January-June 2014 were screened for chloramphenicol susceptibility by the disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. Results The MDR GNB isolates were obtained from 217 (45%) urine, 163 (34%) from respiratory samples, 52(11%) from pus, 42 (9%) from blood and 9 (2%) from body fluids. A 68% of the MDR GNB isolates were found to be sensitive to chloramphenicol. Conclusion Clinicians should always check for the local susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria to chloramphenicol. This antibiotic has a potential to play a role in the therapeutic management of infections due to MDR GNB pathogens. PMID:27042458

  12. Chloramphenicol Selection of IS10 Transposition in the cat Promoter Region of Widely Used Cloning Vectors

    PubMed Central

    González-Prieto, Coral; Agúndez, Leticia; Llosa, Matxalen

    2015-01-01

    The widely used pSU8 family of cloning vectors is based on a p15A replicon and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance. We frequently observed an increase in the size of plasmids derived from these vectors. Analysis of the bigger molecular species shows that they have an IS10 copy inserted at a specific site between the promoter and the cat open reading frame. Promoter activity from both ends of IS10 has been reported, suggesting that the insertion events could lead to higher CAT production. Insertions were observed in certain constructions containing inserts that could lead to plasmid instability. To test the possibility that IS10 insertions were selected as a response to chloramphenicol selection, we have grown these constructs in the presence of different amounts of antibiotic and we observed that insertions arise promptly under higher chloramphenicol selective pressure. IS10 is present in many E. coli laboratory strains, so the possibility of insertion in constructions involving cat-containing vectors should be taken into account. Using lower chloramphenicol concentrations could solve this problem. PMID:26375469

  13. Possible association between ocular chloramphenicol and aplastic anaemia—the absolute risk is very low

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Joan-Ramon; Vidal, Xavier; Ballarín, Elena; Ibáñez, Luisa

    1998-01-01

    Aims To determine whether topical ocular chloramphenicol increases the risk of aplastic anaemia and to estimate the magnitude of this risk, if any. Methods Population-based prospective case-control surveillance of aplastic anaemia in a community of 4.2 million inhabitants from 1980 to 1995 (67.2 million person-years) plus case-population estimate of the risk, based on sales figures of ocular chloramphenicol in the study area during the study period. Results One hundred and forty-five patients with aplastic anaemia and 1,226 controls were included in the analysis. Three cases (2.1%) and 5 controls (0.4%) had been exposed to ocular chloramphenicol during the relevant etiological period. The adjusted odds ratio was 3.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.84–16.90). Two cases had also been exposed to other known causes of aplastic anaemia. The incidence of aplastic anaemia among users of ocular chloramphenicol was 0.36 cases per million weeks of treatment. The incidence among non users was 0.04 cases per million weeks. Conclusions An association between ocular chloramphenicol and aplastic anaemia cannot be excluded. However, the risk is less than one per million treatment courses. PMID:9723830

  14. A chromosomal chloramphenicol acetyltransferase determinant from a probiotic strain of Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Galopin, Sébastien; Cattoir, Vincent; Leclercq, Roland

    2009-06-01

    The mechanism of resistance to chloramphenicol was studied in four strains of Bacillus clausii included in a probiotic mixture, which is administered to humans for prevention of gastrointestinal side effects due to oral antibiotic therapy. By cloning experiments, a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, cat(Bcl), coding for a putative 228-amino acid CAT protein was identified in B. clausii SIN. The deduced amino acid sequence displayed from 31% to 85% identity with 56 CAT proteins from other Gram-positive bacterial strains. The cat(Bcl) gene was also detected by PCR in the three other B. clausii strains resistant to chloramphenicol, whereas it was absent in the three control strains susceptible to chloramphenicol. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis of total DNA digested by I-CeuI followed by hybridization with a cat-specific probe as well as unsuccessful repeated attempts of in vitro transfer of chloramphenicol resistance to various recipient cells indicated that cat(Bcl) was chromosomally located in all four resistant B. clausii strains. PMID:19459958

  15. Formulation optimization of palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion-loaded with chloramphenicol suitable for meningitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Musa, Siti Hajar; Basri, Mahiran; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi; Malek, Emilia Abd; Basri, Hamidon; Shamsuddin, Ahmad Fuad

    2013-12-01

    Palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion-loaded with chloramphenicol was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), a multivariate statistical technique. Effect of independent variables (oil amount, lecithin amount and glycerol amount) toward response variables (particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and osmolality) were studied using central composite design (CCD). RSM analysis showed that the experimental data could be fitted into a second-order polynomial model. Chloramphenicol-loaded nanoemulsion was formulated by using high pressure homogenizer. The optimized chloramphenicol-loaded nanoemulsion response values for particle size, PDI, zeta potential and osmolality were 95.33nm, 0.238, -36.91mV, and 200mOsm/kg, respectively. The actual values of the formulated nanoemulsion were in good agreement with the predicted values obtained from RSM. The results showed that the optimized compositions have the potential to be used as a parenteral emulsion to cross blood-brain barrier (BBB) for meningitis treatment. PMID:23974000

  16. Measurement of Three Antibiotics (Penicillin, Cephalothin, and Chloramphenicol) When Present Together in Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Sabath, Leon D.; Loder, P. Bronwen; Gerstein, Deborah A.; Finland, Maxwell

    1968-01-01

    Benzylpenicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol were measured individually and quantitatively when present together in mixtures at concentrations found in patients. The assay depended on the selective inactivation of two of the antibiotics, permitting the third to be assayed as if present alone. Agar seeded with a chloramphenicol-resistant, penicillinase-negative Staphylococcus aureus was used for a cylinder-plate assay of appropriately diluted fluid to determine the activity of either benzylpenicillin or cephalothin after either β-lactamase inactivation of the former or ultraviolet light inactivation of the latter. Chloramphenicol was assayed with Sarcina lutea after appropriate β-lactamase inactivation of both cephalothin and benzylpenicillin. Fluids containing various amounts of the three antibiotics were assayed by this method with less than 8% error. Procedures that fail to measure each antibiotic individually may give larger errors. PMID:5187067

  17. Effect of chloramphenicol and ethidium bromide on the level of ornithine carbamoyltransferase in Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Zerez, C.R.; Weiss, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The specific activity of the nuclear-gene-encoded, mitochondrial arginine biosynthetic enzyme ornithine carbamoyltransferase in Neurospora crassa was elevated in mycelia treated with chloramphenicol or ethidium bromide. The increase in specific activity was caused by an increase in the number of mature enzyme molecules rather than by the activation of a preexisting enzyme. Chloramphenicol and ethidium bromide appeared to act indirectly via arginine-mediated derepression. However, derepression did not appear to result from a drug-mediated decrease in the arginine pool.

  18. Nonchromatographic assay for expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in eukaryotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sleigh, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid procedure is described for assaying chloramphenicol acetyltranserase (CAT) enzyme activity following transfection of the CAT gene into eukaryotic cells. CAT enzyme activity in cell extracts catalyzes the transfer of (/sup 14/C)acetyl groups from labeled acetyl coenzyme A to unlabeled chloramphenicol. Labeled reaction product is quantitated by liquid scintillation counting after extraction into ethyl acetate. The method is valid for use with transfected cell extracts only if the extracts are first heated to 65/sup 0/C to remove a factor which degrades acetyl coenzyme A. The revised procedure offers considerable advantages in speed and ease of performance over the chromatographic assay in current use.

  19. Treatment of TRIC infection of the eye with rifampicin or chloramphenicol.

    PubMed Central

    Darougar, S; Viswalingam, M; Treharne, J D; Kinnison, J R; Jones, B R

    1977-01-01

    An open trial was carried out on 63 patients in London to assess the efficacy of 1% rifampicin eye ointment in comparison with 1% chloramphenicol eye ointment in the treatment of sexually transmitted TRIC infection of the eye. Patients included were selected on the basis of positive cultures for Chlamydia trachomatis. Three weeks' treatment with rifampicin eye ointment used 3 times daily was not sufficient to cure the disease, but a 6 or 7 week course gave 90% clinical and microbiological cure rate. Treatment with chloramphenicol eye ointment 3 times daily for 4 to 6 weeks failed to cure the disease. PMID:322700

  20. Assignment of the chloramphenicol resistance gene to mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid and analysis of its expression in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, D.C.

    1981-08-01

    The mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acids (mtDNA's) from human HeLa and HT1080 cells differed in their restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns for HaeII, HaeIII, and HhaI. HaeII digestion yielded a 9-kilobase fragment in Ht1080, which was replaced by 4.5-, 2.4-, and 2.1-kilobase fragments in HeLa. HaeIII and HhaI yielded distinctive 1.35- and 0.68-kilobase HeLa fragments. These restriction endonuclease polymorphisms were used as mtDNA markers in HeLa-HT1080 cybrid and hybrid crosses involving the cytoplasmic chloramphenicol resistance mutation was used. Three cybrids and four hybrids (four expressing HeLa and three expressing HT1080 chloramphenicol resistance) contained 2- to 10-fold excesses of the mtDNA of the chloramphenicol-resistant parent. One cybrid, which was permitted to segregate chloramphenicol resistance and was then rechallenged with chloramphenicol, had approximately equal proportions of the two mtDNA's. Only one hybrid was discordant. These results indicated that chloramphenicol resistance is encoded in mtDNA and that expression of chloramphenicol resistance is related to the ratio of chloramphenicol-resistant and -sensitive genomes within cells.

  1. An In Vitro Synergistic Interaction of Combinations of Thymus glabrescens Essential Oil and Its Main Constituents with Chloramphenicol

    PubMed Central

    Ilić, Budimir S.; Kocić, Branislava D.; Ćirić, Vojislav M.; Cvetković, Olga G.; Miladinović, Dragoljub L.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Thymus glabrescens Willd. (Lamiaceae) essential oil were examined, as well as the association between it and chloramphenicol. The antibacterial activities of geraniol and thymol, the main constituents of T. glabrescens oil, individually and in combination with chloramphenicol, were also determined. The interactions of the essential oil, geraniol, and thymol with chloramphenicol toward five selected strains were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay in combination with chemometric methods. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant compound class in the oil, with geraniol (22.33%) as the major compound. The essential oil exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains, but the activities were lower than those of the standard antibiotic and thymol. A combination of  T. glabrescens oil and chloramphenicol produced a strong synergistic interaction (FIC indices in the range 0.21–0.87) and a substantial reduction of the MIC value of chloramphenicol, thus minimizing its adverse side effects. The combinations geraniol-chloramphenicol and thymol-chloramphenicol produced synergistic interaction to a greater extent, compared with essential oil-chloramphenicol association, which may indicate that the activity of the thyme oil could be attributed to the presence of significant concentrations of geraniol and thymol. PMID:24616649

  2. The toxic effects of monensin and chloramphenicol on laying turkey breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Y; Weisman, Y; Avidar, Y; Bogin, E

    1998-01-01

    A case report of choramphenicol and monensin poisoning in turkey breeder hens is presented in which anorexia and a fall in egg production were features. An experiment study was then conducted in turkey breeding hens given increasing levels of monensin and chloramphenicol singly or in combination. Monensin fed at levels of 42 or 85 ppm had no adverse effect on egg production but chloramphenicol in the drinking water at 500 mg/l for 4 days caused a 9.2% fall in egg production compared to control untreated birds. When 500 mg/l chloramphenicol and 42 ppm monensin were given together for 8 days there was lameness, 12% mortality, but no drop in egg production. When 70 ppm monensin and 500 mg/l chloramphenicol were given together for 4 days, 14 of 22 birds died and egg production in the remainder ceased. Withdrawal of monensin arrested mortality but egg production did not recover. Serum creatine phosphokinase levels in this group were 20 times greater than those of the controls and were similar to birds studied in the case report. PMID:18483988

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-chloramphenicol via silver-catalysed asymmetric isocyanoacetate aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Franchino, Allegra; Jakubec, Pavol; Dixon, Darren J

    2016-01-01

    The highly enantio- and diastereoselective aldol reaction of isocyanoacetates catalysed by Ag2O and cinchona-derived amino phosphines applied to the synthesis of (-)- and (+)-chloramphenicol is described. The concise synthesis showcases the utility of this catalytic asymmetric methodology for the preparation of bioactive compounds possessing α-amino-β-hydroxy motifs. PMID:26510469

  4. 75 FR 55810 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chloramphenicol, Lincomycin, Pyrantel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Bartkowiak, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl.... Ferrante, 11 Fairway Lane, Trumbull, CT 06611; International Nutrition, Inc., 7706 ``I'' Plaza, Omaha, NE...) Trumbull, CT 06611 (chloramphenicol) International NADA 121-337 INI Swine Sec. 558.485 Nutrition,...

  5. Adverse events associated with chloramphenicol use in dogs: a retrospective study (2007-2013).

    PubMed

    Short, J; Zabel, S; Cook, C; Schmeitzel, L

    2014-11-29

    Chloramphenicol is a broad spectrum antibiotic that has been increasingly utilised since the emergence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections. Due to toxicities in humans, use of the drug has been limited. In dogs, gastrointestinal signs are common adverse events described, and bone marrow suppression is possible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse events associated with chloramphenicol in dogs seen by one specialty practice from January 2007 through June 2013. The database was searched for all dogs prescribed chloramphenicol during the time period. Dosage, length of treatment, age and body weight of the dogs were recorded as well as any adverse events that occurred during treatment. A total of 105 cases were evaluated. Thirty-nine dogs experienced at least one adverse event while on the medication. The most commonly noted were gastrointestinal signs and hindlimb weakness. The mean body weight for dogs with hindlimb weakness was 35.3 kg, which was significant. Resolution was documented in 54 per cent of cases when the drug was discontinued. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius on bacterial culture was listed as the reason for chloramphenicol use in 76 per cent of the cases. Based on this information, further prospective studies are recommended to evaluate the reproducibility of this report. PMID:25096589

  6. Analysis of conjugation of chloramphenicol and hemoglobin by fluorescence, circular dichroism and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Wei; Sun, Ye; Yang, Xin-Ling; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Chloramphenicol is a low cost, broad spectrum, highly active antibiotic, and widely used in the treatment of serious infections, including typhoid fever and other life-threatening infections of the central nervous system and respiratory tract. The purpose of the present study was to examine the conjugation of chloramphenicol with hemoglobin (Hb) and compared with albumin at molecular level, utilizing fluorescence, UV/vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) as well as molecular modeling. Fluorescence data indicate that drug bind Hb generate quenching via static mechanism, this corroborates UV/vis absorption measurements that the ground state complex formation with an affinity of 10 4 M -1, and the driving forces in the Hb-drug complex are hydrophilic interactions and hydrogen bonds, as derived from computational model. The accurate binding site of drug has been identified from the analysis of fluorescence and molecular modeling, α1β2 interface of Hb was assigned to possess high-affinity for drug, which located at the β-37 Trp nearby. The structural investigation of the complexed Hb by synchronous fluorescence, UV/vis absorption, and CD observations revealed some degree of Hb structure unfolding upon complexation. Based on molecular modeling, we can draw the conclusion that the binding affinity of drug with albumin is superior, compared with Hb. These phenomena can provide salient information on the absorption, distribution, pharmacology, and toxicity of chloramphenicol and other drugs which have analogous configuration with chloramphenicol.

  7. Antagonism of ampicillin and chloramphenicol for meningeal isolates of group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, J L; Mason, E O; Baker, C J

    1981-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b has led to the recommendation that ampicillin and chloramphenicol be given as the initial therapy for suspected bacterial meningitis in infants and children. However, during the first 2 months of life, H. influenzae type b is a rare cause of meningitis, whereas group B streptococcus is the most frequently isolated agent. Since ampicillin and chloramphenicol have been shown to be antagonistic for other streptococci, an in vitro study of their effect on group B streptococci was performed. The effect of ampicillin and chloramphenicol, alone and in combination, on 18 meningeal isolates was determined for 2 different inocula of group B streptococci, using microtiter broth dilution and growth kinetic assays. Isoboles, fractional lethal concentration indices, or both indicated antagonism for all strains. Growth kinetic assays for two representative strains demonstrated inhibition of the early bactericidal activity of ampicillin by chloramphenicol. These findings of in vitro antagonism suggest that this combination may be contraindicated for the treatment of infants with group B streptococcal meningitis. PMID:7030197

  8. Evaluation of regional limb perfusion with chloramphenicol using the saphenous or cephalic vein in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Kelmer, G; Tatz, A J; Famini, S; Bdolah-Abram, T; Soback, S; Britzi, M

    2015-02-01

    Regional limb perfusion (RLP) significantly decreases morbidity and mortality associated with distal limb injuries in horses. There is an urgent need for finding additional effective antimicrobial drugs for use in RLP. In this study, we tested the pharmacokinetics (PK) of chloramphenicol in RLP. Eight horses participated in the study, which was approved by the University Animal Care and Use Committee. The cephalic and the saphenous veins were used to perfuse the limbs. Synovial samples were collected from the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal (MCP/MTP) joint. The Friedman Test was applied for assessing change in PK concentration over time, for all time points. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was used to test the difference between PK concentration in joint & serum as well as concentration in joint vs. MIC. The comparison of measurements between measurements taken on hind vs. front legs was carried out using the Mann-Whitney Test. A P-value of 5% or less was considered statistically significant. After RLP, the concentration of chloramphenicol in the synovial fluid of the MCP/MTP joint using either the cephalic or the saphenous vein was initially far above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of most susceptible pathogens and remained above the MIC for approximately 6 h. The results indicate that performing RLP using the cephalic and saphenous veins enables reaching concentrations of chloramphenicol in the MCP/MTP joint that are well above the MIC of most susceptible pathogens. The chloramphenicol concentrations achieved in the synovial fluid of the MCP/MTP joint in the current study were between 1.5 (MTP) and 7 (MCP) times the MIC of MRSA in horses. These results are encouraging since MRSA infections are becoming far more common, causing considerable morbidity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol following RLP in the horse and the results are positive. PMID:25073920

  9. A method to detect transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression in intact animals

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; Jastreboff, M.M.; Chiu, Chang Fang; Ito, Etsuro; Bertino, J.R. )

    1988-01-01

    A rapid procedure is described for assaying chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme activity in intact animals following transfection of the RSV CAT plasmid into mouse bone marrow cells by electroporation. The reconstituted mice were injected with ({sup 14}C)chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extracts of 24-h urine samples were analyzed by TLC autoradiography for the excretion of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites. CAT expression in vivo can be detected by the presence of acetylated {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the urine within 1 week after bone marrow transplantation and, under the conditions described, these metabolites can be detected for at least 3 months. CAT expression in intact mice as monitored by the urine assay correlates with the CAT expression in the hematopoietic tissues assayed in vitro. This method offers a quick mode of screening for introduced CAT gene expression in vivo without sacrificing the mice.

  10. Structural, electronic, thermodynamical and charge transfer properties of Chloramphenicol Palmitate using vibrational spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Anubha; Sharma, Anamika; Tandon, Poonam; Baraldi, Cecilia; Gamberini, Maria Christina

    2013-01-01

    The global problem of advancing bacterial resistance to newer drugs has led to renewed interest in the use of Chloramphenicol Palmitate (C27H42Cl2N2O6) [Palmitic acid alpha ester with D-threo-(-),2-dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl)acetamide also known as Detereopal]. The characterization of the three polymorphic forms of Chloramphenicol Palmitate (CPP) was done spectroscopically by employing FT-IR and FT-Raman techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features, and harmonic wavenumbers have been investigated for most stable form A with the help of DFT calculations and a good correlation was found between experimental data and theoretical values. Electronic properties have been analyzed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The theoretical calculation of thermodynamical properties along with NBO analysis has also been performed to have a deep insight into the molecule for further applications.

  11. Antibiotic sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae strains including three recent chloramphenicol-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Zackrisson, G; Brorson, J E

    1980-08-01

    The antibiotic sensitivity of 100 recent isolates of Haemophilus influenzae was determined. Three strains were resistant to chloramphenicol with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 16 microgram/ml. Of these three resistant strains, one produced betalactamase and one was resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The remaining strains were inhibited by 0.25-2.0 microgram/ml of chloramphenicol. Ampicillin and benzylpenicillin were found to inhibit all but the betalactamase-producing strains at low concentrations. Regarding sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim 96% had minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.5-0.12 microgram/ml or less, while two strains were resistant. The invitro efficacy of erythromycin against H. influenzae was low. The majority of the strains was inhibited by low concentrations of doxycycline and cefuroxime while cefoxitin exhibited minimal inhibitory concentrations values usually exceeding 1 microgram/ml. The minimal inhibitory concentrations registered are compared to the concentrations of the different antibiotics attainable in certain body fluids. PMID:6968146

  12. Highly sensitive determination of chloramphenicol based on thin-layered MoS2/polyaniline nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Huaiyin; Ge, Tong; Wang, Jin; Li, Weihua; Jiao, Kui

    2015-11-01

    The nanocomposite of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and polyaniline (PANI) was prepared through in situ polymerization of aniline on the surface and interlayer of thin-layered MoS2. Owing to the physisorption of aromatic aniline onto the basal plane of MoS2, the electrochemical properties of MoS2/PANI nanocomposite were improved. And a novel electrochemical sensor based on MoS2/PANI nanocomposite was used to determine chloramphenicol by differential pulse voltammetry, exhibiting excellent performance. The detection range was from 1×10(-7) mol L(-1) to 1×10(-4) mol L(-1), with a high sensitivity and a low detection limit of 6.9×10(-8) mol L(-1). In addition, this sensor can be used for the determination of chloramphenicol in real samples. PMID:26452965

  13. The effect of ethidium bromide and chloramphenicol on mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Li-Pin; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Wolvetang, Ernst

    2012-05-15

    The expression of mitochondrial components is controlled by an intricate interplay between nuclear transcription factors and retrograde signaling from mitochondria. The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mtDNA-encoded proteins in mitochondrial biogenesis is, however, poorly understood and thus far has mainly been studied in transformed cell lines. We treated primary human fibroblasts with ethidium bromide (EtBr) or chloramphenicol for six weeks to inhibit mtDNA replication or mitochondrial protein synthesis, respectively, and investigated how the cells recovered from these insults two weeks after removal of the drugs. Although cellular growth and mitochondrial gene expression were severely impaired after both inhibitor treatments we observed marked differences in mitochondrial structure, membrane potential, glycolysis, gene expression, and redox status between fibroblasts treated with EtBr and chloramphenicol. Following removal of the drugs we further detected clear differences in expression of both mtDNA-encoded genes and nuclear transcription factors that control mitochondrial biogenesis, suggesting that the cells possess different compensatory mechanisms to recover from drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data reveal new aspects of the interplay between mitochondrial retrograde signaling and the expression of nuclear regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, a process with direct relevance to mitochondrial diseases and chloramphenicol toxicity in humans. -- Highlights: ► Cells respond to certain environmental toxins by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis. ► We investigated the effect of Chloramphenicol and EtBr in primary human fibroblasts. ► Inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis or DNA replication elicit different effects. ► We provide novel insights into the cellular responses toxins and antibiotics.

  14. Molecular cloning, purification, and properties of a plasmid-encoded chloramphenicol acetyltransferase from Staphylococcus haemolyticus.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, S; Cardoso, M

    1991-01-01

    A small chloramphenicol resistance (Cmr) plasmid of approximately 3.75 kb, designated pSCS5, was isolated from Staphylococcus haemolyticus. This plasmid encoded an inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT; EC 2.3.1.28). The cat gene of pSCS5 was cloned into the Escherichia coli plasmid vector pBluescript SKII+. It differed in its nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence from the cat genes described previously in staphylococci and other gram-positive bacteria. The CAT enzyme was purified from cell-free lysates by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and fast protein liquid chromatography. The native enzyme had an Mr of 70,000 and was composed of three identical subunits, each with an Mr of approximately 23,000. Its isoelectric point was at pH 6.15. CAT from pSCS5 exhibited Km values of 2.81 and 51.8 microM for chloramphenicol and acetyl coenzyme A, respectively. The optimum pH for activity was 7.8. CAT encoded by pSCS5 proved to be relatively heat stable, but sensitive to mercury ions. The observed differences in the nucleotide sequence and the biochemical characteristics of the enzyme allowed the identification of the pSCS5-encoded CAT from S. haemolyticus as a CAT variant different from those described previously in gram-positive bacteria. Images PMID:1929282

  15. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol-gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk.

    PubMed

    Samanidou, Victoria; Kehagia, Maria; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2016-03-31

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol-gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol-gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol-gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol-gel polymer (sol-gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol-gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol-gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol-gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work-flow. Intra and

  16. Inclusion interaction of chloramphenicol and heptakis (2,6-di- O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin: Phase solubility and spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Zhou, Ya-fang

    2011-12-01

    The inclusion interaction between chloramphenicol and heptakis (2,6-di- O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DMBCD) had been investigated by phase solubility and spectroscopic methods such as UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H NMR) as well as 2D-ROESY spectra. Phase solubility analysis showed A L-type diagram with DMBCD, which suggested the formation of 1:1 inclusion complex of DMBCD with chloramphenicol. The estimated stability constant ( Ks) of the inclusion complex of chloramphenicol with DMBCD is 493 M -1 at 293 K. The solubility enhancement of chloramphenicol in the presence of DMBCD is stronger than that in the presence of β-CD, HP-β-CD and M-β-CD. The results obtained by spectroscopic methods showed that the nitrophenyl moiety of chloramphenicol is deeply inserted into inner cavity of DMBCD from the narrow rim of DMBCD, which the inclusion model of chloramphenicol with DMBCD differs from that with β-CD.

  17. The effect of exocrine pancreatic function on chloramphenicol pharmacokinetics in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, C J; Reed, M D; Stern, R C; Aronoff, S C; Yamashita, T S; Blumer, J L

    1988-04-01

    The effect of exocrine pancreatic function on the pharmacokinetics of the choramphenicol oral capsule (CAP-base), chloramphenicol palmitate oral liquid (CAP-P), and chloramphenicol succinate intravenous (CAP-S) formulations was evaluated in 10 patients, aged 16-30 yr, with cystic fibrosis. Pancreatic insufficiency was assessed in each patient by measuring the absorption of p-amino-benzoic acid after oral administration of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid which requires chymotrypsin to cleave p-aminobenzoic from the parent molecule. In a controlled cross-over design, the overall biodisposition of each formulation was assessed in each patient with or without concurrent administration of oral pancreatic enzymes. The relative amounts of active chloramphenicol available in systemic circulation was CAP-base greater than CAP-S greater than CAP-P. Pancreatic enzyme replacement had little effect on the biodisposition parameters for the CAP-base and CAP-S formulation, but significantly increased the peak concentration and bioavailability of the CAP-P formulation. Although pancreatic enzyme replacement improved the absorption characteristics of the CAP-P formulation, absorption remained prolonged and unreliable. Serum concentration-time profiles for either CAP-base or CAP-S consistently exceeded the MIC of important nonpseudomonal pathogens. This finding was not observed after CAP-P administration independent of pancreatic enzyme replacement. The results of this study support the continued clinical use of either CAP-base or CAP-S, but the cautious use of CAP-P formulations in CF patients with concurrent pancreatic insufficiency. PMID:3374992

  18. Evidence of natural occurrence of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in herbs and grass

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Bjorn; de Jong, Jacob; Nielen, Michel; Tserendorj, Enkhtuya; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchas; Cannavan, Andrew; Elliott, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) and many other countries. However, products of animal origin originating from Asian countries entering the European market are still found noncompliant (containing CAP) on a regular basis, even when there is no history of chloramphenicol use in these countries. A possible explanation for the continued detection of these residues is the natural occurrence of CAP in plant material which is used as animal feed, with the consequent transfer of the substance to the animal tissues. Approximately 110 samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. In 26 samples, the presence of CAP was confirmed using the criteria for banned substances defined by the EU. Among other plant materials, samples of the Artemisia family retrieved from Mongolia and from Utah, USA, and a therapeutic herb mixture obtained from local stores in the Netherlands proved to contain CAP at levels ranging from 0.1 to 450 µg/kg. These findings may have a major impact in relation to international trade and safety to the consumer. The results of this study demonstrate that noncompliant findings in animal-derived food products may in part be due to the natural occurrence of chloramphenicol in plant material. This has implications for the application of current EU, USA, and other legislation and the interpretation of analytical results with respect to the consideration of CAP as a xenobiotic veterinary drug residue and the regulatory actions taken upon its detection in food. PMID:20431869

  19. Stability of sulfonamides, nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in preserved raw milk samples measured by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Perez, Norima; Gutierrez, Rey; Escobar, Irma; Diaz, Gilberto; Vega, Salvador; Prado, Guadalupe; Urban, Georgina

    2002-01-01

    A stability study was made of 10 antimicrobials: 6 sulfonamides, 3 nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in raw milk samples preserved with 0.1 % potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and 0.05% mercuric bichloride (HgCl2) during cold storage for 7 days. Preserved milk samples fortified with 50 ppb of each antimicrobial were analyzed by liquid chromatography (modified AOAC Method 993.32). Drugs were extracted with chloroform-acetone after solvent evaporation residues were dissolved with aqueous sodium acetate buffer solution (0.02M, pH 4.8), and fat was removed with hexane. Sulfonamides and chloramphenicol were detected at 275 nm (UV) by using a gradient system of sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile starting at 95 + 5 (v/v) and finishing at 80 + 20 (v/v). Nitrofurans were detected at 375 nm (UV) isocratically with sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile (80 + 20, v/v). Residues stability was measured through recovery data. Sulfamethoxazole, sulfachloropyridazine, nitrofurazone, furazolidone, and furaltadone residues remained stable in the presence of either preservative for 7 days. Sulfamethazine and chloramphenicol were not affected by K2Cr2O7, but had significant losses (p <0.05) when HgCl2 was used: 26.2 and 13.4%, respectively. Average recoveries of sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamerazine, and sulfathiazole significantly decreased by Day 7, with losses of 17.1, 17.2, and 23.2% for K2Cr2O7, and 23.3, 20.7, and 48.0% for HgCl2, respectively. During 5 days of cold storage all antimicrobials tested, except sulfathiazole, remained stable in milk samples preserved with 0.1 % K2Cr2O7 or 0.05% HgCl2. PMID:12477207

  20. Design and fabrication of an aptasensor for chloramphenicol based on energy transfer of CdTe quantum dots to graphene oxide sheet.

    PubMed

    Alibolandi, Mona; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Vajhedin, Fereshteh; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Detection and quantification of chloramphenicol have played essential roles in the effort to minimize food safety risk. Herein, a sophisticated "turn on" aptasensor based on aptamer-CdTe quantum dots (Apt-QDs) and graphene oxide (GO) was developed for chloramphenicol sensing. In this assay, the fluorescence of CdTe QDs-Apt was efficiently quenched through energy transfer from QDs-Apt to GO, and chloramphenicol was detected by recovering the quenched fluorescence due to specific binding between aptamer and chloramphenicol. The results indicated that the addition of a CdTe QDs-labeled aptamer to a GO solution (250μg/mL) led to a high quenching efficiency, yielding over 90% fluorescence quenching. Using a series of chloramphenicol concentrations (0.1 to 10nM) aptasensor provides a limit of detection and limit of quantification at 98pM and 987pM, respectively. Linearity of response over chloramphenicol was demonstrated (r>0.99). Furthermore, the GO-based aptasensor exhibited excellent selectivity toward chloramphenicol compared to other synthetic drugs with similar structures such as thiamphenicol, metronidazole and nitrofurantoin. Good reproducibility and precision (RSD 4.73%, n=10) of the assay indicates the ability of the aptasensor for routine quantitative trace analysis of chloramphenicol. Our results suggested that the prepared aptasensor was also well qualified for the detection of chloramphenicol in milk with a limit of detection of 0.2ppb. PMID:25579964

  1. A novel colorimetric sandwich aptasensor based on an indirect competitive enzyme-free method for ultrasensitive detection of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Abnous, Khalil; Danesh, Noor Mohammad; Ramezani, Mohammad; Emrani, Ahmad Sarreshtehdar; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-04-15

    Analytical methods for detection and quantitation of chloramphenicol in blood serum and foodstuffs arse highly in demand. In this study, a colorimetric sandwich aptamer-based sensor (aptasensor) was fabricated for sensitive and selective detection of chloramphenicol, based on an indirect competitive enzyme-free assay using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), biotin and streptavidin. The designed aptasensor acquires characteristics of AuNPs, including large surface area and unique optical properties, and strong interaction of biotin with streptavidin. In the absence of chloramphenicol, the sandwich structure of aptasensor forms, leading to the observation of sharp red color. In the presence of target, functionalized AuNPs could not bind to 96-well plates, resulting in a faint red color. The fabricated colorimetric aptasensor exhibited high selectivity toward chloramphenicol with a limit of detection as low as 451 pM. Moreover, the developed colorimetric aptasensor was successfully used to detect chloramphenicol in milk and serum with LODs of 697 and 601 pM, respectively. PMID:26599477

  2. Spectroscopic studies on the complexation of some transition metals with Chloramphenicol drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Wahed, M. G. Abd; Refat, M. S.; El-Megharbel, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    Complexes of Chloramphenicol (CHL, H 2L) with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) were obtained in methanolic solution at ˜pH 7.00-7.50 using NaOH. Elemental analyses are consistent with the formulas: Na 2[M(CHL) 2(H 2O) 2]· nH 2O where (M = Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II), and n = 2, 4 and 6), Na 2[M(CHL) 2]· nH 2O where (M = Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II), and n = 0, 1, and 2), and [Cu(CHL) 2]·4H 2O. The IR spectra of the prepared complexes indicate that, the metal coordinated via both hydroxyl groups, while the Cu(II) complex is coordinated through one of the hydroxyl groups and carbonyl of the amide group. Except for Cu 2+ all the metal ions form six membered ring complexes with Chloramphenicol. These complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, infrared, electronic spectral and thermogravimetric (TGA/DTG) measurements. The CHL ligand as well as their complexes have been checked against some kinds of bacteria and fungi and give a significant effect. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E∗, Δ H∗, Δ S∗ and Δ G∗ are estimated using Coats and Redfern as well as Horowitz-Metzger equations.

  3. Solid state characterization of chloramphenicol palmitate. Raman spectroscopy applied to pharmaceutical polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Rustichelli, C.; Ferioli, V.; Gamberini, G.

    2006-03-01

    A pharmaceutical active compound, chloramphenicol palmitate, appears in three polymorphic forms, that can be observed at room temperature. The stable form A (biologically inactive modification), the meta-stable form B (active modification) and unstable form C were found to have distinct Raman spectra, with bands attributable to the different polymorphs. The use of hot-stage Raman microscopy (the direct coupling of Raman microscopy and hot-stage) is demonstrated for the drug substance chloramphenicol palmitate form C. All modifications of form C were produced and identified by hot-stage Raman microscopy. A close correlation of thermal and spectroscopic information was achieved by this combination of techniques. As reported in several pharmacopoeias, the content of form A should be less than 10%; therefore, a mixture of 10% (w/w) A in B was prepared, and the presence of the characteristic bands of form A after subtraction of the pure B was revealed. Moreover, mixtures between 2 and 12% (w/w) A in B were investigated and the intensity ratio (as peak area) I 413-435/I 1035-1158 as a function of A percentage has been demonstrated to show a linear trend. Other methods for the characterization of polymorphs were used: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).

  4. [Construction and characterization of a brucella suis S2 strain with a chloramphenicol resistance marker].

    PubMed

    Mao, Kai-Rong; Ding, Jia-Bo; Cheng, Jun-Sheng; Jiang, Yu-Wen; Yao, Wen-Sheng

    2007-12-01

    Vaccination has not been used widely because of the interference in the discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals in immune-screening procedures. In the present study, chloramphenicol resistance gene (Cm(r)) was cloned into the genomic DNA of brucella suis S2 strain by homologous recombination with knocking out the WbkC gene, and obtained the recombinant rS2-WbkC. Further study confirmed that rS2-WbkC was conversed into rough-phenotype form smooth-phenotype. The recombinant keeps the ability to chloramphenicol resistance after 25 passages in tryptic soy agar (TSA). Mice tests showed rS2-WbkC offered similar protection to S2 strain, but more safe than S2. Serum collected form rS2-WbkC immunized mice could be easily distinguished from antiserum produced by smooth-phenotype brucella abortus. In view of these result, rS2-WbkC is a promising candidate for vaccine strain. PMID:18271249

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Chloramphenicol Homodimers: Molecular Target, Antimicrobial Activity, and Toxicity against Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulou, Ourania N.; Magoulas, George E.; Papadopoulos, Georgios E.; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Dinos, George P.; Papaioannou, Dionissios; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L.

    2015-01-01

    As fight against antibiotic resistance must be strengthened, improving old drugs that have fallen in reduced clinical use because of toxic side effects and/or frequently reported resistance, like chloramphenicol (CAM), is of special interest. Chloramphenicol (CAM), a prototypical wide-spectrum antibiotic has been shown to obstruct protein synthesis via binding to the bacterial ribosome. In this study we sought to identify features intensifying the bacteriostatic action of CAM. Accordingly, we synthesized a series of CAM-dimers with various linker lengths and functionalities and compared their efficiency in inhibiting peptide-bond formation in an Escherichia coli cell-free system. Several CAM-dimers exhibited higher activity, when compared to CAM. The most potent of them, compound 5, containing two CAM bases conjugated via a dicarboxyl aromatic linker of six successive carbon-bonds, was found to simultaneously bind both the ribosomal catalytic center and the exit-tunnel, thus revealing a second, kinetically cryptic binding site for CAM. Compared to CAM, compound 5 exhibited comparable antibacterial activity against MRSA or wild-type strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and E. coli, but intriguingly superior activity against some CAM-resistant E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Furthermore, it was almost twice as active in inhibiting the growth of T-leukemic cells, without affecting the viability of normal human lymphocytes. The observed effects were rationalized by footprinting tests, crosslinking analysis, and MD-simulations. PMID:26267355

  6. Determination of nitrofuran and chloramphenicol residues by high resolution mass spectrometry versus tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

    2015-03-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography based method, coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), was developed to permit the detection and quantification of various nitrofuran and chloramphenicol residues in a number of animal based food products. This method is based on the hydrolysis of covalently bound metabolites and derivatization with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. Clean-up is achieved by a liquid/liquid and a reversed phase/solid phase extraction. Not only are the four conventional nitrofurans (nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, nitrofurazone and furaltadone) detected, but also nifursol, nitrovin and nifuroxazide. Furthermore, an underivatizable nitrofuran (nifurpirinol) and another banned drug (chloramphenicol) can be quantified as well. The compounds are detected in the form of their precursor ions, [M+H](+) and [M-H](-), respectively. The mass resolving power of 70,000 FWHM, and the applied mass window ensure sufficient selectivity and sensitivity. Confirmation is obtained by monitoring the HRMS resolved product ions which were derived from the unit-mass resolved precursor ions. The multiplexing capability of the utilized Orbitrap instrument provides not only highly selective, but also sensitive confirmatory signals. This method has been validated according to the CD 2002/657/EC for the following matrices: muscle, liver, kidney, fish, honey, eggs and milk. PMID:25682427

  7. Pyrite-enhanced degradation of chloramphenicol by low concentrations of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Deli; Liu, Yanxia; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Luming; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-01-01

    A pyrite-catalyzed reaction was used to degrade chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol could be almost 100% removed within 60 minutes when 1 mM H2O2 and 0.1 g/L pyrite were added at an initial pH=3. During oxidation, intermediates such as nitrobenzaldehyde and dichloroacetamide were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The •OH was identified by electron spin-resonance spectroscopy. Pyrite was digested to determine elements by ICP (inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer). To understand the reaction mechanism and the role of natural pyrite in these processes, techniques including scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry were employed to characterize the solid sample. The results explain that pyrite acts as a 'bond' between Fe3+ and H2O2, and this pathway continues to form •OH and inhibit the quenching reaction. Therefore, pyrite-catalyzed reactions would proceed even in low concentrations of H2O2. PMID:26177399

  8. Characterization and Uncertainty Assessment of a Certified Reference Material of Chloramphenicol in Methanol (GBW(E)082557).

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengrui; Wang, Min; Zhou, Jian; Song, Yinqing; Wang, Tongtong

    2016-01-01

    Prior to preparation of CRM candidate of chloramphenicol in methanol with a concentration of 100 mg/L, two independent methods including mass balance (MB) and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) were employed to precisely measure the mass fraction of pure chloramphenicol materials. The mass fraction was assigned to be 99.8% with uncertainty of 0.3%. Homogeneity testing and stability study of chloramphenicol in methanol were examined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the uncertainties originating from the process of CRM development were comprehensively evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the property value of this CRM is homogeneous and stable at 4°C for at least six months. The new CRM (GBW(E)082557) can be applicable to calibration of instrument and assurance of accuracy and comparability of results in routine measurement. PMID:27493666

  9. Characterization and Uncertainty Assessment of a Certified Reference Material of Chloramphenicol in Methanol (GBW(E)082557)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Song, Yinqing; Wang, Tongtong

    2016-01-01

    Prior to preparation of CRM candidate of chloramphenicol in methanol with a concentration of 100 mg/L, two independent methods including mass balance (MB) and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) were employed to precisely measure the mass fraction of pure chloramphenicol materials. The mass fraction was assigned to be 99.8% with uncertainty of 0.3%. Homogeneity testing and stability study of chloramphenicol in methanol were examined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the uncertainties originating from the process of CRM development were comprehensively evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the property value of this CRM is homogeneous and stable at 4°C for at least six months. The new CRM (GBW(E)082557) can be applicable to calibration of instrument and assurance of accuracy and comparability of results in routine measurement. PMID:27493666

  10. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K81: Chloramphenicol in pig muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzer, Joachim; Henrion, Andre; Gowik, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM-K81 'Chloramphenicol in pig muscle', was coordinated by BVL and PTB in 2009/2010. Six NMIs/DIs participated in this comparison. Chloramphenicol (CAP) is an effective broad-spectrum antibiotic which can in principle be used for the treatment of humans and animals. Its use for the treatment of food-producing animals is, however, forbidden worldwide in many countries due to potential severe side effects. The key comparison was the follow-up to the successful pilot study 'CCQM-P90: chloramphenicol in milk'. With this key comparison it was intended to demonstrate the capability of NMIs/DIs to analyse traces of CAP in food at concentration levels resulting from legal requirements for food control. Additionally, the quality of this kind of analysis with respect to compliance with legal requirements for food control methods and the international comparability of measurements should be evaluated in general. The study was classified as a 'track C' study (studies in emerging areas of global interest). For the study incurred lyophilised pig muscle material containing CAP (at a mass-fraction level around the maximum allowable level for import for a number of countries) has been produced as a candidate reference material by BVL and IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, JRC of the European Commission). Animal treatment and slaughtering of the animal to gain incurred muscle material as well as pre-testing of the CAP content was done at the BVL. The IRMM did further processing of the material and testing of homogeneity and stability. Participants were invited to assign the mass fraction of free CAP in the comparison sample. CCQM-K81 demonstrated successfully the capability of the participating laboratories to assign chloramphenicol values in tissue down to residue levels of around 0.3 ng/g (referring to the

  11. A structural study of the interaction between the Dr haemagglutinin DraE and derivatives of chloramphenicol

    SciTech Connect

    Pettigrew, David M.; Roversi, Pietro; Davies, Stephen G.; Russell, Angela J.; Lea, Susan M.

    2009-06-01

    The structures of two Dr adhesin (DraE) complexes with chloramphenicol derivatives, namely chloramphenicol succinate and bromamphenicol, have been solved. The structures reveal important functional groups for small-molecule binding and imply possible modifications to the molecule that would permit a more wide-ranging interaction without the toxic side effects associated with chloramphenicol. Dr adhesins are expressed on the surface of uropathogenic and diffusely adherent strains of Escherichia coli. The major adhesin subunit (DraE/AfaE) of these organelles mediates attachment of the bacterium to the surface of the host cell and possibly intracellular invasion through its recognition of the complement regulator decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and/or members of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. The adhesin subunit of the Dr haemagglutinin, a Dr-family member, additionally binds type IV collagen and is inhibited in all its receptor interactions by the antibiotic chloramphenicol (CLM). In this study, previous structural work is built upon by reporting the X-ray structures of DraE bound to two chloramphenicol derivatives: chloramphenicol succinate (CLS) and bromamphenicol (BRM). The CLS structure demonstrates that acylation of the 3-hydroxyl group of CLM with succinyl does not significantly perturb the mode of binding, while the BRM structure implies that the binding pocket is able to accommodate bulkier substituents on the N-acyl group. It is concluded that modifications of the 3@@hydroxyl group would generate a potent Dr haemagglutinin inhibitor that would not cause the toxic side effects that are associated with the normal bacteriostatic activity of CLM.

  12. Synergistic killing of NDM-producing MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae by two ‘old’ antibiotics—polymyxin B and chloramphenicol

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Rahim, Nusaibah; Cheah, Soon-Ee; Johnson, Matthew D.; Yu, Heidi; Sidjabat, Hanna E.; Boyce, John; Butler, Mark S.; Cooper, Matthew A.; Fu, Jing; Paterson, David L.; Nation, Roger L.; Bergen, Phillip J.; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Combination therapy is an important option in the fight against Gram-negative ‘superbugs’. This study systematically investigated bacterial killing and the emergence of polymyxin resistance with polymyxin B and chloramphenicol combinations used against New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods Four NDM-producing K. pneumoniae strains were employed. The presence of genes conferring resistance to chloramphenicol was examined by PCR. Time–kill studies (inocula ∼106 cfu/mL) were conducted using various clinically achievable concentrations of each antibiotic (range: polymyxin B, 0.5–2 mg/L; chloramphenicol, 4–32 mg/L), with real-time population analysis profiles documented at baseline and 24 h. The microbiological response was examined using the log change method and pharmacodynamic modelling in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results Multiple genes coding for efflux pumps involved in chloramphenicol resistance were present in all strains. Polymyxin B monotherapy at all concentrations produced rapid bacterial killing followed by rapid regrowth with the emergence of polymyxin resistance; chloramphenicol monotherapy was largely ineffective. Combination therapy significantly delayed regrowth, with synergy observed in 25 out of 28 cases at both 6 and 24 h; at 24 h, no viable bacterial cells were detected in 15 out of 28 cases with various combinations across all strains. No polymyxin-resistant bacteria were detected with combination therapy. These results were supported by pharmacodynamic modelling. SEM revealed significant morphological changes following treatment with polymyxin B both alone and in combination. Conclusions The combination of polymyxin B and chloramphenicol used against NDM-producing MDR K. pneumoniae substantially enhanced bacterial killing and suppressed the emergence of polymyxin resistance. PMID:26023209

  13. Oral chloramphenicol in dwarf goats--influence of vasopressin on its absorption and effect of diet on its biodegradation in ruminal fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Samuriwo, E; Van Duin, C T; Van Miert, A S

    1990-12-01

    The biodegradation of chloramphenicol was studied by incubating the drug (at concentrations of 72, 48 and 24 micrograms/ml) with ruminal fluid samples from dwarf goats fed two different diets. Biodegradation of the drug was much faster in samples from animals which were fed with hay and concentrate than in those obtained from goats which were fed grass pellets only. Recently, it has been suggested that lysine-vasopressin injected intravenously induces closure of the oesophageal groove in cattle and goats. Therefore, the influence of lysine-vasopressin on the oral absorption of chloramphenicol (50 mg/kg body wt) was studied in dwarf goats, using two formulations of chloramphenicol. The results suggest that vasopressin failed to induce this reflex mechanism. Furthermore, the shapes of the plasma concentration-time curves after oral administration of chloramphenicol palmitate and chloramphenicol dissolved in propylene glycol were markedly different. Possible mechanisms for the observed differences are discussed. PMID:2287033

  14. Chloramphenicol Mediates Superoxide Production in Photosystem II and Enhances Its Photodamage in Isolated Membrane Particles

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Ateeq Ur; Kodru, Sandeesha; Vass, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is an inhibitor of protein synthesis, which is frequently used to decouple photodamage and protein synthesis dependent repair of Photosystem II during the process of photoinhibition. It has been reported earlier that CAP is able to mediate superoxide production by transferring electrons from the acceptor side of Photosystem I to oxygen. Here we investigated the interaction of CAP with Photosystem II electron transport processes by oxygen uptake and variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Our data show that CAP can accept electrons at the acceptor side of Photosystem II, most likely from Pheophytin, and deliver them to molecular oxygen leading to superoxide production. In addition, the presence of CAP enhances photodamage of Photosystem II electron transport in isolated membrane particles, which effect is reversible by superoxide dismutase. It is concluded that CAP acts as electron acceptor in Photosystem II and mediates its superoxide dependent photodamage. This effect has potential implications for the application of CAP in photoinhibitory studies in intact systems. PMID:27092170

  15. Chloramphenicol Derivatives as Antibacterial and Anticancer Agents: Historic Problems and Current Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dinos, George P.; Athanassopoulos, Constantinos M.; Missiri, Dionissia A.; Giannopoulou, Panagiota C.; Vlachogiannis, Ioannis A.; Papadopoulos, Georgios E.; Papaioannou, Dionissios; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L.

    2016-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAM) is the D-threo isomer of a small molecule, consisting of a p-nitrobenzene ring connected to a dichloroacetyl tail through a 2-amino-1,3-propanediol moiety. CAM displays a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic activity by specifically inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis. In certain but important cases, it also exhibits bactericidal activity, namely against the three most common causes of meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Resistance to CAM has been frequently reported and ascribed to a variety of mechanisms. However, the most important concerns that limit its clinical utility relate to side effects such as neurotoxicity and hematologic disorders. In this review, we present previous and current efforts to synthesize CAM derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. In addition, we highlight potentially broader roles of these derivatives in investigating the plasticity of the ribosomal catalytic center, the main target of CAM. PMID:27271676

  16. The combined actions of chloramphenicol and of bactericidal antibody plus complement on Salmonella typhosa.

    PubMed

    TREFFERS, H P; MUSCHEL, L H

    1954-02-01

    Quantitative determinations, employing turbidimetric growth assays, have been made of the inhibitory actions of choramphenicol, and of specific antibody plus complement, separately, and in combination. In experiments with the Ty2 strain of S. typhosa the combined activities of the two groups of reagents have been predicted, within 3 per cent, from the activities of the separate components, on the hypothesis of joint, independent action (additive inhibitions). A fourfold increase in resistance to chloramphenicol of the 0901 strain of S. typhosa has been shown to have little, if any, effect on its susceptibility to the bactericidal action of anti-O antibody and complement. Indirect evidence indicates that the latter may not be a general effect but may vary with the particular strain. PMID:13130791

  17. Chloramphenicol Derivatives as Antibacterial and Anticancer Agents: Historic Problems and Current Solutions.

    PubMed

    Dinos, George P; Athanassopoulos, Constantinos M; Missiri, Dionissia A; Giannopoulou, Panagiota C; Vlachogiannis, Ioannis A; Papadopoulos, Georgios E; Papaioannou, Dionissios; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2016-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAM) is the D-threo isomer of a small molecule, consisting of a p-nitrobenzene ring connected to a dichloroacetyl tail through a 2-amino-1,3-propanediol moiety. CAM displays a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic activity by specifically inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis. In certain but important cases, it also exhibits bactericidal activity, namely against the three most common causes of meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Resistance to CAM has been frequently reported and ascribed to a variety of mechanisms. However, the most important concerns that limit its clinical utility relate to side effects such as neurotoxicity and hematologic disorders. In this review, we present previous and current efforts to synthesize CAM derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. In addition, we highlight potentially broader roles of these derivatives in investigating the plasticity of the ribosomal catalytic center, the main target of CAM. PMID:27271676

  18. Interaction of 3-aminophthalhydrazide with 5-hydroxytetracycline and chloramphenicol:. a fluorescence quenching study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, D.; Bhattacharjee, U.; Mitra, S.; Das, R.; Mukherjee, S.

    1998-03-01

    The fluorescence quenching of 3-aminophthalhydrazide (luminol) due to the interaction with 5-hydroxytetracycline (teramycin, HTC) and chloramphenicol (chloromycetin, CLM) has been studied employing steady-state and time-correlated single photon counting techniques. In the case of luminol-HTC system, complex formation in the ground state is assumed to explain the higher value of the quenching rate constant and is consistent with positive curvatures in the Stern-Volmer (S-V) plots. The equilibrium constant for the complex formation by hydrogen bonding interaction has been calculated from absorption spectral changes. On the other hand, linear S-V plots are obtained in the case of luminol-CLM system and the bimolecular rate constants obtained in this case are found to be similar to the rate constant for diffusion controlled process. A plausible explanation of the quenching mechanism has been discussed on the basis of hydrogen bonding interaction between the colliding species.

  19. PIXE investigation of in vitro release of chloramphenicol across polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihawy, M. S.; Alzier, A.; Allaf, A. W.

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol and different amounts of acrylamide monomer were prepared by thermal cross-linking in the solid state. The hydrogels were investigated for drug delivery system applications. Chloramphenicol was adopted as a model drug to study its release behavior. Particle induced X-ray emission was utilized to study the drug release behavior across the hydrogels and a comparison study with ultraviolet measurements was performed. Fourier Transform Infrared measurements were carried out for molecular characterization. The releasing behavior of the drug exhibits a decrease and a subsequent increase in the release rate, as the acrylamide monomer increases. Characterization of the hydrogels has shown a competitive behavior between crosslinking with AAm acrylamide monomer or oligomerized version, depending on the amount added to prepare the hydrogels.

  20. Chloramphenicol residues in muscle of rainbow trout following two different dose treatments.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Tanković, Sanin; Varenina, Ivana; Kolanović, Božica Solomun; Smajlović, Muhamed

    2012-09-01

    Depletion of chloramphenicol (CAP) in muscle of rainbow trout was evaluated following 4 days of oral administration with two dosages (42 and 84 mg/kg/day). Sampling was conducted during treatment and for 35 days following the end of treatment. Analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Concentrations observed during treatment were more than 300 μg/kg. A significant elimination occurred within 9 days after the cessation of treatment in both groups. Higher CAP levels were measured in the group treated with higher dose. CAP was not detectable after 13 and 15 after the end of treatment in both groups. PMID:22752151

  1. An improved electrochemical aptasensor for chloramphenicol detection based on aptamer incorporated gelatine.

    PubMed

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Dardenne, Freddy; Blust, Ronny; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-01-01

    Because of the biocompatible properties of gelatine and the good affinity of aptamers for their targets, the combination of aptamer and gelatine type B is reported as promising for the development of biosensing devices. Here, an aptamer for chloramphenicol (CAP) is mixed with different types of gelatine and dropped on the surface of disposable gold screen printed electrodes. The signal of the CAP reduction is investigated using differential pulse voltammetry. The diagnostic performance of the sensor is described and a detection limit of 1.83 × 10(-10) M is found. The selectivity and the stability of the aptasensor are studied and compared to those of other CAP sensors described in literature. PMID:25825978

  2. An electrochemical impedimetric aptasensing platform for sensitive and selective detection of small molecules such as chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Pilehvar, Sanaz; Dierckx, Tarryn; Blust, Ronny; Breugelmans, Tom; De Wael, Karolien

    2014-01-01

    We report on the aptadetection of chloramphenicol (CAP) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The detection principle is based on the changes of the interfacial properties of the electrode after the interaction of the ssDNA aptamers with the target molecules. The electrode surface is partially blocked due to the formation of the aptamer-CAP complex, resulting in an increase of the interfacial electron-transfer resistance of the redox probe detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy or cyclic voltammetry. We observed that the ratio of polarization resistance had a linear relationship with the concentrations of CAP in the range of 1.76-127 nM, and a detection limit of 1.76 nM was obtained. The covalent binding of CAP-aptamer on the electrode surface combined with the unique properties of aptamers and impedimetric transduction leads to the development of a stable and sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for CAP. PMID:25004156

  3. Malachite green and chloramphenicol in aquatic products from regions around Dongting Lake in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic products are important sources of animal proteins in human diet, especially in developing countries. As such, the safety of aquatic products is of primary concern. In this study, a standard method is used to detect malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and to analyse the contents of these banned chemicals in turtle, mandarin fish and grass carp sampled from the region surrounding Dongting Lake area in Hunan, China. Results showed that 10.6% of the samples were MG-positive, most of them turtles. CAP was found in 8.3% of the samples, mostly in mandarin fish. These data indicated that these banned substances are still used in the surveyed area. Hence, adequate strategies must be implemented by the local government to control these banned substances. PMID:26496159

  4. Determination of some anticonvulsants, antiarrhythmics, benzodiazepines, xanthines, paracetamol and chloramphenicol by reversed phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Willems, H J; Van der Horst, A; De Goede, P N; Haakmeester, G J

    1985-08-23

    In this article assays are described for caffeine, theophylline, procainamide, N-acetylprocainamide, quinidine, dihydroquinidine, paracetamol, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, chloramphenicol, oxazepam, temazepam, diazepam, desmethyldiazepam, chlordiazepoxide, desmethylchlordiazepoxide and demoxepam using a uniform working procedure, five (slightly) different mobile phases and one HPLC system. Changing from one eluent to another is simple and a stable base-line is achieved within half an hour. Three of the five eluents are interchangeable and recycling of eluent causes no problems. Sample pretreatment is a single step extraction. Interferences can be overcome by changing the selectivity of the eluent by adjusting the tetrahydrofuran or triethylamine content. Furthermore it is shown how triethylamine can improve peak shapes of basic components and shorten their retention times. PMID:2864679

  5. An Improved Electrochemical Aptasensor for Chloramphenicol Detection Based on Aptamer Incorporated Gelatine

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Dardenne, Freddy; Blust, Ronny; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-01-01

    Because of the biocompatible properties of gelatine and the good affinity of aptamers for their targets, the combination of aptamer and gelatine type B is reported as promising for the development of biosensing devices. Here, an aptamer for chloramphenicol (CAP) is mixed with different types of gelatine and dropped on the surface of disposable gold screen printed electrodes. The signal of the CAP reduction is investigated using differential pulse voltammetry. The diagnostic performance of the sensor is described and a detection limit of 1.83 × 10−10 M is found. The selectivity and the stability of the aptasensor are studied and compared to those of other CAP sensors described in literature. PMID:25825978

  6. Paradox between the responses of Escherichia coli K1 to ampicillin and chloramphenicol in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K S; Manocchio, M; Anthony, B F

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the activity of ampicillin and chloramphenicol in vitro and in vivo against an Escherichia coli K1 strain. In vitro, the strain was relatively susceptible to both antibiotics (MIC and MBC of ampicillin, 2 and 4 micrograms/ml; MIC and MBC of chloramphenicol, 4 and 64 micrograms/ml). Checkerboard determinations of MBCs of drug combinations were consistent with antibiotic antagonism. Killing curves with concentrations of antibiotics similar to in vivo levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of infected rats indicated antagonism within the first 4 h and an indifferent effect of the combination at 24 h. Paradoxically, the combination was significantly more effective than ampicillin or chloramphenicol alone in vivo in infant rats. This was shown by (i) more rapid bacterial clearance from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, (ii) a decreased incidence of meningitis in bacteremic animals, and (iii) improved survival. These findings illustrate a divergence between the effects of ampicillin and chloramphenicol against E. coli in vitro and in vivo and suggest that this combination is an effective synergistic regimen in this experimental model of E. coli bacteremia and meningitis. PMID:6393867

  7. Construction and Use of a Replication-Competent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) that Expresses the Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase Enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwilliger, E. F.; Godin, B.; Sodroski, J. G.; Haseltine, W. A.

    1989-05-01

    The construction and properties of an infectious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that expresses the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase are described. This virus can be used in vitro to screen for drugs that inhibit HIV infection. The marked virus may also be used to trace the routes of infection from the site of inoculation in animal experiments.

  8. Adaptive response and enhancement of N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis by chloramphenicol in Streptomyces fradiae

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, R.H.; Stonesifer, J.

    1985-11-01

    Streptomyces fradiae expressed an adaptive response to treatment with small doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) that caused a reduction in mutagenesis by treatment with larger doses of MNNG. Treatment of S. fradiae with high levels of MNNG in the presence of chloramphenicol caused enhancement of mutagenesis, independent of the adaptive response.

  9. Evaluation of Amphotericin B and Chloramphenicol as Alternative Drugs for Treatment of Chytridiomycosis and Their Impacts on Innate Skin Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Whitney M.; Ebert, Alexander R.; Canning, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, an amphibian skin disease caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been implicated in catastrophic global amphibian declines. The result is an alarming decrease in amphibian diversity that is a great concern for the scientific community. Clinical trials testing potential antifungal drugs are needed to identify alternative treatments for amphibians infected with this pathogen. In this study, we quantified the MICs of chloramphenicol (800 μg/ml), amphotericin B (0.8 to 1.6 μg/ml), and itraconazole (Sporanox) (20 ng/ml) against B. dendrobatidis. Both chloramphenicol and amphotericin B significantly reduced B. dendrobatidis infection in naturally infected southern leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] sphenocephala), although neither drug was capable of complete fungal clearance. Long-term exposure of R. sphenocephala to these drugs did not inhibit antimicrobial peptide (AMP) synthesis, indicating that neither drug is detrimental to this important innate skin defense. However, we observed that chloramphenicol, but not amphotericin B or itraconazole, inhibited the growth of multiple R. sphenocephala skin bacterial isolates in vitro at concentrations below the MIC against B. dendrobatidis. These results indicate that treatment with chloramphenicol might dramatically alter the protective natural skin microbiome when used as an antifungal agent. This study represents the first examination of the effects of alternative antifungal drug treatments on amphibian innate skin defenses, a crucial step to validating these treatments for practical applications. PMID:24771024

  10. Investigation of Enrofloxacin and Chloramphenicol Residues in Broiler Chickens Carcasses Collected From Local Markets of Tabriz, Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Abedimanesh, Nasim; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Gorbani, Abolfazl

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed to determine the residual amounts of chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin in broiler chickens muscle and liver sam­ples gathered from local markets of Tabriz City, northwestern Iran. Methods: Ninety broiler chickens carcasses were collected from different local markets of Tabriz, during July/August 2013. Random samples of thigh and breast muscle and liver were gathered and kept at -80°C until analyzes. The samples were then assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the protocol of each antibiotic kit. Data were statistically analyzed using the computer program SAS 9.1. Results: Eighty two samples (91/1 %) contained residues of enrofloxacin, alt­hough mean (±SD)of enrofloxacin concentration was lower than the European Union maximum residue limits(MRLs) value (P<0.001). Moreover, 28 (31/1 %) had detectable concentrations of chloramphenicol while it was not defined any MRLs value for chloramphenicol because its using has been forbidden in food animals. Conclusion: The frequency of contamination with enrofloxacin was considerable for the analyzed samples. Furthermore, the existence of chloramphenicol in almost one third of samples seems to be a public health threat due to its illegal use in food animals including poultry. PMID:25648045

  11. Comparative efficacy of chloramphenicol loaded chondroitin sulfate and dextran sulfate nanoparticles to treat intracellular Salmonella infections.

    PubMed

    Kiruthika, V; Maya, S; Suresh, Maneesha K; Kumar, V Anil; Jayakumar, R; Biswas, Raja

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella Paratyphi A is a food-borne Gram-negative pathogen and a major public health challenge in the developing world. Upon reaching the intestine, S. Paratyphi A penetrates the intestinal epithelial barrier; and infects phagocytes such as macrophages and dendritic cells. S. Paratyphi A surviving within macrophages is protected from the lethal action of antibiotics due to their poor penetration into the intracellular compartments. Hence we have developed chloramphenicol loaded chondroitin sulfate (CS-Cm Nps) and dextran sulfate (DS-Cm Nps) nanoparticles through ionotropic-gelation method for the intracellular delivery of chloramphenicol. The size of these nanoparticles ranged between 100 and 200 nm in diameter. The encapsulation efficiency of both the nanoparticles was found to be around 65%. Both the nanoparticles are found to be non-hemolytic and non-toxic to fibroblast and epithelial cells. The prepared nanoparticles exhibited sustained release of the drug of up to 40% at pH 5 and 20-25% at pH 7.0 after 168 h. The anti-microbial activities of both nanoparticles were tested under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. The delivery of DS-Cm Nps into the intracellular compartments of the macrophages was 4 fold more compared to the CS-Cm Nps which lead to the enhanced intracellular antimicrobial activity of Ds-Cm Nps. Enhanced anti-microbial activity of Ds-Cm Nps was further confirmed in an ex vivo chicken intestine infection model. Our results showed that Cm loaded DS Nps can be used to treat intracellular Salmonella infections. PMID:25645750

  12. Direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassays based on gold-coated magnetic particles for detection of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaohui; Fang, Xiangyi; Yao, Manwen; Yang, Yucong; Li, Junfeng; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Linyu

    2016-02-01

    Direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA) based on gold-coated magnetic nanospheres (Au-MNPs) were developed for rapid analysis of chloramphenicol (CAP). The Au-MNPs were modified with carboxyl groups and amino groups by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and cysteamine respectively, and then were respectively conjugated with CAP base and CAP succinate via an activating reaction using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). NSP-DMAE-NHS, a new and effective luminescence reagent, was employed to label anti-CAP antibody (mAb) as a tracer in direct CLIA for CAP detection using a 'homemade' luminescent measurement system that was set up with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a photon counting unit linked to a computer. The sensitivities and limits of detection (LODs) of the two methods were obtained and compared according to the inhibition curves. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) values of the two methods were about 0.044 ng/mL and 0.072 ng/mL respectively and LODs were approximately 0.001 ng/mL and 0.006 ng/mL respectively. To our knowledge, they were much more sensitive than any traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ever reported. Moreover, the new luminescence reagent NSP-DMAE-NHS is much more sensitive and stable than luminol and its derivatives, contributing to the sensitivity enhancement. PMID:26031849

  13. Rapid detection of chloramphenicol residues in aquatic products using colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chennan; Zhang, Xueyin; Huang, Xinxin; Guo, Xishan; Cai, Qiang; Zhu, Songming

    2014-01-01

    A colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) was developed for rapid detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in aquatic products. A nitrocellulose (NC) membrane was used as the carrier, and the polyclonal CAP antibody was used as the marker protein. The average diameter of as-prepared colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was about 20 nm. The optimal pH value of colloidal gold solutions and the amount of the antibody of CAP were 8.0 and 7.2 μg/mL, respectively. The CAP antibody was immobilized onto the conjugate pad after purification. The CAP conjugate and goat anti-rabbit IgG (secondary antibody) were coated onto the NC membrane. Next, the non-specific sites were blocked with 1% bovine serum albumin. The minimum detectable concentration of CAP in standard solution is 0.5 ng/mL, with good reproducibility. For the real samples from crucian carps injected with a single-dose of CAP in the dorsal muscles, the minimum detectable concentration of CAP residues was 0.5 µg/kg. The chromatographic analysis time was less than 10 min, and the strip had a long storage lifetime of more than 90 days at different temperatures. The strips provide a means for rapid detection of CAP residues in aquatic products. PMID:25412221

  14. Occurrence of chloramphenicol in cereal straw in north-western Europe.

    PubMed

    Nordkvist, Erik; Zuidema, Tina; Herbes, Rik G; Berendsen, Bjorn J A

    2016-05-01

    Two surveys are presented of straw analysed for naturally occurring chloramphenicol (CAP), a drug banned for use in food-producing animals. In the first study, CAP was analysed by LC-MS/MS and detected in 37 out of 105 straw samples originating from the Netherlands, France, the UK, Germany and Denmark. The highest level found was 6.3 µg kg(-1), the average 0.6 µg kg(-1) and the median 0.2 µg kg(-1). The second study included a method comparison between ELISA and LC-MS/MS and a survey of CAP in cereal straw sampled at farms in all areas of Sweden. A total of 215 samples were screened by ELISA and a subset of 26 samples was also analysed by LC-MS/MS. Fifty-four of the samples contained more than 1 µg kg(-1) CAP and the highest level found was 32 µg kg(-1) (confirmed by LC-MS/MS). The highest contents of CAP in this study were allocated to the Baltic sea coast in the south-eastern part of Sweden (the county of Skåne and the Baltic Sea isle of Gotland). These results indicate a high incidence of CAP in straw in north-west Europe and have a severe impact on the enforcement of European Union legislation. PMID:27101357

  15. Occurrence of chloramphenicol in cereal straw in north-western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Nordkvist, Erik; Zuidema, Tina; Herbes, Rik G.; Berendsen, Bjorn J.A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two surveys are presented of straw analysed for naturally occurring chloramphenicol (CAP), a drug banned for use in food-producing animals. In the first study, CAP was analysed by LC-MS/MS and detected in 37 out of 105 straw samples originating from the Netherlands, France, the UK, Germany and Denmark. The highest level found was 6.3 µg kg−1, the average 0.6 µg kg−1 and the median 0.2 µg kg−1. The second study included a method comparison between ELISA and LC-MS/MS and a survey of CAP in cereal straw sampled at farms in all areas of Sweden. A total of 215 samples were screened by ELISA and a subset of 26 samples was also analysed by LC-MS/MS. Fifty-four of the samples contained more than 1 µg kg−1 CAP and the highest level found was 32 µg kg−1 (confirmed by LC-MS/MS). The highest contents of CAP in this study were allocated to the Baltic sea coast in the south-eastern part of Sweden (the county of Skåne and the Baltic Sea isle of Gotland). These results indicate a high incidence of CAP in straw in north-west Europe and have a severe impact on the enforcement of European Union legislation. PMID:27101357

  16. Rapid Detection of Chloramphenicol Residues in Aquatic Products Using Colloidal Gold Immunochromatographic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chennan; Zhang, Xueyin; Huang, Xinxin; Guo, Xishan; Cai, Qiang; Zhu, Songming

    2014-01-01

    A colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA) was developed for rapid detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in aquatic products. A nitrocellulose (NC) membrane was used as the carrier, and the polyclonal CAP antibody was used as the marker protein. The average diameter of as-prepared colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was about 20 nm. The optimal pH value of colloidal gold solutions and the amount of the antibody of CAP were 8.0 and 7.2 μg/mL, respectively. The CAP antibody was immobilized onto the conjugate pad after purification. The CAP conjugate and goat anti-rabbit IgG (secondary antibody) were coated onto the NC membrane. Next, the non-specific sites were blocked with 1% bovine serum albumin. The minimum detectable concentration of CAP in standard solution is 0.5 ng/mL, with good reproducibility. For the real samples from crucian carps injected with a single-dose of CAP in the dorsal muscles, the minimum detectable concentration of CAP residues was 0.5 μg/kg. The chromatographic analysis time was less than 10 min, and the strip had a long storage lifetime of more than 90 days at different temperatures. The strips provide a means for rapid detection of CAP residues in aquatic products. PMID:25412221

  17. Polyamino-Isoprenic Derivatives Block Intrinsic Resistance of P. aeruginosa to Doxycycline and Chloramphenicol In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Borselli, Diane; Lieutaud, Aurélie; Thefenne, Hélène; Garnotel, Eric; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Brunel, Jean Michel; Bolla, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant bacteria have been a worldwide concern for decades. Though new molecules that effectively target Gram-positive bacteria are currently appearing on the market, a gap remains in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, new strategies must be developed against these pathogens. The aim of this study was to select an antibiotic for which a bacterium is naturally resistant and to use an escort molecule to restore susceptibility, similarly to the model of β-lactam/ β-lactamase inhibitors. High-content screening was performed on the reference strain PA01, allowing the selection of four polyamino-isoprenic compounds that acted synergistically with doxycycline. They were assayed against clinical isolates and Multi-Drug-Resistant strains. One of these compounds was able to decrease the MIC of doxycycline on the reference strain, efflux pump overproducers and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, to the susceptibility level. Similar results were obtained using chloramphenicol as the antibiotic. Membrane permeation assays and real-time efflux experiments were used to characterize the mechanism of doxycycline potentiation. The results showed that the selected compound strongly decreases the efficiency of glucose-triggered efflux associated with a slight destabilization of the outer membrane. According to these data, targeting natural resistance may become an interesting way to combat MDR pathogens and could represent an alternative to already devised strategies. PMID:27152508

  18. Electrocatalytic determination of chloramphenicol based on molybdenum disulfide nanosheets and self-doped polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruirui; Zhao, Jinlong; Chen, Meijing; Yang, Tao; Luo, Shizhong; Jiao, Kui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) intercalated by self-doped polyaniline (SPAN) via ultrasonic exfoliating method was prepared to show outstanding conductivity and synergistic electrocatalytic activity using chloramphenicol (CAP) as a case. In the ultrasonic process, due to the strong π-π(*) stacking interaction and electrostatic repulsion, the negatively charged SPAN served as an intercalator to result in few-layers MoS2 nanosheets, which were exfoliated from bulk MoS2. This nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and differential pulse voltammetry. The obtained nanocomposite owns large conjugated structure and rich negative charge, which can improve the adsorption of conjugate structured CAP with the detection range from 0.1 to 1000 μmol L(-1). The results also showed that the electrocatalytic responses were further affected by the mass ratio of SPAN-MoS2 and the ultrasonication time. Our electrocatalytic platform could be further applied in the adsorption and detection of other positively charged biomolecules or aromatic molecules. PMID:25281149

  19. Fluorescent aptasensor for chloramphenicol detection using DIL-encapsulated liposome as nanotracer.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yang-Bao; Ren, Hong-Xia; Gan, Ning; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Chen, Yijin

    2016-07-15

    A novel fluorescence aptasensor was successfully developed to respond to chloramphenicol (CAP) in food based on magnetic aptamer-liposome vesicle probe. In order to fabricate it, aptamer labeled on functionalized magnetic beads (MB) was firstly employed as capture adsorbent (MB-Apt), then SSB (single-stranded DNA binding protein) and DIL (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanineperchlorate) coimmobilized liposomes (SSB/DIL-Lip) was employed as vesicle signal tracer. The composite vesicle probe is formed between SSB/DIL-Lip and MB-Apt based on SSB's specific recognition towards aptamer on vesicle signal tracer. Upon the vesicle probe solution reacted with CAP, the aptamer on the magnetic beads preferentially bounded with CAP, and then released SSB/DIL-Lip vesicle signal tracer in the supernatant after magnetic separation. The released tracer can emit fluorescence which was correspondence with the concentration of the analyte. At the optimum conditions, the aptasensor exhibited a good linear response for CAP detection in the range of 0.003-10nM with a detection limit of 1pM. Importantly, the methodology was further validated for analyzing CAP in fish samples with consistent results obtained by ELISA kit, thus providing a promising approach for quantitative monitoring of CAP and significant anti-interference ability in food safety. PMID:27015148

  20. Flow-Injection Preconcentration of Chloramphenicol Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for HPLC Determination in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Damian; Poboży, Ewa; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The residue of antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAP) is important issue for food quality control and also for the environmental monitoring. It is banned for use in food-producing animals and has very limited use in human medicine, because of its severe impact on human health. Determination of trace level of CAP in environmental samples requires a very sensitive analytical method and efficient preconcentration procedure. CAP can be efficiently preconcentrated in flow-injection system using flow-through reactor packed with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), but determination of CAP in eluate from MIP requires the application of chromatographic separation, which was made in reversed-phase HPLC system with UV detection. In optimized conditions the limit of detection for 100 mL sample in HPLC with offline preconcentration on MIP was evaluated as 0.66 mg/L. In hyphenated FIA-HPLC system with zone sampling the LOD for developed method was evaluated as 15 ng/L, which indicates the possibility of using it for analysis of environmental samples. PMID:21584273

  1. Engineered "hot" core-shell nanostructures for patterned detection of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenjing; Yang, Longping; Zhuang, Hong; Wu, Haizhou; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we described a novel method for highly sensitive and specific detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) based on engineered "hot" Au core-Ag shell nanostructures (Au@Ag NSs). Cy5-labeled DNA aptamer was embedded between the Au and Ag layers as a signal generator and target-recognition element, to fabricate uniform Au@Ag NSs with unexpected strong and stable SERS signals. The presented CAP can specifically bind to the DNA aptamer by forming an aptamer-CAP conjugate, and cause greatly decreased SERS signals of Au@Ag NSs. By using this method, we were able to detect as low as 0.19 pg mL(-1) of CAP with high selectivity, which is much lower than those previously reported biosensors. Compared with the other SERS sensors that attached a dye in the outer layer of nanoparticles, this method exhibits excellent sensitivity and has the potential to significantly improve stability and reproducibility of SERS-based detection techniques. PMID:26594888

  2. Distribution and chloramphenicol in the bovine genital tract and pharmacokinetic studies of florfenicol in cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Bretzlaff, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate selected aspects of the distribution of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the bovine genital tract and to conduct preliminary pharmacologic studies with florfenicol (FLO), a fluorinated analogue of thiamphenicol, in cattle. After 8 hours' continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of CAP to 7 postpartum cows, steady state plasma-to-genital tissue ratios of CAP were approximately 3. After intrauterine infusion of 20 mg CAP/kg to 3 postpartum cows, approximately 40% of the dose was absorbed into the bloodstream. Tissue concentrations were high at 8 hour postdosing in tissues lining the uterine lumen but were below desired therapeutic concentrations in the myometrium of 2 of the cows. Eighty cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) were assigned to receive on the following treatments: (1) removal of membranes only; (2) removal plus CAP; (3) nonremoval; (4) nonremoval plus CAP. CAP treatment consisted of 5 g administered IU twice daily for 3 days. The majority of cows in all groups acquired endometritis, although CAP reduced the prevalence and severity of the disease. A quantitative assay for FLO in plasma was developed and validated on a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system. The pharmacokinetics of FLO determined after IV administration of 50 mg FLO/kg to 5 cows were best described by a three-compartment model. FLO was approximately 18% bound to plasma proteins as determined by equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. In an in vitro system, 5, 125, or 1000 ug/ml of CAP had no effect on neutrophils from 6 cows.

  3. Application of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) diffusion assay to transgenic plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Peach, C; Velten, J

    1992-02-01

    Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity was quantified in crude extracts from tobacco callus tissues using a modification of a previously reported diffusion assay. We describe here the alterations necessary in applying this rapid and simple assay procedure to plant materials. Due to the high concentration of nonspecific oxidases present in most plant tissues, some type of protective agent is required to maintain enzyme activity. We have tested beta-mercaptoethanol, cysteine, dithiothreitol, ascorbic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as protective agents within the initial extraction buffer. We also investigated the effect of heat (60 degrees C, 10 min) and 5 mM EDTA on CAT activity. The highest CAT activity was obtained using 5 mM cysteine plus 5 mM EDTA in 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.8) as the initial extraction buffer followed by a heat treatment. Using this buffer, CAT activity was stable on ice for more than two hours. In our hands, total acetyl-coenzyme A concentration within the assay mixture was found to be saturating at 250 microM and the Km determined to be 100 microM. Assays performed using the same crude plant extract indicate that 1) duplicate assays show less than 1.5% variation in activities and 2) CAT activity increases linearly with respect to volume of extract used. PMID:1616705

  4. Hydrolysis of amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spiramycin, and tylosin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotics that enter the environment can present human and ecological health risks. An understanding of antibiotic hydrolysis rates is important for predicting their environmental persistence as biologically active contaminants. In this study, hydrolysis rates and Arrhenius constants were determined as a function of pH and temperature for two amphenicol (chloramphenicol and florfenicol) and two macrolide (spiramycin and tylosin) antibiotics. Antibiotic hydrolysis rates in pH 4-9 buffer solutions at 25°C, 50°C, and 60°C were quantified, and degradation products were characterized. All of the antibiotics tested remained stable and exhibited no observable hydrolysis under ambient conditions typical of aquatic ecosystems. Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis occurred at elevated temperatures (50-60°C), and hydrolysis rates increased considerably below pH 5 and above pH 8. Hydrolysis rates also increased approximately 1.5- to 2.9-fold for each 10°C increase in temperature. Based on the degradation product masses found, the functional groups that underwent hydrolysis were alkyl fluoride, amide, and cyclic ester (lactone) moieties; some of the resultant degradation products may remain bioactive, but to a lesser extent than the parent compounds. The results of this research demonstrate that amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics persist in aquatic systems under ambient temperature and pH conditions typical of natural waters. Thus, these antibiotics may present a risk in aquatic ecosystems depending on the concentration present. PMID:25618189

  5. Electrochemical sensor for chloramphenicol based on novel multiwalled carbon nanotubes@molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangming; Zhao, Faqiong

    2015-02-15

    Herein, we present a novel electrochemical sensor for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP), which is based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes@molecularly imprinted polymer (MWCNTs@MIP), mesoporous carbon (CKM-3) and three-dimensional porous graphene (P-r-GO). Firstly, 3-hexadecyl-1-vinylimidazolium chloride (C16VimCl) was synthetized by using 1-vinylimidazole and 1-chlorohexadecane as precursors. Then, C16VImCl was used to improve the dispersion of MWCNT and as monomer to prepare MIP on MWCNT surface to obtain MWCNTs@MIP. After that, the obtained MWCNTs@MIP was coated on the CKM-3 and P-r-GO modified glassy carbon electrode to construct an electrochemical sensor for the determination of CAP. The parameters concerning this assay strategy were carefully considered. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical sensor offered an excellent response for CAP. The linear response ranges were 5.0 × 10(-9)-5 × 10(-7)mol L(-1) and 5.0 × 10(-7)-4.0 × 10(-6), respectively, and the detection limit was 1.0 × 10(-10)mol L(-1). The electrochemical sensor was applied to determine CAP in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25280341

  6. [Bioanode and Inversion of Bioanode to Biocathode for the Degradation of Antibiotic Chloramphenicol].

    PubMed

    Kong, De-yong; Liang, Bin; Yun, Hui; Wang, Ai-jie; Ren, Nan-qi

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of the normal bioanode and bioanode switched to biocathode for the bio-electrochemical degradation of the antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAP), both the bioanode acclimated with CAP and the biocathode inversed from bioanode were monitored for CAP degradation in the bio-electrochemical system. The results demonstrated that the normal enriched bioanode could simultaneously generate current and degrade CAP (k = 0.098 5, 35 mg x L(-1) of CAP) after a long-term acclimation by gradually increasing the concentration of CAP from 5 mg x L(-1) to 80 mg x L(-1). After switching bioanode to biocathode, the cathode biofilm was still capable of catalyzing CAP degradation, although it was influenced to some extent due to changed electrode potential from -0.20 V to -0.40 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). The k of biocathode was 0.264 3, significantly higher than that of abiotic cathode (k = 0.160 9). This mode of biocathode, which was switched from bioanode, not only had the ability of reducing nitro group in CAP but also catalyzed the complete dechloridation and carbanyl group reduction of the side chain of aromatic amine product. PMID:26164911

  7. Delayed bactericidal activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against Listeria monocytogenes: antagonism of chloramphenicol and rifampin.

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, D L; Damme, J; Dieckman, E

    1983-01-01

    Penicillins are considered to be the drugs of choice for the treatment of listeric meningitis, and relapse of infection is rare when treatment is given in appropriate doses for at least 14 days. Despite this, in vitro studies by others have shown that penicillins are bacteriostatic against Listeria spp. We have shown that thienamycin, penicillin G, and ampicillin are the most active beta-lactam antibiotics against Listeria spp. Of 10 strains tested, 9 were killed by less than or equal to 8 micrograms of beta-lactam antibiotics (greater than or equal to 99.9% killing) when subcultures were performed after 48, rather than 24, h of incubation. In contrast, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, doxycycline, and rifampin were bacteriostatic after 48 h of incubation. In time-kill curves, these last drugs antagonized the bactericidal action of penicillins. In view of the inefficiency of opsonization in the cerebrospinal fluid, these antagonistic combinations should probably be avoided in documented or suspected listeric meningitis. PMID:6407393

  8. Conjugation with polyamines enhances the antibacterial and anticancer activity of chloramphenicol

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulou, Ourania N.; Kouvela, Ekaterini C.; Magoulas, George E.; Garnelis, Thomas; Panagoulias, Ioannis; Rodi, Maria; Papadopoulos, Georgios; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Dinos, George P.; Papaioannou, Dionissios; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L.

    2014-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAM) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, limited to occasional only use in developed countries because of its potential toxicity. To explore the influence of polyamines on the uptake and activity of CAM into cells, a series of polyamine–CAM conjugates were synthesized. Both polyamine architecture and the position of CAM-scaffold substitution were crucial in augmenting the antibacterial and anticancer potency of the synthesized conjugates. Compounds 4 and 5, prepared by replacement of dichloro-acetyl group of CAM with succinic acid attached to N4 and N1 positions of N8,N8-dibenzylspermidine, respectively, exhibited higher activity than CAM in inhibiting the puromycin reaction in a bacterial cell-free system. Kinetic and footprinting analysis revealed that whereas the CAM-scaffold preserved its role in competing with the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA 3′-terminus to ribosomal A-site, the polyamine-tail could interfere with the rotatory motion of aminoacyl-tRNA 3′-terminus toward the P-site. Compared to CAM, compounds 4 and 5 exhibited comparable or improved antibacterial activity, particularly against CAM-resistant strains. Compound 4 also possessed enhanced toxicity against human cancer cells, and lower toxicity against healthy human cells. Thus, the designed conjugates proved to be suitable tools in investigating the ribosomal catalytic center plasticity and some of them exhibited greater efficacy than CAM itself. PMID:24939899

  9. Direct detection of chloramphenicol in honey by neutral desorption-extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, X Y; Fang, X W; Zhang, X; Dai, X M; Guo, X L; Chen, H W; Luo, L P

    2014-11-01

    Herein, we constructed a platform of neutral desorption-extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ND-EESI-MS) for direct and rapid detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in honey samples diluted with methanol. Under the optimized working conditions, the quantitative information of CAP residues was acquired effectively by EESI-Ion Trap MS (n) . Using heated methanol-N2 as spray reagent, we reduced the limit of determination (LOD) from 73.3 ng/mL to 0.3 ng/mL, and the CAP detection is linear in the range of 1-5000 ng/mL (R = 0.9947). For the honey samples with CAP of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/mL, the recoveries were 133.0, 80.6, and 101.1%, and the relative standard deviations were 5.96, 8.82, and 8.71%, respectively. The reproducibility assays showed the stability of this method. Therefore, this ND-EESI-MS method is powerful for direct, rapid, and quantitative CAP analysis in honey samples with high sensitivity, precision, and specificity. PMID:25277102

  10. 1H, 13C MAS NMR and GIAO-CPHF calculations of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and their pyrrole analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żołek, Teresa; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Krajewska, Dorota; Różański, Andrzej; Wawer, Iwona

    2003-02-01

    The 13C CP MAS and 1H MAS NMR and ab initio (GIAO-CPHF) calculations were used to obtain structural information on two known antibiotics: chloramphenicol, and thiamphenicol, and two new analogues: DL- threo-1-(1-methyl-4-nitro-pyrrole-2-yl)-2-dichloroacetamidopropane-1,3-diol and DL- threo-1-(1-methylsulfonylpyrrole-3-yl)-2-dichloroacetamidopropane-1,3-diol.

  11. Chloramphenicol-resistant Salmonella newport traced through hamburger to dairy farms. A major persisting source of human salmonellosis in California.

    PubMed

    Spika, J S; Waterman, S H; Hoo, G W; St Louis, M E; Pacer, R E; James, S M; Bissett, M L; Mayer, L W; Chiu, J Y; Hall, B

    1987-03-01

    Animal-to-human transmission of drug-resistant salmonella and the role of antimicrobial use in food animals in the emergence of these bacteria are controversial subjects. Investigation of a 4.9-fold increase in Salmonella newport isolations from Californians in 1985 showed that 87 percent of the isolates had an unusual antimicrobial-resistance pattern (including chloramphenicol resistance) and a single, identical plasmid. Interviews of 45 patients and 89 matched controls in Los Angeles County showed that illness was associated with penicillin or tetracycline use during the month before onset (P less than 0.001) and with eating ground beef during the week before onset (P = 0.052). The epidemic strain was isolated from hamburger products eaten by cases, abattoirs where the animals from which the meat came were slaughtered, dairies that sent cows for slaughter on days when culture-positive products were processed, and ill dairy cows. Isolation of salmonella from beef carcasses in abattoirs correlated with the proportion of dead or moribund animals received for slaughter (r = 0.60, P less than 0.05). Isolation of chloramphenicol-resistant salmonella from dairy farms was associated with the use of chloramphenicol at those dairies. We conclude that food animals are a major source of antimicrobial-resistant salmonella infections in humans and that these infections are associated with antimicrobial use on farms. PMID:3807951

  12. Chloramphenicol binding to human serum albumin: Determination of binding constants and binding sites by steady-state fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Zhao, Guangyu; Chen, Shoucong; Liu, Feng; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    The interaction between chloramphenicol and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by fluorescence, UV/vis, circular dichroism (CD) and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by chloramphenicol was the result of the formation of drug-HSA complex, and the effective quenching constants ( Ka) were 2.852 × 10 4, 2.765 × 10 4, 2.638 × 10 4 and 2.542 × 10 4 M -1 at 287, 295, 303 and 311 K, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (Δ H) and entropy change (Δ S) for the reaction were calculated to be -3.634 kJ mol -1 and 72.66 J mol -1 K -1 according to van't Hoff equation. The results indicated that the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions played a major role in the binding of drug to HSA. The distance r between donor and acceptor was obtained to be 3.63 nm according to Förster's theory. Site marker competitive experiments indicated that the binding of drug to HSA primarily took place in subdomain IIA. The alterations of HSA secondary structure in the presence of chloramphenicol were confirmed by the evidences from synchronous fluorescence, CD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. In addition, the effect of common ions on the binding constants of drug-HSA complex was also discussed.

  13. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of chloramphenicols, sulfonamides, and non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals on multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng; Liu, Xue; Cao, Zhen; Zhan, Yi; Shi, Xiaodong; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Junliang; Xu, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption behavior of different emerging contaminants (3 chloramphenicols, 7 sulfonamides, and 3 non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals) on five types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and the underlying factors were studied. Adsorption equilibriums were reached within 12h for all compounds, and well fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption affinity of pharmaceuticals was positively related to the specific surface area of MWCNTs. The solution pH was an important parameter of pharmaceutical adsorption on MWCNTs, due to its impacts on the chemical speciation of pharmaceuticals and the surface electrical property of MWCNTs. The adsorption of ionizable pharmaceuticals decreased in varying degrees with the increased ionic strength. MWCNT-10 was found to be the strongest adsorbent in this study, and the Freundlich constant (KF) values were 353-2814mmol(1-n)L(n)/kg, 571-618mmol(1-n)L(n)/kg, and 317-1522mmol(1-n)L(n)/kg for sulfonamides, chloramphenicols, and non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals, respectively. The different adsorption affinity of sulfonamides might contribute to the different hydrophobic of heterocyclic substituents, while chloramphenicols adsorption was affected by the charge distribution in aromatic rings via substituent effects. PMID:26937870

  14. Improvement of chloramphenicol production in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712 by overexpression of the aroB and aroK genes catalysing steps in the shikimate pathway.

    PubMed

    Vitayakritsirikul, Vipawan; Jaemsaeng, Ratchaniwan; Lohmaneeratana, Karan; Thanapipatsiri, Anyarat; Daduang, Ratama; Chuawong, Pitak; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip

    2016-03-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712 produces chloramphenicol in small amounts. To enhance chloramphenicol production, two genes, aroB and aroK, encoding rate-limiting enzymes of the shikimate pathway were overexpressed using the expression vector pIJ86 under the control of the strong constitutive ermE* promoter. The recombinant strains, S. venezuelae/pIJ86-aroB and S. venezuelae/pIJ86-aroK, produced 2.5- and 4.3-fold greater amounts respectively of chloramphenicol than wild type at early stationary phase of growth. High transcriptional levels of aroB and aroK genes were detected at the early exponential growth of both recombinant strains and consistent with the enhanced expression of pabB gene encoding an early enzyme in chloramphenicol biosynthesis. The results suggested that the increment of carbon flux was directed towards intermediates in the shikimate pathway required for the production of chorismic acid, and consequently resulted in the enhancement of chloramphenicol production. This work is the first report of a convenient genetic approach to manipulate primary metabolite genes in S. venezuelae in order to increase chloramphenicol production. PMID:26715388

  15. Radiation sensitivity of Salmonella isolates relative to resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or gentamicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemira, Brendan A.; Lonczynski, Kelly A.; Sommers, Christopher H.

    2006-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance of inoculated bacteria is a commonly used selective marker. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic nalidixic acid have been shown to have an increased sensitivity to irradiation. The purpose of this research was to screen a collection of Salmonella isolates for antibiotic resistance and determine the association, if any, of antibiotic resistance with radiation sensitivity. Twenty-four clinical isolates of Salmonella were screened for native resistance to multiple concentrations of ampicillin (Amp), chloramphenicol (Chl), or gentamicin (Gm). Test concentrations were chosen based on established clinical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels, and isolates were classified as either sensitive or resistant based on their ability to grow at or above the MIC. Salmonella cultures were grown overnight at (37 °C) in antibiotic-amended tryptic soy broth (TSB). Native resistance to Gm was observed with each of the 24 isolates (100%). Eight isolates (33%) were shown to be resistant to Amp, while seven isolates (29%) were shown to be resistant to Chl. In separate experiments, Salmonella cultures were grown overnight (37 °C) in TSB, centrifuged, and the cell pellets were re-suspended in phosphate buffer. The samples were then gamma irradiated at doses up to 1.0 kGy. The D10 values (the ionizing radiation dose required to reduce the viable number of microorganisms by 90%) were determined for the 24 isolates and they ranged from 0.181 to 0.359 kGy. No correlation was found between the D10 value of the isolate and its sensitivity or resistance to each of the three antibiotics. Resistance to Amp or Chl is suggested as appropriate resistance marker for Salmonella test strains to be used in studies of irradiation.

  16. Crystal structure of CmlI, the arylamine oxygenase from the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Knoot, Cory J; Kovaleva, Elena G; Lipscomb, John D

    2016-09-01

    The diiron cluster-containing oxygenase CmlI catalyzes the conversion of the aromatic amine precursor of chloramphenicol to the nitroaromatic moiety of the active antibiotic. The X-ray crystal structures of the fully active, N-terminally truncated CmlIΔ33 in the chemically reduced Fe(2+)/Fe(2+) state and a cis μ-1,2(η (1):η (1))-peroxo complex are presented. These structures allow comparison with the homologous arylamine oxygenase AurF as well as other types of diiron cluster-containing oxygenases. The structural model of CmlIΔ33 crystallized at pH 6.8 lacks the oxo-bridge apparent from the enzyme optical spectrum in solution at higher pH. In its place, residue E236 forms a μ-1,3(η (1):η (2)) bridge between the irons in both models. This orientation of E236 stabilizes a helical region near the cluster which closes the active site to substrate binding in contrast to the open site found for AurF. A very similar closed structure was observed for the inactive dimanganese form of AurF. The observation of this same structure in different arylamine oxygenases may indicate that there are two structural states that are involved in regulation of the catalytic cycle. Both the structural studies and single crystal optical spectra indicate that the observed cis μ-1,2(η (1):η (1))-peroxo complex differs from the μ-η (1):η (2)-peroxo proposed from spectroscopic studies of a reactive intermediate formed in solution by addition of O2 to diferrous CmlI. It is proposed that the structural changes required to open the active site also drive conversion of the µ-1,2-peroxo species to the reactive form. PMID:27229511

  17. Chloramphenicol Biosynthesis: The Structure of CmlS, a Flavin-Dependent Halogenase Shwing a Covalent Flavin-Aspartate Bond

    SciTech Connect

    Podzelinska, K.; Latimer, R; Bhattacharya, A; Vining, L; Zechel, D; Jia, Z

    2010-01-01

    Chloramphenicol is a halogenated natural product bearing an unusual dichloroacetyl moiety that is critical for its antibiotic activity. The operon for chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae encodes the chloramphenicol halogenase CmlS, which belongs to the large and diverse family of flavin-dependent halogenases (FDH's). CmlS was previously shown to be essential for the formation of the dichloroacetyl group. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of CmlS determined at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, revealing a flavin monooxygenase domain shared by all FDHs, but also a unique 'winged-helix' C-terminal domain that creates a T-shaped tunnel leading to the halogenation active site. Intriguingly, the C-terminal tail of this domain blocks access to the halogenation active site, suggesting a structurally dynamic role during catalysis. The halogenation active site is notably nonpolar and shares nearly identical residues with Chondromyces crocatus tyrosyl halogenase (CndH), including the conserved Lys (K71) that forms the reactive chloramine intermediate. The exception is Y350, which could be used to stabilize enolate formation during substrate halogenation. The strictly conserved residue E44, located near the isoalloxazine ring of the bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, is optimally positioned to function as a remote general acid, through a water-mediated proton relay, which could accelerate the reaction of the chloramine intermediate during substrate halogenation, or the oxidation of chloride by the FAD(C4{alpha})-OOH intermediate. Strikingly, the 8{alpha} carbon of the FAD cofactor is observed to be covalently attached to D277 of CmlS, a residue that is highly conserved in the FDH family. In addition to representing a new type of flavin modification, this has intriguing implications for the mechanism of FDHs. Based on the crystal structure and in analogy to known halogenases, we propose a reaction mechanism for CmlS.

  18. Determination of chloramphenicol residues in commercial chicken eggs in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mbodi, Felix E; Nguku, P; Okolocha, E; Kabir, J

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in poultry can result in residues in eggs. The joint FAO/WHO committee recommended banning the use of chloramphenicol (CAP) in food animals due to its public health hazards of aplastic anaemia, leukaemia, allergy, antibacterial resistance and carcinogenicity. This paper determines the prevalence of CAP residues in chicken eggs and assesses the usage and awareness of its ban amongst poultry farmers in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of registered poultry farmers in FCT was conducted using questionnaires to determine CAP administration in poultry and awareness of its ban. Pooled egg samples were collected from each poultry farm surveyed and from randomly sampled government-owned markets in FCT. Source of eggs by state were identified by the marketer at the time of collection. Samples were analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for the presence of CAP, and prevalence was determined. Of 288 total pooled samples collected, 257 (89.2%) were from the markets and 31 (10.8%) were from poultry farms. A total of 20 (7%) pooled egg samples tested CAP-positive; market eggs originated from 15 (41%) states of the country. Of the market eggs, 16 (6.2%) pooled samples tested positive. Of eggs from poultry farms, four (12.9%) tested positive. Mean CAP concentrations in the positive samples ranged from 0.49 to 1.17 µg kg(-1) (parts per billion). CAP use amongst poultry farmers in FCT was 75.5%; awareness of the CAP ban was 26.3%. Though 66% of veterinarians were unaware of a CAP ban, they were more likely to be aware than other poultry farmers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4). Farm managers who use CAP were more likely to be aware of CAP ban than the farm managers not using CAP (OR = 5.5; p = 0.04). Establishing a drug residue surveillance and control program and enforcement of CAP legislation/regulation is needful to educate and prohibit the widespread CAP use amongst Nigerian poultry farmers

  19. Chloramphenicol encapsulated in poly-ε-caprolactone–pluronic composite: nanoparticles for treatment of MRSA-infected burn wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Sanjeeb; Devi, Banasmita; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Sharma, Kaustav Kalyan; Sharma, Arup; Kalita, Kasturi; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Kotoky, Jibon

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching health care and societal costs. MRSA infections in the context of burn wounds lead to invasive disease that could potentially cause mortality. Chloramphenicol is a well-known broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotic that has been used since 1949, but due to its hydrophobicity, poor penetration in skin, fast degradation, and toxicity, its application has been hindered. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that old antibiotics such as chloramphenicol remained active against a large number of currently prevalent resistant bacterial isolates due to their low-level use in the past. Recently, the novel nanoparticulate drug-delivery system has been used and reported to be exceptionally useful for topical therapeutics, due to its distinctive physical characteristics such as a high surface-to-volume ratio and minuscule size. It helps to achieve better hydrophilicity, bioavailability, and controlled delivery with enhanced therapeutic index, which has resulted in decreased toxicity levels compared to the crude drug. Here, we report a novel chloramphenicol loaded with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-pluronic composite nanoparticles (CAM-PCL-P NPs), physicochemical characterizations, and its bioactivity evaluation in a MRSA-infected burn-wound animal model. CAM-PCL-P NPs could encapsulate 98.3% of the drug in the nanoparticles and release 81% of the encapsulated drug over 36 days with a time to 50% drug release of 72 hours (51%). Nanoparticle suspensions maintained the initial properties with respect to size and encapsulation efficiency, even after 6 months of storage at 4°C and 25°C, respectively (P>0.05). Significant reduction in the level of toxicity was observed for CAM-PCL-P NPs compared with that of free drug as confirmed from hemolytic activity against human blood erythrocytes and cytotoxicity assay against an MCF-7

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and anticancer studies of metal-antibiotic chelations: Ca(II), Fe(III), Pd(II) and Au(III) chloramphenicol complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khodir, Fatima A. I.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2016-09-01

    Four Ca(II), Fe(III), Pd(II) and Au(III) complexes of chloramphenicol drug have been synthesized and well characterized using elemental analyses, (infrared, electronic, and 1H-NMR) spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurement, and thermal analyses. Infrared spectral data show that the chloramphenicol drug coordinated to Ca(II), Pd(II) and Au(III) metal ions through two hydroxyl groups with 1:1 or 1:2 M ratios, but Fe(III) ions chelated towards chloramphenicol drug via the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of amide group with 1:2 ratio based on presence of keto↔enol form. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to identify the nano-size particles of both iron(III) and gold(III) chloramphenicol complexes. The antimicrobial assessments of the chloramphenicol complexes were scanned and collected the results against of some kind of bacteria and fungi. The cytotoxic activity of the gold(III) complex was tested against the human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2) tumor cell lines.

  1. Stress degradation studies and development of stability-indicating TLC-densitometry method for determination of prednisolone acetate and chloramphenicol in their individual and combined pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Fatima, Urooj; Sultana, Rahat

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible stability indicating TLC method was developed for the determination of prednisolone acetate and chloramphenicol in presence of their degraded products. Uniform degradation conditions were maintained by refluxing sixteen reaction mixtures for two hours at 80°C using parallel synthesizer including acidic, alkaline and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation and wet heating degradation. Oxidation at room temperature, photochemical and dry heating degradation studies were also carried out. Separation was done on TLC glass plates, pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 using chloroform: methanol (14:1 v/v). Spots at Rf 0.21 ± 0.02 and Rf 0.41 ± 0.03 were recognized as chloramphenicol and prednisolone acetate, respectively. Quantitative analysis was done through densitometric measurements at multiwavelength (243 nm, λmax of prednisolone acetate and 278 nm, λmax of chloramphenicol), simultaneously. The developed method was optimized and validated as per ICH guidelines. Method was found linear over the concentration range of 200-6000 ng/spot with the correlation coefficient (r2 ± S.D.) of 0.9976 ± 3.5 and 0.9920 ± 2.5 for prednisolone acetate and chloramphenicol, respectively. The developed TLC method can be applied for routine analysis of prednisolone acetate and chloramphenicol in presence of their degraded products in their individual and combined pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22264235

  2. Stress degradation studies and development of stability-indicating TLC-densitometry method for determination of prednisolone acetate and chloramphenicol in their individual and combined pharmaceutical formulations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible stability indicating TLC method was developed for the determination of prednisolone acetate and chloramphenicol in presence of their degraded products. Uniform degradation conditions were maintained by refluxing sixteen reaction mixtures for two hours at 80°C using parallel synthesizer including acidic, alkaline and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation and wet heating degradation. Oxidation at room temperature, photochemical and dry heating degradation studies were also carried out. Separation was done on TLC glass plates, pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 using chloroform: methanol (14:1 v/v). Spots at Rf 0.21 ± 0.02 and Rf 0.41 ± 0.03 were recognized as chloramphenicol and prednisolone acetate, respectively. Quantitative analysis was done through densitometric measurements at multiwavelength (243 nm, λmax of prednisolone acetate and 278 nm, λmax of chloramphenicol), simultaneously. The developed method was optimized and validated as per ICH guidelines. Method was found linear over the concentration range of 200-6000 ng/spot with the correlation coefficient (r2 ± S.D.) of 0.9976 ± 3.5 and 0.9920 ± 2.5 for prednisolone acetate and chloramphenicol, respectively. The developed TLC method can be applied for routine analysis of prednisolone acetate and chloramphenicol in presence of their degraded products in their individual and combined pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22264235

  3. Rapid detection of chloramphenicol in animal products without clean-up using LC-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Zhang, Jun; He, Jia; Mi, Jibo; Liu, Lishuang

    2011-10-01

    A rapid confirmatory and quantitative method using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) was developed to determine sub-µg/kg levels of chloramphenicol (CAP) in meat products. The sample plus deuterated chloramphenicol internal standard was homogenised, extracted with ethyl acetate, centrifuged and the supernatant evaporated to dryness. The residue was re-dissolved in methanol/5% ammonium acetate solution (20:80, v/v), defatted with hexane and directly injected into the LC-MS. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column using methanol/water (60:40, v/v) as the mobile phase. CAP was detected using selected ion monitoring of the high accurate mass of the molecular ion [M-H](-) of CAP using a LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer in negative electrospray ionisation mode (ESI(-)). The limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 µg/kg using isotope internal standard. Recoveries of CAP spiked at levels of 0.1-1.0 µg/kg ranged from 73 to 99%, and the relative standard deviation ranged 3.9-8.1%. PMID:22007890

  4. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures. PMID:27153217

  5. Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Chloramphenicol, Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate and Tetrahydrozoline Hydrochloride in Ophthalmic Solution

    PubMed Central

    AlAani, Hashem; Alnukkary, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A simple stability-indicating RP-HPLC assay method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of Chloramphenicol, Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate and Tetrahydrozoline Hydrochloride in ophthalmic solution in the presence of 2-amino-1-(4-nitrophenyl)propane-1,3-diol, a degradation product of Chloramphenicol, and Dexamethasone, a degradation product of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate. Methods: Effective chromatographic separation was achieved using C18 column (250 mm, 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) with isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile - phosphate buffer (pH 4.0; 0.05 M) (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute. The column temperature was maintained at 40°C and the detection wavelength was 230 nm. Results: The proposed HPLC procedure was statistically validated according to the ICH guideline, and was proved to be stability-indicating by resolution of the APIs from their forced degradation products. Conclusion: The developed method is suitable for the routine analysis as well as stability studies. PMID:27123429

  6. Abrp, a new gene, confers reduced susceptibility to tetracycline, glycylcine, chloramphenicol and fosfomycin classes in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Quan, J; Yang, Y; Ji, J; Liu, L; Fu, Y; Hua, X; Chen, Y; Pi, B; Jiang, Y; Yu, Y

    2016-08-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, a non-fermenting gram-negative coccobacillus, is a major pathogen responsible for a variety of healthcare-associated infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Moreover, A. baumannii is associated with alarming increases in drug resistance rates to almost all available antibiotics leaving limited treatment options. Here, we characterize the biological functions of a novel gene, abrp, which encodes a peptidase C13 family. We demonstrate that the abrp is associated with decreased susceptibility to tetracycline, minocycline, doxycycline, tigecycline, chloramphenicol and fosfomycin. Deletion of abrp was able to increase cell membrane permeability and display slower cell growth rate. Results from the present study show that abrp plays an important role in conferring reduced susceptibility to different classes of antibiotics and cell growth in A. baumannii. The change of antibiotic sensitivities may result from modifications to the cell membrane permeability of A. baumannii. PMID:27220329

  7. Development of an Immunoassay for Chloramphenicol Based on the Preparation of a Specific Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibody.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin-Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Nan; Li, Ping; Sheng, Wei; Ducancel, Frédéric; Wang, Shuo

    2016-04-13

    Specific antibodies are essential for the immune detection of small molecule contaminants. In the present study, the heavy and light variable regions (VH and VL) of the immunoglobulin genes from a hybridoma secreting a chloramphenicol (CAP)-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) were cloned and sequenced. In addition, the light and heavy chains obtained from the monoclonal antibody were separated using SDS-PAGE and analyzed using Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The results of DNA sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis were compared, and the VH and VL chains specific for CAP were determined and used to construct a single-chain variable fragment (scFv). This fragment was recombinantly expressed as a soluble scFv-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein and used to develop a direct competitive ELISA. Compared with the parent mAb, scFv exhibits lower sensitivity but better food matrix resistance. This work highlights the application of engineered antibodies for CAP detection. PMID:27003441

  8. Removal of chloramphenicol by macroporous adsorption resins in honey: a novel approach on reutilization of antibiotics contaminated honey.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Deng, Jianjun; Wang, Bini; Xu, Ruihan; Cao, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The effects of different steps in honey production on chloramphenicol (CAP) levels and CAP removal from honey using macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) were investigated in this study. CAP residues in honey were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after each processing step including preheating, filtration, vacuum concentration and pasteurization. Vacuum concentration contributes the most reduction of CAP level (9.9%). Meanwhile, 5 types of MARs (including LSI-1, LSI-2, LSI-3, LS-803, and LS-903) were used in CAP adsorption. The results showed that LS-803 resin had higher adsorption rate of 86% than other resins in removing CAP from honey, and its optimal adsorption time and temperature were 40 min and 55 °C, respectively. The treated honey could be used as feed additive or biomass energy. Therefore, it would be a novel approach to reutilization of antibiotics contaminated honey. PMID:22900491

  9. Enhanced inhibition of bacterial biofilm formation and reduced leukocyte toxicity by chloramphenicol:β-cyclodextrin:N-acetylcysteine complex.

    PubMed

    Aiassa, Virginia; Zoppi, Ariana; Becerra, M Cecilia; Albesa, Inés; Longhi, Marcela R

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of chloramphenicol (CP) by multicomponent complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The present work describes the ability of solid multicomponent complex (MC) to decrease biomass and cellular activity of Staphylococcus by crystal violet and XTT assay, and leukocyte toxicity, measuring the increase of reactive oxygen species by chemiluminescence, and using 123-dihydrorhodamine. In addition, MC was prepared by the freeze-drying or physical mixture methods, and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Nuclear magnetic resonance and phase solubility studies provided information at the molecular level on the structure of the MC and its association binding constants, respectively. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that MC formation is an effective pharmaceutical strategy that can reduce CP toxicity against leukocytes, while enhancing its solubility and antibiofilm activity. PMID:27516318

  10. Chloramphenicol versus ampicillin plus gentamicin for community acquired very severe pneumonia among children aged 2-59 months in low resource settings: multicentre randomised controlled trial (SPEAR study)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether five days’ treatment with injectable ampicillin plus gentamicin compared with chloramphenicol reduces treatment failure in children aged 2-59 months with community acquired very severe pneumonia in low resource settings. Design Open label randomised controlled trial. Setting Inpatient wards within tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Yemen, and Zambia. Participants Children aged 2-59 months with WHO defined very severe pneumonia. Intervention Chloramphenicol versus a combination of ampicillin plus gentamicin. Main outcome measures Primary outcome measure was treatment failure at five days. Secondary outcomes were treatment failure defined similarly among all participants evaluated at 48 hours and at 10 and 21 days. Results More children failed treatment with chloramphenicol at day 5 (16% v 11%; relative risk 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.97) and also by days 10 and 21. Overall, 112 bacterial isolates were obtained from blood and lung aspirates in 110 children (11.5%), with the most common organisms being Staphylococcus aureus (n=47) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=22). In subgroup analysis, bacteraemia with any organism increased the risk of treatment failure at 21 days in the chloramphenicol group (2.09, 1.41 to 3.10) but not in the ampicillin plus gentamicin group (1.12, 0.59 to 2.13). Similarly, isolation of S pneumoniae increased the risk of treatment failure at day 21 (4.06, 2.73 to 6.03) and death (5.80, 2.62 to 12.85) in the chloramphenicol group but not in the ampicillin plus gentamicin group. No difference was found in treatment failure for children with S aureus bacteraemia in the two groups, but the power to detect a difference in this subgroup analysis was low. Independent predictors of treatment failure by multivariate analysis were hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation <90%), receiving chloramphenicol, being female, and poor immunisation status. Conclusion Injectable ampicillin plus

  11. Inclusion complexes of chloramphenicol with β-cyclodextrin and aminoacids as a way to increase drug solubility and modulate ROS production.

    PubMed

    Aiassa, Virginia; Zoppi, Ariana; Albesa, Inés; Longhi, Marcela R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the solubility of chloramphenicol and reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leucocytes induced by this drug, using complexation. Multicomponent complexes were prepared by the addition of β-cyclodextrin with glycine or cysteine. Nuclear magnetic resonance and phase solubility studies provided information at the molecular level on the structure of the complexes and their association binding constants, respectively. In the solid state, all systems were extensively characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. Antimicrobial activity of inclusion complexes was investigated by agar diffusion methods. Finally ROS determination by chemiluminescence was used to investigate the effect of complex formation on the potential toxicity in human leucocytes. These studies revealed that multicomponent complexes can increase the aqueous solubility of chloramphenicol as well as reducing the stress by ROS production in leucocytes and maintaining its microbiological activity. PMID:25659705

  12. Validation of a method for the determination of chloramphenicol in poultry and swine liver by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xi; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable method has been developed and validated for the determination of chloramphenicol in poultry and swine liver using SPE and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS/MS. The liver samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, defatted with n-hexane, and further cleaned up using SPE cartridges with polymeric sorbent. An Acquity BEH C18 column was used for gradient UPLC separation, with water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for two precursor-product ion transitions for chloramphenicol and one for the internal standard. The method was validated at 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 microg/kg. Mean recoveries from fortified samples ranged from 95.5 to 106.7% with an RSD of 12.2%. The method LOD was < 0.02 microg/kg. PMID:21140679

  13. Comparative inhibition of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression by antisense oligonucleotide analogues having alkyl phosphotriester, methylphosphonate and phosphorothioate linkages.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus-Sekura, C J; Woerner, A M; Shinozuka, K; Zon, G; Quinnan, G V

    1987-01-01

    Several classes of oligonucleotide antisense compounds of sequence complementary to the start of the mRNA coding sequence for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT), including methylphosphonate, alkyltriester, and phosphorothioate analogues of DNA, have been compared to "normal" phosphodiester oligonucleotides for their ability to inhibit expression of plasmid-directed CAT gene activity in CV-1 cells. CAT gene expression was inhibited when transfection with plasmid DNA containing the gene for CAT coupled to simian virus 40 regulatory sequences (pSV2CAT) or the human immunodeficiency virus enhancer (pHIVCAT) was carried out in the presence of 30 microM concentrations of analogue. For the oligo-methylphosphonate analogue, inhibition was dependent on both oligomer concentration and chain length. Analogues with phosphodiester linkages that alternated with either methylphosphonate, ethyl phosphotriester, or isopropyl phosphotriester linkages were less effective inhibitors, in that order. The phosphorothioate analogue was about two-times more potent than the oligo-methylphosphonate, which was in turn approximately twice as potent as the normal oligonucleotide. Images PMID:3475677

  14. A sensitive fluorescent nanosensor for chloramphenicol based on molecularly imprinted polymer-capped CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Jalili, Roghayeh; Manzoori, Jamshid L

    2016-05-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor using molecularly imprinted silica nanospheres embedded CdTe quantum dots (CdTe@SiO2 @MIP) was developed for detection and quantification of chloramphenicol (CAP). The imprinted sensor was prepared by synthesis of molecularly imprinting polymer (MIP) on the hydrophilic CdTe quantum dots via reverse microemulsion method using small amounts of solvents. The resulting CdTe@SiO2 @MIP nanoparticles were characterized by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption and FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They preserved 48% of fluorescence quantum yield of the parent quantum dots. CAP remarkably quenched the fluorescence of prepared CdTe@SiO2 @MIP, probably via electron transfer mechanism. Under the optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of CdTe@SiO2 @MIP decreased with increasing CAP by a Stern-Volmer type equation in the concentration range of 40-500 µg L(-1). The corresponding detection limit was 5.0 µg L(-1). The intra-day and inter-day values for the precision of the proposed method were all <4%. The developed sensor had a good selectivity and was applied to determine CAP in spiked human and bovine serum and milk samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27037966

  15. A label-free photoelectrochemical aptasensor based on nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots for chloramphenicol determination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Yan, Kai; Okoth, Otieno Kevin; Zhang, Jingdong

    2015-12-15

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing platform for chloramphenicol (CAP) detection was constructed using nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) as transducer species and label-free aptamer as biological recognition element. N-GQDs, synthesized via a facile one-step hydrothermal method, were explored to achieve highly efficient photon-to-electricity conversion under visible light irradiation. The obtained N-GQDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which displayed a narrow size distribution with a mean diameter of 2.14 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis confirmed that nitrogen was successfully doped in GQDs. The UV-visible absorption spectra indicated that nitrogen doping obviously enhanced the absorption of GQDs in visible light region. As a result, the PEC activity of GQDs was promoted by nitrogen doping. Additionally, the π-conjugated structure of N-GQDs provided an excellent platform for aptamer immobilization via π-π stacking interaction. Such an aptamer/N-GQDs based sensor showed a linear PEC response to CAP concentration in the range of 10-250 nM with a detection limit (3 S/N) of 3.1 nM. The developed PEC aptasensor exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity, good reproducibility and high stability. PMID:26264269

  16. Role of the mitochondrial amino acid pool in the differential sensitivity of erythroid and myeloid cells to chloramphenicol

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Khalil, S.; Abou-Khalil, W.H.; Whitney, P.L.; Yunis, A.A.

    1986-05-01

    Previous studies in the authors laboratory have suggested that mitochondrial amino acid (AA) pool is involved in the differential sensitivity of erythroid and myeloid cells to chloramphenicol (CAP). The present study examines the role of AA pool by analysis of its composition and testing the effects of its major components. The endogenous AA composition of isolated mitochondria protein was determined using a JEOL 5AH AA analyzer. L-(/sup 14/C) leucine incorporation into mitochondrial protein was used to measure the rate of protein synthesis. Analysis of the endogenous pool in erythroleukemia (EM) and chloroleukemia (CM) mitochrondria showed similar total amount of AAs. However, some AAs were present in significantly higher or lower quantity within EM and CM (i.e. EM had about 2-fold higher glycine content). When compensating for each low AA addition of that particular acid to the reaction medium, only glycine and serine had significant effect. Thus, the addition of increasing concentrations of glycine or serine enhanced the sensitivity to CAP from 14% to 49-51% in CM but not in EM. Other AAs gave little or no effect. Since glycine is one of the first reactants in heme biosynthesis within mitochondria and is interconvertible with serine, it would appear that erythroid cells sensitivity to CAP is determined by the mitochondrial glycine-serine pool and may be somehow related of the pathway to heme biosynthesis in these cells.

  17. Label-free and sensitive aptasensor based on dendritic gold nanostructures on functionalized SBA-15 for determination of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Bagheri Hashkavayi, Ayemeh; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Azimi, Razieh; Ojani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    A highly sensitive and low-cost electrochemical aptasensor was developed for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP). The system was based on a CAP-binding aptamer, a molecular recognition element, and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO)-supported mesoporous silica SBA-15 on the surface of a screen-printed graphite electrode for formation of dendritic gold nanostructures and improving the performance and conductivity of the biosensor. Hemin has been applied as an electrochemical indicator which interacted with the guanine bases of the aptamer. In the absence of CAP, hemin binds to the aptamer and produces a weak differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) signal. The presence of CAP led to stabilization of the folded aptamer, which generated an amplified DPV signal. The peak current of hemin increased linearly with the concentration of CAP. Under optimal conditions, two linear ranges were obtained from 0.03 to 0.15 μM and 0.15 to 7.0 μM, respectively, and the detection limit was 4.0 nM. The prepared biosensor has good selectivity against other non-target drugs. Thus, the sensor could provide a promising platform for the fabrication of aptasensors. The feasibility of using this aptasensor was demonstrated by determination of CAP in a human blood serum sample. PMID:26879648

  18. Suppressing glioblastoma stem cell function by aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition with chloramphenicol or disulfiram as a new treatment adjunct: an hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kast, Richard E; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal

    2009-12-01

    Strong expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase is a prominent feature of both normal and cancer stem cells, including the stem cell sub-population of glioblastoma. Aldehyde dehydrogenase function is used by cancer stem cells to repopulate a tumor mass after chemotherapy cytoreduction. Cancer stem cells tend to be chemotherapy compared to the non-stem cell majority cell population in several common human cancers. Such has been demonstrated specifically in glioblastoma. In normal hematopoietic stem cells with unimpaired high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase, stem cells divide rarely and then asymmetrically to a daughter stem cell and a daughter cell on a path of differentiation or symmetrically with both daughter cells on a differentiated path. If a parallel situation obtains in glioblastoma stem cells, the migrating, far flung paucicellular extensions will be stem cell rich and use aldehyde dehydrogenase to generate the characteristic multiple metastases made up of mostly non-stem cells. With inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase, stem cell division to non-stem daughter cells tends to become blocked. We have three old yet potent aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors on the market- chloral hydrate, chloramphenicol, and disulfiram- they should be investigated as adjuncts in glioblastoma chemotherapy. If GBM stem cell function can be thwarted by potent aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition, they will be less able to regenerate a stem cell derived tumor mass after primary resection or chemotherapy. PMID:19500061

  19. Development of Suberin Fatty Acids and Chloramphenicol-Loaded Antimicrobial Electrospun Nanofibrous Mats Intended for Wound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Ingrid; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Laidmäe, Ivo; Rammo, Liisi; Paaver, Urve; Ingebrigtsen, Sveinung G; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Halenius, Anna; Yliruusi, Jouko; Pitkänen, Pauliina; Alakurtti, Sami; Kogermann, Karin

    2016-03-01

    Suberin fatty acids (SFAs) isolated from outer birch bark were investigated as an antimicrobial agent and biomaterial in nanofibrous mats intended for wound treatment. Electrospinning (ES) was used in preparing the composite nonwoven nanomats containing chloramphenicol (CAM; as a primary antimicrobial drug), SFAs, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (as a carrier polymer for ES). The X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and texture analysis were used for the physicochemical and mechanical characterization of the nanomats. ES produced nanofibrous mats with uniform structure and with an average fiber diameter ranging from 370 to 425 nm. Microcrystalline SFAs and crystalline CAM were found to undergo a solid-state transformation during ES processing. The ES process caused also the loss of CAM in the final nanofibers. In the texture analysis, the SFAs containing nanofibers exhibited significantly higher maximum detachment force to an isolated pig skin (p < 0.05) than that obtained with the reference nanofibers. CAM exists in an amorphous form in the nanofibers which needs to be taken into account in controlling the physical storage stability. In conclusion, homogeneous composite nanofibrous mats for wound healing can be electrospun from the ternary mixture(s) of CAM, SFAs, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. PMID:26886306

  20. A novel biosensor based on competitive SERS immunoassay and magnetic separation for accurate and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kang; Hu, Yongjun; Dong, Ning

    2016-06-15

    The accurate and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) is particularly imperative to public health and safety. Here, we present a novel sensor for residual CAP detection based on competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunoassay and magnetic separation. In this nanosensor, functionalized Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were labeled with the Raman reporter molecule (e.g. 4,4'-dipyridyl). With the addition of free CAP, a competitive immune reaction was initiated between free CAP and above AuNPs for conjugating with CAP antibody-modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Instead of the solid substrate, the antibody conjugated-magnetic beads were used as supporting materials and separation tools in the present sensor. With the aid of a magnet, the mixture was removed from the supernatant for concentration effects. This caused obvious change of SERS signal intensity obtained from supernatant. The SERS signals were collected from the supernatant directly, which made the SERS measurements more stable, repeatable and reliable. The proposed SERS-based magnetic immunosensor allows us to detect CAP in a fast, selective and sensitive (1.0 pg/mL) manner over a wide concentration range ( 1-1 × 10(4)pg/mL). In addition, these results demonstrate that this immunosensor holds great potential for the detection of antibiotics in real aquatic environment, which is crucial to our life. PMID:26866562

  1. Effects of chloramphenicol on brain energy metabolism using 31P spectroscopy: influences on sleep-wake states in rat.

    PubMed

    Chahboune, Halima; Mahdjoub, Rachid; Desgoutte, Pierre; Rousset, Colette; Briguet, André; Cespuglio, Raymond

    2008-08-01

    Effects of chloramphenicol (antibiotic inhibiting complex-1 of respiratory chain) and thioamphenicol (TAP, a structural analog of CAP inactive on complex-1) were examined on cerebral energy metabolites and sleep-wake cycle architecture in rat. In the first group, animals were chronically equipped with a cranial surface resonator and (31)P spectroscopic measurements were performed using a 2 T magnetic resonance spectrometer (operating frequency 34.46 MHz). CAP administration (400 mg/kg, tail vein, light period) induced deficits in phosphocreatine (-30%, p < 0.01) and ATP (-40%, p < 0.01), whereas TAP (400 mg/kg) had no effect. In the second group, animals were chronically implanted with polygraphic electrodes for EEG and electromyogram recordings. CAP administered intraperitoneally at light-onset reduced rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep (-60% in the first 6 h of light period, p < 0.01), increased waking state (+65% in the first 6 h of light period, p < 0.01), and slightly affected slow-wave sleep (SWS). During waking state, theta and sigma power bands of the EEG were, respectively, increased and decreased (p < 0.05). During SWS, delta power band was reinforced (p < 0.05), while theta, alpha, and sigma bands were decreased (p < 0.05). No changes occurred during REM sleep. TAP had no effect on sleep-wake states and spectral components of the EEG. Overall, these data indicate that REM sleep occurrence is linked to an aerobic production of ATP. PMID:18507739

  2. Determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chloramphenicol antibiotics in animal feeds using subcritical water extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linling; Yang, Hai; Zhang, Chunwei; Mo, Yulin; Lu, Xiaohua

    2008-06-30

    A rapid analytical method for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chloramphenicol (CAP) antibiotics in animal feeds has been developed based on subcritical water extraction (SWE) without further sample clean-up followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. On extracting target antibiotics from spiked samples, the efficiency of the water extraction device was evaluated in terms of pH and volume of the extractant, temperature and time of the static extraction. The best extraction conditions were obtained by using 5.5 mL of water adjusted to pH 2 with hydrochloric acid as the extractant at 100 degrees C with 5-min static extraction. After filtration, 20 microL of the aqueous extract was directly injected into the HPLC column. Recoveries between 82.1% and 90.0% with relative standard deviations ranging between 1.6% and 4.8% were achieved from spiked animal feed samples by using this method. Compared with the traditional ultrasonic extraction, this procedure was remarkably more efficient in extracting OTC, TC and CAP, simpler to perform, and there was no use of toxic organic solvents. PMID:18539174

  3. Selective inhibition by chloramphenicol of pregnenolone-16. cap alpha. -carbonitrile-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450 isozymes

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, P.E.; Kaminsky, L.S.; Halpert, J.

    1986-03-01

    Pregnenolone-16 ..cap alpha..-carbonitrile (PCN) has been shown to induce, in male rats, cytochrome P-450 isozymes responsible for the formation of R-10-hydroxywarfarin and R-dehydrowarfarin. Antibodies to the major PCN-inducible isozyme (PB/PCN-E) inhibit both activities in microsomal preparations. Recently the authors have shown that PCN treatment of female rats also induces the formation of both R-warfarin metabolites. However, in both sexes chloramphenicol (CAP) treatment selectively inhibits only the rate of formation of the R-dehydrowarfarin. A decrease in microsomal P-450 content occurs after in vivo administration of CAP to PCN-treated rats of both sexes. This is in contrast to the lack of effect of CAP on P-450 levels in phenobarbital-treated rats. Covalent binding of /sup 14/C-CAP to microsomal protein in vitro was increased 3 to 4-fold following PCN treatment. Chromatographic evidences suggests the presence of at least two PCN-induced isozymes of similar molecular weights in both male and female rat liver microsomes. These data are consistent with the multiplicity of PCN-inducible P-450 in rat liver.

  4. Transcription factor CecR (YbiH) regulates a set of genes affecting the sensitivity of Escherichia coli against cefoperazone and chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yuki; Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Genomic SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) screening was performed for identification of the binding site of YbiH, an as yet uncharacterized TetR-family transcription factor, on the Escherichia coli genome. YbiH was found to be a unique single-target regulator that binds in vitro within the intergenic spacer located between the divergently transcribed ybiH-ybhGFSR and rhlE operons. YbhG is an inner membrane protein and YbhFSR forms a membrane-associated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter while RhlE is a ribosome-associated RNA helicase. Gel shift assay and DNase footprinting analyses indicated one clear binding site of YbiH, including a complete palindromic sequence of AATTAGTT-AACTAATT. An in vivo reporter assay indicated repression of the ybiH operon and activation of the rhlE operon by YbiH. After phenotype microarray screening, YbiH was indicated to confer resistance to chloramphenicol and cefazoline (a first-generation cephalosporin). A systematic survey of the participation of each of the predicted YbiH-regulated genes in the antibiotic sensitivity indicated involvement of the YbhFSR ABC-type transporter in the sensitivity to cefoperazone (a third-generation cephalosporin) and of the membrane protein YbhG in the control of sensitivity to chloramphenicol. Taken together with the growth test in the presence of these two antibiotics and in vitro transcription assay, it was concluded that the hitherto uncharacterized YbiH regulates transcription of both the bidirectional transcription units, the ybiH-ybhGFSR operon and the rhlE gene, which altogether are involved in the control of sensitivity to cefoperazone and chloramphenicol. We thus propose to rename YbiH as CecR (regulator of cefoperazone and chloramphenicol sensitivity). PMID:27112147

  5. Direct, simultaneous measurement of chloramphenicol and its monosuccinate ester in micro-samples of plasma by radial-compression liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    el-Yazigi, A; Yusuf, A; Al-Humaidan, A

    1987-10-01

    A simple method of simultaneous analysis for chloramphenicol and chloramphenicol succinate in 10-microL samples of plasma is described. We injected the plasma samples directly into a radial-compression liquid chromatograph equipped with a precolumn module and a C18 insert. A mixture of acetic acid solution (pH 3)/acetonitrile (75/25, by vol) was used as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 4 mL/min. We separated the compounds in a 10-micron (particle size) C18 cartridge with a radial compression separation system and detected them in the effluent at 280 nm. The peak height for both compounds was linearly (r greater than 0.9993) related to concentration over the range investigated, 1-50 mg/L. We also performed the analysis with use of an internal standard (methylprednisolone) and obtained equally good results (r greater than 0.9995). We observed no interference from other antibiotics or drugs in the assay, and the inter- and intra-run precision at different concentrations was good (CV, 0 to 5.6%). We analyzed microsamples of plasma from an infant treated for meningitis with chloramphenicol sodium succinate intravenously. Total analysis time for each sample was less than 8 min. PMID:3665035

  6. Development of a subcritical water extraction approach for trace analysis of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol, and florfenicol amine in poultry tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiming; Song, Rong; Rao, Zhenghua; Wei, Shulin; Jia, Zheng; Suo, Decheng; Fan, Xia

    2015-10-30

    Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a novel and alternative technology for the separation of trace amounts of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol and its major metabolite florfenicol amine from poultry tissues and its results were compared with those of conventional shaking extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction. Decreasing the polarity of water by successively increasing the extraction temperature from 50°C to 200°C at the moderate pressure enabled selective, highly effective extractions to be performed. Rapid quantification of the target compounds was carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The critical parameters of subcritical water extraction such as solvent modifier, temperature, pressure, extraction time, and static cycles were varied with control. The optimized extraction procedures using subcritical water as extraction solvent, were carried out on a pressurized liquid extractor operated at 150°C and 100bar, applying two static cycles for 3min. Average recoveries of the four analytes from fortified samples ranged between 86.8% and 101.5%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 7.7%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) for the target compounds were in the ranges of 0.03-0.5μgkg(-1) and 0.1-2.0μgkg(-1), respectively. The proposed method is fast, sensitive, water-based thus more environmental acceptable, making it a suitable replacement for conventional organic solvent extraction in veterinary drug residue analysis. PMID:26433266

  7. Comparsion of an immunochromatographic strip with ELISA for simultaneous detection of thiamphenicol, florfenicol and chloramphenicol in food samples.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lingling; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Liqiang; Peng, Juan; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-09-01

    Rapid and sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ic-ELISA) and gold nanoparticle immunochromatographic strip tests were developed to detect thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk and honey samples. The generic monoclonal antibody for TAP, FF and CAP was prepared based on a hapten [D-threo-1-(4-aminophenyl)-2- dichloroacetylamino-1,3-propanediol], and the haptenwas linked to a carrier protein using the diazotization method. After the optimization of several parameters (coating, pH, sodium chloride content and methanol content), the ic-ELISA was established. The quantitative working range for TAP was 0.11-1.36 ng/mL, with an IC50 of 0.39 ng/mL. The optimized ELISA showed cross-reactivity to CAP (300%) and FF (15.6%), with IC50 values of 0.13 and 2.5 ng/mL, respectively. The analytical recovery of TAP, FF and CAP in milk and honey samples in the ic-ELISA ranged from 81.2 to 112.9%. Based on this monoclonal antibody, a rapid and sensitive immunochromatographic test strip was also developed. This strip had a detection limit of 1 ng/mL for TAP, FF and CAP in milk and honey samples. Moreover, the test was completed within 10 min. Our results showed that the proposed ic-ELISA and immunochromatographic test strip method are highly useful screening tools for TAP, FF and CAP detection in milk and honey samples. PMID:25675893

  8. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and naphazoline in ternary and quaternary mixtures by RP-HPLC, derivative and wavelet transforms of UV ratio spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Vu Dang; Hue, Nguyen Thu; Tho, Nguyen Huu; Nguyen, Hue Minh Thi

    2015-03-01

    The application of chemometrics-assisted UV spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC to the simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and naphazoline in ternary and quaternary mixtures is presented. The spectrophotometric procedure is based on the first-order derivative and wavelet transforms of ratio spectra using single, double and successive divisors. The ratio spectra were differentiated and smoothed using Savitzky-Golay filter; whereas wavelet transform realized with wavelet functions (i.e. db6, gaus5 and coif3) to obtain highest spectral recoveries. For the RP-HPLC procedure, the separation was achieved on a ZORBAX SB-C18 (150 × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) column at ambient temperature and the total run time was less than 7 min. A mixture of acetonitrile - 25 mM phosphate buffer pH 3 (27:73, v/v) was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and the effluent monitored by measuring absorbance at 220 nm. Calibration graphs were established in the range 20-70 mg/L for chloramphenicol, 6-14 mg/L for dexamethasone and 3-8 mg/L for naphazoline (R2 > 0.990). The RP-HPLC and ratio spectra transformed by a combination of derivative-wavelet algorithms proved to be able to successfully determine all analytes in commercial eye drop formulations without sample matrix interference (mean percent recoveries, 97.4-104.3%).

  9. Determination of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in poultry, swine, bovine and fish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Fabiano; Ribeiro, Cristina; Barcellos Hoff, Rodrigo; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method for confirmatory and quantitative purposes using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and validated for determination of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol and its metabolite, florfenicol amine, in poultry, swine, bovine and fish muscle. Sample preparation was based on extraction with organic solvent (ethyl acetate: ammonium hydroxide, 98:2) followed by evaporation and fat removal using hexane. The chromatographic separation was carried out with an XTerra C18 column with a gradient elution using water and acetonitrile both with 2mM of ammonium acetate. Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization was operated in positive or negative polarity using selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) analysis mode, achieving the requirements of four identification points for each compound. Chloramphenicol-D5 was added as internal standard. Method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Parameters as precision, reproducibility, trueness, CCα and CCβ were determined. Trueness values were within the range 82-108% and 84-111% for bovine and fish, respectively. Precision ranged from 1.1% to 10.1% and within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 4.3 to 18.1%, depending on matrix. The CCα and CCβ for bovine muscle, for instance, were established as 0.06 and 0.11μgkg(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied for several interlaboratory proficiency testing programs, achieving 100% of satisfactory results. PMID:27133862

  10. Separation and detection of chloramphenicol with its nitro and amino analogues using HPLC equipped with reductive/oxidative electrochemical and ultraviolet detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Khalil, S.; Abou-Khalil, W.H.; Masoud, A.N.; Yunis, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    In their studies on chloramphenicol (CAP)-associated bone marrow injury, they have postulated that the p-nitro group of CAP undergoes nitro reduction yielding toxic and highly reactive derivatives. Elucidating the pathogenetic mechanism in CAP-induced injury requires specific and sensitive analytical tool to detect CAP metabolites that may be produced by mammalian cells. To accomplish their objective they have installed a uniquely suited HPLC system equipped with simultaneous dual detection: ultraviolet (UV) and electrochemical (EC). The system was constructed and specially designed to accommodate the use of the EC detector in both reductive and oxidative modes. Using this system, separation, quantitation (picomoles range) and identification of CAP were achieved with the following nitro and amino analogues: dehydrochloramphenicol, nitrophenylaminopropanedione, nitroso-chloramphenicol and aminochloramphenicol. Retention characteristics, hydrodynamic voltammograms under reductive and oxidative conditions and UV absorbance were determined. Applicability of the procedure to biological fluids was demonstrated by separation and detection of CAP after incubation with human blood. The data demonstrated that the reductive/oxidative EC modes in tandem with the conventional UV detector increased exponentially the selectivity and sensitivity of the system, and also provided a powerful basis for the identification of unknown metabolites.

  11. Simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Jiancheng; Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive, confirmatory ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and validated to detect 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components) in bovine milk. Compounds of interest were sequentially extracted from milk with acetonitrile and basified acetonitrile using sodium chloride to induce liquid-liquid partition. The extract was purified on a mixed mode solid-phase extraction cartridge. Using rapid polarity switching in electrospray ionization, a single injection was capable of detecting both positively and negatively charged analytes in a 9 min chromatography run time. Recoveries based on matrix-matched calibrations and isotope labeled internal standards for milk ranged from 51.7% to 101.8%. The detection limits and quantitation limits of the analytical method were found to be within the range of 2-20 ng/kg and 5-50 ng/kg, respectively. The recommended method is simple, specific, and reliable for the routine monitoring of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicol components in bovine milk samples. PMID:26304348

  12. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and naphazoline in ternary and quaternary mixtures by RP-HPLC, derivative and wavelet transforms of UV ratio spectra.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Vu Dang; Hue, Nguyen Thu; Tho, Nguyen Huu; Nguyen, Hue Minh Thi

    2015-03-15

    The application of chemometrics-assisted UV spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC to the simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and naphazoline in ternary and quaternary mixtures is presented. The spectrophotometric procedure is based on the first-order derivative and wavelet transforms of ratio spectra using single, double and successive divisors. The ratio spectra were differentiated and smoothed using Savitzky-Golay filter; whereas wavelet transform realized with wavelet functions (i.e. db6, gaus5 and coif3) to obtain highest spectral recoveries. For the RP-HPLC procedure, the separation was achieved on a ZORBAX SB-C18 (150×4.6 mm; 5 μm) column at ambient temperature and the total run time was less than 7 min. A mixture of acetonitrile - 25 mM phosphate buffer pH 3 (27:73, v/v) was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and the effluent monitored by measuring absorbance at 220 nm. Calibration graphs were established in the range 20-70 mg/L for chloramphenicol, 6-14 mg/L for dexamethasone and 3-8 mg/L for naphazoline (R(2)>0.990). The RP-HPLC and ratio spectra transformed by a combination of derivative-wavelet algorithms proved to be able to successfully determine all analytes in commercial eye drop formulations without sample matrix interference (mean percent recoveries, 97.4-104.3%). PMID:25546493

  13. Regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: effects of the rpoD800 sigma mutation, glucose, and chloramphenicol.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, A D; Ullmann, A; Burgess, R R; Gross, C A

    1984-01-01

    An immediate 12-fold inhibition in the rate of beta-galactosidase synthesis occurs in Escherichia coli cells containing the mutant sigma allele rpoD800 after a shift to 42 degrees C. In the present study we characterize the nature of the inhibition. The severe inhibition of beta-galactosidase synthesis was partly relieved by cyclic AMP (cAMP). We inferred that the inhibition might be mediated by a decreased intracellular concentration of cAMP. Consistent with this inference, the rate of cAMP accumulation in mutant cells after a temperature upshift was depressed relative to that in wild-type cells. Glucose and chloramphenicol, two agents known to inhibit differentially beta-galactosidase mRNA synthesis, caused a similar inhibition in the rate of cAMP accumulation. Thus, three diverse stimuli, glucose, chloramphenicol, and a temperature-sensitive sigma mutation, appear to affect beta-galactosidase synthesis by regulating the synthesis of cAMP. PMID:6325382

  14. [Simultaneous determination of zeranols and chloramphenicol in foodstuffs of animal origin by combination immunoaffinity column clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Guomin; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Dongdong; Tang, Bobin; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Hua

    2014-06-01

    A combination immunoaffinity column (IAC-CZ) clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method was successfully developed for zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and zearalenone) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples (fish, liver, milk and honey) were enzymatically digested by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase for about 16 h and then extracted with ether. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then the residues were dissolved by 1.0 mL of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtered and diluted with PBS buffer, the reconstituted solution were cleaned-up with a IAC-CZ and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS column with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution. The detection was carried out by electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry in MRM mode. The proposed method was validated by the limit of detection (0.04-0.10 microg/kg), linearity (R2 > or = 0.999 0), average recoveries (70.9%-95.6%) and precisions (2.0% - 11.8%). The developed method is reliable, sensitive and has good applicability. The combination immunoaffinity column was proved to be an effective pretreatment technique to decrease the matrix effect, and it met the requirements of residue analysis of co-occurring zeranols and chloramphenicol. PMID:25269264

  15. Chloramphenicol-induced changes in the synthesis of ribosomal, transfer, and messenger ribonucleic acids in Escherichia coli B/r.

    PubMed

    Shen, V; Bremer, H

    1977-06-01

    The synthesis of ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured in Escherichia coli B/r after the addition of 100 mug of chloramphenicol (CAM) per ml to cultures growing either in one of three minimal media (succinate, glycerol, or glucose) or in one of the same three media supplemented with 20 amino acids. (i) During CAM treatment, rRNA and tRNA were synthesized in the same relative proportions (85:15) as during exponential growth. The faster accumulation of tRNA relative to rRNA in CAM was due to a decreased stability of rRNA that is synthesized in the presence of or immediately before the addition of CAM. (ii) CAM stimulated the synthesis of rRNA and tRNA two- to eightfold. The results fell into two groups; one group was from studies done in minimal media and the other was from amino acid-supplemented media. In each group the stimulation decreased with increasing growth rate of the culture during exponential growth before the addition of CAM; however, the stimulation in minimal media was lower than that in amino acid-supplemented media. (iii) CAM caused an increase in the proportion of rRNA and tRNA synthesis and a corresponding decrease in the proportion of mRNA synthesis. In minimal media, the residual proportion of mRNA synthesis after CAM treatment was 10 to 15% of total RNA synthesis; in amino acid-supplemented media this proportion was 0 to 10%. In either case, the residual proportion of mRNA synthesis was independent of the proportions observed during exponential growth in these media. (iv) The absolute rate of mRNA synthesis decreased severalfold with the addition of CAM; i.e., the rate of synthesis of rRNA and tRNA was increased at the expense of mRNA synthesis. (v) During exponential growth, the fraction of the instantaneous rate of total RNA synthesis that corresponds to mRNA is a function of both the growth rate and the presence or absence of amino acids in the growth medium: in the absence of amino acids

  16. Analysis of chloramphenicol residues in the macroalgae Ulva lactuca through ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Leston, Sara; Freitas, Andreia; Nunes, Margarida; Barbosa, Jorge; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

    2015-02-15

    Antibiotic use is a well-described practice to promote animal health whether for prevention or treatment. Nonetheless, it can also cause a number of potentially harmful effects that dictate the need to implement regulation to assure a reduction of hazards to the consumers and the environment. Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial excluded from use in animal food production but despite this, reports of illegal use still persist. More recently, awareness has risen that the surrounding natural ecosystems can potentially be contaminated by pharmaceuticals and the extent of their effects in non-target organisms is already under the scope of researchers. To face the demanding new challenges a methodology for the determination of CAP in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed, optimized and fully validated following the guidelines of the EC Decision 2002/657. PMID:25579630

  17. Insight into the secondary structure of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase type I — computer analysis and FT-IR spectroscopic characterization of the protein structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, A. E.; Karamancheva, I. R.

    2001-05-01

    The secondary structure of chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferase type I (CAT I) and an N-terminal deleted mutant has been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The analysis of the amide I band of different samples (KBr, hydrated films and buffer solution) by Fourier self-deconvolution followed by a curve fitting was performed. The spectroscopic data have been utilized to determine the α-helix and β-structure % contents, which depend strongly on the protein sample preparation. Furthermore, the secondary structure of the enzyme-inhibitor Crystal Violet complex was analyzed. The observed difference in the secondary structural contents suggests that some conformational changes of the enzyme are induced by the inhibitor after binding.

  18. Validation of a method for simultaneous determination of nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles and chloramphenicols in swine tissues by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xia; Li, Yun; Zhong, Feng; Li, Xiaowei; Huang, Yaoling; Ding, Shuangyang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-05-31

    This paper presents a sensitive and confirmatory multi-residue method for the analysis of 23 veterinary drugs and metabolites belonging to three classes (nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, and chloramphenicols) in porcine muscle, liver, and kidney. After extracted with ethyl acetate and basic ethyl acetate sequentially, the crude extracts were defatted with hexane and further purified using Oasis MCX solid-phase extraction cartridges. Rapid determination was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Data acquisition was performed under positive and negative mode simultaneously. Recoveries based on matrix-matched calibrations for meat, liver, and kidney ranged from 50.6 to 108.1%. The method quantification limits were in the range of 3-100ng/kg. PMID:23017446

  19. Analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes promoters by using novel Tn916-based shuttle vectors for the construction of transcriptional fusions to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Geist, R T; Okada, N; Caparon, M G

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a series of shuttle vectors based on the conjugative transposon Tn916 that have been designed for the analysis of transcriptional regulation in Streptococcus pyogenes and other gram-positive bacteria. Designated the pVIT vectors (vectors for integration into Tn916), the vectors are small, stable plasmids in Escherichia coli to facilitate the fusion of promoters from cloned S. pyogenes genes to a promoterless gene which encodes chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. The vectors each contain one or more small regions of Tn916 to direct the integration of the transcriptional fusion into the transposon via homologous recombination following transformation of S. pyogenes or other suitable gram-positive hosts. Integration can be monitored by the inactivation or replacement of an antibiotic resistance determinant in modified derivatives of Tn916. Promoter activity can then be quantitated by the determination of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-specific activity. In addition, since integration is into loci that do not disrupt the conjugative transpositional functions of Tn916, the vectors are useful for analysis of regulation in strains that are difficult or impossible to transform and can be introduced into these strains by conjugation following transformation of an intermediate host. The promoters for the genes which encode both the M protein and protein F of S. pyogenes were active in pVIT vectors, as was the region which controls transcription of mry, a trans-acting positive regulator of M protein expression. However, neither of the two characterized promoters for mry demonstrated activity when independently analyzed in pVIT-generated partial diploid strains, suggesting that regulation of mry is more complex than predicted by current models. The broad host range of Tn916 should make the pVIT vectors useful for analysis of regulation in numerous other bacterial species. PMID:8244925

  20. New mobile gene cassettes containing an aminoglycoside resistance gene, aacA7, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, catB3, in an integron in pBWH301.

    PubMed Central

    Bunny, K L; Hall, R M; Stokes, H W

    1995-01-01

    The multidrug resistance plasmid pBWH301 was shown to contain a sull-associated integron with five inserted gene cassettes, aacA7-catB3-aadB-oxa2-orfD, all of which can be mobilized by the integron-encoded DNA integrase. The aadB, oxa2, and orfD cassettes are identical to known cassettes. The aacA7 gene encodes a protein that is a member of one of the three known families of aminoglycoside acetyltransferases classified as AAC(6')-I. The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by the catB3 gene is closely related to members of a recently identified family of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. The catB3 gene displays a relatively high degree of sequence identity to a chromosomally located open reading frame in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and this may represent evidence for the acquisition by a cassette of a chromosomal gene. PMID:7793874

  1. Increased formation of halomethanes during chlorination of chloramphenicol in drinking water by UV irradiation, persulfate oxidation, and combined UV/persulfate pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Wenhai, Chu; Tengfei, Chu; Erdeng, Du; Deng, Yang; Yingqing, Guo; Naiyun, Gao

    2016-02-01

    Ultraviolet/persulfate (UV/PS) has been widely used to generate sulfate radicals for degradation of water organic pollutants in previous studies. However, its impacts on disinfection byproduct formation during post-chlorination of degraded compounds is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of UV irradiation, PS oxidation, and the combined UV/PS advanced oxidation process (AOP) pre-treatments on halomethane formation during the following chlorination of chloramphenicol (CAP), a model antibiotic commonly found in wastewater-impacted water. Results showed that CAP could be transformed to more trichloromethane (TCM) than monochloromethane (MCM) and dichloromethane (DCM) in the presence of excess chlorine. UV photolysis, PS oxidation and UV/PS AOP all directly decomposed CAP to produce halomethanes (HMs) before post-chlorination. Moreover, UV and UV/PS pre-treatments both enhanced the formation of all the HMs in the subsequent chlorination. PS pre-oxidation decreased the TCM formation during post-chlorination, but increased the yields of MCM, DCM and total HMs. UV pre-irradiation significantly increased the bromide utilization of HMs, whereas UV/PS pre-oxidation decreased the bromine incorporation and utilization of HMs from the chlorination of CAP in a low-bromide water. UV irradiation, PS oxidation, and UV/PS AOP can inactivate pathogens and degrade organic pollutants, but this benefit should be weighed against a potential risk of the increased halomethane formation from degraded organic pollutants with and without post-chlorination. PMID:26513530

  2. Chemiluminescent aptasensor for chloramphenicol based on N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol-functionalized flower-like gold nanostructures and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Liling; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Xu, Baocai; Wang, Zhouping

    2015-10-01

    A novel chemiluminescent aptasensor for the highly sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk was successfully developed using biotinylated CAP aptamer-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as capture probes and thiolated hybridized complementary strand-modified N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol (ABEI)-functionalized flower-like gold nanostructures (AuNFs) as signal probes. P-iodophenol (PIP) was also added to form an ABEI-H2O2-PIP steady-state chemiluminescence (CL) system. Based on a competitive format, the CL intensity was negatively correlated with the concentration of CAP in the range of 0.01-0.20 ng/mL and the detection limit was 0.01 ng/mL in buffer and 1 ng/mL in milk. The proposed method was successfully applied to measure CAP in milk samples and compared to a commercial ELISA method. The high sensitivity of AuNFs, excellent selectivity and stability of aptamers, and good overall stability of the chemiluminescent bioassay with magnetic separation make them a promising approach for the detection of small molecular illegal additives. Additionally, the high sensitivity, easy operation, and good reproducibility exhibited by the stable chemiluminescent bioassay demonstrate its applicability for the trace detection of CAP in applications, such as animal husbandry. PMID:26297462

  3. On-chip enzymatic assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inseong; Kim, Dong-Eun; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we report a chloramphenicol (CAP) acetyltransferase (CAT) activity assay based on self-assembled monolayers on gold as an alternative to conventional CAT reporter gene assay systems, which sometimes require toxic materials and complicated steps that limit their use. A CAP derivative presented on a monolayer was converted to the acetylated CAP by CAT in the presence of acetyl-CoA. The conversion was directly monitored by observing the molecular weight changes in CAP using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. CAT activity was determined under various reaction conditions by changing reaction times, CAT and acetyl-CoA concentrations. As a practical application, we identified gene expression in bacteria that were transformed with pCAT plasmid DNA. Our strategy can provide a simple and rapid assay that eliminates some commonly used but potentially detrimental steps in enzymatic assays, such as radioactive labeling and complicated separation and purification of analytes prior to detection. PMID:26448379

  4. Identification of the O antigen polymerase (rfc) gene in Escherichia coli O4 by insertional mutagenesis using a nonpolar chloramphenicol resistance cassette.

    PubMed Central

    Lukomski, S; Hull, R A; Hull, S I

    1996-01-01

    Computer analysis of the O4 polysaccharide gene cluster of Escherichia coli revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs) encoding strongly hydrophobic polypeptides. O antigen polymerase, which is encoded by the rfc gene, is a potential membrane protein and therefore should be hydrophobic. To identify the rfc gene, these two ORFs were subjected to insertional mutagenesis. A chloramphenicol resistance cassette was designed which, when properly inserted, does not cause a polar effect in downstream genes. Each of two ORFs, cloned into a plasmid vector, was inactivated with this cassette. Two types of mutants bearing chromosomal insertions of the cassettes in each ORF were constructed by homologous recombination. These mutants were characterized by PCR, Southern blotting, and transverse-alternating-field electrophoresis. Only one class of mutants exhibited the expected O polymerase-deficient phenotype; they produced O4-specific, semirough lipopolysaccharide. Therefore, this ORF was identified as the rfc gene. The chromosomal rfc mutation was complemented in trans by the rfc gene expressed from a plasmid vector. PMID:8550424

  5. Stimulation and inhibition of bacterial growth by caffeine dependent on chloramphenicol and a phenolic uncoupler--a ternary toxicity study using microfluid segment technique.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jialan; Kürsten, Dana; Schneider, Steffen; Köhler, J Michael

    2012-10-01

    A droplet-based microfluidic technique for the fast generation of three dimensional concentration spaces within nanoliter segments was introduced. The technique was applied for the evaluation of the effect of two selected antibiotic substances on the toxicity and activation of bacterial growth by caffeine. Therefore a three-dimensional concentration space was completely addressed by generating large sequences with about 1150 well separated microdroplets containing 216 different combinations of concentrations. To evaluate the toxicity of the ternary mixtures a time-resolved miniaturized optical double endpoint detection unit using a microflow-through fluorimeter and a two channel microflow-through photometer was used for the simultaneous analysis of changes on the endogenous cellular fluorescence signal and on the cell density of E. coli cultivated inside 500 nL microfluid segments. Both endpoints supplied similar results for the dose related cellular response. Strong non-linear combination effects, concentration dependent stimulation and the formation of activity summits on bolographic maps were determined. The results reflect a complex response of growing bacterial cultures in dependence on the combined effectors. A strong caffeine induced enhancement of bacterial growth was found at sublethal chloramphenicol and sublethal 2,4-dinitrophenol concentrations. The reliability of the method was proved by a high redundancy of fluidic experiments. The results indicate the importance of multi-parameter investigations for toxicological studies and prove the potential of the microsegmented flow technique for such requirements. PMID:22888747

  6. Determination of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol, and florfenicol amine in poultry and porcine muscle and liver by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Cun; Li, Jiancheng; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang

    2009-05-15

    A sensitive and reliable method using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol (CAP), thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF), and florfenicol amine (FFA) at trace levels in muscle and liver. Before extraction with ethyl acetate, CAP-d(5) was added to tissue samples as internal standard. The organic extracts were frozen to remove lipid and further purified by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with hexane and solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB cartridges. The target compounds were derivatized with BSTFA+1% TMCS prior to GC-NCI/MS determination in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The recovery values ranged from 78.5 to 105.5%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) <17%. The limits of detections (LODs) of 0.1 microg/kg for CAP and 0.5 microg/kg for TAP, FF, and FFA were obtain. Incurred sample and samples from local market were successfully analyzed using this method. PMID:19395324

  7. Novel spectrophotometric determination of chloramphenicol and dexamethasone in the presence of non labeled interfering substances using univariate methods and multivariate regression model updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Lotfy, Hayam M.; Rezk, Mamdouh R.; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2015-04-01

    Smart and novel spectrophotometric and chemometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of chloramphenicol (CPL) and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) in presence of interfering substances without prior separation. The first method depends upon derivative subtraction coupled with constant multiplication. The second one is ratio difference method at optimum wavelengths which were selected after applying derivative transformation method via multiplying by a decoding spectrum in order to cancel the contribution of non labeled interfering substances. The third method relies on partial least squares with regression model updating. They are so simple that they do not require any preliminary separation steps. Accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of these methods were determined. Moreover, specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures of both drugs. The proposed methods were successfully applied for analysis of both drugs in their pharmaceutical formulation. The obtained results have been statistically compared to that of an official spectrophotometric method to give a conclusion that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the official ones with respect to accuracy and precision.

  8. Detection and quantification of chloramphenicol in milk and honey using molecularly imprinted polymers: Canadian penny-based SERS nano-biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Feng, Shaolong; Chen, Zhiwen; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Grant, Edward; Lu, Xiaonan

    2014-12-01

    We integrated molecularly imprinted polymers with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MIPs-SERS) to develop an innovative nano-biosensor for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk and honey products. Template molecule (CAP), functional monomer (acrylamide), cross-linking agent (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), initiator (2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile)), and porogen (methanol) were employed to form MIPs via "dummy" precipitation polymerization. Static and kinetic studies validated the specific selectivity of MIPs toward CAP over nonimprinted polymers (imprinting factor >4). Canadian penny-based silver nano-structure was synthesized as SERS-active substrate for determination of CAP in food matrices. Collected spectra were processed by principal component analysis to differentiate various concentrations of CAP in foods. Partial least squares regression models showed good prediction values (R > 0.9) of actual spiked contents (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 ppm) of CAP in milk and honey. This developed nano-biosensor is low cost, requires little sample pretreatment, and can provide reliable detection of trace level of chemical hazards in food systems within a total of 15 min. PMID:25393060

  9. In situ solvothermal growth of metal-organic framework-ionic liquid functionalized graphene nanocomposite for highly efficient enrichment of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mian; Ai, Youhong; Zeng, Baizhao; Zhao, Faqiong

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a facile in situ solvothermal growth method for immobilization of metal-organic framework-ionic liquid functionalized graphene (MOF-5/ILG) composite on etched stainless steel wire. The X-ray diffraction spectra, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the metal organic framework possessed good crystal shape and its structure was not disturbed by the introduction of ILG. Moreover, the covalent bond established between the amino group of ILG and the carboxylic group of the metal organic framework improved the mechanical stability and structure uniformity of the microcrystals. The obtained material combined the favorable attributes of both metal-organic framework and ILG, having high surface area (820 m(2)/g) and good adsorption capability. Its adsorption properties were explored by preconcentrating chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol from aqueous solutions prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The MOF-5/ILG exhibited high enrichment capacity for the analytes as they could interact through π-π and H-bonding interaction. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity (correlation coefficients higher than 0.9981), low limits of detection (14.8-19.5 ng/L), and good precision (relative standard deviations less than 6.0% (n=5)) were achieved. The MOF-5/ILG composite displayed durable property. The method was applied to the determination of two antibiotics in milk, honey, urine and serum samples with acceptable relative recoveries of 82.3-103.2%. PMID:26686562

  10. Separation, concentration and determination of chloramphenicol in environment and food using an ionic liquid/salt aqueous two-phase flotation system coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Wang, Yun; Yu, Cuilan; Li, Chunxiang; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Liang

    2011-01-31

    Ionic liquid-salt aqueous two-phase flotation (ILATPF) is a novel, green, non-toxic and sensitive samples pretreatment technique. ILATPF coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the analysis of chloramphenicol, which combines ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on imidazolium ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C(4)mim]Cl) and inorganic salt (K(2)HPO(4)) with solvent sublation. In ILATPF systems, phase behaviors of the ILATPF were studied for different types of ionic liquids and salts. The sublation efficiency of chloramphenicol in [C(4)mim]Cl-K(2)HPO(4) ILATPF was influenced by the types of salts, concentration of K(2)HPO(4) in aqueous solution, solution pH, nitrogen flow rate, sublation time and the amount of [C(4)mim]Cl. Under the optimum conditions, the average sublation efficiency is up to 98.5%. The mechanism of ILATPF contains two principal processes. One is the mechanism of IL-salt ILATPS formation, the other is solvent sublation. This method was practical when applied to the analysis of chloramphenicol in lake water, feed water, milk, and honey samples with the linear range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1). The method yielded limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng mL(-1) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.3 ng mL(-1). The recovery of CAP was 97.1-101.9% from aqueous samples of environmental and food samples by the proposed method. Compared with liquid-liquid extraction, solvent sublation and ionic liquid aqueous two-phase extraction, ILATPF can not only separate and concentrate chloramphenicol with high sublation efficiency, but also efficiently reduce the wastage of IL. This novel technique is much simpler and more environmentally friendly and is suggested to have important applications for the concentration and separation of other small biomolecules. PMID:21168562

  11. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    PubMed Central

    Alshaibani, Muhanna M; Jalil, Juriyati; Sidik, Nik M; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Zin, Noraziah M

    2016-01-01

    Background Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25) has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity). Aim This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results During screening procedure, SUK 25 exhibited good antimicrobial potential against several strains of MRSA. The best biological activity was shown from fraction number VII and its subfractions F2 and F3 with minimum inhibitory concentration values at 16 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively. These two subfractions were identified as diketopiperazine cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol. Conclusion On the basis of obtained results, SUK 25 isolated from Z. spectabile can be regarded as a new valuable source to produce secondary

  12. A human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus, as a eucaryotic vector: Transient expression and encapsidation of the procaryotic gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Tratschin, J.D.; West, M.H.P.; Sandbank, T.; Carter, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    The authors have used the defective human parvovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a novel eurocaryotic vector (parvector) for the expression of a foreign gene in human cells. The recombinant, pAV2, contains the AAV genome in a pBR322-derived bacterial plasmid. When pAV2 is transfected into human cells together with helper adenovirus particles, the AAV genome is rescued from the recombinant plasmid and replicated to produce infectious AAV particles at high efficiency. To create a vector, we inserted a procaryotic sequence coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) into derivatives of pAV2 following either of the AAV promoters p/sub 40/ (pAVHiCAT) and p/sub 19/ (pAVBcCAT). When transfected into human 293 cells or HeLa cells, pAVHiCAT expressed CAT activity in the absence of adenovirus. In the presence of adenovirus, this vector produced increased amounts of CAT activity and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was replicated. In 293 cells, pAVBcCAT expressed a similar amount of CAT activity in the absence or presence of adenovirus and the recombinant AAV-CAT genome was not replicated. In HeLa cells, pAVBcCAT expressed low levels of CAT activity, but this level was elevated by coinfection with adenovirus particles or by cotransfection with a plasmid which expressed the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) product. The E1A product is a transcriptional activator and is expressed in 293 cells. Thus, expression from two AAV promoters is differentially regulated: expression from p/sub 19/ is increased by E1A, whereas p/sub 40/ yields high levels of constitutive expression in the absence of E1A. Both AAV vectors were packaged into AAV particles by complementation with wild-type AAV and yielded CAT activity when subsequently infected into cells in the presence of adenovirus.

  13. A "signal-on'' aptasensor for simultaneous detection of chloramphenicol and polychlorinated biphenyls using multi-metal ions encoded nanospherical brushes as tracers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongdan; Gan, Ning; Wang, De; Cao, Yuting; Chen, Meng; Li, Tianhua; Chen, Yinji

    2015-12-15

    A "signal-on'' aptasensor was developed for simultaneous detection of chloramphenicols (CAP) and polychlorinated biphenyl-72 (PCB72) with a novel multi-metal ions encoded nanospherical brushes as nanotracers. To construct the assay, the respective aptamer of CAP and PCB72 labeled magnetic gold nanoparticles as capture probes (aptamer-MGPs), and their complementary single strand DNA (s-DNA) encoded metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) on nanospherical branched polyethylene imine brushes as tracers (s-DNA-MSPEIs), were simultaneously synthesized. After that, the capture probe and tracers were connected through a hybridization reaction between s-DNA and aptamers. In the presence of CAP and PCB72, the analytes could react with the aptamers on capture probes and release the tracers into supernatant after magnetic separation. The released tracers with metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) could be simultaneously detected through the square wave voltammetry (SWV) without acid dissolution, which can switch the signals of the biosensor to "on'' state. Under optimal conditions, the assay could detect CAP and PCB72 as low as 0.3 pg mL(-1) with the dynamitic range from 0.001 to 100 ng mL(-1) and exhibited excellent selectivity. More importantly, the strategy can be extended easily to other targets after changing the corresponding aptamers and other metal ions tracers, which provides a promising and facile approach in multiplex detection of ultra-trace level of pollutants in food safety without more complex separation and washing steps. PMID:26210469

  14. Performance Assessment and Comparability of a Commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Kit with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Chloramphenicol Residues in Crab and Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Jester, Edward L E; Loader, Jared I; El Said, Kathleen R; Abraham, Ann; Flores Quintana, Harold A; Plakas, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring for chloramphenicol (CAP) in aquaculture products is primarily performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which requires expensive equipment and specialized training. Many laboratories prefer to screen samples with facile and high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for CAP residues before submitting samples for LC-MS/MS quantification and confirmation. We evaluated the performance of a Ridascreen (R-Biopharm) ELISA kit for CAP in spiked and incurred crab and shrimp muscle at levels bracketing the minimum required performance level for analysis (0.3 ng/g). The Ridascreen ELISA kit incorporates antibody directed against CAP. Incurred CAP levels in crab and shrimp muscle were verified using LC-MS/MS. We found good repeatability (relative standard deviation) of the ELISA in spiked and incurred crab and shrimp muscle samples, with values ranging from 6.8 to 21.7%. Recoveries of CAP from tissues spiked at 0.15 to 0.60 ng/g ranged from 102 to 107%. Minimal cross-reactivity with blank crab and shrimp muscle matrix components was observed. ELISA data were highly correlated with those of LC-MS/MS for CAP in incurred muscle tissue. We believe this study to be the first evaluation of the performance and comparability of a CAP ELISA kit and LC-MS/MS for determination of CAP residues, as well as their elimination, in crab muscle. Our findings support the use of this ELISA kit for screening purposes and, when used in conjunction with validated instrumental methods, for regulatory monitoring of CAP in these species. PMID:26735037

  15. Fast HPLC-DAD quantification procedure for selected sulfonamids, metronidazole and chloramphenicol in wastewaters using second-order calibration based on MCR-ALS.

    PubMed

    Vosough, Maryam; Mashhadiabbas Esfahani, Hadi

    2013-09-15

    The present work focuses on the application of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) for analysis of five important antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, sulfadizine and sulfamerazine) in highly complex wastewater samples, using solid phase extraction (SPE)-high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) on a short column, regarding the fast elution methodology. The samples were pre-concentrated on Bond Elut-ENV cartridges and separated on an ODS column (7 cm) in less than 4 min using an isocratic mode of elution with methanol-water (55:45, v/v) at pH=3.2. Due to the matrix interferences and the resulting sensitivity changes, a strategy implementing standard addition calibration in combination with MCR/ALS algorithm was applied. In this paper, the signal corresponding to background contribution was considered as a systematic part of the model during MCR/ALS data processing, so the background correction step was not necessary. The qualitative and quantitative results showed that the application of MCR/ALS algorithm in the traditional chromatographic method was appropriately able to resolve highly drifted background constituents as well as heavily overlapped peaks among the analytes and also between the analytes and the matrix interferences. Recoveries were ranged from 69.6% to 120.3% with relative standard deviations of less than or equal to 11.0% and showed the acceptable performance of the method. Additionally, statistical t-test as well as computed elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method and indicated the absence of both constant and proportional errors in the predicted concentrations. The results well explained that the second-order advantage for analytes was achieved in samples containing one or more uncalibrated components, which strongly related to wastewater samples. PMID:23708625

  16. A homogeneous and "off-on" fluorescence aptamer-based assay for chloramphenicol using vesicle quantum dot-gold colloid composite probes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yang-Bao; Ren, Hong-Xia; Gan, Ning; Zhou, You; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua; Chen, Yinji

    2016-07-27

    In this work, a novel homogeneous and signal "off-on" aptamer based fluorescence assay was successfully developed to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in food based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The vesicle nanotracer was prepared through labeling single stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) on limposome-CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (SSB/L-QD) complexes. It was worth mentioning that the signal tracer (SSB/L-QD) with vesicle shape, which was fabricated being encapsulated with a number of quantum dots and SSB. The nanotracer has excellent signal amplification effects. The vesicle composite probe was formed by combining aptamer labeled nano-gold (Au-Apt) and SSB/L-QD. Which based on SSB's specific affinity towards aptamer. This probe can't emit fluoresce which is in "off" state because the signal from SSB/L-QD as donor can be quenched by the Au-aptas acceptor. When CAP was added in the composite probe solution, the aptamer on the Au-Apt can be preferentially bounded with CAP then release from the composite probe, which can turn the "off" signal of SSB/L-QD tracer into "on" state. The assay indicates excellent linear response to CAP from 0.001 nM to 10 nM and detection limit down to 0.3 pM. The vesicle probes with size of 88 nm have strong signal amplification. Because a larger number of QDs can be labeled inside the double phosphorus lipid membrane. Besides, it was employed to detect CAP residues in the milk samples with results being agreed well with those from ELISA, verifying its accuracy and reliability. PMID:27251948

  17. Impact of persulfate and ultraviolet light activated persulfate pre-oxidation on the formation of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes from the chlor(am)ination of three antibiotic chloramphenicols.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Chu, Tengfei; Bond, Tom; Du, Erdeng; Guo, Yingqing; Gao, Naiyun

    2016-04-15

    Persulfate oxidation processes, with and without activation using ultraviolet light (respectively UV/PS and PS) have the potential to degrade anthropogenic chemicals in water. However, little is known about the impact of PS or UV/PS pre-oxidation on downstream formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study the three antibiotic chloramphenicols (chloramphenicol and two of its analogues [thiamphenicol and florfenicol], referred to collectively as CAPs), which frequently occur in wastewater-impacted source waters used by drinking water treatment plants, were selected as model antibiotic compounds. The formation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-products, including halomethanes, haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes, during chlorination and chloramination preceded by PS and UV/PS was investigated. No significant concentrations of haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes were detected during chlorination. During chloramination chloramphenicol formed a considerable amount of dichloronitromethane (e.g., 3.44 ± 0.33% mol/mol at NH2Cl dose = 1 mM) and trichloronitromethane (e.g., 0.79 ± 0.07% mol/mol at NH2Cl dose = 1 mM), compared with THM and HAN formation. PS pre-oxidation achieved a statistically significant reduction in trichloromethane formation from chlorination, and in HAN and HNM formation from chloramination. Although UV/PS slightly increased dichloroacetonitrile formation during chloramination, it significantly decreased dichloronitromethane and trichloronitromethane formation during chloramination. Overall, the use of PS and UV/PS has the potential to have contrasting impacts on DBP formation in heavily wastewater-impacted waters, depending on the disinfection method. Hence, their application needs to be carefully balanced against the downstream effect on DBP formation. PMID:26894475

  18. Role of the Two Component Signal Transduction System CpxAR in Conferring Cefepime and Chloramphenicol Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Vijaya Bharathi; Vaidyanathan, Vasanth; Mondal, Amitabha; Rajamohan, Govindan

    2012-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobe belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family of the γ-Proteobacteria class in the phylum Proteobacteria. Multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae have caused major therapeutic problems worldwide due to emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing strains. Two-component systems serve as a basic stimulus-response coupling mechanism to allow organisms to sense and respond to changes in many different environmental conditions including antibiotic stress. Principal Findings In the present study, we investigated the role of an uncharacterized cpxAR operon in bacterial physiology and antimicrobial resistance by generating isogenic mutant (ΔcpxAR) deficient in the CpxA/CpxR component derived from the hyper mucoidal K1 strain K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. The behaviour of ΔcpxAR was determined under hostile conditions, reproducing stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal environment and deletion resulted in higher sensitivity to bile, osmotic and acid stresses. The ΔcpxAR was more susceptible to β-lactams and chloramphenicol than the wild-type strain, and complementation restored the altered phenotypes. The relative change in expression of acrB, acrD, eefB efflux genes were decreased in cpxAR mutant as evidenced by qRT-PCR. Comparison of outer membrane protein profiles indicated a conspicuous difference in the knock out background. Gel shift assays demonstrated direct binding of CpxRKP to promoter region of ompCKP in a concentration dependent manner. Conclusions and Significance The Cpx envelope stress response system is known to be activated by alterations in pH, membrane composition and misfolded proteins, and this systematic investigation reveals its direct involvement in conferring antimicrobial resistance against clinically significant antibiotics for the very first time. Overall results displayed in this report reflect the pleiotropic role of the CpxAR signaling system and

  19. Chloramphenicol Stimulates the Accumulation of Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Protein II by Affecting Posttranscriptional Events in the Chlorina CD3 Mutant Wheat 1

    PubMed Central

    Mogen, Kim; Eide, John; Duysen, Murray; Eskins, Ken

    1990-01-01

    The levels of total chlorophyll (Chl), total carotenoids, light-harvesting Chl a/b apoprotein of photosystem II (LHCPII), and light-harvesting Chl a/b apoprotein (LHCP) mRNA were examined in the CD3 chlorina mutant wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) after 18 hours greening at either a low (3 micromoles of photons per square meter per second) or moderate (200 micromoles of photons per square meter per second) irradiance. The Chl b and LHCPII deficient mutant wheat accumulated significantly greater levels of Chl and LHCPII when greened under low irradiance than when greened under a moderate irradiance level. The level of LHCP mRNA, as measured by dot-blot and Northern hybridization analyses to a cDNA probe, increased in response to the irradiance level in the wheat. Applications of chloramphenicol (CAP) to the mutant wheat increased total Chl, Chl b, and LHCPII accumulations at both irradiance levels. Even though the CAP-treated CD3 mutant wheat accumulated similar levels of plastid pigments as those of CAP-treated wild type, the LHCPII amounts were much higher in the wild type than in the CD3 mutant of wheat. CAP treatment did not significantly increase the LHCP mRNA level in either wheat. Applications of either benzyladenine or CAP to the mutant, greened under the moderate irradiance level for 72 hours, increased all plastid pigment levels except for β-carotene. The benzyladenine plus CAP combination treatment had little effect on the LHCPII levels in the wild-type wheat. The combination treatment increased the LHCPII accumulation in the CD3 mutant of wheat by about twice that of the untreated mutant. Excess LHC pigment accumulation was promoted in each wheat line. We conclude that the regulation of LHCPII in the CD3 mutant of wheat is controlled by a posttranscriptional event. Furthermore, the accumulation of LHC bound pigments is not coupled with the accumulation of LHCPII in wheat thylakoid membranes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667395

  20. Separation, concentration and determination of trace chloramphenicol in shrimp from different waters by using polyoxyethylene lauryl ether-salt aqueous two-phase system coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Yao, Hui; Li, Chuang; Han, Juan; Tan, Zhenjiang; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-02-01

    Polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (POELE10)-NaH2PO4 aqueous two-phase extraction system (ATPES) is coupled with HPLC to analyze chloramphenicol (CAP) in aquatic product. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted in the multi-factor experiment to determine the optimized conditions. The extraction efficiency of CAP (E%) is up to 99.42% under the optimal conditions, namely, the concentration of NaH2PO4, the concentration of POELE10, pH and temperature were 0.186 g · mL(-1), 0.033 g · mL(-1), 3.8 and 25 °C respectively. The optimal value of enrichment factor of CAP (F) was 22.56 when the concentration of NaH2PO4 was 0.192 g · mL(-1), the concentration of POELE10 was 0.024 g/ml, pH was 4.2 and temperature was 30 °C. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of this method are 0.8 μg · kg(-1) and 1 μg · kg(-1), which meet the needs of determining trace or ultratrace CAP in food. The E% and F of this technique are much better than other extraction methods. PMID:26304334

  1. Determination of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and florfenicol in milk and honey using modified QuEChERS extraction coupled with polymeric monolith-based capillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiang-Yu; Lin, Shu-Ling; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2016-04-01

    A poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [LMA-MAA-EDMA] monolithic column was used to simultaneously determine amphenicol antibiotics (chloramphenicol/CAP, thiamphenicol/TAP, and florfenicol/FF) in milk and honey samples by capillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method was optimized for sample pretreatment. Good linearity (0.1-15 ng g(-1)) and extraction recoveries (95.8-100.2% and 95.6-99.3% for milk and honey samples, respectively; n=3) with minor matrix effect (≦ 5% ion suppression) were obtained. Limits of detection were estimated at 0.02-0.045 ng g(-1). Good intra-day/inter-day precision (0.2-9.1%/0.3-8.7%) and accuracy (90.5-110.0%/93.4-109.3%) were achieved. With more than 200 analyses of real samples, no noticeable carry-over and deterioration of separation efficiency were observed using the monolithic column. The applicability of the developed QuEChERS-capillary LC-MS/MS method was demonstrated by determining the occurrence of CAP, TAP, and FF in various milk and honey samples. PMID:26838404

  2. Extraction and determination of chloramphenicol in feed water, milk, and honey samples using an ionic liquid/sodium citrate aqueous two-phase system coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Wang, Yun; Yu, Cui-lan; Yan, Yong-sheng; Xie, Xue-qiao

    2011-01-01

    A green, simple, non-toxic, and sensitive sample pretreatment procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the analysis of chloramphenicol (CAP) that exploits an aqueous two-phase system based on imidazolium ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [Bmim]BF(4)) and organic salt (Na(3)C(6)H(5)O(7)) using a liquid-liquid extraction technique. The influence factors on partition behaviors of CAP were studied, including the type and amount of salts, the pH value, the volume of [Bmim]BF(4), and the extraction temperature. Extraction efficiency of the CAP was found to increase with increasing temperature and the volume of [Bmim]BF(4). Thermodynamic studies indicated that hydrophobic interactions were the main driving force, although electrostatic interactions and salting-out effects were also important for the transfer of the CAP. Under the optimal conditions, 90.1% of the CAP could be extracted into the ionic liquid-rich phase in a single-step extraction. This method was practical when applied to the analysis of CAP in feed water, milk, and honey samples with a linear range of 2~1,000 ng mL(-1). The method yielded a limit of detection of 0.3 ng mL(-1) and a limit of quantification of 1.0 ng mL(-1). The recovery of CAP was 90.4-102.7% from aqueous samples of real feed water, milk, and honey samples by the proposed method. This novel process is much simpler and more environmentally friendly and is suggested to have important applications for the separation of antibiotics. PMID:21063686

  3. A novel "dual-potential" electrochemiluminescence aptasensor array using CdS quantum dots and luminol-gold nanoparticles as labels for simultaneous detection of malachite green and chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobin; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Yan, Qing; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Yu, Hongwei; Jiang, Qianli

    2015-12-15

    A novel type of "dual-potential" electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor array was fabricated on a homemade screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for simultaneous detection of malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in one single assay. The SPCE substrate consisted of a common Ag/AgCl reference electrode, carbon counter electrode and two carbon working electrodes (WE1 and WE2). In the system, CdS quantum dots (QDs) were modified on WE1 as cathode ECL emitters and luminol-gold nanoparticles (L-Au NPs) were modified on WE2 as anode ECL emitters. Then the MG aptamer complementary strand (MG cDNA) and CAP aptamer complementary strand (CAP cDNA) were attached on CdS QDs and L-Au NPs, respectively. The cDNA would hybridize with corresponding aptamer that was respectively tagged with cyanine dye (Cy5) (as quenchers of CdS QDs) and chlorogenic acid (CA) (as quenchers of l-Au NPs) using poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) as a bridging agent. PEI could lead to a large number of quenchers on the aptamer, which increased the quenching efficiency. Upon MG and CAP adding, the targets could induce strand release due to the highly affinity of analytes toward aptamers. Meanwhile, it could release the Cy5 and CA, which recovered cathode ECL of CdS QDs and anode ECL of L-Au NPs simultaneously. This "dual-potential" ECL strategy could be used to detect MG and CAP with the linear ranges of 0.1-100 nM and 0.2-150 nM, with detection limits of 0.03 nM and 0.07 nM (at 3sB), respectively. More importantly, this designed method was successfully applied to determine MG and CAP in real fish samples and held great potential in the food analysis. PMID:26190470

  4. Isolation of Escherichia coli Strains with AcrAB–TolC Efflux Pump-Associated Intermediate Interpretation or Resistance to Fluoroquinolone, Chloramphenicol and Aminopenicillin from Dogs Admitted to a University Veterinary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    SATO, Toyotaka; YOKOTA, Shin-ichi; ICHIHASHI, Risa; MIYAUCHI, Tomoka; OKUBO, Torahiko; USUI, Masaru; FUJII, Nobuhiro; TAMURA, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistance and the relationship between emergence of resistant bacteria and clinical treatment can facilitate design of effective treatment strategies. We here examined antimicrobial susceptibilities of Escherichia coli isolated from dogs admitted to a university hospital (University hospital) and companion animal clinics (Community clinics) in the same city and investigated underlying multidrug-resistance mechanisms. The prevalence of E. coli with intermediate and resistant interpretations to ampicillin (AMP), enrofloxacin (ENR) and chloramphenicol (CHL) was higher in the University hospital than in the Community clinics cases. Use of antimicrobials, including fluoroquinolone, was also significantly higher in the University hospital than in the Community clinics cases. Upon isolation using ENR-supplemented agar plates, all ENR-resistant isolates had 3–4 nucleotide mutations that accompanied by amino acid substitutions in the quinolone-resistance-determining regions of gyrA, parC and parE, and 94.7% of all isolates derived from the University hospital showed AMP and/or CHL resistance and possessed blaTEM and/or catA1. The average mRNA expression levels of acrA, acrB and tolC and the prevalence of organic solvent tolerance, in isolates derived from ENR-supplemented agar plates were significantly higher in the University hospital than in the Community clinics isolates. Thus, E. coli derived from the University hospital cases more often showed concomitant decreased susceptibilities to aminopenicillins, fluoroquinolones and CHL than did those derived from the Community clinics; this was related to an active AcrAB–TolC efflux pump, in addition to acquisition of specific resistance genes and genetic mutations. PMID:24646457

  5. 21 CFR 524.390b - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Limitations. Therapy for cats should not exceed 7 days. As with other antibiotics, prolonged use may result in... within a reasonable period, discontinue use, and institute appropriate therapy. Prolonged use in cats...

  6. 21 CFR 524.390b - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Limitations. Therapy for cats should not exceed 7 days. As with other antibiotics, prolonged use may result in... within a reasonable period, discontinue use, and institute appropriate therapy. Prolonged use in cats...

  7. Cellular uptake and covalent binding of nitroso-chloramphenicol

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, T.; Yunis, A.A.

    1981-09-01

    A comparative study of the cellular transport of CAP and its nitroso derivative (NO-CAP) was carried out in Raji cells, a transformed human lymphoblastoid cell line. Both agents were concentrated by the cells by a factor of 3 (cellular/extracellular concentration ratio). The cellular uptake of NO-CAP, like that of CAP, was found to be rapid and temperature-independent. Thus the greater cytotoxicity of NO-CAP is apparently not due to an enhanced uptake of the nitroso derivative relative to CAP. In contrast to the similarity of uptake, NO-CAP becomes covalently bound to both Raji cells and freshly isolated human bone marrow cells to a much higher extent (15-fold). Also, cells previously loaded with CAP or NO-CAP retain three times as much of the nitroso compound during a 24 hr dialysis against a drug-free isotonic solution. The increased binding of NO-CAP to human hematopoietic cells attests to the greater reactivity of the p-substituted aromatic nitroso group and is consistent with the postulate that reduction products of the nitro group of CAP may be responsible for CAP-induced aplastic anemia.

  8. 21 CFR 520.390b - Chloramphenicol capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... infections of the urinary tract, bacterial enteritis, and bacterial infections associated with canine distemper caused by susceptible organisms. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or...

  9. 21 CFR 520.390a - Chloramphenicol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... infections, bacterial infections of the urinary tract, bacterial enteritis, and bacterial infections... gastroenteritis associated with bacterial diarrhea, bacterial pulmonary infections, and bacterial infections...

  10. 21 CFR 524.390d - Chloramphenicol-prednisolone ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Limitations. Therapy for cats should not exceed 7 days, prolonged use in cats may produce blood dyscrasia. As with other antibiotics, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms....

  11. 21 CFR 524.390d - Chloramphenicol-prednisolone ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Limitations. Therapy for cats should not exceed 7 days, prolonged use in cats may produce blood dyscrasia. As with other antibiotics, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms....

  12. Reductive degradation of chloramphenicol using bioelectrochemical system (BES): a comparative study of abiotic cathode and biocathode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Liu, Hao; Liang, Bin; Song, Rentao; Yan, Qun; Wang, Aijie

    2013-09-01

    Reductive degradation of choramphenicol (CAP) using Bioelectrochemical system (BES) with both abiotic cathode and biocathode was investigated. It was found that the CAP reduction efficiency during the first 24 h reached 86.3% of the biocathode group, while which was only 62.9% in the case of abiotic cathode. Except for the cathode potential, other indicators of the cathode performance as the cathode current, the current response of the cyclic voltammetry, the ohm resistance, and the polarization resistance of the biocathode group were all better than those of the abiotic group. Moreover, specific CAP reductive rate of the biocathode with sludge fermentation liquid (0.199 h(-1)) as carbon source was close to that of the glucose (0.215 h(-1)), but was about 3.2 times of the abiotic cathode group (0.062 h(-1)). It suggested that the introduction of biocathode would better the cathode performance, and then further increase the CAP reduction. PMID:23849757

  13. 77 FR 4895 - New Animal Drugs; Chloramphenicol, Diethylcarbamazine Citrate, Hygromycin B, Methoxyflurane...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ..., Penicillin G, Phenylbutazone, Pyrantel Tartrate, Tylosin Phosphate, and Sulfamethazine AGENCY: Food and Drug...-PEN Walco International, (penicillin G Inc., 15 West benzathine, Putnam, penicillin G Porterville, CA... follows: Sec. 522.1696a Penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine suspension. * * * * *...

  14. The occurrence of chloramphenicol and tetracyclines in municipal sewage and the Nanming River, Guiyang City, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zhang, Guoping; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, Ling; Xiang, Meng

    2009-06-01

    The occurrence of antibiotics including chloramphenciol (CAP), oxytetracycline (OTC) and tetracycline (TC) was studied in municipal sewage, river water and sediment. Temporal and spatial variations of antibiotic concentrations in municipal sewage, river water and sediment were evaluated. In municipal sewage, CAP, OTC and TC concentrations were in the range of 5.8-47.4, 0.16-5.7 and 0.7-65.2 microg L(-1), respectively, and showed a temporal variation with high antibiotic concentrations appearing in the cold season. Untreated municipal sewage can seriously influence both river water and sediment. Generally, high antibiotic concentrations in river water appeared in winter owing to the low flow condition as well as the high antibiotic concentration in the sewage. However, high CAP and OTC concentrations in sediment were observed in summer most likely because runoff in high flow season can carry wastes from some origins (e.g. livestock farms in the countryside) into the river. The partitioning of antibiotics in river water and sediment suggests a lower sorption of TCs to the sediment compared to previous studies, which is believed to be caused by the high Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations, ionic strength and pH of the river water in the carbonate area. PMID:19513451

  15. 77 FR 41412 - Determination That CHLOROMYCETIN (Chloramphenicol) Capsules, 250 Milligrams, Were Withdrawn From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    .... In the Federal Register of February 11, 2009 (74 FR 6896), FDA announced that it was withdrawing... number of adverse reactions, the most serious being bone marrow depression (anemia, thrombocytopenia,...

  16. An efficient synthesis of (-)-chloramphenicol via asymmetric catalytic aziridination: a comparison of catalysts prepared from triphenylborate and various linear and vaulted biaryls.

    PubMed

    Loncaric, C; Wulff, W D

    2001-11-15

    [reaction--see text] The antibiotic (-)-choramphenicol has been synthesized in only four steps from p-nitro-benzaldehyde in optically pure form from an asymmetric catalytic aziridination reaction with a chiral catalyst prepared from triphenylborate and the (R)-VAPOL ligand. Catalysts generated from the VAPOL and VANOL ligands give much higher asymmetric induction than do catalysts prepared from 6,6'-diphenylVAPOL, BINOL, and BANOL ligands. PMID:11700110

  17. Chloramphenicol and tetracycline decrease motility and increase invasion and attachment gene expression in specific isolates of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most common serovars isolated from humans and livestock, and over 35 percent of these isolates are resistant to three or more antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is a public health concern as it is associated with i...

  18. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial meningitis in children in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P.; Verma, I. C.

    1993-01-01

    We carried out a study to investigate the effectiveness of chloramphenicol alone as a treatment for bacterial meningitis. A total of 70 consecutive children aged > 3 months with bacterial meningitis, who had been admitted to the paediatric hospital of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, were randomized to receive chloramphenicol alone or chloramphenicol + penicillin. The two groups were matched with each other. Treatment failure occurred with three (9%) patients in the chloramphenicol-alone group and with four (12.1%) patients in the combination therapy group (P > 0.05). The mean duration of intravenous therapy, the number of intravenous cannulae used per patient, and the incidence of thrombophlebitis were significantly higher for the group that received the combination therapy. Also, the cost of using chloramphenicol + penicillin was four times higher than that of chloramphenicol alone. Hence, chloramphenicol alone was as effective as chloramphenicol + penicillin and much cheaper and more convenient to use. PMID:8490981

  19. Repaglinide

    MedlinePlus

    ... acetophenazine (Tindal), aspirin, blood pressure medicines, carbamazepine (Tegretol), chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), corticosteroids, diuretics ('water pills'), drugs ...

  20. 75 FR 28811 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Proposed Actions Under the NIH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... available. Doxycycline and chloramphenicol are also effective and ciprofloxacin is recommended as.... pestis CO92 lcr- strains that have already been made resistant to ciprofloxacin or doxycycline...

  1. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid measurements include: Alcohol Aminosalicylic acid Birth control pills Estrogens Tetracyclines Ampicillin Chloramphenicol Erythromycin Methotrexate Penicillin Aminopterin Phenobarbital Phenytoin Drugs to treat malaria

  2. Typhus

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment includes the following antibiotics: Doxycycline Tetracycline Chloramphenicol (less common) Tetracycline taken by mouth can permanently stain teeth that are still forming. It is usually not prescribed ...

  3. Synergistic Interactions of Methanolic Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. with Antibiotics against Bacteria of Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms, combining medicinal plants with synthetic or orthodox medicines against resistant bacteria becomes necessary. In this study, interactions between methanolic extract of Acacia mearnsii and eight antibiotics were investigated by agar diffusion and checkerboard assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all the antibiotics ranged between 0.020 and 500 μg/mL while that of the crude extract varied between 0.156 and 1.25 mg/mL. The agar diffusion assay showed that extract-kanamycin combination had zones of inhibition ≥20 ± 1.0 mm in all the bacteria tested (100%), followed by extract-chloramphenicol (90%) > extract-ciprofloxacin = extract-tetracycline (70%) > extract-amoxicillin (60%) > extract-nalidixic acid (50%) > extract-erythromycin (40%) > extract-metronidazole (20%). The checkerboard showed synergistic interaction (61.25%), additivity/indifference (23.75%) and antagonistic (15%) effects. The synergistic interaction was most expressed by combining the extract with tetracycline, metronidazole, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid against E. coli (ATCC 25922), erythromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin against S. aureus (ATCC 6538), erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol against B. subtilis KZN, erythromycin, metronidazole and amoxicillin against E. faecalis KZN, erythromycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol against K. pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), erythromycin, tetracycline, metronidazole and chloramphenicol against P. vulgaris (ATCC 6830), erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol against S. sonnei (ATCC 29930), metronidazole, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol against E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol against Proteus vulgaris KZN. The synergistic interactions indicated that the bactericidal potentials of the antibacterial agents were improved and

  4. THE NEWER ANTIBIOTICS IN DERMATOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Novy, Frederick G.

    1950-01-01

    From the experimental and clinical observations published to date it appears that three new antibiotics, polymyxin, chloramphenicol and aureomycin, will prove to be highly efficacious against many of the infectious dermatoses and venereal diseases. PMID:18731681

  5. Meningococcal Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord. The extended meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa, stretching from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia ... ampicillin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone. Under epidemic conditions in Africa in areas with limited health infrastructure and resources, ...

  6. Isolation and characterization of the grain mold fungi, Cochliobolus and Alternaria spp., from sorghum using semi-selective media and DNA sequence analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mold diseases, caused by fungal complexes including Alternaria, Cochliobolus and Fusarium species, limit sorghum grain production. Media were tested by plating Fusarium thapsinum, Alternaria sp. and Curvularia lunata, individually and competitively. Dichloran chloramphenicol rose bengal (DRBC) and m...

  7. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: In this study, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among resistant enterococci from dogs and cats in the United States were determined. Methods and Results: Enterococci resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin,...

  8. Assignment of two mitochondrially synthesized polypeptides to human mitochondrial DNA and their use in the study of intracellular mitochondrial interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, N.A.; Wallace, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Two mitochondrially synthesized marker polypeptides, MV-1 and MV-2, were found in human HeLa and HT1080 cells. These were assigned to the mitochondrial DNA in HeLa-HT1080 hybrids and hybrids by demonstrating their linkage to cytoplasmic genetic markers. These markers include mitochondrial DNA restriction site polymorphisms and resistance to chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis. In the absence of chloramphenicol, the expression of MV-1 and MV-2 in hybrids and hybrids was found to be directly proportional to the ratio of the parental mitochondrial DNAs. In the presence of chloramphenicol, the marker polypeptide linked to the chloramphenicol-sensitive mitochondrial DNA continued to be expressed. This demonstrated that resistant and sensitive mitochondrial DNAs can cooperate within a cell for gene expression and that the CAP-resistant allele was dominant or codominant to sensitive. Such cooperation suggests that mitochondrial DNAs can be exchanged between mitochondria.

  9. Biological processing and interactions with coal: Summary of activities for the period April 1, 1988--June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradation/solubilization of coal and organic sulfur is described. The effects of chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, on dibenzothiophene degradation by the bacterial isolate STONF was continued. 4 figs., 2 tabs. (CBS)

  10. Typhus

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment includes the following antibiotics: Doxycycline Tetracycline Chloramphenicol (less common) Tetracycline taken by mouth can permanently stain teeth that are still forming. It is usually not prescribed for children until after ...

  11. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure to mention any of the following: aspirin; chloramphenicol; diuretics ('water pills') such as ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) ... your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  12. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure to mention any of the following: amikacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin (Neo-Fradin), streptomycin, and tobramycin. ... your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  13. Meningitis - meningococcal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most commonly used antibiotics for meningococcal meningitis. Penicillin in high doses is almost always effective, too. If the patient is allergic to penicillin, chloramphenicol may be used. Sometimes corticosteroids may be ...

  14. [The influence of choramphenicol and streptomycinsulphate on the growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum var. atrosepticum (van Hall) Dowson (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Brazda, G; Pett, B

    1976-01-01

    The influence of the antibiotics chloraphenicol (D-threo-form) and streptomycin sulphate against Pectobacterium carotovorum var. atrosepticum (syn. Erwinia carotovora) was investigated in vitro and on potato tubers. Chloramphenicol showed a greater effect as streptomycinsulphate in the applied concentrations. The success of the control of soft rot is determined by the period between the inoculation and the treatment of the tubers. 6 several strains of P. carotovorum var. atrosepticum showed a different sensibility to chloramphenicol and streptomycinsulphate. PMID:1037182

  15. Shuttle mutagenesis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: pilin null mutations lower DNA transformation competence.

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, H S; Ajioka, R S; Paruchuri, D; Heffron, F; So, M

    1990-01-01

    The method of shuttle mutagenesis has been extended to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We have constructed a defective mini-Tn3 derivative that encodes chloramphenicol resistance in both N. gonorrhoeae and Escherichia coli and selected for mutations in the chloramphenicol resistance gene that express higher levels of antibiotic resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. Isogenic N. gonorrhoeae strains that differ only in pilin expression were constructed and used to test the effect of pilin null mutations on DNA transformation competence. PMID:2152910

  16. Bacteriophage SP82G Inhibition of an Intracellular Deoxyribonucleic Acid Inactivation Process in Bacillus subtilis1

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, William T.; Green, D. MacDonald

    1972-01-01

    The stability of SP82G bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) after its uptake by competent Bacillus subtilis was examined by determining the ability of superinfecting phage particles to rescue genetic markers carried by the infective DNA. These experiments show that a DNA inactivation process within the cell is inhibited after infection of the cell by intact phage particles. The inhibition is maximally expressed 6 min after phage infection and is completely prevented by the addition of chloramphenicol at the time of infection. The protective effect of this function extends even to infective DNA which was present in the cell before the addition of intact phage. Continued protein synthesis does not appear to be a requirement for the maintenance of the inhibition. In an analogous situation, if infectious centers resulting from singly infecting phage particles are exposed to chloramphenicol shortly after the time of infection, an exponential decrease in the survival of infectious centers with time held in chloramphenicol is observed. If the addition of chloramphenicol is delayed until 6 min after infection, the infectious centers are resistant to chloramphenicol. The sensitivity of infectious centers treated with chloramphenicol at early times after infection is strongly dependent upon the multiplicity of infection and is consistent with a model of multiplicity reactivation. These results indicate that injected DNA is also susceptible to the intracellular inactivation process and suggest that the inhibition of this system is necessary for the successful establishment of an infectious center. PMID:4625174

  17. Events Surrounding the Early Development of Euglena Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Vaisberg, Abraham J.; Schiff, Jerome A.; Li, Lynn; Freedman, Zachary

    1976-01-01

    d(−)threo-Chloramphenicol blocks chlorophyll and plastid protein synthesis in Euglena. During chloroplast development in white light, but not in red, the cells escape from chloramphenicol inhibition and chlorophyll formation is restored. Concomitantly, chloramphenicol is reduced. Reduction of chloramphenicol in an enzyme extract from Euglena requires NADPH and ferredoxin for maximal activity. Methyl viologen replaces ferredoxin, and when chemically reduced, ferredoxin or methyl viologen reduces chloramphenicol directly. This suggests that the enzyme involved is ferredoxin-NADP reductase. In agreement, crude extracts from wild type and W3BUL, a mutant lacking detectable plastids and plastid DNA, when separated on acrylamide gels, show a single band which reduces methyl viologen with NADPH, and its mobility is similar in wild type and in mutant W3BUL. The reductase is inducible by light and increases 3-fold in wild type in white or red light and 1.5-fold in W3BUL in white light. DCMU does not block chloramphenicol reduction in vivo indicating that electrons originate from sources other than photosynthetic electron transport. We infer that chloramphenicol is reduced by ferredoxin which receives electrons via ferredoxin-NADP reductase. The limiting step is not the enzyme but the source of reducing power which can be supplied from the cytoplasm, probably under control of the blue light receptor. Ferredoxin and ferredoxin NADP reductase appear to be coded in the nuclear genome, synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, and join a group of enzymes which cannot be precisely localized, since they may be active anywhere from their site of synthesis in the cytoplasm to their place of deposition in the chloroplast. PMID:16659534

  18. Delayed cerebrospinal fluid sterilization, in vitro bactericidal activities, and side effects of selected beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Dajani, A S; Pokowski, L H

    1990-01-01

    Ampicillin (or penicillin G) plus chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime have been used in the treatment of bacterial meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Review of recent data from the USA and Europe indicates that delayed CSF sterilization occurs significantly more often with ampicillin/chloramphenicol and cefuroxime than with ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Delayed CSF sterilization is associated with an increased morbidity and neurological complications. Previously reported in vitro interactions between chloramphenicol and various beta-lactam antibiotics indicate that for bacteria where chloramphenicol is only bacteriostatic, the combination of chloramphenicol with beta-lactams is antagonistic. Killing rates of various beta-lactams were compared against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cidal activity of some beta-lactams was inoculum dependent. There was a good correlation between in vitro activity and ability to sterilize CSF. Ceftriaxone is highly protein bound and its use in newborns is discouraged. Diarrhea occurs significantly more often after cefriaxone use than after the use of other agents. Ceftriaxone is uniquely associated with a high frequency of biliary pseudolithiasis which may be symptomatic and can cause measureable morbidity. In selecting the "proper" antimicrobial agent for the treatment of bacterial meningitis considerations should be given to proven clinical efficacy, prompt CSF sterilization, rapid in vitro cidal activity, safety and cost. We recommend cefotaxime as the agent of choice in the treatment of bacterial meningitis. PMID:2091255

  19. Reduction of bacterial infections in newly hatched chicks by the use of antimicrobial dips: preliminary approaches.

    PubMed

    Barbour, E K; Nabbut, N H; Hinners, S W; Al-Nakhli, H M

    1985-01-01

    Bacteriological examination of hatchery waste eggs, identification of the isolated bacteria, and susceptibility testing against seven antimicrobial agents were used in an attempt to establish a rational basis for reducing bacterial infections in newly hatched chicks. Chloramphenicol at 1000 ppm was selected as the antibiotic for preliminary dipping trials and 0.45% iodophore (Wescodyne) was added for later trials. The control treatment consisted of formaldehyde fumigation. The following conclusions can be drawn: Hatchery waste eggs are highly contaminated (69.1%) and enterobacteriaceae predominate (26.6%). Chloramphenicol is the most effective antimicrobial tested. Dip treatments with either chloramphenicol alone or chloramphenicol plus Wescodyne result in a reduced percentage of abnormal navels (8.4% and 10.4%), as compared with 21.9% for the control treatment. Hatchability of either group of dipped eggs is reduced in comparison with fumigated eggs. Dip treatment with chloramphenicol plus Wescodyne significantly reduces the anal carrier rates for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. This treatment reduces the incidence of bacterial infection in abnormal navels to zero. PMID:3919494

  20. Environmental regulation of virulence in group A streptococci: transcription of the gene encoding M protein is stimulated by carbon dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Caparon, M G; Geist, R T; Perez-Casal, J; Scott, J R

    1992-01-01

    We have found that different atmospheres can have significant effects on the transcription of emm, the gene that encodes M protein, the major virulence factor of the group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). Expression of emm was monitored by constructing a transcriptional fusion of the promoter for emm6.1 from S. pyogenes JRS4 to a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Transcription, as measured by determining chloramphenicol acetyltransferase specific activity, was stimulated by as much as 25-fold by increased carbon dioxide tension. Expression was greater in the latter stages of growth and was not affected by growth at 30 instead of 37 degrees C. Insertional inactivation of mry, a gene encoding a positive regulator of emm6.1, reduced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity below the detectable level. We conclude that expression of emm is influenced by environmental factors and that the level of carbon dioxide is one signal that may influence expression of M protein during infection. Images PMID:1512202

  1. Composite bi-layered erodible films for potential ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Boateng, J S; Popescu, A M

    2016-09-01

    Bi-layered hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Eudragit based films were formulated as potential ocular drug delivery systems using chloramphenicol as a model antibiotic. Films were plasticized with polyethylene glycol 400 present in the Eudragit layer or both Eudragit and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose layers, and loaded with chloramphenicol (0.5% w/v in solution) in the hydroxypropylmethylcellulose layer. The weight, thickness and folding endurance of the optimized formulations were measured and further characterised for transparency, tensile, mucoadhesive, swelling and in vitro drug dissolution properties. The physical form of chloramphenicol within the films was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), complimented with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to assess the interactions between the drug and the film components and confirm chloramphenicol's presence within the sample. Optimum films showed high transparency (≥80% transmittance), ease of peeling from Petri dish and folding endurance above 250. Average thickness was lower than contact lenses (0.4-1mm), confirming them as thin ocular films. The tensile properties showed a good balance between toughness and flexibility, and mucoadhesivity showed that they could potentially adhere to the ocular surface for prolonged periods. The drug loaded films showed swelling capacity that was greater than 300% of their original weight. The physical form of chloramphenicol within the films was amorphous (DSC and XRD) whilst in vitro drug dissolution showed sustained drug release from the films for four hours, before complete erosion. The chloramphenicol loaded films represent a potential means of treating common eye infections. PMID:27214785

  2. In vitro susceptibility testing of nonsporing anaerobes to ten antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S; Shivananda, P G

    2000-07-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility was performed on sixty clinical isolates of nonsporing anaerobes against ten antimicrobial agents. The test was performed on Muller Hinton Agar and Wilkins Chalgren blood agar by preparing suspension of freshly isolated colonies in BHI broth. Apart from Metronidazole and Chloramphenicol newer antibiotics like Minocycline, Secnidazole, Tinidazole, Clarithromycin, Roxithromycin were also tried. Antimicrobial agents like Metronidazole, Secnidazole, Tinidazole and Minocycline were 100% sensitive, followed by Chloramphenicol, Clarithromycin and Roxithromycin. These newer agents can be good alternatives for the treatment of non sporing anaerobes. PMID:11218673

  3. In vitro susceptibility testing of nonsporing anaerobes to ten antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S; Shivananda, P G

    2000-04-01

    Antibiotic Susceptibility was performed on sixty clinical isolates of nonsporing anaerobes against ten antimicrobial agents. The test was performed on Muller Hinton Agar and Wilkins Chalgren blood agar by preparing suspension of freshly isolated colonies in BHI broth. Apart from Metronidazole and Chloramphenicol newer antibiotics like Minocycline, Secnidazole, Tinidazole, Clarithromycin, Roxithromycin were also tried. Antimicrobial agents like metronidazole, Secnidazole, Tinidazole and Minocycline were 100% sensitive, followed by Chloramphenicol, Clarithromycin and Roxithromycin. These newer agents can be good alternatives for the treatment of non sporing anaerobes. PMID:11217270

  4. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae infection and moxalactam on platelet function in children.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, S L; Courtney, J T; Kenal, K A

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study, children with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis received moxalactam or ampicillin or chloramphenicol. Of 41 children, 6 had prolonged bleeding times (greater than 6 min), and 7 of 9 tested had abnormal platelet aggregation at hospital admission. At the end of therapy, no children in the ampicillin-chloramphenicol group, compared with 5 of 22 moxalactam-treated children (23%) (P = 0.08), had prolonged bleeding times (6.5 to 7.5 min). Our data suggest that H. influenzae meningitis and treatment with moxalactam may each have an effect on platelet function in children. PMID:3579263

  5. [Effect of biologically active compounds on the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Levchenko, A B; Belousova, I I; El'gart, R E; Chistiakova, A M; Tereshin, I M

    1975-11-01

    A number of biologically active substances, i. e. main protamine proteins and histones, EDTA, lysozyme, methacyl and pentoxyl was studied with respect to their effect on the levels of the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics against E. coli and Staph. aureus and transfer of resistence to chloramphenicol in E. coli on conjugation. It was shown that the above substances lowered the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotics 2--10 times when added to the culture simultaneously with the latter. The results varied depending on the strain and the resistance nature. Marked inhibition of transfer of resistance to chloramphenicol in the presence of the main proteins and EDTA was found. PMID:817644

  6. Direct Introduction of Genes into Rats and Expression of the Genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenisty, Nissim; Reshef, Lea

    1986-12-01

    A method of introducing actively expressed genes into intact mammals is described. DNA precipitated with calcium phosphate has been injected intraperitoneally into newborn rats. The injected genes have been taken up and expressed by the animal tissues. To examine the generality of the method we have injected newborn rats with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase prokaryotic gene fused with various viral and cellular gene promoters and the gene for hepatitis B surface antigen, and we observed appearance of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity and hepatitis B surface antigen in liver and spleen. In addition, administration of genes coding for hormones (insulin or growth hormone) resulted in their expression.

  7. Selective medium for isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, S; Pitt, J I

    1986-01-01

    A selective medium containing 2 micrograms of dichloran per ml, 200 micrograms of chloramphenicol per ml, and 1.5% bacteriological peptone was developed for the isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals. The medium, designated DCPA, was shown to select against species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and mucoraceous fungi. DCPA was evaluated for use as an enumeration medium and compared satisfactorily with dichloran-rose bengal-chloramphenicol agar when both media were tested with a range of cereal samples. Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes produced well-formed colonies with good conidial production on DCPA, permitting rapid identification of such isolates on this medium. PMID:3729399

  8. Multiple antibiotic resistance in Rhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Cole, M A; Elkan, G H

    1979-05-01

    A total of 48 strains of the soil bacterium Rhizobium japonicum were screened for their response to several widely used antibiotics. Over 60% of the strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, polymyxin B, and erythromycin, and 47% or more of the strains were resistant to neomycin and penicillin G, when tested by disk assay procedures. The most common grouping of resistances in strains was simultaneous resistance to tetracycline, penicillin G, neomycin, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin (25% of all strains tested). The occurrence of multiple drug resistance in a soil bacterium that is not a vertebrate pathogen suggests that chemotherapeutic use of antibiotics is not required for the development of multiple drug resistance. PMID:485137

  9. Occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistance in Azotobacter chroococcum.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, S S; Grover, V; Narula, N; Lakshminarayana, K

    1989-01-01

    Of 117 strains of Azotobacter chroococcum, isolated from local soils the antibiotic resistance pattern to ten widely used antibiotics was determined by antibiotic disk and agar plate dilution method. Over 95% of the strains were resistant to 10 micrograms ml-1 concentration of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline and 70% or more were resistant to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, streptomycin and trimethoprim. 1 to 8% of the strains showed resistance upto 400 micrograms ml-1 concentration of 5 antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline). The intrinsic resistance to the 10 antibiotics was generally high in Azotobacter chroococcum strains. PMID:2750350

  10. Selective medium for isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals.

    PubMed

    Andrews, S; Pitt, J I

    1986-06-01

    A selective medium containing 2 micrograms of dichloran per ml, 200 micrograms of chloramphenicol per ml, and 1.5% bacteriological peptone was developed for the isolation of Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes from cereals. The medium, designated DCPA, was shown to select against species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and mucoraceous fungi. DCPA was evaluated for use as an enumeration medium and compared satisfactorily with dichloran-rose bengal-chloramphenicol agar when both media were tested with a range of cereal samples. Fusarium species and dematiaceous hyphomycetes produced well-formed colonies with good conidial production on DCPA, permitting rapid identification of such isolates on this medium. PMID:3729399

  11. In vitro susceptibility of Bordetella parapertussis to various antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Haraguchi, Y

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro activity of 18 antimicrobial agents against 32 strains of Bordetella parapertussis isolated from whooping cough patients was studied. The most active antimicrobial agents were piperacillin and minocycline, followed (in descending order of activity) by moxalactam, erythromycin, cefoperazone, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, josamycin, sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid. Isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin, cephalothin, cefatrizine, cefaclor, streptomycin, and cephalexin. PMID:2764546

  12. Expression of accumulated capacity for initiation of chromosome and minichromosome replication in dnaA mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    LaDuca, R J; Helmstetter, C E

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome and minichromosome replication were examined in temperature-sensitive dnaA mutants of Escherichia coli growing at temperatures between permissive and nonpermissive. Periodicities in [14C]thymidine uptake were detected as cultures incubated at intermediate temperatures approached late exponential-early stationary phase of growth. Exposure of the cultures to a nutritional shift-up caused a stimulation of chromosome replication associated with a rapid initiation of new rounds of replication, very similar to that observed after exposure to chloramphenicol. Addition of rifampin also caused a stimulation, but to a much lesser extent. The induced initiations of chromosome replication took place in two waves, as was the case when the cultures were simply shifted to permissive temperature. Minichromosomes were also stimulated to replicate by the addition of chloramphenicol at intermediate temperatures, providing further evidence that the chromosomal region which responded to the chloramphenicol treatment was in the vicinity of oriC. The findings are consistent with the conclusion that the initiations induced by chloramphenicol are consequences of the involvement of the dnaA gene product in a transcriptional step at initiation, as suggested by Orr et al. The results also suggest that the activity of the dnaA gene product is not normally involved in controlling the frequency of initiation of chromosome replication. PMID:6304012

  13. Scrub typhus infection in pregnancy: the dilemma of diagnosis and treatment in a resource-limited setting.

    PubMed

    Watthanaworawit, Wanitda; Kolakowska, Edyta; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Ling, Clare; McGready, Rose

    2016-06-01

    To save the life of both mother and fetus, the risks and benefits of the few antibiotics considered effective in the treatment of severe scrub typhus require consideration. In this case, chloramphenicol treatment averted maternal but not fetal mortality. Evidence-based guidelines appropriate for resource-limited endemic areas are required. PMID:27398202

  14. Geraniol Restores Antibiotic Activities against Multidrug-Resistant Isolates from Gram-Negative Species▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Vannina; Muselli, Alain; Bernardini, Antoine François; Berti, Liliane; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Amaral, Leonard; Bolla, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of Helichrysum italicum significantly reduces the multidrug resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Combinations of the two most active fractions of the essential oil with each other or with phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide yield synergistic activity. Geraniol, a component of one fraction, significantly increased the efficacy of β-lactams, quinolones, and chloramphenicol. PMID:19258278

  15. Evaluation of a bi-layer wound dressing for burn care. II. In vitro and in vivo bactericidal properties.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Lucie; Shek, Pang N

    2006-03-01

    We have recently designed a medicated bi-layer wound dressing to address the key requirements for treating external, contaminated war wounds. This study assessed the in vitro and in vivo bactericidal efficacies of the DRDC hydrogel/polyurethane wound dressing. Chloramphenicol- and chlorhexidine-loaded DRDC dressings produced significantly larger zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa than the other medicated dressings for 4 d. Chlorhexidine-loaded Allevyn and Hydrasorb remained bactericidal for 48 h only. Chloramphenicol-loaded Hydrasorb and Allevyn remained bactericidal for 1 and 3 d, respectively. Ps. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis counts in wounds treated with chlorhexidine- and chloramphenicol-loaded DRDC dressings for 24 h were 1-3-log lower than those of control wounds. While Ps. aeruginosa counts in the wounds on day 4 were comparable following daily changes of either antiseptic-loaded dressings, chlorhexidine showed a 75% greater bactericidal efficacy against Staph. epidermidis than chloramphenicol. Though increasing the frequency of dressing changes led to a greater reduction in the wound bacterial load, the contamination levels of all antiseptic-treated wounds remained below 10(5) CFU/g of wound. Cerium nitrate-loaded dressings did not exert any bactericidal effect, irrespective of the experimental conditions. These data show that the DRDC dressing is effective in delivering medications, such as an antimicrobial agent, to the wound bed. PMID:16455202

  16. Bacteremia and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance over Time, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amuzu, Sylvarius K.; de Ciman, Ring; Kassimova, Iparkhan; Groß, Lisa; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Rosenberg, Ulrike; Schulze, Marco; Stich, August; Zimmermann, Ortrud

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial distribution and antimicrobial drug resistance were monitored in patients with bacterial bloodstream infections in rural hospitals in Ghana. In 2001–2002 and in 2009, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was the most prevalent pathogen. Although most S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates were chloramphenicol resistant, all isolates tested were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. PMID:22000360

  17. Drug-susceptibility of isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from colonic mucosal specimens of pigs collected from slaughter houses in Japan in 2009.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Keita; Kozawa, Midori; Kanazawa, Takuya; Uetsuka, Kouji; Nakajima, Hiromi; Adachi, Yoshikazu

    2016-04-01

    Twenty nine isolates identified as Brachyspira hyodysenteriae were most susceptible to carbadox and metronidazole, whereas they were resistant to macrolides. The isolates showed intermediate susceptibility to tiamulin, lincomycin, penicillin G, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and valnemulin, with MIC50 values ranging from 0.39 to 3.13. PMID:26596637

  18. [The effect of amphoteric tensides on the pharmaceutic availability of model drugs according to formulation].

    PubMed

    Bialik, W; Kuferska, E; Jaworski, E

    1992-01-01

    Pharmaceutical availability of chloramphenicol from o/w emulsion ointment and salicylic acid from tablets as influenced by the kind and concentration of amphoteric tenside has been investigated. It has been shown that amphoterics investigated variously influenced drug release, what makes possible to obtain the form of drug showing desired rate of release. PMID:8769076

  19. Flow Cytometric Determination of the Effects of Antibacterial Agents on Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Large Colony Type

    PubMed Central

    Assunção, Patricia; Antunes, Nuno T.; Rosales, Ruben S.; Poveda, Carlos; Poveda, Jose B.; Davey, Hazel M.

    2006-01-01

    Flow cytometry together with SYBR green I and propidium iodide was used to study the effects of enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, and tylosin on four mycoplasma species. Inhibition of mycoplasma growth could be detected by as early as 3 h after the start of treatment. The strongest effect was observed with enrofloxacin- and ciprofloxacin-treated cells. PMID:16870783

  20. Fabrication of SERS-active substrates using silver nanofilm-coated porous anodic aluminum oxide for detection of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Feng, Shaolong; Gao, Fang; Grant, Edward; Xu, Jie; Wang, Shuo; Huang, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a silver nanofilm-coated porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrate for the detection of trace level of chloramphenicol, a representative antibiotic in food systems. The ordered aluminum template generated during the synthesis of AAO serves as a patterned matrix on which a coated silver film replicates the patterned AAO matrix to form a 2-dimensional ordered nanostructure. We used atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images to determine the morphology of this nanosubstrate, and characterized its localized surface plasmon resonance by ultraviolet-visible reflection. We gauged the SERS effect of this nanosubstrate by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (782-nm laser), finding a satisfactory and consistent performance with enhancement factors of approximately 2 × 10(4) and a limit of detection for chloramphenicol of 7.5 ppb. We applied principal component analysis to determine the limit of quantification for chloramphenicol of 10 ppb. Using electromagnetic field theory, we developed a detailed mathematical model to explain the mechanism of Raman signal enhancement of this nanosubstrate. With simple sample pretreatment and separation steps, this silver nanofilm-coated AAO substrate could detect 50 ppb chloramphenicol in milk, indicating good potential as a reliable SERS-active substrate for rapid detection of chemical contaminants in agricultural and food products. PMID:25736080

  1. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of strains of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M D; Vinh, D X; Nguyen, T T; Wain, J; Thung, D; White, N J

    1995-01-01

    The in vitro activities of 14 antimicrobial agents were determined for 78 strains of Yersinia pestis. The most active antibiotics were ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin, followed by ofloxacin and ampicillin. The agents traditionally used for the treatment of plague (streptomycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol) were considerably less active. Azithromycin showed poor activity against all strains. PMID:8540736

  2. Isolation and characterization of chromosomal promoters of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Slos, P; Bourquin, J C; Lemoine, Y; Mercenier, A

    1991-01-01

    A promoter probe vector, pTG244, was constructed with the aim of isolating transcription initiation signals from Streptococcus thermophilus (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus). pTG244 is based on the Escherichia coli-streptococcus shuttle vector pTG222, into which the promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of Bacillus pumilus (cat-86) was cloned. Random Sau3A fragments from the S. thermophilus A054 chromosomal DNA were cloned upstream of the cat-86 gene by using E. coli as the host. The pool of recombinant plasmids were introduced into S. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in order to search for promoter activity in these hosts. For S. thermophilus, it was necessary to first select erythromycin-resistant transformants and then to screen for chloramphenicol resistance among these. Direct selection of chloramphenicol-resistant clones was, however, possible in L. lactis subsp. lactis. Six fragments exhibiting promoter activity were characterized in S. thermophilus by measuring the levels of cat-86 transcription and/or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase specific activity. Three of the promoter-carrying fragments were sequenced. The 5' ends of their corresponding mRNAs were determined by S1 mapping and shown to correspond to a purine residue in all cases. Upstream from these potential transcription start points, sequences homologous to the E. coli sigma 70 and the Bacillus subtilis vegetative sigma 43 (or sigma A) consensus promoters were identified. Images PMID:1854195

  3. 75 FR 55676 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 520, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chloramphenicol; Lincomycin.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal...

  4. Neonatal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Heath, P T; Nik Yusoff, N K; Baker, C J

    2003-05-01

    Twelve years ago an annotation was published in Archives of Disease in Childhood regarding the antibiotic treatment of suspected neonatal meningitis. The authors recommended the use of cephalosporins rather than chloramphenicol and advocated intraventricular aminoglycoside treatment in selected cases. They noted the absence of clinical trials with third generation cephalosporins that showed an improvement in mortality or neurological outcome. PMID:12719388

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin among Salmonella enterica isolated from the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to emerging resistance to traditional antimicrobial agents such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol, azithromycin is increasingly used for the treatment of invasive Salmonella infections. In the present study, 696 isolates of non-Typhi Salmonella collected from human...

  6. Antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhalt, John P.

    A 28-year-old man was transferred to our hospital and underwent surgery for resection of an aortic graft infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial therapy consisted of amikacin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. A request for amikacin and sulfamethoxazole assays was received by the laboratory along with information that the patient had received tobramycin until 24 h before the serum was obtained.

  7. ACSSuT Multi-Drug Resistance Among Salmonella Isolates of Animal Origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) emerged in the mid-1990’s in humans and animals with infection resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. DT104 was characterized by resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Sulfa, and Tetracycline (AC...

  8. Pulmonary nocardiosis in a patient receiving immunosuppressive agent.

    PubMed

    Aswapokee, P; Aswapokee, N; Chirawong, P; Leelarasamee, A

    1977-09-01

    A 20-year-old woman receiving corticosteroid treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus developed pulmonary nocardiosis with hydrophneumothorax. The organism identified as Nocardia asteroides resisted to sulfonamide and cotrimoxazole but sensitive to chloramphenicaol and streptomycin in vitro. She seemed to respond to chloramphenicol but subsequently had peritonitis and succumbed later. PMID:607422

  9. An in vitro study on the effects of nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhongchun; Zhang, Yuejiao; Ling, Junqi; Ma, Jinglei; Huang, Lijia; Zhang, Luodan

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis rank among the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide and possesses both intrinsic and acquired resistance to a variety of antibiotics. Development of new antibiotics is limited, and pathogens continually generate new antibiotic resistance. Many researchers aim to identify strategies to effectively kill this drug-resistant pathogen. Here, we evaluated the effect of the antimicrobial peptide nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against E. faecalis. The MIC and MBC results showed that the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against E. faecalis OG1RF, ATCC 29212, and strain E were significantly improved in the presence of 200 U/ml nisin. Statistically significant differences were observed between the results with and without 200 U/ml nisin at the same concentrations of penicillin or chloramphenicol (p<0.05). The checkerboard assay showed that the combination of nisin and penicillin or chloramphenicol had a synergetic effect against the three tested E. faecalis strains. The transmission electron microscope images showed that E. faecalis was not obviously destroyed by penicillin or chloramphenicol alone but was severely disrupted by either antibiotic in combination with nisin. Furthermore, assessing biofilms by a confocal laser scanning microscope showed that penicillin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol all showed stronger antibiofilm actions in combination with nisin than when these antibiotics were administered alone. Therefore, nisin can significantly improve the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of many antibiotics, and certain antibiotics in combination with nisin have considerable potential for use as inhibitors of this drug-resistant pathogen. PMID:24586598

  10. Drug-susceptibility of isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from colonic mucosal specimens of pigs collected from slaughter houses in Japan in 2009

    PubMed Central

    KAJIWARA, Keita; KOZAWA, Midori; KANAZAWA, Takuya; UETSUKA, Kouji; NAKAJIMA, Hiromi; ADACHI, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Twenty nine isolates identified as Brachyspira hyodysenteriae were most susceptible to carbadox and metronidazole, whereas they were resistant to macrolides. The isolates showed intermediate susceptibility to tiamulin, lincomycin, penicillin G, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and valnemulin, with MIC50 values ranging from 0.39 to 3.13. PMID:26596637

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of nifuroxazide and analogs.

    PubMed

    Tavares, L C; Penna, T C; Amaral, A T

    1997-03-01

    Nifuroxazide and thirteen analogs were synthesized from substituted benzoic acids and minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined using the serial dilution tests, in three sequential steps. Nifuroxazide and chloramphenicol were used as reference standards. The tests were performed in TSB against the standard bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. PMID:9164164

  12. Genome engineering using a synthetic gene circuit in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Da-Eun; Park, Seung-Hwan; Pan, Jae-Gu; Kim, Eui-Joong; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Genome engineering without leaving foreign DNA behind requires an efficient counter-selectable marker system. Here, we developed a genome engineering method in Bacillus subtilis using a synthetic gene circuit as a counter-selectable marker system. The system contained two repressible promoters (B. subtilis xylA (Pxyl) and spac (Pspac)) and two repressor genes (lacI and xylR). Pxyl-lacI was integrated into the B. subtilis genome with a target gene containing a desired mutation. The xylR and Pspac–chloramphenicol resistant genes (cat) were located on a helper plasmid. In the presence of xylose, repression of XylR by xylose induced LacI expression, the LacIs repressed the Pspac promoter and the cells become chloramphenicol sensitive. Thus, to survive in the presence of chloramphenicol, the cell must delete Pxyl-lacI by recombination between the wild-type and mutated target genes. The recombination leads to mutation of the target gene. The remaining helper plasmid was removed easily under the chloramphenicol absent condition. In this study, we showed base insertion, deletion and point mutation of the B. subtilis genome without leaving any foreign DNA behind. Additionally, we successfully deleted a 2-kb gene (amyE) and a 38-kb operon (ppsABCDE). This method will be useful to construct designer Bacillus strains for various industrial applications. PMID:25552415

  13. Unique plasmids generated via pUC replicon mutagenesis in an error-prone thermophile derived from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Tanabiki, Misaki; Doi, Shohei; Kondo, Akihiko; Ohshiro, Takashi; Suzuki, Hirokazu

    2015-11-01

    The plasmid pGKE75-catA138T, which comprises pUC18 and the catA138T gene encoding thermostable chloramphenicol acetyltransferase with an A138T amino acid replacement (CATA138T), serves as an Escherichia coli-Geobacillus kaustophilus shuttle plasmid that confers moderate chloramphenicol resistance on G. kaustophilus HTA426. The present study examined the thermoadaptation-directed mutagenesis of pGKE75-catA138T in an error-prone thermophile, generating the mutant plasmid pGKE75(αβ)-catA138T responsible for substantial chloramphenicol resistance at 65°C. pGKE75(αβ)-catA138T contained no mutation in the catA138T gene but had two mutations in the pUC replicon, even though the replicon has no apparent role in G. kaustophilus. Biochemical characterization suggested that the efficient chloramphenicol resistance conferred by pGKE75(αβ)-catA138T is attributable to increases in intracellular CATA138T and acetyl-coenzyme A following a decrease in incomplete forms of pGKE75(αβ)-catA138T. The decrease in incomplete plasmids may be due to optimization of plasmid replication by RNA species transcribed from the mutant pUC replicon, which were actually produced in G. kaustophilus. It is noteworthy that G. kaustophilus was transformed with pGKE75(αβ)-catA138T using chloramphenicol selection at 60°C. In addition, a pUC18 derivative with the two mutations propagated in E. coli at a high copy number independently of the culture temperature and high plasmid stability. Since these properties have not been observed in known plasmids, the outcomes extend the genetic toolboxes for G. kaustophilus and E. coli. PMID:26319877

  14. Unique Plasmids Generated via pUC Replicon Mutagenesis in an Error-Prone Thermophile Derived from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Tanabiki, Misaki; Doi, Shohei; Kondo, Akihiko; Ohshiro, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The plasmid pGKE75-catA138T, which comprises pUC18 and the catA138T gene encoding thermostable chloramphenicol acetyltransferase with an A138T amino acid replacement (CATA138T), serves as an Escherichia coli-Geobacillus kaustophilus shuttle plasmid that confers moderate chloramphenicol resistance on G. kaustophilus HTA426. The present study examined the thermoadaptation-directed mutagenesis of pGKE75-catA138T in an error-prone thermophile, generating the mutant plasmid pGKE75αβ-catA138T responsible for substantial chloramphenicol resistance at 65°C. pGKE75αβ-catA138T contained no mutation in the catA138T gene but had two mutations in the pUC replicon, even though the replicon has no apparent role in G. kaustophilus. Biochemical characterization suggested that the efficient chloramphenicol resistance conferred by pGKE75αβ-catA138T is attributable to increases in intracellular CATA138T and acetyl-coenzyme A following a decrease in incomplete forms of pGKE75αβ-catA138T. The decrease in incomplete plasmids may be due to optimization of plasmid replication by RNA species transcribed from the mutant pUC replicon, which were actually produced in G. kaustophilus. It is noteworthy that G. kaustophilus was transformed with pGKE75αβ-catA138T using chloramphenicol selection at 60°C. In addition, a pUC18 derivative with the two mutations propagated in E. coli at a high copy number independently of the culture temperature and high plasmid stability. Since these properties have not been observed in known plasmids, the outcomes extend the genetic toolboxes for G. kaustophilus and E. coli. PMID:26319877

  15. An alkylaminoquinazoline restores antibiotic activity in Gram-negative resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Mahamoud, Abdallah; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Baitiche, Milad; Adam, Elissavet; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2011-02-01

    To date, various bacterial drug efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) have been described. They exhibit variability in their activity spectrum with respect to antibiotic structural class and bacterial species. Among the various 4-alkylaminoquinazoline derivatives synthesized and studied in this work, one molecule, 1167, increased the susceptibility of important human-pathogenic, resistant, Gram-negative bacteria towards different antibiotic classes. This 4-(3-morpholinopropylamino)-quinazoline induced an increase in the activity of chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and sparfloxacin, which are substrates of the AcrAB-TolC and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps that act in these multidrug-resistant isolates. In addition, 1167 increased the intracellular concentration of chloramphenicol in efflux pump-overproducing strains. The rate of restoration depended on the structure of the antibiotic, suggesting that different sites in the efflux pumps may be involved. A molecule exhibiting a morpholine functional group and a propyl extension of the side chain was more active. PMID:21071494

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from various animals.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Joseph E; Ball, Katherine R; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel

    2011-02-01

    This study characterized the antimicrobial susceptibility of 221 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various species, and 60 canine Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from 1986 through 2000 at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM). Resistance of S. aureus was most common to penicillin (31%) and tetracycline (14%); resistance of S. pseudintermedius to penicillin was present in 8% and to tetracycline in 34% of isolates. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was only seen among S. pseudintermedius, and there was no resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cephalothin, amikacin, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, or rifampin among any isolate. Inducible clindamycin resistance was found in both S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius, highlighting the need for careful interpretation of culture and susceptibility test results. There were significant differences in the minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline between avian, bovine, equine, and porcine isolates. PMID:21532820

  17. Purification and characterization of a 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDP-glucuronosyltransferase from rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Styczynski, B.; Green, M.; Coffman, B.; Puig, J.; Tephly, T. )

    1991-03-11

    A phenobarbital-inducible rat liver microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (4-HBP UDPGT) which catalyzes the glucuronidation of 4-hydroxybiphenyl has been purified to homogeneity. The apparent subunit molecular weight of this protein is 52,500 as determined by SDS-PAGE. 4-HBP UDPGT was shown to react with 4-hydroxybiphenyl, p-nitrophenol and 4-methylumbelliferone, but did not react with morphine, testosteron or chloramphenicol. Upon treatment with Endoglycosidase H, the 4-HBP UDPGT underwent about a 2,000 dalton decrease in subunit molecular weight, suggesting that this protein in N-glycosylated. Western blot analysis has revealed immunorecognition of 4-HBP UDPGT by antibodies raised in rabbit against rat 3{alpha}- and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid UDPGTs. Additionally, the authors have obtained the N-terminal amino acid sequence of 4-HBP UDPGT. These data provide evidence which suggests that this protein is different from another UDPGT previously shown to react with 4-hydroxybiphenyl, testosterone and chloramphenicol.

  18. Eco-friendly synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activities of some novel chalcones.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salman A; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; El-Daly, Samy A; Zayed, Mohie A M

    2013-01-01

    Chalcone derivatives have been synthesized by reaction of 1-(2,5-dimethyl-furan-3-yl)-ethanone with corresponding active aldehyde in ethanolic NaOH in microwave oven. The structure of these compounds was established by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and EI-MS spectral analysis. The anti-bacterial activity of these compounds was first tested in vitro by the disc diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined with the reference of standard drug Chloramphenicol. The results showed that pyrazol containing chalcone (compound 8) inhibited both types of bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) better than chloramphenicol. PMID:24397034

  19. Differential susceptibility of indole-positive and -negative strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae to cefazolin, choramphenicol and tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Nishida, M; Asano, H; Kamimura, T; Yokota, Y

    1978-01-01

    Biochemical properties and antibiotic susceptibilities of 168 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were tested. On the basis of the indole reaction, 30 isolates (18%) were indole-positive and 138 isolates (82%) were indole-negative. A significant difference in antibiotic susceptibility was found in each of the two groups of isolates. Of the indole-negative isolates, 82.6% were susceptible to cefazolin at 6.25 microgram/ml or lower, while the indole-positive isolates varied in susceptibility to cefazolin. All of the indole-positive isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol and tetracycline, but the indole-negative isolates varied in their susceptibility to these antibiotics. Whereas there was no relationship between indole production and susceptibility to cephalothin among the K. pneumoniae isolates studied, it appeared that there was a correlation between the indole reaction and susceptibility to cefazolin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. PMID:350514

  20. Biogenesis of an Antitumor Antibiotic Protein, Neocarzonostatin

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Kozo; Kikuchi, Mikio; Ishida, Nakao

    1972-01-01

    A study of the biogenesis of the antitumor protein antibiotic neocarzinostatin (NCS) was undertaken. The production of NCS, as well as the growth of Streptomyces carzinostaticus in a production medium, was sensitive to puromycin, chloramphenicol, and actinomycin D. However, when a 12-hr culture in production medium was transferred to a nongrowth medium consisting of a phosphate buffer with Mg2+ and Ca2+, rapid NCS synthesis and liberation occurred. NCS production in this medium was no longer sensitive to actinomycin D, but was sensitive to puromycin and chloramphenicol. The conversion of a precursor NCS to an active form was shown to occur in this medium. Subcellular analysis suggested that NCS synthesis occurred by a mechanism similar to that of protein synthesis by membrane polysomes. PMID:4670693

  1. Plasmid-protein relaxation complexes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Novick, R

    1976-09-01

    Protein-deoxyribonucleic acid relaxation complexes have been demonstrated for six Staphylococcus aureus plasmids out of sixteen examined. Four of these encode stretomycin resistence, have molecular weights of about 2.7 x 10(6), and are isolated as supercoiled molecules that are virtally 100% relaxable by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate. It is probable that these four isolates represent a single widely disseminated plasmid species. The other two plasmids showing relaxation complexes have molecular weights of about 3 x 10(6) and encode chloramphenicol resistance. The complexes in these cases are unstable, and it has not been possible to induce more than 50% relaxation by any of the standard treatments. Ten other plasmids do not show detectable complexes. These include three penicillinase plasmids, four tetracycline-resistance plasmids, one plasmid carrying kanamycin-neomycin resistance, and finally, two chloramphenicol-resistance plasmids. PMID:956124

  2. A Novel Method for Preparation of Gold NanoBipyramids Using Microwave Irradiation and Its Application in Immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Trong Phat; Ngo, Vo Ke Thanh; Nguyen, Dang Giang; Nguyen, Hoang Phuong Uyen; Nghiem, Quoc Dat; Lam, Quang Vinh; Huynh, Thanh Dat

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted attention for producing smart sensing devices as diagnostic tools in biotechnological and medical applications, because they show more advantageous plasmonic properties than comparable gold nanorods. Normally, NBPs were synthesized using seed-mediated growth process at room temperature. In this report, our group describes a method for synthesising of NBPs using microwave irradiation with ascorbic acid reduction and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide + silver nitrate (AgNO3) as capping agents. The advantages of this method are a highly effective approach to fast and uniform NBPs. The product was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray powder diffraction. As an application in quartz crystal microbalance immunosensors, NBPs is conjugated with the chloramphenicol antibodies for signal amplification to detect chloramphenicol residuals in the QCM system.

  3. Molecular mechanism of null expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Yoshida, Akira; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    1996-04-01

    In isozyme systems in general, the pattern of tissue-dependent expression of a given type of isozyme is uniform in various mammalian species. In contrast, a major cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme, termed ALDH1, which is strongly expressed in the livers of humans and other mammals, is hardly detectable in rat liver. Thirteen nucleotides existing in the 5{prime}-promoter region of human, marmoset, and mouse ALDH1 genes are absent in the four rat strains examined. When the 13 nucleotides were deleted from a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression construct, which contained the 5{prime} promoter region of the human ALDH1 gene and a low-background promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression vector, the expression activity was severely diminished in human hepatic cells. Thus, deletion of the 13 nucleotides in the promoter region of the gene can account for the lack of ALDH1 expression in rat liver. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Meckes, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli.

  5. Construction of two selectable markers for integrative/conjugative plasmids in Flavobacterium columnare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Zou, Hong; Wang, Liangfa; Huang, Bei; Li, Nan; Wang, Guitang; Nie, Pin

    2012-03-01

    Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agent of columnaris disease, is one of the most important and widespread bacterial pathogens of freshwater fish. In this study, we constructed two artificial selectable markers (chloramphenicol and spectinomycin resistance) for gene transfer in F. columnare. These two new artificial selectable markers, which were created by placing the chloramphenicol or spectinomycin resistance gene under the control of the native acs regulatory region of F. columnare, were functional in both F. columnare and Escherichia coli. The integrative/conjugative plasmids constructed by using these markers were introduced into F. columnare G4 via electroporation or conjugation. The integrated plasmid DNA was confirmed by Southern blotting and PCR analysis. These two markers can be employed in future investigations into gene deletion and the pathogenicity of virulence factors in F. columnare.

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of Aeromonas spp. isolates from food in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Awan, Mohammad Bashir; Maqbool, Ahmed; Bari, Abdul; Krovacek, Karel

    2009-01-01

    A total of 57 Aeromonas isolates from food samples such as fresh and frozen chicken, game birds, pasteurized milk, baby food, bakery products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and water from Abu Dahbi, UAE were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility profile. Most strains were resistant to penicillins (ticarcillin, mezlocillin, oxacillin, piperacillin), sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and macrolides (erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin) but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin), cephalosporins (cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, cefazolin, cephalexin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime), quinolone (ciprofloxacin), colistin sulphate and SXT (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). On the other hand, many antibiotics showed excellent inhibitory activity (>75% strains were sensitive to them) against all the strains tested. These include cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime and tobramycin. In conclusion, the results show a detailed pattern of sensitivity of the various Aeromonas spp. isolates to a variety of antibiotics and provide useful information in the context of selective isolation and phenotypic identification of the aeromonads from food. PMID:19382665

  7. Direct identification and recognition of yeast species from clinical material by using albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida plates.

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, C; Freydiere, A M; Gille, Y

    1996-01-01

    Two chromogenic media, Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates, were compared with a reference medium, Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar, and standard methods for the identification of yeast species. This study involved 951 clinical specimens. The detection rates for the two chromogenic media for polymicrobial specimens were 20% higher than that for the Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar plates. The rates of identification of Candida albicans for Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates were, respectively, 37.0 and 6.0% after 24 h of incubation and 93.6 and 92.2% after 72 h of incubation, with specificities of 99.8 and 100%. Furthermore, CHROMagar Candida plates identified 13 of 14 Candida tropicalis and 9 of 12 Candida krusei strains after 48 h of incubation. PMID:8789038

  8. Synthesis and anti-bacterial activities of a bis-chalcone derived from thiophene and its bis-cyclized products.

    PubMed

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Khan, Salman A

    2011-01-01

    A chalcone was prepared by the reaction of terephthalaldehyde with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. Treatment of this chalcone with thiosemicarbazide/phenyl hydrazine/guanidine hydrochloride/thiourea afforded the corresponding pyrazoline, pyrazole, and pyrimidine in good yields. All the new compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, GC-MS and elemental analyses. The anti-bacterial activity of these compounds were first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined with the reference of standard drug chloramphenicol. The results showed that the pyrazoline derivative is better at inhibiting growth of both types of bacteria (gram-positive and gram-negative) compared to chloramphenicol. PMID:21228758

  9. Synthesis, characterization, electrochemical studies, and in vitro antibacterial activity of novel thiosemicarbazone and its Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salman A; Asiri, Abdullah M; Al-Amry, Khalid; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Metal complexes were prepared by the reaction of thiosemicarbazone with CuCl2, NiCl2, CoCl2, Cu(OAc)2, Ni(OAc)2, and Co(OAc)2. The thiosemicarbazone coordinates to metal through the thionic sulfur and the azomethine nitrogen. The thiosemicarbazone was obtained by the thiosemicarbazide with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. The identities of these compounds were elucidated by IR, (1)H, (13)C-NMR, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods and elemental analyses. The antibacterial activity of these compounds was first tested in vitro by the disc diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using chloramphenicol as reference drug. The results showed that compound 1.1 is better inhibitor of both types of tested bacteria as compared to chloramphenicol. PMID:24523641

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Novel Thiosemicarbazone and Its Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salman A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Amry, Khalid; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Metal complexes were prepared by the reaction of thiosemicarbazone with CuCl2, NiCl2, CoCl2, Cu(OAc)2, Ni(OAc)2, and Co(OAc)2. The thiosemicarbazone coordinates to metal through the thionic sulfur and the azomethine nitrogen. The thiosemicarbazone was obtained by the thiosemicarbazide with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. The identities of these compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H, 13C-NMR, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods and elemental analyses. The antibacterial activity of these compounds was first tested in vitro by the disc diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using chloramphenicol as reference drug. The results showed that compound 1.1 is better inhibitor of both types of tested bacteria as compared to chloramphenicol. PMID:24523641

  11. Altered synthetic response of Campylobacter jejuni to cocultivation with human epithelial cells is associated with enhanced internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, M E; Cieplak, W

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been shown to bind to and enter epithelial cells in culture. The interaction of C. jejuni with INT 407 epithelial cells was examined to determine whether bacterial protein synthesis is required for either binding or internalization. Chloramphenicol, a selective inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis, significantly reduced the internalization, but not binding, of C. jejuni compared with untreated controls as determined by protection from gentamicin. Electrophoretic analysis of metabolically labeled proteins revealed that C. jejuni cultured with INT 407 cells synthesized 14 proteins that were not detected in organisms cultured in medium alone. The inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on internalization was reduced by preincubation of C. jejuni with INT 407 cells. The results indicate that C. jejuni, like some other enteric pathogens, engages in a directed response to cocultivation with epithelial cells by synthesizing one or more proteins that facilitate internalization and suggest that this phenomenon is relevant to the pathogenesis of enteritis caused by C. jejuni. Images PMID:1399005

  12. The in vitro activity of 15 antimicrobial agents against bacterial isolates from dogs.

    PubMed

    Awji, Elias Gebru; Damte, Dereje; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Joong-Su; Kim, Young-Hoan; Park, Seung-Chun

    2012-08-01

    The in vitro activity of 15 antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella spp. and Streptococcus canis from dogs was investigated. For Staphylococcus spp., the highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin, followed by ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. The highest frequency of resistance in E. coli isolates was recorded for tetracycline and streptomycin. Pasteurella spp. and S. canis had the highest resistance rate for tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Most isolates showed full susceptibility to low-level resistance to colistin, florfenicol and fluoroquinolones. Further studies using larger number of isolates from both healthy and diseased dogs would provide a broader picture of antimicrobial resistance at a national level and promote prudent use of antimicrobial agents in companion animals. PMID:22516694

  13. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Sixty-second report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on food additives.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers conclusions on specific toxicological end-points, lipid-soluble residues of veterinary drugs with MRLs in milk, statistical methods for the estimation of MRLs, and the Committee's review and comments on documents provided by Codex Committees. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: five antibacterial agents (cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, flumequine, lincomycin, pirlimycin), four insecticides (cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and alpha-cypermethrin, doramectin, phoxim), and two production aids (melengestrol acetate, ractopamine). The Committee's comments on chloramphenicol found at low levels in animal products are also summarized. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes and proposed maximum residue limits. PMID:15587045

  14. Shedding of antibiotic-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in healthy residents of France and Jordan.

    PubMed

    Chachaty, E; Youssef, M T; Bourneix, C; Andremont, A

    1995-02-01

    We compared the frequency of shedding of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, gentamicin and ceftazidime in 83 French residents of the Paris urban area and in 101 subjects in Jordan, 64 of whom resided in the urban area of Irbid, 15 in rural areas, and 22 of whom had a nomadic lifestyle. There was no significant difference between these populations regarding (i) the percentages of subjects with strains resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested and (ii) the proportions of total counts of organisms of the Enterobacteriaceae resistant to these agents. The simultaneous shedding of strains resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and kanamycin was significantly associated with (i) exposure to antibiotic treatment during the six months preceding the study and (ii) the presence of many children at home. PMID:7652211

  15. Molecular biology of coal bio-desulfurization; Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.D.; Gallagher, J.R.

    1991-01-25

    The aim of this project is to use the techniques of molecular genetics to identify, clone, sequence, and enhance the expression of proteins which remove sulfur covalently bound to coal. This includes the movement and expression of these proteins into bacterial species which may be more useful in the industrial application of a biological desulfurization process. This quarter we finalized the initial cloning and sequencing of the dibenzothiophene (DBT) metabolic (``dox``) genes from strain C18. In addition, we constructed several mutations in single dox genes and have begun to dissect the contribution of each gene product in the DBT degradation pathway. Using a probe derived from DNA adjacent to a transposon which inactivated DBT metabolism, the DBT active genes from A15 have been cloned and identified on cosmids. We have also electroporated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans with a plasmid containing a chloramphenicol resistant transposon. Colonies of T. ferrooxidans resistant to chloramphenicol were obtained.

  16. Bioactivity of some chemotherapeutic agents in selected polyethylene glycol ointment bases.

    PubMed

    Farouk, A; Béla, S; Géza, R; Mohamed, S; Abdei Hadi, I

    1989-03-01

    Six different chemotherapeutic agents were individually incorporated in each of fourteen selected polyethylene glycol ointment bases, and their bioactivities were assessed using different diffusion techniques. The prepared medicated ointments were evaluated for drug release using the standard microbiological agar cup diffusion, the long period method and the short period method, as well as dialysis through artificial kidney membrane. On the basis of consistency, stability and diffusion results, formulation 11 was the most suitable base for ampicillin, formulation 14 for oxytetracycline HCl, formulation 10 and 9 for neomycin sulphate, and preparation 10 for chloramphenicol. On the basis of the results of drug release, it was evident that formulation 3 was the best for ampicillin and chloramphenicol, formulation 2 for erythromycin, formulation 4 for neomycin sulphate, formulation 12 for sulphadimidine, and formulation 14 for oxytetracycline HCl. PMID:2735193

  17. [Acute epiglottitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Castillo, A

    1992-09-01

    The author presents the clinical history of 14 patients, from 21 to 48 years of age, 10 men and 4 women, with a final diagnosis of acute epiglottitis who were hospitalized at Gorgas Army Hospital or at the San Fernando Clinic. All the patients had pharyngitis and dysphagia, a few with nasal voice, stridor and difficulty breathing, as the chief complaint. All the patients were initially intubated orally for diagnostic purposes and immediately after nasotracheal intubation was done until the patient improved in 2 or 3 days (one patient remained intubated for 5 days). All patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit and were treated with Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol IV and lately with a second generation cephalosporin (Cefamandole). The patients allergic to Penicillin were treated with Clindamycin and Chloramphenicol. Corticosteroids were not used in any of the patients. There were no sequelae and none of the patients expired. PMID:1439005

  18. Drug resistance profiles and clonality of sporadic Shigella sonnei isolates in Ankara, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kacmaz, Birgul; Unaldi, Ozlem; Sultan, Nedim; Durmaz, Riza

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate drug resistance rates, types of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs), and molecular epidemiological characteristics of 43 Shigella sonnei isolates. Ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin were the most active antibiotics. Five isolates harbored blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-15. More than 90% of the isolates had an indistinguishable pulsotype. PMID:25477917

  19. [The "pill" and antibiotics: examples of drug interactions of metabolic origin].

    PubMed

    Imbs, J L; Welsch, M

    1982-01-01

    The action and effectiveness of most estroprogestational contraceptive agents can be impaired by interference with administration of certain antibiotics which can modify the hepatic estrogen metabolism. Such antibiotics are: 1) rifampicin, which can inactivate the action of ethinyl estradiol; spotting can be present; 2) ampicillin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxypyridazine, and penicillin; these agents modify the intestinal bacterial flora, thus reducing the effectiveness of contraception; and 3) troleandomycin, which increases hepatic risk. PMID:12311532

  20. Identification of a TAAT-containing motif required for high level expression of the COL1A1 promoter in differentiated osteoblasts of transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodig, M.; Kronenberg, M. S.; Bedalov, A.; Kream, B. E.; Gronowicz, G.; Clark, S. H.; Mack, K.; Liu, Y. H.; Maxon, R.; Pan, Z. Z.; Upholt, W. B.; Rowe, D. W.; Lichtler, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the 49-base pair region of promoter DNA between -1719 and -1670 base pairs is necessary for transcription of the rat COL1A1 gene in transgenic mouse calvariae. In this study, we further define this element to the 13-base pair region between -1683 and -1670. This element contains a TAAT motif that binds homeodomain-containing proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis of this element in the context of a COL1A1-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase construct extending to -3518 base pairs decreased the ratio of reporter gene activity in calvariae to tendon from 3:1 to 1:1, suggesting a preferential effect on activity in calvariae. Moreover, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-specific immunofluorescence microscopy of transgenic calvariae showed that the mutation preferentially reduced levels of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase protein in differentiated osteoblasts. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrate that differentiated osteoblasts contain a nuclear factor that binds to this site. This binding activity is not present in undifferentiated osteoblasts. We show that Msx2, a homeodomain protein, binds to this motif; however, Northern blot analysis revealed that Msx2 mRNA is present in undifferentiated bone cells but not in fully differentiated osteoblasts. In addition, cotransfection studies in ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells using an Msx2 expression vector showed that Msx2 inhibits a COL1A1 promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase construct. Our results suggest that high COL1A1 expression in bone is mediated by a protein that is induced during osteoblast differentiation. This protein may contain a homeodomain; however, it is distinct from homeodomain proteins reported previously to be present in bone.

  1. The Influence of Primary and Secondary DNA Structure in Deletion and Duplication between Direct Repeats in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T. Q.; Sinden, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a system to measure the frequency of both deletions and duplications between direct repeats. Short 17- and 18-bp palindromic and nonpalindromic DNA sequences were cloned into the EcoRI site within the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of plasmids pBR325 and pJT7. This creates an insert between direct repeated EcoRI sites and results in a chloramphenicol-sensitive phenotype. Selection for chloramphenicol resistance was utilized to select chloramphenicol resistant revertants that included those with precise deletion of the insert from plasmid pBR325 and duplication of the insert in plasmid pJT7. The frequency of deletion or duplication varied more than 500-fold depending on the sequence of the short sequence inserted into the EcoRI site. For the nonpalindromic inserts, multiple internal direct repeats and the length of the direct repeats appear to influence the frequency of deletion. Certain palindromic DNA sequences with the potential to form DNA hairpin structures that might stabilize the misalignment of direct repeats had a high frequency of deletion. Other DNA sequences with the potential to form structures that might destabilize misalignment of direct repeats had a very low frequency of deletion. Duplication mutations occurred at the highest frequency when the DNA between the direct repeats contained no direct or inverted repeats. The presence of inverted repeats dramatically reduced the frequency of duplications. The results support the slippage-misalignment model, suggesting that misalignment occurring during DNA replication leads to deletion and duplication mutations. The results also support the idea that the formation of DNA secondary structures during DNA replication can facilitate and direct specific mutagenic events. PMID:8325478

  2. Role of OmpA in the Multidrug Resistance Phenotype of Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Fàbrega, Anna; Roca, Ignasi; Sánchez-Encinales, Viviana; Vila, Jordi; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen with an increased prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains. The role of the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) in antimicrobial resistance remains poorly understood. In this report, disruption of the ompA gene led to decreased MICs of chloramphenicol, aztreonam, and nalidixic acid. We have characterized, for the first time, the contribution of OmpA in the antimicrobial resistance phenotype of A. baumannii. PMID:24379205

  3. Novel Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division Efflux System AdeDE in Acinetobacter Genomic DNA Group 3

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Sze-Lok; Chu, Yiu-Wai; Houang, Elizabeth T. S.

    2004-01-01

    Resistance-nodulation-cell division type efflux pump AdeDE was identified in acinetobacters belonging to genomic DNA group 3. Inactivation of adeE showed that it may be responsible for reduced susceptibility to amikacin, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, ethidium bromide, meropenem, rifampin, and tetracycline. However, unlike what was found for other similar efflux systems, the open reading frame for the outer membrane component was not found downstream of the adeDE gene cluster. PMID:15388479

  4. A new culture medium for recovering the agents of Cryptococcosis from environmental sources

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Dulcilena de Matos Castro e; Santos, Dayane C.S.; Pukinskas, Sandra R.B.S.; Oshida, Julia T.U.; Oliveira, Lidiane; Carvallho, Anderson F.; Melhem, Márcia S.C.

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of Cryptococcosis agents from environmental samples may be difficult due to the presence of groups of fast-growing fungi. We propose a new culture medium based on a modification of Dichloran Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol Medium (DRBCm) to detect colonies of Cryptococcus neoformans. Our results indicate that DRBCm is superior to the classical Bird Seed Agar in its ability to detect colonies of C. neoformans. PMID:26273249

  5. A new culture medium for recovering the agents of Cryptococcosis from environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Castro e Silva, Dulcilena de Matos; Santos, Dayane C S; Pukinskas, Sandra R B S; Oshida, Julia T U; Oliveira, Lidiane; Carvallho, Anderson F; Melhem, Márcia S C

    2015-06-01

    The isolation of Cryptococcosis agents from environmental samples may be difficult due to the presence of groups of fast-growing fungi. We propose a new culture medium based on a modification of Dichloran Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol Medium (DRBCm) to detect colonies of Cryptococcus neoformans. Our results indicate that DRBCm is superior to the classical Bird Seed Agar in its ability to detect colonies of C. neoformans. PMID:26273249

  6. Intermediate Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin among Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lejon, Veerle; Horna, Gertrudis; Astocondor, Lizeth; Vanhoof, Raymond; Bertrand, Sophie; Jacobs, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood isolates from Lima, Peru (2008 to 2012), were fully susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and tetracycline; 8/33 (24.2%) showed intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin carrying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene (Ser83-Phe and Asp87-Asn) and in the gyrB gene (Ser464-Phe). PMID:24371234

  7. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids from leaves of Tagetes minuta.

    PubMed

    Tereschuk, M L; Riera, M V; Castro, G R; Abdala, L R

    1997-05-01

    The total extract and fractions with different solvents, obtained from leaves of Tagetes minuta, showed several degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms. The same fractions were inactive against Lactobacillus, Zymomonas and Saccharomices species. The major component of the extract: quercetagetin-7-arabinosyl-galactoside, showed significant antimicrobial activity on pathogen microorganisms tested. Correlation results were carried out using chloramphenicol as standard antibiotic. PMID:9201613

  8. Inhibition of bacterial multidrug resistance by celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Arunasree M; Rizvi, Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor celecoxib would not only inhibit COX-2 but also help in the reversal of drug resistance in cancers by inhibiting the MDR1 efflux pump. Here, we demonstrate that celecoxib increases the sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotics ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin by accumulating the drugs inside the cell, thus reversing MDR in bacteria. PMID:20937780

  9. Induction of Nitrate-Dependent Fe(II) Oxidation by Fe(II) in Dechloromonas sp. Strain UWNR4 and Acidovorax sp. Strain 2AN

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the inducibility of nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-EDTA oxidation (NDFO) in non-growth, chloramphenicol-amended, resting-cell suspensions of Dechloromonas sp. strain UWNR4 and Acidovorax sp. strain 2AN. Cells previously incubated with Fe(II)-EDTA oxidized ca. 6-fold more Fe(II)-EDTA than cells previously incubated with Fe(III)-EDTA. This is the first report of induction of NDFO by Fe(II). PMID:23144134

  10. [Considerations on the antibiotic activity (M.I.C.) revealed in 247 serotypes of Salmonella].

    PubMed

    Pitzus, E; Peretti, P; Ghinelli, P; Bisicchia, R; Turano, A

    1975-01-01

    247 strains of Salmonella, isolated in Brescia province duriing 1973-1974 have been typed by serological methods. The MIC has been determined, using the following antibiotics: chloramphenicol, tetracycline HCL, ampicillin, doxycycline, rifampicin, cephazolin, carbenicillin, nifuratel, gentamicin, aminosidine, trimetho-prim-sulphamethoazole, nalidixic acid. The pattern of resistence of the various serotypes is quite constant. The relationship between diffusion and epidermiological factors are discussed. PMID:1045970

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the First NDM-1-Producing Providencia stuartii Strain Isolated in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Manageiro, Vera; Sampaio, Daniel A.; Pereira, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Paulo; Vieira, Luís; Palos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the first NDM-1-producing Providencia stuartii strain isolated in Portugal. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an incompatibility group A/C2 (IncA/C2) plasmid and of diverse acquired genes conferring resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, macrolides, chloramphenicol, and sulfonamides. This sequence contributes to the evaluation of the spread of NDM-1 producers. PMID:26404603

  12. Miniaturized capillary electrophoretic drug analysis with photothermal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, B. S.; Faubel, W.

    1999-03-01

    A photothermal lens method is used in combination with capillary electrophoresis for detecting samples of different drugs by electrokinetic chromatography. It is for the first time that drugs (Chloramphenicol, Dichlofenac, Pentoxifyllin, Oxprenolol) are determined with thermal lens spectroscopy. Direct and indirect separation techniques are applied to various classes of substances with different characteristic absorbance spectra. The combination of capillary electrophoresis and the high sensitivity of thermal lens spectroscopy allows the analysis of nanoliter volume samples occurring in biomedical diagnostics.

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella in the United States from 1948 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Daniel A; Singh, Aparna; Zhao, Shaohua; Bartholomew, Mary; Womack, Niketta; Ayers, Sherry; Fields, Patricia I; McDermott, Patrick F

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 2,149 clinicalSalmonellastrains to help document the historical emergence of antimicrobial resistance. There were significant increases in resistance to older drugs, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline, which were most common inSalmonella entericaserotype Typhimurium. An increase in multidrug resistance was observed for each decade since the 1950s. These data help show howSalmonellaevolved over the past 6 decades, after the introduction of new antimicrobial agents. PMID:26856840

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the First NDM-1-Producing Providencia stuartii Strain Isolated in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Manageiro, Vera; Sampaio, Daniel A; Pereira, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Paulo; Vieira, Luís; Palos, Carlos; Caniça, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the first NDM-1-producing Providencia stuartii strain isolated in Portugal. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an incompatibility group A/C2 (IncA/C2) plasmid and of diverse acquired genes conferring resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, macrolides, chloramphenicol, and sulfonamides. This sequence contributes to the evaluation of the spread of NDM-1 producers. PMID:26404603

  15. [Prevention and treatment of the suppurative complications of severe mechanical trauma].

    PubMed

    Deriabin, I I; Rozhkov, A S; Chernov, E V

    1981-07-01

    A curative mixture (contrical, hydrocortisone, chloramphenicol-succinate) was tested by the authors for the local or intraosseous introduction as blockades in 11 patients with severe mechanical injuries. Thirty eight patients with good outcomes of shock without hormonal drugs and 23 healthy donors were taken as control. It was established that massive doses of glucocorticosteroids during the first day after the injury exercised a regulating effect upon the dynamics of the cellular and humoral immunity. PMID:7292857

  16. Bacillus cereus endogenous panophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Bouza, E; Grant, S; Jordan, C; Yook, R H; Sulit, H L

    1979-03-01

    A case of severe suppurative endogenous panophthalmitis caused by Bacillus cereus resulted from intravenously administered medications. This is the first, to our knowledge, well-documented case of endogenous endophthalmitis associated with this organism. It is recommended that if on Gram's stain of the anterior chamber fluid, Gram-positive rods are seen, chloramphenicol should be administered in addition to penicillin because of the possibility of B cereus infection. PMID:105693

  17. Acute dacryocystitis in a 2-year old child caused by pantoea.

    PubMed

    Zuberbuhler, Bruno; Carifi, Gianluca; Leatherbarrow, Brian

    2012-02-01

    A previously healthy 23-month-old girl was admitted for the management of an acute unilateral dacryocystitis following accidental contact with dog faeces. No periocular trauma was reported. Microbiological investigation showed a multiresistant strain of Pantoea species to be the responsible pathogen. The infection responded to a course of oral Clindamycin and Ciprofloxacin, in combination with Chloramphenicol eye drops. This is the first report of an acute dacryocystitis sustained by this microorganism. PMID:22296230

  18. Antibiotic resistance due to an unusual ColE1-type replicon plasmid in Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Antony T; Emond-Rheault, Jean-Guillaume; Barbeau, Xavier; Attéré, Sabrina A; Frenette, Michel; Lagüe, Patrick; Charette, Steve J

    2016-06-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a fish pathogen known to have a rich plasmidome. In the present study, we discovered an isolate of this bacterium bearing an additional unidentified small plasmid. After having sequenced the DNA of that isolate by next-generation sequencing, it appeared that the new small plasmid is a ColE1-type replicon plasmid, named here pAsa7. This plasmid bears a functional chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase-encoding gene (cat-pAsa7) previously unknown in A. salmonicida and responsible for resistance to chloramphenicol. A comparison of pAsa7 with pAsa2, the only known ColE1-type replicon plasmid usually found in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, revealed that even if both plasmids share a high structural similarity, it is still unclear if pAsa7 is a derivative of pAsa2 since they showed several mutations at the nucleotide level. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the cat-pAsa4 gene, another chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase-encoding gene, found on the large plasmid pAsa4, was significantly more transcribed than cat-pAsa7. This was correlated with a higher chloramphenicol resistance for isolates bearing pAsa4 compared with the one having pAsa7. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis showed that both CAT-pAsa4 and CAT-pAsa7 proteins were in different clusters. The clustering was supported by the identity of residues involved in the catalytic site. In addition, to give a better understanding of the large drug-resistance panel of A. salmonicida, this study reinforces the hypothesis that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a considerable reservoir for mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. PMID:27028891

  19. Complete Genome Sequence and Annotation of Corynebacterium singulare DSM 44357, Isolated from a Human Semen Specimen

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Madlen; Brinkrolf, Karina; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kutter, Yvonne; Rückert, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium singulare DSM 44357 is a urease-positive microorganism isolated from human semen. The complete genome sequence of C. singulare DSM 44357 comprises 2,830,519 bp with a mean G+C content of 60.12% and 2,581 protein-coding genes. The deduced antibiotic resistance pattern of this strain includes macrolides, lincosamides, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, and tetracyline. PMID:25814602

  20. Relative impact of clinical evidence and over-the-counter prescribing on topical antibiotic use for acute infective conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Helen; Mant, David; Scott, Caroline; Lasserson, Daniel; Rose, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute infective conjunctivitis is a common presentation in general practice. In 2005, three placebo-controlled clinical trials showed that use of topical antibiotics had a small effect on time to clinical resolution. In the same year, chloramphenicol eye drops were made available for sale over the counter. Aim To compare the relative impact of clinical trial evidence and a change to over-the-counter availability on community use of topical chloramphenicol. Design of study Observational study using mainly routinely collected data for England. Setting National prescribing data for England and local data from general practices in Oxfordshire, England. Method Data were collated from three sources: GP prescriptions from the Prescription Pricing Authority, wholesale supply to pharmacists from IMS Health, and an audit of delayed prescribing and non-prescribing from electronic consultation records for acute conjunctivitis, in four general practices. Results The number of general practice prescriptions for topical chloramphenicol fell from 2.3 million in 2004 to 1.9 million in 2007, a reduction of 15.5%. In contrast, over-the-counter sales by pharmacists have increased steadily. The net effect of these changes has been a 47.8% increase in total chloramphenicol use during 2005–2007, with 1.1 million additional packs being used in 2007 compared to 2004. Conclusion Making an antibiotic available over the counter increases its use substantially. This is in conflict with the important public health message that antibiotic use needs to be reduced to combat resistance. These findings support the views of the Chief Medical Officer that no more antibiotics should currently be made available over the counter. PMID:20875257

  1. Melibiose is hydrolyzed exocellularly by an inducible exo-alpha-galactosidase in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Wong, T Y

    1990-07-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii hydrolyzed melibiose exocellularly, leading to an accumulation of free glucose and galactose in the medium. This enzyme could also be induced by galactose, raffinose, and stachyose. The alpha-galactosidase activity could be detected quantitatively by using p-nitrophenyl-alpha-galactopyranoside as a substrate for intact cells. Chloramphenicol totally inhibited the induction of this enzyme. However, benzyl alcohol inhibited the secretion of this enzyme but did not inhibit the biosynthesis of the enzyme. PMID:2167631

  2. Mycotic keratitis due to Engyodontium album: first case report from India.

    PubMed

    Thamke, D C; Mendiratta, D K; Dhabarde, A; Shukla, A K

    2015-01-01

    Engyodontium album is a rare and an unusual human pathogen. It is a common inhabitant of waste and moist material and frequently isolated from substrates such as paper, jute, linen and painted walls. This fungus grew within 3 days on SDA with chloramphenicol from corneal scrapping of a 70-year-old male farmer with a history of trauma by unknown vegetative matter. The fungus can be confused with Tritirachium sp and Beauveria sp. PMID:25865991

  3. Antibiotic Resistances of Starter and Probiotic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Anja S.; Hertel, Christian; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2007-01-01

    The antibiotic resistances of 45 lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus, and Leuconostoc were investigated. The objective was to determine antibiotic resistances and to verify these at the genetic level, as is currently suggested by the European “qualified presumption of safety” safety evaluation system for industrial starter strains. In addition, we sought to pinpoint possible problems in resistance determinations. Primers were used to PCR amplify genes involved in β-lactam antibiotic, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and erythromycin resistance. The presence of ribosomal protection protein genes and the ermB gene was also determined by using a gene probe. Generally, the incidences of erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, or β-lactam resistances in this study were low (<7%). In contrast, aminoglycoside (gentamicin and streptomycin) and ciprofloxacin resistances were higher than 70%, indicating that these may constitute intrinsic resistances. The genetic basis for ciprofloxacin resistance could not be verified, since no mutations typical of quinolone resistances were detected in the quinolone determining regions of the parC and gyrA genes. Some starter strains showed low-level ampicillin, penicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline resistances, but no known resistance genes could be detected. Although some strains possessed the cat gene, none of these were phenotypically resistant to chloramphenicol. Using reverse transcription-PCR, these cat genes were shown to be silent under both inducing and noninducing conditions. Only Lactobacillus salivarius BFE 7441 possessed an ermB gene, which was encoded on the chromosome and which could not be transferred in filter-mating experiments. This study clearly demonstrates problems encountered with resistance testing, in that the breakpoint values are often inadequately identified, resistance genes may be present but silent, and the genetic basis

  4. Temporal sequence of events during the initiation process in Escherichia coli deoxyribonucleic acid replication: roles of the dnaA and dnaC gene products and ribonucleic acid polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Zyskind, J W; Deen, L T; Smith, D W

    1977-01-01

    Three thermosensitive deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) initiation mutants of Escherichia coli exposed to the restrictive temperature for one to two generations were examined for the ability to reinitiate DNA replication after returning to the permissive temperature in the presence of rifampin, chloramphenicol, or nalidixic acid. Reinitiation in the dnaA mutant was inhibited by rifampin but not by chloramphenicol, whereas renitiation was not inhibited by rifampin but not by chloramphenicol, whereas reinitiation was not inhibited in two dnaC mutants by either rifampin or chloramphenicol. To observe the rifampin inhibition, the antibiotic must be added at least 10 min before return to the permissive temperature. The rifampin inhibition of reinitiation was not observed when a rifampin-resistant ribonucleic acid ((RNA) polymerase gene was introduced into the dnaA mutant, demonstrating that RNA polymerase synthesizes one or more RNA species required for the initation of DNA replication (origin-RNA). Reinitiation at 30 degrees C was not inhibited by streptolydigin in a stretolydigin-sensitive dnaA muntant. Incubation in the presence of nalidixic acid prevented subsequent reinitiation in the dnaC28 mutant but did not inhibit reinitiation in the dnaA5 muntant. These results demonstrate that the dnaA gene product acts before or during the synthesis of an origin-RNA, RNA polymerase synthesizes this origin RNA, and the dnaC gene product is involved in a step after this RNA synthesis event. Furthermore, these results suggest that the dnaC gene product is involved in the first deoxyribounucleotide polymerization event wheareas the dnaA gene product acts prior to this event. A model is presented describing the temporal sequence of events that occur during initiation of a round of DNA replication, based on results in this and the accompanying paper. PMID:321429

  5. (Electro)Sensing of Phenicol Antibiotics-A Review.

    PubMed

    Pilehvar, Sanaz; Gielkens, Kristoffer; Trashin, Stanislav A; Dardenne, Freddy; Blust, Ronny; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-10-25

    The presence of residues from frequent antibiotic use in animal feed can cause serious health risks by contaminating products meant for human consumption such as meat and milk. The present paper gives an overview of the electrochemical methods developed for the detection of phenicol antibiotic residues (chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and florfenicol) in different kinds of foodstuffs. Electrochemical sensors based on different biomolecules and nanomaterials are described. The detection limit of various developed methods with their advantages and disadvantages will be highlighted. PMID:25830490

  6. Multiply antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: introduction, transmission, and evolution of nosocomial infection.

    PubMed

    Locksley, R M; Cohen, M L; Quinn, T C; Tompkins, L S; Coyle, M B; Kirihara, J M; Counts, G W

    1982-09-01

    A burn patient with a multiply antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection was transferred to Harborview Medical Center from a burn unit in another state. Despite standard wound precautions, transmission to 34 patients occurred during the subsequent 15 months. Twenty-seven of the patients were infected. Disease included pneumonia, empyema, bacteremia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and burn and wound infections. Seventeen of the 34 patients died. Phage typing and plasmid analysis showed the spread of multiply resistant S. aureus from the burn unit to the surgical intensive care unit where a study evaluating the use of chloramphenicol in cases of bowel sepsis was in progress. During this period the organism became resistant to chloramphenicol by acquiring either of two chloramphenicol R-plasmids. Using plasmid profiles and antibiograms, four epidemic strains were identified that assisted in identifying patient and personnel reservoirs. The outbreak was controlled only after rifampin was added to vancomycin treatment of infected patients, which correlated with eradication of the carrier state. PMID:7114628

  7. An analysis of children with typhoid fever admitted in 1991.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, C T; Nadkarni, U B; Karande, S C

    1994-01-01

    In 28 children, with bacteriologically and/or serologically diagnosed typhoid fever treated at KEM Hospital, Bombay in 1991, initially one of the three recommended drugs (viz. chloramphenicol, amoxycillin or co-trimoxazole) was given for 7 days for defervescence to occur. In those who failed to respond, a second trial of therapy with one of the other two drugs was initiated, after omitting the first drug. A second failure of therapy was taken as an indication to use ciprofloxacin singly. Eventually, 18 (64.3%) cases responded to chloramphenicol or amoxycillin or co-trimoxazole. Ciprofloxacin was used in 19(35.7%) cases. the failure rate of treatment with chloramphenicol was 50%, with amoxycillin 71.4%, with co-trimoxazole 75% and 0% with ciprofloxacin. An analysis of the 28 cases revealed that apart from fever (in 100%), splenomegaly (in 82.1%) was the most important clinical pointer to diagnosis, along with absolute eosinopenia (in 71.4%). There were no major complications, except 2 cases with typhoid hepatitis who responded to choramphenicol and co-trimoxazole, respectively. Blood culture grew Salmonella typhi in 7 cases, of which 5 (72%) were multidrug resistant S. typhi. There were no characteristic clinical features to identify multi-drug resistant typhoid fever. PMID:9136240

  8. Effects of pefloxacin in multi drug resistant typhoid Fever.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Zakir; Ahmed, Wilayat; Khan, Abdul Matin; Khan, M Farid; Qureshi, Ayaz Hussain; Khan, Ahmed

    2005-10-01

    In 28 children, with bacteriologically and/or serologically diagnosed typhoid fever treated at CMH, Rawalpindi in 2003, first one of the three recommended drugs (viz. chloramphenicol, amoxycillin or co-trimoxazole) was given for 7 days for defervescence to occur. In those who failed to respond a second trial of therapy with one of the other two drugs was initiated, after excluding the first drug. A second failure of therapy was taken as an indication to use pefloxacin singly. Finally, 18 (64.3%) cases responded to chloramphenicol or amoxycillin or co-trimoxazole. Pefloxacin was used in 10 (35.7%) cases. The failure rate of treatment with chloramphenicol was 50%, with amoxycillin 71.4% with co-trimoxazole 75% and 0% with pefloxacin. An analysis of the 28 cases revealed that apart from fever (in 100%), splenomegaly (in 82.1%) was the most important clinical indicator to diagnosis. along with absolute eosinopenia (in 71.4%). There were no major complications, except 2 cases with typhoid hepatitis that responded to choramphenicol and co-trimoxazole, respectively. Blood culture grew Salmonella typhi in 7 cases of which 5 (72%) were multi drug resistant S. typhi. PMID:16380360

  9. Molecular identification of Salmonella Infantis isolated from backyard chickens and detection of their resistance genesby PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ghoddusi, A; Nayeri Fasaei, B; Karimi, V; Ashrafi Tamai, I; Moulana, Z; Zahraei Salehi, T

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at molecular identification of Salmonella Infantis isolated from backyard chickens and the detection of their antibiotic resistance genes. A total of 46 Salmonella-suspected samples isolated from backyard chickens of northern Iran were collected. Serotyping was done by the traditional method and then confirmed by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates against 13 antimicrobial agents was determined by the standard disk diffusion method. There were 44 samples identified as Salmonella. Serotyping results showed that all 44 isolates belonged to serogroup C1 and serovar Infantis. The most resistance observed was to tetracycline and doxycycline (100%), chloramphenicol (79%) and florfenicol (72%). The floR, catI, tetA and tetG genes were used for the detection of florfenicol chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance. In order to identify the phenotypic resistance in strains which showed resistance genes by PCR, colony PCR and culture on plates each containing antibiotic was performed simultaneously. All the Salmonella Infantis resistant to florfenicol and chloramphenicol harbored floR and catI. None of the Salmonella resistant to tetracycline carried tetA or tetG. The result of colony PCR and culture in antibiotic medium confirmed the results of PCR and indicated phenotypic resistance in these samples. PMID:27175192

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Tat-Activated Expression of Poliovirus Protein 2A Inhibits mRNA Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Hong; Baltimore, David

    1989-04-01

    To study the effect of poliovirus protein 2A on cellular RNA translation, the tat control system of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was used. Protein 2A was expressed from a plasmid construct (pHIV/2A) incorporating the HIV long terminal repeat. Protein synthesis was measured by using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase as a reporter gene driven by the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat. When HIV/2A was contransfected with the reporter, addition of a tat-producing plasmid caused at least a 50-fold drop in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase synthesis. A HeLa cell line carrying HIV/2A was established. In it, tat expression caused more than a 10-fold drop in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase synthesis from the reporter plasmid. Furthermore, 2A induction by tat caused cleavage of the cellular translation factor P220, a part of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F. Thus protein 2A can, by itself, carry out the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis characteristic of a poliovirus infection. Also, the HIV tat activation provides a very effective method to control gene expression in mammalian cells.

  11. Human X-box-binding protein 1 is required for the transcription of a subset of human class II major histocompatibility genes and forms a heterodimer with c-fos

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, S.J.; Strominger, J.L. ); Hsiouchi Liou; Davidon, R.; Glimcher, L.H. )

    1991-05-15

    A complementary DNA encoding a member of the leucine-zipper class of proteins (human X-box-binding protein, hXBP-1) that binds to the 3{prime} end of the conserved X box (X2) of the HLA-DRA major histocompatibility complex gene was recently described. Further gel-retardation analysis has demonstrated that hXBP-1 also binds to HLA-DPB X2 but not to other X2 sequences. Transient transfection of a mammalian expression vector with the hXBP-1 cDNA inserted in the antisense orientation represses the surface expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DP in Raji cells. Cotransfection of the antisense hXBP-1 vector with a HLA-DRA/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (but not a HLA-DQB/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter plasmid decreases chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in Raji cells and in {gamma}-interferon-treated HeLa cells relative to cells cotransfected with a control antisense vector. Moreover, hXBP-1 is shown to form a stable heterodimer with the product of the c-fos protooncogene. These data suggest that the hXBP-1 c-fos heterodimer is critical for the transcription of a subset of the human class II major histocompatibility complex genes and that the regulatory mechanisms for the different class II genes are distinct.

  12. Multivariable Analysis of the Association Between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Pigs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makita, Kohei; Goto, Masaki; Ozawa, Manao; Kawanishi, Michiko; Koike, Ryoji; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between antimicrobial agent use and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs using data from 2004 to 2007 in the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM). Fecal E. coli isolates from 250 pigs (one isolate each from a pig per farm) were examined for antimicrobial resistance. Information on the use of antimicrobials within preceding 6 months and types of farms recorded in JVARM was collected and statistically analyzed against the resistance patterns. In the univariate analysis, associations between both therapeutic and feed additive use of antimicrobials, and resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, colistin, and bicozamycin, and husbandry factors were investigated. In multivariable analysis, generalized estimating equations were used to control geographical intraclass correlation. Confounding for structurally unrelated associations was tested using generalized linear models. The results suggested direct and cross selections in the associations between use of aminoglycosides in reproduction farms and resistance to kanamycin, use of tetracyclines in larger farms and resistance to oxytetracycline, use of beta-lactams and resistance to ampicillin, use of phenicols and resistance to chloramphenicol, and use of fluoroquinolones and resistance to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Coselection was suggested in the use of tetracyclines and chloramphenicol resistance. The associations between use of beta-lactams and dihydrostreptomycin resistance, use of macrolides and ampicillin and oxytetracycline resistance, and use of colistin and kanamycin resistance were significant, but were confounded by the simultaneous use of homologous antimicrobials. PMID:26296068

  13. Bioavailability and bioinequivalence of drug formulations in small animals.

    PubMed

    Watson, A D

    1992-06-01

    Differences in bioavailability of many drugs from their various dosage forms have been shown to be relatively common in human medicine. Although comparable bioavailability ('bioequivalence') is though to ensure comparable clinical effectiveness and safety ('therapeutic equivalence'), the relationship between bioinequivalence and therapeutic inequivalence is less clear. Thus the prevalence of clinically important differences in bioavailability is unknown. While similar concerns have arisen about drug products used in small animal practice, there have been few investigations and some earlier reports are incomplete. However, there are indications of bioinequivalence with enteral formulations of ampicillin, aspirin, chloramphenicol, digoxin, mitotane, oxytetracycline, penicillin V and theophylline. Other studies have suggested bioequivalence with enteral formulations of chloramphenicol, digoxin, phenytoin, oxytetracycline and thyroxine. Limited data for injectable preparations showed bioinequivalence with chloramphenicol and possibly oxytetracycline. There is no reason to expect formulation-related bioinequivalence to be less prevalent in veterinary than in human medicine. Indeed, it may be more common in veterinary practice because other potential influences on bioavailability (food, diseases, other drugs, etc.) are frequently ignored, and cheaper generic products are often favoured for economic reasons. PMID:1433477

  14. Construction of a broad host range shuttle vector for gene cloning and expression in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and other Pasteurellaceae.

    PubMed

    Frey, J

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a pair of broad host range expression vectors, pJFF224-NX and pJFF224-XN, based on plasmid RSF1010, which enable cloning and efficient expression of genes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica and in Escherichia coli. The vectors consist of the minimal autonomous replicon of the broad host range plasmid RSF1010 and a type II chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene for chloramphenicol resistance selection. In addition, they contain a gene expression cassette based on the E. coli bacteriophage T4 gene 32 promoter region and a transcription stop signal, which are separated by a segment of multiple cloning sites in both orientations. Electroporation and subsequent selection for chloramphenicol resistance was used for the introduction of the vectors in A. pleuropneumoniae and P. haemolytica. A promoterless xy/E gene from the Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid was cloned onto pJFF224-NX. This plasmid enabled efficient expression of active catechol2,3oxygenase in A. pleuropneumoniae and P. haemolytica. It was stably maintained in A. pleuropneumoniae without antibiotic selection, showing less than 0.1% loss after 100 generations, while native RSF1010 and other RSF1010-based vectors were unstable in this host. PMID:1448612

  15. Trends in the Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Enteric Fever Isolates – a Three Year Report from a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    GUPTA, Varsha; SINGLA, Nidhi; BANSAL, Neha; KAISTHA, Neelam; CHANDER, Jagdish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The incidence of multidrug resistant enteric fever is increasing alarmingly. This study was planned to determine the rate of isolation of Salmonella spp. and to compare the isolates for their epidemiological parameters and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns at our center. Methods: The study was conducted over a span of three years with a total of 8142, 8134, and 8114 blood culture samples processed for the years 2008, 2009, and 2010 respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol was determined using an agar dilution method. The MIC for ciprofloxacin was also confirmed by Epsilon-test (E -test) strips. Results: Of the total 302 Salmonella spp. isolated, 257 were Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (85.1%) and 45 (14.9%) were S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A. The majority of the isolates recovered were from the pediatric age group (54.6%) and males (60.6%). Complete susceptibility was observed to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin over the last two years (2009 and 2010), with an increase in resistance to nalidixic acid (100%) and ciprofloxacin (13.6%). Conclusion: In our study, we found augmentation of resistance to nalidixic acid and fluoroquinolones and complete sensitivity to ceftriaxone along with reemergence of chloramphenicol sensitivity for Salmonella isolates. This report emphasises the necessity of continuous surveillance of antibiograms of enteric fever isolates in an area. PMID:24043999

  16. Antibiotics delay in vitro human stem cell regrowth.

    PubMed

    Turani, Melinda; Banfalvi, Gaspar; Peter, Agota; Kukoricza, Krisztina; Kiraly, Gabor; Talas, Laszlo; Tanczos, Bence; Dezso, Balazs; Nagy, Gabor; Kemeny-Beke, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell line from human limbal area was established to study in vitro cell growth and response to the toxic effects of antibiotics used in ophthalmology in terms of cell migration rates and structure of interphase chromatin. Recovery from cellular damages caused by ophthalmologic antibiotics was mimicked by an in vitro scratch model and followed by time-lapse microscopy, scanning electronmicroscopy and chromatin image analysis. Experiments revealed that broad spectrum antibiotics, chloramphenicol (0.5-1.0mg/ml) and rifampicin (0.1-0.2mg/ml), corresponding to concentrations in common clinical practice, slowed down the regeneration process. Results show that nuclei of naturally occurring limbal cells contain the same intermediates of chromatin condensation as seen in mammalian tumor cells and follow the common pathway of chromosome condensation. These intermediates included decondensed veil-like chromatin, fibrillary chromatin, supercoiled ribbon, chromatin bodies, early linear forms and metaphase chromosomes. Upon chloramphenicol and rifampicin treatment characteristic distorsions took place in the intermediates of chromosome condensation. Damaging effects in limbal stem cells in the presence of chloramphenicol or rifampicin indicate that ophthalmologic treatment with antibiotics should be used cautiously. PMID:25458483

  17. [Antibiotic resistance of bacteria to 6 antibiotics in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sun-Qin; Li, Yi; Huang, Jing-Jing; Wei, Bin; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2011-11-01

    Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater effluents is concerned as an emerging contaminant. To estimate antibiotic resistance in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants, antibiotic tolerance of heterotrophic bacteria, proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and hemi-inhibitory concentrations of six antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and rifampicin) were determined at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing. The results showed that proportions of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in WWTP-G and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in WWTP-Q were highest to 59% and 44%, respectively. The concentrations of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in the effluents of WWTP-G and WWTP-Q were as high as 4.0 x 10(3) CFU x mL(-1) and 3.5 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively; the concentrations of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria were 4.9 x 10(2) CFU x mL(-1) and 4.6 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively. The data also indicated that the hemi-inhibitory concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria to 6 antibiotics were much higher than common concentrations of antibiotics in sewages, which suggested that antibiotic-resistant bacteria could exist over a long period in the effluents with low concentrations of antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be a potential microbial risk during sewage effluent reuse or emission into environmental waters. PMID:22295644

  18. Selective media for detecting and enumerating foodborne yeasts.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, L R

    1993-06-25

    No one medium is satisfactory for detecting, isolating and enumerating all yeasts in all foods. Antibiotic-supplemented media such as dichloran rose Bengal chloramphenicol agar, tryptone glucose yeast extract chloramphenicol agar, oxytetracycline glucose yeast extract agar and rose Bengal chloramphenicol agar are superior to acidified potato dextrose agar and other acidified media for enumeration of the vast majority of spoilage yeasts. Dichloran glycerol (18%) agar performs well for enumerating moderately xerotolerant yeasts. Malt extract yeast extract glucose (up to 60%) can be used for detecting and enumerating moderate and extreme xerophiles. These media also support the growth of moulds. Lysine agar, Schwarz differential agar and Lin's wild yeast differential agar are used by the brewing industry to differentiate wild yeasts from brewer's strains. Lysine agar is selective for apiculate yeasts and ethanol sulfite yeast extract agar is selective for Saccharomyces. Both have application in wineries. Modified molybdate agar can be used to selectively isolate yeasts from tropical fruits. Preservative-resistant yeasts can be detected on malt acetic agar. The recommended incubation temperature is 25 degrees C, but incubation time between plating and counting colonies ranges from 5 days for determination of general populations of yeasts to 10 days for more for xerotolerant yeasts. There is need for new and improved media for selectively isolating various groups, genera, species and strains of yeasts capable of growing only under specific environmental conditions in specific types of foods and beverages. PMID:8357752

  19. Enhanced inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by a combination of cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Milillo, Sara R; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Shannon, Erin M; Johnson, Michael G; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the ability of cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (CPTVO) to enhance the effectiveness of antibiotics against 10 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Disc diffusion assays were performed to determine the effects of CPTVO and two antibiotics with different mechanisms of action (i.e., penicillin and chloramphenicol) individually and in combination with CPTVO. CPTVO alone produced zones ranging from 16.5 to 19.9 mm. Penicillin at 2 or 10 units produced zones ranging from <6 to 13.4 mm, and from 16 to 19.5 mm, respectively. Chloramphenicol at 5 or 30 μg had zones ranging from <6 to 6.9 mm, and from 10.8 to 15.9 mm, respectively. Penicillin (2 and 10 units) plus CPTVO produced zones ranging from 20.2 to 25.3 mm, and from 21.9 to 28 mm, respectively. Chloramphenicol (5 or 30 μg) plus CPTVO produced zones of from 20.1 to 26.6 mm, and from 19.5 to 23.9 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of antibiotics with CPTVO increases their ability to inhibit L. monocytogenes. PMID:22394025

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus keratitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Kazuki; Sinjyo, Akiko; Ito, Toshio; Noda, Yoshizumi; Goto, Hiroshi; Ito, Norihiko

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to report a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) keratitis in a dog. A 7-year-old intact male American cocker spaniel that had undergone removal of a nictitating gland was referred for severe ulcerative keratitis. Slit-lamp examination showed swelling of the eyelid, mucopurulent discharge, conjunctival injection and chemosis, diffuse corneal edema and opacity, and a deep ulcer in central cornea. Gram staining of discharge from the eye demonstrated Gram-positive cocci. Despite topical ofloxacin, oxytetracycline and polymyxin B ophthalmic solution and intravenous cefazolin, there was no improvement. Cultures revealed MRSA that was sensitive only to chloramphenicol, vancomycin, lincomycin, and clindamycin. The antibiotic regimen was changed to topical and systemic chloramphenicol. After 9 days of treatment, although inflammation started to be resolved, the dog developed nonregenerative anemia. The antimicrobial regimen was changed again to topical and systemic vancomycin. Inflammation continued to improve over the next week. MRSA should be considered a potential organism in infectious keratitis, especially when general antibiotics are not effective. Although topical and systemic chloramphenicol and/or vancomycin are effective for treating MRSA keratitis, vancomycin should only be used when culture and susceptibility results indicate it is appropriate and no other options are available. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed case report of MRSA keratitis in a dog. PMID:23127159

  1. An inter-laboratory validation of a multiplex dipstick assay for four classes of antibiotics in honey.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Katharina; Macarthur, Roy; von Holst, Christoph; Sharman, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we report the inter-laboratory validation (ILV) of a recently developed indirect competitive multiplex dipstick (Bee4sensor®) which is capable of the simultaneous detection of residues of some of the most frequently detected antibiotic residues in honey: sulfonamides, tylosin, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol. The multi-sensor dipstick can be interpreted via visual observation or by an instrumental measurement of four test lines. Statistical analysis of the ILV data demonstrated that the multi-sensor can reliably detect the presence of sulfathiazole at 25 μg kg(-1) and tylosin at 10 μg kg(-1), which fully meet the 'recommended concentrations' of the EU. Ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol can be detected at 25 and 5 μg kg(-1) in honey, respectively. Whilst the concentration for chloramphenicol is above the EU minimum required performance limit of 0.3 μg kg(-1), this part of the multiplex test may still be of use to both the industry and enforcement authorities, to provide an early warning of contaminated honey. The estimated false-negative and false-positive rates for this easy-to-use and robust assay were less than 5%. PMID:23820949

  2. Salicylate-inducible antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas cepacia associated with absence of a pore-forming outer membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, J L; Clark, D K

    1992-01-01

    The most common mechanism of antibiotic resistance in multiply resistant Pseudomonas cepacia is decreased porin-mediated outer membrane permeability. In some gram-negative organisms this form of antibiotic resistance can be induced by growth in the presence of weak acids, such as salicylates, which suppress porin synthesis. To determine the effects of salicylates on outer membrane permeability of P. cepacia, a susceptible laboratory strain, 249-2, was grown in 10 mM sodium salicylate. Antibiotic susceptibility and uptake, as well as outer membrane protein patterns, were compared between strain 249-2 grown with and without salicylates. The MICs of chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ceftazidime were compared between organisms grown in standard and salicylate-containing medium and are as follows: chloramphenicol, 12.5 versus 100 micrograms/ml; trimethoprim, 0.78 versus 3.125 micrograms/ml; ciprofloxacin, 0.4 versus 1.56 micrograms/ml; ceftazidime, 3.125 versus 3.125 micrograms/ml. The permeability of beta-lactam antibiotics was calculated from the rate of hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin, PADAC. There was no significant difference between strains grown in the presence and absence of salicylate. By using high-pressure liquid chromatography quantitation of loss from culture medium, the effect of 10 mM salicylate on the cellular permeability of chloramphenicol was measured in strain 249-2 by introduction of a plasmid which encodes production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. After 1 h of incubation, 18.5% +/- 1.54% versus 70.1% +/- 3.52%, and after 2 h, 4.20% +/- 1.65% versus 41.90% +/- 2.16% remained in supernatants from organisms grown in the absence and presence of 10 mM salicylate, respectively. Outer membrane protein pattern analysis demonstrated the absence of a protein of apparent molecular weight of 40,000 when strain 249-2 was grown in the presence of 10 mM salicylate. To determine whether this protein functioned as a porin

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of bacterial pathogens isolated from respiratory tract infections in dogs and cats across Europe: ComPath results.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Ian; Moyaert, Hilde; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2016-08-15

    ComPath is a pan-European resistance monitoring programme collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats. We present data for respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. Antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined and susceptibility calculated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards for veterinary medicine. The main pathogen from dogs was Staphylococcus intermedius Group (49/215, 22.8%) which was >90% susceptible to most antimicrobials (including oxacillin - 93.9%; 3 isolates confirmed mecA-positive) but only 59.2%, 73.5% and 87.8% susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin. Bordetella bronchiseptica (48/215, 22.3%), streptococci (36/215, 16.7%), Escherichia coli (24/215, 11.2%) and Pasteurella multocida (23/215, 10.7%) were also found in dog RTI. There are no breakpoints for Bordetella bronchiseptica. Most streptococci were penicillin- chloramphenicol-, ampicillin- and pradofloxacin-susceptible. None were enrofloxacin-resistant but 6 isolates (16.7%) were of intermediate susceptibility. The least active agent against streptococci was tetracycline (47.2% susceptible). For E. coli, 37.5% were ampicillin-susceptible but 83.3% were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-susceptible. Only chloramphenicol showed susceptibility>90% against E. coli, with 66.7% tetracycline-susceptible and 79.2% to 87.5% susceptibility to enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pradofloxacin. P. multocida were susceptible to pradofloxacin (no other breakpoints are available). The main pathogen from cats was P. multocida (82/186, 44.1%), where only pradofloxacin has breakpoints (100% susceptible). Streptococci were also collected from cats (25/186, 13.4%) and were >90% susceptible to all antimicrobials except tetracycline (36% susceptible). Most susceptibility was calculated with human-derived breakpoints and some antimicrobials had no breakpoints. Therefore predictions of clinical utility

  4. Development of a rapid multiplexed assay for the direct screening of antimicrobial residues in raw milk.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Terry F; McClintock, Laura; Dunn, John S; Husar, Gregory M; Lochhead, Michael J; Sarver, Ronald W; Klein, Frank E; Rice, Jennifer A; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-06-01

    Antimicrobial residues found to be present in milk can have both health and economic impacts. For these reasons, the widespread routine testing of milk is required. Due to delays with sample handling and test scheduling, laboratory-based tests are not always suited for making decisions about raw material intake and product release, especially when samples require shipping to a central testing facility. Therefore, rapid on-site screening tests that can produce results within a matter of minutes are required to facilitate rapid intake and product release processes. Such tests must be simple for use by non-technical staff. There is increasing momentum towards the development and implementation of multiplexing tests that can detect a range of important antimicrobial residues simultaneously. A simple in situ multiplexed planar waveguide device that can simultaneously detect chloramphenicol, streptomycin and desfuroylceftiofur in raw dairy milk, without sample preparation, has been developed. Samples are simply mixed with antibody prior to an aliquot being passed through the detection cartridge for 5 min before reading on a field-deployable portable instrument. Multiplexed calibration curves were produced in both buffer and raw milk. Buffer curves, for chloramphenicol, streptomycin and desfuroylceftiofur, showed linear ranges (inhibitory concentration (IC)20-IC80) of 0.1-0.9, 3-129 and 12-26 ng/ml, whilst linear range in milk was 0.13-0.74, 11-376 and 2-12 ng/ml, respectively, thus meeting European legislated concentration requirements for both chloramphenicol and streptomycin, in milk, without the need for any sample preparation. Desfuroylceftiofur-contaminated samples require only simple sample dilution to bring positive samples within the range of quantification. Assay repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 12 coefficient of variation (%CV), whilst blank raw milk samples (n = 9) showed repeatability ranging between 4.2 and 8.1%CV when measured on all

  5. Bacterial spectrum and resistance patterns in corneal infections at a Tertiary Eye Care Center in South China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan; Huang, Qiang; Tan, Yi-Wei; Lin, Li-Ping; Wu, Kai-Li

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the spectrum and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated from patients with suspected corneal infections in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center in South China over the past four years retrospectively. METHODS Totally 1943 corneal scrapes from patients with corneal infections from 2010 to 2013 were cultured and processed using standard microbiological procedures to identify bacterial isolates. Simultaneously, the bacterial isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to 8 antibiotics (ceftazidime, cefuroxim, cefazolin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, neomycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol) using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. RESULTS Of the total 1943 scrapes, 397 (20.43%) were culture-positive, of which 294 (74.06%) were gram-positive (GP) and 103 (25.94%) were gram-negative (GN) bacteria. Of the GP organisms, the most prevalent genera were Staphylococcus spp. (56.17%, n=223), Kocuria spp. (5.29%, n=21) and Micrococcus spp. (1.26%, n=5). On the other hand, the most prevalent genera were Pseudomonas spp. (12.85%, n=51), Burkholderia spp. (2.02%, n=8) and Acinetobacter spp. (1.51%, n=6) for the GN organisms. Among five antibiotics that have eye drop products, the resistant to neomycin of GP (7.82%, 95% CI: 4.72%-10.92%) and GN isolates (9.71%, 95% CI: 4.01%-15.41%) was lowest, while the resistant to chloramphenicol was highest (GP: 34.35%, 95% CI: 28.92%-39.78%; GN: 60.19%, 95% CI: 50.74%-69.64%). CONCLUSION Staphylococcus spp. was the most common bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with corneal infections in this setting. High percentages of GP and GN bacteria were mostly susceptible to neomycin and highly resistant to chloramphenicol. PMID:27158607

  6. Large-Scale Identification of Virulence Genes from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Polissi, Alessandra; Pontiggia, Andrea; Feger, Georg; Altieri, Mario; Mottl, Harald; Ferrari, Livia; Simon, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of bacterial pneumonia, and it is also responsible for otitis media and meningitis in children. Apart from the capsule, the virulence factors of this pathogen are not completely understood. Recent technical advances in the field of bacterial pathogenesis (in vivo expression technology and signature-tagged mutagenesis [STM]) have allowed a large-scale identification of virulence genes. We have adapted to S. pneumoniae the STM technique, originally used for the discovery of Salmonella genes involved in pathogenicity. A library of pneumococcal chromosomal fragments (400 to 600 bp) was constructed in a suicide plasmid vector carrying unique DNA sequence tags and a chloramphenicol resistance marker. The recent clinical isolate G54 was transformed with this library. Chloramphenicol-resistant mutants were obtained by homologous recombination, resulting in genes inactivated by insertion of the suicide vector carrying a unique tag. In a mouse pneumonia model, 1.250 candidate clones were screened; 200 of these were not recovered from the lungs were therefore considered virulence-attenuated mutants. The regions flanking the chloramphenicol gene of the attenuated mutants were amplified by inverse PCR and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed that the 200 mutants had insertions in 126 different genes that could be grouped in six classes: (i) known pneumococcal virulence genes; (ii) genes involved in metabolic pathways; (iii) genes encoding proteases; (iv) genes coding for ATP binding cassette transporters; (v) genes encoding proteins involved in DNA recombination/repair; and (vi) DNA sequences that showed similarity to hypothetical genes with unknown function. To evaluate the virulence attenuation for each mutant, all 126 clones were individually analyzed in a mouse septicemia model. Not all mutants selected in the pneumonia model were confirmed in septicemia, thus indicating the existence of virulence factors specific for pneumonia

  7. The in-vitro antibacterial effects of organic salts, chemical disinfectants and antibiotics against pathogens of black disease in fairy shrimp of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saejung, C; Hatai, K; Sanoamuang, L

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of organic salts, chemical disinfectants and antibiotics were evaluated on cultures of Aeromonas hydrophila C03, Aeromonas sobria C26, A. sobria C29, Aeromonas caviae C24 and Acinetobacter sp. SH-94B, the pathogens that cause black disease found in fairy shrimps (Streptocephalus sirindhornae Sanoamuang et al. (2000) and Branchinella thailandensis Sanoamuang, Saengphan & Murugan) of Thailand. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of organic salts (sodium chloride and potassium chloride) and antibiotics (oxytetracycline dihydrate, streptomycin sulphate, kanamycin monosulphate, chloramphenicol and ampicillin) were determined using the agar-dilution method. The effect of chemical disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide) was evaluated by exposing bacteria to different concentrations of these chemicals for different periods of time. Interestingly, all strains were intrinsically resistant to 0.25-3% sodium chloride and potassium chloride. The effect of sodium hypochlorite was greater than that of chlorine dioxide, and 5-20 μg mL(-1) of sodium hypochlorite was sufficient to inhibit the growth of these bacteria, but the exposure time varied, depending on the bacterial species. Of the antibiotics tested, chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline dihydrate completely inhibited the selected strains. Chloramphenicol showed the highest antibacterial effect against all pathogenic species--the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 0.8 to 3.1 μg mL(-1) from 3.1 to 6.25 μg mL(-1), respectively. To achieve control of black disease during cultivation of fairy shrimp, data derived from this study can be used as a basis for further toxicity tests in vivo. PMID:24131294

  8. How Fast are Microbes Growing in the Environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, M. R.; Stroot, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    A molecular biology based method called RT-RiboSyn has been developed to measure the specific growth rate of microbial populations. This method analyzes mixed culture samples that have been exposed to chloramphenicol for defined times. Chloramphenicol disrupts ribosome synthesis, which causes a buildup of the level of precursor 16S rRNA within the cells. Specific microbial populations can be targeted, because of signature sequences present in both precursor and mature 16S rRNA. The method measures the rate of increase of the precursor 16S rRNA within the cells, which is used to measure the specific growth rate of a specific microbial population. This link between the specific rate of ribosome synthesis and specific growth rate for a cell is true for log growth and stationary phase, where the specific growth rate is zero. RT-RiboSyn, is an ex situ method that utilizes a reverse transcription and primer extension method to analyze the RNA extracted from a series of samples treated with chloramphenicol. A single fluorescently labeled primer that is specific for a microbial population and targets an interior region of both pre16S and 16S rRNA is employed. The pre16S/16S can be determined by separating the RT&PE products, which have different lengths, and measuring the fluorescent intensity of each. The RT&PE method has the potential to identify members of a microbial population (species or strain) that are growing rapidly relative to the other members present.

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella spp. from Agricultural Environments in Fruit Production Systems.

    PubMed

    Gomba, Annancietar; Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2016-09-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks involving fresh produce have increased in recent years. The risk of infection from contaminated food is worsened by the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains. This study evaluated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates (n = 263) from agricultural production systems through to the final packed product. Salmonella isolates were preliminarily identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) and API 20E and identities confirmed by invA gene polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed with 15 antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Of the 263 Salmonella isolates assessed, 59.3% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The most frequently detected resistance was against chloramphenicol and kanamycin (46.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (28%), and streptomycin (14%), and the less frequently detected resistance was toward ampicillin (1.14%), amikacin (0.76%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (0.38%). Multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) (resistance to ≥3 antibiotics) was found in 48.7% (76/156) isolates. The most common MAR phenotype was to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-kanamycin (43.6%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was only observed in MAR phenotypes. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, and tetracycline. This study confirms the importance of fresh produce production environments as potential reservoirs and fresh produce as carriers of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. with significant clinical importance. Further studies to evaluate the actual level of health risk from these pathogens should include characterization of the antibiotic resistance determinant genes among the isolates. PMID:27294335

  10. A meta-analysis of the proportion of antimicrobial resistant human Salmonella isolates in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella is a global problem and recently, a strain on the verge of pan-resistance was reported. In Ethiopia, the therapeutic management of Salmonellosis is difficult because drug sensitivity tests are not routinely carried out and treatment alternatives are not available in most health care facilities. The objectives of this study were to estimate the temporal changes and proportions of drug resistant isolates in Ethiopia. Methods Published studies on drug resistant Salmonella isolates were searched in Medline, Google Scholar and the lists of references of articles. Eligible studies were selected by using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Generic, methodological and statistical information were extracted from the eligible studies. The extracted data included the proportions of ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and multi-drug resistant isolates. Pooled proportions were estimated by a random effects model. Results The odds of multi-drug resistant isolates in the 2000s was higher than before the 1990s (OR =18.86, 95% CI = 13.08, 27.19). The pooled proportions of ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and multi-drug resistant isolates in the 2000s were 86.01%, 68.01%, 62.08%, 3.61% and 79.56% respectively. S. Concord (>97%) was resistant to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone. Conclusion The proportion of drug resistant isolates has increased since the 1970s. All drugs currently used for the treatment of Salmonellosis but ciprofloxacin are not reliable for an empirical therapy. Alternative drugs should be included in the essential drug list and measures should be taken to re-enforce the drug use policy. PMID:25213011

  11. Evaluation of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (SXT), Minocycline, Tigecycline, Moxifloxacin, and Ceftazidime Alone and in Combinations for SXT-Susceptible and SXT-Resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by In Vitro Time-Kill Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xuejiu; Zhao, Jin; Cui, Junchang

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal therapy for infections caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) has not yet been established. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT), minocycline, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, polymyxin E, chloramphenicol, and ceftazidime against clinical isolated S. maltophilia strains by susceptibility testing and carried out time-kill experiments in potential antimicrobials. Methods The agar dilution method was used to test susceptibility of nine candidate antimicrobials, and time-killing experiments were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of SXT, minocycline, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ceftazidime both alone and in combinations at clinically relevant antimicrobial concentrations. Results The susceptibility to SXT, minocycline, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, chloramphenicol, polymyxin E, and ceftazidime were 93.8%, 95.0%, 83.8%, 80.0%, 76.3%, 76.3%, 37.5%, 22.5%, and 20.0% against 80 clinical consecutively isolated strains, respectively. Minocycline and tigecycline showed consistent active against 22 SXT-resistant strains. However, resistance rates were high in the remaining antimicrobial agents against SXT-resistant strains. In time-kill experiments, there were no synergisms in most drug combinations in time-kill experiments. SXT plus moxifloxacin displayed synergism when strains with low moxifloxacin MICs. Moxifloxacin plus Minocycline and moxifloxacin plus tigecycline displayed synergism in few strains. No antagonisms were found in these combinations. Overall, compared with single drug, the drug combinations demonstrated lower bacterial concentrations. Some combinations showed bactericidal activity. Conclusions In S. maltophilia infections, susceptibility testing suggests that minocycline and SXT may be considered first-line therapeutic choices while tigecycline, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin

  12. Functional mapping of a trans-activating gene required for expression of a baculovirus delayed-early gene.

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, L A; Summers, M D

    1986-01-01

    The temporal regulation of an early gene of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus was examined. We constructed a plasmid (plasmid 39CAT) in which the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was placed under the control of the promoter for the gene for a A. californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus 39,000-dalton protein (39K). A transient expression assay of plasmid 39CAT revealed that the 39K gene was expressed in infected cells but not in uninfected cells, indicating that the 39K gene should be classified as a delayed-early gene. The 39K promoter also efficiently directed the synthesis of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase when the plasmid was cotransfected with viral DNA which had been restricted with several restriction enzymes. To map the location of the gene(s) required for the synthesis of 39K, plasmid 39CAT was cotransfected with purified restriction fragments of A. californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA. Fragments which mapped between 90.7 and 100.8 map units induced plasmid 39CAT. Plasmid pEcoRI-B, containing EcoRI fragment B (90 to 100 map units), activated plasmid 39CAT. Functional mapping of plasmid pEcoRI-B indicated that the essential region was located between 95.0 and 97.5 map units. The 5' end of this gene was mapped, and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was inserted under the control of its promoter. Transient assay experiments indicated that the trans-acting regulatory gene was expressed in uninfected cells and is therefore an immediate-early gene. This gene was named IE-1. Images PMID:3944847

  13. Presence of multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria in dairy farm topsoil.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J M; Ellington, B A; Varela, M F

    2005-04-01

    In addition to human and veterinary medicine, antibiotics are extensively used in agricultural settings, such as for treatment of infections, growth enhancement, and prophylaxis in food animals, leading to selection of drug and multidrug-resistant bacteria. To help circumvent the problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance, it is first necessary to understand the scope of the problem. However, it is not fully understood how widespread antibiotic-resistant bacteria are in agricultural settings. The lack of such surveillance data is especially evident in dairy farm environments, such as soil. It is also unknown to what extent various physiological modulators, such as salicylate, a component of aspirin and known model modulator of multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) genes, influence bacterial multi-drug resistance. We isolated and identified enteric soil bacteria from local dairy farms within Roosevelt County, NM, determined the resistance profiles to antibiotics associated with mar, such as chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, penicillin G, and tetracycline. We then purified and characterized plasmid DNA and detected mar phenotypic activity. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antibiotics for the isolates ranged from 6 to >50 microg/mL for chloramphenicol, 2 to 8 microg/mL for nalidixic acid, 25 to >300 microg/mL for penicillin G, and 1 to >80 microg/mL for tetracycline. On the other hand, many of the isolates had significantly enhanced MIC for the same antibiotics in the presence of 5 mM salicylate. Plasmid DNA extracted from 12 randomly chosen isolates ranged in size from 6 to 12.5 kb and, in several cases, conferred resistance to chloramphenicol and penicillin G. It is concluded that enteric bacteria from dairy farm topsoil are multidrug resistant and harbor antibiotic-resistance plasmids. A role for dairy topsoil in zoonoses is suggested, implicating this environment as a reservoir for development of bacterial resistance against clinically relevant

  14. [Experimental transmission of antibiotic resistance in chicks].

    PubMed

    Todorov, T; Todorova, P; Kokosharov, T

    1977-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance of Salmonella heidelberg was transmitted to normal intestinal flora (E. coli organisms were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and oleandomycin. The donor strains of Salmonella heidelberg used in the experiment was a carrier of the following nine markers of resistance: ampicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin, novobiocin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and oleandomycin. The donor strains of Salmonella heidelberg used in the experiment was a carrier of the following nine markers of resistance: ampicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin, novobiocin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and oeandomycin, novobiocin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and oleandomycin. The resistance to drugs was transmitted with the oral administration of the donor strain at the preliminary neutralization of the action of hydrochloric acid in the stomah secretion through sodium bicarbonate (1 cm3 of a 10 per cent sol.) an hour prior to feeding the birds with Salmonella heidelberg (1 cm3 of 10(10). In other experiments carboneum tetrachloratum was injected at rates of 0.08 to 0.15 cm3 (acocrting with the body weight of birds) one day prior to infection, followed by the administration of 0.20 to 0.40 cm3 of a 2 per cent solution of omnopon. Escherichia coli organisms acquired new markers of resistance--to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin and novobiocin. The level of resistance proved equal with that to the donor strain. A total of 1.8 to 5.4 per cent of the intestinal E. coli investigated proved to be carriers of the indicated markers of resitance. Highest level in acquiring markers of multi-drug resistance (13 per cent) showed E. coli organisms isolated from the liver of birds injected additionally with C. tetrachloratum omnopon. PMID:337646

  15. Flow cytometric method for the assessment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibacterial agents to Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Patrícia; Antunes, Nuno T; Rosales, Ruben S; de la Fe, Christian; Poveda, Carlos; Poveda, José B; Davey, Hazel M

    2006-10-01

    In this study, flow cytometry was evaluated for the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of seven antibacterial agents (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, and tylosin) on Mycoplasma (M.) agalactiae. Flow cytometry was able to detect M. agalactiae inhibition from 6 h postincubation, although it seems that definitive MIC values determined by flow cytometry were only possible at 12-h postincubation. However, the results obtained by the traditional method were only obtained at 24 h, when a visible change in the medium had occurred. At 24 h, both methods gave the same result for six antibacterial agents (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and oxytetracycline); whereas flow cytometry gave slightly higher MIC for tylosin. This was attributed to the fact that the M. agalactiae growth that had occurred in the tubes containing tylosin was not enough to visibly change the color of the medium. Futhermore, flow cytometry detected that inhibitory concentrations of oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, and tylosin as judged at 24 h were not able to inhibit the M. agalactiae growth after 48 h. MIC values of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were sufficient only to maintain the total counts per milliliter throughout the time matched samples, whereas higher concentrations of theses antibacterial agents reduced the total counts per milliliter over the course of the experiment. The main advantage of the flow cytometric method is that MIC results for M. agalactiae can be obtained in a shorter time than is possible with the traditional method. The method presented makes identification of resistant populations of M. agalactiae possible and, unlike the traditional method, allows the effect of each antibacterial agent to be determined in real-time at the single-cell level. PMID:16998868

  16. Mecillinam in enteric fever.

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, B K; Ironside, A G; Brennand, J

    1979-01-01

    Twelve consecutive patients with enteric fever entered a trial of 14 days' treatment with mecillinam. Only three patients became afebrile within three days; four continued unimproved with fever and toxaemia for seven to nine days, when treatment was changed to chloramphenicol with good results. In one case the fever did not settle until the 13th day, and five days later the patient had a clinical relapse. Although all organisms recovered were fully sensitive to mecillinam, this drug is not an effective or consistent treatment for enteric fever. PMID:218670

  17. Transferring Gus gene into intact rice cells by low energy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengliang, Yu; Jianbo, Yang; Yuejin, Wu; Beijiu, Cheng; Jianjun, He; Yuping, Huo

    1993-06-01

    A new technique of transferring genes by low energy ion beam has been reported in this paper. The Gus and CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) genes, as "foreign" genetic materials, were introduced into the suspension cells and ripe embryos or rice by implantation of 20-30 keV Ar + at doses ranging from 1 × 10 15 to 4 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The activities of CAT and Gus were detected in the cells and embryos after several weeks. The results indicate that the transfer was a success.

  18. DNA, a possible site of action of aluminum in Rhizobium spp

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.C.; Wood, M. )

    1990-12-01

    Al was found to penetrate the cell envelopes of both sensitive and tolerant Rhizobium strains and bind to DNA in vivo. Despite causing a reduction viability, Al stimulated DNA synthesis in the sensitive strain, which suggested that an excision repair mechanism was operating. The Al-stimulated DNA synthesis was reduced by the simultaneous addition of chloramphenicol. In contrast to the sensitive strain, DNA synthesis was unaffected by Al binding to DNA in the tolerant strain. It is proposed that Al enters the cell and binds to the DNA helix, increasing stabilization and preventing successful replication. Different repair mechanisms appear to operate in response to Al in tolerant and sensitive strains.

  19. Use of experimental design and effective mobility calculations to develop a method for the determination of antimicrobials by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mamani, Mónica Cecília Vargas; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Silva, José Alberto Fracassi da; Rath, Susanne

    2008-09-15

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the determination of chloramphenicol (CLP), danofloxacin (DANO), ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), enrofloxacin (ENRO), sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is described. For the development, the effective mobilities were estimated and a central composite design was performed. The method was in-house validated for CLP, CIPRO, ENRO and SMX determination in pharmaceuticals. In comparison with the HPLC method recommended by the United States Pharmacopoeia, this CZE method exhibited the same performance, with the advantage that seven different antimicrobials in pharmaceutical formulations could be simultaneously determined. PMID:18761147

  20. Anaerobic oxidation of acetylene by estuarine sediments and enrichment cultures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    1981-01-01

    Acetylene disappeared from the gas phase of anaerobically incubated estuarine sediment slurries, and loss was accompanied by increased levels of carbon dioxide. Acetylene loss was inhibited by chloramphenicol, air, and autoclaving. Addition of 14C2H2 to slurries resulted in the formation of 14CO2 and the transient appearance of 14C-soluble intermediates, of which acetate was a major component. Acetylene oxidation stimulated sulfate reduction; however, sulfate reduction was not required for the loss of C2H2 to occur. Enrichment cultures were obtained which grew anaerobically at the expense of C2H2.

  1. Evidence for an Inactivating System of Nitrate Reductase in Hordeum vulgare L. during Darkness That Requires Protein Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Travis, R. L.; Jordan, W. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    The disappearance of nitrate reductase activity in leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. during darkness was inhibited by cycloheximide, actinomycin D, and low temperature. Thus, protein synthesis was probably required for the disappearance of nitrate reductase in the dark. Since chloramphenicol did not affect the rate of loss of activity, the degradation or inactivation apparently required protein synthesis by the cytoplasmic ribosomal system. Consistent with this observation, nitrate reductase is also reportedly located in the cytoplasm. Thus, the amount of nitrate reductase activity present in leaves of barley may be controlled by a balance between activating and inactivating systems. PMID:16657182

  2. Antibiotics in South Indian coastal sea and farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Venkatesh; Nagalingam, Arun Kumar; Ranganathan, Hari Prasad; Kandhikuppam, Krishnamoorthy Bharathi; Kothandam, Hari Prasath; Vasu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Sulphonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics were analysed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sea and farmed prawn (Penaeus monodon) samples obtained from the coastal region of southern India during 2011-2012. Average recoveries were 77-99% and precision was between 1% and 8%. The results revealed that in sea prawn samples neither of the two antibiotics was detected, but in farmed samples from coastal Andhra Pradesh some sulphonamides were detected in a concentration range greater than the maximum residual limit as set by Council Directive 2377/90 EC. PMID:24779904

  3. [Severe Klebsiella serogenes infections].

    PubMed

    Gerisch, B; Oltmanns, G; Rübesamen, M; Anger, G

    1978-04-15

    It is reported on 2 cases of Klebsiella-septikaemia with difficult course. Germs of the group Klebsiella aerogenes could be proved microbiologically. On the basis of the peculiarities of the clinical course the author adopts a definite attitude to the development of the infection, the pathogenesis, to the microbiological proof and to the aimed antimicrobial chemotherapy. The antibiotic treatment was successful in the first case with karbenicillin and gentamycin and in the second case with cephalotin and gentamycin during 4 weeks when a penicillin allergy was present and following this with chloramphenicol and streptomycin during 3 weeks. PMID:351992

  4. LmrS is a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Jody L; Smith, Kenneth P; Kumar, Sanath H; Floyd, Jared T; Varela, Manuel F

    2010-12-01

    A multidrug efflux pump designated LmrS (lincomycin resistance protein of Staphylococcus aureus), belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transporters, was cloned, and the role of LmrS in antimicrobial efflux was evaluated. The highest relative increase in MIC, 16-fold, was observed for linezolid and tetraphenylphosphonium chloride (TPCL), followed by an 8-fold increase for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol. LmrS has 14 predicted membrane-spanning domains and is homologous to putative lincomycin resistance proteins of Bacillus spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Listeria spp. PMID:20855745

  5. Selection of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (mar) mutants of Escherichia coli by using the disinfectant pine oil: roles of the mar and acrAB loci.

    PubMed Central

    Moken, M C; McMurry, L M; Levy, S B

    1997-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli selected for resistance to the disinfectant pine oil or to a household product containing pine oil also showed resistance to multiple antibiotics (tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid) and overexpressed the marA gene. Likewise, antibiotic-selected Mar mutants, which also overexpress marA, were resistant to pine oil. Deletion of the mar or acrAB locus, the latter encoding a multidrug efflux pump positively regulated in part by MarA, increased the susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains to pine oil. PMID:9420057

  6. Endocarditis due to ampicillin-resistant nontyphoid Salmonella: cure with a third-generation cephalosporin.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C; Olcoz, M T; Izquierdo, G; Moreno, S

    1990-01-01

    A case of ampicillin-resistant salmonella bacteremia complicated by endocarditis in a 78-year-old man is presented. Previous rheumatic valvular heart disease and the lack of response to initial treatment with chloramphenicol prompted us to consider this diagnosis. There was a good clinical response after treatment with ceftriaxone alone and corresponding improvement on the echocardiogram. This case demonstrates the possible endovascular complications of salmonella bacteremia in elderly people and that endocarditis should be included among the invasive infections due to ampicillin-resistant Salmonella that could potentially be treated with the newer cephalosporins. PMID:2237123

  7. Serinol: small molecule - big impact.

    PubMed

    Andreeßen, Björn; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The amino alcohol serinol (2-amino-1,3-propanediol) has become a common intermediate for several chemical processes. Since the 1940s serinol was used as precursor for synthesis of synthetic antibiotics (chloramphenicol). In the last years, new scopes of applications were discovered. Serinol is used for X-ray contrast agents, pharmaceuticals or for chemical sphingosine/ceramide synthesis. It can either be obtained by chemical processes based on 2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, dihydroxyacetone and ammonia, dihydroxyacetone oxime or 5-amino-1,3-dioxane, or biotechnological application of amino alcohol dehydrogenases (AMDH) or transaminases. This review provides a survey of synthesis, properties and applications for serinol. PMID:21906364

  8. Rickettsial infection of the central nervous system: the role of prompt antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Y

    1991-04-01

    Rickettsial diseases of man, which are prevalent in all the continents (except Antartica) continue to be a major health problem in tropical and temperate parts of the world. Rickettsioses must be considered in every traveller seeking medical attention soon after returning from endemic areas, since the disease can be associated with significant morbidity. When a definite diagnosis has been made by specific serological tests, prompt antimicrobial therapy is indicated. A tetracycline should be regarded as the drug of choice due to its high efficacy, low toxicity, superior in vitro activity and the possibility of relapse which can follow chloramphenicol therapy. PMID:1852855

  9. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa. PMID:25282954

  10. Transient Transfection and Expression in the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, Dominique; Boothroyd, John C.

    1993-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan pathogen that produces severe disease in humans and animals. This obligate intracellular parasite provides an excellent model for the study of how such pathogens are able to invade, survive, and replicate intracellularly. DNA encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was introduced into T. gondii and transiently expressed with the use of three vectors based on different Toxoplasma genes. The ability to introduce genes and have them efficiently and faithfully expressed is an essential tool for understanding the structure-function relation of genes and their products.

  11. Serinol: small molecule - big impact

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The amino alcohol serinol (2-amino-1,3-propanediol) has become a common intermediate for several chemical processes. Since the 1940s serinol was used as precursor for synthesis of synthetic antibiotics (chloramphenicol). In the last years, new scopes of applications were discovered. Serinol is used for X-ray contrast agents, pharmaceuticals or for chemical sphingosine/ceramide synthesis. It can either be obtained by chemical processes based on 2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, dihydroxyacetone and ammonia, dihydroxyacetone oxime or 5-amino-1,3-dioxane, or biotechnological application of amino alcohol dehydrogenases (AMDH) or transaminases. This review provides a survey of synthesis, properties and applications for serinol. PMID:21906364

  12. Mechanisms of recombination and function of DNA in bacteria. Progress report, January 15, 1983-January 17, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Guild, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on gene transfer in pneumococcus are described. Specifically transformation by chromosomal and plasmid DNAs, transfection by phage and plasmid DNA, and the novel kind of conjugative transfer of drug resistance elements among the chromosomes of streptococci are examined. Some of these elements appear to be transposons. There are numerous questions about their structure, functions, and relation to plasmids and other better characterized genetic elements. The experiments involve extensive use of transformation, cloning in both pneumococcal and E. coli systems, and analysis of DNAs by gel electrophoresis. For restriction mapping, we have concentrated on the insertion carrying genes for resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline.

  13. Inducible repair system in Haemophilus influenzae unaccompanied by mutation. [uv

    SciTech Connect

    Notani, N.K.; Setlow, J.K.

    1980-07-01

    Weigle reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated HPlc1 phage was observed after ultraviolet or mitomycin C treatment of Haemophilus influenzae cells. The amount of reactivation was considerably increased when the treated cells were incubated in growth medium before infection. The presence of chloramphenicol during this incubation abolished the reactivation. No mutation of this phage accompanied the reactivation. When cells were treated so as to produce a maximal reactivation of phage, neither reactivation nor mutation of cells was observed. It is concluded that H. influenzae has an inducible repair system that is not accompanied by mutation.

  14. Phenotyping of Salmonella serotypes isolated from natural sources of water in rural areas of East Sikkim.

    PubMed

    Poonia, S; Singh, T S; Tsering, D C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to conduct bacteriological analysis of water with special reference to Salmonella spp from natural sources of rural habitations of East Sikkim. A total of 28 Salmonella serovars isolated were biotyped, phage typed and tested for their anti-microbial susceptibility. All the isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi belonged to Biotype I. Four isolates of S. typhi belonged to phage type A. All S. paratyphi A isolates belong to phage 2. All the isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, cefixime and amikacin. Untreated natural water sources are unsafe for human consumption. PMID:25560018

  15. [Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter and its epidemiologic significance].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, N Z; Minaev, V I; Gorelov, A V

    1990-03-01

    Sensitivity of 179 strains of thermophilic Campylobacter to 21 chemotherapeutic drugs was studied. Activity of the antibacterial agents against the pathogens was estimated by the MICs. The MIC50 and MIC90 were also determined. All the Campylobacter strains were sensitive to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, furazolidone and furagin and resistant to cefazolin, polymyxin E, rifampicin, vancomycin and bacitracin. Differences in the attitude of the Campylobacter isolates from various sources and patients of various age groups to the chemotherapeutic drugs were detected. Possible consideration of the results of comparison of R spectra of Campylobacter strains and the levels of their resistance to antimicrobial drugs as epidemiological markers is discussed. PMID:2360853

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates in Germany during 2003-2013

    PubMed Central

    Imöhl, Matthias; van der Linden, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study of invasive S. pyogenes infections was conducted in Germany. Invasive isolates (n = 1,281) were obtained between 2003 and 2013. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. Tetracycline showed the highest rate of resistant or intermediate resistant isolates with 9.8%, followed by macrolides (4.0%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (1.9%), levofloxacin (1.3%), chloramphenicol (0.9%) and clindamycin (0.7%). The most prominent trends were the appearance of levofloxacin non-susceptible isolates since 2011, and an increase of SXT non-susceptibility since 2012. PMID:26340445

  17. Cross-resistance to UV radiation of a cisplatin-resistant human cell line: Overexpression of cellular factors that recognize UV-modified DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, C.C.; Huang, S.L.; Huang, H.M.; Lin-Chao, S. )

    1991-04-01

    A human cell line selected for cisplatin resistance (CPR) was irradiated with UV light and showed cross-resistance to UV light. Applying a modified chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay, we observed that CPR cells acquired enhanced host cell reactivation of a transfected plasmid carrying UV damage. Gel mobility shift analysis indicated that two nuclear factors that recognize UV-modified DNA were overexpressed in CPR cells. In addition, factors that bind UV-modified DNA were independent from the factors that bind cisplatin-modified DNA. The significance of the identified binding factors, possibly DNA repair enzymes, is discussed.

  18. Effect of seven antibiotics on the growth and reproduction of Heliothis subflexa X H. virescens interspecific hydrids and backcross males

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, L.E.; Karpenko, C.P.

    1981-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that a maternally transmitted cytoplasmic microorganism is involved in male hybrid sterility found in H. subflexa (Guenee) X H. virescens (F.) hybrid and backcross progeny, we reared H. subflexa, hybrids and backcross progeny on larval diets containing high concentrations of tetracycline, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, gentamicin, rifampin, and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. The insects tolerated relatively high concentrations (from 120 mg/liter to 6 g/liter) of antibiotics in the larval diet and showed virtually no changes in larval or pupal developmental time, adult lifespan, or fertility. Hybrid and backcross males reared on such adulterated diets were as sterile as those reared on conventional diets.

  19. Isolated Bilateral Trigeminal Neuropathy in Sarcoidosis Presenting with Neurotrophic Corneal Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, M.; Lascaratos, G.; Syrogiannis, A.; Esakowitz, L.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease that may affect various organs. Nevertheless, involvement of the trigeminal nerve is exceedingly uncommon. This report presents a rare case of isolated bilateral trigeminal neuropathy presenting with neurotrophic corneal ulcers. The patient was treated with topical chloramphenicol and lubricants, as well as botulinum toxin injection to the upper eyelid to induce ptosis. Our case illustrates the importance of recognizing that bilateral corneal ulceration might be a manifestation of sarcoidosis. Physicians should be aware of this rare association, when treating sarcoidosis patients with eye related symptoms. PMID:23861615

  20. Pasteurella multocida pneumonia complicated by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Martyn, V; Swift, D

    1984-02-01

    A 71-year-old woman presented with acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. She proved to have a Pasteurella multocida pneumonia, with blood stream invasion by the organism, and required positive pressure ventilation for 53 days. Penicillin G., the drug of choice for this infection, failed to reverse the steady decline in her arterial oxygen-tension, and it was only after treatment with chloramphenicol and prednisolone that she began to improve. Serological tests strongly indicated the presence of a Staphylococcus aureus infection and the delay in giving antibiotics appropriate to this second pathogen may have been the reason for the patient's initial downhill course. PMID:6709548

  1. Drug interactions: inhibition of acetaminophen glucuronidation by drugs.

    PubMed

    Bolanowska, W; Gessner, T

    1978-07-01

    Glucuronidation of [3H]acetaminophen (APAP) was studied in rat liver preparations. Both Triton X-100 and UDP-N acetylglucosamine (UDPAG) activated 3- to 4-fold the glucuronidation of APAP by liver homogenates or microsomes. Prednisolone inhibited microsomal glucuronidation of APAP, yielding apparent noncompetitive kinetics in native and in UDPAG-activated microsomes. Studies with UDPAG-activated microsomal preparations show that many drugs can inhibit glucuronidation of APAP markedly; among the most poten inhibitors are: morphine, dicumarol, hydroxyzine, phenolphthalein, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. PMID:660554

  2. Relative glucocorticoid potency revisited.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Hirano, F; Nomura, Y; Miura, T; Makino, Y; Fukawa, E; Makino, I

    1994-01-01

    To determine the relative potency of synthetic glucocorticoids, glucocorticoid receptor expressing cells were transfected with a hormone-inducible reporter gene, and were cultured in the presence of various glucocorticoid ligands. Hormonal inducibility was determined by means of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Dexamethasone and prednisolone, as well as cortisol, induced the expression of the reporter gene in a dose-dependent fashion. The relative potency of each ligand was in this order when inducibility was quantitatively assessed. In conclusion, the transcription assay described here may be a convenient and alternative method to evaluate the relative potency of given glucocorticoids. PMID:7939139

  3. Lack of in vitro efficacy of oral forms of certain cephalosporins, erythromycin, and oxacillin against Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Richwald, G A

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of human isolates of Pasteurella multocida to oral antimicrobial agents from our current study and from a review of the literature suggests that dicloxacillin (oxacillin), erythromycin, clindamycin, cephalexin, cefaclor, and cefadroxil should not be used for empiric therapy of animal bite wounds. Agents that were consistently active against P. multocida were penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and cefuroxime. Possible reasons for the confusion regarding the activity of oral cephalosporins are addressed. PMID:3364944

  4. Matrix effect on the analysis of amphenicols in fish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, L. R.; Tette, P. A. S.; Evangelista, W. P.; Fernandes, C.; Glória, M. B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix effect is an important parameter to be investigated during the development and validation of a method for the quantitative determination of contaminants in food. The objective of this study was to evaluate the matrix effect, through statistical tests, in the quantification of amphenicols in fish by HPLC-MS/MS. The study was performed by comparing the standard curves prepared in solvent solutions and in a fish sample previously known to be free of amphenicols. Since matrix effect was observed for the three analytes, calibration curves for quantification of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and florfenicol should be constructed using the matrix.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates in Germany during 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Imöhl, Matthias; van der Linden, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study of invasive S. pyogenes infections was conducted in Germany. Invasive isolates (n = 1,281) were obtained between 2003 and 2013. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. Tetracycline showed the highest rate of resistant or intermediate resistant isolates with 9.8%, followed by macrolides (4.0%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (1.9%), levofloxacin (1.3%), chloramphenicol (0.9%) and clindamycin (0.7%). The most prominent trends were the appearance of levofloxacin non-susceptible isolates since 2011, and an increase of SXT non-susceptibility since 2012. PMID:26340445

  6. Cholangiohepatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Forrester, S D; Rogers, K S; Relford, R L

    1992-06-01

    Cholangiohepatitis was diagnosed in a dog with a 4-day history of anorexia, vomiting, fever, and icterus. Additional findings included signs of depression, dehydration, hepatosplenomegaly, and abdominal discomfort. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and specimens of liver, spleen, and bile were obtained. Histologic evaluation of liver and spleen revealed acute, suppurative cholangio-hepatitis and splenitis, respectively. Cultures of liver and bile yielded Klebsiella sp. The dog responded to rehydration and intravenous administration of chloramphenicol. Although uncommon, cholangiohepatitis should be suspected in dogs with anorexia, fever, vomiting, icterus, and signs of abdominal discomfort. Definitive diagnosis requires bacterial cultures of liver and bile. Administration of an appropriate antibiotic should resolve clinical signs. PMID:1624352

  7. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by healthy children.

    PubMed

    Millar, M R; Walsh, T R; Linton, C J; Zhang, S; Leeming, J P; Bennett, P M

    2001-05-01

    The frequency of carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in healthy 7- and 8-year-old children in Bristol was studied. Children born in Avon between 1 April 1991 and 31 December 1992, attending the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC) 7 year follow-up clinic, formed the study population. Carriage was estimated using mouth and stool samples. None of 105 children on whom information was available had received tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or an extended-spectrum cephalosporin in the previous year. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from mouthwashes from 200 (37.1%) of 539 children sampled. Six (3%) of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol or tetracycline and four (2%) were methicillin resistant. Haemophilus spp. were isolated from 369 (72%) of 513 samples and 63 (17%) were ampicillin resistant, 49 (13.3%) were erythromycin resistant and seven (1.9%) were tetracycline resistant. Branhamella catarrhalis was isolated from 333 (74%) of 450 samples. Twenty-eight (8.4%) were erythromycin resistant and 14 (4.2%) strains were tetracycline resistant. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci were isolated from 17 of 507 children sampled. One (5.9%) was tetracycline resistant. Stool samples were returned from 335 (62%) of 539 children from whom they were requested. Eleven per cent of samples yielded Gram-negative bacilli with high-level resistance to chloramphenicol, which was frequently linked to resistance to ampicillin, spectinomycin and streptomycin. Isolates demonstrating resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime were recovered from 17 subjects (3.2%). Six (35%) of 17 isolates possessed extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Healthy children carry bacteria resistant to antibiotics to which children are not usually exposed. Resistance to ceftazidime, chloramphenicol and tetracycline may be co-selected by exposure to other antibiotics used in children or may be acquired from family members, pets, other children or

  8. Anthracyclic products from Streptomyces erythromogenes nov. sp. Biotransformation of daunomycin (Dn) by an acellular preparation and synergism between Dn and some known antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, N M; Devys, M; Barbier, M

    1982-01-01

    The filtrate broth as well as mycelium of the new strain Streptomyces erythrochromogenes nov. sp. isolated from Saudi Arabian soil, produce the antitumor antibiotic daunomycin 1 and two anthracyclic derivatives: 7-deoxy 13-dihydrodaunomycinone 2 and 7-deoxy daunomycinone 4. The biotransformation of 1 to 2 and 4 by an acellular enzyme preparation from the strain was found to be NADPH and/or NADH dependent. Mixtures of daunomycin 1 with chloramphenicol or penicillin showed superior antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis ICC strain, than the individual antibiotics. PMID:7113265

  9. Renal lesions associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Grauer, G F; Burgess, E C; Cooley, A J; Hagee, J H

    1988-07-15

    Borrelia burgdorferi infection was diagnosed serologically in a dog with lethargy, stiffness, and anorexia. Treatment with ampicillin and chloramphenicol did not alleviate the signs. Azotemia, proteinuria, cylindruria, pyuria, and hematuria developed over a 3-month period. Antibody titer for B burgdorferi remained high (1:8,192) during this time. Renal histopathologic findings included severe, chronic, diffuse, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and moderate chronic, multifocal, interstitial nephritis. Borrelia burgdorferi organisms were identified in renal tissue and in urine by results of immunofluorescent studies and bacteriologic culture, respectively. PMID:3403355

  10. Association of Pseudomonas cepacia with chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bottone, E J; Douglas, S D; Rausen, A R; Keusch, G T

    1975-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia was recovered from a number of infected sites in three patients with chronic granulomatous disease of childhood. The organisms were identified on the basis of their oxidative utilization of a variety of carbohydrates and their positive beta-galactosidase and oxidase activities. They were resistant to most antimicrobial agents and moderately susceptible to chloramphenicol. Peripheral blood leukocytes isolated from two siblings with chronic granulomatous disease, including one of the patients in this series, failed to kill P. cepacia in vitro. Prolonged prophylactic and antimicrobial therapy may well have played a significant role in the colonization and infection of these patients with P. cepacia. PMID:1176612

  11. Protein synthesis of the sponge Geodia cydonium: Characterization of the system

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Werner E.G.; Müller, Isabel; Zahn, Rudolf K.

    1974-01-01

    The ribosomal population of the sponge Geodia cydonium has been examined. The monosomes have a sedimentation constant of 80 S, the sizes of the subunits are approximately 60 S and 45 S respectively. The polyribosomes contain up to 40 ribosomal units. Cell free protein synthesizing systems (cell homogenate as well as reconstituted system) have been prepared and characterized with respect to Mg2+, KCI and ATP concentrations, temperature, pH and time course of the reaction. In the cell-free system and in the cellular system the protein biosynthesis is inhibited by chloramphenicol. It is not affected by cycloheximide. PMID:10793761

  12. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Cephalosporin resistant Salmonella Typhi, reported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Munir, Tehmina; Lodhi, Munir; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Andleeb, Saadia; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2016-08-01

    Typhoid is endemic in many parts of southeast Asia. Due to the resistance of the organism to first line of antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole) as well as to fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins have been in use for the empiric treatment of typhoid for years. However an increasing incidence of Salmonella Typhi is being reported sporadically from various regions. We report a case of typhoid due to Salmonella Typhi which was non-responsive to treatment with a cephalosporin, was found to be multidrug resistant and resistant to ciprofloxacin and third generation cephalosporin as well. The patient was finally treated successfully with intravenous administration of a carbapenem. PMID:27524545

  13. First Characterization of a Cluster of VanA-Type Glycopeptide-Resistant Enterococcus faecium, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Panesso, Diana; Ospina, Sigifredo; Robledo, Jaime; Vela, María Claudia; Peña, Julieta; Hernández, Orville; Reyes, Jinnethe

    2002-01-01

    From August 1998 to October 1999, glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) were isolated from 23 infected patients at a teaching hospital in Medellín, Colombia. Identification at the species level and by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that all isolates were Enterococcus faecium. The isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, penicillin, streptomycin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin; they were susceptible only to chloramphenicol, linezolid, and nitrofurantoin. Determination of glycopeptide genotype indicated the presence of the vanA gene in all isolates. Molecular typing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that all isolates were closely related. This study is the first molecular characterization of GRE in Colombia. PMID:12194774

  14. Effect of protein-synthesis inhibitors on testosterone production in rat testis interstitial tissue and Leydig-cell preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, B A; Janszen, F H; Clotscher, W F; van der Molen, H J

    1975-01-01

    Luteinizing-hormone-stimulated testosterone biosynthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide during incubation of rat testis intersitial tissue in vitro and also by puromycin and cycloheximide during incubation of Leydig-cell preparations, but not by chloramphenicol. These results suggest that a protein regualtor(s) formed by cytoplasmic protein synthesis is involved in steroidogenesis in the rat testis. The specific effect of cycloheximide and puromycin on protein synthesis rather than on other non-specific processes is suggested by the inhibition of protein synthesis and steroidogenesis with different doses of the inhibitors and the lack of effect of cycloheximide on luteinizing-hormone-induced adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate production. Stimulation of testosterone production by luteinizing hormone during superfusion of interstitial tissue was detectable within 10-20 min and reached a maximum of 120 min, and thereafter slowly decreased. Cycloheximide added at maximum steroid production caused a rapid decrease in testosterone synthesis which followed first-order kinetics (half-life 13 min), thus indicating that the protein regulator(s) has a short half-life. No effect of cycloheximide, puromycin or chloramphenicol on testosterone production in the absence of added luteinizing hormone was found, suggesting that the basal production of testosterone is independent of protein synthesis. PMID:174545

  15. [Analysis of pollution levels of 16 antibiotics in the river water of Daliao River water system].

    PubMed

    Yang, Changqing; Wang, Longxing; Hou, Xiaohong; Chen, Jiping

    2012-08-01

    The detection of the pollution level of antibiotics in Daliao River system is a meaningful work. Sixteen antibiotics (6 sulfonamides, 5 fluoroquinolones, 3 tetracyclines and 2 chloramphenicols) were simultaneously quantified with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the SPE procedure, methanol and 2% (v/v) ammonia/methanol were used as the elution solvents in sequence to reduce the elution volume and improve the recovery. The results showed that this method have good sensitivity and enrichment effect for the target antibiotics in aqueous water, the recoveries ranged from 69.5% to 122.6%, the detection limits ranged from 0.05 ng/L to 0.32 ng/L. Thirteen antibiotics were found in the river water of Daliao River water system. Sulfa antibiotics were widely distributed, in which sulfamethoxazole was detected in all the sampling sites. The concentration of fluoroquinolones was relatively high in some sampling sites. The highest detection concentration of enoxacin was 41.3 ng/L. The frequencies and concentrations of tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were lower. In the upper reaches of the river, the concentrations of the 4 types of antibiotics appeared lower, but around the large cities such as Shenyang City, Benxi City, Liaoyang City, the concentrations showed higher levels. The study indicated that the Daliao River water system suffered from the pollution of antibiotics to a certain extent. PMID:23256376

  16. Randomized Trial of Clarithromycin for Mediterranean Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Anton, Esperança; Muñoz, Tomas; Travería, Francisco Javier; Navarro, Gemma; Font, Bernat; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Segura, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The classic antibiotic treatment for Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is based on tetracyclines or chloramphenicol, but chloramphenicol's bone marrow toxicity makes tetracyclines the treatment of choice. However, it is convenient to have alternatives available for patients who are allergic to tetracyclines, pregnant women, and children <8 years old. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to compare clarithromycin with doxycycline or josamycin in the treatment of MSF. Forty patients were evaluated (23 male; mean age, 39.87 years); 13 patients were aged <14 years. Seventeen patients received clarithromycin, and 23 received doxycycline or josamycin. The interval between the onset of symptoms and the start of treatment was 4.04 ± 1.70 days in the clarithromycin group versus 4.11 ± 1.60 days in the doxycycline/josamycin group (P = not significant [NS]). Time to the disappearance of fever after treatment was 2.67 ± 1.55 days in the clarithromycin group versus 2.22 ± 1.35 days in the doxycycline/josamycin (P = NS). The symptoms had disappeared at 4.70 ± 2.25 days in the clarithromycin group versus at 4.75 ± 3.08 days in the doxycycline/josamycin (P = NS). There were no adverse reactions to treatment or relapses in either group. In conclusion, clarithromycin is a good alternative to doxycycline or josamycin in the treatment of MSF. PMID:26711765

  17. Salmonellae and campylobacters in household and stray dogs in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H-J; Huang, H-C; Lin, C-M; Lien, Y-Y; Chou, C-H

    2007-11-01

    Rectal swabs were collected from 437 household and 491 stray dogs in northern Taiwan from May 2003 to June 2005 to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of salmonellae and campylobacters. The results revealed that 2.1% of household dogs and 6.3% of stray dogs were positive for salmonellae, with Salmonella Duesseldorf being the most dominant serotype in both. Additionally, 2.7% of the household dogs and 23.8% of the stray dogs were positive for campylobacters. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (86.8%), followed by C. upsaliensis (9.3%) and C. coli (3.9%). Both salmonella and campylobacter isolation rates from the stray dogs were significantly higher than those from the household dogs (p < 0.01). The susceptibility of 33 C. jejuni isolates to eight antimicrobials was studied by the E-test. A high rate of resistance was observed to azithromycin (93.9%), clindamycin (87.9%), erythromycin (81.8%), tetracycline (78.8%), chloramphenicol (69.7%), nalidixic acid (51.5%), gentamicin (33.3%), and ciprofloxacin (18.2%). The susceptibility of 40 Salmonella isolates to 15 antimicrobials was also studied by the disc-diffusion method. All the Salmonella isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Resistance was observed most frequently to tetracycline (77.5%), chloramphenicol (52.5%), and ampicillin (50%). PMID:17285243

  18. Discontinuity in DNA replication during expression of accumulated initiation potential in dnaA mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Helmstetter, C E; Krajewski, C A; Leonard, A C; Weinberger, M

    1986-01-01

    Potential for initiation of chromosome replication present in temperature-sensitive, initiation-defective dnaA5 mutants of Escherichia coli B/r incubated at nonpermissive temperature was expressed by shifting to a more permissive temperature (25 degrees C). Upon expression of initiation potential, the rate of [3H]thymidine incorporation varied in a bimodal fashion, i.e., there was an initial burst of incorporation, which lasted 10 to 20 min, then a sudden decrease in incorporation, and finally a second rapid increase in incorporation. Analyses of this incorporation pattern indicated that a round of replication initiated upon expression of initiation potential, but DNA polymerization stopped after replication of 5 to 10% of the chromosome. This round of replication appeared to resume about 30 min later coincident with initiation of a second round of replication. The second initiation was unusually sensitive to low concentrations of novobiocin (ca. 1 microgram/ml) when this inhibitor was added in the presence of chloramphenicol. In the absence of chloramphenicol, novobiocin at this concentration had no detectable effect on DNA replication. It is suggested that cis-acting inhibition, attributable to an attempted second initiation immediately after the first, caused the first round to stall until both it and the second round could resume simultaneously. This DNA replication inhibition, probably caused by overinitiation, could be a consequence of restraints on replication in the vicinity of oriC, possibly topological in nature, which limit the minimum interinitiation interval in E. coli. PMID:3511039

  19. Development of an extrachromosomal cloning vector system for use in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Sartakova, M; Dobrikova, E; Cabello, F C

    2000-04-25

    Molecular genetic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, has been hampered by the absence of any means of efficient generation, identification, and complementation of chromosomal and plasmid null gene mutants. The similarity of borrelial G + C content to that of Gram-positive organisms suggested that a wide-host-range plasmid active in Gram-positive bacteria might also be recognized by borrelial DNA replication machinery. One such plasmid, pGK12, is able to propagate in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and carries erythromycin and chloramphenicol resistance markers. pGK12 propagated extrachromosomally in B. burgdorferi B31 after electroporation but conferred only erythromycin resistance. pGK12 was used to express enhanced green fluorescent protein in B31 under the control of the flaB promoter. Escherichia coli transformed with pGK12 DNA extracted from B31 expressing only erythromycin resistance developed both erythromycin and chloramphenicol resistance, and plasmid DNA isolated from these transformed E. coli had a restriction pattern similar to the original pGK12. Our data indicate that the replicons of pGK12 can provide the basis to continue developing efficient genetic systems for B. burgdorferi together with the erythromycin resistance and reporter egfp genes. PMID:10781091

  20. Identification of a potential lead structure for designing new antimicrobials to treat infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Luiz C S; Abreu, Paula A; Afonso, Ilidio F; Leal, Bruno; Corrêa, Luiz C D; Borges, Júlio C; Marques, Isakelly P; Lourenço, André L; Sathler, Plinio; dos Santos, Andre L; Medeiros, Cid A; Cabral, Lúcio M; Júnior, Maurício L O; Romeiro, Gilberto A; Ferreira, Vitor F; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Castro, Helena C; Bernardino, Alice M R

    2008-11-01

    Bacterial infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. The increase of antibiotic resistance in bacteria from human microbiota-such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, an important nosocomial pathogen that affects immunocompromised patients or those with indwelling devices-increased the desire for new antibiotics. In this study we designed, synthesized, and determined the antimicrobial activity of 27 thieno[2,3-b]pyridines (1, 2, 2a-2m, 3, 3a-3m) derivatives against a drug-resistant clinical S. epidermidis strain. In addition, we performed a structure-activity relationship analysis using a molecular modeling approach, and discuss the drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity profile and Lipinski's "rule of five," which are tools to assess the relationship between structures and drug-like properties of active compounds. Our results showed that compound 3b (5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4-(3;-methylphenylamino)thieno[2,3-b]pyridine) was as active as oxacillin and chloramphenicol but with lower theoretical toxicity risks and a better drug likeness and drug score potential than chloramphenicol. All molecular modeling and biological results reinforced the promising profile of 3b for further experimental investigation and development of new antibacterial drugs. PMID:18810543

  1. Identification and molecular characterization of an efflux system involved in Pseudomonas putida S12 multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Kieboom, J; de Bont, J

    2001-01-01

    The authors previously described srpABC, an operon involved in proton-dependent solvent efflux in the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. Recently, it was shown that organic solvents and not antibiotics induce this operon. In the present study, the authors characterize a new efflux pump, designated ArpABC, on the basis of two isolated chloramphenicol-sensitive transposon mutants. The arpABC operon is involved in the active efflux of multiple antibiotics, such as tetracycline, chloramphenicol, carbenicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin and novobiocin. The deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the three genes involved show a striking resemblance to proteins of the resistance/nodulation/cell division family, which are involved in both organic solvent and multiple drug efflux. These findings demonstrate that ArpABC is highly homologous to the MepABC and TtgABC efflux systems for organic solvents and multiple antibiotics. However, ArpABC does not contribute to organic solvent tolerance in P. putida S12 but is solely involved in multidrug resistance. PMID:11160799

  2. Fusion-mediated transfer of plasmids into Spiroplasma floricola cells.

    PubMed

    Salman, M; Tarshis, M; Rottem, S

    1992-07-01

    We have developed and characterized a system for the transfer of plasmids encapsulated in large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) into Spiroplasma floricola BNR1 cells. The approach is based on the ability of S. floricola-derived LUV to fuse with S. floricola cells. The fusion was continuously monitored by an assay for lipid mixing based on the dequenching of the fluorescent probe octadecylrhodamine B (R18) that was incorporated into LUV at self-quenching concentrations. The fusion was also evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter measurements and by sucrose density gradient analysis. LUV-cell fusion occurred only in the presence of low concentrations (5%) of polyethylene glycol (polyethylene glycol 8000) and depended on temperature, the LUV/cell ratio, and divalent cations in the incubation medium. Throughout the fusion process, spiroplasma cells remained intact and viable. Under optimal fusion conditions, the plasmid pACYC, encapsulated in LUV by reversed-phase evaporation, was transferred into live S. floricola cells and expressed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. The expression was transient with maximal chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity observed after 6 h of incubation of the transfected cells. PMID:1624433

  3. Ionic liquid-anionic surfactant based aqueous two-phase extraction for determination of antibiotics in honey by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Shaohua; Yu, Wei; Liu, Zhongling; Lei, Lei; Li, Na; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Yong

    2014-06-01

    An ionic liquid-anionic surfactant based aqueous two-phase extraction was developed and applied for the extraction of tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol in honey. The honey sample was mixed with Na2EDTA aqueous solution. The sodium dodecyl sulfate, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and sodium chloride were added in the mixture. After the resulting mixture was ultrasonically shaken and centrifuged, the aqueous two phase system was formed and analytes were extracted into the upper phase. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the category and amount of salts, sample pH value, extraction time and temperature were investigated. The limits of detection of tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol were 5.8, 8.2 and 4.2 μg kg(-1), respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of real honey samples, the recoveries of analytes ranged from 85.5 to 110.9% and relative standard deviations were lower than 6.9%. PMID:24767438

  4. EBNA-2 transactivates a lymphoid-specific enhancer in the BamHI C promoter of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, N S; Kenney, S; Gutsch, D; Pagano, J S

    1991-01-01

    Among the few Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genes expressed during latency are the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNAs), at least one of which contributes to the ability of the virus to transform B lymphocytes. We have analyzed a promoter located in the BamHI-C fragment of EBV which is responsible for the expression of EBNA-1 in some cell lines. Deletion analysis of a 1.4-kb region 5' of the RNA start site has identified a 700-bp fragment that is required for optimal promoter activity in latently infected B lymphocytes, as shown by promoter constructs linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. This fragment is also able to enhance activity, in an orientation-independent manner, of the simian virus 40 early promoter linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. The enhancer element has some constitutive activity in EBV-negative lymphoid cells, which is increased in the presence of the EBNA-2 gene product. Further deletions have shown that the EBNA-2-responsive region requires a 98-bp region that contains a degenerate octamer-binding motif. In epithelial cells there was no enhancer activity regardless of the presence of EBNA-2. These results demonstrate that BamHI-C promoter activity may be dependent not on an enhancer contained in the ori-P, as was previously assumed, but rather on EBNA-2 transactivation of this more proximal enhancer located in the upstream region of the BamHI C promoter itself. Images PMID:1850003

  5. Detection limits of antimicrobials in ewe milk by delvotest photometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Althaus, R L; Torres, A; Montero, A; Balasch, S; Molina, M P

    2003-02-01

    The Delvotest method detection limits per manufacturer's instructions at a fixed reading time of 3 h for 24 antimicrobial agents were determined in ewe milk by photometric measurement. For each drug, eight concentrations were tested on 20 ewe milk samples from individual ewes. Detection limits, determined by means of logistic regression models, were (microg/kg): 3, amoxycillin; 2, ampicillin; 18, cloxacillin; 1, penicillin "G"; 34, cefadroxil; 430, cephalosporin "C"; 40, cephalexin; 20, cefoperazone; 33, Ceftiofur; 18, cefuroxime; 6100, streptomycin; 1200, gentamycin; 2600, neomycin; 830, erythromycin; 100, tylosin; 180, doxycycline; 320, oxytetracycline; 590, tetracycline; 88, sulfadiazine; 44, sulfamethoxazole; 140, sulfametoxypyridazine; 48, sulfaquinoxaline; 12,000, chloramphenicol; and 290, trimethoprim. Whereas the beta-lactam antibiotics, sulphonamides, and tylosin were detected by Delvotest method at levels equal to those of maximum residue limits, its sensitivity needs to be enhanced to detect aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim residues in ewe milk or to develop an integrated residue detection system for ewe milk with different sensitive microorganisms for each group of antiinfectious agents. PMID:12647952

  6. Mechanism of suppression of the long terminal repeat of Moloney leukemia virus in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukiyama, T; Niwa, O; Yokoro, K

    1989-01-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that bind to the long terminal repeat (LTR) of Moloney leukemia virus in undifferentiated and differentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells were identified by gel retardation assay. The proteins that bind to the CCAAT box were present in both undifferentiated and differentiated EC cells. The amounts and the number of species of the proteins that bind to the enhancer and the GC-rich region were far lower in undifferentiated EC cells than in the differentiated counterparts. These proteins were supposed to be transcriptional activators. Proteins that bind upstream of the enhancer, namely, the -352 to -346 region and the -407 to -404 region, were identified. These proteins were designated the embryonic LTR-binding protein (ELP) and the LTR-binding protein, respectively. The ELP was present only in undifferentiated EC cell lines. The LTR-binding protein was detected in all cell lines tested. The mechanism of suppression of the LTR was investigated by the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. The enhancer and the GC-rich region of the LTR functioned poorly in undifferentiated cells. When eight copies of ELP-binding sequences were inserted upstream of the enhancer region, expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was reduced about threefold in ECA2 cells. From these data, we concluded that two mechanisms, the shortage of activator proteins and the presence of a negative regulatory protein (ELP), are involved in the suppression of the LTR in undifferentiated EC cells. Images PMID:2601693

  7. Multicenter Study of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Anaerobic Bacteria in Korea in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yeon-Joon; Kim, Mi-Na; Uh, Young; Kim, Myung Sook

    2015-01-01

    Background Periodic monitoring of regional or institutional resistance trends of clinically important anaerobic bacteria is recommended, because the resistance of anaerobic pathogens to antimicrobial drugs and inappropriate therapy are associated with poor clinical outcomes. There has been no multicenter study of clinical anaerobic isolates in Korea. We aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinically important anaerobes at multiple centers in Korea. Methods A total of 268 non-duplicated clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria were collected from four large medical centers in Korea in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar dilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. The following antimicrobials were tested: piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and tigecycline. Results Organisms of the Bacteroides fragilis group were highly susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem, as their resistance rates to these three antimicrobials were lower than 6%. For B. fragilis group isolates and anaerobic gram-positive cocci, the resistance rates to moxifloxacin were 12-25% and 11-13%, respectively. Among B. fragilis group organisms, the resistance rates to tigecycline were 16-17%. Two isolates of Finegoldia magna were non-susceptible to chloramphenicol (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16-32 mg/L). Resistance patterns were different among the different hospitals. Conclusions Piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, and carbapemems are highly active β-lactam agents against most of the anaerobes. The resistance rates to moxifloxacin and tigecycline are slightly higher than those in the previous study. PMID:26206683

  8. A novel cis-acting element is essential for cytokine-mediated transcriptional induction of the serum amyloid A gene in nonhepatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, A; Ray, B K

    1996-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a plasma protein which has been associated with several diseases, including amyloidosis, arthritis, and atherosclerosis, and its abnormal expression, particularly in nonhepatic cells, is implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Transfection and DNA-binding studies were performed to investigate the mechanism controlling cytokine-induced, nonhepatic expression of the SAA gene. We have identified a novel promoter, located between positions -280 and 224, that confers interleukin-6 (IL-6) inducibility to an SAA-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in both nonhepatic and hepatic cells. DNase I protection assays revealed, within this region, three homologous highly pyrimidine rich octanucleotide sequence motifs, termed SAA-activating sequences (SAS). Specific mutations within these three SAS motifs severely reduced IL-6-mediated induction of the reporter gene in transfected nonhepatic cells but not in liver cells. A nuclear factor activated by IL-6 in both hepatic and nonhepatic cells efficiently interacts with the SAS. The induction kinetics and cycloheximide sensitivity of this SAS-binding factor (SAF) suggested that de novo synthesis of this factor itself or an activator protein is essential. Loss of DNA-binding ability as a result of in vitro dephosphorylation, induction of SAA-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene activity in the presence of genistein, a protein kinase inhibitor, further indicate that a phosphorylation step is necessary for the activation of SAF. Our results suggest that SAF is a key regulator of cytokine-mediated SAA gene expression in some nonhepatic cells. PMID:8657133

  9. Identification of the satA gene encoding a streptogramin A acetyltransferase in Enterococcus faecium BM4145.

    PubMed Central

    Rende-Fournier, R; Leclercq, R; Galimand, M; Duval, J; Courvalin, P

    1993-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium BM4145, a clinical isolate from urine, was resistant to streptogramin group A antibiotics by inactivation. The strain harbored a plasmid containing a gene, satA, responsible for this resistance; this gene was cloned and sequenced. It encoded SatA, a protein deduced to be 23,634 Da in mass and homologous with a new family of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases described in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The similarity of SatA to other acetyltransferases, LacA (thiogalactoside acetyltransferase) and CysE (serine acetyltransferase) from E. coli, and to two putative acetyltransferases, NodL from Rhizobium leguminosarum and Urf1 from E. coli, was also observed in a region considered to be the enzyme's active site. Acetylation experiments indicated that acetyl coenzyme A was necessary for SatA activity and that a single acetylated derivative of pristinamycin IIA was produced. Other members of the streptogramin A group such as virginiamycin M and RP54476 were also substrates for the enzyme. We conclude that resistance to the streptogramin A group of antibiotics in E. faecium BM4145 is due to acetylation by an enzyme related to the novel chloramphenicol acetyltransferase family. Images PMID:8257133

  10. Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus castoreus isolated from carcasses of European beavers (Castor fiber) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christoph; Kutzer, Peter; Winterhoff, Nora; Engelhardt, Andreas; Bilk, Sabine; Teubner, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) castoreus was isolated from seven beavers (Castor fiber), which were found dead in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany, and submitted to the Berlin-Brandenburg State laboratory for post mortem diagnostics. The isolates originated from various inflammatory processes where they were associated with other Gram negative and Gram positive aerobic and/or anaerobic bacteria (i. e. Actinobacillus sp., species of the Actinomycetaceae family, coliform bacteria, Fusobacterium sp., Prevotella sp.), but also from cloacal swabs. Testing their antimicrobial susceptibility, all S. castoreus isolates and the type strain S. castoreus (DSM 17536) were classified as being susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 1st generation cephalosporins, erythromycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicole but intermediate to gentamicin. Considering both the polymicrobial flora isolated from the inflamed tissues and the fact that antimicrobials of a narrow spectrum (namely penicillins, 1st generation cephalosporins, macrolids and lincosamids) can be toxic to rodents, chloramphenicol might be a suitable drug for treatment of beavers suffering from S. castoreus (mixed)-bacterial infections. PMID:26591385

  11. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-binding sites on the chicken vitellogenin II gene: synergism of steroid hormone action.

    PubMed

    Cato, A C; Heitlinger, E; Ponta, H; Klein-Hitpass, L; Ryffel, G U; Bailly, A; Rauch, C; Milgrom, E

    1988-12-01

    The chicken vitellogenin II gene is transcriptionally activated by estrogens. In transient transfection experiments in human T47D cells that contain receptors for various steroids, we showed estradiol, progestin, and androgen responses of a chimeric chicken vitellogenin II construct. This construct consists of DNA sequences from -626 to -590 upstream of the start of transcription of the chicken vitellogenin gene linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter driving the transcription of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Treatment of the transfected T47D cells with a combination of estradiol and the progestin R5020 led to a superinduction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, showing a synergistic action of these two steroids. This synergism was not observed upon treatment of the transfected cells with estradiol and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Using point mutations in the vitellogenin gene fragment, we showed in functional and in in vitro DNase I footprinting assays with a purified progesterone receptor that, for the synergistic action of estradiol and R5020 to occur, the progesterone receptor must be bound to the vitellogenin gene fragment. The progesterone receptor-binding site was localized at -610 to -590, close to the consensus sequence (-626 to -613) for estrogen receptor binding and function. We therefore demonstrate here that two different steroid hormones can be functionally synergistic through the interaction of their corresponding receptors with two different binding sites adjacent to one another. PMID:3244357

  12. Simultaneous determination of loganin, morroniside, catalpol and acteoside in normal and chronic kidney disease rat plasma by UPLC-MS for investigating the pharmacokinetics of Rehmannia glutinosa and Cornus officinalis Sieb drug pair extract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Tao, Jinhua; Qian, Dawei; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-xin; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Su, Shu-lan; Duan, Jin-ao; Du, Leyue

    2016-01-15

    A sensitive and rapid method for determination of loganin, morroniside, catalpol and acteoside in rat plasma after oral administration of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch and Cornus officinalis Sieb drug pair based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min, using gradient mode containing 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile were used as the mobile phase A and B. Loganin, morroniside, catalpol, acteoside and the internal standard (chloramphenicol) were detected by selected reaction monitoring in the negative ion mode with the mass transition of m/z 451.0→179.0 (morroniside), m/z 435.0→227.0 (loganin), m/z 407.1→199.1 (catalpol), m/z 623.2→161.0 (acteoside) and m/z 320.8→151.9 (chloramphenicol), respectively. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.991). The precision was evaluated by intra-day and inter-day assays and the RSD% were all within 9.58%. The recovery ranged from 67.62 to 80.14%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of the analytes in normal and doxorubicin-induced chronic kidney disease rat plasma. PMID:26720701

  13. A new inducible expression system in a transformed green alga, Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Niu, Y F; Zhang, M H; Xie, W H; Li, J N; Gao, Y F; Yang, W D; Liu, J S; Li, H Y

    2011-01-01

    Genetic transformation is useful for basic research and applied biotechnology. However, genetic transformation of microalgae is usually quite difficult due to the technical limitations of existing methods. We cloned the promoter and terminator of the nitrate reductase gene from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum and used them for optimization of a transformation system of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris. This species has been used for food production and is a promising candidate as a bioreactor for large-scale production of value-added proteins. A construct was made containing the CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) reporter gene driven by the nitrate reductase promoter. This construct was transferred into the C. vulgaris genome by electroporation. Expression of CAT in transgenic Chlorella conferred resistance to the antibiotic chloramphenicol and enabled growth in selective media. Overall efficiency for the transformation was estimated to be approximately 0.03%, which is relatively high compared with other available Chlorella transformation systems. Expression of CAT was induced in the presence of nitrate and inhibited in the presence of ammonium as a sole nitrogen source. This study presented an inducible recombinant gene expression system, also providing more gene regulation elements with potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:22033900

  14. Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from an Urban Lake Receiving Water from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Mexico City: Fecal Pollution and Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Irma; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Espinosa, Norma; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2015-10-01

    The presence of enteric bacteria in water bodies is a cause of public health concerns, either by directly causing water- and food-borne diseases, or acting as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance determinants. Water is used for crop irrigation; and sediments and aquatic plants are used as fertilizing supplements and soil conditioners. In this work, the bacterial load of several micro-environments of the urban lake of Xochimilco, in Mexico City, was characterized. We found a differential distribution of enteric bacteria between the water column, sediment, and the rhizoplane of aquatic plants, with human fecal bacteria concentrating in the sediment, pointing to the need to assess such bacterial load for each micro-environment, for regulatory agricultural purposes, instead of only the one of the water, as is currently done. Resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was common among Escherichia coli isolates, but was also differentially distributed, being again higher in sediment isolates. A distinct distribution of chloramphenicol minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) among these isolates suggests the presence of a local selective pressure favoring lower MICs than those of isolates from treated water. Fecal bacteria of human origin, living in water bodies along with their antibiotic resistance genes, could be much more common than typically considered, and pose a higher health risk, if assessments are only made on the water column of such bodies. PMID:26198413

  15. MICROBIOLOGICAL DISSIMILATION OF TRICARBALLYLATE AND TRANS-ACONITATE1

    PubMed Central

    Altekar, W. W.; Rao, M. R. Raghavendra

    1963-01-01

    Altekar, W. W. (National Chemical Laboratory, Poona, India) and M. R. Raghavendra Rao. Microbiological dissimilation of tricarballylate and trans-aconitate. J. Bacteriol. 85:604–613. 1963.—Two fluorescent pseudomonads capable of metabolizing tricarballylate and trans-aconitate were isolated by the soil-enrichment culture technique. These and some other species of bacteria were tested for their ability to utilize for growth the salts of many di- and tricarboxylic acids. Alloisocitrate and mesaconate were not utilized by any of the ten strains tested; only two strains grew on tricarballylate and itaconate. trans-Aconitate was utilized by many strains which had not been previously exposed to this compound. The resting cells of two strains could adapt to oxidize two acids (tricarballylate and trans-aconitate), and this induction was chloramphenicol-sensitive. The tricarballylate-grown cells were simultaneously induced to oxidize trans-aconitate and other tricarboxylates, whereas the trans-aconitate-grown cells were not induced to oxidize tricarballylate, and their subsequent induction was inhibited by chloramphenicol. This trans-aconitate or tricarballylate. But tricarballylate dehydrogenase was present only in tricarballylate-grown cells. The cell-free extracts of the two organisms contained the enzymes of the Krebs cycle and isocitritase. These enzymes are most probably operative during growth on and oxidation of these two acids as sole carbon sources. PMID:14042938

  16. Differing ability to transport non-metal substrates by two RND-type metal exporters

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Otakuye; Kim, Eun-Hae; McEvoy, Megan M.; Rensing, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The metal-exporting systems CusCFBA of Escherichia coli and GesABC of Salmonella are RND-type multi-protein systems responsible for detoxification during metal stress. In this study the substrate range was determined for each metal transport system and possible amino acid residues important in substrate specificity identified. The Ges system, previously identified as a gold-efflux system, conferred resistance to the greatest number and variety of organic chemicals including chloramphenicol, not previously recognized as a substrate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GesB is most closely related to a class of RND transporters including MexF that have been shown to be responsible for exporting fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, and biocides. However, many of the closest homologs of GesABC appear to have a role in metal resistance judging from the genetic context. In contrast, CusCFBA belongs to a distinct family of RND-type monovalent metal exporter systems containing a number of essential metal-binding methionines resulting in a much narrower substrate range. PMID:20497225

  17. Mycotoxigenic fungi and natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela

    2015-11-01

    Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples. PMID:26556374

  18. Expression and organization of BP74, a cyclic AMP-regulated gene expressed during Dictyostelium discoideum development.

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, S B; Pollenz, R S; Drummond, I; Chisholm, R L

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized a cDNA and the corresponding gene for a cyclic AMP-inducible gene expressed during Dictyostelium development. This gene, BP74, was found to be first expressed about the time of aggregate formation, approximately 6 h after starvation. Accumulation of BP74 mRNA did not occur in Dictyostelium cells that had been starved in fast-shaken suspension cultures but was induced in similar cultures to which cyclic AMP pulses had been added. The BP74 cDNA and gene were characterized by DNA sequence analysis and transcriptional mapping. When the BP74 promoter region was fused with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene and reintroduced into Dictyostelium cells, the transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene displayed the same developmentally regulated pattern of expression as did the endogenous BP74 gene, suggesting that all of the cis-acting elements required for regulated expression were carried by a 2-kilobase cloned genomic fragment. On the basis of sequence analysis, the gene appeared to encode a protein containing a 20-residue hydrophobic sequence at the amino-terminal end and 26 copies of a 20-amino-acid repeat. Images PMID:2555685

  19. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States (2001-2013).

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to select antimicrobials over time. SAMPLE 462 Salmonella isolates from horses. PROCEDURES Retrospective data were collected for all Salmonella isolates obtained from equine specimens that were submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2013. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella isolates were investigated for each of 13 antimicrobials by use of the Cochran-Armitage trend test. RESULTS The prevalence of resistant isolates varied among antimicrobials and ranged from 0% (imipenem) to 51.5% (chloramphenicol). During the observation period, the prevalence of resistant isolates decreased significantly for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline and remained negligible for amikacin and enrofloxacin. Of the 337 isolates for which the susceptibility to all 13 antimicrobials was determined, 138 (40.9%) were pansusceptible and 192 (57.0%) were multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial classes). The most common serovar isolated was Salmonella Newport, and although the annual prevalence of that serovar decreased significantly over time, that decrease had only a minimal effect on the observed antimicrobial resistance trends. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that current antimicrobial use in horses is not promoting the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains in the region served by the laboratory. PMID:27111018

  20. Thermal injury and recovery of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Ordal, Z J

    1972-12-01

    Exposure of Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236 to sublethal temperatures produced a change in the sensitivity of the organism to salt and polymyxin. After 30 min at 47 C, 90% of the population was unable to grow on a modified sulfite polymyxin sulfadiazine agar containing an added 1% NaCl, 1% glucose, and 1% asparagine. The data presented demonstrate that thermal injury results in degradation of both 16S and 23S ribonucleic acid (RNA) and in damage to the cell membrane, suggested by leakage into the heating mestruum of material absorbing at 260 nm. When the cells were placed in a recovery medium (Trypticase soy broth), complete recovery, indicated by a returned tolerance to salt and polymyxin, occurred within 2 hr. The presence of a protein inhibitor (chloramphenicol) and cell wall inhibitors (vancomycin and penicillin) during recovery had no effect, whereas the presence of an RNA inhibitor (actinomycin D) effectively inhibited recovery. Further data demonstrated that the injured cells were able to resynthesize both species of ribosomal RNA during recovery by using the fragments which resulted from the injury process. Also, precursor 16S and precursor 23S particles accumulated during recovery. The maturation of the precursor particles during recovery was not affected by the presence of chloramphenicol in the recovery medium. PMID:4346627

  1. A SAM-dependent methyltransferase cotranscribed with arsenate reductase alters resistance to peptidyl transferase center-binding antibiotics in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir; Singh, Chhaya; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2014-05-01

    The genome of Azospirillum brasilense harbors a gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, which is located downstream of an arsenate reductase gene. Both genes are cotranscribed and translationally coupled. When they were cloned and expressed individually in an arsenate-sensitive strain of Escherichia coli, arsenate reductase conferred tolerance to arsenate; however, methyltransferase failed to do so. Sequence analysis revealed that methyltransferase was more closely related to a PrmB-type N5-glutamine methyltransferase than to the arsenate detoxifying methyltransferase ArsM. Insertional inactivation of prmB gene in A. brasilense resulted in an increased sensitivity to chloramphenicol and resistance to tiamulin and clindamycin, which are known to bind at the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) in the ribosome. These observations suggested that the inability of prmB:km mutant to methylate L3 protein might alter hydrophobicity in the antibiotic-binding pocket of the PTC, which might affect the binding of chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and tiamulin differentially. This is the first report showing the role of PrmB-type N5-glutamine methyltransferases in conferring resistance to tiamulin and clindamycin in any bacterium. PMID:24573606

  2. Microbial strain improvement for organosulfur removal from coal. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II; Ho, K.

    1993-05-01

    IGT has developed a microbial culture of Rhodococcus rhodochrous, designated as IGTS8, that is capable of specifically cleaving carbon-sulfur bonds in a range of organosulfur model compounds and is capable of removing organic sulfur from coal and petroleum without significantly sacrificing the calorific value of the fuel. Although IGTSS possesses the ability to specifically remove organic sulfur from coal, a major research need is to develop strains of microorganisms that possess higher levels of desulfurization activity. During the past quarter, the DNA sequence of the promoter region of the chloramphenicol resistance gene of pRF2 was determined and tentatively localized to a 50 bp region. To further define the important sequences of this promoter mutants were generated that may have altered promoters allowing higher levels of expression of the chloramphenicol resistance gene. The promoter region from twenty such mutants has been subcloned. Additionally, promoter probe vectors were used to isolate small DNA fragments from the chromosome that possess promoters. These studies will lead to the identification and/or the construction of particularly strong Rhodococcus promoters which will subsequently be used to express the desulfurization genes.

  3. Genes That Enhance the Ecological Fitness of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in Sediments Reveal the Value of Antibiotic Resistance▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Jennifer L.; Luo, Qingwei; Ballard, Jimmy D.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental bacteria persist in various habitats, yet little is known about the genes that contribute to growth and survival in their respective ecological niches. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 coupled with a screen involving incubations of mutant strains in anoxic aquifer sediments allowed us to identify 47 genes that enhance fitness in sediments. Gene functions inferred from annotations provide us with insight into physiological and ecological processes that environmental bacteria use while growing in sediment ecosystems. Identification of the mexF gene and other potential membrane efflux components by STM demonstrated that homologues of multidrug resistance genes present in pathogens are required for sediment fitness of nonpathogenic bacteria. Further studies with a mexF deletion mutant demonstrated that the multidrug resistance pump encoded by mexF is required for resistance to antibiotics, including chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Chloramphenicol-adapted cultures exhibited mutations in the gene encoding a TetR family regulatory protein, indicating a role for this protein in regulating expression of the mexEF operon. The relative importance of mexF for sediment fitness suggests that antibiotic efflux may be a required process for bacteria living in sediment systems. PMID:17114320

  4. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-binding sites on the chicken vitellogenin II gene: synergism of steroid hormone action.

    PubMed Central

    Cato, A C; Heitlinger, E; Ponta, H; Klein-Hitpass, L; Ryffel, G U; Bailly, A; Rauch, C; Milgrom, E

    1988-01-01

    The chicken vitellogenin II gene is transcriptionally activated by estrogens. In transient transfection experiments in human T47D cells that contain receptors for various steroids, we showed estradiol, progestin, and androgen responses of a chimeric chicken vitellogenin II construct. This construct consists of DNA sequences from -626 to -590 upstream of the start of transcription of the chicken vitellogenin gene linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter driving the transcription of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Treatment of the transfected T47D cells with a combination of estradiol and the progestin R5020 led to a superinduction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, showing a synergistic action of these two steroids. This synergism was not observed upon treatment of the transfected cells with estradiol and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Using point mutations in the vitellogenin gene fragment, we showed in functional and in in vitro DNase I footprinting assays with a purified progesterone receptor that, for the synergistic action of estradiol and R5020 to occur, the progesterone receptor must be bound to the vitellogenin gene fragment. The progesterone receptor-binding site was localized at -610 to -590, close to the consensus sequence (-626 to -613) for estrogen receptor binding and function. We therefore demonstrate here that two different steroid hormones can be functionally synergistic through the interaction of their corresponding receptors with two different binding sites adjacent to one another. Images PMID:3244357

  5. Effects of dissolved organic matter from a eutrophic lake on the freely dissolved concentrations of emerging organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi-Hua; Huang, Qing-Hui; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Li, Fei-Peng; Chen, Ling

    2014-08-01

    The authors studied the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the bioavailability of bisphenol A (BPA) and chloramphenicol by measuring the freely dissolved concentrations of the contaminants in solutions containing DOM that had been isolated from a mesocosm in a eutrophic lake. The abundance and aromaticity of the chromophoric DOM increased over the 25-d mesocosm experiment. The BPA freely dissolved concentration was 72.3% lower and the chloramphenicol freely dissolved concentration was 56.2% lower using DOM collected on day 25 than using DOM collected on day 1 of the mesocosm experiment. The freely dissolved concentrations negatively correlated with the ultraviolent absorption coefficient at 254 nm and positively correlated with the spectral slope of chromophoric DOM, suggesting that the bioavailability of these emerging organic contaminants depends on the characteristics of the DOM present. The DOM-water partition coefficients (log KOC ) for the emerging organic contaminants positively correlated with the aromaticity of the DOM, measured as humic acid-like fluorescent components C1 (excitation/emission=250[313]/412 nm) and C2 (excitation/emission=268[379]/456 nm). The authors conclude that the bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants in eutrophic lakes can be affected by changes in the DOM. PMID:24839192

  6. Role of signal peptides in targeting of proteins in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Mackle, M M; Zilinskas, B A

    1994-01-01

    Proteins of cyanobacteria may be transported across one of two membrane systems: the typical eubacterial cell envelope (consisting of an inner membrane, periplasmic space, and an outer membrane) and the photosynthetic thylakoids. To investigate the role of signal peptides in targeting in cyanobacteria, Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 was transformed with vectors carrying the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene fused to coding sequences for one of four different signal peptides. These included signal peptides of two proteins of periplasmic space origin (one from Escherichia coli and the other from Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942) and two other signal peptides of proteins located in the thylakoid lumen (one from a cyanobacterium and the other from a higher plant). The location of the gene fusion products expressed in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 was determined by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of subcellular fractions. The distribution pattern for gene fusions with periplasmic signal peptides was different from that of gene fusions with thylakoid lumen signal peptides. Primary sequence analysis revealed conserved features in the thylakoid lumen signal peptides that were absent from the periplasmic signal peptides. These results suggest the importance of the signal peptide in protein targeting in cyanobacteria and point to the presence of signal peptide features conserved between chloroplasts and cyanobacteria for targeting of proteins to the thylakoid lumen. Images PMID:8144451

  7. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enteric pathogens in Chinese paediatric diarrhoea: a multicentre retrospective study, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Pan, F; Zhao, X; Wang, G; Tu, Y; Fu, S; Wang, J; Pan, J; Song, J; Wang, W; Jin, Z; Xu, H; Ren, Y; Li, Y; Zhong, N

    2015-09-01

    The enteric pathogens causing diarrhoea impair children's health severely. This study retrospectively analysed 1577 pathogens isolated from inpatients and outpatients in six hospitals located in Northern (Inner Mongolia), Northeastern (Hebei), Eastern (Shanghai and Jiangsu), Southern (Hainan) and Central (Hubei) China between 2008 and 2013. Of the 1577 enteric pathogens, Salmonella presented with the highest frequency (36·0%), followed by diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (23·7%), Staphylococcus aureus (15·0%), Shigella (13·1%), and Aeromonas (4·6%). The predominant pathogens varied in different regions of China, with Salmonella most prevalent in Shanghai and Hainan, diarrhoeagenic E. coli most prevalent in Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu and Hubei, and Shigella most prevalent in Hebei. Enteric pathogens were more frequently isolated in males (56·9%) than in females (43·1%). The highest proportion of all enteric pathogens was found in infants (67·6%) with a peak in summer and autumn (68·5%). Antimicrobial susceptibility assay demonstrated that Shigella was more resistant to ampicillin, ceftriaxone and sulfamethoxazole than Salmonella. Of the top two serotypes in Salmonella, Typhimurium was more resistant to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol than Enteritidis (P < 0·001). Meanwhile, the resistance rates of Shigella flexneri against ampicillin/sulbactam, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol were significantly higher than those of Shigella sonnei (P < 0·001). Multidrug resistance was apparent in 58·2% of Shigella and 45·9% of Salmonella, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in S. flexneri. PMID:25586929

  8. Clonal expansion accounts for an excess of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus colonising HIV-positive individuals in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olalekan, Adesola O; Schaumburg, Frieder; Nurjadi, Dennis; Dike, Adobi E; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Kolawole, Deboye O; Kun, Jürgen F; Zanger, Philipp

    2012-09-01

    Nasal colonisation with Staphylococcus aureus is a risk factor for invasive infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. This study aimed to characterise colonising S. aureus from regions with a high HIV prevalence. Single nasal swabs were taken from a total of 374 HIV-positive and 370 healthy individuals. Overall, 202 S. aureus carriers were detected. Compared with healthy individuals, HIV-positive subjects were more likely to be S. aureus nasal carriers (33% vs. 21%; P=0.0001). Isolates from HIV-positive individuals were more often resistant to meticillin (16% vs. 8%; P=0.13), chloramphenicol (47% vs. 16%; P<0.0001), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) (90% vs. 55%; P<0.0001) and ciprofloxacin (18% vs. 0%; P<0.0001). Strains belonging to the spa clonal complexes 3772/ST25 and 064/ST8 were significantly more often isolated from HIV-positive individuals and exhibited greater resistance to ciprofloxacin, SXT and chloramphenicol (spa-CC 3772) or to meticillin (spa-CC 064), respectively. Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene content was high overall and was equally distributed between isolates from HIV-positive and healthy individuals (33% vs. 30%). Genotypic characteristics of colonising isolates were similar to those reported to cause invasive infection in Nigeria. The HIV pandemic contributes to the evolution of antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus. Measures to contain antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in Nigeria must target risk groups such as HIV-positive individuals. PMID:22831840

  9. Microbial strain improvement for organosulfur removal from coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II

    1993-12-31

    IGT has developed a microbial culture of Rhodococcus rhodochrous, designated as IGTS8, that is capable of specifically cleaving carbon-sulfur bonds in a range of organosulfur model compounds and is capable of removing organic sulfur from coal and petroleum without significantly sacrificing the calorific value of the fuel. Although IGTS8 possesses the ability to specifically remove organic sulfur from coal, a major research need is to develop improved strains of microorganisms that possess higher levels of desulfurization activity and therefore will permit more favorable biodesulfurization process conditions: faster rates, more complete removal, and smaller reactor size. Strain improvement is the single most important aspect to the development of a practical coal biodesulfurization process and accordingly is the focus of research in this project. During the past year, significant progress was made toward improving the biodesulfurization capabilities of Rhodococcus Rhodochrous IGTS8. The main objective was to identify and characterize strong promoters of IGTS8. The DNA sequencing of the promoter region and chloramphenicol resistance gene of pRF2, as well as six mutant promoters, was determined. The 16S structural gene of IGTS8 was isolated and used to identify the putative promoter of this gene. Four promoter probe vectors were constructed and are currently being used to analyze the strength of Rhodococcus promoters: from the IGTS8 genome, mutants of promoters from the chloramphenicol resistance gene of pRF2, the promoter from the 16S RNA gene, and various strong inducible promoters.

  10. Quantification of antibiotic drug potency by a two-compartment radioassay of bacterial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Kirchner, P.T. )

    1990-06-01

    The two-compartment radioassay for microbial kinetics based on continuous measurement of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} released by bacterial metabolism of 14C-labeled substrate offers a valuable approach to testing the potency of antimicrobial drugs. By using a previously validated radioassay with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, a group of protein synthesis inhibitors was evaluated for their effect on microbial growth kinetics. All tested drugs induced changes in both the slopes and intercepts of the growth curves. An exponential growth model was applied to quantify the drug effect on the processes of bacterial {sup 14}CO{sub 2} liberation and cell generation. The response was measured in terms of a generation rate constant. A linear dependence of the generation rate constant on the dose of spectinomycin was observed with Escherichia coli. Sigmoidal-shaped curves were found in the assays of chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The implications of dose-response curves are discussed on the basis of the receptor site concept for drug action. The assay sensitivities for chloramphenicol and tetracycline were similar to those obtained by the cell counting method, but the sensitivity of the radioassay was at least 10 times greater for spectinomycin.

  11. Assimilatory sulfur metabolism in marine microorganisms: sulfur metabolism, protein synthesis, and growth of Alteromonas luteo - violaceus and Pseudomonas halodurans during perturbed batch growth

    SciTech Connect

    Cuhel, R.L.; Taylor, C.D.; Jannasch, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The antibiotic protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol specifically blocked the incorporation of (35 S) sulfate into the residue protein of two marine bacteria, Pseudomonas halodurans and Alteromonas luteo-violaceus. Simultaneous inhibition of total protein synthesis occurred, but incorporation of 35 S into low-molecular-weight organic compounds continued. A. luteo-violaceus rapidly autolyzed, with similar reduction in cell counts, total culture protein and cellular sulfur, whereas P. halodurans remained viable. Treatment with chloramphenicol, growth during nitrogen and carbon limitation, and the carbon and energy sources used for growth did not alter the sulfur content of P. halodurans protein. The mean value (1.09%, by weight), representing a wide variety of environmentally relevant growth conditions, was in agreement with model protein composition. The variability of cellular composition of P. halodurnas and A. luteo-violaceus is discussed with respect to the measurement of bacterial growth in natural environments. Total carbon and nitrogen per cell varied greatly (coefficient of variation, ca. 100%) depending on growth conditions. Variation in total sulfur and protein per cell was much less (coefficient of variation, less than 50%), but the least variation was found for sulfate incorporation into residue protein (coefficient of variation, ca. 15%). Thus, sulfate incorporation into residue protein can be used as an accurate measurement of de novo protein synthesis in these bacteria. (Refs. 26).

  12. Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Spectrofluorometric Characterization of Azomethine as Intermediate for Transition Metal Complexes with Biological Application.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Mohie E M; Asiri, Abdullah M; Khan, Salman A

    2016-05-01

    Azomethine (1, 5 - Dimethyl - 2 - phenyl -[(3, 4, 5 -trimethoxybenzylidene) amino] -1, 2 - dihydropyrazol - 3 - one) (DTAD) was synthesized by the reaction of 4-aminophenazone with 3,4,5 trimrthoxybenzaldehyd by microwave irradiation. Physicochemical studies such as electronic absorption, molar absorptivity, oscillator strength, dipole moment, florescent quantum yield were investigated in order to explore the analytical potential of azomethine dye. Azomethine go through the solubilization in different micelles and may be used as a probe or quencher to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SDS and CTAB. It's coordinate to metal salt through the pyrazol-3-one oxygen and the azomethine nitrogen. The structure of ligand and its meal complexes was elucidated by IR, (1)H, (13)C-NMR, EI-MS spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. The antibacterial activity of these compounds were first tested in vitro by the disc diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration was using chloramphenicol as reference drug. The results showed that compound 1.1 is better inhibitor of both types of tested bacteria as compared to chloramphenicol. PMID:27048225

  13. Transformation of Rhodococcus fascians by high-voltage electroporation and development of R. fascians cloning vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Desomer, J.; Dhaese, P.; Montagu, M.V. )

    1990-09-01

    The analysis of the virulence determinants of phytopathogenic Rhodococcus fascians has been hampered by the lack of a system for introducing exogenous DNA. We investigated the possibility of genetic transformation of R. fascians by high-voltage electroporation of intact bacterial cells in the presence of plasmid DNA. Electrotransformation in R. fascians D188 resulted in transformation frequencies ranging from 10{sup 5}/{mu}g of DNA to 10{sup 7}/{mu}g of DNA, depending on the DNA concentration. The effects of different electrical parameters and composition of electroporation medium on transformation efficiency are present. By this transformation method, a cloning vector (pRF28) for R. fascians based on an indigenous 160-kilobase (chloramphenicol and cadmium resistance-encoding) plasmid pRF2 from strain NCPPB 1675 was developed. The origin of replication and the chloramphenicol resistance gene on pRF28 were used to construct cloning vectors that are capable of replication in R. fascians and Escherichia coli. The electroporation method presented was efficient enough to allow detection of the rare integration of replication-deficient pRF28 derivatives in the R.fascians D188 genome via either homologous or illegitimate recombination.

  14. Functional analysis and growth factor regulation of the human vimentin promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Rittling, S.R.; Baserga, R.

    1987-11-01

    Vimentin is a growth-regulated gene whose mRNA levels increase severalfold after stimulation of quiescent cells. The authors isolated and sequenced a genomic fragment of human DNA containing the vimentin 5'-flanking sequence and untranslated region. S1 nuclease analysis was used to determine the transcription initiation site. Deletion mutants of the promoter region were constructed, linked to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, and analyzed for transient expression by transfection into BALB/c 3T3 cells. These experiments revealed the presence in the human vimentin promoter region of a negative-regulatory element, flanked by positive elements. The most 5' of the positive elements is able to overcome the effects of the negative element. Analysis of these deletion constructs in stable cell lines confirmed the results of the transient assays. Using these stable cell lines, they can also demonstrate that the vimentin promoter region can confer platelet-derived growth factor inducibility to a linked chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and that the sequences required for this inducibility reside between positions - 241 and +73.

  15. Transcription of the procyclic acidic repetitive protein genes of Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, C.E.; Fueri, J.P.; Itzhaki, J.E.; Bellofatto, V.; Sherman, D.R.; Wisdom, G.S.; Vijayasarathy, S.; Mowatt, M.R. )

    1990-06-01

    The procyclic acidic repetitive protein (parp) genes of Trypanosoma brucei encode a small family of abundant surface proteins whose expression is restricted to the procyclic form of the parasite. They are found at two unlinked loci, parpA and parpB; transcription of both loci is developmentally regulated. The region of homology upstream of the A and B parp genes is only 640 base pairs long and may contain sequences responsible for transcriptional initiation and regulation. Transcription upstream of this putative promoter region is not developmentally regulated and is much less active than that of the parp genes; the polymerase responsible is inhibited by alpha-amanitin, whereas that transcribing the parp genes is not. Transcription of the parp genes is strongly stimulated by low levels of UV irradiation. The putative parp promoter, when placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, is sufficient to cause production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in a T. brucei DNA transformation assay. Taken together, these results suggest that a promoter for an alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerase lies less than 600 nucleotides upstream of the parp genes.

  16. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Gram-Negative Psychrotrophic Bacteria from Bulk Tank Milk.

    PubMed

    Decimo, Marilù; Silvetti, Tiziana; Brasca, Milena

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a major global health problem and resistance of Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae is a serious concern. We investigated the prevalence of drug-resistance in a total of 80 psychrotrophic strains from bulk milk belonging to Pseudomonas genus (n. 63) and Enterobacteriaceae group (n. 17). All the strains were tested against 16 antibiotics. Pseudomonas were further investigated for their sensitivity against 12 additional antibiotics. Pseudomonas showed a high susceptibility toward fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and piperacillin and, to a lesser extent, to imipenem, ceftazidime, cefepime. Thirty-five out of 63 Pseudomonas strains were susceptible to meropenem, while among antibiotics for which recommended breakpoints are not yet available, 55% of Pseudomonas strains had no inhibition halo in presence of nitrofurantoin, highlighting a resistance toward this drug. The results obtained in this study indicate a high efficiency of fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol (94%), and kanamycin (76%) for Enterobacteriaceae while a high prevalence of resistant strains was found to ampicillin (13/17). Serratia marcescens is highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin. Moreover, mupirocin seems to be the new antibiotic with the less efficacy for Enterobacteriaceae, with 41% of strains without halo, pointing out an important resistance. Further knowledge on resistance to known and new antibiotics among Pseudomonas species and Enterobacteriaceae of milk origin was acquired. PMID:26910385

  17. [Determination of 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectromtery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhao, Li; Yang, Hongmei; Pan, Hongyan; Shi, Hailiang; Qian, Cong; Zhang, Shan

    2015-09-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk. The samples were extracted with alkaline acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer solution under ultrasonication. The separation of target compounds was performed on an Eclipse XDB-C, column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 µm) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min, and with an injection volume of 10 µL. The identification and quantification of the compounds were completed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring ( MRM) mode. The limits of detection were all below 10.0 µg/kg. The average spiked recoveries of the method ranged from 70. 1% to 109. 9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.89%-9.99%. After validation, the method was applied to the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk products in China. Fifty samples were screened under the well defined methodology, and the results showed that chloramphenicol, only in one sample, was monitored with the content of 0.48 µg/kg. A risk of contamination of milk with chloramphenicol has been determined to exist. Therefore this method is convenient, rapid, sensitive and reliable, and can be successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of the 35 antibiotic residues of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillins, macrolides and amphenicols in milk. PMID:26753289

  18. Clinical and Microbiological Aspects of Linezolid Resistance Mediated by the cfr Gene Encoding a 23S rRNA Methyltransferase▿

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Cesar A.; Vallejo, Martha; Reyes, Jinnethe; Panesso, Diana; Moreno, Jaime; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Villegas, Maria V.; Murray, Barbara E.; Quinn, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The cfr (chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance) gene encodes a 23S rRNA methyltransferase that confers resistance to linezolid. Detection of linezolid resistance was evaluated in the first cfr-carrying human hospital isolate of linezolid and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (designated MRSA CM-05) by dilution and diffusion methods (including Etest). The presence of cfr was investigated in isolates of staphylococci colonizing the patient's household contacts and clinical isolates recovered from patients in the same unit where MRSA CM-05 was isolated. Additionally, 68 chloramphenicol-resistant Colombian MRSA isolates recovered from hospitals between 2001 and 2004 were screened for the presence of the cfr gene. In addition to erm(B), the erm(A) gene was also detected in CM-05. The isolate belonged to sequence type 5 and carried staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type I. We were unable to detect the cfr gene in any of the human staphylococci screened (either clinical or colonizing isolates). Agar and broth dilution methods detected linezolid resistance in CM-05. However, the Etest and disk diffusion methods failed to detect resistance after 24 h of incubation. Oxazolidinone resistance mediated by the cfr gene is rare, and acquisition by a human isolate appears to be a recent event in Colombia. The detection of cfr-mediated linezolid resistance might be compromised by the use of the disk diffusion or Etest method. PMID:18174304

  19. Variability of the tandem repeat region of the Escherichia coli tolA gene.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kai; Vanoirbeek, Kristof; Aertsen, Abram; Michiels, Chris W

    2012-06-01

    An intragenic tandem repeat (TR) region has been previously reported in the tolA gene of Escherichia coli. In silico analysis of 123 E. coli tolA sequences from Genbank and PCR analysis of the tolA TR region from 111 additional E. coli strains revealed that this TR region is highly variable. Nine different TR sizes with 8 up to 16 repeat units were found in in silico analysis and 6 of these were also found by PCR analysis. The 13-unit TR emerged as the predominant type using both approaches (47.2% and 86.5%, respectively). Remarkably, TRs in pathogenic strains appeared to be more variable than those in non-pathogens. To demonstrate the occurrence of TR variation in a clonal population, a selection system for TR deletion events was constructed by inserting the 13-unit TR region of MG1655 in frame into a plasmid-borne chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene. The resulting cat gene no longer conferred chloramphenicol resistance unless the insert size was reduced by TR contraction. Using this system, Cm-resistant revertants with a TR contraction were recovered at a frequency of 1.1 × 10(-7), and contraction was shown to be recA-dependent and enhanced in a DNA repair-deficient mutS background. PMID:22659144

  20. [Dynamics of drug resistance in Proteus mirabilis cultures 1970-1985].

    PubMed

    Shvidenko, I G

    1988-04-01

    Resistance of 669 clinical strains of Proteus mirabilis to 18 chemotherapeutic drugs was studied in dynamics within 1970-1985. An increase in the number of cultures resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin was noted while the number of cultures resistant to cephalosporines did not change. Within the period from 1970 to 1975 there was observed a marked increase in the number of Proteus strains resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics. After that period their number gradually lowered and in 1985 reached the level of 1970. Beginning from 1973 there were observed a decrease in the number of Proteus chloramphenicol resistant strains and simultaneous occurrence of cultures sensitive to this antibiotic. The predominating number of the tested strains preserved during the whole observation period their resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, rifampicin, novobiocin, furazolidone and furagin. No increase in the number of Proteus strains with multiple drug resistance including those resistant to 5-7 drugs was noted in the observation periods of 1970-1975, 1980 and 1985. The most frequent were Proteus strains resistant to 2-4 drugs. Among them cultures resistant to chloramphenicol and aminoglycoside antibiotics of the first generation predominated. Grouping of the strains by the same resistance spectra provided dividing the rested cultures of Proteus mirabilis into 69 variants. PMID:3291802

  1. The upstream muscle-specific enhancer of the rat muscle creatine kinase gene is composed of multiple elements.

    PubMed Central

    Horlick, R A; Benfield, P A

    1989-01-01

    A series of constructs that links the rat muscle creatine kinase promoter to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was generated. These constructs were introduced into differentiating mouse C2C12 myogenic cells to localize sequences that are important for up-regulation of the creatine kinase gene during myogenic differentiation. A muscle-specific enhancer element responsible for induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression during myogenesis was localized to a 159-base-pair region from 1,031 to 1,190 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Analysis of transient expression experiments using promoters mutated by deletion indicated the presence of multiple functional domains within this muscle-specific regulatory element. A DNA fragment spanning this region was used in DNase I protection experiments. Nuclear extracts derived from C2 myotubes protected three regions (designated E1, E2, and E3) on this fragment from digestion, which indicated there may be three or more trans-acting factors that interact with the creatine kinase muscle enhancer. Gel retardation assays revealed that factors able to bind specifically to E1, E2, and E3 are present in a wide variety of tissues and cell types. Transient expression assays demonstrated that elements in regions E1 and E3, but not necessarily E2, are required for full enhancer activity. Images PMID:2761536

  2. Case Series of Imported Enteric Fever at a Referral Center in Tokyo, Japan: Antibiotic Susceptibility and Risk Factors for Relapse.

    PubMed

    Matono, Takashi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Yamamoto, Kei; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Kawamura, Maho; Konishi, Noriko; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Owing to the increase in Salmonella strains with decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in the endemic areas, we have been treating enteric fever with intravenous ceftriaxone empirically since 2007. In this study, we reevaluated our treatment protocol. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single institute in Tokyo, Japan, between January 2006 and December 2013. Enteric fever was defined as isolation of Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi A, B, and C from the blood and/or stool of patients with fever. Of the 35 patients with imported enteric fever, 28 (80%) had returned from south Asia. Ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains were detected in only 12% of the cases. The isolates showed excellent susceptibility to ampicillin (91%), chloramphenicol (94%), ceftriaxone (97%), and azithromycin (97%). One case of Salmonella Paratyphi B was excluded, and of the remaining 34 patients, 56% were treated with ceftriaxone alone, 26% with ceftriaxone then fluoroquinolone, and 9% with levofloxacin alone. The overall relapse rate was 6.1%; however, among those receiving ceftriaxone monotherapy, the relapse rate was 11% (N = 2). The relapse group was characterized by longer times to treatment initiation (P = 0.035) and defervescence (> 7 days) after treatment initiation (P = 0.022). In such cases, we recommend that ceftriaxone treatment be continued for > 4 days after defervescence or be changed to fluoroquinolone if the strains are found to be susceptible to prevent relapse. Furthermore, ampicillin and chloramphenicol, which are no longer prescribed, may be reconsidered as treatment options in Asia. PMID:27162265

  3. NONDERMATOPHYTIC MOULDS AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF ONYCHOMYCOSIS IN TEHRAN

    PubMed Central

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht; Khaksar, Ali Asgar

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the last few years the number of cases of nondermatophytic onychomycosis has greatly increased. Aim: To evaluate the incidence, the clinic characteristics, and predisposing factors of nondermatophytic onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: All collected specimens were analyzed by direct microscopy and culture. Microscopic examination of these specimens was carried out in potassium hydroxide solution (20%) with dimethyl sulfoxide (4%). These specimens were cultured on sabouraud's glucose agar with chloramphenicol and sabouraud's glucose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Cultures were incubated at 25°C for up to 28 days and checked twice weekly for growth. Results: Nondermatophytic onychomycosis were 11.5% of all onychomycosis. We found that Aspergillus spp. were the more responsible etiologic agents of nondermatophytic onychomycosis, resulting in a total of 28 patients (59.6%). In our study other causative agents were Acremonium spp. (17%), Fusarium spp. (12.7%), Geotrichum spp. (4.2%), Trichosporun spp., (4.2%) and Scopulariopsis spp (2.1%). In our patients moulds onychomycosis developed mainly in toenails (74.5%). Conclusion: Knowing the exact pathogen is important and has implications in therapy and prognosis. PMID:20606881

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in food and clinical Aeromonas isolates.

    PubMed

    Palú, Angela Peres; Gomes, Luciana Martins; Miguel, Marco Antônio Lemos; Balassiano, Ilana Teruzkin; Queiroz, Mara Lucia Penna; Freitas-Almeida, Angela Corrêa; de Oliveira, Selma Soares

    2006-08-01

    This study highlights the incidence of resistance and the presence of plasmids in human and food isolates of Aeromonas in Brazil. A total of 83 Aeromonas spp. strains (28 isolated from human and 55 from fresh lettuce) were studied. Thirty-five were identified as A. hydrophila complex and 48 as A. caviae complex. All strains were shown to be susceptible to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin by the disk diffusion method. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was observed in strains of both food and clinical origin. The food strains were resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefoxitin and tetracycline, while the clinical strains presented resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were tested by agar dilution. Thirteen strains isolated from vegetables were resistant to tetracycline (MIC 16 microg ml-1). Two A. hydrophila strains and one A. caviae strain presented extracromosomal DNA (3 and 15 kb plasmids, respectively). The tetracycline resistance phenotype determinant was related to the 15 kb plasmid according to cure and transformation experiments. PMID:16943044

  5. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci from vet-visiting pets and assessment of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Leite-Martins, L; Mahú, M I; Costa, A L; Bessa, L J; Vaz-Pires, P; Loureiro, L; Niza-Ribeiro, J; de Matos, A J F; Martins da Costa, P

    2015-06-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) exhibited by enterococci isolated from faeces of pets and its underlying risk factors. From September 2009 to May 2012, rectal swabs were collected from 74 dogs and 17 cats, selected from the population of animals visiting the Veterinary Hospital of University of Porto, UPVet, through a systematic random procedure. Animal owners answered a questionnaire about the risk factors that could influence the presence of AMR in faecal enterococci. Enterococci isolation, identification and antimicrobial (AM) susceptibility testing were performed. Data analyses of multilevel, univariable and multivariable generalised linear mixed models were conducted. From all enterococci isolated (n=315), 61 per cent were considered multidrug-resistant, whereas only 9.2 per cent were susceptible to all AMs tested. Highest resistance was found to tetracycline (67.0 per cent), rifampicin (60.3 per cent), azithromycin (58.4 per cent), quinupristin/dalfopristin (54.0 per cent) and erythromycin (53.0 per cent). Previous fluoroquinolone treatments and coprophagic habits were the features more consistently associated with the presence of AMR for three (chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin) and seven (tetracycline, rifampicin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and azithromycin), respectively, out of nine AMs assessed. Evaluating risk factors that determine the presence of drug-resistant bacteria in pets, a possible source of resistance determinants to human beings, is crucial for the selection of appropriate treatment guidelines by veterinary practitioners. PMID:26078332

  6. Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotypes in clinical staphylococcal isolates.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Emel Sesli; Gunes, Hayati; Kaya, Selcuk; Aridogan, Buket Cicioglu; Demirci, Mustafa

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance as well as the MLSB resistance phenotypes were investigated by the double-disk diffusion test among 532 clinical staphylococci isolates in a Turkish university hospital. The activity of other antimicrobials, including trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, telithromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin, was also evaluated. Of 532 isolates, 38.5% were resistant to MLSB antibiotics; 63.9% of the resistant isolates exhibited a constitutive phenotype (cMLSB) whereas 36.1% expressed an inducible resistance phenotype (iMLSB). MLSB resistance was more prevalent among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) strains. Oxacillin-resistant strains exhibited significantly higher MLSB resistance rates compared with oxacillin-susceptible strains (P<0.0001). The most frequently detected resistance phenotype among the total staphylococcal isolates was the constitutive type and this phenotype was more frequently encountered among oxacillin-resistant strains. With the exception of the fully active agents such as vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, the most effective antibiotics were telithromycin and chloramphenicol among all isolates. Susceptibility rates to other antibiotics tested were higher among isolates without MLS(B) resistance than isolates with MLSB resistance. The detection of a considerable rate (43.5%) of iMLSB resistance among erythromycin-resistant/clindamycin-susceptible strains suggests that the true percentage of clindamycin resistance may be underestimated if testing for inducible resistance is not performed. PMID:18206352

  7. Mechanism of growth delay induced in Escherichia coli by near ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ramabhadran, T V; Jagger, J

    1976-01-01

    Continuously growing cultures of E. coli B/r were irradiated with a fluence of broad-band near-ultraviolet radiation (315-405 nm) sufficient to cause extensive growth delay and complete cessation of net RNA synthesis. Chloramphenicol treatment was found to stimulate resumption of RNA synthesis, similar to that observed with chloramphenicol treatment after amino-acid starvation. E. coli strains in which amino-acid starvation does not result in cessation of RNA synthesis ("relaxed" or rel- strains) show no cessation of growth and only a slight effect on the rate of growth or of RNA synthesis. These findings show that such near-UV fluences do not inactivate the RNA synthetic machinery but affect the regulation of RNA synthesis, in a manner similat to that produced by amino-acid starvation. Such regulation is believed to be mediated through alterations in concentration of guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), and our estimations of ppGpp after near-UV irradiation are consistent with such an interpretation. These data, combined with earlier published data, strongly suggest that the mechanism of near-UV-induced growth delay in E. coli involves partial inactivation of certain tRNA species, which is interpreted by the cell in a manner similar to that of amino-acid starvation, causing a rise in ppGpp levels, a shut-off of net RNA synthesis, and the induction of a growth delay. Images PMID:1108019

  8. Spectral Snapshots of Bacterial Cell-Wall Composition and the Influence of Antibiotics by Whole-Cell NMR

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Rie; Romaniuk, Joseph A.H.; Rice, David M.; Cegelski, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria surround themselves with a thick cell wall that is essential to cell survival and is a major target of antibiotics. Quantifying alterations in cell-wall composition are crucial to evaluating drug modes of action, particularly important for human pathogens that are now resistant to multiple antibiotics such as Staphylococcus aureus. Macromolecular and whole-cell NMR spectroscopy allowed us to observe the full panel of carbon and nitrogen pools in S. aureus cell walls and intact whole cells. We discovered that one-dimensional 13C and 15N NMR spectra, together with spectroscopic selections based on dipolar couplings as well as two-dimensional spin-diffusion measurements, revealed the dramatic compositional differences between intact cells and cell walls and allowed the identification of cell-wall signatures in whole-cell samples. Furthermore, the whole-cell NMR approach exhibited the sensitivity to detect distinct compositional changes due to treatment with the antibiotics fosfomycin (a cell-wall biosynthesis inhibitor) and chloramphenicol (a protein synthesis inhibitor). Whole cells treated with fosfomycin exhibited decreased peptidoglycan contributions while those treated with chloramphenicol contained a higher percentage of peptidoglycan as cytoplasmic protein content was reduced. Thus, general antibiotic modes of action can be identified by profiling the total carbon pools in intact whole cells. PMID:25809251

  9. A prospective study on evaluation of pathogenesis, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility of microbial community in urinary catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to isolate, detect biofilm formation ability and antibiotic susceptibility of urinary catheter adherent microorganisms from elderly hospitalized patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Microorganisms were isolated from three samples of urinary catheters (UC) surface; one of the acute vascular rejection patient (UCB) and two from benign prostate hyperplasia patients (UCC and UCD). A total of 100 isolates was isolated with 35 from UCB, 38 (UCC) and 28 (UCD). Ninety six were identified as Gram-negative bacilli, one Gram-positive bacilli and three yeasts. Results of biofilm forming on sterile foley catheter showed that all the isolates can form biofilm at different degrees; strong biofilm forming: 32% from the 35 isolates (UCB), 25% out of 38 isolates (UCC), 26% out of 28 isolates (UCD). As for moderate biofilm forming; 3% from UCB, 10% from UCC and 2% from UCD. Weak biofilm forming in UCC (3%). The antibiotic susceptibility for (UCB) isolates showed highly resistant to ampicillin, novobiocin and penicillin 100 (%), kanamycin (97%), tetracycline (94%), chloramphenicol (91%), streptomycin (77%) and showed low level of resistance to gentamycin (17%), while all the isolates from (UCC-D) showed high resistant towards ampicillin and penicillin, novobiocin (94%), tetracycline (61%), streptomycin (53%), gentamycin (50%) and low level of resistance to kanamycin (48%), chloramphenicol (47%). The findings indicate that these isolates can spread within the community on urinary catheters surface and produce strong biofilm, therefore, monitoring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated in the aggregation is recommended.

  10. Axenic culture of free-living conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis and Porphyra haitanensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Lian; Shuai, Li; Duan, De-Lin; Xu, Huai-Shu

    2002-03-01

    After discarding marine microorganisms from conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis and Porphyra haitanensis, their axenic cultures were obtained through treatment with antibiotics. Antibiotic disc tests were carried out to determine the effectiveness of each antibiotic in eliminating contaminating microorganisms. Five of 12 antibiotics tested were selected and used to produce the axenic cultures in this study, which showed that 200 μg/mL streptomycin, 250 μg/mL penicillin, 252 μg/mL kanamycin, 30 μg/mL chloramphenicol were effective concentrations for eliminating microorganisms from conchocelis when antibiotics were added singly step by step; whereas simultaneous combination of 150 μg/mL streptomycin, 250 (or 350) μg/mL penicillin, 150 (or 250) μg/mL kanamycin, 70 μg/mL neomycin and 200 μg/mL chloramphenicol was also effective for producing the axenic cultures. However, it seemed that the treatments with antibiotics applied individually were more feasible than those will all antibiotics added at the same time. This may be due to the combined inhibiting effect of antibiotics on the growth and development of conchocelis.

  11. [Effect of prodigiozan, levamisole and methyluracil on endogenous colony formation and absorptive function of the reticuloendothelial system].

    PubMed

    Riabchinskaia, L A

    1985-06-01

    The effect of prodigiosan, levamisole and methyluracil on the number of endogenic colonies in the spleen and absorptive function of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) was studied comparatively in intact mice and mice treated with prednisolone, cyclophosphamide and chloramphenicol. It was shown that prodigiosan stimulated the endogenic colony formation with all the administration schemes in both the intact animals and the animals treated with chloramphenicol. The stimulating effect of methyluracil was observed, when it was used prophylactically. The effect of levamisole was not consistent. A significant stimulating effect of prodigiosan on absorptive function of the RES in the intact animals and the animals treated with prednisolone was shown. Methyluracil increased absorption of staphylococci by the macrophages in the intact animals. The effect of levamisole on the intact animals was not observed, while in the animals treated with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide it stimulated the absorptive capacity of the RES. Levamisole did not change the effect of prodigiosan and methyluracil on endogenous colony formation when used therapeutically, prevented the prodigiosan effect and potentiated the effect of methyluracil on absorptive function of the RES. PMID:4062270

  12. Screening of promoters from rhizosphere metagenomic DNA using a promoter-trap vector and flow cytometric cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se Hee; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2011-02-01

    We constructed a facilitative and efficient promoter-trap vector, pCM-EGFP, for capturing and analyzing functional promoters from environmental DNA. The pCM-EGFP vector showed good chloramphenicol sensitivity and no enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene expression. Promoter libraries were constructed for screening promoters responding to naringenin, a key molecule released from plant roots. After electroporation, E. coli transformants were incubated in LB broth containing chloramphenicol (10 μg/ml) to select against transformants with no cloned promoter. E. coli cells were sorted using flow cytometry without naringenin, and then sorted again with high fluorescence after incubation in LB broth with naringenin (1 mM) at 28 °C for 12 h. The inducible properties of approximately 400 sorted cells were evaluated, with most cells showing only strong EGFP gene expression without inducible properties. Two clones (5-4E and 15-3D) displayed naringenin inducibility, and both contained a promoter bounded by a TetR-family regulator. The regulator knock-out mutant of the 5-4E clone lost its ability to be induced by naringenin. In conclusion, the pCM-EGFP vector may be used as an efficient promoter-trap vector and a combination of the vector with flow cytometric cell sorting was demonstrated to be an useful method for screening promoters responding to specific conditions or inducers. PMID:21259288

  13. Serologic test systems development. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Seawright, G.L.; Sanders, W.M.; Hollstein, U.; Butler, J.E.; Mills, K.W.; Despommier, D.D.; Zimmerman, W.J.; Martinez, E.; Hindman, K.R.; Payne, R.J.

    1980-12-01

    Work has continued on the development and automation of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for detecting diseases and toxic agents in food animals. Further evaluations were made of the Technicon Autoanalyzer II(AAII) for conducting totally automated EIAs. The problems investigated were machine carryover and assay variation. Modifications greatly reduced or eliminated carryover and produced acceptable levels of test variation. The EIA for swine trichinosis was significantly improved by the use of a new, partially purified antigen preparation. The result was improved detection of early seroconversions and reduced probability for false negatives and false positives. The amplified EIA was adapted as a diagnostic test for bovine brucellosis and studies were initiated for differentiating vaccinated and infected animals. Preliminary data indicate that the IgG/sub 1/ response may be diagnostic but further studies are necessary. Development of the EIA for detecting low molecular weight contaminants and residues in food products was also initiated. Compounds studied were the antibiotics chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and gentamicin; the mycotoxin, aflatoxin, and the shale oil toxin, 2-aminofluorene. Results indicate that chloramphenicol nonspecifically binds to antibody and interferes with antibody activity. Thus, the test is not yet satisfactory. Initial attempts to automate the gentamicin test were unsuccessful because of machine carryover but modifications of the AAII have produced encouraging preliminary data. Work is continuing on the development of EIAs for all of the compounds mentioned above. (ERB)

  14. T-2 mycotoxin inhibits mitochondrial protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, J.G.; Watts, M.R.; Canterbury, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of T-2 toxin on rat liver mitochondrial protein synthesis. Isolated rat liver mitochondria were supplemented with an S-100 supernatant from rat liver and an external ATP-generating system. An in-vitro assay employing cycloheximide, and inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis, and chloramphenicol, and inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis, to distinguish mitochondrial protein synthesis from the cytoplasmic process. Amino acid incorporation into mitochondria was dependent on the concentration of mitochondria and was inhibited by chloramphenicol. The rate of uptake of tritium leucine into mitochondrial protein was unaffected by the addition of T-2 toxin and was not a rate-limiting step in incorporation. However, 0.02 micrograms/ml of T-2 toxin decreased the rate of protein synthesis inhibition correlated with the amount of T-2 toxin taken up by the mitochondria. While T-2 toxin is known to inhibit eukaryotic protein synthesis, this is the first time T-2 was shown to inhibit mitochondrial protein synthesis.

  15. Transformation of Rhodococcus fascians by High-Voltage Electroporation and Development of R. fascians Cloning Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Desomer, Jan; Dhaese, Patrick; Montagu, Marc Van

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the virulence determinants of phytopathogenic Rhodococcus fascians has been hampered by the lack of a system for introducing exogenous DNA. We investigated the possibility of genetic transformation of R. fascians by high-voltage electroporation of intact bacterial cells in the presence of plasmid DNA. Electrotransformation in R. fascians D188 resulted in transformation frequencies ranging from 105/μg of DNA to 107/μg of DNA, depending on the DNA concentration. The effects of different electrical parameters and composition of electroporation medium on transformation efficiency are presented. By this transformation method, a cloning vector (pRF28) for R. fascians based on an indigenous 160-kilobase (chloramphenicol and cadmium resistance-encoding) plasmid pRF2 from strain NCPPB 1675 was developed. The origin of replication and the chloramphenicol resistance gene on pRF28 were used to construct cloning vectors that are capable of replication in R. fascians and Escherichia coli. The electroporation method presented was efficient enough to allow detection of the rare integration of replication-deficient pRF28 derivatives in the R. fascians D188 genome via either homologous or illegitimate recombination. Images PMID:16348290

  16. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) approach to study the combined effect of antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernanda Godoy; Mendonça, Layanne Andrade; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto

    2015-09-01

    The combination of antimicrobial agents has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to control bacterial diseases and to reduce the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in clinical environments. In this study, the interaction between the lantibiotic bovicin HC5 with chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nisin, lysostaphin and hydrogen peroxide against Staphylococcus aureus O46 was evaluated by MIC assays. The central composite rotatable design (CCRD), a robust and economic statistical design, was used to combine concentration levels of different antimicrobials agents with distinct mechanisms of action and the presence of significant interactions among the antimicrobials was determined by regression analysis. According to the adjusted model, there were no significant interactions between bovicin HC5 and gentamicin, lysostaphin, nisin or hydrogen peroxide. However, bovicin HC5 showed a significant interaction (P < 0.02) with chloramphenicol. This is the first study applying the CCRD approach to evaluate the combined effect of antimicrobials against S. aureus. Based on our results, this approach is an effective strategy to determine synergistic interactions between antimicrobial agents applied in human and veterinary medicine against bacterial pathogens. PMID:26081601

  17. Characterization and adsorption of Lactobacillus virulent phage P1.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Xi, Y; Zhang, H; Wang, Z; Fan, M; Liu, Y; Wu, W

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophage infection of lactic acid bacteria is considered an important problem worldwide in the food fermentation industry, as it may produce low quality or unsafe foods, cause fermentation failure, and result in economic losses. To increase current knowledge on the properties of Lactobacillus virulent phages, we evaluated the effect of divalent cations, temperature, pH, and chloramphenicol on the adsorption ability of Lactobacillus virulent phage P1. Phage P1 was isolated from the abnormal fermentation liquid of Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10120. The results showed that this phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The latent period of this phage was 45min, and the burst time was 90min. Burst size was 132.88±2.37 phage counts expressed per milliliter per infective center. This phage showed good tolerance at different temperatures, but incubation at 50°C only affected its adsorption. Adsorption rate reached a maximum value between 30 and 42°C. A high adsorption value of phage infectivity was obtained from pH 6 to 8. Moreover, calcium ions promoted and increased the adsorption capacity of phage P1, but magnesium ions had negative effects. Chloramphenicol had no effect on phage adsorption. This study increased current knowledge on the characterization and biological aspects of Lactobacillus virulent phages, and may provide some basic information that can be used to design successful antiphage strategies in the food industry. PMID:27372579

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in raw milk in the selected areas of Poland.

    PubMed

    Wysok, B; Wiszniewska-Łaszczych, A; Uradziński, J; Szteyn, J

    2011-01-01

    During the recent years, an immense increase in the number of food poisoning cases in people caused by Campylobacter (C.) species has occurred. Raw milk, next to poultry meat, is considered the most frequent cause of food poisoning in people caused by the subject bacteria, although it is not always possible to isolate Campylobacter cells from the incriminated milk. Most probably this difficulty is caused by low concentration of the pathogen in milk at the level of 2/3 cells/ml although even such low concentration represents risk to human health. The present study was aimed at determining the occurence of Campylobacter bacteria in milk originating from selected regions of Poland. The isolation method applied in this work was effective in recovering as few as 0.1 cell of Campylobacter per g of food. Among 150 bulk milk samples tested, Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 7 (4.6%) ones. The biochemical identification of the isolated strains conducted by means of conventional biochemical tests as well as by applying the API - Campy tests revealed that all the isolates belonged to the C. jejuni species. Determination of resistance to antibiotics was performed by means of the diffusion disks method for the following antibiotics: gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, doxycyclin and tetracycline. Among 7 isolates tested, all were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, 28.5% to doxycyclin and 14.2% to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. PMID:21957744

  19. [Standardization of the Neisseria meningitidis antibiogram. Detection of strains relatively resistant to penicillin].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, P; Cavallo, J D; Fabre, R; Martet, G

    1998-01-01

    Studying the susceptibility of 189 Neisseria meningitidis strains to penicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and rifampicin by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by agar dilution (reference method), E-test and disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 enabled us to standardize the antibiograms. While MIC determination by agar dilution is still the reference method, it is possible to obtain exact or approximate MIC values using the E-test. For laboratories that cannot determine penicillin MICs, it is impossible to detect strains that are relatively resistant to penicillin (RRP strains: 0.1 < or = MIC < or = 1 mg/l) using a 10-U penicillin disc. A 1 microgram-oxacillin disc allows MIC to be determined in most cases when the oxacillin inhibition zone is < or = 10 mm. Such strains must be sent to a reference laboratory for exact MIC determination. Based on our results and literature data on pharmacokinetics, we propose critical concentrations for these various antibiotics as well as critical diameters for chloramphenicol and rifampicin discs. PMID:9803590

  20. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Bacillus anthracis isolated from the Kruger National Park.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, M W; Pieterson, P M; de Vos, V; Botha, A D

    1991-03-01

    Forty-four isolates of Bacillus anthracis made from carcasses and soil in different localities of an endemic anthrax area in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, were tested by standard disc diffusion for their susceptibility to 18 different antibiotics. These were ampicillin, penicillin G, sulphatriad, streptomycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, fusidic acid, trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, methicillin, tetracycline (2 different concentrations), novobiocin, cefotaxime, netilmicin, cefamandole and cefoxitin. All the isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, methicillin and netilmicin. More than 90% of the isolates were sensitive to clindamycin, gentamicin and cefoxitin, whereas only 84.1% of the isolates were sensitive to penicillin G, 86.4% to novobiocin and 68.18% to cefamandole. Complete resistance in 100% of the isolates was encountered with trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole, with 95.45% for sulphatriad. Moderate sensitivity occurred with penicillin G (15.9% of the isolates), clindamycin (6.8%), novobiocin (13.6%), fusidic acid (84.1%), cefotaxime (100%), cefamandole (31.8%) and cefoxitin (6.8%). The relevance of the findings to the therapeutic uses of different types of antibiotic in human clinical cases referred to in the literature is discussed. PMID:1905000

  1. Dairy farm age and resistance to antimicrobial agents in Escherichia coli isolated from dairy topsoil.

    PubMed

    Jones, Suzanna E; Burgos, Jonathan M; Lutnesky, Marvin M F; Sena, Johnny A; Kumar, Sanath; Jones, Lindsay M; Varela, Manuel F

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial agent usage is common in animal agriculture for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Selective pressure exerted by these antimicrobials on soil bacteria could result in the selection of strains that are resistant due to chromosomal- or plasmid-derived genetic components. Multiple antimicrobial resistances in Escherichia coli and the direct relationship between antimicrobial agent use over time has been extensively studied, yet the relationship between the age of an animal agriculture environment such as a dairy farm and antibiotic resistance remains unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that antimicrobial-resistance profiles of E. coli isolated from dairy farm topsoil correlate with dairy farm age. E. coli isolated from eleven dairy farms of varying ages within Roosevelt County, NM were used for MIC determinations to chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, penicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of four antibiotics ranged 0.75 to >256 μg/ml, 1 to >256 μg/ml, 12 to >256 μg/ml, and 0.75 to >256 μg/ml for chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, penicillin, and tetracycline, respectively. The study did not show a direct relationship between antibiotic resistance and the age of dairy farms. PMID:21153729

  2. Microbial receptor assay for rapid detection and identification of seven families of antimicrobial drugs in milk: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Charm, S E; Chi, R

    1988-01-01

    A microbial competitive receptor assay for detecting residues of antibiotic families in milk was studied collaboratively by 13 laboratories. The drugs and levels (ppb) tested in this study include penicillin G, 4.8; cephapirin, 5.0; cloxacillin, 100; tetracycline, 2000; chlortetracycline, 2000; oxytetracycline, 2000; erythromycin, 200; lincomycin, 400; clindamycin, 400; sulfamethazine, 75; sulfamethoxazole, 50; sulfisoxazole, 50; streptomycin, 1000; novobiocin, 50; and chloramphenicol, 800. In this method, microbial cells added to a milk sample provide specific binding sites for which 14C or 3H labeled drug competes with drug residues in the sample. The 14C or 3H binding to the specific binding sites is measured in a scintillation counter and compared with a zero standard milk. If the sample is statistically different from the zero standard, it is positive. The assay takes about 15 min. The binding reaction occurs between the receptor site and the drug functional group, so all members of a drug family are detected. In this case, beta-lactams, tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, and sulfonamides, including p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its other analogs, are detectable. The incidence of false negative determinations among samples is about 1%; the incidence of false positives is about 3%. For negative cases, the relative standard deviations for repeatability ranged from 0 to 5% and for reproducibility from 0 to 6%. For positive cases, relative standard deviations ranged from 0 to 13% for repeatability and from 0 to 14% for reproducibility. The method has been adopted official first action. PMID:3260233

  3. Multiclass determination and confirmation of antibiotic residues in honey using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Mayda I; Pettis, Jeffery S; Smith, I Barton; Chu, Pak-Sin

    2008-03-12

    A multiclass method has been developed for the determination and confirmation in honey of tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sarafloxacin), macrolides (tylosin), lincosamides (lincomycin), aminoglycosides (streptomycin), sulfonamides (sulfathiazole), phenicols (chloramphenicol), and fumagillin residues using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Erythromycin (a macrolide) and monensin (an ionophore) can be detected and confirmed but not quantitated. Honey samples (approximately 2 g) are dissolved in 10 mL of water and centrifuged. An aliquot of the supernatant is used to determine streptomycin. The remaining supernatant is filtered through a fine-mesh nylon fabric and cleaned up by solid phase extraction. After solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution, 15 antibiotics are assayed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion mode. Afterward, chloramphenicol is assayed using ESI in negative ion mode. The method has been validated at the low part per billion levels for most of the drugs with accuracies between 65 and 104% and coefficients of variation less than 17%. The evaluation of matrix effects caused by honey of different floral origin is presented. PMID:18257525

  4. Antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants in aeromonads isolated in ornamental (koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Cízek, Alois; Dolejská, Monika; Sochorová, Radana; Strachotová, Katerina; Piacková, Veronika; Veselý, Tomás

    2010-05-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. isolates from common carp and koi carp coming from randomly chosen farms. The isolates were tested for susceptibility to 8 antimicrobial agents using the standard agar dilution susceptibility test. In all isolates, PCR was used to detect the presence of tet(A-E) genes, integrase genes, and gene cassettes. From the total 72 isolates of motile aeromonads sampled from koi carp, 36 isolates (50%) were resistant to oxytetracycline, 18 (25%) to ciprofloxacin, 5 (7%) to chloramphenicol, 5 (7%) to florfenicol, and 11 (15%) to trimethoprim. Among 49 isolates of motile aeromonads collected from common carp, 20 (41%) were resistant to oxytetracycline, 3 (6%) to chloramphenicol, and 3 (6%) to florfenicol. The resistance of aeromonads isolated from koi carp was significantly higher to ciprofloxacin (P=0.00024). The presence of class 1 integrons was detected in these isolates only (P=0.00024). Tet genes were detected in 40% (48/121) of isolates, with tet(E) being the most dominant. Our results demonstrated a significant difference in the incidence of resistant isolates collected from koi carp and common carp (P=0.00042). This difference can be ascribed to a distinct antibiotic policy established on consumer fish farms versus ornamental fish farms. The potential risk for resistant bacteria to spread and transmit infection to humans should be considered in cases of technological crossover between the two types of fish farms. PMID:19900770

  5. Role of porins for uptake of antibiotics by Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Danilchanka, Olga; Pavlenok, Mikhail; Niederweis, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The outer membrane of mycobacteria presents an effective permeability barrier for many antibiotics. Transport pathways across this membrane are unknown for most drugs. Here, we examined which antibiotics utilize the porin pathway across the outer membrane of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. Deletion of the porins MspA and MspC drastically increased the resistance of M. smegmatis ML10 to beta-lactam antibiotics, while its beta-lactamase activity remained unchanged. These results are consistent with the ninefold-reduced outer membrane permeability of the M. smegmatis porin mutants for cephaloridine and strongly indicate that beta-lactam antibiotics rely on the porin pathway. The porin mutant ML10 accumulated less chloramphenicol and norfloxacin and was less susceptible to these antibiotics than wild-type M. smegmatis. These results demonstrated that small and hydrophilic antibiotics use the Msp porins for entering the cell. In contrast to norfloxacin, the hydrophobic moxifloxacin was 32-fold more effective in inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis, presumably because it was able to diffuse through the lipid membrane. Structural models indicated that erythromycin, kanamycin, and vancomycin are too large to move through the MspA channel. This study presents the first experimental evidence that hydrophilic fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol diffuse through porins in mycobacteria. Thus, mutations resulting in less efficient porins or lower porin expression levels are likely to represent a mechanism for the opportunistic pathogens M. avium, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum, which have Msp-like porins, to acquire resistance to fluoroquinolones. PMID:18559650

  6. The in vitro effect of six antimicrobials against Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolated from sheep and goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, W; Nicholas, R A J; Janakat, S; Abu-Basha, E; Ayling, R D

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease in sheep and goats is a major problem in Jordan and is often associated with Mycoplasma species. Without effective vaccines, control is mainly by chemotherapy, but the uncontrolled use of antimicrobials has led to concerns about the potential development of antimicrobial resistance. The in vitro effect of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, tylosin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline was determined against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species-M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions of Jordan. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed some Mycoplasma species-specific differences, with M. capricolum subsp. capricolum being more susceptible to tylosin and erythromycin. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were the least effective for all three Mycoplasma species. No trends or significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibilities were observed between sheep and goat isolates, between milk or nasal swab isolates, or between isolates from different regions of Jordan. Some isolates of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. putrefaciens showed higher MIC levels with oxytetracycline, as did two isolates of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC with tylosin, possibly indicating signs of development of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:17405622

  7. In vitro sensitivity of Hungarian Actinobaculum suis strains to selected antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Biksi, I; Major, Andrea; Fodor, L; Szenci, O; Vetési, F

    2003-01-01

    In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity of 12 Hungarian isolates and the type strain ATCC 33144 of Actinobaculum suis to different antimicrobial compounds was determined both by the agar dilution and by the disc diffusion method. By agar dilution, MIC50 values in the range of 0.05-3.125 micrograms/ml were determined for penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tylosin, pleuromutilins, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and lincomycin. The MIC50 value of oxytetracycline and spectinomycin was 6.25 and 12.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. For ofloxacin, flumequine, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim MIC50 values were in the range of 25-100 micrograms/ml. With the disc diffusion method, all strains were sensitive to penicillin, cephalosporins examined, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, tetracyclines examined, pleuromutilins, lincomycin and tylosin. Variable sensitivity was observed for fluoroquinolones (flumequine, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin), most of the strains were susceptible to marbofloxacin. Almost all strains were resistant to aminoglycosides but most of them were sensitive to spectinomycin. A strong correlation was determined for disc diffusion and MIC results (Spearman's rho 0.789, p < 0001). MIC values of the type strain and MIC50 values of other tested strains did not differ significantly. Few strains showed a partially distinct resistance pattern for erythromycin, lincomycin and ampicillin in both methods. PMID:12688126

  8. Denitrification in soil amended with thermophile-fermented compost suppresses nitrate accumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kazuto; Ohmori, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshifumi; Sonoda, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Jirou; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Kodama, Hiroaki

    2013-02-01

    NO (3) (-) is a major nitrogen source for plant nutrition, and plant cells store NO (3) (-) in their vacuoles. Here, we report that a unique compost made from marine animal resources by thermophiles represses NO (3) (-) accumulation in plants. A decrease in the leaf NO (3) (-) content occurred in parallel with a decrease in the soil NO (3) (-) level, and the degree of the soil NO (3) (-) decrease was proportional to the compost concentration in the soil. The compost-induced reduction of the soil NO (3) (-) level was blocked by incubation with chloramphenicol, indicating that the soil NO (3) (-) was reduced by chloramphenicol-sensitive microbes. The compost-induced denitrification activity was assessed by the acetylene block method. To eliminate denitrification by the soil bacterial habitants, soil was sterilized with γ irradiation and then compost was amended. After the 24-h incubation, the N(2)O level in the compost soil with presence of acetylene was approximately fourfold higher than that in the compost soil with absence of acetylene. These results indicate that the low NO (3) (-) levels that are often found in the leaves of organic vegetables can be explained by compost-mediated denitrification in the soil. PMID:22434570

  9. [Determination of common antibiotics and metronidazole in cosmetics by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hualiang; Li, Fang; Yang, Run; Wang, Lianhong; Ma, Yongji

    2009-01-01

    A method for the analysis of common antibiotics and metronidazole in cosmetics was developed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS). One gram of each cosmetic sample was extracted by methanol-water containing 0.1 mol/L formic acid (1:1, v/v). The extracted sample was filtered before being analyzed with UPLC/MS/MS. The effects of formic acid concentration in the mobile phase on the sensitivity and retention time were studied, and the results showed that 1% was the optimum concentration. Seven analytes, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, can be separated and detected in 5 min, which is much faster than that by the conventional liquid chromatography. The detection limits were 3 - 20 ng/g, and the recoveries were 87% -101%. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 2 - 1 000 microg/L with correlation coefficients larger than 0.995. The method was also applied to determine common antibiotics and metronidazole in 11 real samples from the market. Chloramphenicol was detected in 2 samples and the concentrations were 0.37% and 0.19%; metronidazole was detected in 1 sample and the concentration was 1.02%; others were not detected. PMID:19449540

  10. Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Feeds

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples. PMID:26556374

  11. Detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. isolated from human diarrheic stool in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Valdespino, Abigail; Fernández-Rendón, Elizabeth; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo

    2009-12-01

    We determined the presence of class 1 integrons related to the acquisition of resistance to antimicrobials in Aeromonas spp. isolated from individuals with diarrhea. Species were identified as A. caviae, A. hydrophila, A. veronii and A. media using PCR-RFLP of the 16S rDNA. Selected isolates were further characterized by ERIC-PCR. Resistance to chloramphenicol, aztreonam, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, among others, was determined using the Kirby-Bauer method. Integrons were detected by PCR amplification of the 5' conserved, variable, and 3' conserved regions. Sequencing of the variable regions revealed class 1 integrons with cassettes encoding resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA12, dfrA15, dfrB4), streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA2, aadA1), oxacillin (oxa2) and chloramphenicol (catB3, cmlA4). Others had an open reading frame (orfD) or no insert at all. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the occurrence of genes cmlA4 and dfrA15 in Aeromonas class 1 integrons. Not all the integron-linked cassettes conferred their associated resistances, which suggests the inactivity of some cassettes. Most integrons were chromosomally located. The presence of class 1 integrons similar to those found in a wide variety of bacterial genera from different origins, including environmental and fish-borne Aeromonas, confirms the stability and horizontal transfer of these genetic elements. PMID:19810047

  12. Multiple antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evidence for involvement of an efflux operon.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, K; Krebes, K; McNally, C; Neshat, S

    1993-01-01

    An outer membrane protein of 50 kDa (OprK) was overproduced in a siderophore-deficient mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa capable of growth on iron-deficient minimal medium containing 2,2'-dipyridyl (0.5 mM). The expression of OprK in the mutant (strain K385) was associated with enhanced resistance to a number of antimicrobial agents, including ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and streptonigrin. OprK was inducible in the parent strain by growth under severe iron limitation, as provided, for example, by the addition of dipyridyl or ZnSO4 to the growth medium. The gene encoding OprK (previously identified as ORFC) forms part of an operon composed of three genes (ORFABC) implicated in the secretion of the siderophore pyoverdine. Mutants defective in ORFA, ORFB, or ORFC exhibited enhanced susceptibility to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, streptonigrin, and dipyridyl, consistent with a role for the ORFABC operon in multiple antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. Sequence analysis of ORFC (oprK) revealed that its product is homologous to a class of outer membrane proteins involved in export. Similarly, the products of ORFA and ORFB exhibit homology to previously described bacterial export proteins located in the cytoplasmic membrane. These data suggest that ORFA-ORFB-oprK (ORFC)-dependent drug efflux contributes to multiple antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. We propose, therefore, the designation mexAB (multiple efflux) for ORFAB. Images PMID:8226684

  13. Assessment of antibiotic resistance phenotype and integrons in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from swine.

    PubMed

    Rayamajhi, Nabin; Kang, Sang Gyun; Kang, Mi Lan; Lee, Hee Soo; Park, Kyung Yoon; Yoo, Han Sang

    2008-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) isolated and identified from swine were subjected for the analysis of antibiotic resistance pattern and clinically important class 1 and 2 integrons. In addition, S. Typhimurium isolates exhibiting ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and florfenicol (ACSSuTF) resistance pattern as described in most Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) were characterized by polymerase chain reaction. All the isolates were resistant to more than four antibiotics and showed the highest resistance to streptomycin (94.1%), followed by tetracycline (90.1%), ampicillin (64.7%), chloramphenicol (56.8%) and gentamicin (54.9%). MIC value for the ten isolates ranged between 0.125-2 mug/ml for ciprofloxacin. Among the beta-lactams used, only one of the isolate exhibited resistance to ceftiofur (MIC 8 microg/ml). Sixty eight percent of these multi drug resistance (MDR) S. Typhimurium isolates carried clinically important class 1 integron with 1kb (aadA) and/or 2kb (dhfrXII-orfF-aadA2) resistance gene cassettes. This study reports the increasing trend of multi drug resistance (MDR) S. Typhimurium with clinically important class 1 integron in pigs. In addition, emergence of the ACSSuTF-type resistance in S. Typhimurium PT other than DT104 may limit the use of resistance gene markers in its detection methods by PCR. PMID:18981675

  14. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Penned Broiler and Scavenging Local Chickens in Arusha, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rugumisa, Bernadether T; Call, Douglas R; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Mrutu, Rehema I; Luanda, Catherine M; Lyimo, Beatus M; Subbiah, Murugan; Buza, Joram J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays. Isolates from broiler chickens harbored a higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli relative to scavenging local chickens, including sulfamethoxazole (80.3 versus 34%), followed by trimethoprim (69.3 versus 27.7%), tetracycline (56.8 versus 20%), streptomycin (52.7 versus 24.7%), amoxicillin (49.6 versus 17%), ampicillin (49.1 versus 16.8%), ciprofloxacin (21.9 versus 1.7%), and chloramphenicol (1.5 versus 1.2%). Except for resistance to chloramphenicol, scavenging local chickens harbored fewer resistant E. coli isolates (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens harbored more isolates that were resistant to ≥7 antibiotics (P < 0.05). The higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from broiler chickens correlated with the reported therapeutic and prophylactic use of antibiotics in this poultry population. We suggest that improved biosecurity measures and increased vaccination efforts would reduce reliance on antibiotics by these households. PMID:27497131

  15. Requirement of de novo synthesis of the OdhI protein in penicillin-induced glutamate production by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongpill; Fukuda, Hirohisa; Hirasawa, Takashi; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Nagai, Kazuo; Wachi, Masaaki; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2010-04-01

    We found that penicillin-induced glutamate production by Corynebacterium glutamicum is inhibited when a de novo protein synthesis inhibitor, chloramphenicol, is added simultaneously with penicillin. When chloramphenicol was added 4 h after penicillin addition, glutamate production was essentially unaffected. (3)H-Leucine incorporation experiments revealed that protein synthesis continued for 1 h after penicillin addition and then gradually decreased. These results suggest that de novo protein synthesis within 4 h of penicillin treatment is required for the induction of glutamate production. To identify the protein(s) necessary for penicillin-induced glutamate production, proteome analysis of penicillin-treated C. glutamicum cells was performed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Of more than 500 proteins detected, the amount of 13 proteins, including OdhI (an inhibitory protein for 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex), significantly increased upon penicillin treatment. Artificial overexpression of the odhI gene resulted in the decreased specific activity of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and increased glutamate production without any triggers. These results suggest that the de novo synthesis of OdhI is the necessary factor for penicillin-induced glutamate overproduction by C. glutamicum. Moreover, continuous glutamate production was achieved by overexpression of odhI without any triggers. Thus, the odhI-overexpressing strain of C. glutamicum can be useful for efficient glutamate production. PMID:19956942

  16. Constitutive nitrate reductase expression and inhibition in winged bean

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenchuan; Harper, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    It was found that NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} had no effect on winged bean nitrate reductase activity (NRA). Similar NRA was expressed in plants grown on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, urea, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and nil N. This indicated that the primary NR expressed in winged bean was constitutive, rather than substrate-inducible. Maximum NRA in winged bean was obtained in the light. KClO{sub 3} was capable of inhibiting NRA of leaves if added to the root growth medium or to the NR assay medium, indicating possible competition with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} at the reduction site. While it has previously been shown that either cycloheximide alone, or both cycloheximide and chloramphenicol impair the synthesis of NR protein, our data unexpectedly demonstrated that cycloheximide had little effect on NRA, whereas chloramphenicol greatly inhibited the expression of NRA in winged bean. One interpretation is that chloroplasts may influence the activity and/or synthesis of constitutive NR proteins.

  17. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance Determined by Resistance-Transfer Factors1

    PubMed Central

    Unowsky, Joel; Rachmeler, Martin

    1966-01-01

    Unowsky, Joel (Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill.), and Martin Rachmeler. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance determined by resistance-transfer factors. J. Bacteriol. 92:358–365. 1966.—This study was concerned with the mechanism of expression of drug resistance carried by resistance-transfer (R) factors of two types: fi− (negative fertility inhibition) and fi+ (positive fertility inhibition). The levels of drug resistance determined by R factors used in this study were similar to those reported by other investigators. A new finding was that Escherichia coli carrying the fi− episome was resistant to 150 to 200 μg/ml of streptomycin. The growth kinetics of R factor-containing cells were similar in the presence or absence of streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, but a period of adaptation was necessary before cells began exponential growth in the presence of tetracycline. By use of radioactive antibiotics, it was shown that cells containing the fi− episome were impermeable to tetracycline and streptomycin, whereas cells containing the fi+ episome were impermeable only to chloramphenicol. Cell-free extracts from fi+ and fi− cells were sensitive to the antibiotics tested in the polyuridylic acid-stimulated incorporation of phenylalanine into protein. PMID:16562121

  18. Clinical and microbiological aspects of linezolid resistance mediated by the cfr gene encoding a 23S rRNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Arias, Cesar A; Vallejo, Martha; Reyes, Jinnethe; Panesso, Diana; Moreno, Jaime; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Villegas, Maria V; Murray, Barbara E; Quinn, John P

    2008-03-01

    The cfr (chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance) gene encodes a 23S rRNA methyltransferase that confers resistance to linezolid. Detection of linezolid resistance was evaluated in the first cfr-carrying human hospital isolate of linezolid and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (designated MRSA CM-05) by dilution and diffusion methods (including Etest). The presence of cfr was investigated in isolates of staphylococci colonizing the patient's household contacts and clinical isolates recovered from patients in the same unit where MRSA CM-05 was isolated. Additionally, 68 chloramphenicol-resistant Colombian MRSA isolates recovered from hospitals between 2001 and 2004 were screened for the presence of the cfr gene. In addition to erm(B), the erm(A) gene was also detected in CM-05. The isolate belonged to sequence type 5 and carried staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type I. We were unable to detect the cfr gene in any of the human staphylococci screened (either clinical or colonizing isolates). Agar and broth dilution methods detected linezolid resistance in CM-05. However, the Etest and disk diffusion methods failed to detect resistance after 24 h of incubation. Oxazolidinone resistance mediated by the cfr gene is rare, and acquisition by a human isolate appears to be a recent event in Colombia. The detection of cfr-mediated linezolid resistance might be compromised by the use of the disk diffusion or Etest method. PMID:18174304

  19. Residues of antibacterial drugs in honey from the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Baggio, A; Gallina, A; Benetti, C; Mutinelli, F

    2009-01-01

    Antibacterial drugs are used worldwide for the control of American and, less often, European foulbrood. Their administration is mostly uncontrolled and applied without approved protocols and instructions for use as well as precautionary recommendations. Consequently, this practice is responsible for the contamination of beehive products and contributes to the problem of food safety. According to this situation, 4672 analyses were carried out on 5303 honeys collected from 2001 to 2007. These samples were investigated for antibacterial residues of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tylosin. Honeys were classified according to their origin: imported honey and honey from the Italian market. In the last group (only for samples collected from 2001 to 2004), another type of honey was distinguished: that of local honey. A total of 6.3% of all samples were positive for the antibacterial drugs analysed; in particular, 6.8% of imported honeys and 6.1% of honeys on the Italian market. Only 1.7% of local honey had antibacterial residues. These results are indicative of a rather frequent presence of antibacterial drug residues in both Italian and imported honeys. Furthermore, the data showed that among the active substances analysed, sulphonamides are the most used antibacterial substance followed by tetracyclines, streptomycin, tylosin, and chloramphenicol. Finally, a continuous monitoring programme is needed, accompanied by an education programme to beekeepers on proper hive management. PMID:24784967

  20. Novel bioassay using Bacillus megaterium to detect tetracycline in milk.

    PubMed

    Tumini, Melisa; Nagel, Orlando G; Molina, Pilar; Althaus, Rafael L

    2016-01-01

    Tetracyclines are used for the prevention and control of dairy cattle diseases. Residues of these drugs can be excreted into milk. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a microbiological method using Bacillus megaterium to detect tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and tetracycline) in milk. In order to approximate the limits of detection of the bioassay to the Maximum Residue Limit (100μg/l) for milk tetracycline, different concentrations of chloramphenicol (0, 1000, 1500 and 2000μg/l) were tested. The detection limits calculated were similar to the Maximum Residue Limits when a bioassay using B. megaterium ATCC 9885 spores (2.8×10(8)spores/ml) and chloramphenicol (2000μg/l) was utilized. This bioassay detects 105μg/l of chlortetracycline, 100μg/l of oxytetracycline and 134μg/l of tetracycline in 5h. Therefore, this method is suitable to be incorporated into a microbiological multi-residue system for the identification of tetracyclines in milk. PMID:27131738