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Sample records for chloride concentration case

  1. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220. PMID:26935095

  2. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Loren F; Izbicki, John A

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality-possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer. PMID:22607466

  3. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality—possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

  4. Water structure in concentrated lithium chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, R. H.; Neilson, G. W.; Soper, A. K.

    1992-06-01

    The radial pair distribution functions gHH(r) and gOH(r) (to a good approximation) of 1 and 10 m solutions of lithium chloride in water have been obtained from neutron diffraction. It turns out that the intermolecular water structure in a solution of 10 m is affected considerably by the presence of ions—the number of hydrogen bonds is about 70% lower than in pure water. The intermolecular water structure in 1 m lithium chloride as well as the intramolecular water structure in both 1 and 10 m lithium chloride is not distinguishable from that of pure water in any measurable extent.

  5. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. PMID:27105154

  6. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. PMID:27497327

  7. Comment on "Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration".

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2014-09-01

    Glykys et al. (Reports, 7 February 2014, p. 670) proposed that cytoplasmic impermeant anions and polyanionic extracellular matrix glycoproteins establish the local neuronal intracellular chloride concentration, [Cl(-)]i, and thereby the polarity of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor signaling. The experimental procedures and results in this study are insufficient to support these conclusions. Contradictory results previously published by these authors and other laboratories are not referred to. PMID:25190788

  8. Bromate peak distortion in ion chromatography in samples containing high chloride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pappoe, Michael K; Naeeni, Mohammad Hosein; Lucy, Charles A

    2016-04-29

    In this study, the effect of column overload of the matrix ion, chloride, on the elution peak profiles of trace bromate is investigated. The resultant peak profiles of chloride and bromate are explained on the basis of competitive Langmuir isotherms. The Thermo IonPac AS9-HC, AS19 and AS23 columns are recommended by the manufacturer for bromate (a carcinogen) analysis. Under trace conditions, these columns provide baseline resolution of bromate from matrix ions such as chloride (Rs=2.9, 3.3 and 3.2, respectively for the three columns). Injection of 10-300mM chloride with both hydroxide and carbonate eluents resulted in overload on these columns. On the basis of competitive Langmuir isotherms, a deficiency in the local concentration of the more retained eluent in addition to analyte overload leads to fronting of the overloaded analyte peak. The peak asymmetries (B/A10%) for chloride changed from 1.0 (Gaussian) under trace conditions to 0.7 (fronting) at 300mM Cl(-) for IonPac AS9-HC, 0.9-0.6 for AS19 and 0.8-0.5, for AS23, respectively. The 10mM bromate peak is initially near Gaussian (B/A10%=0.9) but becomes increasingly distorted and pulled back into the chloride peak as the concentration of chloride increased. Increasing the eluent strength reduced the pull-back effect on bromate and fronting in chloride in all cases. PMID:27046004

  9. The effect of chloride ion on the ferric chloride leaching of galena concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, G. W.; Kim, Seon-Hyo; Henein, H.

    1987-03-01

    Previous investigations of the ferric chloride brine leaching of galena concentrate have shown that additions of chloride ion result in accelerated dissolution rates. The current study has provided the necessary information to extend and modify these previous results by incorporating the important effect of chloride ion on the dissolution kinetics. As part of this study the solubility of lead chloride in ferric chloride-brine solutions has been determined and results indicate that additions of either FeCl3 or NaCl increase the PbCl2 solubility. This is attributed to the effect of complexing on the level of free chloride ion. In addition, the dissolution kinetics of elemental lead and lead chloride were also determined and compared with the kinetics of PbS dissolution. It is significant that the rate of dissolution of PbCl2 decreases as the concentration of Cl- is decreased and as the concentration of dissolved lead increases. These results along with SEM examination of partially reacted Pb shot show that solid PbCl2 forms on the surface long before the bulk solution is saturated with lead. The PbCl2 is proposed to form by a direct electrochemical reaction between Cl- and PbS prior to the formation of dissolved lead. The reaction was determined to be first order with respect to Cl- and closely obeys the following kinetic model based on a rate limiting charge transfer reaction at the surface:1 - (1 - a)^{1/3} left[ {{5.01x10^{11} }/{r_0 }left[ {Fe^{3 + } } right]_T^{0.21} left[ {Cl^ - } right]_T^{1.0} exp left( {{ - 72100}/{RT}} right)} right]t The model is in excellent agreement with experimental results up to about 95 pct reaction as long as the solubility of PbCl2 is greater than about 0.051 M. Where these conditions are not met, deviation from the surface reaction model occurs due to the extremely slow dissolution rate of PbCl2. Therefore the effect of Cl- on the brine leaching of PbS is attributed to two factors, the direct reaction of Cl- with the pbS surface

  10. Nucleation and growth of zinc from chloride concentrated solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Trejo, G.; Ortega B, R.; Meas V, Y.; Ozil, P.; Chainet, E.; Nguyen, B.

    1998-12-01

    The electrodeposition of metals is a complex phenomenon influenced by a number of factors that modify the rates of nucleation and growth and determine the properties of the deposits. In this work the authors study the influence of the zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) concentration on the zinc nucleation process on glassy carbon, in a KCl electrolyte under conditions close to those employed in commercial acid deposition baths for zinc. The electrochemical study was performed using cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic current-time transients. The charge-transfer coefficient and the formal potential for ZnCl{sub 2} reduction were evaluated from cyclic voltammetry experiments. The nucleation process was analyzed by comparing the transients obtained with the known dimensionless (i/i{sub m}){sup 2} vs. t/t{sub m} response for instantaneous or progressive nucleation. The results show that the nucleation process and the number density of sites are dependent on ZnCl{sub 2} concentration. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the deposits shows that the deposits are homogeneous and compact although a change in the morphology is observed as a function of ZnCl{sub 2} concentration. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance reveals the influence of the nucleation process on the subsequent corrosion resistance of the zinc deposits.

  11. Warm season chloride concentrations in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk.

    PubMed

    Todd, Aaron K; Kaltenecker, M Georgina

    2012-12-01

    Warm season (May-October) chloride concentrations were assessed in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk in southern Ontario, Canada. Significant increases in concentrations were observed at 96% of 24 long-term (1975-2009) monitoring sites. Concentrations were described as a function of road density indicating an anthropogenic source of chloride. Linear regression showed that 36% of the variation of concentrations was explained by road salt use by the provincial transportation ministry. Results suggest that long-term road salt use and retention is contributing to a gradual increase in baseline chloride concentrations in at risk mussel habitats. Exposure of sensitive mussel larvae (glochidia) to increasing chloride concentrations may affect recruitment to at risk mussel populations. PMID:22940273

  12. Vasculitic purpura in vinyl chloride disease: a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Magnavita, N.; Bergamaschi, A.; Garcovich, A.; Giuliano, G.

    1986-05-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC), a volatile substance mostly used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) synthesis, is a systemic toxicant particularly noxious to endothelium. Angiosarcoma of the liver, Raynaud's phenomenon, scleroderma-like lesions, acroosteolysis and neuritis are known to be typical vinyl chloride-associated manifestations (VC disease). A so far unknown feature of the disease is purpura. This was first observed by the authors in a worker of a PVC-producing plant. The skin eruption was characterized by small purpuric maculae with tiny, palpable spots and papulae, mostly concentrated on the lower part of the legs, changing into bullae, pustules and crusts and tending to spontaneous regression after withdrawal from VC exposure. A skin biopsy revealed marked inflammatory reaction with a mostly lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration around and in the walls of dermal arterioles. The finding of increased circulating immune complexes and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies strengthens the hypothesis that immunologic changes play a role in the appearance of ''vinylic purpura.''

  13. Captopril in congenital chloride diarrhoea: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bin Islam, Shoeb; Mazumder, Ramendra Nath; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sharifuzzaman; Sahreen, Lubaba; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Haque Alam, Nur

    2015-03-01

    An 11 months 22 days old girl presented with a history of watery diarrhoea since birth, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Her diagnosis was congenital chloride diarrhoea (CCD) with raised level of chloride (>90 mmol/L) in stool in the absence of cystic fibrosis. Management of CCD included replacement of NaCl, KCl, and correction of dehydration. Diarrhoea of the patient was resolved with Captopril, which was initially provided to the patient for managing heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CCD that shows the beneficial effect of Captopril. Therefore, we suggest that further study is warranted as to the potential for Captopril as additional option in the treatment for CCD. We present this case report with the informed consent of the patient's guardian. PMID:25995737

  14. Captopril in Congenital Chloride Diarrhoea: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Ramendra Nath; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sharifuzzaman; Sahreen, Lubaba; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Haque Alam, Nur

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 11 months 22 days old girl presented with a history of watery diarrhoea since birth, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Her diagnosis was congenital chloride diarrhoea (CCD) with raised level of chloride (>90 mmol/L) in stool in the absence of cystic fibrosis. Management of CCD included replacement of NaCl, KCl, and correction of dehydration. Diarrhoea of the patient was resolved with Captopril, which was initially provided to the patient for managing heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CCD that shows the beneficial effect of Captopril. Therefore, we suggest that further study is warranted as to the potential for Captopril as additional option in the treatment for CCD. We present this case report with the informed consent of the patient's guardian. PMID:25995737

  15. A novel device for quantitative measurement of chloride concentration by fluorescence indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Wu, Xudong; Chon, Chanhee; Gonska, Tanja; Li, Dongqing

    2012-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening genetic disease. At present, the common method for diagnosis of CF is to detect the chloride concentration in sweat using ion-selective electrodes. However, the current sweat testing methods require a relatively large quantity of sweat sample, at least 25 µL, which is very difficult to obtain, especially for newborns. This paper presents a new method and a new device for rapid detection of the chloride concentration from a small volume of solution. In this method, the chloride concentration is determined quantitatively by the fluorescence intensity of MQAE, a chloride ion fluorescent indicator. In this device, the sample is carried by a small piece of filter paper on a cover glass exposed to an UV LED light source. The resulting fluorescent signals are detected by a Si photodiode. Data acquisition and processing are accomplished by LabVIEW software in a PDA. Based on the Stern-Volmer relationship, the effects of different parameters on the fluorescence intensity were analyzed. The observed significant difference between 40 and 60 mM (the borderline of chloride concentration for CF) is discussed in this paper. The results show that detection can be completed within 10 s. The minimum detectable volume of the chloride solution is 1 μL. The novel method and the device are of great potential for CF diagnosis.

  16. The effect of chloride ion concentration gradients on the initiation of localized corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.J.; Brown, R.

    1994-12-31

    It has been established that for steel reinforced concrete roads treated with deicing salts or exposed to a marine environment, chloride ions are introduced at the surface of the concrete structure. Two models were discussed in which chloride ion concentration gradients would form in a steel reinforced concrete structure. Electrochemical testing to investigate the models was conducted on plain carbon steel specimens in a simulated concrete environment of saturated calcium hydroxide solution with varying concentrations of sodium chloride. The varying chloride ion concentrations promoted open circuit potential shifts. These potential shifts may lead to galvanic corrosion effects depending on the chloride ion concentration gradients in the structure.

  17. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove. A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

  18. Predicting fluoride and chloride concentrations of hydrothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Chen )

    1992-01-01

    A new method of predicting F and Cl concentrations of hydrothermal fluids has been developed, which can be used to study water-rock interactions in a variety of hydrothermal, metamorphic, and magnetic processes. This method is based on a comprehensive assessment of thermodynamic partitioning of F-Cl-OH between minerals and hydrothermal fluids. The calculation method is explained. Fluid compositions obtained by applying this method to amphibolites from Hunts Brook Fault Zone, Connecticut, and to Santa Rita porphyry copper deposits, New Mexico, are similar to results obtained by metasomatism modeling and from fluid inclusion studies.

  19. Simulation of specific conductance and chloride concentration in Abercorn Creek, Georgia, 2000-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A., Jr.; Davie, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Savannah operates an industrial and domestic water-supply intake on Abercorn Creek approximately 2 miles from the confluence with the Savannah River upstream from the Interstate 95 bridge. Chloride concentrations are a major concern for the city because industrial customers require water with low chloride concentrations, and elevated chloride concentrations require additional water treatment in order to meet those needs. The proposed deepening of Savannah Harbor could increase chloride concentrations (the major ion in seawater) in the upper reaches of the lower Savannah River estuary, including Abercorn Creek. To address this concern, mechanistic and empirical modeling approaches were used to simulate chloride concentrations at the city's intake to evaluate potential effects from deepening the Savannah Harbor. The first approach modified the mechanistic Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model developed by Tetra Tech and used for evaluating proposed harbor deepening effects for the Environmental Impact Statement. Chloride concentrations were modeled directly with the EFDC model as a conservative tracer. This effort was done by Tetra Tech under a separate funding agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and documented in a separate report. The second approach, described in this report, was to simulate chloride concentrations by developing empirical models from the available data using artificial neural network (ANN) and linear regression models. The empirical models used daily streamflow, specific conductance (field measurement for salinity), water temperature, and water color time series for inputs. Because there are only a few data points that describe the relation between high specific conductance values at the Savannah River at Interstate 95 and the water plant intake, there was a concern that these few data points would determine the extrapolation of the empirical model and potentially underestimate the effect of deepening the harbor on

  20. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations

  1. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development.

    PubMed

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A

    2015-03-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers. PMID

  2. Chloride Concentrations in Ground Water in East and West Baton Rouge Parishes, Louisiana, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelace, John K.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing chloride concentrations are a threat to fresh ground-water sources in East Baton Rouge and West Baton Rouge Parishes, Louisiana. Large withdrawals at Baton Rouge have lowered water levels and altered flow patterns in most of the 10 aquifers that underlie the area. Prior to development, freshwater flowed southward to the Baton Rouge fault, an east-west trending growth fault that extends through Baton Rouge and across southeastern Louisiana. Aquifers south of the fault generally contain saltwater. Ground-water withdrawals north of the fault have created gradients favorable for the movement of saltwater from south of the fault into freshwater areas north of the fault. Water samples were collected from 152 wells during 2004-05 to document chloride concentrations in aquifers underlying East and West Baton Rouge Parishes. The background concentration for chloride in fresh ground water in the Baton Rouge area north of the Baton Rouge fault is generally less than 10 milligrams per liter. Chloride concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in one or more samples from wells north of the fault screened in the '600-foot', '1,000-foot', '1,200-foot', '1,500-foot', '1,700-foot', '2,000-foot', '2,400-foot', and '2,800-foot' sands. Comparison of the 2004-05 data with historical data indicated that chloride concentrations are increasing at wells in the '600-foot', '1,000-foot', '1,200-foot', '1,500-foot', '2,000-foot', '2,400-foot', and '2,800-foot' sands north of the Baton Rouge fault.

  3. Higher serum chloride concentrations are associated with acute kidney injury in unselected critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chloride administration has been found to be harmful to the kidney in critically ill patients. However the association between plasma chloride concentration and renal function has never been investigated. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary 24-bed intensive care unit from September 2010 to November 2012. Data on serum chloride for each patient during their ICU stay were abstracted from electronic database. Cl0 referred to the initial chloride on ICU entry, Clmax, Clmin and Clmean referred to the maximum, minimum and mean chloride values before the onset of AKI, respectively. AKI was defined according to the conventional AKIN criteria. Univariate and multivariable analysis were performed to examine the association of chloride and AKI development. Results A total of 1221 patients were included into analysis during study period. Three hundred and fifty-seven patients (29.2%) developed AKI. Clmax was significantly higher in AKI than in non-AKI group (111.8 ± 8.1 vs 107.9 ±5.4 mmol/l; p < 0.001); Cl0 was not significantly different between AKI and non-AKI patients; Clmean was significantly higher in AKI than non-AKI (104.3 ±5.8 vs 103.4 ± 4.5; p = 0.0047) patients. Clmax remained to be associated with AKI in multivariable analysis (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.08-1.13). Conclusion Chloride overload as represented by Clmean and Clmax is significantly associated with the development of AKI. PMID:24164963

  4. Measurement of chloride-ion concentration with long-period grating technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jaw-Luen; Wang, Jian-Neng

    2007-06-01

    A simple and low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPG) sensor suited for chloride-ion concentration measurement is presented. The LPG sensor is found to be sensitive to the refractive index of the medium around the cladding surface of the sensing grating, thus offering the prospect of development of practical sensors such as an ambient index sensor or a chemical concentration indicator with high stability and reliability. We measured chloride ions in a typical concrete sample immersed in salt water solutions with different weight concentrations ranging from 0% to 25%. Results show that the LPG sensor exhibited a linear decrease in the transmission loss and resonance wavelength shift when the concentration increased. The measurement accuracy for the concentration of salt in water solution is estimated to be 0.6% and the limit of detection for chloride ions is about 0.04%. To further enhance its sensitivity for chloride concentrations, we coated a monolayer of colloidal gold nanoparticles as the active material on the grating surface of the LPG sensor. The operating principle of sensing is based on the sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance of self-assembled gold colloids on the grating section of the LPG. With this method, a factor of two increase in the sensitivity of detecting chemical solution concentrations was obtained. The advantages of this type of fiber-optic sensor are that it is compact, relatively simple to construct and easy to use. Moreover, the sensor has the potential capability for on-site, in vivo and remote sensing, and it has potential use as a disposable sensor.

  5. Gene expression in Listeria monocytogenes exposed to sublethal concentration of benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tamburro, Manuela; Ripabelli, Giancarlo; Vitullo, Monia; Dallman, Timothy James; Pontello, Mirella; Amar, Corinne Francoise Laurence; Sammarco, Michela Lucia

    2015-06-01

    In this study, tolerance at sublethal concentration of benzalkonium chloride and transcription levels of mdrL, ladR, lde, sigB and bcrABC genes in Listeria monocytogenes strains were evaluated. Viable cells reduction occurred in 45% of strains and clinical isolates showed lower sensitivity than isolates from foods. An increased transcription of an efflux system encoding gene was found in 60% of strains, and simultaneous mdrL overexpression and ladR underexpression occurred in 30% of isolates. A significant association between reduced benzalkonium chloride activity and both mdrL and sigB overexpression was observed; sigB expression also correlated with both mdrL and ladR genes. The bcrABC gene was only found in six strains, all isolated from foods and sensitive to benzalkonium chloride, and in four strains an underexpression was observed. Disinfection at sublethal concentration was less effective in clinical isolates, and mdrL and sigB expression was significantly affected by disinfection. Further insights are needed to understand the adaptation to benzalkonium chloride and to evaluate whether changes in gene expression could affect the L. monocytogenes virulence traits and persistence in the environment. PMID:25910634

  6. Crystallization of sodium chloride from a concentrated calcium chloride-potassium chloride-sodium chloride solution in a CMSMPR crystallizer: Observation of crystal size distribution and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Sang

    Compared to overwhelming technical data available in other advanced technologies, knowledge about particle technology, especially in particle synthesis from a solution, is still poor due to the lack of available equipment to study crystallization phenomena in a crystallizer. Recent technical advances in particle size measurement such as Coulter counter and laser light scattering have made in/ex situ study of some of particle synthesis, i.e., growth, attrition, and aggregation, possible with simple systems. Even with these advancements in measurement technology, to grasp fully the crystallization phenomena requires further theoretical and technical advances in understanding such particle synthesis mechanisms. Therefore, it is the motive of this work to establish the general processing parameters and to produce rigorous experimental data with reliable performance and characterization that rigorously account for the crystallization phenomena of nucleation, growth, aggregation, and breakage including their variations with time and space in a controlled continuous mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (CMSMPR) crystallizer. This dissertation reports the results and achievements in the following areas: (1) experimental programs to support the development and validation of the phenomenological models and generation of laboratory data for the purpose of testing, refining, and validating the crystallization process, (2) development of laboratory well-mixed crystallizer system and experimental protocols to generate crystal size distribution (CSD) data, (3) the effects of feed solution concentration, crystallization temperature, feed flow rate, and mixing speed, as well as different types of mixers resulting in the evolution of CSDs with time from a concentrated brine solution, (4) with statistically designed experiments the effects of processing variables on the resultant particle structure and CSD at steady state were quantified and related to each of those operating

  7. Lithium ions in nanomolar concentration modulate glycine-activated chloride current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, J V; Kondratenko, R V; Skrebitsky, V G

    2016-03-01

    Lithium salts are successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. At the same time, according to recent data lithium may be considered as a candidate medication for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of therapeutic action of lithium have not been fully elucidated. In particular, in the literature there are no data on the effect of lithium on the glycine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of Li(+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique. The effects of Li(+) were studied with two glycine concentrations: 100 μM (EC50) and 500 μM (nearly saturating). Li(+) was applied to the cell in two ways: first, by 600 ms co-application with glycine through micropipette (short application), and, second, by addition to an extracellular perfusate for 10 min (longer application). Li(+) was used in the range of concentrations of 1 nM-1 mM. Short application of Li(+) caused two effects: (1) an acceleration of desensitization (a decrease in the time of half-decay, or "τ") of IGly induced by both 100 μM and 500 μM glycine, and (2) a reduction of the peak amplitude of the IGly, induced by 100 μM, but not by 500 μM glycine. Both effects were not voltage-dependent. Dose-response curves for both effects were N-shaped with two maximums at 100 nM and 1 mM of Li(+) and a minimum at 1 μM of Li(+). This complex form of dose-response may indicate that the process activated by high concentrations of lithium inhibits the process that is sensitive to low concentrations of lithium. Longer application of Li(+)caused similar effects, but in this case 1 μM lithium was effective and the dose-effect curves were not N-shaped. The inhibitory effect of lithium ions on glycine-activated current suggests that lithium in low concentrations is able to modulate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus. This important property of lithium should be considered when using this drug as a

  8. Determination of nutrients in the presence of high chloride concentrations by column-switching ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bruno, P; Caselli, M; de Gennaro, G; De Tommaso, B; Lastella, G; Mastrolitti, S

    2003-06-27

    Determination of inorganic anions in waters of high salinity is one of the most difficult task in analytical chemistry. A simple column-switching method, based on an original chromatographic set-up, for the determination of nutrients (nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) in chloride rich aqueous matrices is presented. A pre-separation system (made of two in line pre-columns, Dionex AG9-HC 4 mm) connected to an analytical column (Dionex AS9-HC 4 mm) by a four way pneumatic valve, allows chloride to be eluted off into the waste and nutrients to be separated and detected by a conductimeter and/or a UV spectrophotometer. Neither chemical pre-treatment nor sample dilution are required; sample matrices presenting a large range of chloride concentrations can be investigated. Moreover by using this technology, automation for routine analysis, low analysis time and low costs can be achieved. LODs of 100, 300, 1000 microg/l for nitrate, nitrite and phosphate, respectively, have been obtained by spiking a synthetic sea water sample containing 20,000 mg/l of chloride and 3000 mg/l of sulphate. Analyte calibration curves of analytes are linear (r>0.99) in the range between the LODs and 60 mg/l. This method was applied to nutrients determination in sea water samples collected near a river outlet. PMID:12899303

  9. Sexual maturation and productivity of Japanese quail fed graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 p.p.m. Hg as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) from the time of hatching up to the age of 1 year. None of the birds manifested any gross signs of mercury poisioning. Food consumption, growth rate, and weight maintenance were unaffected. Initial oviposition tended to occur at a younger age as dietary mercuric chloride increased, e.g., the median age at which egg laying began among hens fed 32 p.p.m. Hg was 6 days younger than for controls. The average rate of egg production was positively related to the concentration of mercuric chloride with the most pronounced differences between treatments occurring among young (less than 9-week-old) hens. Beyond 9 weeks of age production was more uniform among the treatments, but even after 1 year hens on 32 p.p.m. Hg were laying an average of 13.5% more eggs than controls. Rate of egg fertilization was generally depressed for all Hg-treatments above 4 p.p.m. Hatchability of fertilized eggs and eggshell thickness appeared unaffected by mercuric chloride.

  10. Effects of lead chloride on human erythrocyte membranes and on kinetic anion sulphate and glutathione concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Tiziana; De Luca, Grazia; Romano, Pietro; Rigano, Caterina; Scuteri, Adriana; Romano, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Our study concerns the effects of exposure to lead chloride on the morphology, K(+) efflux, SO(4)(-) influx and GSH levels of the human erythrocyte. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes and washed three times. The cells were suspended at 3% hematocrit and incubated for 1 h at 25°C in a medium containing increasing concentrations of lead chloride (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 μM). After incubation, the suspensions were centrifuged and the erythrocyte pellets were divided into three aliquots for testing. The results show: an increase in the permeability of erythrocytes treated with lead chloride with consequent damage and cellular death, especially in the presence of high concentrations; an increase in potassium ion efflux; alterations in the morphology and membrane structure of the red blood cells; and a decrease in sulphate uptake, due either to the oxidative effect of this compound on the band 3 protein, which loses its biological valence as a carrier of sulphate ions, or to a decrease in the ATP erythrocyte concentration. In conclusion, the exposure of erythrocytes to Pb(2+) ions leads to a reduction in the average lifetime of the erythrocytes and the subsequent development of anemia. These data are discussed in terms of the possible effect of lead on the reduction-oxidation systems of the cell. Oxidant agents, such as lead, are known to cross-link integral membrane proteins, leading to K/Cl-cotransport. The increased K(+) efflux affects the altered redox state. PMID:22941203

  11. Spatial an temporal analysis of chloride concentrations in underground water in the coastal wetland of l'Albufera, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhakka, Evelina; Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente

    2010-05-01

    Mediterranean coastal wetlands are of great interest for their richness in biodiversity. They are also fragile systems because they are exposed to various human pressures, such as farming systems and urban sprawl. Most Mediterranean coastal wetlands have a transient underground inter phase of continental and marine water. In many cases, the variations of the rain regime towards an increasing dryness and the overexploitation of aquiphers in these zones could favour the marine water intrusion, being a source of continental water salinisation and loss of its quality. This process can directly affect the ecosystems and produce loss of biodiversity. Thus, studies to assess the dynamics in time and space of the possible marine intrusion are necessary to evaluate coastal environment health and quality. The study has been applied to L'Albufera Natural Park, the largest Coastal Wetland in eastern Spain. Due to its importance, it has been included in the list of Wetlands of the RAMSAR Convention. In the area there is a complex relationship between the intrinsic natural importance (endemicity and biodiversity) and the human activities (traditional agriculture and hinterland industrial and settlement development). The methodological approach is based in the analysis of chloride concentrations time series of thirteen sample water points distributed in and around the boundaries of the Natural Park. All time series, between 1982 and 2008, have been analysed to establish trends both in time and space. Results show that in samples close to the see (between 1500 and 2000 metres) chloride concentrations are not too high, with values between 37 mg/l and 213 mg/l. Nonetheless, the shorter is the distance to the see the higher are the chloride levels, with values between 58 mg/l and 1131 mg/l. For longer distances, more than 2000 from the coast line, values are quite similar in most sample points, from 52 mg/l to 691 mg/l. Among all the thirteen time series analysed trends are detected

  12. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  13. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

  14. Stress anisotropy and concentration effects in high pressure measurements. [sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. A., Jr.; Ruoff, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Sodium chloride is used as an internal pressure standard in high pressure research. Possible corrections are discussed which are needed in the calibration of this standard due to the independent effects of stress anisotropy and stress concentration in pressure vessels. The first is due to the lack of a truly hydrostatic state of stress in solid state pressure vessels. The second is due to the difference in the compressibilities between the pressure transmitting substances (sodium chloride) and a stiffer test specimen. These two corrections are then combined and a total correction, as a function of measured pressure, is discussed for two systems presently in use. The predicted value of the combined effect is about 5-10% of the pressure at 30 GPa.

  15. Recent trends in chloride and sodium concentrations in the deep subalpine lakes (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rogora, Michela; Mosello, Rosario; Kamburska, Lyudmila; Salmaso, Nico; Cerasino, Leonardo; Leoni, Barbara; Garibaldi, Letizia; Soler, Valentina; Lepori, Fabio; Colombo, Luca; Buzzi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A growing concern exists about the effects of chloride (Cl) on freshwater systems. Increasing Cl concentrations have been observed in the last few decades in several rivers and lakes, mainly in northern countries. In Italy, present levels and temporal changes of sodium (Na) and Cl in water bodies have rarely been assessed. Based on long-term data for the lakes of the subalpine district in Italy (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda), we analyzed trends affecting Cl and Na concentrations during the last 25 years, with the aim of identifying temporal changes and assessing possible causes. An in-depth analysis is presented for Lake Maggiore. Positive temporal Na and Cl trends were evident in all studied lakes, with the trends increasing since early 2000s. Data for Lake Maggiore tributaries showed a clear seasonality (higher values in winter and early spring). The NaCl used as road de-icing agent, together with Cl discharge from wastewater treatment plants, were identified as the main causes for the observed trends. Chloride concentrations in the lakes are below the threshold limit for reduced water quality and below concentrations known to harm aquatic biota. However, considering the relevance of deep subalpine lakes, representing almost 80% of the total freshwater volume in Italy, these trends indicate an important chemical change, which warrants further analysis. PMID:26233742

  16. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  17. Estimates of evapotranspiration or effective moisture in Rocky Mountain watersheds from chloride ion concentrations in stream baseflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claassen, H.C.; Halm, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The principle that atmospherically derived chloride is a conservative tracer in many watersheds can be used to calculate average annual evapotranspiration or effective moisture if estimates are available for (1) the average annual chloride input to the watershed, (2) the average annual precipitation, and (3) the baseflow chloride concentration are known. The method assumes that no long-term storage of chloride occurs and there is no lithologic source of chloride, or that such source releases only insignificant amounts to groundwater compared to the atmospheric source. National Atmospheric Deposition Program estimates of chloride wet deposition, watershed precipitation records or hyetal map estimates of precipitation input to watersheds, and a single sample of chloride concentration in base flow were used to calculate evapotranspiration for diverse Rocky Mountain watersheds. This estimate was compared to evapotranspiration determined by subtracting mean discharge from precipitation. Of the 19 watersheds used to test the method, 13 agreed within 10%, 2 appear to have not met the lithology criterion, 1 appears to have not met the flow criterion, and 1 neither criterion. The method's greatest strength is the minimal data requirements and its greatest weakness is that for some watersheds it may be difficult to obtain reliable estimates of precipitation and chloride deposition. If reliable discharge data are available, the method may be used to estimate watershed-average precipitation; this is especially useful in high-altitude mountain watersheds where little or no precipitation data are available.

  18. Rapid changes in concentrations of essential elements in organs of rats exposed to methylmercury chloride and mercuric chloride as shown by simultaneous multielemental analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Muto, H; Shinada, M; Tokuta, K; Takizawa, Y

    1991-01-01

    An in vivo study of rats given a dominant lethal dose of methylmercury chloride (MMC) or mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was conducted to elucidate the rapid biotransformation of essential elements. The elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. For the rat brain Zn concentrations were higher in the MMC group than in the HgCl2 and control groups. The highest Cu concentration was found in HgCl2 dosed rat liver. For the rat kidney the highest Zn concentration was seen in the MMC group. From principal component analysis on the time dependent behaviour of each element in rat organs, characteristics specific to Cu in the liver and kidney and Mn in the brain were found after exposure to HgCl2 and Ca and Zn in the brain after exposure to MMC. PMID:2064976

  19. The Effect of Ammonium Chloride Concentration in In Vitro Maturation Culture on Ovine Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Golchin, Ali; Asadpour, Reza; Roshangar, Leila; Jafari-Jozani, Raziallah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ammonium is produced in culture medium due to amino acids degradation and has adverse effect on in vitro culture of embryo. In the current study, the purpose was to evaluate the effects of ammuniom chloride (AC) on in vitro oocyte maturation rate and early embryo development in the sheep and its effect on the expression of Bcl-2. Methods: In vitro maturation (IVM) was performed in the presence of various concentrations (0, 29, 88,132,176 μM/ml) of ammonium chloride (NH 4 CL) (AC). Meiotic maturation, embryonic development and expression of Bcl2 gene in Blastocyst cells were determined. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post HOC test, and values with p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The highest concentration (176 μM) of AC significantly decreased the rate of fully expanded cumulus cells 24 hr after IVM compared with the control group (p<0.05). Moreover, significantly lower rates of MII oocytes were found in the 176 μM AC group compared with the 29 μM AC group. The percentage of zygotes developing to blastocysts in 176 μM AC was lower than the other group. Also, supplementation of the oocyte maturation media with 176 μM AC decreased Bcl2 expression. Conclusion: Our results suggested that significant increase in IVM rate could be obtained with supplementation maturation medium with AC in a dose dependent manner. Increased AC concentration led to lower blastocyst rate under normal condition. However, regulation of pro–apoptotic (Bcl-2) gene did not change with different concentrations of AC supplementing. PMID:27478767

  20. EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATION ON PROBABLITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS- PART IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-08-23

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion susceptibility. Testing solutions were chosen to build off previous experimental results from FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate. The FY11 results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits as well.

  1. Specific conductance and dissolved chloride concentrations of freshwater aquifers and streams in petroleum producing areas in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Specific conductance and dissolved chloride reconnasissance sampling was conducted in six oil-producing areas of Mississippi during periods of low streamflow in 1980 and 1981. Water samples were collected at 224 ground-water and 190 suface-water sites. Samples from 55 surface-water and 17 ground-water sites contained dissolved chloride concentrations in excess of 100 milligrams per liter. All data collected are presented in tables without interpretation. (USGS)

  2. Cohort and case-control analyses of workers exposed to vinyl chloride: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.A.; Steenland, K.; Brown, D.; Wells, V.; Jones, J.; Schulte, P.; Halperin, W.

    1989-06-01

    The mortality in a cohort of workers at a vinyl chloride polymerization plant has been updated, extending the period of observation in the original study from 1974 to 1986. Workers at this plant may have been exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and/or polyvinyl chloride dust, or may have had no exposure to either substance. Seventy-six percent of the work force worked in jobs with potential exposure to vinyl chloride monomer. Among the total cohort, statistically significant excess risks were observed for liver, lung, and brain cancer. For the subcohort of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for liver cancer was 333 (90% confidence interval (CI) 202 to 521). However, there were no significant excesses of either brain (SMR = 145, 90% CI 78 to 249) or lung cancer (SMR = 115, 90% CI 96 to 141). To investigate dose response, nested case-control studies for liver, brain, and lung cancer were conducted among the total cohort (including the nonexposed). For these studies there were two exposure variables, cumulative dose of vinyl chloride monomer and cumulative dose of polyvinyl chloride dust. Cumulative dose was defined as the product of level and duration of exposure. The only significant association between disease risk and cumulative dose was for liver cancer and cumulative dose of vinyl chloride monomer. Further division of the liver cancers into angiosarcoma (n = 12) and other liver cancers (n = 7), based on review of death certificates and medical records, showed that the dose response existed only for angiosarcomas.

  3. Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan aquifer system, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.; Vacher, H. L.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2009-06-01

    Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer system, USA shows that current chloride concentrations are not in equilibrium with current sea level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer has a significant effect on system responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures, and then by chloride concentrations. The model was constructed using a modified version of SUTRA capable of simulating multi-species heat and solute transport, and was compared to pre-development conditions using hydraulic heads, chloride concentrations, and temperatures from 315 observation wells. Three hypothetical, sinusoidal sea-level changes occurring over 100,000 years were used to evaluate how the simulated aquifer responds to sea-level changes. Model results show that hydraulic head responses lag behind sea-level changes only where the Miocene Hawthorn confining unit is thick and represents a significant restriction to flow. Temperatures equilibrate quickly except where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick and the duration of the sea-level event is long (exceeding 30,000 years). Response times for chloride concentrations to equilibrate are shortest near the coastline and where the aquifer is unconfined; in contrast, chloride concentrations do not change significantly over the 100,000-year simulation period where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick.

  4. Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Strayer, David L; Burns, David I; Likens, Gene E

    2008-01-15

    Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year (sodium), and export increased 33,000 kg/year (chloride) and 20,000 kg/year (sodium) during this period. We estimate that salt used for deicing accounted for 91% of the sodium chloride input to the watershed, while sewage and water softeners accounted for less than 10% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study, but sodium and chloride from sewage and water softeners is likely to have increased slightly due to a small increase in population. Increased input from sewage and water softeners cannot account for the increase in concentration and export from the watershed. Model results suggest that the increase in streamwater concentration and export was likely due to a lag effect of long-term road salt use and subsurface buildup. PMID:18284139

  5. GSTZ1 expression and chloride concentrations modulate sensitivity of cancer cells to dichloroacetate.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stephan C; Solayman, Mohamed Hassan M; Lorenzo, Ryan J; Langaee, Taimour; Stacpoole, Peter W; James, Margaret O

    2016-06-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA), commonly used to treat metabolic disorders, is under investigation as an anti-cancer therapy due to its ability to reverse the Warburg effect and induce apoptosis in tumor cells. While DCA's mechanism of action is well-studied, other factors that influence its potential as a cancer treatment have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we show that expression of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1), the enzyme responsible for conversion of DCA to its inactive metabolite, glyoxylate, is downregulated in liver cancer and upregulated in some breast cancers, leading to abnormal expression of the protein. The cellular concentration of chloride, an ion that influences the stability of GSTZ1 in the presence of DCA, was also found to be abnormal in tumors, with consistently higher concentrations in hepatocellular carcinoma than in surrounding non-tumor tissue. Finally, results from experiments employing two- and three-dimensional cultures of HepG2 cells, parental and transduced to express GSTZ1, demonstrate that high levels of GSTZ1 expression confers resistance to the effect of high concentrations of DCA on cell viability. These results may have important clinical implications in determining intratumoral metabolism of DCA and, consequently, appropriate oral dosing. PMID:26850694

  6. Mn and Zn incorporation into calcite as a function of chloride aqueous concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temmam, M.; Paquette, J.; Vali, H.

    2000-07-01

    During spiral growth of the calcite rhombohedron {10 overline14}, divalent metals substituting for Ca 2+ are differentially incorporated due to steric differences inherent to the asymmetric kink sites exposed at nonequivalent growth steps. Hence, ions "larger" than Ca 2+ (e.g., Sr 2+ and Ba 2+) exhibit an incorporation trend opposite to that of "smaller" ions (e.g., Mn 2+ and Co 2+). However, Zn 2+ exhibits the same incorporation trend as large ions in coprecipitation experiments conducted from strong NH 4Cl electrolytes. In this study we compared the incorporation trends of Zn and Mn from solutions with various chloride content to test the possibility that the adsorption of "large" ZnCl n2-n aqueous complexes influences the site preference of Zn. The incorporation trends of Mn and Zn were opposite at the symmetrically nonequivalent growth steps. From a 0.4 M NH 4Cl solution, where Zn aqueous speciation was thermodynamically dominated by the "free" aquo ion, Zn maintained its site preference for the geometrically less constrained surface sites. Thus, Zn exhibits a particular interaction with surface sites and its incorporation trend is not controlled by the prevalence of ZnCl n2-n complexes. Other factors like the electronic configuration must be considered. The surface microtopography of calcite was found to be sensitive to changes in the aqueous concentrations of NH 4Cl and Zn. Decreases in NH 4Cl concentration resulted in an increase of the density of growth hillocks. The strong adsorbing behaviour of Zn increased the surface roughness, decreased the rate of growth, perturbed the spiral growth mechanism, and triggered the nucleation of discrete surface precipitates (˜0.2 μm) along macrosteps. An increase of Cl incorporation, despite the decrease of its aqueous concentration by dilutions of the parent solution, suggests that surface roughness at the calcite-solution interface is another factor involved in the nonequilibrium process of impurity element

  7. Control of intracellular chloride concentration and GABA response polarity in rat retinal ON bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Billups, Daniela; Attwell, David

    2002-01-01

    GABAergic modulation of retinal bipolar cells plays a crucial role in early visual processing. It helps to form centre-surround receptive fields which filter the visual signal spatially at the bipolar cell dendrites in the outer retina, and it produces temporal filtering at the bipolar cell synaptic terminals in the inner retina. The observed chloride transporter distribution in ON bipolar cells has been predicted to produce an intracellular chloride concentration, [Cl−]i, that is significantly higher in the dendrites than in the synaptic terminals. This would allow dendritic GABA-gated Cl− channels to generate the depolarization needed for forming the lateral inhibitory surround of the cell's receptive field, while synaptic terminal GABA-gated Cl− channels generate the hyperpolarization needed for temporal shaping of the light response. In contrast to this idea, we show here that in ON bipolar cells [Cl−]i is only slightly higher in the dendrites than in the synaptic terminals, and that GABA-gated channels in the dendrites may generate a hyperpolarization rather than a depolarization. We also show that [Cl−]i is controlled by movement of Cl− through ion channels in addition to transporters, that changes of [K+]o alter [Cl−]i and that voltage-dependent equilibration of [Cl−]i in bipolar cells will produce a time-dependent adaptation of GABAergic modulation with a time constant of 8 s after illumination-evoked changes of membrane potential. Time-dependent adaptation of [Cl−]i to voltage changes in retinal bipolar cells may add a previously unsuspected layer of temporal processing to signals as they pass through the retina. PMID:12433959

  8. Peat porewater chloride concentration profiles in the Everglades during wet/dry cycles from January 1996 to June 1998: Field measurements and theoretical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Reddy, M.B.; Kipp, K.L.; Burman, A.; Schuster, P.; Rawlik, P.S., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Water quality is a key aspect of the Everglades Restoration Project, the largest water reclamation and ecosystem management project proposed in the United States. Movement of nutrients and contaminants to and from Everglades peat porewater could have important consequences for Everglades water quality and ecosystem restoration activities. In a study of Everglades porewater, we observed complex, seasonally variable peat porewater chloride concentration profiles at several locations. Analyses and interpretation of these changing peat porewater chloride concentration profiles identifies processes controlling conservative solute movement at the peat-surface water interface, that is, solutes whose transport is minimally affected by chemical and biological reactions. We examine, with an advection-diffusion model, how alternating wet and dry climatic conditions in the Florida Everglades mediate movement of chloride between peat porewater and marsh surface water. Changing surface water-chloride concentrations alter gradients at the interface between peat and overlying water and hence alter chloride flux across that interface. Surface water chloride concentrations at two frequently monitored sites vary with marsh water depth, and a transfer function was developed to describe daily marsh surface water chloride concentration as a function of marsh water depth. Model results demonstrate that porewater chloride concentrations are driven by changing surface water chloride concentrations, and a sensitivity analysis suggests that inclusion of advective transport in the model improves the agreement between the calculated and the observed chloride concentration profiles. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Vinyl chloride: a case study of data suppression and misrepresentation.

    PubMed

    Sass, Jennifer Beth; Castleman, Barry; Wallinga, David

    2005-07-01

    When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized its 2000 update of the toxicological effects of vinyl chloride (VC), it was concerned with two issues: the classification of VC as a carcinogen and the numerical estimate of its potency. In this commentary we describe how the U.S. EPA review of VC toxicology, which was drafted with substantial input from the chemical industry, weakened safeguards on both points. First, the assessment down-plays risks from all cancer sites other than the liver. Second, the estimate of cancer potency was reduced 10-fold from values previously used for environmental decision making, a finding that reduces the cost and extent of pollution reduction and cleanup measures. We suggest that this assessment reflects discredited scientific practices and recommend that the U.S. EPA reverse its trend toward ever-increasing collaborations with the regulated industries when generating scientific reviews and risk assessments. PMID:16002366

  10. Atmospheric pitting corrosion of 304L stainless steel: the role of highly concentrated chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Street, Steven R; Mi, Na; Cook, Angus J M C; Mohammed-Ali, Haval B; Guo, Liya; Rayment, Trevor; Davenport, Alison J

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of atmospheric pitting corrosion in 304L stainless steel plate was analysed using MgCl(2) droplets in relation to changes in relative humidity (RH) and chloride deposition density (CDD). It was found that highly reproducible morphologies occur that are distinct at different RH. Pitting at higher concentrations, i.e. lower RH, resulted in satellite pits forming around the perimeter of wide shallow dish regions. At higher RH, these satellite pits did not form and instead spiral attack into the shallow region was observed. Increasing CDD at saturation resulted in a very broad-mouthed pitting attack within the shallow dish region. Large data sets were used to find trends in pit size and morphology in what is essentially a heterogeneous alloy. Electrochemical experiments on 304 stainless steel wires in highly saturated solutions showed that the passive current density increased significantly above 3 M MgCl(2) and the breakdown pitting potential dropped as the concentration increased. It is proposed that the shallow dish regions grow via enhanced dissolution of the passive film, whereas satellite pits and a spiral attack take place with active dissolution of bare metal surfaces. PMID:25910020

  11. Effects of phytoplankton cell size and chloride concentration on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Van Duong, Hieu; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Byeong-Gweon; Han, Seunghee

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, the effects of phytoplankton cell size and methylmercury (MeHg) speciation on the bioaccumulation of MeHg by marine phytoplankton were investigated. Volume concentration factors (VCFs) of MeHg were determined in relation to the surface area to volume ratio of the cells for four species of diatom and a cyanobacteria species cultured in unenriched seawater. The VCFs of MeHg, ranging from 7.3 × 10(4) to 1.6 × 10(6) , increased linearly as the cell surface area-to-volume ratio increased. It suggests that pico- and nano-dominated phytoplankton communities may lead to larger MeHg accumulation than the one dominated by microphytoplankton. MeHg VCFs increased with increasing chloride concentration from 0.47 to 470 mM, indicating that MeHg bioaccumulation is enhanced under conditions that facilitate membrane permeability by the formation of neutral MeHgCl species. Overall results suggest that the size distributions of the planktonic community as well as the seawater chemistry affect MeHg bioaccumulation by marine phytoplankton. PMID:23065924

  12. Crevice Corrosion of Titanium in High Temperature-Concentrated Chloride Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulsalam, Mohammed I.

    2007-12-01

    Crevice corrosion of titanium is activated in concentrated chloride media at 100 °C. This was possible only with the tightest gap (0.005 cm) between Ti-Ti surfaces. No crevice corrosion was observed with greater gap dimensions. The design of the crevice led to the occurrence of two concentric circular rings of corroded areas, with many pits on them. After potentiostating in the passive region for 5 h in 25% NaCl (pH = 4.7)—where hydrogen evolution is thermodynamically prohibited—hydrogen gas bubbles were observed to egress out of the crevice mouth during ongoing crevice corrosion. This indicates that hydrogen evolution occurs within the crevice. The results are compatible with the occurrence of gradually increasing ohmic potential shift and localized acidification in the crevice electrolyte as judged by the measured gradual increase of the crevice corrosion current. The high acidity of the bulk electrolyte does not seem to be sufficient or even a necessary condition for crevice corrosion to occur.

  13. Rhizon sampler alteration of deep ocean sediment interstitial water samples, as indicated by chloride concentration and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Madeline D.; Adkins, Jess F.; Hodell, David A.

    2014-06-01

    their potential to inform past ocean salinity, δ18O, and temperature, high-resolution depth profiles of interstitial water chloride concentration and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes exist in very few locations. One of the primary limitations to the recovery of these depth profiles is that traditional interstitial water sampling requires 5-10 cm whole rounds of the sediment core, which has the potential to interfere with stratigraphic continuity. The Rhizon sampler, a nondestructive tool developed for terrestrial sediment interstitial water extraction, has been proposed for efficient and nondestructive sampling of ocean sediment pore waters. However, there exists little documentation on the reliability and performance of Rhizon samplers in deep ocean sediments, particularly in regard to their effect on chloride concentration and oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements. We perform an intercomparison of chloride concentration and oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition in samples taken using traditional squeezing versus those taken with Rhizon samplers. We find that samples taken with Rhizons have positive biases in both chloride concentration and stable isotopic ratios relative to those taken by squeezing water from sediments in a hydraulic press. The measured offsets between Rhizon and squeeze samples are consistent with a combination of absorption by and diffusive fractionation through the hydrophilic membrane of the Rhizon sampler. These results suggest caution is needed when using Rhizons for sampling interstitial waters in any research of processes that leave a small signal-to-noise ratio in dissolved concentrations or isotope ratios.

  14. Reconstructed chloride concentration profiles below the seabed in Hong Kong (China) and their implications for offshore groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Shi, Lei; Kuang, Xingxing; Lee, Chun Ming; Yim, Wyss W.-S.; Yang, Shouye

    2015-03-01

    Offshore hydrogeology has been much less studied compared to onshore hydrogeology. The marine Quaternary system in Hong Kong (China) consists of interlayers of aquitards and aquifers and was part of the Pearl River Delta when the sea level was low before the Holocene. Core samples from six offshore boreholes were collected to measure the chloride concentration in the system by adding deionized water. A method was proposed to convert the sediment chloride into that of the original pore water. A one-dimensional sedimentation-transport model was developed to simulate the historical conservative transport of the reconstructed pore-water chloride. The model integrates present knowledge of stratigraphy and the historical evolution of the geological system. The chloride concentration profiles show that the chloride decreases from an average of 13,800 mg/L in the first marine unit to an average of 5,620 mg/L in the first aquifer. At the bottom of one borehole, the concentration is only 1,420 mg/L. The numerical model shows that the vertical chloride distribution is due to diffusion-controlled downward migration of seawater. The second marine unit obstructs the downward migration, indicating its low permeability and good aquitard integrity. The relatively fresh or brackish water in deep aquifers protected by the aquitard has the potential to be used as drinking water following some treatment, or at least as raw water with much cheaper desalinization compared with using seawater. The methodology and findings in this study are instructional for other coastal areas with similar geology and history in the South China Sea.

  15. Developmental Decrease of Neuronal Chloride Concentration Is Independent of Trauma in Thalamocortical Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Glykys, Joseph; Staley, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    The intraneuronal chloride concentration ([Cl-]i) is paramount for determining the polarity of signaling at GABAA synapses in the central nervous system. Sectioning hippocampal brain slices increases [Cl-]i in the superficial layers. It is not known whether cutting trauma also increases [Cl-]i in the neocortex and thalamus, and whether the effects of trauma change during development. We used Cl- imaging to study the [Cl-]i vs. the distance from the cut surface in acute thalamocortical slices from mice at developmental ages ranging from post-natal day 5 (P5) to P20. We demonstrate: 1) [Cl-]i is higher in the most superficial areas in both neocortical and thalamic brain slices at all ages tested and, 2) there is a developmental decrease in [Cl-]i that is independent of acute trauma caused by brain slicing. We conclude that [Cl-]i has a developmental progression during P5-20 in both the neocortex and thalamus. However, in both brain regions and during development the neurons closest to the slicing trauma have an elevated [Cl-]i. PMID:27337272

  16. The effect of calcium chloride concentration on alginate/Fmoc-diphenylalanine hydrogel networks.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ekin; Bayram, Cem; Akçapınar, Rümeysa; Türk, Mustafa; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-09-01

    Peptide based hydrogels gained a vast interest in the tissue engineering studies thanks to great superiorities such as biocompatibility, supramolecular organization without any need of additional crosslinker, injectability and tunable nature. Fmoc-diphenylalanine (FmocFF) is one of the earliest and widely used example of these small molecule gelators that have been utilized in biomedical studies. However, Fmoc-peptides are not feasible for long term use due to low stability and weak mechanical properties at neutral pH. In this study, Fmoc-FF dipeptides were mechanically enhanced by incorporation of alginate, a biocompatible and absorbable polysaccharide. The binary hydrogel is obtained via molecular self-assembly of FmocFF dipeptide in alginate solution followed by ionic crosslinking of alginate moieties with varying concentrations of calcium chloride. Hydrogel characterization was evaluated in terms of morphology, viscoelastic moduli and diffusional phenomena and the structures were tested as 3D scaffolds for bovine chondrocytes. In vitro evaluation of scaffolds lasted up to 14days and cell viability, sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) levels, collagen type II synthesis were determined. Our results showed that alginate incorporation into FmocFF hydrogels leads to better mechanical properties and higher stability with good biocompatibility. PMID:27207058

  17. Comparative characteristics of MA-40 and MA-41 membranes under conditions of maximal concentration of sodium chloride solutions by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grebenyok, V.D.; Lokota-Fabulyak, Y.G.; Ponomareu, M.I.

    1985-10-01

    This paper gives a quantitative assessment of salt diffusion from brine into the diluate, and osmotic and electro-osmotic transport of water into the brine compartments in concentration of sodium chloride with the use of commercially produced ion-exchange membranes MK-40, MA-40, and MA-41. A schematic diagram of the electrochemical cell, comprising electrode compartments, desalination compartments, and concentrating compartments is presented. It is shown that although brines of higher concentration can be obtained by the use of MA-41 membranes, it is economically preferable to use MA-40 membranes for concentrating sodium chloride. The higher electrical conductivity of MA-40 in comparison with MA-41 lowers the energy consumption for brine production in the former.

  18. GLT-1 Transport Stoichiometry Is Constant at Low and High Glutamate Concentrations when Chloride Is Substituted by Gluconate

    PubMed Central

    Kabakov, Anatoli Y.; Rosenberg, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter, but prolonged exposure even at micromolar concentrations causes neuronal death. Extracellular glutamate is maintained at nanomolar level by glutamate transporters, which, however, may reverse transport and release glutamate. If and when the reverse occurs depends on glutamate transport stoichiometry (GTS). Previously we found that in the presence of chloride, the coupled GLT-1 glutamate transporter current and its relationship to radiolabeled glutamate flux significantly decreased when extracellular glutamate concentration increased above 0.2 mM, which implies a change in GTS. Such high concentrations are feasible near GLT-1 expressed close to synaptic release site during excitatory neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to determine GLT-1 GTS at both low (19–75 μM) and high (300–1200 μM) glutamate concentration ranges. GTS experiments were conducted in the absence of chloride to avoid contributions by the GLT-1 uncoupled chloride conductance. Mathematical analysis of the transporter thermodynamic equilibrium allowed us to derive equations revealing the number of a particular type of ion transported per elementary charge based on the measurements of the transporter reversal potential. We found that GLT-1a expressed in COS-7 cells co-transports 1.5 Na+, 0.5 Glu-, 0.5 H+ and counter-transports 0.6 K+ per elementary charge in both glutamate concentration ranges, and at both 37°C and 26°C temperatures. The thermodynamic parameter Q10 = 2.4 for GLT-1 turnover rate of 19 s-1 (37°C, -50 mV) remained constant in the 10 μM–10 mM glutamate concentration range. Importantly, the previously reported decrease in the current/flux ratio at high glutamate concentration was not seen in the absence of chloride in both COS-7 cells and cultured rat neurons. Therefore, only in the absence of chloride, GLT-1 GTS remains constant at all glutamate concentrations. Possible explanations for why apparent GTS might vary in

  19. River chloride trends in snow-affected urban watersheds: increasing concentrations outpace urban growth rate and are common among all seasons.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Steven R; De Cicco, Laura A; Lutz, Michelle A; Hirsch, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    Chloride concentrations in northern U.S. included in this study have increased substantially over time with average concentrations approximately doubling from 1990 to 2011, outpacing the rate of urbanization in the northern U.S. Historical data were examined for 30 monitoring sites on 19 streams that had chloride concentration and flow records of 18 to 49 years. Chloride concentrations in most studied streams increased in all seasons (13 of 19 in all seasons; 16 of 19 during winter); maximum concentrations occurred during winter. Increasing concentrations during non-deicing periods suggest that chloride was stored in hydrologic reservoirs, such as the shallow groundwater system, during the winter and slowly released in baseflow throughout the year. Streamflow dependency was also observed with chloride concentrations increasing as streamflow decreased, a result of dilution during rainfall- and snowmelt-induced high-flow periods. The influence of chloride on aquatic life increased with time; 29% of sites studied exceeded the concentration for the USEPA chronic water quality criteria of 230 mg/L by an average of more than 100 individual days per year during 2006-2011. The rapid rate of chloride concentration increase in these streams is likely due to a combination of possible increased road salt application rates, increased baseline concentrations, and greater snowfall in the Midwestern U.S. during the latter portion of the study period. PMID:25514764

  20. Chloride and total hardness concentrations of water from the upper part of the Floridan Aquifer in St. Johns County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampson, Paul S.; Hayes, Eugene C.

    1982-01-01

    Data collected from 1976 to 1979 indicate large water-quality variations in the upper 300 feet of the Floridan aquifer in St. Johns County, Florida. Chloride concentrations range from less than 10 milligrams per liter in the northwestern part of the county to more than 1,000 milligrams per liter in the southeast and extreme southwest. Total hardness concentrations range from 110 milligrams per liter in the northwest to 1,700 milligrams per liter in the southeast. In most of the county, high chloride and total hardness concentrations indicate the presence of saline water that entered the aquifer during the Pleistocene Epoch and has not been flushed out. Water quality in the aquifer has also been influenced by submarine discharge in the southeast and by heavy pumpage for irrigation in the southwest. High total hardness concentrations not accompanied by high chloride values in the western part of the county may be structurally controlled or may indicate the presence of gypsum evaporite beds in the upper 300 feet of the aquifer. (USGS)

  1. Influence of Temperature and Chloride Concentration on Passivation Mechanism and Corrosion of a DSS2209 Welded Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachemi, Hania; Azzaz, Mohamed; Djeghlal, Mohamed Elamine

    2016-08-01

    The passivity behavior of a 2209 duplex stainless steel welded joint was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, Mott-Schottky analysis and EIS measurements. In order to evaluate the contribution of temperature, chloride concentration and microstructure, a sequence of polarization tests were carried out in aerated NaCl solutions selected according to robust design of a three level-three factors Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of signal-to-noise ratio and ANOVA were achieved on all measured data, and the contribution of every control factor was estimated. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of 2209 duplex stainless steel welded joint is related to the evolution of the passive film formed on the surface. It was found that the passive film on the welded zone possessed n- and p-type semiconductor characteristics. With the increase of solution temperature and chlorides concentration, the corrosion resistance of the passive film is more affected in the weldment than in the base metal.

  2. Knocking down of the KCC2 in rat hippocampal neurons increases intracellular chloride concentration and compromises neuronal survival

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Christophe; Gubkina, Olena; Schaefer, Michael; Becq, Hélène; Ludwig, Anastasia; Mukhtarov, Marat; Chudotvorova, Ilona; Corby, Severine; Salyha, Yuriy; Salozhin, Sergey; Bregestovski, Piotr; Medina, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract KCC2 is a neuron-specific potassium–chloride co-transporter controlling intracellular chloride homeostasis in mature and developing neurons. It is implicated in the regulation of neuronal migration, dendrites outgrowth and formation of the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections. The function of KCC2 is suppressed under several pathological conditions including neuronal trauma, different types of epilepsies, axotomy of motoneurons, neuronal inflammations and ischaemic insults. However, it remains unclear how down-regulation of the KCC2 contributes to neuronal survival during and after toxic stress. Here we show that in primary hippocampal neuronal cultures the suppression of the KCC2 function using two different shRNAs, dominant-negative KCC2 mutant C568A or DIOA inhibitor, increased the intracellular chloride concentration [Cl−]i and enhanced the toxicity induced by lipofectamine-dependent oxidative stress or activation of the NMDA receptors. The rescuing of the KCC2 activity using over-expression of the active form of the KCC2, but not its non-active mutant Y1087D, effectively restored [Cl−]i and enhanced neuronal resistance to excitotoxicity. The reparative effects of KCC2 were mimicked by over-expression of the KCC3, a homologue transporter. These data suggest an important role of KCC2-dependent potassium/chloride homeostasis under neurototoxic conditions and reveal a novel role of endogenous KCC2 as a neuroprotective molecule. PMID:21486764

  3. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective equipment that might not be as

  4. Chloride concentrations, loads, and yields in four watersheds along Interstate 95, southeastern Connecticut, 2008-11: factors that affect peak chloride concentrations during winter storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Mullaney, John R.; Morrison, Jonathan; Martin, Joseph W.; Trombley, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    The addition of a lane mile in both directions on I–95 would result in an estimate of approximately 2 to 11 percent increase in Cl- input from deicers applied to I–95 and other roads maintained by Connecticut Department of Transportation. The largest estimated increase in Cl- load was in the watersheds with the greatest number miles of I–95 corridor relative to the total lane miles maintained by Connecticut Department of Transportation. On the basis of these estimates and the estimated peak Cl- concentrations during the study period, it is unlikely that the increased use of deicers on the additional lanes would lead to Cl- concentrations that exceed the aquatic habitat criteria.

  5. Influence of pH and chloride concentration on the pitting and crevice corrosion behavior of high-alloy stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, A.; Otero, E.; Merino, M.C.; Lopez, M.D.; Utrilla, M.V.; Moreno, F.

    2000-04-01

    Localized corrosion resistance (pitting and crevice corrosion) of two high-alloy stainless steels (superduplex and superaustenitic) was studied in solutions with chloride concentrations of 200, 400, 600, and 6,000 ppm at pH values ranging from 2 to 6.5. Critical temperatures for pitting and crevice corrosion were calculated for these test media using electrochemical techniques (continuous current). From results obtained for cyclic polarization, the critical pitting temperature (CPT) and critical crevice temperature (CCT) of these materials in the different test media were determined. Under the tested conditions, the resistance of these materials to localized corrosion was very high. Only in test conditions of higher aggressivity (6,000 ppm CL{sup {minus}} and pH 6.5), pitting or crevice corrosion was observed. In those cases, values of pitting potential (E{sub pit}) and crevice potential (E{sub cre}) showed little tendency to decrease with an increase in CL{sup {minus}} concentration, temperature, and pH. Moreover, the CPT of these steels was determined in a ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) medium, which corresponds to the standard ASTM G48 practice (Method A).

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of humic acid and sanitary landfill leachate: Influence of anode material, chloride concentration and current density.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A; Santos, D; Pacheco, M J; Ciríaco, L; Lopes, A

    2016-01-15

    The influence of applied current density and chloride ion concentration on the ability of Ti/Pt/PbO2 and Ti/Pt/SnO2-Sb2O4 anodes for the electrochemical oxidation of humic acid and sanitary landfill leachate samples was assessed and compared with that of BDD anode. For the experimental conditions used, results show that both organic load and nitrogen removal rates increase with the applied current density and chloride ion concentration, although there is an optimum COD/[Cl-]0 ratio below which there is no further increase in COD removal. Metal oxide anodes present a similar performance to that of BDD, being the results obtained for Ti/Pt/PbO2 slightly better than for Ti/Pt/SnO2-Sb2O4. Contrary to BDD, Ti/Pt/PbO2 promotes lower nitrate formation and is the most suitable material for total nitrogen elimination. The importance of the optimum ratio of Cl-/COD/NH4 +initial concentrations is discussed. PMID:26410703

  7. Value of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status in the differential diagnosis of hyperpara-thyroidism from other causes of hypercalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wills, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    A study is reported of the estimation of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status in the differentiation of primary hyperparathyroidism from all other causes of hypercalcaemia. In the two groups of patients studied, all of whom had hypercalcaemia, there was complete separation between the two groups on the basis of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status. In 16 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism the increase in plasma chloride concentration and associated metabolic acidosis could have been accounted for by the known renal tubular effects of parathyroid hormone. In 13 patients with hypercalcaemia due to various other causes the decrease in plasma chloride concentration and associated metabolic alkalosis could be accounted for either by the known effects of an excess of calcium-ion on the renal tubules, or perhaps by suppression of endogenous parathyroid hormone secretion. In patients with hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia of `pseudohyperparathyroidism' associated with non-endocrine tumours it is postulated that the low plasma chloride concentrations and metabolic alkalosis found in these patients were due either to a differing biological activity of the parathyroid-hormone-like polypeptide secreted by the tumour cells, or possibly to simultaneous secretion by these cells of an ACTH-like polypeptide. PMID:5573436

  8. Effects of temperature, concentration, and uranium chloride mixture on zirconium electrochemical studies in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Robert O.; Yoon, Dalsung; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies were performed to provide measurement and analysis of zirconium (Zr) electrochemistry in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt at different temperatures and concentrations using cyclic voltammetry (CV). An additional experimental set with uranium chloride added into the system forming UCl3sbnd ZrCl4sbnd LiClsbnd KCl was performed to explore the general behavior of these two species together. Results of CV experiments with ZrCl4 show complicated cathodic and anodic peaks, which were identified along with the Zr reactions. The CV results reveal that diffusion coefficients (D) of ZrCl4 and ZrCl2 as the function of temperature can be expressed as DZr(IV) = 0.00046exp(-3716/T) and DZr(II) = 0.027exp(-5617/T), respectively. The standard rate constants and apparent standard potentials of ZrCl4 at different temperatures were calculated. Furthermore, the results from the mixture of UCl3 and ZrCl4 indicate that high concentrations of UCl3 hide the features of the smaller concentration of ZrCl4 while Zr peaks become prominent as the concentration of ZrCl4 increases.

  9. The physical and chemical stability of cisplatin (Teva) in concentrate and diluted in sodium chloride 0.9%

    PubMed Central

    Szałek, Edyta; Urjasz, Hanna; Głęboka, Aleksandra; Mierzwa, Emilia; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The subject of study was the stability of cisplatin in concentrate in glass vials and diluted in polyethylene (PE) bags stored at 15–25°C for up to 30 days. Material and methods Original vials of cisplatin injection (1 mg/ml, Teva) were stored at room temperature and subjected to re-piercing after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 30 days following the initial piercing. Cisplatin infusions at nominal concentrations of 0.1 mg/ml were prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride (1000 ml) in PE bags. Chemical stability was measured by means of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Physical stability was assessed by visual inspection in normal light. Results The concentration of cisplatin at each sampling time in the analysed solutions remained within 92.0–100.7% of initial concentration, regardless of the container. No changes in colour or turbidity were observed in any of the vials or prepared solutions. Conclusions Cisplatin, both undiluted in glass containers and diluted with NaCl 0.9% in PE bags, remains stable (< 10% degradation) for at least 30 days at room temperature when protected from light. PMID:23788924

  10. Influence of sodium chloride on the colloidal and rennet coagulation properties of concentrated casein micelle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Corredig, M

    2016-08-01

    The research investigated the influence of NaCl on the colloidal and rennet coagulation properties of concentrated milk. Milk was concentrated to 1×, 3×, and 5× using ultrafiltration. Rennet gelation was followed by rheology and diffusing wave spectroscopy. Soluble protein, total and diffusible calcium and phosphate, size, and zeta potential were also measured as a function of concentration history. In the presence of 300mM NaCl, colloidal calcium phosphate solubilized and pH and the negative charge on the surface of casein micelles decreased. Increasing the volume fraction caused the formation of stiffer gels for both samples with or without NaCl. The addition of NaCl caused a significant increase in the bulk viscosity of the milk concentrated 5× and a decrease in turbidity. The concentration had no effect on the gelation time of control samples, nor on the kinetics of caseinomacropeptide release. On the other hand, rennet gelation was retarded by the addition of NaCl, and the gels showed lower elastic moduli compared with those obtained with control milk. PMID:27320668

  11. Sodium chloride concentration determines exoelectrogens in anode biofilms occurring from mangrove-grown brackish sediment.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were inoculated with mangrove-grown brackish sediment (MBS) and continuously supplied with an acetate medium containing different concentrations of NaCl (0-1.8M). Different from MFCs inoculated with paddy-field soil (high power outputs were observed between 0.05 and 0.1M), power outputs from MBS-MFCs were high at NaCl concentrations from 0 to 0.6M. Amplicon-sequence analyses of anode biofilms suggest that different exoelectrogens occurred from MBS depending on NaCl concentrations; Geobacter occurred abundantly below 0.1M, whereas Desulfuromonas was abundant from 0.3M to 0.6M. These results suggest that NaCl concentration is the major determinant of exoelectrogens that occur in anode biofilms from MBS. It is also suggested that MBS is a potent source of microbes for MFCs to be operated in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. PMID:27420153

  12. The Use of Neutron Analysis Techniques for Detecting The Concentration And Distribution of Chloride Ions in Archaeological Iron

    PubMed Central

    Watkinson, D; Rimmer, M; Kasztovszky, Z; Kis, Z; Maróti, B; Szentmiklósi, L

    2014-01-01

    Chloride (Cl) ions diffuse into iron objects during burial and drive corrosion after excavation. Located under corrosion layers, Cl is inaccessible to many analytical techniques. Neutron analysis offers non-destructive avenues for determining Cl content and distribution in objects. A pilot study used prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and prompt gamma activation imaging (PGAI) to analyse the bulk concentration and longitudinal distribution of Cl in archaeological iron objects. This correlated with the object corrosion rate measured by oxygen consumption, and compared well with Cl measurement using a specific ion meter. High-Cl areas were linked with visible damage to the corrosion layers and attack of the iron core. Neutron techniques have significant advantages in the analysis of archaeological metals, including penetration depth and low detection limits. PMID:26028670

  13. Histopathological changes in the epidermis of the air breathing catfish Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to sublethal concentration of mercuric chloride.

    PubMed

    Rajan, M T; Banerjee, T K

    1993-12-01

    Histopathological alterations induced by the sublethal concentration of (0.03 ppm) mercuric chloride solution on the epidermis of the fresh-water catfish Heteropneustes fossilis have been studied. It induces slow but significant histopathological changes in the various cellular components of the epidermis. It induces vacuolization, necrosis and pycnosis of the nuclei of the epithelial cells which subsequently shed. Loosening of epithelial cells of the outermost and middle layers following degeneration of the intercellular material and widened intercellular spaces is another important alteration. Prolonged mercury treatment also causes a gradual decrease in staining intensity for sulphated glycosaminoglycans in the outer border of the most superficial layer epithelial cells. The glandular elements (club cells and mucocytes) also get affected, showing cyclic degeneration followed by regeneration. PMID:8198757

  14. Effects of methylmercuric chloride of low concentration on the rat nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, K.; Maehara, N.; Ohno, H.; Ueno, N.; Kohyama, A.; Satoh, T.; Shimoda, A.; Kishi, R.

    1987-06-01

    In an earlier study the authors reported the effects of 20 ..mu..g/g of MeHg on the rat. After 2-week exposure to 20 ..mu..g/g MeHg, effects on behavior, pathological changes of brain and prolongation of EEP (early potential of evoked potential) latency were observed. So, in this experiment, they planned to expose rats to lower concentrations of MeHg. They therefore investigated the effects of MeHg exposure at a low concentration on behavioral indices, neurological signs, the circadian rhythm of behaviors, EEP, and pathology of the visual cortex and the sciatic nerve in rats.

  15. Predicting perchlorate uptake in greenhouse lettuce from perchlorate, nitrate and chloride irrigation water concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) has been detected in edible leafy vegetables irrigated with Colorado River water. The primary concern has been the ClO4- concentration in lettuce. There has been a limited number of studies on ClO4- uptake but the interactive effect of other anions on ClO4- uptake is not known in...

  16. Use of Strontium Chloride for the Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Westberg, Sarah M; Awker, Amy; Torkelson, Carolyn J

    2016-03-01

    Context • Strontium ranelate is an approved prescription medication for the treatment of osteoporosis in Europe. In the United States, the only available forms of strontium are those that are nonprescription, dietary supplements. Some patients with osteoporosis use those products because they prefer an alternate treatment to conventional therapy. Currently, no controlled trials have been conducted on the effectiveness of the supplements for treating osteoporosis. Objective • The study intended to examine how one woman responded to the use of strontium chloride. Design • This was a retrospective case study. Setting • The woman in the case study was a patient in an academic urban women's health clinic in Minneapolis, MN, USA. Participant • The participant was a postmenopausal woman with a history of vertebral fracture. Intervention • The participant took 680 mg daily of strontium chloride for 2.5 y. Outcome Measures • The patient had begun receiving dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans in 2004 and continued to receive follow-up scans every 2 y. After beginning strontium therapy in December 2011, she received DXA scans in March 2012 and May 2014. Results • During the study, the analysis of the patient's DXA scans showed a positive increase in the bone mineral density (BMD) of her vertebrae and her right hip and maintenance of her BMD in her left hip. Conclusions • Although the current case report does not provide enough evidence to conclude that US dietary supplements of strontium are effective in preventing fractures, it demonstrates a positive experience for one patient. PMID:27228273

  17. The dependence of membrane potential on extracellular chloride concentration in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Dulhunty, A F

    1978-01-01

    1. The steady-state intracellular membrane potential of fibres in thin bundles dissected from mouse extensor digitorum longus or soleus muscles or rat sternomastoid muscles was measured with 3 M-KCl glass micro-electrodes. The steady-state membrane potential was found to depend on the extracellular concentrations of Na, K and Cl ions. 2. The resting membrane potential (3.5 mM-[K]o, 160 mM-[Cl]o) was -74 +/- 1 mV (mean +/- S.E.) and a reduction in [Cl]o to 3.5 mM caused a reversible steady-state hyperpolarization to -94 +/- 1 mV (mean +/- S.E.). 3. The steady-state membrane potentials recorded in fibres exposed to different [K]o and zero [Cl]o were consistent with potentials predicted by the Goldman, Hodgkin & Katz (GHK) equation for Na and K. The results of similar experiments done with Cl as the major external anion could not be fitted by the same equation. 4. The GHK equation for Na, K and Cl did fit data obtained from fibres in solutions containing different [K]o with Cl as the major external anion if the intracellular Cl concentration was allowed to be out of equilibrium with the steady-state membrane potential. 5. It is suggested that an active influx of Cl ions controls the intracellular Cl concentrations in these fibres and hence maintains the Cl equilibrium potential at a depolarized value with respect to the resting membrane potential. 6. The steady-state membrane potential of rat diaphragm fibres was independent of [Cl]o and it seems likely that the intracellular Cl concentration of these fibres is not controlled by active Cl transport. PMID:650497

  18. Concentrations of aluminum in gut tissue of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), purged in sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Madigosky, S.R.; Alvarez-Hernandez, X.; Glass, J.

    1992-10-01

    Recent concern over the release of Al in the environment has prompted researchers and health officials to assess its effects on biological systems. Aluminum, despite being the most abundant metal in earth`s lithosphere, is normally complexed in soil and is therefore unavailable for biological assimilation. The recent advent of acid rain, however, has prompted Al release due to mobilization from surrounding sediments into the environment. This is of particular concern in aquatic environments because organisms in aquatic food chains can access and concentrate sublethal levels of Al in their tissues relatively quickly. The ingestion of affected organisms by humans may therefore pose a potential health risk. One such organism, is known to concentrate metals in a variety of tissues. In northern Louisiana, many people trap or fish for crayfish in lowland areas which lie adjacent to highways and secondary roadways. Water, soil, and crayfish from these areas are known to contain high levels of Al. Some tissues known to concentrate Al (muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine tissue and contents) are those which humans commonly consume. The ingestion of these tissues may therefore expose humans to elevated Al levels. Many people who eat crayfish often purge them in dilute concentrations (1-2%) of NaCl to rid them of contaminants and make them more palatable. We are aware of no literature which corroborates the claim that purging removes contaminating metals. The objectives of this study were to (1) document the amount of Al found in water, soil, and gut tissue of crayfish (P. clarkii) collected from a roadside wetland site; (2) determine the affect of NaCl purging on the release of Al in P. clarkii and (3) assess the differences in Al levels found between stomach tissue, stomach tissue contents, intestine tissue, and intestine contents in P. clarkii. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Subminimal Inhibitory Concentrations of the Disinfectant Benzalkonium Chloride Select for a Tolerant Subpopulation of Escherichia coli with Inheritable Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Birgitte; Rudi, Knut; Bore, Erlend; Langsrud, Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of Escherichia coli to a subminimal inhibitory concentration (25% below MIC) of benzalkonium chloride (BC), an antimicrobial membrane-active agent commonly used in medical and food-processing environments, resulted in cell death and changes in cell morphology (filamentation). A small subpopulation (1–5% of the initial population) survived and regained similar morphology and growth rate as non-exposed cells. This subpopulation maintained tolerance to BC after serial transfers in medium without BC. To withstand BC during regrowth the cells up regulated a drug efflux associated gene (the acrB gene, member of the AcrAB-TolC efflux system) and changed expression of outer membrane porin genes (ompFW) and several genes involved in protecting the cell from the osmotic- and oxidative stress. Cells pre-exposed to osmotic- and oxidative stress (sodium chloride, salicylic acid and methyl viologen) showed higher tolerance to BC. A control and two selected isolates showing increased BC-tolerance after regrowth in BC was genome sequenced. No common point mutations were found in the BC- isolates but one point mutation in gene rpsA (Ribosomal protein S1) was observed in one of the isolates. The observed tolerance can therefore not solely be explained by the observed point mutation. The results indicate that there are several different mechanisms responsible for the regrowth of a tolerant subpopulation in BC, both BC-specific and general stress responses, and that sub-MIC of BC may select for phenotypic variants in a sensitive E. coli culture. PMID:22605968

  20. [Experimental substantiation of the maximum permissible concentration (MAC) of polyvinyl chloride resin].

    PubMed

    Khristeva, V; Spasovski, M

    1976-01-01

    The acute and chronic oral, dermal and inhalatory toxicity of PVH resin is studied in white rats. It is established that in acute treatment, irrespective of the route of PVC resin penetration into the organism, its effect proves weakly toxic. During chronic oral and inhalatory experiments, a slight affection of peripheral blood elements only is noted. In the lungs of the animals inhalating 2 and 6 mg/m3 concentrations for a duration of four months, no changes are detected which might be interpreted as being PVH specific. Cumulative effect, and skin stimulating and sensibilizing action of the polymer are neither established. Against the background of the obtained results, a provisional normal MAC value is proposed, namely 2 mg/m3 of PVH dust in the air of the working environment. PMID:1032719

  1. Global protein-level responses of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 to prolonged changes in external sodium chloride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Leuko, Stefan; Raftery, Mark J; Burns, Brendan P; Walter, Malcolm R; Neilan, Brett A

    2009-05-01

    Responses to changes in external salinity were examined in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. H. salinarum NRC-1 grows optimally at 4.3 M NaCl and is capable of growth between 2.6 and 5.1 M NaCl. Physiological changes following incubation at 2.6 M NaCl were investigated with respect to growth behavior and proteomic changes. Initial observations indicated delayed growth at low NaCl concentrations (2.6 M NaCl), and supplementation with different sugars, amino acids, or KCl to increase external osmotic pressure did not reverse these growth perturbations. To gain a more detailed insight into the adaptive responses of H. salinarum NRC-1 to changes in salinity, the proteome was characterized using iTRAQ (amine specific isobaric tagging reagents). Three hundred and nine differentially expressed proteins were shown to be associated with changes in the external sodium chloride concentration, with proteins associated with metabolism revealing the greatest response. PMID:19206189

  2. Effects of brine injection wells, dry holes, and plugged oil/gas wells on chloride, bromide, and barium concentrations in the Gulf Coast Aquifer, southeast Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Hudak, P F; Wachal, D J

    2001-06-01

    Data from 1,122 brine injection wells, 24,515 dry holes, 20,877 plugged oil/gas wells, and 256 water wells were mapped with a geographic information system (GIS) and statistically analyzed. There were 9, 107, and 58 water wells within 750 m of a brine injection well, dry hole, or plugged oil/gas well, respectively. Computed median concentrations were 157 mg/l for chloride, 0.8 mg/l for bromide, and 169 microg/l for barium. The maximum chloride concentration was 2,384 mg/l, close to 10 times the secondary drinking water standard. Shallow water wells and water wells near plugged oil/gas wells had significantly higher chloride and bromide levels. PMID:11485217

  3. EVALUATION OF A TEFLON HELIX LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTOR FOR CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ORGANICS FROM WATER INTO METHYLENE CHLORIDE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A continuous liquid-liquid extraction system (CLLE) for concentrating trace organics from water into methylene chloride for analysis was designed, built and evaluated. The CLLE uses Teflon coils for phase contact and gravity phase separation. The system includes a self-contained ...

  4. Understanding the Concentration-Discharge Relationship of Chloride and Magnesium in Shale Hills Using RT-Flux-PIHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, D.; Bao, C.; Li, L.; Shi, Y.; Sullivan, P. L.; Duffy, C.; Brantley, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    A number of solutes have been found to be "chemostatic" in US watersheds, meaning the concentration of these solutes only change slightly while stream discharge varies by up to more than three orders of magnitude. To understand complex hydrogeochemical processes at watershed scale, here we use RT-Flux-PIHM, a newly developed code that adds a multi-component reactive transport (RT) module to Flux-PIHM, a hydrological land-surface model. The model was calibrated using hydrological and water chemistry data at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) and was used to understand the watershed dynamics for chloride (Cl) and magnesium (Mg). Shale Hills is a V-shaped watershed with a first order stream underlain by Rose Hill shale in central Pennsylvania. Both Cl and Mg are found to be "chemostatic" in the stream water in SSHCZO. The use of RT-Flux-PIHM helps us validate and visualize this solute watershed dynamic. We found that the watershed is hydrologically more connected (between hillslope and stream) during wet spring and winter seasons, which leads to quicker release of Cl. In the dry summer, however, the watershed is much less connected and high concentration of Cl is trapped along planar hillslopes. The stream mostly drains from swales and valley flows with relatively low Cl concentrations. Large rainfall events right after summer flush out and dilute the "old water" with high Cl concentration ([Cl]). Thus, this seasonal hydrologic connectivity controls the relative stable stream [Cl] despite of changes in stream discharge. Mg is originated from clay dissolution and groundwater influx and is also buffered by cation exchange reaction, which maintains relatively uniform Mg concentration across the watershed. In the wet season, higher discharge and therefore more diluted groundwater influx is compensated by faster dissolution and quick release of Mg from cation exchange sites. The opposite occurs in the dry summer. The balance of these multiple

  5. Concentration dependence of ionic conductance measured with ion-selective sub-micro pipette probes in aqueous sodium and potassium chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J. W.; Takami, T.; Lee, J.-K.; Kawai, T.; Park, B. H.

    2011-07-01

    Selective ionic currents in aqueous sodium and potassium chloride solutions with concentrations from 0.01 M to 1.0 M were measured using sub-micro pipette probes in which a poly(vinyl chloride) film containing crown ethers selectively filtered sodium or potassium ions. The selective ionic currents were monitored with a sub-picoampere current measurement system developed from the techniques of TΩ-gap impedance scanning tunneling microscopy. The ionic currents increased with the concentration of the corresponding solution, and thus these sub-micro pipette probes can be applied to detect local ionic concentration of a specific ion in living cells with ionic concentration higher than 0.1 M.

  6. Changes in chloride concentration in water from municipal wells that tap aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in northeastern Illinois, 1915-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balding, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    During the past few decades, several municipalities in northeastern Illinois have noted increases in the salinity of water from wells that tap aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age. The municipalities have discontinued the use of, or sealed-off sections of, those wells. The aquifers involved include the Ancell, the Ironton-Galesville, and the Elmhurst-Mt. Simon. To define the location, magnitude, and possible causes for the salinity increases in the six northeastern counties of Illinois, 17 municipal wells and 1 deep test well were selected on the basis of their proximity to major pumping centers, the availability of water-quality data, and their documented maintenance history. Well depths ranged from about 960 to 3,475 feet. One well was finished in the middle confining unit, 2 wells were finished in the Ironton-Galesville aquifer, 4 wells were finished in the Eau Claire confining unit, and 10 wells were finished in the Elmhurst-Mt. Simon aquifer. The deep test well was finished below the Elmhurst-Mt. Simon aquifer in Precambrian-age rock. Chloride concentrations in the municipal wells ranged from less than 5 to greater than 600 milligrams per liter; in the deep test well, they ranged from 13 t o 37,000 milligrams per liter. Some changes in the chloride concentration in water from the studied municipal wells can be related to physical changes to the wells, including the partial filling in of a well, bridging within a well, the cleaning out of a well, or the deepening of a well. Some changes in chloride concentration are not related to physical changes but may be caused by increased pumpage; changes in pumping rate, frequency, or duration; cessation of pumping; improper abandonment of wells; and the upconing of highly mineralized water. The data base was inadequate for a quantitative study of the changes in chloride concentration in water from individual aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age.

  7. Main chemical species and molecular structure of deep eutectic solvent studied by experiments with DFT calculation: a case of choline chloride and magnesium chloride hexahydrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Jia, Yongzhong; Jing, Yan; Wang, Huaiyou; Hong, Kai

    2014-08-01

    The infrared spectrum of deep eutectic solvent of choline chloride and magnesium chloride hexahydrate was measured by the FTIR spectroscopy and analyzed with the aid of DFT calculations. The main chemical species and molecular structure in deep eutectic solvent of [MgClm(H2O)6-m]2-m and [ChxCly]x+y complexes were mainly identified and the active ion of magnesium complex during the electrochemical process was obtained. The mechanism of the electrochemical process of deep eutectic solvent of choline chloride and magnesium chloride hexahydrate was well explained by combination theoretical calculations and experimental. Besides, based on our results we proposed a new system for the dehydration study of magnesium chloride hexahydrate. PMID:25031082

  8. Trends in chloride, dissolved-solids, and nitrate concentrations in ground water, Carson Valley and Topaz Lake Areas, Douglas County, Nevada, 1959-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thodal, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Douglas County, an area of approximately 750 square miles in west-central Nevada, has led to concern about the present and future effects of development on ground water. This report describes the results of two nonparametric statistical procedures applied to detect trends in concentrations of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate in ground water. The water-quality data consist of analytical results from ground-water samples collected and analyzed by the U. S. Geological Survey and ground-water-quality data provided by the Nevada Bureau of Health Protection Services for the Carson Valley and Topaz Lake areas of Douglas County, Nevada. For purposes of this study, statistical significance, expressed as the p-value, was set at 0.1. The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxan rank-sum test detected increasing step-trends for nitrate in one of seven residential areas and for dissolved-solids concentrations throughout the study area. Decreasing step-trends for chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations were detected in the west Carson Valley area. Kendall's Tau detected monotonic trends for increasing nitrate concentrations at four domestic wells and for increasing dissolved-solids concentrations at two domestic wells. No other statistically significant trends were indicated by either test. Land-use relations to areas where increasing trends were detected suggest that the density of individual wastewater-treatment systems may exceed the capacity of soils to treat wastewater leachate.

  9. Triazolam blood concentrations in forensic cases in Canada.

    PubMed

    Joynt, B P

    1993-01-01

    Triazolam has been a controversial drug since its appearance on world markets as a hypnotic more than ten years ago. Whole blood concentrations of triazolam as found in forensic cases are cited in several categories; that is, impaired driving: 17 cases; sexual assault: four cases; death due to drugs: 45 cases; drug-related death (drugs contributed to the death but were not the ultimate cause): 20 cases; drug-involved death (drugs were present but were not felt to be a contributing factor): six cases; miscellaneous: one case. The data was gleaned from a forensic toxicology database designed and used by the Forensic Toxicology Sections of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) laboratories in Canada. Triazolam concentrations from selected references are included for comparison. PMID:8336491

  10. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  11. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, M.-C.; Nielsen, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3− exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  12. Nutrient, organic carbon, and chloride concentrations and loads in selected Long Island Sound tributaries—Four decades of change following the passage of the Federal Clean Water Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Loads of dissolved silica (DSi; flow-normalized and non-flow-normalized) increased slightly at most stations during the study period and were positively correlated to urbanized land in the basin and negatively correlated to area of open water. Concentrations and loads of chloride increased at 12 of the 14 sites during both periods. Increases likely are the result of an increase in the use of salt for deicing, as well as other factors related to urbanization and population growth, such as increases in wastewater discharge and discharge from septic systems.

  13. Osha`s 1974 vinyl chloride standard. Retrospective evaluation of the rulemaking`s feasibility/impact estimates. Case study

    SciTech Connect

    Boroush, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    This report documents a case study of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) permanent health standard of 1974 for workplace exposures to vinyl chloride (monomer). OSHA`s assessment of hazard control options and estimates of compliance costs and other regulatory impacts prepared as part of the rationale for the rulemaking are reviewed and then compared and contrasted with the actual post-promulgation outcomes as affected industries adjusted to the new compliance requirements. This case study has been prepared as part of a larger Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) evaluation of the control technology and regulatory impact analyses that OSHA prepares to support its rulemakings. Congress requested in May 1992 that OTA examine OSHA`s procedures and methods in these regards. The case reported here is one of eight OSHA health and safety standards that have been similarly studied on a pre- and post-promulgation basis.

  14. Synthesis and anti-microbial potencies of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-alkylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids: microbial viabilities at different ionic liquids concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Ismail; El-Harbawi, Mohanad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Noaman, Yousr Abdulhadi; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; Yin, Chun-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Three 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-alkylimidazolium chloride room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) [2OHimC(n)][Cl]; (n=0, 1, 4) have been synthesized from the appropriate imidazole precursors and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. Their anti-microbial activities were investigated using the well-diffusion method. The viabilities of Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica as a function of IL concentrations were studied. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and EC₅₀ values for the present ILs were within the concentration range from 60 to 125 mM and 23 to 73 mM. The anti-microbial potencies of the present ILs were compared to a standard antibiotic, gentamicin. The finding affords additional perspective on the level of ILs toxicity to aquatic lifeforms and yet, this characteristic can be readily harnessed to detect microbial growth and activity. PMID:23107478

  15. Interaction of hydrogen chloride with alumina. [atmospheric effluent concentrations and interaction of solid rocket propellants used in space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. R.; Wightman, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of temperature, pressure, and outgas conditions on the absorption of hydrogen chloride and water vapor on both alpha and gamma alumina was studied. Characterization of the adsorbents was performed using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low temperature nitrogen adsorption desorption measurements, BET nitrogen surface area measurements and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). Water vapor adsorption isotherms at 30, 40, and 50 C were measured on alpha and gamma alumina after outgassing at 80, 200, and 400 C. Both outgas temperature and adsorption temperature influenced the adsorption of water vapor on the aluminas. The water vapor adsorption was completely reversible. Alpha alumina absorbed more water per unit area than gamma alumina. Differences in the adsorption capacity for water vapor of the two aluminas were explained on the basis of ideal surface models of alpha and gamma alumina. Isosteric heats of adsorption for water vapor on the aluminas were determined over a limited range of surface coverage.

  16. Changes in chloride concentration in water from municipal wells that tap aquifers in rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in northeastern Illinois, 1915-84. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Balding, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1970's, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) to study regional aquifer systems throughout the United States. The general goals of a RASA investigation are to evaluate each aquifer's water-supply potential and water quality, and, using computer models of the ground-water flow system, to provide a means for evaluating aquifer response to stresses placed on the flow system. The report describes the location, magnitude, and causes of the changes in chloride concentration in the aquifers in the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems in a six-county area of northeastern Illinois. The report includes stratigraphic columns, maps, and graphs that show the geology and hydrogeology of the study area and the changes in chloride concentration in water from wells that tap the aquifers in the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems. The geologic and hydrogeologic nomenclature used in the report is that used by Visocky and others (1985) and does not necessarily follow the usage of the USGS.

  17. Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain “Opportunities for Action” management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than ±10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

  18. Chloride contamination of concrete by interaction with PVC combustion gases

    SciTech Connect

    Climent-Llorca, M.A.; Viqueira-Perez, E.; Vera-Almenar, G. de; Lopez-Atalaya, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    Chloride contamination of concrete by interaction with PVC combustion gases has been studied in a small-scale testing chamber, which allows simulating the conditions probably prevailing in PVC fires of different magnitude through variation of the quotient between mass of burnt PVC and exposed concrete surface (PVC/S). In all cases, a steep gradient of chloride concentration with depth is found after the fire: most chloride is detected in the outermost layer at depths below 5 mm. Surface chloride contents (within 5 mm) for prestressed and reinforced concretes, tested with a high (PVC/S) ratio, are as high as 2.5 and 5% by weight of cement, respectively. Chloride concentrations in concrete near the steels are below the corrosion thresholds after the fire, but they can rise by diffusion to values able to induce rebar corrosion, especially if concrete is exposed to a humid atmosphere.

  19. Production of concentrated caustic soda and hydrochloride acid solutions from sodium chloride by electrodialysis with the aid of bipolar ion-exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Greben', V.P.; Pivovarov, N.Ya.; Latskov, V.L.

    1988-10-20

    This paper gives a comparative analysis of the action of electrodialyzers containing three and five compartments in the structural unit, and equipped with bipolar, cation-exchange, and anion-exchange membranes, used for production of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda from sodium chloride solutions. It was shown that an electrodialyzer with five compartments gives hydrochloric acid and caustic soda for 2.5-3 M concentration with 0.2-0.3 current efficiency, whereas an electrodialyzer with three compartments in the structural unit gives hydrochloric acid and caustic soda concentrations of about 1.2 M at the same current efficiency. The performance of the electrodialyzers was analyzed and equations were derived for calculating the current efficiencies for acid and alkali under conditions of acidification of the salt solution; this was based on determination of the transport numbers of ions passing through the membranes.

  20. On the Correlation between the Concentrations of Phosphates and Chlorides in the Unfrozen Portions of the Frozen Fish Muscle Juices and the Denaturation Rate of Fish Muscle Protein during Frozen-Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Fuyuo; Yamada, Tetsuo

    The correlations were examined between the concentrations of K, P, Na and Cl of the unfrozen portions in the fish muscle juices kept at -6°C, and the denaturation rate of protein in the fish muscles frozen-stored at -6°C. 1) The denaturation of protein occurred most greatly in mackerel, next greatly in black porgy, while the denaturation was scarcely observed in the case of both rock bream and tuna. 2) The level of ion concentration of the unfrozen portions of muscle juices was higher in K and P than in Na and Cl. The concentration of each component was different among different species of fish. 3) To the difference of denaturation rate among four species of fish, the concentration of K was inversely proportional, those of Na and Cl proportional, and the concentration ratios of P/Cl and K/Na were both inversely proportional. 4) The content ratios between theminerals (P/Na and K/Na) in fish on the market. which were calculated from the literature values, were proportional to the already-reported cryo-tolerance of protein among species of fish. Thus, it was suggested that phosphates and chlorides may be related compositely to the denaturation of protein in frozen-stored fish.

  1. Effect of road salt application on seasonal chloride concentrations and toxicity in south-central Indiana streams.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kristin M; Royer, Todd V

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary information on road salt runoff is needed for management of water resources in regions experiencing urbanization and increased road density. We investigated seasonal Cl(-) concentrations among five streams in south-central Indiana that drained watersheds varying in degree of urbanization and ranging in size from 9.3 to 27 km(2). We also conducted acute toxicity tests with Daphnia pulex to assess the potential effects of the observed Cl(-) concentrations on aquatic life. Periods of elevated Cl(-) concentrations were observed during the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at all sites except the reference site. The highest Cl(-) concentration observed during the study was 2100 mg L(-1) and occurred at the most urbanized site. The Cl(-) concentration at the reference site never exceeded 22 mg L(-1). The application of road salt caused large increases in stream Cl(-) concentrations, but the elevated Cl(-) levels did not appear to be a significant threat to aquatic life based on our toxicity testing. Only the most urbanized site showed evidence of salt retention within the watershed, whereas the other sites exported the road salt relatively quickly after its application, suggesting storm drains and impervious surfaces minimized interaction between soils and salt-laden runoff. During winter at these sites, the response in stream Cl(-) concentrations appeared to be controlled by the timing and intensity of road salt application, the magnitude of precipitation, and the occurrence of air temperatures that caused snowmelt and generated runoff. PMID:20400599

  2. Chloride concentrations and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer long tributary to the Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, conducted a study to determine the interaction of local surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek. In conjunction with the surface water and groundwater interaction study, samples were collected for analysis of chloride and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Chloride concentrations ranged from 2.9 to 26.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) near Teton Village, 1.2 to 4.9 mg/L near Resor's Bridge, and 1.8 to 5.0 mg/L near Wilson. Stable isotope data for hydrogen and oxygen in water samples collected in and near the three cross sections on Fish Creek are shown in relation to the Global Meteoric Water Line and the Local Meteoric Water Line.

  3. Comparison of the crevice corrosion resistance of Alloys 625 and 22 in concentrated chloride solution from 60 to 95 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Kehler, B A; Illevbare, G O; Scully, J R

    1999-12-06

    The effects of electrolyte composition and oxide film age on the crevice corrosion properties of alloys 625 and 22 were studied at temperatures ranging from 60 to 95 C in concentrated chloride electrolytes. Critical potentials were determined using conventional current density thresholds and comparisons were made between 625 and 22 on the basis of these critical potentials. Air aged 22 specimens exhibited the highest resistance to crevice corrosion at 95 C in terms of critical crevice potentials, while freshly polished 22 exhibited the lowest resistance. Studies over the entire, temperature range showed that air aged 22 is more resistant to crevice corrosion than air aged 625 as evidenced by higher critical crevice potentials. As the temperature was lowered from 95 to 8O C, critical crevice potentials for 22 either approached or exceeded experimentally determined Cr (Mo, Ni) transpassive potentials.

  4. Determining modifications to bifenthrin toxicity and sediment binding affinity from varying potassium chloride concentrations in overlying water.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Andrew J; Belden, Jason B; Mueting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    Bifenthrin, a current-use pyrethroid insecticide, has been repeatedly identified as a major contributor to toxicity in urban and residential stream sediment. Within an urban stream multiple stressors exist. However, other than pesticides, the influence of secondary stressors on bifenthrin toxicity has not been studied. The goal of this project was to study how dissolved ions, based on the model salt KCl, influence bifenthrin toxicity. The presence of these dissolved ions could influence bifenthrin toxicity either through joint action as a secondary toxicant or through changing the partitioning or bioavailability of bifenthrin between the sediment matrix and overlying water or pore water. The first objective was to determine if mixtures of bifenthrin and KCl, a commonly utilized reference toxicant, display additive toxicity to the benthic invertebrates Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus using concentration addition and independent action mathematical models. The second objective of the present study was to examine how KCl dissolved in the overlying water influences partitioning and bioavailability of a pyrethroid (bifenthrin). Joint toxicity of bifenthrin and KCl was less than predicted by both concentration addition and independent action models. However, both models predicted the joint toxicity within a factor of two. Partitioning of bifenthrin was not significantly influenced by KCl concentrations based on K(oc) determinations and desorption to Tenax beads. This indicates that the fate and bioavailability of bifenthrin are not likely different in aquatic environments with varying dissolved ion concentrations. Therefore, the toxicological interaction that results in the antagonistic joint action between bifenthrin and KCl is likely due to the physiological effects of exposure to hypertonic solutions of KCl rather than alterations to bifenthrin bioavailability. PMID:20403629

  5. Reactor-chromatographic determination of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Berezkin, V.G.

    1986-08-01

    The authors carry out a chromatographic study of the volatile products that evolve when various grades of domestic polyvinyl chloride are heated, to determine the concentration of residual monomer. To find vinyl chloride in complex mixtures of air pollutants the authors used sorptive reaction concentration of impurities. This new combination of methods is based on preliminary separation at the sampling stage of impurities that interfere in the analysis, followed by concentration of the desired components in a trap with an adsorbent, and chromatographic determination of the concentrated trace materials. The method obtains low vinyl chloride concentrations (down to 10/sup -4/-10/sup -5/ wt. %) with +/-5 relative error.

  6. Chloride Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Addison disease, or increased salt intake. If both chloride and sodium levels are high in a person on a ... anything else I should know? Drugs that affect sodium blood levels will also cause changes in chloride. In addition, swallowing large amounts of baking soda ...

  7. Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A.; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.; Allam, Hassan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.45 ± 1.12 g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03 mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.19 ± 0.03 μg/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.64 ± 0.86 and 61.73 ± 0.82 μg/g dry weight from T1 at 10 days to T3 at 30 days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.21 ± 0.12 and 181.61 ± 1.32 compared to the control group results of 0.29 ± 0.04 μg/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.32 ± 0.02 and 2.16 ± 0.08 compared to the control group results of 0.03 ± 0.001 μg/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p > 0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations. PMID:26288556

  8. Effect of Intrathecal Baclofen Concentration on Spasticity Control: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Saval, April; Chiodo, Anthony E

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) has been shown to be an effective treatment for severe spasticity of spinal or cerebral origin. Although most patients respond well to an ITB trial, there are often difficulties in achieving and/or maintaining such effectiveness with ITB pump treatment. There are few published guidelines for dosing efficacy and no studies looking at the effect of concentration of ITB on spasticity management. Methods: Case series of 3 adults with severe spasticity treated with ITB pump: a 44-year-old man with C7 tetraplegia using a 40-mL Medtronic SynchroMed II pump with 500-μg/mL concentration; a 35-year-old woman with traumatic brain injury with right spastic hemiplegia using a 18-mL Medtronic SynchroMed EL pump with 2,000-μg/mL concentration; and a 43-year-old woman with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy using a 40-mL Medtronic SynchroMed II pump with 2,000-μg/mL concentration. Results: After reducing ITB concentrations in the pump, either as part of a standard protocol for dye study to assess the integrity of pump and catheter system or secondary to plateau in therapeutic efficacy, patients experienced temporary, significant reduction in spasticity based on range of motion, Modified Ashworth scores, and verbal feedback. Conclusions: Decreasing the concentration of ITB seems to affect spasticity control. Further research in this area is needed for those patients with refractory spasticity to optimize efficacy of ITB therapy. PMID:18959357

  9. Aging related changes in mixed basal saliva concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride in healthy non medicated humans.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Rui; Navas, Eunice; Duran, Carolina; Pinto, Maria; Gutierrez, Jose; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the salivary flow is reduced by aging but ionic composition changes associated to aging have been less evaluated. To measure salivary and plasmatic [Na(+)], [K(+)] and [Cl(-)] and to correlate with age in healthy, non-medicated subjects of any gender, 165 healthy participating subjects (over 15 years old) were asked to give sample of 5 mL mix basal saliva in a plastic vial without any stimulation technique, additionally, 5 mL of venous blood was collected. Samples [Na(+)] and [K(+)] were measured by flame photometry (Corning™ M-405) and [Cl(-)] by voltametric chlorometry (Corning™ M-920). Ionic concentrations were expressed as (X±DE; meq.L⁻¹). All three ionic concentrations progressively increased with age, with the lineal regression equation being: [Na(+)] mEq=17.76 + 0.26(Age); r=+0.42; F=31.5; P=0.00001; [K(+)] mEq=13.2+0.15(Age); r=+0.32; F=16.5; P=0.00001; [Cl(-)] mEq=9.05+0.18(Age); r=+0.35; F=7.8; P=0.0071. Age induced changes in salivary ionic concentrations were not associated to blood ionic changes. However, saliva and blood [Na(+)] and [K(+)] were correlated (r=+0.25; F=4.49; P=0.04 and r=+0.30; F=6.98; P=0.01, respectively). Significant association was found among salivary ions: [Na(+)] mEq=9.14+0.99[K(+)] (r=+0.79; F=95.2; P=0.000001); [Cl(-)] mEq=0.95+0.56[Na(+)] (r=0.79; F=106.6; P=0.000001) and [Cl(-)] mEq=3.45+0.69[K(+)] (r=0.73; F=72.5; P=0.000001). These results confirm and measure the impact of aging over the mixed and resting salivary secretion process and suggest that local changes are not related to blood ionic composition. PMID:25101709

  10. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable. PMID:27386878

  11. Hydrogenation induced deviation of temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) and a new eco-friendly plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rongchun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Sun, Pingchuan; Chen, Wei; Shen, Jianyi; Xue, Gi

    2015-06-01

    As a substitute for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DOP), a new eco-friendly plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DEHHP), was systematically studied in this work, mainly focusing on its interaction with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were systematically investigated by rheology, low-field NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, and the results were quite different from those in PVC/DOP. With temperature increasing or PVC concentration decreasing, rheology experiments revealed that polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were weaker than that in PVC/DOP. Low-field 1H NMR results showed that the number of polymer-solvent complexes decreased as temperature increased. A faster decreasing rate of this number made the polymer-solvent interactions weaker in PVC/DEHHP than in PVC/DOP. Molecular dynamics simulations were further performed to study the role of polymer-solvent hydrogen bonding interactions in the systems. The radial distribution function showed that heating and dilution both resulted in faster molecular motions, and disassociation of the hydrogen bonds in the simplex hydrogen bonding system. Therefore, heating and dilution had an equivalent effect on the polymer-solvent interactions.

  12. The Case for Visual Analytics of Arsenic Concentrations in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matilda O.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Awofolu, Omotayo R.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring toxic metal and its presence in food could be a potential risk to the health of both humans and animals. Prolonged ingestion of arsenic contaminated water may result in manifestations of toxicity in all systems of the body. Visual Analytics is a multidisciplinary field that is defined as the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. The concentrations of arsenic vary in foods making it impractical and impossible to provide regulatory limit for each food. This review article presents a case for the use of visual analytics approaches to provide comparative assessment of arsenic in various foods. The topics covered include (i) metabolism of arsenic in the human body; (ii) arsenic concentrations in various foods; (ii) factors affecting arsenic uptake in plants; (ii) introduction to visual analytics; and (iv) benefits of visual analytics for comparative assessment of arsenic concentration in foods. Visual analytics can provide an information superstructure of arsenic in various foods to permit insightful comparative risk assessment of the diverse and continually expanding data on arsenic in food groups in the context of country of study or origin, year of study, method of analysis and arsenic species. PMID:20623005

  13. Photo-Fenton oxidation of phenol and organochlorides (2,4-DCP and 2,4-D) in aqueous alkaline medium with high chloride concentration.

    PubMed

    Luna, Airton J; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Machulek, Amilcar; de Moraes, José Ermírio F; Nascimento, Cláudio A O

    2012-11-30

    A highly concentrated aqueous saline-containing solution of phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was treated by the photo-Fenton process in a system composed of an annular reactor with a quartz immersion well and a medium-pressure mercury lamp (450 W). The study was conducted under special conditions to minimize the costs of acidification and neutralization, which are usual steps in this type of process. Photochemical reactions were carried out to investigate the influence of some process variables such as the initial concentration of Fe(2+) ([Fe(2+)](0)) from 1.0 up to 2.5 mM, the rate in mmol of H(2)O(2) fed into the system (FH(2)O(2);in) from 3.67 up to 7.33 mmol of H(2)O(2)/min during 120 min of reaction time, and the initial pH (pH(0)) from 3.0 up to 9.0 in the presence and absence of NaCl (60.0 g/L). Although the optimum pH for the photo-Fenton process is about 3.0, this particular system performed well in experimental conditions starting at alkaline and neutral pH. The results obtained here are promising for industrial applications, particularly in view of the high concentration of chloride, a known hydroxyl radical scavenger and the main oxidant present in photo-Fenton processes. PMID:22809483

  14. Use of dissolved chloride concentrations in tributary streams to support geospatial estimates of Cl contamination potential near Skiatook Lake, northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Abbott, M.M.; Zielinski, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Releases of NaCl-rich (>100 000 mg/L) water that is co-produced from petroleum wells can adversely affect the quality of ground and surface waters. To evaluate produced water impacts on lakes, rivers and streams, an assessment of the contamination potential must be attainable using reliable and cost-effective methods. This study examines the feasibility of using geographic information system (GIS) analysis to assess the contamination potential of Cl to Skiatook Lake in the Hominy Creek drainage basin in northeastern Oklahoma. GIS-based predictions of affects of Cl within individual subdrainages are supported by measurements of Cl concentration and discharge in 19 tributaries to Skiatook Lake. Dissolved Cl concentrations measured in October, 2004 provide a snapshot of conditions assumed to be reasonably representative of typical inputs to the lake. Chloride concentrations ranged from 5.8 to 2300 mg/L and compare to a value of 34 mg/L in the lake. At the time of sampling, Hominy Creek provided 63% of the surface water entering the lake and 80% of the Cl load. The Cl load from the other tributaries is relatively small (150 mg/L) were generally in subdrainages with greater well density (>15 wells/km2), relatively large numbers of petroleum wells in close proximity (>2 proximity wells/stream km), and relatively small discharge (<0.005 m3/s). GIS calculations of subdrainage areas can be used to estimate the expected discharge of the tributary for each subdrainage. GIS-based assessment of Cl contamination potential at Skiatook Lake and at other lakes surrounded by oil fields can proceed even when direct measurements of Cl or discharge in tributary streams may be limited or absent.

  15. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris) and salt (sodium chloride) on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Peredo-Alvarez, Víctor M; Sarma, S S; Nandini, S

    2003-06-01

    Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on non-euryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 +/- 0.04 g l-1) than B. patulus (2.14 +/- 0.09 g l-1). The maximal population density (mean +/- standard error) for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 (algal level) was 80 +/- 5 ind. ml-1, which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 +/- 7 ind. ml-1) under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 +/- 0.5 days) for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 +/- 1 day). The highest rates of population increase (r values) for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 +/- 0.012 and 0.367 +/- 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus. PMID:15162733

  16. Relative bioavailability of copper in tribasic copper chloride to copper in copper sulfate for laying hens based on egg yolk and feather copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Shin, J E; Kil, D Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Cu in tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to Cu in copper sulfate (monohydrate form; CuSO4·H2O) for layer diets based on egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations. A total of 252, 72-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 6 hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based basal diets supplemented with 0 (basal), 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC for 4 wk. Results indicated that egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatments. However, increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from CuSO4 decreased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR), whereas increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from TBCC did not affect FCR, indicating significant interaction (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion levels of Cu from TBCC or CuSO4 increased (P < 0.05) Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers. Feather Cu concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for hens fed diets containing CuSO4 than for hens fed diets containing TBCC. The values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 based on log10 transformed egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were 107.4% and 69.5%, respectively. These values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC did not differ from Cu in CuSO4 (100%). The RBV measured in egg yolk did not differ from the RBV measured in feather. In conclusion, the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 can be determined using Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers although the values depend largely on target tissues of laying hens. For a practical application, however, the RBV value of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 could be 88.5% when the RBV values determined using egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were averaged. PMID:26944968

  17. Sensors for highly toxic gases: methylamine and hydrogen chloride detection at low concentrations in an ionic liquid on Pt screen printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Murugappan, Krishnan; Silvester, Debbie S

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available Pt screen printed electrodes (SPEs) have been employed as possible electrode materials for methylamine (MA) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas detection. The room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C₂mim][NTf₂]) was used as a solvent and the electrochemical behaviour of both gases was first examined using cyclic voltammetry. The reaction mechanism appears to be the same on Pt SPEs as on Pt microelectrodes. Furthermore, the analytical utility was studied to understand the behaviour of these highly toxic gases at low concentrations on SPEs, with calibration graphs obtained from 10 to 80 ppm. Three different electrochemical techniques were employed: linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), with no significant differences in the limits of detection (LODs) between the techniques (LODs were between 1.4 to 3.6 ppm for all three techniques for both gases). The LODs achieved on Pt SPEs were lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limit (OSHA PEL) limits of the two gases (5 ppm for HCl and 10 ppm for MA), suggesting that Pt SPEs can successfully be combined with RTILs to be used as cheap alternatives for amperometric gas sensing in applications where these toxic gases may be released. PMID:26506358

  18. Concentration effects on biotic and abiotic processes in the removal of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and vinyl chloride using carbon-amended ZVI.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Bradley M; Lee, Matthew; Bastow, Trevor P; Wilson, John T; Donn, Michael J; Furness, Andrew; Goodwin, Bryan; Manefield, Mike

    2016-05-01

    A permeable reactive barrier, consisting of both zero valent iron (ZVI) and a biodegradable organic carbon, was evaluated for the remediation of 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) contaminated groundwater. During an 888 day laboratory column study, degradation rates initially stabilized with a degradation half-life of 4.4±0.4 days. Based on the accumulation of vinyl chloride (VC) and limited production of 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), the dominant degradation pathway was likely abiotic dichloroelimination to form VC. Degradation of VC was not observed based on the accumulation of VC and limited ethene production. After a step reduction in the influent concentration of 1,1,2-TCA from 170±20 mg L(-1) to 39±11 mg L(-1), the degradation half-life decreased 5-fold to 0.83±0.17 days. The isotopic enrichment factor of 1,1,2-TCA also changed after the step reduction from -14.6±0.7‰ to -0.72±0.12‰, suggesting a possible change in the degradation mechanism from abiotic reductive degradation to biodegradation. Microbiological data suggested a co-culture of Desulfitobacterium and Dehalococcoides was responsible for the biodegradation of 1,1,2-TCA to ethene. PMID:26934432

  19. Concentration effects on biotic and abiotic processes in the removal of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and vinyl chloride using carbon-amended ZVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Bradley M.; Lee, Matthew; Bastow, Trevor P.; Wilson, John T.; Donn, Michael J.; Furness, Andrew; Goodwin, Bryan; Manefield, Mike

    2016-05-01

    A permeable reactive barrier, consisting of both zero valent iron (ZVI) and a biodegradable organic carbon, was evaluated for the remediation of 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) contaminated groundwater. During an 888 day laboratory column study, degradation rates initially stabilized with a degradation half-life of 4.4 ± 0.4 days. Based on the accumulation of vinyl chloride (VC) and limited production of 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), the dominant degradation pathway was likely abiotic dichloroelimination to form VC. Degradation of VC was not observed based on the accumulation of VC and limited ethene production. After a step reduction in the influent concentration of 1,1,2-TCA from 170 ± 20 mg L- 1 to 39 ± 11 mg L- 1, the degradation half-life decreased 5-fold to 0.83 ± 0.17 days. The isotopic enrichment factor of 1,1,2-TCA also changed after the step reduction from - 14.6 ± 0.7‰ to - 0.72 ± 0.12‰, suggesting a possible change in the degradation mechanism from abiotic reductive degradation to biodegradation. Microbiological data suggested a co-culture of Desulfitobacterium and Dehalococcoides was responsible for the biodegradation of 1,1,2-TCA to ethene.

  20. Sensors for Highly Toxic Gases: Methylamine and Hydrogen Chloride Detection at Low Concentrations in an Ionic Liquid on Pt Screen Printed Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Murugappan, Krishnan; Silvester, Debbie S.

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available Pt screen printed electrodes (SPEs) have been employed as possible electrode materials for methylamine (MA) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas detection. The room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) was used as a solvent and the electrochemical behaviour of both gases was first examined using cyclic voltammetry. The reaction mechanism appears to be the same on Pt SPEs as on Pt microelectrodes. Furthermore, the analytical utility was studied to understand the behaviour of these highly toxic gases at low concentrations on SPEs, with calibration graphs obtained from 10 to 80 ppm. Three different electrochemical techniques were employed: linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), with no significant differences in the limits of detection (LODs) between the techniques (LODs were between 1.4 to 3.6 ppm for all three techniques for both gases). The LODs achieved on Pt SPEs were lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limit (OSHA PEL) limits of the two gases (5 ppm for HCl and 10 ppm for MA), suggesting that Pt SPEs can successfully be combined with RTILs to be used as cheap alternatives for amperometric gas sensing in applications where these toxic gases may be released. PMID:26506358

  1. Analysis of trihalomethane precursor removal from sub-tropical reservoir waters by a magnetic ion exchange resin using a combined method of chloride concentration variation and surrogate organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Phetrak, Athit; Lohwacharin, Jenyuk; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In small reservoirs in tropical islands in Japan, the disinfection by-product formation potential is high due to elevated concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bromide. We employed a combined method of variation of chloride concentrations and the use of DOM surrogates to investigate removal mechanisms of bromide and different fractions of DOM by chloride-based magnetic ion exchange (MIEX®) resin. The DOM in reservoir waters was fractionated by resins based on their hydrophobicity, and characterized by size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectrophotometry. The hydrophobic acid (HPO acid) fraction was found to be the largest contributor of the trihalomethane (THM) precursors, while hydrophilic acid (HPI acid) was the most reactive precursors of all the four THM species. Bromide and DOM with a molecular weight (MW) greater than 1kDa, representing HPO acid (MW 1-3kDa) and HPI acid (MW 1-2kDa), were effectively removed by MIEX® resin; however, DOM with a MW lower than 1kDa, representing HPI non-acid, was only moderately removed. The removal of THM precursors by MIEX® resin was interfered by high chloride concentrations, which was similar to the removal of glutamic acid (HPI acid surrogate) and bromide. However, elevated chloride concentrations had only a minor effect on tannic acid (HPO acid surrogate) removal, indicating that HPO acid fraction was removed by a combination of ion exchange and physical adsorption on MIEX® resin. Our study demonstrated that the combined use of DOM surrogates and elevated chloride concentrations is an effective method to estimate the removal mechanisms of various DOM fractions by MIEX® resin. PMID:26360458

  2. Mitragynine 'Kratom' related fatality: a case report with postmortem concentrations.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Stolberg, Susan; Campman, Steven C

    2015-03-01

    A 24-year-old man whose medical history was significant for alcohol abuse and depression was found unresponsive in bed. He had several prior suicide attempts with 'pills' and had also been hospitalized for an accidental overdose on a previous occasion. Autopsy findings were unremarkable apart from pulmonary edema and congestion, and urinary retention. Postmortem peripheral blood initially screened positive for mitragynine 'Kratom' (by routine alkaline drug screen by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS), which was subsequently confirmed by a specific GC-MS selective ion mode analysis following solid-phase extraction. Concentrations were determined in the peripheral blood (0.23 mg/L), central blood (0.19 mg/L), liver (0.43 mg/kg), vitreous (<0.05 mg/L), urine (0.37 mg/L) and was not detected in the gastric. Therapeutic concentrations of venlafaxine, diphenhydramine and mirtazapine were also detected together with a negligible ethanol of 0.02% (w/v). The results are discussed in relation to previous cases of toxicity, and the lack of potential for mitragynine postmortem redistribution. PMID:25516573

  3. Estimating groundwater recharge following land-use change using chloride mass balance of soil profiles: a case study at Guyuan and Xifeng in the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe

    2011-02-01

    Groundwater recharge is affected by land use in (semi)arid areas. A new application of the chloride-mass-balance approach has been developed to estimate the reduction in groundwater recharge following land-use change by comparing chloride concentrations below the root zone and above the base of the chloride accumulation zone, before and after the land-use conversion. Two sites in the Loess Plateau of central China have been selected for study. Results from the Guyuan terrace region show that groundwater recharge beneath natural sparse small-grass was 100 mm/year, but the conversion to winter wheat about 100 years ago has reduced groundwater recharge to 55 mm/year. At the Xifeng Loess Plain the conversion from winter wheat, with groundwater recharge at 33 mm/year, to apple orchard 7 years ago has led to chloride accumulation to 5 m below land surface, suggesting the recharge rate has been reduced. This is in agreement with previous studies in these areas which have shown that the regional afforestation and other land-use conversions have resulted in deep soil desiccation and have caused an upper boundary to form with low matrix potential, thus preventing the soil moisture from actually recharging the aquifer.

  4. Chloridization and Reduction Roasting of High-Magnesium Low-Nickel Oxide Ore Followed by Magnetic Separation to Enrich Ferronickel Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-02-01

    The chloridization and reduction roasting of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore containing 0.82 pct Ni and 31.49 pct MgO were investigated in this study. Mineralogical investigation indicated that 84.6 pct of nickel was associated with silicates, and nickel was well distributed in mineral in the form of isomorphism. A series of chloridization tests with different added proportions of sodium chloride and coal along with different roasting temperatures and times was conducted. The results indicate that for a ferronickel content of 7.09 pct Ni, a nickel recovery of 98.31 pct could be obtained by chloridizing the laterite ore at 1473 K (1200 °C) for 20 minutes with the addition of 10 wt pct sodium chloride and 8 wt pct coal followed by the application of a 150-mT magnetic field. X-ray diffraction indicated that the nickel is mainly present in the form of ferronickel, which can also be detected by SEM-EDS. Compared with the roasted ore with no added chlorinating agent, the ore roasted in the presence of sodium chloride exhibited enhanced ferronickel particle growth.

  5. Cadmium concentrations in the brains of Alzheimer cases

    SciTech Connect

    Spyrou, N.M.; Stedman, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    There is ongoing research in relating the concentration of elements in the brain with Alzheimer`s disease. The presence of particular elements, such as aluminum and vanadium, has been considered as a possible environmental factor, creating significant interest and controversy in the field. We have been analyzing brain tissue from the MRC Alzheimer`s Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, from a number of cortical regions of the brain, namely, the frontal, occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as from the left and right hemispheres of the same brain whenever possible. The techniques employed have been proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Neutron irradiations were carried out at the Imperial College Consort II reactor, whereas for PIXE, PIGE, and RBS, the University of Surrey Accelerator Laboratories were used employing a Van de Graaff accelerator. In this paper, we present the cadmium results from the frontal lobe of Alzheimer cases and controls determined by PIXE analysis.

  6. Water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the St. Francois aquifer in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Davis, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    The St. Francois aquifer, the lowermost of three regional aquifers that form part of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, is composed of water-bearing sandstone and dolostone of Late Cambrian age. The aquifer was studied as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA, Jorgensen and Signor, 1981), a study of regional aquifer systems in the midcontinent United States that includes parts of 10 States. Because of its significance as a source of freshwater in and adjacent to the Ozark Plateaus province (index map) of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, a subregional project was established to investigate the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in more detail than the regional study could provide.The geologic and hydrologic relation between the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and other regional aquifer systems of the Midwest is presented in Jorgensen an others (in press). The relation of the St. Francois aquifer to the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is explained in Imes [in press (a)]. A companion publication, Imes [in press (b)], contains contour maps of the altitude of the top, thickness, and potentiometric surface of the St. Francois aquifer. This report contains maps that show water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the St. Francois aquifer. Most of the data from which these maps are compiled is stored in the CMRASA hydrochemical data base (R.B. Leonard, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1986). Only water quality analyses that ionically balanced to within 10 percent are included in this report. Because few water wells are completed in the St. Francois aquifer beyond the vicinity of the St. Francois Mountains in southeastern Missouri (index map), water-quality data, with few exceptions, are limited to a relatively small area near the outcrop of the aquifer.

  7. Water type and concentration of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the Ozark aquifer in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Davis, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    The Ozark aquifer is a thick sequence of water-bearing dolostone, limestone, and sandstone of latest Cambrian through Middle Devonian age that is widely used as a source of water throughout the Ozark Plateaus province (index map). The Ozark aquifer is the largest of three aquifers that form part of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. The aquifer was studied as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (CMRASA; Jorgensen and Signor, 1981), a study of regional aquifer systems in the midcontinent United States that includes parts of 10States. Because of its significance as a source of freshwater in parts of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma, a subregional project was established to investigate the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in more detail than the regional study could provide.The geologic and hydrologic relation between the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and other regional aquifer systems of the Midwest is presented in Jorgensen and others (in press). The relation of the Ozark aquifer to the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system is explained in Imes [in press (a)]. A companion publication, Imes [1990 (b)], contains contour maps of the altitude of the top, thickness, and potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer. This report contains maps that show water type and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in water from the Ozark aquifer. Most of the data from which these maps are compiled is stored in the CMRASA hydrochemical data base (R.B. Leonard, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1986). Data for Oklahoma were also taken from data published by Havens (1978). The maps in this report on the Ozark subregion may contain small differences from maps in other CMRASA publications because the criteria for data selection may be different and the subregional maps may contain additional data. However, regional trends in these maps are consistent with other maps published as part of the regional project.

  8. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 01 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  9. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chloride ; CASRN 74 - 87 - 3 ( 07 / 17 / 2001 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  10. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  11. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  12. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  13. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Effects of recharge and discharge on delta2H and delta18O composition and chloride concentration of high arsenic/fluoride groundwater from the Datong Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Su, Chunli; Duan, Mengyu

    2013-02-01

    To better understand the effects of recharge and discharge on the hydrogeochemistry of high levels of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in groundwater, environmental isotopic composition (delta2H and delta18O) and chloride (Cl) concentrations were analyzed in 29 groundwater samples collected from the Datong Basin. High arsenic groundwater samples (As > 50 micog/L) were found to be enriched in lighter isotopic composition that ranged from -92 to -78 per thousand for deuterium (delta2H) and from -12.5 to -9.9 per thousand for oxygen-18 (delta18O). High F-containing groundwater (F > 1 mg/L) was relatively enriched in heavier isotopic composition and varied from -90 to -57 per thousand and from -12.2 to -6.7 per thousand for delta2H and delta18O, respectively. High chloride concentrations and delta18O values were primarily measured in groundwater samples from the northern and southwestern portions of the study area, indicating the effect of evaporation on groundwater. The observation of relatively homogenized and low delta18O values and chloride concentrations in groundwater samples from central part of the Datong Basin might be a result of fast recharge by irrigation returns, which suggests that irrigation using arsenic-contaminated groundwater affected the occurrence of high arsenic-containing groundwater in the basin. PMID:23472327

  17. Preliminary assessment of chloride concentrations, loads, and yields in selected watersheds along the Interstate 95 corridor, southeastern Connecticut, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Mullaney, John R.; Morrison, Jonathan; Mondazzi, Remo

    2011-01-01

    Water-quality conditions were assessed to evaluate potential effects of road-deicer applications on stream-water quality in four watersheds along Interstate 95 (I-95) in southeastern Connecticut from November 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009. This preliminary study is part of a four-year cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT). Streamflow and water quality were studied at four watersheds?Four Mile River, Oil Mill Brook, Stony Brook, and Jordan Brook. Water-quality samples were collected and specific conductance was measured continuously at paired water-quality monitoring sites upstream and downstream from I-95. Specific conductance values were related to chloride (Cl) concentrations to assist in determining the effects of road-deicing operations on the levels of Cl in the streams. Streamflow and water-quality data were compared with weather data and with the timing, amount, and composition of deicers applied to state highways. Grab samples were collected during winter stormwater-runoff events, such as winter storms or periods of rain or warm temperatures in which melting takes place, and periodically during the spring and summer. Cl concentrations at the eight water-quality monitoring sites were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended chronic and acute Cl toxicity criteria of 230 and 860 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations in streams, particularly at sites downstream from I-95, peaked during discharge events in the winter and early spring as a result of deicers applied to roads and washed off by stormwater or meltwater. During winter storms, deicing activities, or subsequent periods of melting, specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations peaked as high as 703 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) and 160 mg/L at the downstream sites. During most of

  18. Concentrated Flow through a Riparian Buffer: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. B.; Nogues, J. P.; Hutchinson, S. L.

    2005-05-01

    Riparian buffers are often used for in-situ treatment of agricultural runoff. Although the benefits of riparian buffers are well recongized, concentration of flow can restrict the efficiency of contaminant removal. This study evaluates flow concentration at a agricultural site near Manhattan, Kansas. Manual and automated GIS analyses of a high-resolution digital elevation model were used to determine the fraction of runoff contributing to each buffer segment. Subsequent simulation of the system in WEPP (Water Erosion and Prediction Project) demonstrates the extent to which flow concentration affects buffer efficiency. Recommendations are presented for the design of adaptive-width buffers.

  19. Concentrated Flow through a Riparian Buffer: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. B.; Nogues, J. P.; Hutchinson, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Riparian buffers are often used for in-situ treatment of agricultural runoff. Although the benefits of riparian buffers are well recongized, concentration of flow can restrict the efficiency of contaminant removal. This study evaluates flow concentration at a agricultural site near Manhattan, Kansas. Manual and automated GIS analyses of a high-resolution digital elevation model were used to determine the fraction of runoff contributing to each buffer segment. Subsequent simulation of the system in WEPP (Water Erosion and Prediction Project) demonstrates the extend to which flow concentration affects buffer efficiency.

  20. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator...) Reactor. The following requirements apply to reactors: (1) The concentration of vinyl chloride in each... is not to exceed 0.02 g vinyl chloride/kg (0.04 lb vinyl chloride/ton) of polyvinyl chloride...

  1. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator...) Reactor. The following requirements apply to reactors: (1) The concentration of vinyl chloride in each... is not to exceed 0.02 g vinyl chloride/kg (0.04 lb vinyl chloride/ton) of polyvinyl chloride...

  2. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator...) Reactor. The following requirements apply to reactors: (1) The concentration of vinyl chloride in each... is not to exceed 0.02 g vinyl chloride/kg (0.04 lb vinyl chloride/ton) of polyvinyl chloride...

  3. Toxicity of vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride): a critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, J K

    1983-01-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride (VC) was first reported in the open scientific literature to induce angiosarcoma of the liver both in humans and in animals. Additional research has now demonstrated the carcinogenicity of VC to other organs and at lower concentrations. The target organs for VC now clearly include the liver, brain and the lung, and probably the lymphohematopoietic system. The evidence for a carcinogenic risk has been extended to jobs associated with poly(vinyl chloride) exposure. Cases of liver angiosarcoma have been reported among individuals employed in PVC fabrication facilities and an epidemiological study has demonstrated a significant association between exposure to PVC dust and the risk of lung cancer mortality. Cases of angiosarcoma of the liver also have been reported among individuals living in near proximity to vinyl chloride-poly(vinyl chloride) plants. An association between PVC dust and pneumoconiosis also has been demonstrated. On the basis of findings, prudent control of PVC dust in the industrial setting is indicated. PMID:6360677

  4. Dehydration of highly concentrated solutions of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in a cheap and sustainable choline chloride/carbon dioxide system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Barrault, Joël; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Jérôme, François

    2012-07-01

    Fête DES sciences: The dehydration of fructose and inulin to HMF is conveniently performed in a cheap and sustainable choline chloride/CO(2) deep eutectic solvent (DES) system. The medium is capable of converting high contents of fructose (>100 wt %) without affecting the yield of HMF (up to 72 %). The purity of the recovered HMF is >98%, and the reaction medium can be recycled. PMID:22644952

  5. Measurement techniques investigated for detection of hydrogen chloride gas in ambient air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Nine basic techniques are discussed, ranging from concentration (parts per million) to dosage only (parts per million-seconds) measurement techniques. Data for each technique include lower detection limit, response time, instrument status, and in some cases, specificity. Several techniques discussed can detect ambient hydrogen chloride concentrations below 1 part per million with a response time of seconds.

  6. Blood synthetic cannabinoid concentrations in cases of suspected impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Jillian K; Logan, Barry K

    2013-10-01

    Twelve cases of suspected impaired driving are discussed in which the drivers who subsequently tested positive for synthetic cannabinoid drugs underwent a psychophysical assessment. The attitude of the drivers was described as cooperative and relaxed, speech was slow and slurred and coordination was poor. Pulse and blood pressure were generally elevated. Horizontal gaze nystagmus was assessed in nine of the subjects, but was present in only two. The most consistent indicator was a marked lack of convergence. In all cases where a Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) officer evaluated and documented impairment (10 cases), it was attributed to the DRE cannabis category. Performance in field sobriety tests was variable, ranging from poor to minimal observable effect. Synthetic cannabinoid testing was performed by LC-MS-MS. Positive results included: JWH-018 (n = 4), 0.1-1.1 ng/mL; JWH-081 (n = 2) qualitative only; JWH-122 (n = 3), 2.5 ng/mL; JWH-210 (n = 4), 0.1 ng/mL; JWH-250 (n = 1), 0.38 ng/mL and AM-2201 (n = 6), 0.43-4.0 ng/mL. While there is good evidence of psychophysical impairment in these subjects, further structured data collection is needed to fully assess the relationship between synthetic cannabinoid use and psychomotor and cognitive impairment. PMID:23965292

  7. Chloride transport in human red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dalmark, M

    1975-01-01

    1. The chloride equilibrium flux (chloride self-exchange) was determined by measuring the rate of 36Cl efflux from radioactively labelled human red cells. The cellular chloride concentration was varied between 5 and 700 mM by the nystatin technique (Cass & Dalmark, 1973). The chloride transport capacity was not affected by the nystatin technique. 2. The chloride equilibrium flux showed saturation kinetics in the pH range between 6-2 and 9-2 (0 degrees C). The chloride transport decreased at chloride concentrations higher than those which gave the maximum transport. 3. The apparent half-saturation constant, (K1/2), depended on the pH and whether the chloride transport was perceived as a function of the chloride concentration in the medium or in the cell water. The (K1/2)m increased and the (K1/2)c decreased with increasing pH. The dependence of the chloride transport on the chloride concentration was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics at pH 7-2, but at values of pH outside pH 7-8 S-shaped or steeper graphs were observed. 4. The chloride equilibrium flux varied with the pH at constant chloride concentration in the medium (pH 5-7-9-5). The transport had a bell-shaped pH dependence at chloride concentrations below 200 mM. At chloride concentrations between 300 and 600 mM the chloride transport increased with increasing pH to reach a plateau around pH 8. The position of the acidic branches of the pH graphs was independent of the chloride concentration (25-600 mM), but the position of the alkaline branches moved towards higher values of pH with increasing chloride concentration (5-150 mM). Thus, the position of the pH optimum increased with increasing chloride concentration. The chloride transport at low pH values was a function of the inverse second power of the hydrogen ion concentration. The pK of the groups which caused the inhibition was approximately 6 and independent of the temperature (0-18 degrees C). 5. The chloride equilibrium flux as a function of

  8. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Daniel R.; Friedman, Irving

    1985-12-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 × 10 10 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park.

  9. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  10. Effects of aquifer heterogeneity on ground-water flow and chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer near and within an active pumping well field, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tihansky, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations have been increasing over time in water from wells within and near the Eldridge-Wilde well field, near the coast in west-central Florida. Variable increases in chloride concentrations from well to well over time are the combined result of aquifer heterogeneity and ground-water pumping within the Upper Floridan aquifer. Deep mineralized water and saline water associated with the saltwater interface appear to move preferentially along flow zones of high transmissivity in response to ground-water withdrawals. The calcium-bicarbonate-type freshwater of the Upper Floridan aquifer within the study area is variably enriched with ions by mixing with introduced deep and saline ground water. The amount and variability of increases in chloride and sulfate concentrations at each well are related to well location, depth interval, and permeable intervals intercepted by the borehole. Zones of high transmissivity characterize the multilayered carbonate rocks of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Well-developed secondary porosity within the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones and the Avon Park Formation has created producing zones within the Upper Floridan aquifer. The highly transmissive sections of the Avon Park Formation generally are several orders of magnitude more permeable than the Tampa/Suwannee Limestones, but both are associated with increased ground-water flow. The Ocala Limestone is less permeable and is dominated by primary, intergranular porosity. Acoustic televiewer logging, caliper logs, and borehole flow logs (both electromagnetic and heat pulse) indicate that the Tampa/Suwannee Limestone units are dominated by porosity owing to dissolution between 200 and 300 feet below land surface, whereas the porosity of the Avon Park Formation is dominated by fractures that occur primarily from 600 to 750 feet below land surface and range in angle from horizontal to near vertical. Although the Ocala Limestone can act as a semiconfining unit between the Avon Park

  11. Optical absorption measurements of hydrogen chloride at high temperature and high concentration in the presence of water using a tunable diode laser system for application in pyrohydrolysis non-ferrous industrial process control.

    PubMed

    Tzanetakis, Tommy; Susilo, Robin; Wang, Zhenyou; Padmanabhan, Arathi; Davis, Boyd R; Thomson, Murray J

    2015-06-01

    A tunable diode laser (TDL) was used to measure hydrogen chloride (HCl) spectra at 5747 cm(-1) (1.74 μm) and temperatures of 25-950 °C in a quartz cell. The purpose was to evaluate the capability of monitoring HCl concentration under pyrohydrolysis conditions using a near-infrared (NIR) laser. These conditions are characterized by 20-40% HCl, 2-40% H2O, and the presence of metal chloride vapors at temperatures of 600-1000 °C. Spectral peak area measurements of HCl-N2 mixtures at atmospheric pressure and a path length of 8.1 cm showed linear absorption behavior between concentrations of 5-95% and temperatures of 25-950 °C. Results from the addition of 2-40% water (H2O) indicate that the HCl peak area relationships are not affected for temperatures of 350-950 °C. Evaporating NiCl2 within the cell did not show spectral interference effects with HCl between 650 and 850 °C. The results from this work indicate that a near-infrared optical sensor is capable of measuring high HCl concentrations at high temperatures in the presence of high H2O content during pyrohydrolysis process conditions. PMID:26054333

  12. The effect of mepiquat chloride on elongation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) internode is associated with low concentration of gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Mu, Chun; Du, Mingwei; Chen, Yin; Tian, Xiaoli; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-08-01

    The growth regulator mepiquat chloride (MC) is globally used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopy manipulation to avoid excess growth and yield loss. However, little information is available as to whether the modification of plant architecture by MC is related to alterations in gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism and signaling. Here, the role of GA metabolism and signaling was investigated in cotton seedlings treated with MC. The MC significantly decreased endogenous GA3 and GA4 levels in the elongating internode, which inhibited cell elongation by downregulating GhEXP and GhXTH2, and then reducing plant height. Biosynthetic and metabolic genes of GA were markedly suppressed within 2-10d of MC treatment, which also downregulated the expression of DELLA-like genes. A remarkable feedback regulation was observed at the early stage of MC treatment when GA biosynthetic and metabolic genes expression was evidently upregulated. Mepiquat chloride action was controlled by temporal translocation and spatial accumulation which regulated GA biosynthesis and signal expression for maintaining GA homeostasis. The results suggested that MC application could reduce endogenous GA levels in cotton through controlled GA biosynthetic and metabolic genes expression, which might inhibit cell elongation, thereby shortening the internode and reducing plant height. PMID:25017155

  13. An acute gabapentin fatality: a case report with postmortem concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, F Lee; Mena, Othon; Gary, Ray D; McIntyre, Iain M

    2015-07-01

    Gabapentin (GBP) (Neurontin®, Horizant®, Gralise®) is a widely prescribed medication used primarily for the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. GBP has a favorable adverse effect profile in therapeutic dosing with the most common reported effects being dizziness, fatigue, drowsiness, weight gain, and peripheral edema. Even with intentional GBP self-poisonings, serious effects are rare. A 47-year-old female was found dead at work with her daughter's bottle of GBP 600 mg. There were 26 tablets missing and the decedent's only known medication was hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Following initial detection by an alkaline drug screen (GC-MS), analysis utilizing specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed an elevated postmortem GBP peripheral blood concentration of 37 mg/L, central blood 32 mg/L, liver 26 mg/kg, vitreous 32 mg/L, and gastric contents 6 mg. Screening for volatiles, drugs of abuse, alkaline compounds, and acid/neutral compounds was negative with the exception of ibuprofen (<2 mg/L) detected in peripheral blood. This report presents a fatality that appears to be associated with an isolated and acute GBP ingestion. PMID:25904080

  14. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials. PMID:26999998

  15. Transport and concentration controls for chloride, strontium, potassium and lead in Uvas Creek, a small cobble-bed stream in Santa Clara County, California, U.S.A. 2. Mathematical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackman, A.P.; Walters, R.A.; Kennedy, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Three models describing solute transport of conservative ion species and another describing transport of species which adsorb linearly and reversibly on bed sediments are developed and tested. The conservative models are based on three different conceptual models of the transient storage of solute in the bed. One model assumes the bed to be a well-mixed zone with flux of solute into the bed proportional to the difference between stream concentration and bed concentration. The second model assumes solute in the bed is transported by a vertical diffusion process described by Fick's law. The third model assumes that convection occurs in a selected portion of the bed while the mechanism of the first model functions everywhere. The model for adsorbing species assumes that the bed consists of particles of uniform size with the rate of uptake controlled by an intraparticle diffusion process. All models are tested using data collected before, during and after a 24-hr. pulse injection of chloride, strontium, potassium and lead ions into Uvas Creek near Morgan Hill, California, U.S.A. All three conservative models accurately predict chloride ion concentrations in the stream. The model employing the diffusion mechanism for bed transport predicts better than the others. The adsorption model predicts both strontium and potassium ion concentrations well during the injection of the pulse but somewhat overestimates the observed concentrations after the injection ceases. The overestimation may be due to the convection of solute deep into the bed where it is retained longer than the 3-week post-injection observation period. The model, when calibrated for strontium, predicts potassium equally well when the adsorption equilibrium constant for strontium is replaced by that for potassium. ?? 1984.

  16. Optimization of ferric chloride concentration and pH to improve both cell growth and flocculation in Chlorella vulgaris cultures. Application to medium reuse in an integrated continuous culture bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Lecina, Martí; Nadal, Gisela; Solà, Carles; Prat, Jordi; Cairó, Jordi J

    2016-09-01

    Combined effect of ferric chloride and pH on Chlorella vulgaris growth and flocculation were optimized using DoE. Afterwards, an integrated bioprocess for microalgae cultivation and harvesting conceived as a sole step was run in continuous operation mode. Microalgae concentration in a 2L-photobioreactor was about 0.5gL(-1) and the efficiency of flocculation in the coupled sedimentation tank was about 95%. Dewatered microalgae reached a biomass concentrations increase about 50-fold, whereas it was only about 0.02gL(-1) in the clarified medium. Then, the reuse of the clarified medium recovered was further evaluated. The clarified medium was reused without any further nutrient supplementation, whereas a second round of medium reuse was performed after supplementation of main nutrients (phosphate-sulfate-nitrate), micronutrients and ferric chloride. The medium reuse strategy did not affect cell growth and flocculation. Consequently, the reuse of medium reduces the nutrients requirements and the demand for water, and therefore the production costs should be reduced accordingly. PMID:27240237

  17. Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harajli, Ali A.

    Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks. This paper covers the development of a new methodology for predicting the chloride concentration and corrosion initiation times for a multi-layer protection overlay system. The first topic will be presenting an innovative method to predict the chloride concentrations using different diffusion coefficients for each protective layer. The new method covers the cases where the applied surface chloride concentrations are either a constant or linear functions with time. The second topic will implement the results from field data about the chloride variations due to the presence of applied topical layers for comparison with the theoretical models. This section will also apply damage factors that are time-dependent to simulate external factors such as traffic loading or vibrations. The third topic will investigate the sensitivity of the single and multi-layer systems due to diffusivity parameter changes. The fourth topic will analyze the random variation of the diffusivity values to predict the mean and standard deviation of chloride concentrations. The diffusivity values are selected from published values by NIST and are based on certain water cement (w/c) ratios.

  18. Stabilization of gamma-irradiated poly(vinyl chloride) by epoxy compounds. I. Radiation yield of hydrogen chloride and changes of epoxy group concentration in gamma-irradiated PVC-stabilizer mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lerke, G.; Lerke, I.; Szymanski, W.

    1983-01-01

    The G/sub HCl/ values of ..gamma..-irradiated PVC mixtures and the changes of the epoxy group concentration were studied after addition of various amounts of five epoxy stabilizers: diglycidyl ether of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methyl phenyl) propane (I), diglycidyl ether of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)-propane (II), styrene oxide (1,2-epoxy ethyl benzene) (IV), epoxidized ricinus oil (VI), and epoxidized soybean oil (Drapex 6.8) (VII). It is stated that only about 50% of epoxy groups, declining in the system, take part in binding of HCl; the rest of these groups disappear as a consequence of other reactions. In connection with the data of the previous paper, the results presented indicate that the process of stabilization goes in two stages. In the first stage the process consists of the HC1 capture by the epoxy groups; in the second stage, due to the remaining part of the stabilizer molecule, a protective effect occurs. This effect consists, for the stabilizers I, II, IV, of gaining the energy by the benzene ring and, for the stabilizers VI, VII, of a mechanical drawing of polymer chains, wich makes the energy transfer more difficult. Having the greatest content of epoxy oxygen (about 10%), the styrene oxide (IV) stabilizes best.

  19. Mass concentration and ion composition of coarse and fine particles in an urban area in Beirut: effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of nitric and sulfuric acids and the depletion of chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyoumdjian, H.; Saliba, N. A.

    2006-05-01

    Levels of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particles were determined between February 2004 and January 2005 in the city of Beirut, Lebanon. While low PM mass concentrations were measured in the rainy season, elevated levels were detected during sand storms originating from Arabian desert and/or Africa. Using ATR-FTIR and IC, it was shown that nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and chloride were the main anionic constituents of the coarse particles, whereas sulfate was mostly predominant in the fine particles in the form of (NH4)2SO4. Ammonium nitrate was not expected to be important because the medium was defined as ammonium poor. In parallel, the cations Ca2+ and Na+ dominated in the coarse, and NH4+, Ca2+ and Na+ in the fine particles. Coarse nitrate and sulfate ions resulted from the respective reactions of nitric and sulfuric acid with a relatively high amount of calcium carbonate. Both CaCO3 and Ca(NO3)2 crystals identified by ATR-FTIR in the coarse particles were found to be resistant to soaking in water for 24 h but became water soluble when they were formed in the fine particles suggesting, thereby, different growth and adsorption phenomena. The seasonal variational study showed that nitrate and sulfate ion concentrations increased in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions which facilitated the conversion of NO2 and SO2 gases into NO3- and SO42-, respectively. While nitrate was mainly due to local heavy traffic, sulfates were due to local and long-range transport phenomena. Using the air mass trajectory HYSPLIT model, it was found that the increase in the sulfate concentration correlated with wind vectors coming from Eastern and Central Europe. Chloride levels, on the other hand, were high when wind originated from the sea and low during sand storms. In addition to sea salt, elevated levels of chloride were also attributed to waste mass burning in proximity to the site. In comparison to other neighboring Mediterranean countries, relatively

  20. Evaluation of Postmortem Drug Concentrations in Bile Compared with Blood and Urine in Forensic Autopsy Cases.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    For drug screening and pharmaco-/toxicokinetic analysis, bile as a major drug excretion route in addition to urine may be used in forensic autopsy cases; however, there are limited published data on correlations between bile and blood or urine drug concentrations. The present study retrospectively investigated drug concentrations in bile, compared with blood and urine concentrations, reviewing forensic autopsy cases during 6 years (January 2009-December 2014). Drugs were analyzed using automated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following solid-liquid phase extraction. Compared with peripheral blood concentrations, bile concentrations were higher for most drugs; however, caffeine concentrations were similar. Bile concentrations were mostly lower than urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine and methylephedrine, but were usually similar to or higher for other drugs. Significant correlations were detected between bile and peripheral blood concentrations for amphetamines, several cold remedies, phenobarbital, phenothiazine derivatives and diazepam, as well as between bile and urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine, diphenhydramine, phenobarbital and promethazine derivatives. These findings suggest that bile can provide supplemental data useful in routine forensic toxicology, for the spectrum of drugs mentioned above, as well as for investigating pharmaco-/toxicokinetics and postmortem redistribution when analyzed in combination with drug concentrations at other sites. PMID:27185819

  1. Radioprotective effect on HepG2 cells of low concentrations of cobalt chloride: induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and clearance of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wensen; Wang, Juan; Xu, Shiguo; Xiao, Linlin; Chen, Guangfu; Zhang, Wukui; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    It has been found that low doses of certain toxicants might generate a protective response to cellular damage. Previous data have shown that elevated doses of cobalt (Co) induce injury to cells and organisms or result in radiological combined toxicity. Whether low doses of Co generate a protective effect or not, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of action of low dose cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 100 μM) on the viability of irradiated cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay was used to observe the radio-sensitivity of HepG2 cells under different pretreatments. The alteration of intracellular DNA damage was further measured using micronucleus (MN) assay. Levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and its target gene, EPO, were monitored by western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content was determined by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe staining. Our results show that low dose CoCl2does not influence HepG2 cell viability, but induces the expression of HIF-1α, followed by increased radio-resistance. Additionally, cells treated with HIF-1α siRNA retained a partial refractory response to irradiation concomitant with a marked reduction in intracellular ROS. The change of MN further indicated that the reduction of DNA damage was confirmed with the alteration of ROS. Our results demonstrate that low dose CoCl2may protect cells against irradiative harm by two mechanisms, namely HIF-1α expression and ROS clearance. PMID:23065176

  2. Fiber-optic chloride sensor development

    SciTech Connect

    Cosentino, P.; Grossman, B.; Shieh, C.; Doi, S.; Xi, H.; Erbland, P.

    1995-08-01

    Chloride in the form of salt water is a major contaminant of ground water, percolating through landfill liners and causing corrosion of steel. Four fiber-optic sensors capable of detecting chloride concentrations were developed. The most promising sensor detects chloride concentrations from 100 {micro}g/mL to greater than 3,000 {micro}g/mL. This sensor works when the chloride changes a reddish-brown silver chromate strip to white silver chloride. The color change causes the intensity of light propagating through the fiber to increase. The increase is monitored, and a calibration curve depicting light intensity versus chloride concentration results. The most promising sensor was multiplexed to determine the diffusion coefficients of chloride in a saturated sand column. The development, operation, and sensitivity of the sensors are described. Upon further development the sensor could be placed in the soil or in reinforced concrete for insitu monitoring of chloride. The sensor`s advantages over electronic sensors include immunity to corrosion and electromagnetic interference, and the ability for multiplexing sensors onto a single fiber.

  3. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in many vegetables. Foods ... Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 2005. ...

  4. Occurrence of aluminum in chloride cells of Perla marginata (Plecoptera) after exposure to low pH and elevated aluminum concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Guerold, F.; Giamberini, L.; Pihan, J.C.; Tourmann, J.L.; Kaufmann, R.

    1995-04-01

    As a consequence of acid depositions on poorly buffered catchments underlain by hard rocks, aluminum is mobilized and transported from terrestrial systems to the aquatic environment. Loss of fishes has been related to low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations in surface waters which present a low ionic content especially during acid stress such as snowmelt and heavy rainfalls. Among the causes of fish population decline in acid waters, aluminum is considered a toxic cofactor. Different studies have clearly shown that aluminum is accumulated in different organs such as kidneys, liver and gills. Research on fish has demonstrated that aluminum may be toxic, but the toxicity is markedly influenced by the pH, organic compounds and calcium content of the water. Field surveys have shown clearly that macroinvertebrates are also affected by surface-water acidification. However, little is know about the possible effects of aluminum on aquatic invertebrates and, particularly, on aquatic insects exposed to acidic conditions. Hall et al. have shown that the whole-body concentration of aluminum decreases in blackflies and mayflies transplated from neutral water to acid water. Similar results have been reported for Daphnia and chironomid. On the contrary, Ormerod et al. demonstrated the absence of relationship between water pH and insect aluminum concentrations. When aluminum occurs in aquatic insects, it has been shown that it is primarily adsorbed on the external surface and/or accumulates in gut contents. To our knowledge, the subcellular location as well as the toxicity of aluminum to acid-sensitive aquatic insects remains unclear and existing hypotheses are often based on research on fish. In this content the purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of aluminum at a subcellular level in the acid-sensitive species of stonefly, Perla marginata, after exposure to low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Alternative Approach To Modeling Bacterial Lag Time, Using Logistic Regression as a Function of Time, Temperature, pH, and Sodium Chloride Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Junko

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic model to predict the end of lag time (λ) during the growth of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells as a function of temperature, pH, and salt concentration using logistic regression. The developed λ model was subsequently combined with a logistic differential equation to simulate bacterial numbers over time. To develop a novel model for λ, we determined whether bacterial growth had begun, i.e., whether λ had ended, at each time point during the growth kinetics. The growth of B. cereus was evaluated by optical density (OD) measurements in culture media for various pHs (5.5 ∼ 7.0) and salt concentrations (0.5 ∼ 2.0%) at static temperatures (10 ∼ 20°C). The probability of the end of λ was modeled using dichotomous judgments obtained at each OD measurement point concerning whether a significant increase had been observed. The probability of the end of λ was described as a function of time, temperature, pH, and salt concentration and showed a high goodness of fit. The λ model was validated with independent data sets of B. cereus growth in culture media and foods, indicating acceptable performance. Furthermore, the λ model, in combination with a logistic differential equation, enabled a simulation of the population of B. cereus in various foods over time at static and/or fluctuating temperatures with high accuracy. Thus, this newly developed modeling procedure enables the description of λ using observable environmental parameters without any conceptual assumptions and the simulation of bacterial numbers over time with the use of a logistic differential equation. PMID:22729541

  6. Alternative approach to modeling bacterial lag time, using logistic regression as a function of time, temperature, pH, and sodium chloride concentration.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Shige; Nonaka, Junko

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic model to predict the end of lag time (λ) during the growth of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells as a function of temperature, pH, and salt concentration using logistic regression. The developed λ model was subsequently combined with a logistic differential equation to simulate bacterial numbers over time. To develop a novel model for λ, we determined whether bacterial growth had begun, i.e., whether λ had ended, at each time point during the growth kinetics. The growth of B. cereus was evaluated by optical density (OD) measurements in culture media for various pHs (5.5 ∼ 7.0) and salt concentrations (0.5 ∼ 2.0%) at static temperatures (10 ∼ 20°C). The probability of the end of λ was modeled using dichotomous judgments obtained at each OD measurement point concerning whether a significant increase had been observed. The probability of the end of λ was described as a function of time, temperature, pH, and salt concentration and showed a high goodness of fit. The λ model was validated with independent data sets of B. cereus growth in culture media and foods, indicating acceptable performance. Furthermore, the λ model, in combination with a logistic differential equation, enabled a simulation of the population of B. cereus in various foods over time at static and/or fluctuating temperatures with high accuracy. Thus, this newly developed modeling procedure enables the description of λ using observable environmental parameters without any conceptual assumptions and the simulation of bacterial numbers over time with the use of a logistic differential equation. PMID:22729541

  7. Stable Isotope Anomalies and Low Chloride Concentrations in Pore Water of CH4-Rich Sediments at the Tanegashima Mud Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, N.; Tsunogai, U.; Ashi, J.; Gamo, T.

    2004-12-01

    Pore water from sediments collected at a Tanegashima mud volcano was analyzed for δ 13C (PDB) of dissolved CH4 together with other chemical components, Cl- and SO42-, and the δ 18O and δ D (SMOW). The Tanegashima mud volcanoes are located at the water depths from 1400 m to 1800 m, off Tanegashima island between Ryukyu trench and Ryukyu arc of Japan. It is situated at the end of south-western convergent plate boundary on Nankai-trough, which forms a part of Philippine Sea plate subducting under Eurasian plate. This cruise was conducted as a part of the JNOC (Japan National Oil Corporation) geochemical survey by R/V Hakurei-maru II. The concentrations of CH4 were generally higher than 100 micro-mol/kg. Its highest concentration (715 micro-mol/kg) was found in the crest core of a mud volcano. The δ 13C values ranged from -32 to -50 ‰ . C2H6 was detected only in the pore waters collected from the vicinity of the crest of the mud volcano. The highest δ 13C (around -22 ‰ ) and low C1/C2 concentration ratios (less than 100) were measured at the crest site, supporting the thermogenical production of methane. Other geochemical anomalies were also observed in the crest pore water. The concentrations of Cl- in the pore water at this site were extremely depleted to a minimum of 350 mmol/kg. The Cl- anomaly has not been previously reported for pore water from mud volcanoes around Japan. An endmember of isotopic composition of the fluid is estimated to be +12 ‰ for δ 18O and -40 ‰ for δ D. From these results we conclude that the most likely process to reduce pore water salinity is primarily the mixing of clay mineral dehydration water with seawater. The thermogenic methane found in the crest pore waters of the Tanegashima mud volcano may be brought from the depths of sediments due to the migration of fluid evolved by mineral the dehydration process.

  8. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  9. Transport and concentration controls for chloride, strontium, potassium and lead in Uvas Creek, a small cobble-bed stream in Santa Clara County, California, U.S.A. 1. Conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, V.C.; Jackman, A.P.; Zand, S.M.; Zellweger, G.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Stream sediments adsorb certain solutes from streams, thereby significantly changing the solute composition; but little is known about the details and rates of these adsorptive processes. To investigate such processes, a 24-hr. injection of a solution containing chloride, strontium, potassium, sodium and lead was made at the head of a 640-m reach of Uvas Creek in west-central Santa Clara County, California. Uvas Creek is a cobble-bed pool-and-riffle stream draining the eastern slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains. By September 12, 1973, after a long dry season, Uvas Creek had a low (0.0215 m3s-1 average) flow which varied diurnally, from 0.018 to 0.025 m3s-1. Because stream discharge varied while the injection rate was constant, the concentration of tracers (injected solutes), after mixing in the stream, varied inversely with discharge. Chloride, a nonreactive solute, served as a tracer of water movement. Analysis of extensive chloride concentration data at five sites below the injection point during and after the injection demonstrated that there was considerable underflow of water through the stream gravels; however, the extent of underflow varied greatly within the study reach. Pre-injection water, displaced by tracer-laden water percolating through the gravels, diluted tracers in the stream channel, giving the mistaken impression of groundwater inflow at some points. Accurate measurement of total discharge in such streams requires prolonged tracer injection unless a reach can be found where underflow is negligible. Strontium and potassium were adsorbed by the bed sediments to a moderate extent and lead was strongly adsorbed. A high proportion of these metals could be removed by adsorption from percolating underflow because of extensive and intimate contact with bed sediments. After channel clearing following injection cutoff, 51% of the added strontium and 96% of the lead remained in the study reach, whereas only 19% of the chloride remained. Packets of sized

  10. Technical Note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; Kaiser, J.

    2015-08-01

    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur significant risks and expense. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previously for freshwater samples. Here, we assess BAC as a less hazardous alternative microbial inhibitor for marine samples prior to the measurement of oxygen-to-argon (O2/Ar) ratios, as used for the determination of plankton net community production. BAC at a concentration of 50 mg dm-3 inhibited microbial activity for at least three days in seawater with chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations up to 1 mg m-3, possibly longer when Chl a concentrations were lower. BAC concentrations of 100 and 200 mg dm-3 were no more effective than 50 mg dm-3. With fewer risks to human health and the environment, and no requirement for expensive waste disposal, BAC could be a viable alternative to HgCl2 for short-term preservation of seawater samples, but is not a replacement for HgCl2 in the case of oxygen triple isotope analysis, which requires storage over weeks to months. In any event, further tests on a case-by-case basis should be undertaken if use of BAC was considered, since its inhibitory activity may depend on concentration and composition of the microbial community.

  11. Effects of Two Sublethal Concentrations of Mercury Chloride on the Morphology and Metallothionein Activity in the Liver of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Macirella, Rachele; Guardia, Antonello; Pellegrino, Daniela; Bernabò, Ilaria; Tronci, Valentina; Ebbesson, Lars O. E.; Sesti, Settimio; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly hazardous pollutant widely used in industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural fields. Mercury is found in the environment in several forms, elemental, inorganic (iHg) and organic, all of which are toxic. Considering that the liver is the organ primarily involved in the regulation of metabolic pathways, homeostasis and detoxification we investigated the morphological and ultrastructural effects in Danio rerio liver after 96 h exposure to two low HgCl2 concentrations (7.7 and 38.5 μg/L). We showed that a short-term exposure to very low concentrations of iHg severely affects liver morphology and ultrastructure. The main effects recorded in this work were: cytoplasm vacuolization, decrease in both lipid droplets and glycogen granules, increase in number of mitochondria, increase of rough endoplasmic reticulum and pyknotic nuclei. Pathological alterations observed were dose dependent. Trough immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and real-time PCR analysis, the induction of metallothionein (MT) under stressor conditions was also evaluated. Some of observed alterations could be considered as a general response of tissue to heavy metals, whereas others (such as increased number of mitochondria and increase of RER) may be considered as an adaptive response to mercury. PMID:26978352

  12. Effects of Two Sublethal Concentrations of Mercury Chloride on the Morphology and Metallothionein Activity in the Liver of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Macirella, Rachele; Guardia, Antonello; Pellegrino, Daniela; Bernabò, Ilaria; Tronci, Valentina; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Sesti, Settimio; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly hazardous pollutant widely used in industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural fields. Mercury is found in the environment in several forms, elemental, inorganic (iHg) and organic, all of which are toxic. Considering that the liver is the organ primarily involved in the regulation of metabolic pathways, homeostasis and detoxification we investigated the morphological and ultrastructural effects in Danio rerio liver after 96 h exposure to two low HgCl₂ concentrations (7.7 and 38.5 μg/L). We showed that a short-term exposure to very low concentrations of iHg severely affects liver morphology and ultrastructure. The main effects recorded in this work were: cytoplasm vacuolization, decrease in both lipid droplets and glycogen granules, increase in number of mitochondria, increase of rough endoplasmic reticulum and pyknotic nuclei. Pathological alterations observed were dose dependent. Trough immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and real-time PCR analysis, the induction of metallothionein (MT) under stressor conditions was also evaluated. Some of observed alterations could be considered as a general response of tissue to heavy metals, whereas others (such as increased number of mitochondria and increase of RER) may be considered as an adaptive response to mercury. PMID:26978352

  13. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. PMID:26744800

  14. 3-Methylmethcathinone--Interpretation of Blood Concentrations Based on Analysis of 95 Cases.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Gieroń, Joanna; Gil, Dominika; Lechowicz, Wojciech; Skulska, Agnieszka; Tokarczyk, Bogdan

    2016-05-01

    3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) has been one of the most popular new psychoactive substances (NPS) in Poland in recent years. 3-MMC was found in blood in 95 cases sent to the Institute of Forensic Research (IFR) during the two and a half year period, from 2013 to half of 2015. 3-MMC was determined in 13 and 48 cases in 2013 and 2014 year-round casework, respectively, while only in the first half of 2015 year it was present in 34 cases. In most cases, 3-MMC was detected together with other novel psychoactive substances and conventional drugs. Blood analyses for 3-MMC were carried out using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The concentrations of 3-MMC in all 95 cases were in the range from traces (<1 ng/mL) up to 1.6 µg/mL (mean concentration 51.3 ng/mL, median 18.5 ng/mL). Concentration ranges in particular types of cases were respectively: DUID cases: 1-171 ng/mL; traffic accidents: <1-29 ng/mL; drug possession: 2-408 ng/mL; intoxication: <1-1600 ng/mL and other: <1-61 ng/mL. The parameters of the developed method such as the LOD (0.02 ng/mL) and LOQ (1 ng/mL) demonstrate that the method is well suited for the analysis of blood samples for 3-MMC and covers the range of typical blood concentrations. PMID:26989222

  15. Watershed scale chloride storage across a gradient of urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellen, C. C.; Oswald, C. J.; Oni, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sodium chloride is the main de-icing agent used during the winter in Canada and the northern United States. However, little is known about the long term fate, residence time, and ecological effects of chloride. This talk integrates work taking place across three sites in Southern Ontario, Canada: Hamilton Harbour, the Toronto lakeshore, and Lake Simcoe. We quantify chloride inputs, outputs, and changes in storage for a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. For the three winter months (January, February, March), we show that stream water chloride concentrations approach those of brackish waters for urban watersheds. Chloride is also highly persistent, with stream water chloride concentrations decreasing from the winter months and approaching baseline levels only in July. These baseline levels are greater than 100 mg Cl/l in the urban watersheds, suggesting high levels of chloride storage in soil and groundwater. Using road salt application rates and groundwater levels and chloride concentrations, we estimate the magnitude and residence time of the chloride pools in a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. Our results suggest that the magnitude and residence time of chloride storage varies with urbanization and other factors. We show that summer baseflow concentrations do approach the EPA's chronic exposure guideline of 230 mg Cl/l, implying more work is needed to understand the in stream and downstream ecological effects of chloride.

  16. A Note on the Calculation of Concentrations in the Case of Many Simultaneous Equilibria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feenstra, T. P.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation of concentrations in the case of many simultaneous equilibria can be reduced to a search for a local minimum of a function of n variables, in which n denotes the number of mass balances involved. The method is simple and time-saving, but requires the availability of a computer. (author/BB)

  17. Modeling heterogeneous ClNO 2 formation, chloride availability, and chlorine cycling in Southeast Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, H.; Kimura, Y.; McGaughey, G.; Allen, D. T.; Brown, S. S.; Coffman, D.; Dibb, J.; Osthoff, H. D.; Quinn, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Yarwood, G.; Kemball-Cook, S.; Byun, D.; Lee, D.

    2010-12-01

    Nitryl Chloride (ClNO 2) mixing ratios above 1 ppbv have been measured off the coast of Southeast Texas. ClNO 2 formation, the result of heterogeneous N 2O 5 uptake on chloride-containing aerosols, has a significant impact on oxidant formation for the Houston area. This work reports on the modeling of ClNO 2 formation and describes the sensitivity of ClNO 2 formation to key parameters. Model sensitivity analyses found that: (1) Chloride availability limits the formation of nitryl chloride at ground level but not aloft; (2) When excess particulate chloride was assumed to be present at ground level through sea salt, ClNO 2 concentrations increased in some locations by a factor of 13, as compared to cases where sea salt chloride was assumed to be limited; (3) Inland formation of ClNO 2 seems feasible based on chloride availability and could have a large impact on total ClNO 2 formed in the region; and (4) ClNO 2 formation is quite sensitive to the assumed yield of ClNO 2 from N 2O 5 uptake. These results demonstrate that there is a need for further field studies to better understand the geographic extent of ClNO 2 formation and the atmospheric conditions which control partitioning of chloride into the particle phase. In addition, this work examined the role of ClNO 2 in the cycling of chlorine between chloride and reactive chlorine radicals. The modeling indicated that the majority of reactive chlorine in Texas along the Gulf coast is cycled through ClNO 2, demonstrating the importance of including ClNO 2 into photochemical models for this region.

  18. Histopathological alterations in the liver and intestine of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to long-term sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Elsayed; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab; Al-Asgah, Nasser; Ebaid, Hossam

    2015-07-01

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 1.68, 3.36, and 5.04 mg/L cadmium (as CdCl2), which represent 10%, 20%, and 30% of their previously determined 96-h LC50. After exposure for 20 days, sections of the liver and intestine of treated fish were examined histologically. Histopathological changes varied from slight to severe structural modification, depending on the exposure concentration. The hepatic tissues of fish exposed to 10% LC50 showed markedly increased vacuolation of the hepatocytes and coarse granulation of their cytoplasm. Abundant erythrocytic infiltration among the hepatocytes was observed in fish exposed to 20% LC50. In the intestinal tissues of fish exposed to all doses, goblet cells proliferated and were greatly increased in size, the longitudinal muscularis mucosa was disturbed and, in the crypts of the sub-mucosal layer, apoptosis increased, indicated by large numbers of degenerated nuclei. Large numbers of inflammatory cells and dilated blood vessels were observed in the intestine of the group treated with 30% LC50.

  19. The ANAMMOX reactor under transient-state conditions: process stability with fluctuations of the nitrogen concentration, inflow rate, pH and sodium chloride addition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Jin; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2012-09-01

    The process stability of an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) was investigated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor subjected to overloads of 2.0- to 3.0-fold increases in substrate concentrations, inflow rates lasting 12 or 24h, extreme pH levels of 4 and 10 for 12h and a 12-h 30 g l(-1) NaCl addition. During the overloads, the nitrogen removal rate improved, and the shock period was an important factor affecting the reactor performance. In the high pH condition, the reactor performance significantly degenerated; while in the low pH condition, it did not happen. The NaCl addition caused the most serious deterioration in the reactor, which took 108 h to recover and was accompanied by a stoichiometric ratio divergence. There are well correlations between the total nitrogen and the electrical conductivity which is considered to be a convenient signal for controlling and monitoring the ANAMMOX process under transient-state conditions. PMID:22728197

  20. Interaction of the organic tin chloride with the liquid model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, M.; Engel, G.; Man, D.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the effect of organic tin chloride (C3H7)3SnCl on the electric parameters of membranes in the form of filters of the company Synpor (Czech Republic) impregnated with various fatty acids, dissolved with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Three carboxylic acids were used in the study: palmitic, arachidic and oleic, and dissolvent of the acids (CCl4) as well as butylene ester of lauric acid. In all cases, introduction of tin chloride of constant concentration amounting to 0.15 mM to the measurement chamber resulted in induction of membrane voltage. In case of pure lauric acid and CCl4, the voltage reached the maximum value and then decreased to a certain constant value. In the case of all acids dissolved in CCl4, the voltage increased only up to a certain constant value. Voltage drop (below the value) was observed after application of appropriately high concentration of tin chloride, in case of membranes impregnated with the mixture of lauric acid ester with CCl4 and palmitic acid with CCl4. The study also demonstrated that electrical resistance of membranes impregnated with carboxylic acid increased in the presence of tin chloride and decreased in case of membranes impregnated with lauric acid ester. However, electric capacities of membranes did not significant change.

  1. Disposable sensor for electrochemical determination of chloride ions.

    PubMed

    Bujes-Garrido, Julia; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia

    2016-08-01

    This work describes the development of a new, simple and inexpensive method for the determination of chloride ions, by using voltammetric disposable sensors. The sensor includes three screen printed electrodes: a working, an auxiliary (both carbon based paste electrodes), and a pseudo-reference Ag/AgCl paste based electrode. Since the presence of chloride ions in the solution modifies the equilibrium potential of Ag/AgCl electrode, the concentration of this analyte has been determined through the systematic shift of the voltammetric peak potential of a control species such as potassium ferricyanide, potassium ferrocyanide or ferrocenemethanol. These control species can be used in solution or mixed into the carbon paste of the working screen printed electrode. In order to characterize the developed methods, reproducibility, repeatability and detection limit of the sensors were calculated in each case. Reproducibility values below 3% (n=5) were obtained. When ferrocenemethanol was used as control species, the lowest quantity of chloride ions detected was 10.0mM. A comprehensive study of interfering ions was also carried out. These sensors were successfully applied to determine the chloride content in sea water and in a commercial saline solution sample. PMID:27216668

  2. Concentration, flux, and the analysis of trends of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride in 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 1990–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Annual concentration, flux, and yield for total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride for 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain were estimated for 1990 through 2011 using a weighted regression method based on time, tributary streamflows (discharges), and seasonal factors. The weighted regression method generated two series of daily estimates of flux and concentration during the period of record: one based on observed discharges and a second based on a flow-normalization procedure that removes random variation due to year-to-year climate-driven effects. The flownormalized estimate for a given date is similar to an average estimate of concentration or flux that would be made if all of the observed discharges for that date were equally likely to have occurred. The flux bias statistic showed that 68 of the 72 flux regression models were minimally biased. Temporal trends in the concentrations and fluxes were determined by calculating percent changes in flow-normalized annual fluxes for the full period of analysis (1990 through 2010) and for the decades 1990–2000 and 2000–2010. Basinwide, flow-normalized total phosphorus flux decreased by 42 metric tons per year (t/yr) between 1990 and 2010. This net result reflects a basinwide decrease in flux of 21 metric tons (t) between 1990 and 2000, followed by a decrease of 20 t between 2000 and 2010; both results were largely influenced by flux patterns in the large tributaries on the eastern side of the basin. A comparison of results for total phosphorus for the two separate decades of analysis found that more tributaries had decreasing concentrations and flux rates in the second decade than the first. An overall reduction in dissolved phosphorus flux of 0.7 t/yr was seen in the Lake Champlain Basin during the full period of analysis. That very small net change in flux reflects substantial reductions between 1990 and 2000 from eastern tributaries, especially in Otter Creek and the LaPlatte and Winooski

  3. Technical note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; Kaiser, J.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur environmental risks and significant expense. There is therefore a strong motivation to find less hazardous alternatives. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previously as microbial inhibitor for freshwater samples. Here, we assess the use of BAC for marine samples prior to the measurement of oxygen-to-argon (O2 / Ar) ratios, as used for the determination of biological net community production. BAC at a concentration of 50 mg dm-3 inhibited microbial activity for at least 3 days in samples tested with chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations up to 1 mg m-3. BAC concentrations of 100 and 200 mg dm-3 were no more effective than 50 mg dm-3. With fewer risks to human health and the environment, and no requirement for expensive waste disposal, BAC could be a viable alternative to HgCl2 for short-term preservation of seawater samples, but is not a replacement for HgCl2 in the case of oxygen triple isotope analysis, which requires storage over weeks to months. In any event, further tests on a case-by-case basis should be undertaken if use of BAC was considered, since its inhibitory activity may depend on concentration and composition of the microbial community.

  4. An Acute Acetyl Fentanyl Fatality: A Case Report With Postmortem Concentrations.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Gary, Ray D; Malamatos, Mark; Lucas, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of acetyl fentanyl in a fatality attributed to the drug. A young man who had a history of heroin abuse was found deceased at his parents' home. Toxicology testing, which initially screened positive for fentanyl by ELISA, subsequently confirmed acetyl fentanyl by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry specific ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM) analysis following liquid-liquid extraction. No other drugs or medications, including fentanyl, were detected. The acetyl fentanyl peripheral blood concentration was quantified at 260 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 250 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 1,000 ng/kg, the vitreous was 240 ng/mL and the urine was 2,600 ng/mL. The cause of death was certified due to acute acetyl fentanyl intoxication, and the manner of death was certified as an accident. PMID:25917447

  5. Blood concentrations of clobazam and norclobazam in a lethal case involving clobazam, meprobamate and clorazepate.

    PubMed

    Pok, Phak-Rop Pos; Mauras, Michel; De Saint Léger, Marie-Noëlle; Kuhlmann, Erika; Charpenel-Durat, Catherine; Navarette, Claudie; Duval, Marie-Laure; De Meo, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Clobazam is a benzodiazepine with anti-anxiety and anticonvulsant properties marketed in several countries. Norclobazam, a metabolite of clobazam, has similar pharmacological activity but weaker sedative and tranquilizing effect. The two drugs were detected by GC-MS and determined by HPLC-DAD in the samples from a postmortem case. The femoral blood concentrations of clobazam and norclobazam were 0.72 and 36 μg/mL, respectively. The concentration of the active norclobazam was very high. The sum of both clobazam and norclobazam blood concentration (36.72 μg/mL) was clearly toxic, but was not necessarily fatal. Other associated drugs concentrations were within their therapeutic ranges. Interactions due to drug association were discussed. PMID:20870445

  6. Hydrogeochemistry of a Small Tropical River Basin with Special Reference to Ground Water Recharge Estimation Using Conservative Chloride Mass Balance Method: a Case Study from Southwest Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurumurthy, P. G.; Balakrishna, K.; Riotte, J.; Audry, S.; Tripti, M.; Braun, J.; Udayashankar, H. N.

    2011-12-01

    River Nethravati is a small west flowing river originating in the Western Ghatsand falling into the Arabian Sea after traversing for 147km. The river flows through a densely vegetated forest with steep gradient in the youthful stages of the river which rapidly decreases in the plains. The catchment of the river is spread out in an area of 3657km2 with a discharge of 388m3/sec. The watershed receives frequent and intense southwest monsoonal rainfall with an annual avearage of 4300mm. During the monitoring period, the surface waters from the river Nethravati were collected on a monthly basis for a period of three years, groundwater were collected once in three months for a year and rain waters were collected during the monsoon for a year from the study area and subsequently analysed for major ions. Multivariate statistical techniques like ANOVA, PCA/FA and CA are applied to understand the temporal variability, sources of major ions and to explain the hydrogeochemical process which could explain the water chemistry.The statistical results shows very less heterogeniety in water chemistry temporally and spatially. The anthropogenic source of major ions are negligible during the study period and silicate mineral weathering are the dominant source of major ions in the catchment. In this study, an attempt is also made to explain the interacton between surface water and ground water. The results suggests homogeneity of chemical composition between these compartments which could be explained by shallow ground water table, steep gradients and local recharge. Recent studies on small watersheds highlighted the significance of deep ground water in estimation of chemical outputs (Marechal et al., 2011). In this study, the chloride mass balance approach is used to estimate the annual groundwater recharge to this shallow unconfined aquifer. Natural concentrations of chloride, dissolved in precipitation and groundwater are used to quantify the rate of ground water recharge which is

  7. Lipids in Grape Roots in Relation to Chloride Transport 1

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Pieter J. C.

    1968-01-01

    A comparison was made between the lipids of the roots of 5 grape rootstocks which differ markedly in the extent to which they permit chloride accumulation in leaves. Monogalactose diglyceride concentration was directly related to chloride accumulation in the leaves of the 5 rootstocks. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were inversely related to chloride accumulation. The variety with the highest chloride accumulation contained an unusually small amount of sterols. A striking negative correlation between content of lignoceric acid and chloride accumulation was observed. The lignoceric acid concentration ranged from 11.9% in the rootstock with the lowest chloride accumulation to 0.8% in the rootstock with the highest chloride accumulation. This fatty acid was found mainly in the phosphatidylcholine and the phosphatidylethanolamine lipid fractions. PMID:16656921

  8. Melaminium chloride hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Janczak, J; Perpétuo, G J

    2001-09-01

    The crystals of a new melaminium salt, 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium chloride hemihydrate, C(3)H(7)N(6)(+).Cl(-).0.5H(2)O, are built up from single-protonated melaminium residues, chloride anions and water molecules. The protonated melaminium cations lie on a twofold axis, while the chloride anions and water molecule lie on the m plane. The melaminium residues are interconnected by N-H...N hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to the (001) plane. The chains of melaminium residues form a three-dimensional network through hydrogen-bond interactions with chloride anions and water molecules. PMID:11588391

  9. Paracetamol serum concentrations in preterm infants treated with paracetamol intravenously: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Until now, studies on paracetamol given intravenously have mainly been performed with the pro-drug propacetamol or with paracetamol in preterm babies above 32 weeks of gestation. Studies in these babies indicate that intravenous paracetamol is tolerated well, however studies on the efficacy of intravenous paracetamol are lacking. There are no pharmacokinetic data on the administration of multiple doses of paracetamol in preterm babies with a gestational age below 32 weeks. Case presentation We present a case series of nine Caucasian preterm babies, six boys and three girls, with a mean gestational age of 28.6 weeks (range 25.9 to 31.6 weeks). Case one, a girl with a gestational age of 25 weeks and six days, presented with necrotizing enterocolitis. In the second case, a female baby with a gestational age of 26 weeks and two days presented with hematoma. In case three, a female baby with a gestation of 26 weeks and one day developed intraventricular hemorrhage. In case four, a male baby with a gestational age of 31 weeks and four days presented with pain after vacuum delivery. Case five, a female baby born after a gestation of 29 weeks and six days presented with hematoma. In case six, a male baby with a gestation of 30 weeks and six days presented with hematoma. In case seven, a male baby, born with a gestational age of 30 weeks and six days, presented with caput succedaneum and hematoma. In case eight, a male baby, born after a gestation of 28 weeks and four days, developed abdominal distention. Case nine, a female baby, born with a gestational age of 27 weeks and three days presented with hematoma. These babies were treated with intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg every six hours. Serum concentrations and aspartate transaminase were determined after prolonged administration. Pain scores were assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Conclusion Paracetamol serum concentrations ranged from 8 to 64 mg/L after eight to 12 doses of intravenous

  10. Predictive analysis of shaft station radon concentrations in underground uranium mine: A case study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoyan; Hong, Changshou; Li, Xiangyang; Lin, Chunping; Hu, Penghua

    2016-07-01

    This paper presented a method for predicting shaft station radon concentrations in a uranium mine of China through theoretical analysis, mathematical derivation and Monte-Carlo simulation. Based upon the queuing model for tramcars, the average waiting time of tramcars and average number of waiting tramcars were determined, which were further used in developing the predictive model for calculating shaft station radon concentrations. The results exhibit that the extent of variation of shaft station radon concentration in the case study mine is not significantly affected by the queuing process of tramcars, and is always within the allowable limit of 200 Bq m(-3). Thus, the empirical limit of 100,000 T annual ore-hoisting yields has no value in ensuring radiation safety for this mine. Moreover, the developed model has been validated and proved useful in assessing shaft station radon levels for any uranium mine with similar situations. PMID:27100335

  11. An Acute Butyr-Fentanyl Fatality: A Case Report with Postmortem Concentrations.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Gary, Ray D; Wright, Jennifer; Mena, Othon

    2016-03-01

    In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of butyr-fentanyl in a fatality attributed principally to the drug. A man who had a history of intravenous drug abuse was found unresponsive on the bathroom floor of his home. Drug paraphernalia was located on the bathroom counter. Toxicology testing, which initially screened positive for fentanyl by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, subsequently confirmed butyr-fentanyl, which was then quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-specific ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM) analysis following liquid-liquid extraction. The butyr-fentanyl peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 58 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 97 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 320 ng/g, the vitreous was 40 ng/mL, the urine was 670 ng/mL and the gastric contained 170 mg. Acetyl-fentanyl was also detected in all biological specimens tested. Peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 38 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 32 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 110 ng/g, the vitreous was 38 ng/mL, the urine was 540 ng/mL and the gastric contained <70 mg. The only other drug detected was a relatively low concentration of benzoylecgonine. The cause of death was certified as acute butyr-fentanyl, acetyl-fentanyl and cocaine intoxication, and the manner of death was certified as accident. PMID:26683128

  12. Modeling a High Resolution Stream Chloride Time Series from the Biscuit Brook Catchment, Catskills, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S. B.; Walter, M. T.; Harpold, A. A.

    2006-12-01

    Compelling work by Kirchner and colleagues (e.g., Kirchner et al., 2001, J. of Hydro., 254:81-100) suggests that lengthy, high resolution chloride time series can reveal the underlying travel time distribution of water in a catchment. However, few data sets of suitable length or sampling frequency have been available for assessment. Our analysis of a ten-year, weekly stream chloride time series data set for the steep, forested Biscuit Brook catchment in the Catskill Mountains of NY resulted in a 1/f spectral density plot. We used a lumped, two reservoir model with an upper reservoir representing quickflow and a lower reservoir representing base flow to reasonably replicate stream flow and stream chloride concentrations. A spectral analysis of the modeled daily chloride signal also resulted in a 1/f spectral density plot. This suggests that in some systems a 1/f signature can result from processes other than superposition of lateral chemical transport pathways, as has been previously hypothesized by other researchers. In this case, it appears that a long-term periodicity established by seasonal moisture deficits combines with shorter wavelength variations from rainfall inputs to create a 1/f spectral density for chloride concentration.

  13. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  14. Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

    1999-01-01

    More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

  15. Vinyl chloride loss during laboratory holding time

    SciTech Connect

    Soule, R.G.; Jones, D.B.A.; Symonik, D.M.; Gerbec, B.A.; Turgeon, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it`s important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure. This study investigated the current allowable sample holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. In addition to lab spiked samples, groundwater was collected from a well known to contain vinyl chloride. A statistically significant (a = 0.05) decrease in vinyl chloride concentrations was observed over the 14-day holding time. The most significant loss was seen for those samples held the maximum length of time (14 days). No differences in degradation pattern were noted between analytical detectors used (PID versus Hall) or sample type (lab versus field). There also was a loss of vinyl chloride observed during the sampling and handling process. Analytical variability at low concentrations and the establishment of health-based guidelines near the analytical detection limit require that multiple samples be collected from a single location when highly accurate results are required. These findings have implications for the accurate generation of public health exposure assessments and the implementation of health-based recommendations at sites with vinyl chloride groundwater contamination.

  16. Processes regulating groundwater chloride content in marshes under different environmental conditions: A comparative case study in Península Valdés and Samborombón Bay, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carol, Eleonora; Alvarez, María del Pilar

    2016-03-01

    Salt marshes are some of the most important wetlands in many regions of the world. Soil and groundwater salinity plays an important role in coastal wetland ecosystems because of the differences in tolerances of plant species to salinity and tidal inundation. Given that the salinity of these environments is mostly dominated by the chloride anion, it is the aim of this study to identify the geochemical processes that regulate its content in groundwater. A comparison of two intertidal wetlands under different environmental conditions was carried out in Peninsula Valdés and in Samborombón Bay, both on the Atlantic coast of Argentina. The tidal influence over the groundwater marsh dynamics was analyzed from continuous records of groundwater levels and electrical conductivity. Besides, major ion and environmental isotope data were used to identify the geochemical processes that determine the chloride content, based on the study of ion ratios and analytical models. The results show that, despite the hydrological differences between the two studied marshes, the processes regulating the Cl- contents are similar: evaporation, transpiration and halite dissolution. Among them, evaporation/transpiration are the processes that could continuously increase the chloride concentration. However, it is expected that those are not processes that greatly increase the groundwater saline content if compared to the dissolution of halite.

  17. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. PMID:27558337

  18. Identification of the different sources of chlorides in streams by regression analysis using chloride-discharge relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Albek, E.

    1999-12-01

    Chloride-discharge relationships at several stations on Turkish streams are investigated, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to identify natural and anthropogenic sources of chloride. Simple expressions are used to distinguish among sources. Linear regression analysis is conducted to estimate parameters of the models. Five groups of stations are distinguished respective to different sources of chloride and change of chloride concentration with stream discharge. Emphasis is placed on the identification of anthropogenic sources of chloride to aid in water pollution control strategies. The polluted Sakarya River and its primary tributary, the Porsuk Stream, are studied in detail to trace chloride behavior along the waterway and to assess the level of pollution from cities discharging to the streams. Among natural sources of chloride, evaporite sediment sources are examined in detail.

  19. Siting guidelines for concentrating solar power plants in the Sahel: Case study of Burkina Faso

    SciTech Connect

    Azoumah, Y.; Tapsoba, G.; Thiam, S.; Ramde, E.W.

    2010-08-15

    Selecting a site that meets the technical requirements for a concentrating solar power plant (CSP) is a very critical exercise. This paper points out crucial factors and provides guidelines regarding the selection of suitable sites. It especially focuses on Sahelian countries which have their own climatic peculiarities. These countries, characterized by low access to electricity, are well endowed in solar resources. They are potentially good locations for concentrating solar power plants since their mean daily solar radiation exceeds 5.5 kWh/m{sup 2}. CSP presents therefore, a good opportunity for them to increase in a sustainable manner, their energy supply. The guidelines developed in this paper are applied to Burkina Faso as a case study. (author)

  20. Investigation of the electrodialysis of an aqueous solution of tin(IV) chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Sharygin, L.M.; Zlokazova, E.I.; Shtin, A.P.

    1987-09-20

    The sol-gel method for the synthesis of sorbents on the basis of oxides of polyvalent metals calls for an investigation of the methods for obtaining aqueous sols of oxides of these metals. The purpose of this work was to investigate the polarization of an anion-exchange membrane in solutions of stannic chloride with different concentrations and during electrodialysis, as well as the current efficiency with respect to chlorine, and the transport numbers of the chloride ion as a function of the current density and the temperature. The polarization curves recorded for an MA-41L membrane in dilute solutions of tin(IV) chloride tended to show an increase in the limiting current in comparison to the case of hydrochloric acid with the same electrical conductivity owing to the ion-exchange properties of the colloidal particles of hydrated tin dioxide formed during the hydrolysis and polymerization of tin in solution.

  1. Central nervous system malformations in relation to two polyvinyl chloride production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenman, K.D.; Rizzo, J.E.; Conomos, M.G.; Halpin, G.J. )

    1989-09-01

    A modified case-control study was conducted for selected birth defects that occurred among residents who lived in areas that surrounded two vinyl chloride polymerization facilities in New Jersey. Odds ratios for central nervous system defects (ICD 9, 740-742) decreased as the distance the mothers' residences were located from the facilities increased. Higher odds ratios for central nervous system birth defects were found in the areas around the plant that had higher vinyl chloride emissions. None of the odds ratios, however, were statistically significant. The differences in concentrations of emissions from the different plants may contribute to the discrepancies reported in previous studies wherein the risk of environmental exposure to vinyl chloride was assessed.

  2. Friction induced surface activity of some simple organic chlorides and hydrocarbons with iron.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction studies were conducted on an iron surface with exposure of that surface to various hydrocarbons and organic chlorides. The hydrocarbons included ethane, ethylene, ethyl chloride, methyl chloride and vinyl chloride. Auger cylindrical-mirror analysis was used to follow interactions of the hydrocarbon and organic chlorides with the iron surface. Results with vinyl chloride indicate friction-induced surface reactivity, adsorption to surface oxides, friction sensitivity to concentration and polymerization. Variation in the loads employed influence adsorption and, accordingly, friction. Unlike results with ethyl and vinyl chloride, friction-induced surface reactivity was not observed with ethane and ethylene.

  3. Verification of statistical method CORN for modeling of microfuel in the case of high grain concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukbar, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    Two methods of modeling a double-heterogeneity fuel are studied: the deterministic positioning and the statistical method CORN of the MCU software package. The effect of distribution of microfuel in a pebble bed on the calculation results is studied. The results of verification of the statistical method CORN for the cases of the microfuel concentration up to 170 cm-3 in a pebble bed are presented. The admissibility of homogenization of the microfuel coating with the graphite matrix is studied. The dependence of the reactivity on the relative location of fuel and graphite spheres in a pebble bed is found.

  4. Verification of statistical method CORN for modeling of microfuel in the case of high grain concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Chukbar, B. K.

    2015-12-15

    Two methods of modeling a double-heterogeneity fuel are studied: the deterministic positioning and the statistical method CORN of the MCU software package. The effect of distribution of microfuel in a pebble bed on the calculation results is studied. The results of verification of the statistical method CORN for the cases of the microfuel concentration up to 170 cm{sup –3} in a pebble bed are presented. The admissibility of homogenization of the microfuel coating with the graphite matrix is studied. The dependence of the reactivity on the relative location of fuel and graphite spheres in a pebble bed is found.

  5. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations and Loads at U.S. Geological Survey Streamflow-Gaging Stations 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam, 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Churchill, Christopher J.; Mobley, Craig A.; Coffman, David K.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, did a study to characterize bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads at three U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations on the reach of the Red River from Denison Dam, which impounds Lake Texoma, to the U.S. Highway 259 bridge near DeKalb, Texas. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations and loads were computed for streamflow-gaging stations on the study reach of the Red River. Continuous streamflow and specific conductance data and discrete samples for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and specific conductance were collected at three main-stem streamflow-gaging stations on the Red River: 07331600 Red River at Denison Dam near Denison, Texas (Denison Dam gage), 07335500 Red River at Arthur City, Texas (Arthur City gage), and 07336820 Red River near DeKalb, Texas (DeKalb gage). At each of these streamflow-gaging stations, discrete water-quality data were collected during January 2007-February 2009; continuous water-quality data were collected during March 2007-February 2009. Two periods of high flow resulted from floods during the study; floods during June-July 2007 resulted in elevated flow during June-September 2007 and smaller floods during March-April 2008 resulted in elevated flow during March-April 2008. Bromide, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in samples collected at the three gages decreased downstream. Median bromide concentrations ranged from 0.32 milligram per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 0.19 milligram per liter at the DeKalb gage. Median chloride concentrations ranged from 176 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 108 milligrams per liter at the DeKalb gage, less than the 300-milligrams per liter secondary maximum contaminant level established by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Median sulfate concentrations ranged from 213 milligrams per liter at the Denison Dam gage to 117 milligrams per liter at the De

  6. Twenty years of fluorescence imaging of intracellular chloride

    PubMed Central

    Arosio, Daniele; Ratto, Gian Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloride homeostasis has a pivotal role in controlling neuronal excitability in the adult brain and during development. The intracellular concentration of chloride is regulated by the dynamic equilibrium between passive fluxes through membrane conductances and the active transport mediated by importers and exporters. In cortical neurons, chloride fluxes are coupled to network activity by the opening of the ionotropic GABAA receptors that provides a direct link between the activity of interneurons and chloride fluxes. These molecular mechanisms are not evenly distributed and regulated over the neuron surface and this fact can lead to a compartmentalized control of the intracellular concentration of chloride. The inhibitory drive provided by the activity of the GABAA receptors depends on the direction and strength of the associated currents, which are ultimately dictated by the gradient of chloride, the main charge carrier flowing through the GABAA channel. Thus, the intracellular distribution of chloride determines the local strength of ionotropic inhibition and influences the interaction between converging excitation and inhibition. The importance of chloride regulation is also underlined by its involvement in several brain pathologies, including epilepsy and disorders of the autistic spectra. The full comprehension of the physiological meaning of GABAergic activity on neurons requires the measurement of the spatiotemporal dynamics of chloride fluxes across the membrane. Nowadays, there are several available tools for the task, and both synthetic and genetically encoded indicators have been successfully used for chloride imaging. Here, we will review the available sensors analyzing their properties and outlining desirable future developments. PMID:25221475

  7. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.Strontium-89 chloride is in a class of drugs known as radioisotopes. It delivers radiation to cancer sites and ultimately decreases bone pain. The length of treatment depends on the ...

  8. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  9. Hydrogen chloride test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

  10. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  11. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  12. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  13. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  14. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  15. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  16. Developmental toxicity of copper chloride, methylene chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide to embryos of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio

    SciTech Connect

    Rayburn, J.R.; Fisher, W.S.

    1999-05-01

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide, three known teratogenic chemicals. Two exposure periods were used, 4 d and 12 d, and both periods extended through hatching. The average 4-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.071% v/v, 1.82 mg/L, and 0.21 mg/ml, respectively. The average 12-d LC50 values for methylene chloride, copper chloride, and 6-aminonicotinamide were 0.031% v/v, 1.44 mg/L, and 0.057 mg/ml, respectively. Eye malformations were observed with embryos exposed to concentrations greater than 3 mg/L copper chloride or greater than 0.07% v/v methylene chloride. Very few abnormalities were observed in embryos exposed to 6-aminonicotinamide. Abnormal larval development was found with exposure to copper chloride at concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The sensitivity and low variability found here further supports the development of these relatively simple methods using grass shrimp embryos. Establishment of sublethal developmental endpoints warrants further investigation because of their potential correspondence to mechanisms of toxic action.

  17. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  18. Arsenic removal by ferric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G.; Chen, P.Y.; Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M.; Liang, S.

    1996-04-01

    Bench-scale studies were conducted in model freshwater systems to investigate how various parameters affected arsenic removal during coagulation with ferric chloride and arsenic adsorption onto preformed hydrous ferric oxide. Parameters included arsenic oxidation state and initial concentration, coagulant dosage or adsorbent concentration, pH, and the presence of co-occurring inorganic solutes. Comparison of coagulation and adsorption experiments and of experimental results with predictions based on surface complexation modeling demonstrated that adsorption is an important (though not the sole) mechanism governing arsenic removal during coagulation. Under comparable conditions, better removal was observed with arsenic(V) [As(V)] than with arsenic(III) [As(III)] in both coagulation and adsorption experiments. Below neutral pH values, As(III) removal-adsorption was significantly decreased in the presence of sulfate, whereas only a slight decrease in As(V) removal-adsorption was observed. At high pH, removal-adsorption of As(V) was increased in the presence of calcium. Removal of As(V) during coagulation with ferric chloride is both more efficient and less sensitive than that of As(III) to variations in source water composition.

  19. [Diuretics and their potential effect on breath-alcohol concentration--a case report].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Georg; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Many objections were raised to breath-alcohol analysis upon its introduction in the field of traffic law enforcement in Germany, but in the meantime this issue has become less relevant in forensic routine work. In the present case, the defending lawyer claimed that the ethanol concentration in the blood and hence in the breath of his client, which was 0.35 mg/l according to the Dräger Alcotest 7110® Evidential and thus above the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l, had been changed by diuretics taken 4 hours before the breath alcohol test, viz. 10 mg of torasemide, a loop diuretic, and 50 mg of spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone antagonist. According to the literature, the maximum urinary output in healthy subjects within the first 4 hours after 10 mg torasemide was 1450 ml. In patients suffering from heart failure, the urinary volume was reduced by a factor of 2.5-3; after chronic intake of torasemide, water loss did not differ from placebo. Spironolactone, which acts on the distal tubule, has little effect on urinary output. In a publication, the loss of water in excess within 24 hours was 90 ml. Co-administration of 100 mg spironolactone and 20 mg furosemide, which roughly compares to 10 mg torasemide, resulted in a mean urinary volume of 1566 ml within the first 4 hours. In terms of the reported case and provided that no compensatory fluid had been taken, a purely theoretical maximum shift of 0.007 mg/ may occur in the breath-alcohol concentration due to the smaller distribution volume even considering maximum urinary excretion values. On the other hand, already mild levels of dehydration may be associated with negative symptoms affecting driving ability. PMID:26427279

  20. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Skipper, Anthony; Sims, Jennifer N.; Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium.  Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay). The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05) was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. PMID:26729151

  1. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle. PMID:24285220

  2. Combining sulfate electrowinning with chloride leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, A. W.; Sudderth, R. B.; Olafson, S. M.

    1991-08-01

    Although the chloride leaching of copper sulfide concentrates has proved highly efficient, electrowinning from chloride solutions presents many difficulties, notably in cell design and the handling of the powder product. Sulfate electrowinning,on the other hand, continues to improve and has played a significant part in the widespread adoption of the solvent extraction-electrowinning process for copper recovery from low-grade ores. It has been found that the two steps can be combined by introducing a novel solvent extraction process after chloride leaching. This article presents the results of laboratory tests to prove the feasibility of this approach and discusses how it can be integrated into a commercially viable flow sheet.

  3. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production in men. However, ...

  4. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    SciTech Connect

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  5. PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

  6. Properties of a new liquid desiccant solution - Lithium chloride and calcium chloride mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Anderson, E.E.; Kiris, I. )

    1992-09-01

    Desiccants, broadly classified as solid and liquid desiccants, have the property of extracting and retaining moisture from air brought into contact with them. By using either type, moisture in the air is removed and the resulting dry air can be used for air-conditioning or drying purposes. Because of its properties, lithium chloride is the most stable liquid desiccant and has a large dehydration concentration (30% to 45%), but its cost is relatively high ($9.00-13.00 per kg). It is expected that lithium chloride will reduce the relative humidity to as low as 15%. Calcium chloride is the cheapest (45 cents per kg) and most readily available desiccant, but it has the disadvantage of being unstable depending on the air inlet conditions and the concentration of the desiccant in the solution. To stabilize calcium chloride and to decrease the high cost of lithium chloride, the two can be mixed in different weight combinations. The main objective of this research is to measure the physical properties of different combinations of this mixture such as density, viscosity, and vapor pressure which are necessary for analysis of heat and mass transfer in a packed tower desiccant-air contact system. The solubility of this new liquid desiccant under certain temperature-concentrations will also be studied.

  7. 7-T (35)Cl and (23)Na MR Imaging for Detection of Mutation-dependent Alterations in Muscular Edema and Fat Fraction with Sodium and Chloride Concentrations in Muscular Periodic Paralyses.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marc-André; Nagel, Armin M; Marschar, Anja M; Glemser, Philip; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Wolf, Maya B; Ladd, Mark E; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Lehmann-Horn, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To determine whether altered sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) homeostasis can be visualized in periodic paralyses by using 7-T sodium 23 ((23)Na) and chlorine 35 ((35)Cl) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and informed consent of all participants were obtained. (23)Na (repetition time msec/echo time msec, 160/0.35) and (35)Cl (40/0.6) MR imaging of both lower legs was performed with a 7-T whole-body system in patients with genetically confirmed hypokalemic periodic paralysis (Cav1.1-R1239H mutation, n = 5; Cav1.1-R528H mutation, n = 8) and Andersen-Tawil syndrome (n = 3) and in 16 healthy volunteers. Additionally, each participant underwent 3-T proton MR imaging on the same day by using T1-weighted, short-tau inversion-recovery, and Dixon-type sequences. Muscle edema was assessed on short-tau inversion-recovery images, fatty degeneration was assessed on T1-weighted images, and muscular fat fraction was quantified with Dixon-type imaging. Na(+) and Cl(-) were quantified in the soleus muscle by using three phantoms that contained 10-, 20-, and 30-mmol/L NaCl solution and 5% agarose gel as a reference. Parametric data for all subpopulations were tested by using one-way analysis of variance with the Dunnett test, and correlations were assessed with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results Median muscular (23)Na concentration was higher in patients with Cav1.1-R1239H (34.7 mmol/L, P < .001), Cav1.1-R528H (32.0 mmol/L, P < .001), and Kir2.1 (24.3 mmol/L, P = .035) mutations than in healthy volunteers (19.9 mmol/L). Median muscular normalized (35)Cl signal intensity was higher in patients with Cav1.1-R1239H (27.6, P < .001) and Cav1.1-R528H (23.6, P < .001) than in healthy volunteers (12.6), but not in patients with the Kir2.1 mutation (14.3, P = .517). When compared with volunteers, patients with Cav1.1-R1239H and Cav1.1-R528H showed increased muscular edema (P < .001 and P = .003, respectively

  8. Determination of Vinyl Chloride at ug/l. Level in Water by Gas Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellar, Thomas A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of vinyl chloride in water is presented. Vinyl chloride is transfered to the gas phase by bubbling inert gas through the water. After concentration on silica gel or Carbosieve-B, determination is by gas chromatography. Confirmation of vinyl chloride is by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Author/BT)

  9. Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER CHLORIDE, METHYLENE CHLORIDE,AND 6-AMINONICOTINAMIDE TO EMBRYOS OF THE GRASS SHRIMPPALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, cop...

  11. Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

  12. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  13. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    PubMed

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  14. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  15. Airborne Pollen Concentrations and Emergency Room Visits for Myocardial Infarction: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Villeneuve, Paul J; Reeves, François

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined the acute cardiovascular effects of airborne allergens. We conducted a case-crossover study to evaluate the relationship between airborne allergen concentrations and emergency room visits for myocardial infarction (MI) in Ontario, Canada. In total, 17,960 cases of MI were identified between the months of April and October during the years 2004-2011. Daily mean aeroallergen concentrations (pollen and mold spores) were assigned to case and control periods using central-site monitors in each city along with daily measurements of meteorological data and air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and ozone). Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for time-varying covariates. Risk of MI was 5.5% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4, 7.6) on days in the highest tertile of total pollen concentrations compared with days in the lowest tertile, and a significant concentration-response trend was observed (P < 0.001). Higher MI risk was limited to same-day pollen concentrations, with the largest risks being observed during May (odds ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35) and June (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.22), when tree and grass pollen are most common. Mold spore concentrations were not associated with MI. Our findings suggest that airborne pollen might represent a previously unidentified environmental risk factor for myocardial infarction. PMID:26934896

  16. Anomalous chloride flux discharges from Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Norton, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The chloride concentration of some thermal springs in and adjacent to Yellowstone National Park is constant through time although their discharge varies seasonally. As a result the chloride flux from these springs increases during periods of increased discharge. We believe that this is caused by changes in the height of the local groundwater table, which affects the discharge of the springs but not their chloride concentration. The discharge from Mammoth Hot Springs varies seasonally, but its chloride concentration remains constant. We take this as evidence that this major thermal feature is derived from orifices that are tapping the local water table close to its surface. Three of the four major rivers (Yellowstone, Snake and Falls) exiting the Park also show an increased chloride flux during the spring runoff that cannot be explained solely by the contribution of snowmelt, nor by release of hot-spring-derived chloride stored in the soil during the winter and released in the spring. The increased chloride flux in these rivers is attributed to their draining shallow hot springs similar to those mentioned above. In contrast to the Yellowstone, Snake and Falls Rivers, the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers, which unite to form the Madison River and which collectively drain several major geyser basins, display a poor correlation between chloride flux and discharge. The cause, we believe, is that a large part of the thermal water input to these two rivers originated at great depths where the seasonal variation in the height of the water table had a negligible effect on hot spring discharge. Monitoring of seasonal discharge and chloride concentration of thermal features yields information on the depths at which these thermal features tap the local water table. ?? 1990.

  17. Anomalous chloride flux discharges from Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Irving; Norton, Daniel R.

    1990-08-01

    The chloride concentration of some thermal springs in and adjacent to Yellowstone National Park is constant through time although their discharge varies seasonally. As a result the chloride flux from these springs increases during periods of increased discharge. We believe that this is caused by changes in the height of the local groundwater table, which affects the discharge of the springs but not their chloride concentration. The discharge from Mammoth Hot Springs varies seasonally, but its chloride concentration remains constant. We take this as evidence that this major thermal feature is derived from orifices that are tapping the local water table close to its surface. Three of the four major rivers (Yellowstone, Snake and Falls) exiting the Park also show an increased chloride flux during the spring runoff that cannot be explained solely by the contribution of snowmelt, nor by release of hot-spring-derived chloride stored in the soil during the winter and released in the spring. The increased chloride flux in these rivers is attributed to their draining shallow hot springs similar to those mentioned above. In contrast to the Yellowstone, Snake and Falls Rivers, the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers, which unite to form the Madison River and which collectively drain several major geyser basins, display a poor correlation between chloride flux and discharge. The cause, we believe, is that a large part of the thermal water input to these two rivers originated at great depths where the seasonal variation in the height of the water table had a negligible effect on hot spring discharge. Monitoring of seasonal discharge and chloride concentration of thermal features yields information on the depths at which these thermal features tap the local water table.

  18. The Structure of Ca2+ Sensor Case16 Reveals the Mechanism of Reaction to Low Ca2+ Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Leder, Lukas; Stark, Wilhelm; Freuler, Felix; Marsh, May; Meyerhofer, Marco; Stettler, Thomas; Mayr, Lorenz M.; Britanova, Olga V.; Strukova, Lydia A.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Souslova, Ekaterina A.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the first crystal structure of a high-contrast genetically encoded circularly permuted green fluorescent protein (cpGFP)-based Ca2+ sensor, Case16, in the presence of a low Ca2+ concentration. The structure reveals the positioning of the chromophore within Case16 at the first stage of the Ca2+-dependent response when only two out of four Ca2+-binding pockets of calmodulin (CaM) are occupied with Ca2+ ions. In such a “half Ca2+-bound state”, Case16 is characterized by an incomplete interaction between its CaM-/M13-domains. We also report the crystal structure of the related Ca2+ sensor Case12 at saturating Ca2+ concentration. Based on this structure, we postulate that cpGFP-based Ca2+ sensors can form non-functional homodimers where the CaM-domain of one sensor molecule binds symmetrically to the M13-peptide of the partner sensor molecule. Case12 and Case16 behavior upon addition of high concentrations of free CaM or M13-peptide reveals that the latter effectively blocks the fluorescent response of the sensor. We speculate that the demonstrated intermolecular interaction with endogenous substrates and homodimerization can impede proper functioning of this type of Ca2+ sensors in living cells. PMID:22163646

  19. Interpretation of drug concentrations in an alternative matrix: the case of meprobamate in vitreous humor.

    PubMed

    Bévalot, Fabien; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Cartiser, Nathalie; Le Meur, Catherine; Malicier, Daniel; Fanton, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    The use of vitreous humor (VH) as an alternative matrix to blood in the field of forensic toxicology has been described for numerous drugs. Interpretation of drug concentrations measured in VH, as in other matrices, requires statistical analysis of a data set obtained on a significant series. In the present study, two diagnostic tests interpreting postmortem VH concentrations of meprobamate in 117 sets of autopsy data are reported. (1) A VH meprobamate concentration threshold of 28 mg/l was statistically equivalent to that of blood meprobamate concentration threshold of 50 mg/l distinguishing overdose from therapeutic use in blood. The intrinsic qualities of the test were good, with sensitivity of 0.95 and absolute specificity of 1. (2) A novel interpretation tool is proposed, allowing blood concentration range to be evaluated, with a known probability, from VH concentration. PMID:21337124

  20. Reversibly bound chloride in the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor hormone-binding domain: Possible allosteric regulation and a conserved structural motif for the chloride-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Haruo; Qiu, Yue; Philo, John S; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Ogata, Craig M; Misono, Kunio S

    2010-01-01

    The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(−)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. A new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(−) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(−) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis. PMID:20066666

  1. Reversibly Bound Chloride in the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Hormone Binding Domain: Possible Allosteric Regulation and a Conserved Structural Motif for the Chloride-binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, H.; Qiu, Y; Philo, J; Arakawa, T; Ogata, C; Misono, K

    2010-01-01

    The binding of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to its receptor requires chloride, and it is chloride concentration dependent. The extracellular domain (ECD) of the ANP receptor (ANPR) contains a chloride near the ANP-binding site, suggesting a possible regulatory role. The bound chloride, however, is completely buried in the polypeptide fold, and its functional role has remained unclear. Here, we have confirmed that chloride is necessary for ANP binding to the recombinant ECD or the full-length ANPR expressed in CHO cells. ECD without chloride (ECD(-)) did not bind ANP. Its binding activity was fully restored by bromide or chloride addition. A new X-ray structure of the bromide-bound ECD is essentially identical to that of the chloride-bound ECD. Furthermore, bromide atoms are localized at the same positions as chloride atoms both in the apo and in the ANP-bound structures, indicating exchangeable and reversible halide binding. Far-UV CD and thermal unfolding data show that ECD(-) largely retains the native structure. Sedimentation equilibrium in the absence of chloride shows that ECD(-) forms a strongly associated dimer, possibly preventing the structural rearrangement of the two monomers that is necessary for ANP binding. The primary and tertiary structures of the chloride-binding site in ANPR are highly conserved among receptor-guanylate cyclases and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The chloride-dependent ANP binding, reversible chloride binding, and the highly conserved chloride-binding site motif suggest a regulatory role for the receptor bound chloride. Chloride-dependent regulation of ANPR may operate in the kidney, modulating ANP-induced natriuresis.

  2. Bathwater-associated cases of legionellosis in Japan, with a special focus on Legionella concentrations in water.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Toshiro; Ishihara, Tomoe; Ito, Kumiko; Kura, Fumiaki

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the incidence of legionellosis and Legionella concentrations in bathwater, we sent a questionnaire to 76 prefectural and municipal public health laboratories in Japan and found that 35 had encountered cases of legionellosis and had implemented investigations to determine the sources of the infections. Based on the results of the questionnaire, we were able to analyze various characteristics of the patients, of the facilities that were thought to be associated with the cases, and of the species and serogroups of the isolates and concentrations of Legionella. Ninety-six cases were included in this study. The median age was 67 years (range, 13-89 years). The most prevalent underlying medical condition among patients was diabetes, and the second most prevalent was high blood pressure. Concentrations of Legionella in bathwater ranged from 10 to 160,000 CFU/100 ml. Ten episodes were selected in which causative strains were found in the suspected source environment, and were then confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, enabling us to provide an estimated infectious concentration range of Legionella of 90 to 140,000 CFU/100 ml. It was thus suggested that the current Japanese regulatory safety level for Legionella in bathwater, which is set below the detection limit of culture techniques (10 CFU/100 ml), should be appropriate to prevent bathwater-associated legionellosis. In tandem with the above-mentioned research, a review of literature concerning bathwater-associated legionellosis and typical cases was undertaken. PMID:19468181

  3. Beryllium concentrations in ambient air and its source identification. A case study.

    PubMed

    Thorat, D D; Mahadevan, T N; Ghosh, D K; Narayan, S

    2001-06-01

    Beryllium concentrations in atmospheric particulate and soil samples in and around a Beryllium Processing Facility (BPF) have been measured. The mean air concentration level of beryllium in and around the fence line of the BPF is 0.48 +/- 0.43 ng m(-3) (n = 397) and is mostly influenced by diurnal and seasonal changes. The observed air concentration levels were well below the prescribed ambient air quality (AAQ) standard of 10 ng m(-3). The soil concentration levels of beryllium in the study area were found to be in the range of 1.42-2.75 microg g(-1). The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of beryllium aerosols in ambient air was found to be 6.9 microm. Source identification using the Enrichment Factor (EF) approach indicates soil as the predominant contributory source for air concentrations at the site. PMID:11393544

  4. Vinyl chloride: still a cause for concern.

    PubMed Central

    Kielhorn, J; Melber, C; Wahnschaffe, U; Aitio, A; Mangelsdorf, I

    2000-01-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is both a known carcinogen and a regulated chemical, and its production capacity has almost doubled over the last 20 years, currently 27 million tons/year worldwide. According to recent reports it is still a cause for concern. VC has been found as a degradation product of chloroethylene solvents (perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene) and in landfill gas and groundwater at concentrations up to 200 mg/m(3) and 10 mg/L, respectively. Worldwide occupational exposure to VC still seems to be high in some countries (e.g., averages of approximately 1,300 mg/m(3) until 1987 in one factory), and exposure may also be high in others where VC is not regulated. By combining the most relevant epidemiologic studies from several countries, we observed a 5-fold excess of liver cancer, primarily because of a 45-fold excess risk from angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL). The number of ASL cases reported up to the end of 1998 was 197 worldwide. The average latency for ASL is 22 years. Some studies show a small excess risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, and others suggest a possible risk of brain tumors among highly exposed workers. Lung cancer, lymphomas, or leukemia do not seem to be related to VC exposure according to recent results. The mutation spectra observed in rat and human liver tumors (ASL and/or hepatocellular carcinoma) that are associated with exposure to VC are clearly distinct from those observed in sporadic liver tumors or hepatic tumors that are associated with other exposures. In rats, the substitution mutations found at A:T base pairs in the ras and p53 genes are consistent with the promutagenic properties of the DNA adduct 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine formed from VC metabolites. Risk assessments derived from animal studies seem to overestimate the actual risk of cancer when comparing estimated and reported cases of ASL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10905993

  5. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    PubMed

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions. PMID:22090928

  6. Fate and effects of methylene chloride in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Klecka, G M

    1982-09-01

    Activated sludge obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was acclimated to methylene chloride at concentrations between 1 and 100 mg/liter by continuous exposure to the compound for 9 to 11 days. Acclimated cultures were shown to mineralize methylene chloride to carbon dioxide and chloride. Rates of methylene chloride degradation were 0.14, 2.3, and 7.4 mg of CH2Cl2 consumed per h per g of mixed-liquor suspended solids for cultures incubated in the presence of 1, 10, and 100 mg/liter, respectively. Concentrations of methylene chloride between 10 and 1,000 mg/liter had no significant effect on O2 consumption or glucose metabolism by activated sludge. A hypothetical model was developed to examine the significance of volatilization and biodegradation for the removal of methylene chloride from an activated sludge reactor. Application of the model indicated that the rate of biodegradation was approximately 12 times greater than the rate of volatilization. Thus, biodegradation may be the predominant process determining the fate of methylene chloride in activated sludge systems continuously exposed to the compound. PMID:7138008

  7. Fate and effects of methylene chloride in activated sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Klecka, G M

    1982-01-01

    Activated sludge obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was acclimated to methylene chloride at concentrations between 1 and 100 mg/liter by continuous exposure to the compound for 9 to 11 days. Acclimated cultures were shown to mineralize methylene chloride to carbon dioxide and chloride. Rates of methylene chloride degradation were 0.14, 2.3, and 7.4 mg of CH2Cl2 consumed per h per g of mixed-liquor suspended solids for cultures incubated in the presence of 1, 10, and 100 mg/liter, respectively. Concentrations of methylene chloride between 10 and 1,000 mg/liter had no significant effect on O2 consumption or glucose metabolism by activated sludge. A hypothetical model was developed to examine the significance of volatilization and biodegradation for the removal of methylene chloride from an activated sludge reactor. Application of the model indicated that the rate of biodegradation was approximately 12 times greater than the rate of volatilization. Thus, biodegradation may be the predominant process determining the fate of methylene chloride in activated sludge systems continuously exposed to the compound. PMID:7138008

  8. The dissolution of galena in ferric chloride media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrizac, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The dissolution of galena (PbS) in ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid media has been investigated over the temperature range 28 to 95 °C and for alkali chloride concentrations from 0 to 4.0 M. Rapid parabolic kinetics were observed under all conditions, together with predominantly (>95 pet) elemental sulfur formation. The leaching rate decreased slightly with increasing FeCl3 concentrations in the range 0.1 to 2.0 M, and was essentially independent of the concentration of the FeCl2 reaction product. The rate was relatively insensitive to HCl concentrations <3.0 M, but increased systematically with increasing concentrations of alkali or alkaline earth chlorides. Most significantly, the leaching rate decreased sharply and linearly with increasing initial concentrations of PbCl2 in the ferric chloride leaching media containing either 0.0 or 3.0 M NaCl. Although the apparent activation energy was in the range 40 to 45 kJ/mol (˜10 kcal/mol), this value was reduced to 16 kJ/mol (3.5 kcal/mol) when the influence of the solubility of lead chloride on the reaction rate was taken into consideration. The experimental results are consistent with rate control by the outward diffusion of the PbCl2 reaction product through the solution trapped in pores in the constantly thickening elemental sulfur layer formed on the surface of the galena.

  9. Chloride metallurgy: PGM recovery and titanium dioxide production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puvvada, G. V. K.; Sridhar, R.; Lakshmanan, V. I.

    2003-08-01

    This paper examines in detail the thermodynamics and application of chloride metallurgy for the extraction of precious metals, such as gold and silver, and platinum-group metals. The advantages with regard to the solubilities of metal ion species and their reduction potentials in chloride media are discussed with examples. The use of chloride media for the extraction of platinum-group metals from spent autocatalysts and for the production of high-purity pigment-grade TiO2 and titanium metal from ilmenite feed stocks is discussed in the case studies provided.

  10. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  11. Bone regeneration with autologous biomaterial; rapid induction of vital new bone in maxillary sinus floor by platelet concentrate alone at 23x baseline (PRP23x): a case report.

    PubMed

    Smith, Astley E; Prasad, Hari S; Rohrer, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    To date, most clinicians and researchers have been using platelet concentrate within the range of 4x to 8x baseline. In this case report a new procedure involving strategic pooling and triple spin was developed and used to concentrate platelets to 23x baseline. The concentrate alone was infused into morselized resorbable collagen sponge, activated with calcium chloride and autologous thrombin, then placed as an autologous graft into the left sinus floor of a healthy 80-year-old woman. The floor of the sinus had approximately 2 mm of bony height. A computed tomography scan taken after 5 months showed that new bone was formed and it was as dense as native bone around the surgical site. From the computed tomography scan bone density analysis using Hounsfield Units revealed that the bone formed was D3 bone (518.3 +/- 224.9 Hounsfield Units) and it was as dense as native bone on the axial, coronal and sagittal slices. Histomorphometric analysis of 2 bone core biopsies taken after 6 months showed that 1 core had 34% bone of which 98% was vital new bone and the other core had 39% bone of which 100% was vital new bone. The height of the bone formed in the sinus floor was 12 mm. It was also characterized by good trabecular pattern and connectivity. The quality of the bone generated was such that 2 endosseous implants were placed and torqued to 30 N cm after the cores were removed. PMID:19509531

  12. High Concentrations of Measles Neutralizing Antibodies and High-Avidity Measles IgG Accurately Identify Measles Reinfection Cases.

    PubMed

    Sowers, Sun B; Rota, Jennifer S; Hickman, Carole J; Mercader, Sara; Redd, Susan; McNall, Rebecca J; Williams, Nobia; McGrew, Marcia; Walls, M Laura; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, approximately 9% of the measles cases reported from 2012 to 2014 occurred in vaccinated individuals. Laboratory confirmation of measles in vaccinated individuals is challenging since IgM assays can give inconclusive results. Although a positive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay result from an appropriately timed specimen can provide confirmation, negative results may not rule out a highly suspicious case. Detection of high-avidity measles IgG in serum samples provides laboratory evidence of a past immunologic response to measles from natural infection or immunization. High concentrations of measles neutralizing antibody have been observed by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays among confirmed measles cases with high-avidity IgG, referred to here as reinfection cases (RICs). In this study, we evaluated the utility of measuring levels of measles neutralizing antibody to distinguish RICs from noncases by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Single and paired serum samples with high-avidity measles IgG from suspected measles cases submitted to the CDC for routine surveillance were used for the analysis. The RICs were confirmed by a 4-fold rise in PRN titer or by RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay, while the noncases were negative by both assays. Discrimination accuracy was high with serum samples collected ≥3 days after rash onset (area under the curve, 0.953; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.854 to 0.993). Measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml identified RICs with 90% sensitivity (95% CI, 74 to 98%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 82 to 100%). Therefore, when serological or RT-qPCR results are unavailable or inconclusive, suspected measles cases with high-avidity measles IgG can be confirmed as RICs by measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml. PMID:27335386

  13. High Concentrations of Measles Neutralizing Antibodies and High-Avidity Measles IgG Accurately Identify Measles Reinfection Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Jennifer S.; Hickman, Carole J.; Mercader, Sara; Redd, Susan; McNall, Rebecca J.; Williams, Nobia; McGrew, Marcia; Walls, M. Laura; Rota, Paul A.; Bellini, William J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 9% of the measles cases reported from 2012 to 2014 occurred in vaccinated individuals. Laboratory confirmation of measles in vaccinated individuals is challenging since IgM assays can give inconclusive results. Although a positive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay result from an appropriately timed specimen can provide confirmation, negative results may not rule out a highly suspicious case. Detection of high-avidity measles IgG in serum samples provides laboratory evidence of a past immunologic response to measles from natural infection or immunization. High concentrations of measles neutralizing antibody have been observed by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays among confirmed measles cases with high-avidity IgG, referred to here as reinfection cases (RICs). In this study, we evaluated the utility of measuring levels of measles neutralizing antibody to distinguish RICs from noncases by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Single and paired serum samples with high-avidity measles IgG from suspected measles cases submitted to the CDC for routine surveillance were used for the analysis. The RICs were confirmed by a 4-fold rise in PRN titer or by RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay, while the noncases were negative by both assays. Discrimination accuracy was high with serum samples collected ≥3 days after rash onset (area under the curve, 0.953; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.854 to 0.993). Measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml identified RICs with 90% sensitivity (95% CI, 74 to 98%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 82 to 100%). Therefore, when serological or RT-qPCR results are unavailable or inconclusive, suspected measles cases with high-avidity measles IgG can be confirmed as RICs by measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml. PMID:27335386

  14. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric...

  17. Internal Concentration and Time Are Important Modifiers of Toxicity: The Case of Chlorpyrifos on Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Jeoung; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    The internal concentration of chemicals in exposed organisms changes over time due to absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion processes since chemicals are taken up from the environment. Internal concentration and time are very important modifiers of toxicity when biomarkers are used to evaluate the potential hazards and risks of environmental pollutants. In this study, the responses of molecular biomarkers, and the fate of chemicals in the body, were comprehensively investigated to determine cause-and-effect relationships over time. Chlorpyrifos (CP) was selected as a model chemical, and Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to CP for 4 h using the passive dosing method. Worms were then monitored in fresh medium during a 48-h recovery regime. The mRNA expression of genes related to CYP metabolism (cyp35a2 and cyp35a3) increased during the constant exposure phase. The body residue of CP decreased once it reached a peak level during the early stage of exposure, indicating that the initial uptake of CP rapidly induced biotransformation with the synthesis of new CYP metabolic proteins. The residual chlorpyrifos-oxon concentration, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, continuously increased even after the recovery regime started. These delayed toxicokinetics seem to be important for the extension of AChE inhibition for up to 9 h after the start of the recovery regime. Comprehensive investigation into the molecular initiation events and changes in the internal concentrations of chemical species provide insight into response causality within the framework of an adverse outcome pathway. PMID:27490261

  18. Nowcasting and Forecasting Concentrations of Biological Contaminants at Beaches: A Feasibility and Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concern over microbial contamination of recreational waters has increased in recent years. A common approach to evaluating beach water quality has been to use the persistence model which assumes that day-old monitoring results provide accurate estimates of current concentr...

  19. Lead chloride crystal growth from boiling solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; Rodríguez-Clemente, R.; Torrent-Burgues, J.

    1993-03-01

    Lead chloride single crystals can be grown from boiling solutions using KNO3-H20 solutions as a solvent. Crystals of 1 mm size produced by gel-growth technique were used as seeds. The solubility of PbC12 increases almost linearly with the KNO3 molality being 0.63m in a 7m KNO3 aqueous solutions at 105°C and pH = 2.6; this increase is related to the decrease of the activity coefficient of lead chloride in these solutions. In the first experiments, the supersaturation was attained by solvent extraction, but due to the simultaneous changes in the concentration of the KNO3 mineralizer during the extraction, the growth rate was irregular and defective crystals were obtained. The experimental set-up was therefore modified and a transport technique was added to the system in order to feed the boiling reactor continuously with fresh lead chloride solution. The growth of the crystals takes place at constant concentration of KNO3 in these new conditions. With this experimental modification, isometric PbCI2 crystals of up to lcm size were obtained in three weeks. The observed morphology is close to that calculated by Woensdregt and Hartmann [J. Crystal Growth 87(1988)561].

  20. Role of metal oxides in the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride)

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M.C.; Viswanath, S.G.

    1998-07-01

    Thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) has been studied in the presence of metal oxides by a thermogravimetric method. It follows a two-step mechanism. In the first step chlorine free radical is formed as in the case of pure PVC, and in the second step chlorine free radical replaces oxygen from metal oxide to form metal chloride and oxygen free radical. Subsequently, the oxygen free radical abstracts hydrogen from PVC. Formation of metal chloride is the rate-controlling step. The metal chlorides formed during the thermal degradation either volatilize or decompose simultaneously to lower metallic chlorides depending on the boiling point or the volatilization temperature.

  1. Cytokine profile in cases with premature elevation of progesterone serum concentrations during ovarian stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nikolettos, N; Asimakopoulos, B; Köster, F; Schöpper, B; Schulz, Ch; Caglar, G S; Efthimiadou, A; Pagonopoulou, O; Diedrich, K; Al-Hasani, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, in cycles with a premature rise of serum progesterone. 25 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with (Group 1) and 25 ICSI cycles without a premature progesterone elevation (Group 2) were included. The cut-off value of serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration was 0.9 ng/ml. The indication for ICSI was male factor infertility exclusively. On the day of hCG injection, serum IL-6, VEGF and bFGF were significantly higher in Group 1 (7.7+/-24.5 pg/ml, 290.2+/-161.4 pg/ml and 15.7+/-8.2 ng/ml respectively) than in Group 2 (1.7+/-0.7 pg/ml, 175.2+/-92.1 pg/ml, and 9+/-1.6 ng/ml respectively). On the day of follicular puncture, serum cytokine concentrations were similar in the two groups. IL-6 intrafollicular concentrations were higher in Group 1 (14.7+/-20.7 pg/ml) than in Group 2 (9+/-9.3 pg/ml, p=0.031). There were no differences regarding the ICSI outcome. Patients with serum progesterone above 0.9 ng/ml, have elevated serum concentrations of IL-6, VEGF, and bFGF, as well as elevated intrafollicular concentrations of IL-6. The outcome of ICSI cycles is not associated with premature elevation of progesterone when the cut-off value is set at 0.9 ng/ml. PMID:17298206

  2. Assessment of metal concentrations in tap-water - from source to the tap: a case study from Szczecin, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górski, Józef; Siepak, Marcin

    2014-03-01

    The concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in June 2010 for 100 tap-water samples, collected directly at consumers in the older part of the city of Szczecin (Poland). Increased concentrations of metals were thus detected. This concerns mainly Fe (19% of samples showed concentrations above drinking-water quality standards) and Pb (5%). In some samples, the maximum admissible concentration levels for Mn, Cu and Ni were also exceeded. This was not the case for Al, despite the use of aluminium compounds during water treatment; the Al concentrations in treated water were, however, significantly higher than in raw water. It was also found that (1) the corrosive properties of water (low alkalinity and increased concentration of sulphates), (2) the water-treatment processes causing a decrease of the pH and an increase of the CO2, and (3) transport of the treated water over long distances (30 km) provide favourable conditions for the leaching of metals from water-pipe networks. The type of material used in domestic plumbing and the content of Ce, Fe, Mn, Ni and Cd in the tap-water at consumers show a correlation. The high content of Pb is mainly a result of lead pipes connecting the network to the buildings

  3. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  4. Chlormequat chloride retards rat embryo growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiagedeer, Bayindala; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Yingjuan; Hao, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    Chlormequat chloride is the most widely used plant growth regulator in agriculture to promote sturdier growth of grain crops by avoidance of lodging. Therefore, human exposure to chlormequat chloride is very common, but its developmental toxicity has not been studied. Thus, we investigated the developmental toxicity of chlormequat chloride by applying rat whole embryo culture (WEC) model, limb bud micromass culture and 3T3 fibroblast cytotoxicity test. Chlormequat chloride at 150μg/ml (0.93mM) retarded the rat embryo growth without causing significant morphological malformations and at 500μg/ml (3.1mM) caused both retardation and morphological malformation of the embryos. However, the proliferation and differentiation of limb bud cells were not affected by chlormequat chloride at as high as up to 1000μg/ml (6.2mM) applied. This concentration of chlormequat chloride did not affect the cell viability as examined by 3T3 fibroblast cytotoxicity test either, suggesting that cellular toxicity may not play a role in chlormequat induced inhibition of rat embryo growth. Collectively, our results demonstrated that chlormequat chloride may affect embryo growth and development without inhibiting cell viability. PMID:27165806

  5. Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment - Part II: univariate and multivariate analysis and case studies of indoor concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgen, Elke; Levsen, Karsten; Angerer, Jürgen; Schneider, Peter; Heinrich, Joachim; Wichmann, H.-Erich

    The concentrations of the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the isomeric xylenes (BTEX) have been determined in the indoor air of 115 private non-smoker homes (˜380 individual rooms) situated in areas with an extreme traffic situation, i.e. in city streets (street canyons) with high traffic density and in rural areas with hardly any traffic at all. The influence of the traffic on the indoor concentration was apparent in the high traffic area. In order to identify other factors influencing the BTEX concentrations, the data and additional questionnaires were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. The analysis was supplemented by some case studies. It is shown that meteorology (the seasons), the type of room (e.g. living room versus bedroom), the ventilation and, in particular, garages in the house strongly influence the indoor concentration of BTEX. Thus, the indoor BTEX level is significantly higher in winter than in summer. Moreover, garages with a connecting door to the living quarters lead to high indoor concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in these rooms. In addition, the storage of solvents and hobby materials, and also the presence of smoking guests increase the BTEX level. If rooms are directly heated by coal or wood, the BTEX level is higher compared to the use of gas heating. Surprisingly, no correlation was found between the building materials used and the BTEX level. Case studies were carried out for two homes with an integrated garage (and a connecting door to the living rooms) and for seven homes where redecoration work was carried out during sampling. In both instances, a pronounced increase was observed in the BTEX concentration.

  6. Assessment of PM2.5 concentrations on Human Health: A case study of Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, P.; Mishra, D.

    2015-12-01

    Connection of air quality with human health is well established in the literature. However the associated health risks due to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is not well known in India, while the assigned mean threshold values are 60 μg/m3 for 24-hour period and 40 μg/m3 for annual period. Both are considered safe concentration limits regarding human health effects. However, the daily and annually concentrations of PM2.5 were observed more than three times of NAAQS in the present study for a year. This study relates the incessant exposure to significant levels of PM2.5 to deleterious health effects, such as heart and lung diseases. The relation between environmental air quality and human health has been studied through different parameters e.g., hazard quotient (HQ), lifetime incremental cancer risk (LICR), and individual risk for different groups of ages in Delhi, the capital city of India. These analysis lead to additional insights into health disparities and may suggest that more rigorous strategies. This may be application to other urban areas across the nation. In this study, we propose to quantify such impacts through estimation of different health risk factors.

  7. Concentrations of AB-CHMINACA and AB-PINACA and Driving Behavior in Suspected Impaired Driving Cases.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brianna L; Couper, Fiona J

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews case reports for 58 suspected impaired driving cases that were positive for the synthetic cannabinoids AB-CHMINACA or AB-PINACA. All cases were submitted to the Washington State Patrol Toxicology Laboratory in 2014 from either Washington State or State of Alaska law enforcement agencies. The population of drivers was predominantly male (95%), with a mean age of 28 years (range, 18-61 years). The range of blood concentrations was 0.6->10 ng/mL for AB-CHMINACA (N = 33) and 0.6-41.3 ng/mL for AB-PINACA (N = 25). Drug Recognition Expert exams were performed in 10 cases for each AB-CHMINACA and AB-PINACA. Horizontal gaze nystagmus was observed in 50 and 60% of the cases, respectively. Overall, several physiological indicators varied from those typically observed with marijuana use. The majority of these cases had very poor driving; subjects were involved in an accident, found passed out in a vehicle or were called in as a suspected impaired driver. Slurred speech, confusion, lack of coordination/dexterity and lethargy were commonly observed. PMID:26378139

  8. A pH-independent DNA nanodevice for quantifying chloride transport in organelles of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sonali; Prakash, Ved; Halder, Saheli; Chakraborty, Kasturi; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of chloride ions in the cytoplasm and subcellular organelles of living cells spans a wide range (5-130 mM), and is tightly regulated by intracellular chloride channels or transporters. Chloride-sensitive protein reporters have been used to study the role of these chloride regulators, but they are limited to a small range of chloride concentrations and are pH-sensitive. Here, we show that a DNA nanodevice can precisely measure the activity and location of subcellular chloride channels and transporters in living cells in a pH-independent manner. The DNA nanodevice, called Clensor, is composed of sensing, normalizing and targeting modules, and is designed to localize within organelles along the endolysosomal pathway. It allows fluorescent, ratiometric sensing of chloride ions across the entire physiological regime. We used Clensor to quantitate the resting chloride concentration in the lumen of acidic organelles in Drosophila melanogaster. We showed that lumenal lysosomal chloride, which is implicated in various lysosomal storage diseases, is regulated by the intracellular chloride transporter DmClC-b.

  9. An Apical-Membrane Chloride Channel in Human Tracheal Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanism of chloride transport by airway epithelia has been of substantial interest because airway and sweat gland-duct epithelia are chloride-impermeable in cystic fibrosis. The decreased chloride permeability prevents normal secretion by the airway epithelium, thereby interfering with mucociliary clearance and contributing to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Because chloride secretion depends on and is regulated by chloride conductance in the apical cell membrane, the patch-clamp technique was used to directly examine single-channel currents in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelium. The cells contained an anion-selective channel that was not strongly voltage-gated or regulated by calcium in cell-free patches. The channel was also blocked by analogs of carboxylic acid that decrease apical chloride conductance in intact epithelia. When attached to the cell, the channel was activated by isoproterenol, although the channel was also observed to open spontaneously. However, in some cases, the channel was only observed after the patch was excised from the cell. These results suggest that this channel is responsible for the apical chloride conductance in airway epithelia.

  10. Pretreatment Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Breast Cancer Prognostic Characteristics: A Case-Control and a Case-Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Song; Sucheston, Lara E.; Millen, Amy E.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Nesline, Mary K.; Davis, Warren; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Hwang, Helena; Kulkarni, Swati; Edge, Stephen B.; O'Connor, Tracey L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity. Methods and Findings In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER), and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001). Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03). Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL), significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002). In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08–0.53) than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22–0.56). The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses. Conclusion In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings could warrant

  11. Interpretation of drug concentrations in an alternative matrix: the case of meprobamate in bile.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L; Bevalot, F; Gustin, M P; Paultre, C Z; Le Meur, C; Malicier, D

    2009-03-01

    Investigating toxicological causes of death may require alternative matrices when the usual ones are lacking. Whereas forensic toxicology uses bile almost only for xenobiotic screening, a diagnostic test interpreting postmortem bile concentrations of meprobamate is reported. Based on 128 sets of autopsy data, its intrinsic qualities were good, with 0.95 sensitivity and 0.93 specificity. In a French forensic population, the positive and negative predictive factors were 0.90 and 0.97, respectively. It is a useful means of revealing overdoses where blood samples are not available or of confirming blood tests when postmortem redistribution is suspected. PMID:18581126

  12. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Devilee, R.A.; Sandwijk, A. van; Reuter, M.A.

    1999-08-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studies include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to reduce the iron concentration in zinc-chloride melts to 20 ppm with a small excess of zinc. The preparation of the melt proved to be very important. Insufficient purification of the melt with respect to oxides, hydroxides, and water resulted in a low reaction rate and high residual iron concentration.

  13. [Algorithm for estimating chlorophyll-a concentration in case II water body based on bio-optical model].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Chen, Jin; Mausushita, Bunki

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, a novel retrieval method for estimating chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters based on bio-optical model was proposed and was tested with the data measured in the laboratory. A series of reflectance spectra, with which the concentration of each sample constituent (for example chlorophyll-a, NPSS etc.) was obtained from accurate experiments, were used to calculate the absorption and backscattering coefficients of the constituents of the case II waters. Then non-negative least square method was applied to calculate the concentration of chlorophyll-a and non-phytoplankton suspended sediments (NPSS). Green algae was firstly collected from the Kasumigaura lake in Japan and then cultured in the laboratory. The reflectance spectra of waters with different amounts of phytoplankton and NPSS were measured in the dark room using FieldSpec Pro VNIR (Analytical Spectral Devises Inc. , Boulder, CO, USA). In order to validate whether this method can be applied in multispectral data (for example Landsat TM), the spectra measured in the laboratory were resampled with Landsat TM bands 1, 2, 3 and 4. Different combinations of TM bands were compared to derive the most appropriate wavelength for detecting chlorophyll-a in case II water for green algae. The results indicated that the combination of TM bands 2, 3 and 4 achieved much better accuracy than other combinations, and the estimated concentration of chlorophyll-a was significantly more accurate than empirical methods. It is expected that this method can be directly applied to the real remotely sensed image because it is based on bio-optical model. PMID:19385201

  14. Intracranial subdural hematomas with elevated rivaroxaban concentration and subsequently detected spinal subdural hematoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Koga, Masatoshi; Matsuki, Takayuki; Hino, Tenyu; Yokota, Chiaki; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2016-07-01

    A 79-year-old lean man with a height of 157cm and weight of 42kg (body mass index, 17.2kg/m(2)) receiving rivaroxaban developed an intracranial subdural hematoma and was treated conservatively. Because he had a reduced creatinine clearance of 44mL/min, his dosage of rivaroxaban was reduced from 15 to 10mg daily according to official Japanese prescribing information. However, he developed bilateral intracranial subdural hematomas 2weeks later. Plasma rivaroxaban concentration on anti-factor Xa chromogenic assay was elevated at 301ng/mL, suggesting excessive accumulation. He underwent burr hole drainage and resumed anticoagulation with warfarin. Subsequently, he developed a lumbosacral hematoma. He was treated conservatively and discharged without neurological sequelae. The main cause of the increased concentration of rivaroxaban was believed to be his older age and low body weight. The etiology of the spinal hematoma was suspected to be the migration of intracranial hematoma to the spinal subdural space. PMID:27240110

  15. Chloride-Mass-Balance: Cautions in Predicting Increased Recharge Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Tyler , S. W.; Albright , W. H.; Singleton , M. J.

    2005-02-01

    The chloride-mass-balance (CMB) method has been used extensively to estimate recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Required data include estimates of annual precipitation, total chloride input (from dry fallout and precipitation), and pore-water chloride concentrations. Typically, CMB has been used to estimate ancient recharge but recharge from recent land-use change has also been documented. Recharge rates below a few mm/yr are reliably detected with CMB; however, estimates above a few mm/yr appear to be less reliable. We tested the CMB method against 26 years of drainage from a 7.6 m deep lysimeter at a simulated waste-burial ground, located on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA where land-use change has increased recharge rates. Measured drainage from the lysimeter for the past 26 years averaged 62 mm/yr. Precipitation averaged 190 mm/yr with an estimated chloride input of 0.225 mg/L. Initial pore-water chloride concentration was 88 mg/L and decreased to about 6 mg/L after 26 years, while the drainage water decreased to less than 1 mg/L. A recharge estimate made using chloride concentrations in drain water was within 20% of the measured drainage rate. In contrast, recharge estimates using 1:1 (water: soil) extracts were lower than actual by factors ranging from 2 to 8 or more. The results suggest that when recharge is above a few mm/yr, soil water extracts can lead to unreliable estimates of recharge. For conditions of elevated recharge, direct sampling of pore water is the preferred method, because chloride concentrations are often 20 to 50 times higher in directly-sampled pore water than in pore-water extracts.

  16. A new system for early chloride detection in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laferrière, Francine; Inaudi, Daniele; Kronenberg, Pascal; Smith, Ian F. C.

    2008-08-01

    In a national and worldwide context, countless reinforced concrete structures are in an advanced state of deterioration. A principal cause of such degradation is chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement bars. This phenomenon is accentuated in countries where de-icing salts are used for road safety, as well as in maritime zones. To date, no non-destructive method quantifying chloride content during the corrosion initiation phase has been established. Measurement of such a parameter is important for the development of a better understanding of the complexity of corrosion phenomena and, more practically, for better management of existing structures. This paper proposes a new method for non-destructive measurement, for monitoring continuously and in real time free chloride content in concrete pores. In this context, a chemical sensor that employs optical fibers was developed and tested. The sensor functions using the fluorescence of an indicator dye that is sensitive to chlorides. Through fluorescence spectroscopy, variations in the concentration of free chlorides are related to intensity fluctuations of fluorescence. The use of optical fibers also provides an advantage compared with existing electric non-destructive detection systems due to superior electromagnetic stability. Theoretical and experimental studies calibrated and validated the sensor for implementation within mortar samples. Free chloride concentrations between 30 and 350 mM can be detected. Two experiments reproduced climatic variations in a controlled environment. The first test simulated a hot maritime climate and the second test simulated a cold continental climate. These tests confirmed that it is possible to determine with precision the free chloride content. Also, fluorescence spectroscopy with optical fibers offers an innovative means for early and non-destructive detection of free chloride content in concrete. As a result, this new method has potential for improving the science of corrosion

  17. Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kyle P; Kramer, Mark A; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Seizures are thought to originate from a failure of inhibition to quell hyperactive neural circuits, but the nature of this failure remains unknown. Here we combine high-speed two-photon imaging with electrophysiological recordings to directly evaluate the interaction between populations of interneurons and principal cells during the onset of seizure-like activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Both calcium imaging and dual patch clamp recordings reveal that in vitro seizure-like events (SLEs) are preceded by pre-ictal bursts of activity in which interneurons predominate. Corresponding changes in intracellular chloride concentration were observed in pyramidal cells using the chloride indicator Clomeleon. These changes were measurable at SLE onset and became very large during the SLE. Pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic transmission, either by blocking GABAA receptors or by hyperpolarizing the GABAA reversal potential, converted SLEs to short interictal-like bursts. Together, our results support a model in which pre-ictal GABAA receptor-mediated chloride influx shifts EGABA to produce a positive feedback loop that contributes to the initiation of seizure activity. PMID:22677032

  18. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K J; Day, S D; Ilevbare, G O; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-05-13

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy.

  19. Segmental chloride and fluid handling during correction of chloride-depletion alkalosis without volume expansion in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Galla, J H; Bonduris, D N; Dumbauld, S L; Luke, R G

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether chloride-depletion metabolic alkalosis (CDA) can be corrected by provision of chloride without volume expansion or intranephronal redistribution of fluid reabsorption, CDA was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by peritoneal dialysis against 0.15 M NaHCO3; controls (CON) were dialyzed against Ringer's bicarbonate. Animals were infused with isotonic solutions containing the same Cl and total CO2 (tCO2) concentrations as in postdialysis plasma at rates shown to be associated with slight but stable volume contraction. During the subsequent 6 h, serum Cl and tCO2 concentrations remained stable and normal in CON and corrected towards normal in CDA; urinary chloride excretion was less and bicarbonate excretion greater than those in CON during this period. Micropuncture and microinjection studies were performed in the 3rd h after dialysis. Plasma volumes determined by 125I-albumin were not different. Inulin clearance and fractional chloride excretion were lower (P less than 0.05) in CDA. Superficial nephron glomerular filtration rate determined from distal puncture sites was lower (P less than 0.02) in CDA (27.9 +/- 2.3 nl/min) compared with that in CON (37.9 +/- 2.6). Fractional fluid and chloride reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule and within the loop segment did not differ. Fractional chloride delivery to the early distal convolution did not differ but that out of this segment was less (P less than 0.01) in group CDA. Urinary recovery of 36Cl injected into the collecting duct segment was lower (P less than 0.01) in CDA (CON 74 +/- 3; CDA 34 +/- 4%). These data show that CDA can be corrected by the provision of chloride without volume expansion or alterations in the intranephronal distribution of fluid reabsorption. Enhanced chloride reabsorption in the collecting duct segment, and possibly in the distal convoluted tubule, contributes importantly to this correction. PMID:6690486

  20. [A case of pulmonary asbestosis with slightly increased serum IgE concentration and histopathological changes resembling DIP].

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Y; Asai, S; Mashimoto, H; Shimokawa, I; Iwasaki, K; Matsuo, T; Ikeda, T; Minami, H

    1993-02-01

    A 68-year-old male presented with cough and sputum. He had suffered from these symptoms for ten years prior to admission. Chest roentgenogram revealed reticulonodular shadows in the lower fields of both lungs. CT scan of the chest revealed an interstitial pattern in the lower field of both lungs. Honeycombing and bullous pattern were also present in the subpleural area. The patient had a history of dust and asbestos inhalation while working as an electrician. Eosinophilia of the peripheral blood and BALF, and a slightly increased serum IgE concentration were noted. Open lung biopsy revealed interstitial fibrosis with intra-alveolar macrophage accumulation and asbestos bodies. The histopathological features resembled UIP and DIP, although DIP is uncommon in pulmonary asbestosis. The slightly increased serum IgE concentration was considered to be an additional effect of asbestos. This is a case of pulmonary asbestosis with intriguing immunological and histopathological features. PMID:8515602

  1. Use of Bromide: Chloride Ratios to Differentiate Potential Sources of Chloride in a Shallow, Unconfined Aquifer Affected by Brackish-Water Intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasen, David C.; Fleck, William B.

    1997-02-01

    Brackish water from Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries has entered the Aquia aquifer in east-central Anne Arundel County, Maryland, USA. This determination was made based on chloride analyses of water samples collected in wells screened in the Aquia aquifer between October 1988 and May 1989. The Aquia aquifer, which is composed of fine- to medium-grained sand, is a shallow, unconfined aquifer in this area. Land use is primarily urban, consisting of a mixture of residential and light commercial areas. Associated with the urban setting is the potential for chloride contamination to enter the Aquia aquifer from anthropogenic sources, such as residential septic-tank effluent, leaky public sewer lines, road-deicing salt, stormwater infiltration basins, and domestic water-conditioning recharge effluent. In order to map the distribution of bay-water intrusion in the Aquia aquifer, chloride derived from Chesapeake Bay was differentiated from chloride derived from anthropogenic sources by comparing the ratio of dissolved bromide to dissolved chloride (bromide:chloride) in groundwater to the distinctive ratio in Chesapeake Bay water. Two additional factors considered in determining the source of the chloride were nitrogen concentrations and well-screen positions of sampled wells in relation to the estimated depth of the fresh-water/brackish-water interface. Of 36 Aquia-aquifer water samples with chloride condentrations greater than 30 mg/L, 22 had bromide:chloride ratios similar to the ratio in Chesapeake Bay water, an indication that bay water is the primary source of the chloride. Of the other 14 samples with bromide:chloride ratios dissimilar to the ratio in Chesapeake Bay water, seven were from wells where screen positions were substantially above the estimated fresh-water/brackish-water interface. Three of these samples had nitrogen concentrations (as nitrite plus nitrate) greater than 3.0 mg/L, an indication that chloride in these groundwater samples comes from

  2. Benford's Law and the screening of analytical data: the case of pollutant concentrations in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard J C

    2005-09-01

    The need to ensure the robustness of very large data sets produced by analytical measurement processes is increasing. This requires data screening techniques that can identify formatting or transcription errors in large data sets, that have undergone multiple data-handling and manipulation procedures. The empirical observation that the digits 1 to 9 are not equally likely to appear as the initial digit in multi-digit numbers is known as Benford's Law, and may provide a solution to this requirement. Several sets of data pertaining to the measured concentrations of pollutants in ambient air in the UK in 2004 have been analysed for their initial digit frequencies in order to assess the potential for the use of Benford's Law as a data screening, and authenticity-checking, tool for these types of analytical data sets. Benford's Law has been shown to be a robust top-level data screening tool provided that the numerical range of the data set being considered is four orders of magnitude or greater. It has been shown that small changes in the deviation of a data set from Benford's Law may indicate the introduction of errors during data processing. In this way, Benford's Law provides a sensitive technique for identifying data mishandling in large data sets. PMID:16096674

  3. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  4. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl−) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl− channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl− channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl− channel and Cl−/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl− channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl− channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl− current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl− channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl− channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  5. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, M.L.; Savolainen, J.E.

    1960-01-01

    A method is given for dissolving reactor fuel elements in which the uranium is associated with a relatively inert chromium-containing alloy such as stainless steel. An aqueous mixture of acids comprising 2 to 2.5 molar hydrochloric acid and 4 to 8 molar nitric acid is employed in dissolving the fuel element. In order io reduce corrosion in subsequent processing of the resulting solution, chloride values are removed from the solution by contacting it with concentrated nitric acid at an elevated temperature.

  6. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  7. Relating road salt to exceedances of the water quality standard for chloride in New Hampshire streams.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Philip R; Kahl, J Steve; Sassan, Dari A; Heath, Douglas L; Walsh, Edward M

    2010-07-01

    Six watersheds in New Hampshire were studied to determine the effects of road salt on stream water quality. Specific conductance in streams was monitored every 15 min for one year using dataloggers. Chloride concentrations were calculated from specific conductance using empirical relationships. Stream chloride concentrations were directly correlated with development in the watersheds and were inversely related to streamflow. Exceedances of the EPA water quality standard for chloride were detected in the four watersheds with the most development. The number of exceedances during a year was linearly related to the annual average concentration of chloride. Exceedances of the water quality standard were not predicted for streams with annual average concentrations less than 102 mg L(-1). Chloride was imported into three of the watersheds at rates ranging from 45 to 98 Mg Cl km(-2) yr(-1). Ninety-one percent of the chloride imported was road salt for deicing roadways and parking lots. A simple, mass balance equation was shown to predict annual average chloride concentrations from streamflow and chloride import rates to the watershed. This equation, combined with the apparent threshold for exceedances of the water quality standard, can be used for screening-level TMDLs for road salt in impaired watersheds. PMID:20545352

  8. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  9. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  16. Evaluation of the association between birth defects and exposure to ambient vinyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Theriault, G.; Iturra, H.; Gingras, S.

    1983-06-01

    Birth defects incidence for infants born to residents of Shawinigan, Canada in 1966-1979 were significantly higher than in three comparison communities. Since there has been a vinyl chloride polymerization plant in this town since 1943 from which ten cases of angiosarcoma of the liver have been identified, this study explores the possible association between exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air and the occurrence of birth defects in the community. The excess of birth defects fluctuated seasonally in a way that corresponded to changes in VCM concentration in the environment. Mothers who gave birth to malformed children were younger on average in Shawinigan than in the comparison communities. However, there was no excess of still-births in Shawinigan. The excess in birth defects involved most organ systems, and variation in birth-defect rates among school districts could not be accounted for by estimates of VCM in the atmosphere. The occupational and residential histories of parents who gave birth to malformed infants were compared with those of parents of normal infants. The two groups did not differ in occupational exposure or closeness of residence to the vinyl chloride polymerization plant. Some descriptive data from this study raised the hypothesis of an association between VCM in the air and birth defects in the exposed community, but as a whole, within the sample size available, such an association could not be substantiated.

  17. Corrosion of Carbon Steel and Corrosion-Resistant Rebars in Concrete Structures Under Chloride Ion Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Nedal; Boulfiza, Mohamed; Evitts, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion of reinforced concrete is the most challenging durability problem that threatens reinforced concrete structures, especially structures that are subject to severe environmental conditions (i.e., highway bridges, marine structures, etc.). Corrosion of reinforcing steel leads to cracking and spalling of the concrete cover and billions of dollars are spent every year on repairing such damaged structures. New types of reinforcements have been developed to avoid these high-cost repairs. Thus, it is important to study the corrosion behavior of these new types of reinforcements and compare them to the traditional carbon steel reinforcements. This study aimed at characterizing the corrosion behavior of three competing reinforcing steels; conventional carbon steel, micro-composite steel (MMFX-2) and 316LN stainless steel, through experiments in carbonated and non-carbonated concrete exposed to chloride-laden environments. Synthetic pore water solutions have been used to simulate both cases of sound and carbonated concrete under chloride ions attack. A three-electrode corrosion cell is used for determining the corrosion characteristics and rates. Multiple electrochemical techniques were applied using a Gamry PC4™ potentiostat manufactured by Gamry Instruments (Warminster, PA). DC corrosion measurements were applied on samples subjected to fixed chloride concentration in the solution.

  18. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters using MODIS and MERIS data—successes and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, W. J.; Gitelson, A. A.; Berdnikov, S.; Povazhnyy, V.

    2009-10-01

    We present and discuss here the results of our work using MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) and MERIS (medium resolution imaging spectrometer) satellite data to estimate the concentration of chlorophyll- a (chl-a) in reservoirs of the Dnieper River and the Sea of Azov, which are typical case II waters, i.e., turbid and productive. Our objective was to test the potential of satellite remote sensing as a tool for near-real-time monitoring of chl- a distribution in these water bodies. We tested the performance of a recently developed three-band model, and its special case, a two-band model, which use the reflectance at red and near-infrared wavelengths for the retrieval of chl- a concentration. The higher spatial resolution and the availability of a spectral band at around 708 nm with the MERIS data offered great promise for these models. We compared results from several different atmospheric correction procedures available for MODIS and MERIS data. No one particular procedure was consistently and systematically better than the rest. Nevertheless, even in the absence of a perfect atmospheric correction procedure, both the three-band and the two-band models showed promising results when compared with in situ chl- a measurements. The challenges and limitations involved in satellite remote monitoring of the chl- a distribution in turbid productive waters are discussed.

  19. New Focus: method for measuring vinyl chloride in air

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    This note discusses a recently released standard entitled Method for the Measurement of Vinyl Chloride in Air (CAN3-Z223.25-M86). It is one in a series of Canadian Standard Association standards on the measurement of pollutants in air. This unique document provides a standardized method of sampling and analysis that may be used for the measurement of vinyl chloride in air over a concentration range of 0.01 to 2600 mg/mT under standard atmospheric conditions. The methodology includes calibration requirements, sampling procedures (the collection of samples in a gas bag or a sorbent tube), quantitative gas chromatographic analysis, and series of calculations. It is the first published document that standardizes the method of measurement of vinyl chloride in air and specifies a concentration range that applies to industrial hygiene and ambient air applications.

  20. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  1. Effect of metal chlorides on thermal degradation of (waste) polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.-J. . E-mail: sjchiu@ns1.mit.edu.tw; Chen, S.-H.; Tsai, C.-T.

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we investigated how to treat (waste) polycarbonate efficiently to reduce its degraded residue. The study was carried out in an isothermal reactor under continuous nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure to pyrolyze polycarbonate (PC) alone and in the presence of metal chloride. Some metal chlorides were shown to be catalytic active for the degradation of PC at 400 deg. C, which increased degradation conversion from 8.5% to more than 58.3%. Among those active metal chlorides, ZnCl{sub 2} and SnCl{sub 2} can produce higher liquid product yields. Effects such as particle size of PC, temperature, the weight ratio of metal chloride/PC, and degradation time on the degradation conversion of PC without and with these two most active metal chlorides were studied. Results of the liquid product analysis by GC/MS demonstrated the product composition of PC degradation over the metal chlorides is much simpler than that of degradation alone. The main liquid product is phenol, p-isopropylphenol, diphenyl carbonate, and bisphenol A for all cases.

  2. Effect of metal chlorides on thermal degradation of (waste) polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shwu-Jer; Chen, Shi-Hau; Tsai, Chou-Tso

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how to treat (waste) polycarbonate efficiently to reduce its degraded residue. The study was carried out in an isothermal reactor under continuous nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure to pyrolyze polycarbonate (PC) alone and in the presence of metal chloride. Some metal chlorides were shown to be catalytic active for the degradation of PC at 400 degrees C, which increased degradation conversion from 8.5% to more than 58.3%. Among those active metal chlorides, ZnCl2 and SnCl2 can produce higher liquid product yields. Effects such as particle size of PC, temperature, the weight ratio of metal chloride/PC, and degradation time on the degradation conversion of PC without and with these two most active metal chlorides were studied. Results of the liquid product analysis by GC/MS demonstrated the product composition of PC degradation over the metal chlorides is much simpler than that of degradation alone. The main liquid product is phenol, p-isopropylphenol, diphenyl carbonate, and bisphenol A for all cases. PMID:16387239

  3. Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Stonestrom, David A.; Reedy, Robert C.; Leaney, Fred W.; Gates, John; Cresswell, Richard G.

    2009-07-01

    Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water-extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated ("rain-fed") croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800-120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630-3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600-41,000 kg/ha). Order-of-magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water-extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic activities on groundwater

  4. Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, B.R.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Reedy, R.C.; Leaney, F.W.; Gates, J.; Cresswell, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water-extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated ("rain-fed") croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800-120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630-3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600-41,000 kg/ha). Order-of-magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/ interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water-extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic activities on groundwater

  5. Concentration-dependent bimodal effect of specific 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) ligands on cell death processes induced by ammonium chloride: potential implications for neuropathological effects due to hyperammonemia.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Beatriz; Veenman, Leo; Bode, Julia; Leschiner, Svetlana; Gavish, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    The role of the 18-kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) in cell death induced by NH4Cl (1-50 mM) for 24-72 hours to human glioblastoma U118MG cells was investigated. Cell death was already observed after 48 hours of treatment with NH4Cl at 5 mM. Dose and time-responses curves indicated that 15 mM of NH4Cl applied for 72 hours was the optimal condition for our viability assays. For example, 72 hours of 15 mM of NH4Cl caused a 50.3% increase in propidium iodide uptake, and lactate dehydrogenase release was 41.2% of the positive control, indicating significant increases in cell death. Furthermore, compared to vehicle control, these experimental conditions resulted in a significant decrease of 44.9% of the mitochondrial activity, a 62.3% increase in incidence of collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and an increase of 49.0% of cardiolipin peroxidation. In addition, a significant 4.3 fold increase in the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of TSPO was found in NH4Cl-exposed cells. Surprisingly, western blot analysis and real-time PCR did not demonstrate changes in TSPO expression. We also found that neither NH4Cl nor glutamine (a metabolic product of enhanced NH4Cl levels) inhibited binding of the TSPO ligand [(3)H]PK 11195. Interestingly, we observed a bimodal effect of the TSPO ligands PK 11195, Ro5-4864, and FGIN-1-27 on the toxicity of NH4Cl; such that 1-100 nM concentrations of TSPO ligands were protective, while concentrations above 1 μM enhanced NH4Cl-induced cell death processes. In conclusion, TSPO takes part in a bimodal way in the lethal effects induced by NH4Cl in glial type cells. PMID:24168369

  6. Hydrochloric acid aerosol formation by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with humid air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions in which hydrochloric acid aerosol is predicted by the interaction of hydrogen chloride gas with the water vapor in humid air are analyzed. The liquid gas phase equilibrium for the HCL-H2O system is expressed in terms of relative humidity and hydrogen chloride concentration as parts per million, units commonly used in pollution studies. Presented are the concentration (wt %) of HC1 in the aerosol and the concentration of aerosol (ppm) predicted.

  7. Ferric chloride leach-electrolysis process for production of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, R.G.; Wong, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, under a cost-sharing, cooperative research agreement with lead producers, is studying a process to eliminate sulfur oxide generation and to minimize lead emission in the production of lead. The new process consists of leaching lead sulfide concentrate with a ferric chloride-sodium chloride solution to produce lead chloride, and fused-salt electrolysis of lead chloride to produce lead metal and chlorine. The chlorine is used to regenerate ferric chloride in the leach solution. The study is being conducted in a process investigation unit which treats 750 lb of concentrate a day. This paper discusses the results of operation of the process investigation unit, data on lead monitoring, and the precautions employed to control lead levels in the workplace atmosphere. The monitoring data for the initial phase of the investigation show lead levels well within OSHA permissible exposure limits. Continued development is necessary before the process can be considered for implementation.

  8. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose in zinc chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, N.J.; Xu, Q.; Chen, L.F.

    1995-12-31

    The efficient conversion of cellulosic materials to ethanol has been hindered by the low yield of sugars, the high energy consumption in pretreatment processes, and the difficulty of recycling the pre-treatment agents. Zinc chloride may provide an alternative for pre-treating biomass prior to the hydrolysis of cellulose. The formation of a zinc-cellulose complex during the pretreatment of cellulose improves the yield of glucose in both the enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of cellulose. Low-temperature acid hydrolysis of cellulose in zinc chloride solution is carried out in two stages, a liquefaction stage and a saccharification stage. Because of the formation of zinc-cellulose complex in the first stage, the required amount of acid in the second stage has been decreased significantly. In 67% zinc chloride solution, a 99.5% yield of soluble sugars has been obtained at 70{degrees}C and 0.5M acid concentration. The ratio of zinc chloride to cellulose has been reduced from 4.5 to 1.5, and the yield of soluble sugars is kept above 80%. The rate of hydrolysis is affected by the ratio of zinc chloride to cellulose, acid concentration, and temperature.

  9. Evaluation of a hydrogen chloride detector for environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Moyer, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a hydrogen chloride detector designed to monitor concentrations of hydrogen chloride gas in the ambient environment. The detector was developed for NASA for use in launch vehicle effluent monitoring. The detector operates on chemiluminescence principles with a lower detection limit of less than 5 x 10 to the -3rd ppm (by volume). The hydrogen chloride in the air sample reacts with a bromide-bromate coating in the inlet tube of the instrument producing bromine. Bromine is then quantitated by chemiluminescent oxidation of luminol. The visible light generated in the chemiluminescent reaction is proportional to the hydrogen chloride concentration of the sampled airstream. The detector is most suited to laboratory or field studies where hydrogen chloride is the dominant pollutant, as compared to the interfering species. Interferences include strong acids, acid-forming gases, and halogen gases. Of the interferences investigated the most serious in these groups are hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and chlorine, respectively. The detector has been in use since 1974 and has been found to be highly portable, rugged, and stable under extreme environmental conditions.

  10. Chloride binding regulates the Schiff base pK in gecko P521 cone-type visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C; Kuwata, O; Liang, J; Misra, S; Balashov, S P; Ebrey, T G

    1999-04-01

    The binding of chloride is known to shift the absorption spectrum of most long-wavelength-absorbing cone-type visual pigments roughly 30 nm to the red. We determined that the chloride binding constant for this color shift in the gecko P521 visual pigment is 0.4 mM at pH 6.0. We found an additional effect of chloride on the P521 pigment: the apparent pKa of the Schiff base in P521 is greatly increased as the chloride concentration is increased. The apparent Schiff base pKa shifts from 8.4 for the chloride-free form to >10.4 for the chloride-bound form. We show that this shift is due to chloride binding to the pigment, not to the screening of the membrane surface charges by chloride ions. We also found that at high pH, the absorption maximum of the chloride-free pigment shifts from 495 to 475 nm. We suggest that the chloride-dependent shift of the apparent Schiff base pKa is due to the deprotonation of a residue in the chloride binding site with a pKa of ca. 8.5, roughly that of the Schiff base in the absence of chloride. The deprotonation of this site results in the formation of the 475 nm pigment and a 100-fold decrease in the pigment's ability to bind chloride. Increasing the concentration of chloride results in the stabilization of the protonated state of this residue in the chloride binding site and thus increased chloride binding with an accompanying increase in the Schiff base pK. PMID:10194387

  11. Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

  12. The Electrochemical Behavior of Alloy 22 in Extreme Chloride and Nitrate Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Etien, R A; Gordon, S R; Ilevbare, G O

    2004-12-01

    Alloy 22 specimens were tested in high temperature, high concentration chloride and nitrate environments. Results of this study indicate that increasing nitrate to chloride ratio in these electrolytes increases resistance to localized breakdown and mitigates repassivation. Open circuit (E{sub corr}), breakdown and repassivation potentials all increase, and localized corrosion morphology changes as nitrate to chloride ratio increases. Results also indicate that increasing the temperature increases E{sub corr} values, while breakdown potentials and repassivation potentials peak at 130 C for the highest nitrate to chloride ratio electrolytes.

  13. Mechanism of sodium and chloride transport in the thin ascending limb of Henle.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, M; Kokko, J P

    1976-01-01

    Our previous in vitro studies have disclosed that the thin ascending limb of Henle (tALH) possesses some unique membrane characteristics. In those studies we failed to demonstrated active transport of sodium chloride by the tALH, although it was shown that the isotopic permeability to sodium and chloride was unusually high. However, we did not examine the mechanisms by which the apparent high permeation of sodium chloride occurs. Thus the purpose of the present studies was to elucidate the mechanism of sodium chloride transport across the isolated tALH of the rabbit by conducting four different types of studies: (1) comparison of the observed chloride and sodium flux ratios to those predicted by Ussing's equation under imposed salt concentration gradients; (2) kinetic evaluation of chloride and sodium fluxes; (3) examination of the effect of bromide on the kinetics of chloride transport; and (4) experiments to test for the existence of exchange diffusion of chloride. In the first set of studies the predicted and the theoretical flux ratios of sodium were identical in those experiments in which sodium chloride was added either to the perfusate or to the bath. However, the observed chloride flux ratio, lumen-to-bath/bath-to-lumen, was significantly lower than that predicted from Ussing's equation when 100 mM sodium chloride was added to the bath. In the second set of experiments the apparent isotopic permeability for sodium and for chloride was measured under varying perfusate and bath NaCl concentrations. There was no statistical change in the apparent sodium permeability coefficient when the NaCl concentration was raised by varying increments from 85.5 to 309.5 mM. However, permeation of 36Cl decrease significantly with an increase in Cl from 73.6 to 598.6 mM. These events could be explained by a two component chloride transport process consisting of simple diffusion and a saturable facilitated diffusion process with a Vmax = 3.71 neq mm-1 min-1. In the third set

  14. Origin and transport of chloride in superheated geothermal steam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Haizlip, J.R.; Armannsson, H.; D'Amore, F.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a known component of some volcanic gases and volcanic-related hydrothermal systems. It has recently been discovered in superheated steam in exploited geothermal systems, usually as a result of HCl-induced corrosion of well casing and steam gathering systems. Evaluation of four geothermal systems (Tatun, Taiwan; Krafla, Iceland; Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, USA) which produce CI-bearing steam provides evidence for the presence of Cl as HCl and the natural reservoir conditions which can produce HCl-bearing steam. Theoretical calculations defining the physical and chemical conditions of the reservoir liquid which can produce HCl-bearing steam are presented. The main factors are pH, temperature and Cl concentration. Lower pH, higher temperature and higher chlorinity allow more HCl to be volatilized with steam. In order to reach the surface in steam, the HCl cannot contact liquid water in which it is more soluble, essentially limiting transport to superheated steam. Temperature, pH and Cl concentration of reservoir liquids in each of the geothermal systems evaluated combine differently to produce HCl-bearing steam. ?? 1989.

  15. Dynamic [Cl-]i measurement with chloride sensing quantum dots nanosensor in epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuchi; Mao, Hua; Wong, Lid B.

    2010-02-01

    We have synthesized a chloride sensing quantum dots (QD) nanosensor, Cl-QD, for the dynamic measurements of chloride ion concentration in the millimolar range, a sensitivity that is applicable to most physiological intracellular chloride ion concentration ([Cl-]i) measurements in epithelial cells. The Cl-QD is synthesized by conjugating an anion receptor, 1-(2-mercapto-ethyl)-3-phenyl-thiourea (MEPTU) to a water soluble CdSe/ZnS QD at an emission wavelength of 620 nm. Upon binding of chloride ions to the Cl-QD, a photo-induced electron transfer mechanism caused the fluorescence of the QD to quench. This resulted in an inversely proportional relationship between the chloride ion concentration and the fluorescence intensity of the Cl-QD. We have utilized this Cl-QD to measure [Cl-]i in T84 and CF-PAC cultured cells, with either the C1C-2 or CFTR chloride channels being manipulated by pharmacological chloride channel activators and inhibitors. Activations of C1C-2 and CFTR chloride channels in T84 by the respective lubiprostone and genistein caused predictive increases in the fluorescence of the Cl-QD, i.e., a decrease of [Cl-]i. Conversely, glibenclamide, a chloride channel inhibitor, applied to the CF-PAC cells caused a predictable decrease in the fluorescence of Cl-QD due to the increase of [Cl-]i. These are the first data in using QD-based chloride ion sensors for dynamic measurements of intracellular chloride ion concentrations in epithelial cells.

  16. Radiolytic preparation of anhydrous tin (2) chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Anhydrous tin (2) chloride (SnCl2) is prepared by radiolysis with high energy electrons of a tin (4) chloride (SnCl4) solution in heptane. The SnCl4 is reduced to insoluble SNCl2. The energy yield, G(SnCl2), molecules of SnCl2, produced per 100 eV, increases with SnCl4 concentration from 1.6 at 0.15 M SnCl4 to 3.1 at 3.0 M SnCl4. Other parameters such as temperature total dose and beam current have little influence on G(SnCl2). The method may be used to prepare other metal halides if the higher valence, more covalent metal halide is soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons and the lower more ionic metal halide is insoluble. The reaction mechanism is discussed; the radiolysis of both heptane and SnCl4 is involved. At high SnCl4 concentration G(SnCl2) appears to be limited by the yield of SnC13 radicals.

  17. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  18. Relationship of net chloride flow across the human erythrocyte membrane to the anion exchange mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Knauf, P.A.; Law, F.Y.; Marchant, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The parallel effects of the anion transport inhibitor DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'disulfonate) on net chloride flow and on chloride exchange suggest that a major portion of net chloride flow takes place through the anion exchange system. The ''slippage'' model postulates that the rate of net anion flow is determined by the movement of the unloaded anion transport site across the membrane. Both the halide selectivity of net anion flow and the dependence of net chloride flux on chloride concentration over the range of 75 to 300 mM are inconsistent with the slippage model. Models in which the divalent form of the anion exchange carrier or water pores mediate net anion flow are also inconsistent with the data. The observations that net chloride flux increases with chloride concentration and that the DIDS-sensitive component tends to saturate suggest a model in which net anion flow involves ''transit'' of anions through the diffusion barriers in series with the transport site, without any change in transport site conformation such as normally occurs during the anion exchange process. This model is successful in predicting that the anion exchange inhibitor NAP-taurine, which binds to the modifier site and inhibits the conformational change, has less effect on net chloride flow than on chloride exchange.

  19. Catchment conceptualisation for examining applicability of chloride mass balance method in an area with historical forest clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, H.; Love, A. J.; Simmons, C. T.; Hutson, J.; Ding, Z.

    2010-07-01

    Of the various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, the chloride mass balance (CMB) method is one of the most frequently used, especially for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common in many areas globally, has changed the land surface boundary condition, posing the question as to whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium, required for a CMB application. Although a one-dimensional CMB can be applied at a point where the water and chloride fluxes are locally in steady state, the CMB method is usually applied at a catchment scale owing to significant lateral flows in mountains. The applicability of the CMB method to several conceptual catchment types of various chloride equilibrium conditions is examined. The conceptualisation, combined with some local climate conditions, is shown to be useful in assessing whether or not a catchment has reached new chloride equilibrium. The six conceptual catchment types are tested with eleven selected catchments in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR), a coastal hilly area in South Australia having experienced widespread historical forest clearance. The results show that six of the eleven catchments match a type VI chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a gaining stream), with the ratios of stream chloride output (O) over atmospheric chloride input (I), or catchment chloride O/I ratios, ranging from 2 to 4. Two catchments match a type V chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a losing stream), with catchment chloride O/I ratios about 0.5. For these type V and type VI catchments, the CMB method is not applicable. The results also suggest that neither a chloride O/I ratio less than one nor a low seasonal fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor below 4) guarantees a chloride equilibrium condition in the study area. A large chloride O/I value (above one) and a large fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor

  20. Case studies in prehospital care from London HEMS: pre-hospital administration of prothrombin complex concentrate to the head-injured patient.

    PubMed

    Lendrum, Robbie A; Kotze, Jean-Pierre; Lockey, David J; Weaver, Anne E

    2013-03-01

    A case of pre-hospital administration of prothrombin complex concentrate to a patient anticoagulated with warfarin and with suspected intracranial haemorrhage is described. Effective, early reversal of anticoagulation by the time of arrival at hospital was achieved. PMID:23349352

  1. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  2. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  3. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea - Novel Mutation in SLC26A3 Gene.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Pandit, Deepti; Sinha, Aditi; Hari, Pankaj; Cheong, Hae Il; Bagga, Arvind

    2016-08-01

    The authors report a case of congenital chloride diarrhea with molecular confirmation of diagnosis. A 10-mo-old boy presented with failure to thrive, voluminous diarrhea, dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and history of maternal polyhydramnios. The diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was based on high fecal and low urinary chloride excretion, in addition to biochemical abnormalities. Genetic testing revealed a novel homozygous mutation in exon 4 of the SLC26A3 gene that encodes the protein regulating chloride bicarbonate absorption in distal ileum and colon. Therapy with oral fluids and electrolytes led to decrease in stool frequency and improvement in growth parameters. PMID:26637435

  4. Toxicology and metabolism of methylene chloride. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methylene chloride, its effects on biological systems, and its metabolic fate. Both animal and human studies, and case reports are examined for methylene chloride toxicity. Exposure to the chemical through inhalation, ingestion, and contact is examined. Occupational exposure to methylene chloride is included, and risk factors are discussed. Long term carcinogenicity of methylene chloride is also considered. Toxicity of other chlorinated organic compounds is referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 78 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Prenatal presentation of congenital chloride diarrhea: clinical report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rose, N C; Kaplan, P; Scott, S; Kousoulis, A; Librizzi, R

    1992-01-01

    A case of congenital chloride diarrhea was diagnosed after delivery in a patient whose antenatal course was notable for massively dilated small and large bowel and persistent, severe hydramnios refractory to therapy. The pathophysiologic mechanism is a dysfunctional chloride-bicarbonate exchange in the brush border of the ileum. Antenatal presentation, prenatal diagnosis, and a review of the current literature are discussed. PMID:1418143

  6. Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Clay A; Hershey, Ronald L; Healey, John M; Lyles, Brad F

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

  7. Comparison of endogenous GHB concentrations in blood and hair in death cases with emphasis on the post mortem interval.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound which has a story of clinical use and illicit abuse since the 1960's. The possibility to use a multi-sample approach for GHB evaluation, including whole blood and hair, to better characterize a forensic toxicology case and evaluate a possible causal association with the death is an exciting up-to-date issue. In addition, its post-mortem behaviour, namely regarding degradation and metabolism, has been increasingly investigated as a putative biomarker for post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. Thus, in order to contribute to clarification of this specific aspect, whole blood and hair post-mortem GHB levels were evaluated in 32 real cases with previous information on death and autopsy data. The results obtained suggest that the PMI (until 5 days between death and sampling) influences GHB whole blood concentration, but not GHB levels in hair samples. No differences were encountered for the other parameters evaluated, including age, gender, cause of death and presence or absence of substances. This study brings new insights regarding the usefulness of GHB levels in forensic toxicology, which might be further strengthened with larger, but comparable, studies from other laboratories and institutions in the context of legal medicine. PMID:26846768

  8. Purification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by cesium chloride gradient.

    PubMed

    Dumètre, Aurélien; Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2004-03-01

    We describe the use of a cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient as an improvement for the purification of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from concentrated suspensions. After concentration by sucrose flotation, this technique gives a > 96% recovery of very pure unsporulated or sporulated oocysts, but requires "fresh" oocysts (< or = 10 weeks of age). This material is suitable for biochemical and immunological analyses of environmentally resistant T. gondii oocysts. PMID:14967234

  9. TESTING OF 304L STAINLESS STEEL IN NITRIC ACID ENVIRONMENTS WITH FLUORIDES AND CHLORIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2010-10-04

    Impure radioactive material processed in nitric acid solutions resulted in the presence of chlorides in a dissolver fabricated from 304L stainless steel. An experimental program was conducted to study the effects of chloride in nitric acid/fluoride solutions on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel. The test variables included temperature (80, 95, and 110 C) and the concentrations of nitric acid (6, 12, and 14 M), fluoride (0.01, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and chloride (100, 350, 1000, and 2000 ppm). The impact of welding was also investigated. Results showed that the chloride concentration alone was not a dominant variable affecting the corrosion, but rather the interaction of chloride with fluoride significantly affected corrosion.

  10. Regulation of Chloride Channels by Protein Kinase C in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; McCann, John D.; Anderson, Matthew P.; Clancy, John P.; Liedtke, Carole M.; Nairn, Angus C.; Greengard, Paul; Welsh, Michael J.

    1989-06-01

    Apical membrane chloride channels control chloride secretion by airway epithelial cells. Defective regulation of these channels is a prominent characteristic of cystic fibrosis. In normal intact cells, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol ester either stimulated or inhibited chloride secretion, depending on the physiological status of the cell. In cell-free membrane patches, PKC also had a dual effect: at a high calcium concentration, PKC inactivated chloride channels; at a low calcium concentration, PKC activated chloride channels. In cystic fibrosis cells, PKC-dependent channel inactivation was normal, but activation was defective. Thus it appears that PKC phosphorylates and regulates two different sites on the channel or on an associated membrane protein, one of which is defective in cystic fibrosis.

  11. The development of chloride ion selective polypyrrole thin film on a layer-by-layer carbon nanotube working electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Lynch, Jerome

    2011-04-01

    A chloride ion selective thin film sensor is proposed for measuring chloride ion concentration, which is an environmental parameter correlated to corrosion. In this work, electrochemical polymerization of Polypyrrole (PPy) doped with chloride ions was achieved on the top of a carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film as a working electrode in an electrochemical cell. The underlying CNT layer conjugated with doped PPy thin film can form a multifunctional "selfsensing" material platform for chloride ion detection in a concrete environment. The paper presents the first type of work using CNT and PPy as hybrid materials for chloride ion sensing. Electrochemical polymerization of PPy results in oxidation that yields an average of one positive charge distributed over four pyrrole units. This positive charge is compensated by negatively-charged chloride ions in the supporting electrolyte. In effect, the chloride ion-doped PPy has become molecularly imprinted with chloride ions thereby providing it with some degree of perm-selectivity for chloride ions. The detection limit of the fabricated chloride ion-doped PPy thin film can reach 10-8 M and selectivity coefficients are comparable to those in the literature. The reported work aims to lay a strong foundation for detecting chloride ion concentrations in the concrete environment.

  12. Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T.; Pentecost, G.

    1993-12-01

    The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

  13. [A case of liposarcoma; the concentration of Tc-PYP and Ga-citrate was the useful indicator of the effect of transarterial embolization].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Itoh, T; Kato, T; Fujita, Y; Murata, R; Tanabe, M; Konishi, J

    1990-09-01

    Reported a case of liposarcoma of the left thigh with accumulation of 99mTc-PYP and Ga-citrate, which was remarkably decreased by transarterial embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first case that concentration of Tc-PYP and Ga-citrate was the useful indicator of the effect of transarterial embolization. PMID:2172604

  14. Catchment conceptualisation for examining applicability of chloride mass balance method in an area of historical forest clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, H.; Love, A.; Simmons, C. T.; Ding, Z.; Hutson, J.

    2009-11-01

    Among various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, chloride mass balance (CMB) method is one of the most frequently used, in particular, for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common history in many areas globally, has changed land surface boundary condition, posing a question whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium for CMB application. To examine CMB applicability for catchments, conceptual catchment types of various chloride equilibrium conditions are defined. The conceptualization, combined with some local climate conditions, is demonstrated to be useful in examining whether a catchment has reached new chloride equilibrium. The six conceptual catchment types are tested with eleven selected catchments in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR), a coastal hilly area in South Australia having experienced historical widespread forest clearance. The results show that six of the eleven catchments match type VI chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a gaining stream), with the ratio of stream chloride output over atmospheric chloride input (catchment chloride O/I) ranging from 2 to 4. Two catchments match type V chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a losing stream), with catchment chloride O/I values about 0.5. For these catchments, the CMB method is not appropriate to apply. The results also suggest that neither a below-one chloride O/I value nor a low seasonal fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor below 4) guarantees a chloride equilibrium condition in the study area. But a large chloride O/I value (above one) and a large fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor of 10 and above) generally indicates either a chloride disequilibrium, or cross-catchment water transfer, or both, for which CMB is not applicable. Based on the regression between chloride O/I values and annual precipitation for type VI catchments, a catchment with annual

  15. Susceptibility testing of Atopobium vaginae for dequalinium chloride

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis are major markers for bacterial vaginosis. We aimed to determine the MIC and MBC range of the broad-spectrum anti-infective and antiseptic dequalinium chloride for 28 strains, belonging to 4 species of the genus Atopobium, i.e. A. vaginae, A. minutum, A. rimae and A. parvulum. Methods The MIC was determined with a broth microdilution assay. Results The MIC and MBC for Atopobium spp. for dequalinium chloride ranged between < 0.0625 and 2 μg/ml. Conclusions This study demonstrated that dequalinium chloride inhibits and kills clinical isolates of A. vaginae at concentrations similar to those of clindamycin and lower than those of metronidazole. PMID:22429611

  16. Evaluation of localized corrosion of zirconium in acidic chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, J.; Holmes, D.; Yau, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    Zirconium is prone to localized corrosion in acidic chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}) solutions contaminated by oxidizing ions, such as ferric or cupric ions. This tendency can be reduced by ensuring that the zirconium surface is clean and smooth. The effect of surface condition on localized corrosion of zirconium in acidic chloride solutions was predicted using potentiodynamic polarization scans. Predictions were confirmed by mass-loss tests on various combinations of surface finish and acid concentrations. A real-time indication of localized corrosion was derived by monitoring electrochemical noise produced between two similar electrodes immersed in an acidic chloride solution. Electrochemical noise monitoring correlated well with predictions from the potentiodynamic polarization and mass-loss experiments. Electrochemical noise results showed a more anodic potential caused by ferric ion (Fe{sup 3+}) contamination might be necessary for localized corrosion but that it was not a sufficient condition. A clean zirconium surface reduced localized corrosion of zirconium.

  17. Reflectance measurements of cotton leaf senescence altered by mepiquat chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrophotometric reflectance measurements were made on plant-attached leaves to evaluate growth chamber-grown cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum L.) senescence (chlorophyll degradation as criterion) that was delayed by mepiquat chloride (1,1-dimethylpiperidinium chloride) rates of 0, 10, 40, 70, and 100 g a.i./ha. Mepiquat chloride (MC increased both chlorophyll and leaf water contents as compared with that of untreated leaves. Reflectance was inversely and linearly correlated (r = -0.873**) with eater content at the 1.65 micrometer wavelength and was inversely correlated (r = -0.812**) with chlorophyll concentration at the 0.55 micrometer wavelength but best fit a quadratic equation. Either wavelength measurement might be useful to remotely detect cotton leaf senescence or fields of MC-treated cotton plants.

  18. CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

  19. Laser using lead chloride vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    By applying electric discharge, lead chloride vapor in tube is dissociated into lead and chlorine atoms. Population inversion of lead atoms is attained subsequently by second discharge, before chemical recombination of lead and chlorine has occurred. Optimum time interval between two discharges is required for maximum laser output.

  20. Separating refractory and non-refractory particulate chloride and estimating chloride depletion by aerosol mass spectrometry in a marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuaaman, I.; Li, S.-M.; Hayden, K. L.; Onasch, T. B.; Massoli, P.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; McLaren, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol composition and concentration measurements along the coast of California were obtained using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) onboard the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex study in 2010. This paper focuses on the measurement of aerosol chloride using the HR-AMS that can be ambiguous in regions with significant quantities of sea salt aerosols. This ambiguity arises due to large differences in the sensitivity of the HR-AMS to refractory chloride species (i.e., NaCl) and non refractory chloride species (i.e., NH4Cl, HCl, etc.). Using the HR-AMS, the aerosol chloride signal is typically quantified using ion signals for 35Cl+, H35Cl+, 37Cl+ and H37Cl+ (HxCl+). During this study, the highest aerosol chloride signal was observed during sea sweep experiments when the source of the aerosol chloride was NaCl present in artificially generated sea salt aerosols even though the HR-AMS has significantly lower sensitivity to such refractory species. Other prominent ion signals that arise from NaCl salt were also observed at m/z 22.99 for Na+ and m/z 57.96 for Na35Cl+ during both sea sweep experiments and during periods of ambient measurements. Thus, refractory NaCl contributes significantly to the HxCl+ signal, interfering with attempts to quantify non sea salt chloride (nssCl). It was found that during ambient aerosol measurements, the interference in the HxCl+ signal from sea salt chloride (ssCl) was as high as 89%, but with a study wide average of 10%. The Na35Cl+ ion signal was found to be a good tracer for NaCl. We outline a method to establish nssCl in the ambient aerosols by subtracting the sea salt chloride (ssCl) signal from the HxCl+ signal. The ssCl signal is derived from the Na35Cl+ ion tracer signal and the HxCl+ to Na35Cl+ ratio established from the sea sweep experiments. Ambient submicron concentrations of ssCl were also established using the Na35Cl

  1. Microstructural Evolution of Chloride-Cleaned Silicon Carbide Aluminum Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Balogun, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the synergy between reinforcement surface modifications on the evolution of microstructures of AA6011-silicon carbide particle (SiCp) composites in multidirectional solidification. Silicon carbide particles (SiCp) were cleaned with ammonium chloride, tin(II) chloride, sodium chloride, and palladium(II) chloride and used as reinforcement to cast AA6011-SiCp composites by applying the stir casting method. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the morphology and phases present, respectively, in the composite material. Results show that wetting agents were effective as they inhibited the formation of Al4C3 in all modified composites. The modified SiCp was found to have varying effects on the morphology, dendrite arm size and direction, size and configuration of AlFeSi, and the amount of eutectic silicon depending on the concentration of the reagent and cleaning time. The highest effect was shown by the use of 40 g/L of tin(II) chloride. The composites had short dendritic arms, good interfacial interaction, and only a few crystals of AlFeSi.

  2. Coal-liquids distillation-tower corrosion. Chloride pathways in the Wilsonville, Alabama SRC-1 pilot plant when processing a high-chloride coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.H.; Saguees, A.; Thomas, G.A.; Baumert, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Wilsonville pilot plant experienced severe corrosion (> 1,000 mils/year) in the atmospheric fractionation column when processing a high-chloride (0.25 wt. %) coal. The operators found that the addition of sodium carbonate to the coal feed greatly reduced this corrosion but designers of a commercial plant could not use this corrosion control method. Hence, it was necessary to define the chloride pathway through the process. Samples collected during a brief operation without carbonate addition permitted a tentative conclusion about the chloride pathway. To provide a more definite pathway, the plant was operated for a three week period with a high chloride coal and samples were collected daily at more than 20 crucial sample points. Analysis of these samples clearly defined that the chloride pathway to the atmospheric fractionator was in the highest boiling distillate stream from the vacuum distillation column. A processing change near the mid-point of the three week run provided a marker to trace chloride through the process and provided further support for the pathway. Amines provide a transport mechanism for the chloride and provide, in addition, through thermal dissociation and recombination in fractionation columns, a mechanism for concentrating chlorides in a narrow region in the columns.

  3. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  4. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  5. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  7. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  8. Operational NIR-red Algorithms for Estimating Chlorophyll-a Concentration in Coastal Waters - The Azov Sea Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, W.; Gitelson, A. A.; Berdnikov, S.; Saprygin, V.; Bowles, J. H.; Povazhnyi, V.

    2012-12-01

    We present here results that strongly support the use of MERIS-based NIR-red algorithms as standard tools for estimating chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in turbid productive waters. The study was carried out as one of the steps in testing the potential of the universal applicability of previously developed NIR-red algorithms, which were originally calibrated using a limited set of MERIS imagery and in situ data from the Azov Sea and the Taganrog Bay, Russia, and data that were synthetically generated using a radiative transfer model. We used an extensive set of MERIS imagery and in situ data collected over a period of three years in the Azov Sea and the Taganrog Bay for this validation task. We found that the NIR-red algorithms gave consistently highly accurate estimates of chl-a concentration, with the root mean square error as low as 5.92 mg m-3 for the two-band algorithm and 5.91 mg m-3 for the three-band algorithm for the dataset with chl-a concentrations ranging from 1.09 mg m-3 to 107.82 mg m-3. This obviates the need for case-specific reparameterization of the algorithms, as long as the specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in the water does not change drastically, and presents a strong case for the use of NIR-red algorithms as standard algorithms that can be routinely applied for near-real-time quantitative monitoring of chl-a concentration in the Azov Sea and the Taganrog Bay, and potentially elsewhere, which will be a real boon to ecologists, natural resource managers and environmental decision-makers. We also present a temporal series of chl-a maps generated using the NIR-red algorithms from images acquired by the space-borne hyperspectral sensor HICO over the Taganrog Bay. The fine spatial resolution (96 m) of HICO images allows for a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution pattern of chl-a, and the fine spectral resolution (5.7 nm) offers a great potential for phytoplankton species discrimination. With the recent demise of MERIS

  9. [Have Case Loads of Radical Surgery for Prostate Cancer Been Concentrated in Hospitals with Robotic Equipment ?--Analyses with Questionnaire Survey and Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) Data].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether installation of robot-assisted surgical equipment in hospitals resulted in concentration of the case loads of radical prostatectomy. We selected 11 areas with populations of around 1 million or more where there were one or more hospitals with robotic equipment and 4 or more without it. In addition, annual changes of case loads for prostatectomy over 4 years from 2010 to 2013 were clearly determined in these areas. The case loads were determined based on the results of a questionnaire survey for the hospitals with robots and on the Diagnostic Procedures Combination data provided by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Wealth for those without such equipment. The concentration of the case loads was principally defined as when hospitals with robots had more predominant proportion of cases than those without them in the comparison between case loads prior to instillation of robots (or in the initial year of the study) and those in the final years. The 11 selected areas included 44 hospitals with robots and 156 without them. Concentration of case loads was found in 5 areas. In 4 areas, installation of robots did not have a specific relation to the distribution pattern s of case loads in hospitals with or without the equipment. The remaining 2 areas tended to have a weak but not definite concentration of case loads. In the areas in which installation did not influence case loads the further analysis revealed that their case loads had already been concentrated in the initial year (2010) of the study. Although the current results were found in a single department of the hospital, robotic installation may result in concentration of prostatectomy case loads for such hospitals in some areas. The current results are intriguing when we consider the future roles of acute care hospitals and beds in our country where the number of aged patients having chronic diseases will increase. In conclusion, installation of robotic equipment may result in concentration

  10. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  11. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M.; Muller, Jochen A.; Rosner, Bettina M.; Von Abendroth, Gregory; Meshulam-Simon, Galit; McCarty, Perry L

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  12. Unique chloride-sensing properties of WNK4 permit the distal nephron to modulate potassium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Terker, Andrew S.; Zhang, Chong; Erspamer, Kayla J.; Gamba, Gerardo; Yang, Chao-Ling; Ellison, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary potassium deficiency activates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport along the distal nephron. This may explain, in part, the hypertension and cardiovascular mortality observed in individuals who consume a low potassium diet. Recent data suggest plasma potassium affects the distal nephron directly by influencing intracellular chloride, an inhibitor of the With no lysine kinase (WNK)-Ste20p-related proline-and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) pathway. Since previous studies used extreme dietary manipulations, we sought to determine if the relationship between potassium and NCC is physiologically relevant and clarify the mechanisms involved. We report that modest changes in both dietary and plasma potassium affect the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, in vivo. Kinase assay studies showed that chloride inhibits WNK4 kinase activity at lower concentrations than it inhibits activity of WNK1 or WNK3. Also, chloride inhibited WNK4 within the range of distal cell chloride. Mutation of a previously identified WNK chloride-binding motif converted WNK4 effects on SPAK from inhibitory to stimulatory in mammalian cells. Disruption of this motif in WNKs 1, 3 and 4 had different effects on NCC, consistent with the three WNKs having different chloride sensitivities. Thus, potassium effects on NCC are graded within the physiological range, which explains how unique chloride-sensing properties of WNK4 enable kinase mediating effects of potassium on NCC in vivo. PMID:26422504

  13. Chloride content of Rocky Flats scrub alloy eleventh campaign solution following head end treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1988-06-30

    A single batch of dissolver solution from the eleventh Rocky Flats Scrub Alloy (RFSA) campaign has been analyzed for chloride content following head end treatment to reduce its concentration. Scrub alloy buttons were dissolved in Tank 6.4D during May. In subsequent head end processing, chloride was precipitated with mercurous ion added as the nitrate. The precipitate, Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, was concurrently removed with the gelatin floc via centrifugation. Duplicate samples from Tank 11.2, containing the head end product, produced excellent agreement between their density measurements, acid analyses, and gross alpha activities, indicating them to be truly representative of the tank`s contents. Duplicate aliquots from each of these solutions were analyzed using the turbidimetric chloride method developed in the Separations Technology Laboratory. These resulted in an average chloride value of 41 ppm ({micro}g/mL) chloride for the head end product. Relative standard deviation of the measurement was {+-}4 ppm (n = 4), a precision of {+-}10%. Such a variance is normal at this low chloride level. Since initial chloride values prior to head end averaged 1455 ppm (0.041M), as analyzed by Laboratories Department, a chloride DF of approximately 35 was obtained. Such a reduced chloride level (to less than 100 ppm) in the treated solution will permit further canyon processing with minimal corrosion.

  14. Synchronous Bioimaging of Intracellular pH and Chloride Based on LSS Fluorescent Protein.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jose M; Idilli, Aurora I; Mariotti, Letizia; Losi, Gabriele; Arslanbaeva, Lyaysan R; Sato, Sebastian Sulis; Artoni, Pietro; Szczurkowska, Joanna; Cancedda, Laura; Ratto, Gian Michele; Carmignoto, Giorgio; Arosio, Daniele

    2016-06-17

    Ion homeostasis regulates critical physiological processes in the living cell. Intracellular chloride concentration not only contributes in setting the membrane potential of quiescent cells but it also plays a role in modulating the dynamic voltage changes during network activity. Dynamic chloride imaging demands new tools, allowing faster acquisition rates and correct accounting of concomitant pH changes. Joining a long-Stokes-shift red-fluorescent protein to a GFP variant with high sensitivity to pH and chloride, we obtained LSSmClopHensor, a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor optimized for the simultaneous chloride and pH imaging and requiring only two excitation wavelengths (458 and 488 nm). LSSmClopHensor allowed us to monitor the dynamic changes of intracellular pH and chloride concentration during seizure like discharges in neocortical brain slices. Only cells with tightly controlled resting potential revealed a narrow distribution of chloride concentration peaking at about 5 and 8 mM, in neocortical neurons and SK-N-SH cells, respectively. We thus showed that LSSmClopHensor represents a new versatile tool for studying the dynamics of chloride and proton concentration in living systems. PMID:27031242

  15. Feasibility demonstration for hydrogen chloride detection using a chemisorption technique and a quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, D. W.; Workman, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring concentrations of hydrogen chloride between 1 part per billion and 10 parts per million at standard temperature and pressure is presented. The feasibility of a low-cost device incorporating a chemisorption technique coupled with a quartz crystal microbalance was demonstrated in the field at the Viking B launch using a Titan-Centaur vehicle from Kennedy Space Center on August 20, 1975. Hydrogen chloride is a product of solid rocket combustion. The concentration level of hydrogen chloride for this particular launch was measured as approximately 0.2 parts per million at 4 km from the launch site.

  16. Geochemical Estimates of Paleorecharge in the Pasco Basin: Evaluation of the Chloride Mass Balance Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Ellyn M.; Ginn, Timothy R.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    1996-04-01

    The Pasco Basin in southeastern Washington State provides a unique hydrogeologic setting for evaluating the chloride mass balance technique for estimating recharge. This basin was affected by late Pleistocene catastrophic floods when glacial dams in western Montana and northern Idaho were breached. It is estimated that multiple Missoula floods occurred between ˜13,000 and 15,000 years B.P. and reached a high water elevation of ˜350 m. These floods removed accumulated chloride from the sediment profile, effectively resetting the chloride mass balance clock at the beginning of the Holocene. The rate of chloride accumulation qCl in the sediments was determined by two methods and compared. The first method measured qCl by dividing the calculated natural fallout of 36Cl by a measured ratio of 36Cl/Cl in the pore water, while the second method used the total mass of chloride in the profile divided by the length of time that atmospheric chloride had accumulated since the last flood. Although the two methods are based on different approaches, they showed close agreement. In laboratory studies the sediment to water ratio for chloride extraction was sensitive to the grain size of the sediments; low extraction ratios in silt loam sediments led to significant underestimation of pore water chloride concentration. Br/Cl ratios were useful for distinguishing nonatmospheric (e.g., rock) sources of chloride. Field studies showed little spatial variability in estimated recharge at a given site within the basin but showed significant topographic control on recharge rates in this semiarid environment. An extension of the conventional chloride mass balance model was used to evaluate chloride profiles under transient, time-varying annual precipitation conditions. This model was inverted to determine the paleorecharge history for a given soil chloride profile, and the parameters of the root extraction model required to estimate paleoprecipitation

  17. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  8. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34 Section 151.50-34 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-34 Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a)...

  3. Effect of chloride on ferrous iron oxidation by a Leptospirillum ferriphilum-dominated chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Gahan, Chandra Sekhar; Sundkvist, Jan-Eric; Dopson, Mark; Sandström, Ake

    2010-06-15

    Biomining is the use of microorganisms to catalyze metal extraction from sulfide ores. However, the available water in some biomining environments has high chloride concentrations and therefore, chloride toxicity to ferrous oxidizing microorganisms has been investigated. Batch biooxidation of Fe(2+) by a Leptospirillum ferriphilum-dominated culture was completely inhibited by 12 g L(-1) chloride. In addition, the effects of chloride on oxidation kinetics in a Fe(2+) limited chemostat were studied. Results from the chemostat modeling suggest that the chloride toxicity was attributed to affects on the Fe(2+) oxidation system, pH homeostasis, and lowering of the proton motive force. Modeling showed a decrease in the maximum specific growth rate (micro(max)) and an increase in the substrate constant (K(s)) with increasing chloride concentrations, indicating an effect on the Fe(2+) oxidation system. The model proposes a lowered maintenance activity when the media was fed with 2-3 g L(-1) chloride with a concomitant drastic decrease in the true yield (Y(true)). This model helps to understand the influence of chloride on Fe(2+) biooxidation kinetics. PMID:20198654

  4. Unique chloride-sensing properties of WNK4 permit the distal nephron to modulate potassium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Terker, Andrew S; Zhang, Chong; Erspamer, Kayla J; Gamba, Gerardo; Yang, Chao-Ling; Ellison, David H

    2016-01-01

    Dietary potassium deficiency activates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport along the distal nephron. This may explain, in part, the hypertension and cardiovascular mortality observed in individuals who consume a low-potassium diet. Recent data suggest that plasma potassium affects the distal nephron directly by influencing intracellular chloride, an inhibitor of the with-no-lysine kinase (WNK)-Ste20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) pathway. As previous studies used extreme dietary manipulations, we sought to determine whether the relationship between potassium and NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is physiologically relevant and clarify the mechanisms involved. We report that modest changes in both dietary and plasma potassium affect NCC in vivo. Kinase assay studies showed that chloride inhibits WNK4 kinase activity at lower concentrations than it inhibits activity of WNK1 or WNK3. Also, chloride inhibited WNK4 within the range of distal cell chloride concentration. Mutation of a previously identified WNK chloride-binding motif converted WNK4 effects on SPAK from inhibitory to stimulatory in mammalian cells. Disruption of this motif in WNKs 1, 3, and 4 had different effects on NCC, consistent with the three WNKs having different chloride sensitivities. Thus, potassium effects on NCC are graded within the physiological range, which explains how unique chloride-sensing properties of WNK4 enable it to mediate effects of potassium on NCC in vivo. PMID:26422504

  5. Association between Concentrations of Metals in Urine and Adult Asthma: A Case-Control Study in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiji; Xie, Jungang; Cui, Xiuqing; Zhou, Yun; Wu, Xiaojie; Lu, Wei; Shen, Yan; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Background Several metals have been reported to be associated with childhood asthma. However, the results on relationships between metals and risk of childhood asthma are inconclusive, and the research on adult asthma in the Chinese general population is rare. Objectives To investigate potential associations between levels of urinary metals and adult asthma. Methods A case-control study of 551 adult asthma cases and 551 gender- and age-matched controls was conducted in Wuhan, China. Demographic information was obtained, and lung function was assessed. The urinary concentrations of 22 metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results After adjusting for other metalsand other covariates, urinary cadmium, molybdenum, chromium, copper, uranium and selenium were positively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI) of 1.69 (1.00, 2.85), 3.76 (2.30, 6.16), 4.89 (3.04, 7.89), 6.06 (3.27, 11.21), 6.99 (4.37, 11.19) and 9.17 (4.16, 20.21), respectively. By contrast, urinary lead, barium, iron, zinc, nickel, manganese and rubidium were negatively associated with asthma, with odds ratios (95% CI) of 0.48 (0.29, 0.80), 0.44 (0.27, 0.71), 0.41 (0.26, 0.64), 0.40 (0.24, 0.66), 0.30 (0.22, 0.41), 0.23 (0.14, 0.39) and 0.07 (0.03, 0.15), respectively. When comparing urinary metals in different subgroups of cases with those in matched controls, the associations of above 13 metals with asthma prevalence were nearly the same. Conclusions Our results suggested that asthma prevalence in the Chinese adults was positively associated with urinary chromium, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, and uranium, and negatively associated with urinary manganese, iron, nickel, zinc, rubidium, barium and lead. Additional research with larger populations in different regions is required to support our findings. PMID:27191859

  6. Regional analysis of the effect of paved roads on sodium and chloride in lakes.

    PubMed

    Kelting, Daniel L; Laxson, Corey L; Yerger, Elizabeth C

    2012-05-15

    Salinization of surface water from sodium chloride (road salt) applied to paved roads is a widely recognized environmental concern in the northern hemisphere, yet practical information to improve winter road management to reduce the environmental impacts of this deicer is lacking. The purpose of our study was to provide such information by developing baseline concentrations for sodium and chloride for lakes in watersheds without paved roads, and then determining the relationship between these ions and density, type, and proximity of paved roads to shoreline. We used average summer (June-September) sodium and chloride data for 138 lakes combined in a watershed based analysis of paved road networks in the Adirondack Park of New York, U.S.A. The watersheds used in our study represented a broad range in paved road density and type, 56 of which had no paved roads. Median lake sodium and chloride concentrations in these 56 watersheds averaged 0.55 and 0.24 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, the median sodium and chloride concentrations for the 82 lakes in watersheds with paved roads were 3.60 and 7.22 mg/L, respectively. Paved road density (lane-km/km(2)) was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations, but only state roads were significantly correlated with sodium and chloride while local roads were not. State road density alone explained 84 percent of the variation in both ions. We also successfully modeled the relationship between road proximity to shoreline and sodium and chloride concentrations in lakes, which allowed us to identify sections of road that contributed more to explaining the variation in sodium and chloride in lakes. This model and our approach could be used as part of larger efforts to identify environmentally sensitive areas where alternative winter road management treatments should be applied. PMID:22406283

  7. Recharge Estimation Using Water, Chloride and Isotope Mass Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogramaci, S.; Firmani, G.; Hedley, P.; Skrzypek, G.; Grierson, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    Discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may elevate groundwater levels and alter the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers but it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid subtropical Hamersley Basin that has received continuous mine discharge for more than five years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 74 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.24‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ~ 65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ~35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the creek has not extended beyond 27 km from the discharge point. Our approach using a combination of hydrochemical and isotope methods coupled with classical surface flow hydraulic modelling allowed evaluation of components of water budget otherwise not possible in a highly dynamic system that is mainly driven by infrequent but large episodic

  8. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  9. Absorption characteristics of elemental mercury in mercury chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongpeng; Xu, Haomiao; Qu, Zan; Yan, Naiqiang; Wang, Wenhua

    2014-11-01

    Elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in flue gases can be efficiently captured by mercury chloride (HgCl2) solution. However, the absorption behaviors and the influencing effects are still poorly understood. The mechanism of Hg(0) absorption by HgCl2 and the factors that control the removal were studied in this paper. It was found that when the mole ratio of Cl(-) to HgCl2 is 10:1, the Hg(0) removal efficiency is the highest. Among the main mercury chloride species, HgCl3(-) is the most efficient ion for Hg(0) removal in the HgCl2 absorption system when moderate concentrations of chloride ions exist. The Hg(0) absorption reactions in the aqueous phase were investigated computationally using Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. The calculated Gibbs free energies and energy barriers are in excellent agreement with the results obtained from experiments. In the presence of SO3(2-) and SO2, Hg(2+) reduction occurred and Hg(0) removal efficiency decreased. The reduced Hg(0) removal can be controlled through increased chloride concentration to some degree. Low pH value in HgCl2 solution enhanced the Hg(0) removal efficiency, and the effect was more significant in dilute HgCl2 solutions. The presence of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) did not affect Hg(0) removal by HgCl2. PMID:25458680

  10. Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C.

    1997-07-01

    Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

  11. Lead electrowinning in an acid chloride medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Expósito, E.; Iniesta, J.; González-García, J.; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A.

    The results of an investigation of the electrowinning of lead employing a chloride medium are reported. The electro-deposition lead reaction was studied by voltammetric methods and scanning electron microscope (SEM) microphotographs of the electro-deposited lead were taken. The effects of current density, temperature, catholyte flow and H + concentration were investigated at laboratory scale to optimise operating conditions in order to found adequate values for industrial purposes of the parameters energetic cost and production. For a working current density of 100 mA/cm 2 the current efficiency, energy consumption and production were 90%, 1.32 kW h/kg Pb and 83.4 kg Pb/m 2 per day, respectively.

  12. Corrosion studies on construction materials for flue-gas-desulfurization systems. [Effects of Ph, chloride content, and alloy composition

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P.S.

    1982-08-01

    Several Mo- and Cr-bearing alloys of interest to flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been examined for corrosion in simulated FGD environments at 85/sup 0/C. To evaluate the importance of hydrogen and chloride ion concentrations, Type 316L stainless steel was exposed for varying times at different pH levels (0.5 to 3.0) and chloride content (0.03 to 5.0 wt% Cl/sup -/). To determine the effects of pH and composition in acid solution that contains a fixed amount of chloride (approx. 0.34 wt% Cl/sup -/), a number of alloys were used in which the composition parameter (defined as the sum of Cr and Mo) varied from 19.5 to 33.5 wt%. In all cases, the general corrosion or dissolution as determined from weight loss measurements (mg mm/sup -2/) varied linearly with time. The corrosion rate (mg mm/sup -2/ h/sup -1/) for the alloys decreased with an increase in pH in a consistent manner regardless of the alloy crystal structure. The composition effects on corrosion rate were most significant at pH = 0.5. The dependence of corrosion rate on pH, chloride ion concentration, and alloy composition is discussed in a quantitative manner. The relationships developed from the kinetic data provide useful guidance in the selection of appropriate alloys for more comprehensive studies under more realistic FGD testing environments that include environmental and stress cycling. Also, the materials evaluation approach adopted in the present study enables predictions of the life of components subjected to different environments and is relevant to alloy development work in progress elsewhere. In addition, testing and evaluation procedures have been developed for two alternative materials, namely, a fiber-reinforced plastic (Atlac 4010-A from ICI Americas, Inc.) and an epoxy coating on mild steel (Markote 300 System from Martek Engineering, Inc.); preliminary results are presented.

  13. Chloride in Groundwater and Surface Water in Areas Underlain by the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.; Lorenz, David L.; Arntson, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    A study of chloride in groundwater and surface water was conducted for the glacial aquifer system of the northern United States in forested, agricultural, and urban areas by analyzing data collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program from 1991 to 2004. Groundwater-quality data from a sampling of 1,329 wells in 19 states were analyzed. Chloride concentrations were greater than the secondary maximum contaminant level established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of 250 milligrams per liter in 2.5 percent of samples from 797 shallow monitoring wells and in 1.7 percent of samples from 532 drinking-water supply wells. Water samples from shallow monitoring wells in urban areas had the largest concentration of chloride, followed by water samples from agricultural and forested areas (medians of 46, 12, and 2.9 milligrams per liter, respectively). An analysis of chloride:bromide ratios, by mass, and chloride concentrations compared to binary mixing curves for dilute groundwater, halite, sewage and animal waste, potassium chloride fertilizer, basin brines, seawater, and landfill leachate in samples from monitoring wells indicated multiple sources of chloride in samples from wells in urban areas and agricultural areas. Water from shallow monitoring wells in urban areas had the largest chloride:bromide ratio, and samples with chloride:bromide ratios greater than 1,000 and chloride concentrations greater than 100 milligrams per liter were dominated by halite; however, the samples commonly contained mixtures that indicated input from sewage or animal waste. Chloride:bromide ratios were significantly larger in samples from public-supply drinking-water wells than from private drinking-water wells, and ratios were significantly larger in all drinking-water wells in eastern and central regions of the glacial aquifer system than in west-central and western regions of the glacial aquifer system. Surface-water-quality data collected regularly during varying

  14. Slow strain rate fracture of high-strength steel at controlled electrochemical potentials in ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, and ammonium nitrate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E. ); Daniels, R.D. . School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science)

    1992-08-15

    Slow strain rate testing has been undertaken to determine the effects of individual chemical species on the fracture process of high-strength 4340 steel. Test environments included potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium chloride at concentrations from 0.001 to 1.0 mole por liter at ambient temperature. Tests were performed at cathodic and anodic controlled potentials, as well as at the open-circuit potential, to delineate the stress corrosion cracking range.

  15. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  16. Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Jessica Breyan

    This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103-104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

  17. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  18. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  19. Effects of chronic exposure to benzalkonium chloride in Oncorhynchus mykiss: cholinergic neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, peroxidative damage and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S C; Nunes, B; Rodrigues, S; Nunes, R; Fernandes, J; Correia, A T

    2016-07-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is one of the most used conservatives in pharmaceutical preparations. However, its use is limited to a small set of external use formulations, due to its high toxicity. Benzalkonium chloride effects are related to the potential exertion of deleterious effects, mediated via oxidative stress and through interaction with membrane enzymes, leading to cellular damage. To address the ecotoxicity of this specific compound rainbow trouts were chronically exposed to BAC at environmental relevant concentrations (ranging from 0.100 to 1.050mg/L), and the biological response of cholinergic neurotoxicity, modulation of the antioxidant defense, phase II metabolism, lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity was studied. The obtained results showed a dual pattern of antioxidant response, with significant alterations in catalase activity (starting at 0.180mg/L), and lipid peroxidation, for intermediate (0.180 and 0.324mg/L) concentrations. No significant alterations occurred for glutathione-S-transferases activity. An unexpected increased of the acetylcholinesterase activity was also recorded for the individuals exposed to higher concentrations of BAC (starting at 0.180mg/L). Furthermore, exposure to BAC resulted in the establishment of genotoxic alterations, observable (for the specific case of the comet assay results) for all tested BAC concentrations. However, and considering that the oxidative response was not devisable, other mechanisms may be involved in the genotoxic effects reported here. PMID:27280532

  20. A novel capsule-based self-recovery system with a chloride ion trigger

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wei; Tang, Jiaoning; Zhu, Guangming; Han, Ningxu; Schlangen, Erik; Dong, Biqin; Wang, Xianfeng; Xing, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Steel is prone to corrosion induced by chloride ions, which is a serious threat to reinforced concrete structures, especially in marine environments. In this work, we report a novel capsule-based self-recovery system that utilizes chloride ions as a trigger. These capsules, which are functionalized via a smart response to chloride ions, are fabricated using a silver alginate hydrogel that disintegrates upon contact with chloride ions, and thereby releases the activated core materials. The experimental results show that the smart capsules respond to a very low concentration of chloride ions (0.1 wt%). Therefore, we believe that this novel capsule-based self-recovery system will exhibit a promising prospect for self-healing or corrosion inhibition applications. PMID:26051224

  1. A novel capsule-based self-recovery system with a chloride ion trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Tang, Jiaoning; Zhu, Guangming; Han, Ningxu; Schlangen, Erik; Dong, Biqin; Wang, Xianfeng; Xing, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Steel is prone to corrosion induced by chloride ions, which is a serious threat to reinforced concrete structures, especially in marine environments. In this work, we report a novel capsule-based self-recovery system that utilizes chloride ions as a trigger. These capsules, which are functionalized via a smart response to chloride ions, are fabricated using a silver alginate hydrogel that disintegrates upon contact with chloride ions, and thereby releases the activated core materials. The experimental results show that the smart capsules respond to a very low concentration of chloride ions (0.1 wt%). Therefore, we believe that this novel capsule-based self-recovery system will exhibit a promising prospect for self-healing or corrosion inhibition applications.

  2. A novel capsule-based self-recovery system with a chloride ion trigger.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Tang, Jiaoning; Zhu, Guangming; Han, Ningxu; Schlangen, Erik; Dong, Biqin; Wang, Xianfeng; Xing, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Steel is prone to corrosion induced by chloride ions, which is a serious threat to reinforced concrete structures, especially in marine environments. In this work, we report a novel capsule-based self-recovery system that utilizes chloride ions as a trigger. These capsules, which are functionalized via a smart response to chloride ions, are fabricated using a silver alginate hydrogel that disintegrates upon contact with chloride ions, and thereby releases the activated core materials. The experimental results show that the smart capsules respond to a very low concentration of chloride ions (0.1 wt%). Therefore, we believe that this novel capsule-based self-recovery system will exhibit a promising prospect for self-healing or corrosion inhibition applications. PMID:26051224

  3. Copper extraction from chloride solutions with mixtures of solvating and chelating reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Borowiak-Resterna, A.; Szymanowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Equimolar mixtures of N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrahexylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxamide (L) with 2-hydroxy-5-t-octylbenzophenone oxime or 1-phenyldecane-1,3-dione (HB), were used to extract copper from chloride solutions of various concentration of chloride ions. Chloride ions were then scrubbed out with water or ammoniacal solutions and copper was transferred from the solvate CuCl{sub 2}L{sub 2} to chelate CuB{sub 2}. Both studied systems permit effective extraction of copper and removal of chloride ions from the organic phase. Some protonation of solvating reagent L occurs, however, when copper is stripped from the chelate with hydroxyoxime. This negative effect can be suppressed when 1-phenyldecane-1,3-dione is used as a chelating agent. The scrubbing of chloride ions must be then carried out with ammoniacal solutions to avoid simultaneous stripping of copper.

  4. Water and solute transfer between a prairie wetland and adjacent uplands, 2. Chloride cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rudolph, Dave L.

    1998-06-01

    The quality of water in lakes and wetlands depends on the exchange of solutes with adjacent uplands. In many prairie wetlands, the input of water is dominated by snowmelt runoff and the outputis dominated by groundwater flow. We use chloride as a tracer to quantify the mass transfer processes associated with surface runoff and groundwater flow between a wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada and the surrounding upland. Snowmelt runoff transports 4-5 kg yr -1 of chloride from the upland to the wetland. Most of this chloride infiltrates under the wetland and moves laterally to the upland with shallow groundwater. Under the upland, chloride moves upward in the vadose zone with soil water, and accumulates near the surface as water is consumed by evapotranspiration. Part of this chloride mixes with snowmelt runoff and moves back to the wetland Therefore, chloride is cycled between the wetland and the upland at an approximate rate of 5 kg yr -1. The chloride cycle occurs within 5-6 m of the ground surface. A small amount of chloride escapes from the cycle with the downward flow of groundwater into the deep aquifer. The estimated flux of chloride leaving the cycle is 0.1-0.6 kg yr -1, which is of the same order of magnitude as the rate at which the catchment receives atmospheric deposition of chloride. Because the atmospheric input is reasonably well known over the prairie region, the concentration of chloride in groundwater under recharge wetlands can be used to estimate the recharge rate of deep aquifers.

  5. Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

  6. Case study of the 9 April 2009 ‘brown’ cloud: Observations of usually high cloud droplet concentrations in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delene, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Cloud droplets nucleate on aerosol particles termed cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is well known that a larger number concentration of CCN results in a larger number concentration of droplets in developing cumulus clouds. However, the conditions where dust particles can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence change cloud droplet concentration and precipitation formation processes is uncertain. Aircraft measurements of cloud droplet concentration between 13:20 and 13:30 UTC during the 9 April 2009 flight near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, show total cloud droplet concentration (3-50 µm in diameter) of 800 to 1200 #/cm-3 at a altitude of 18000 ft. Typical cloud droplet concentration for this type of cloud in the Riyadh region is approximately 400 #/cm-3 and is typical of observation made between 13:00 and 13:20 UTC during the 9 April 2009 flight at 18,000 ft. Photographs of ice accumulation on the unprotected leading edge of the aircraft’s wing due to the freezing of super cooled droplets show a color changed from white during the time of low droplet number condensation to brown during the high droplet number concentration. It is hypothesized that high droplet number concentration observations were the result of ingestion of a large about of dust particles by the cloud. : Case Study of the 9 April 2009 ‘Brown’ Cloud: Observations of Usually High Cloud Droplet Concentrations in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Coupling between chloride absorption and base excretion in isolated skin of Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Ehrenfeld, J; Garcia-Romeu, F

    1978-07-01

    The net excretory fluxes of base (HCO3- or OH-) and the unidirectional fluxes of chloride were measured and their relationship examined in isolated frog skin maintained in open- or short-circuit (OC and SC) conditions. When the mucosal solution was a 2 mM choline chloride solution and the serosal solution a Ringer solution buffered with a HCO3-/CO2 mixture, the rate of base excretion was -105 +/- 10 in OC and -60 +/- 7 neq h-1 cm-2 in SC. A highly significant correlation was observed between the influx of chloride and the excretion of base. As a function of external chloride both these parameters followed saturation kinetics, Vmax being obtained for a chloride concentration below 2 mM. The removal of chloride in the external solution was followed by a 70 or 100% inhibition of base excretion in OC and SC conditions, respectively. Chloride transport is dependent on the presence of a HCO3-/CO2 mixture in the internal or the external medium. This transport, as well as base excretion, is inhibited to a considerable extent by removal of HCO3-/CO2 or by acetazolamide (10(-3) M). This investigation characterizes a saturable transport system in which chloride absorption and base excretion are coupled. PMID:307916

  8. BLOOD HARMANE (1-METHYL-9H-PYRIDO[3,4-B]INDOLE) CONCENTRATION IN ESSENTIAL TREMOR CASES IN SPAIN

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Benito-León, Julian; Moreno-García, Sara; Vega, Saturio; Romero, Juan Pablo; Bermejo-Pareja, Felix; Gerbin, Marina; Viner, Amanda S.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Environmental correlates for essential tremor (ET) are largely unexplored. The search for such environmental factors has involved the study of a number of neurotoxins. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing toxin. In two prior case-control studies in New York, we demonstrated that blood harmane concentration was elevated in ET patients vs. controls, and especially in familial ET cases. These findings, however, have been derived from a study of cases ascertained through a single tertiary referral center in New York. Objective Our objective was to determine whether blood harmane concentrations are elevated in familial and sporadic ET cases, ascertained from central Spain, compared to controls without ET. Methods Blood harmane concentrations were quantified by a well-established high performance liquid chromatography method. Results The median harmane concentrations were: 2.09 g−10/ml (138 controls), 2.41 g−10/ml (68 sporadic ET), and 2.90 g−10/ml (62 familial ET). In an unadjusted logistic regression analysis, log blood harmane concentration was not significantly associated with diagnosis (familial ET vs. control): odds ratio = 1.56, p = 0.26. In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for evaluation start time, which was an important confounding variable, the odds ratio increased to 2.35, p = 0.049. Conclusions Blood harmane levels were slightly elevated in a group of familial ET cases compared to a group of controls in Spain. These data seem to further extend our observations from New York to a second cohort of ET cases in Spain. This neurotoxin continues to be a source of interest for future confirmatory research. PMID:22981972

  9. Chloride Sources and Losses in Two Tile-Drained Agricultural Watersheds.

    PubMed

    David, Mark B; Mitchell, Corey A; Gentry, Lowell E; Salemme, Ronald K

    2016-01-01

    Chloride is a relatively unreactive plant nutrient that has long been used as a biogeochemical tracer but also can be a pollutant causing aquatic biology impacts when concentrations are high, typically from rock salt applications used for deicing roads. Chloride inputs to watersheds are most often from atmospheric deposition, road salt, or agricultural fertilizer, although studies on agricultural watersheds with large fertilizer inputs are few. We used long-term (21 and 17 yr) chloride water quality data in two rivers of east-central Illinois to better understand chloride biogeochemistry in two agricultural watersheds (Embarras and Kaskaskia), the former with a larger urban land use and both with extensive tile drainage. During our sampling period, the average chloride concentration was 23.7 and 20.9 mg L in the Embarras and Kaskaskia Rivers, respectively. Annual fluxes of chloride were 72.5 and 61.2 kg ha yr in the Embarras and Kaskaskia watersheds, respectively. In both watersheds, fertilizer chloride was the dominant input (∼49 kg ha yr), with road salt likely the other major source (23.2 and 7.2 kg ha yr for the Embarras and Kaskaskia watersheds, respectively). Combining our monitoring data with earlier published data on the Embarras River showed an increase in chloride concentrations as potash use increased in Illinois during the 1960s and 1970s with a lag of about 2 to 6 yr to changes in potash inputs based on a multiple-regression model. In these agricultural watersheds, riverine chloride responds relatively quickly to potash fertilization as a result of tile-drainage. PMID:26828190

  10. Chloride Transporting CLC Proteins1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, Michael

    In the early 1980s, Chris Miller and colleagues described a curious "double-barreled" chloride channel from the electric organ of Torpedo fish reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers (Miller and White, 1980). Single-channel openings occurred in "bursts" separated by long closures. A single burst was characterized by the presence of two open conductance levels of equal size and the gating (i.e., openings and closings) during a burst could be almost perfectly described as a superposition of two identical and independent conductances that switched between open and closed states with voltage-dependent rates α and β (Hanke and Miller, 1983) (Fig. 8.1).

  11. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    PubMed Central

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  12. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  13. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  14. Influence of slag blended cement concrete on chloride diffusion rate

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghanian, C.; Arjemandi, M.

    1997-06-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of 0 to 30% partial replacement of cement by slag on chloride diffusion rate in concrete. Concretes with 0 to 30% slag were used and exposed to 2 to 5% NaCl solutions. The effect of different external salt concentration solutions and the influence of water-cement ratios ranging from 0.45 to 0.75 was also studied. In this research, different curing methods such as 9 to 18 days exposure to 100% humidity and 9 to 18 days submersion in distilled water were selected. The results indicated that after 90 days of exposure to salt solutions an/d 108 days of concrete age, chloride diffusivity for concretes containing slag almost remained the same. This effect was more pronounced for water-cement ratio of 0.45 and curing condition of 18 days submersion in water. An increase in water-cement ratio beyond 0.55 indicated a higher chloride diffusion rate. Curing condition for slag blended cement concrete also indicated a different behavior in chloride diffusivity. The best curing method obtained for this type of concrete was 18 days submersion in water.

  15. Electrodeposition of copper composites from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Andrew P; El Ttaib, Khalid; Frisch, Gero; McKenzie, Katy J; Ryder, Karl S

    2009-06-01

    Here we describe for the first time the electrolytic deposition of copper and copper composites from a solution of the metal chloride salt in either urea-choline chloride, or ethylene glycol-choline chloride based eutectics. We show that the deposition kinetics and thermodynamics are quite unlike those in aqueous solution under comparable conditions and that the copper ion complexation is also different. The mechanism of copper nucleation is studied using chronoamperometry and it is shown that progressive nucleation leads to a bright nano-structured deposit. In contrast, instantaneous nucleation, at lower concentrations of copper ions, leads to a dull deposit. This work also pioneers the use of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) to monitor both current efficiency and the inclusion of inert particulates into the copper coatings. This technique allows the first in situ quantification or particulate inclusion. It was found that the composition of composite material was strongly dependent on the amount of species suspended in solution. It was also shown that the majority of material was dragged onto the surface rather than settling on to it. The distribution of the composite material was found to be even throughout the coating. This technology is important because it facilitates deposition of bright copper coatings without co-ligands such as cyanide. The incorporation of micron-sized particulates into ionic liquids has resulted, in one case, in a decrease in viscosity. This observation is both unusual and surprising; we explain this here in terms of an increase in the free volume of the liquid and local solvent perturbation. PMID:19458829

  16. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant

  17. Pharmacodynamics of benzyl chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S; Abdel-Rahman, M S

    1989-09-01

    In today's world of high industrialization, toxicity and pollution have become common terms of references. Both laymen and experts are becoming increasingly concerned about various health hazards created by occupational and industrial wastes dumped in and around public places. Benzyl chloride (BCl) was one of the chemicals dumped by Hooker Chemicals in Love Canal, N.Y. Benzyl chloride (BCl) is extensively used in industry in the manufacture of dyes, perfumes, resins, and synthetic tannins. It has been found at various dump sites and industrial wastes, which has led to potential hazards to health. This study was conducted to investigate the pharmacodynamics of BCl in rats. Rats were given 14C-BCl in corn oil by gavage. The peak plasma level was reached at 30 min and began to decline. BCl elimination pattern follows a two compartment model. The distribution half-life (alpha-phase) was 1.3 hr while the half-life of elimination (beta-phase) was 58.53 hr. Distribution studies after 48 hr of BCl administration revealed that the concentration of radioisotopes was highest in the stomach, gastric content, ileum, and duodenum followed by liver, adrenal, bone marrow, whole blood, pancreas, lung, esophagus, skin, kidney, heart, thymus, fat, testes, spleen, brain, and carcass. Approximately 76% of the initial dose was excreted by kidney during the 72 hr studies. About 7% was detected in expired air as 14CO2, while less than 1.3% was present as 14C-BCl or 14C-BCl metabolites in expired air during 72 hr. Metabolism studies revealed that S-benzyl-N-acetyl cysteine, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde were the metabolites present in the urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2802671

  18. A Study for Health Hazard Evaluation of Methylene Chloride Evaporated from the Tear Gas Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun-Kyo; Yi, Gwang-Yong; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, In-Seop

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the health hazard of those exposed to methylene chloride by assessing its atmospheric concentration when a tear gas mixture was aerially dispersed. The concentration of methylene chloride ranged from 311.1-980.3 ppm (geometric mean, 555.8 ppm), 30 seconds after the dispersion started. However, the concentration fell rapidly to below 10 ppm after dispersion was completed. The concentration during the dispersion did not surpass the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 'immediately dangerous to life or health' value of 2,300 ppm, but did exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists excursion limit of 250 ppm. Since methylene chloride is highly volatile (vapor pressure, 349 mmHg at 20℃), the postdispersion atmospheric concentration can rise instantaneously. Moreover, the o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile formulation of tear gas (CS gas) is an acute upper respiratory tract irritant. Therefore, tear gas mixtures should be handled with delicate care. PMID:22953168

  19. Calibration of Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone flow and transport model using porewater chloride data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchun; Sonnenthal, Eric L; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S

    2003-01-01

    In this study, porewater chloride data from Yucca Mountain, NV are analyzed and modeled by three-dimensional chemical transport simulation and analytical methods. The simulation modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow and tracer transport processes through fractured porous rock using a dual-continuum concept. Infiltration rate calibrations were performed using the porewater chloride data. Model results of chloride distributions were improved in matching the observed data with the calibrated infiltration rates. Statistical analyses of the frequency distribution for overall percolation fluxes and chloride concentration in the unsaturated zone system demonstrate that the use of the calibrated infiltration rates had an insignificant effect on the distribution of simulated percolation fluxes but significantly changed the predicted distribution of simulated chloride concentrations. An analytical method was also applied to model transient chloride transport. The method was verified by three-dimensional simulation results to be capable of capturing major chemical transient behavior and trends. Effects of lateral flow in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit on percolation fluxes and chloride distribution were studied by three-dimensional simulations with increased horizontal permeability. The combined results from these model calibrations furnish important information for the UZ model studies, contributing to performance assessment of the potential repository. PMID:12714292

  20. Calibration of Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone flow and transport model using porewater chloride data

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jianchun; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2002-09-01

    In this study, porewater chloride data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are analyzed and modeled by 3-D chemical transport simulations and analytical methods. The simulation modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow and tracer transport processes through fractured porous rock, using a dual-continuum concept. Infiltration-rate calibrations were using the pore water chloride data. Model results of chloride distributions were improved in matching the observed data with the calibrated infiltration rates. Statistical analyses of the frequency distribution for overall percolation fluxes and chloride concentration in the unsaturated zone system demonstrate that the use of the calibrated infiltration rates had insignificant effect on the distribution of simulated percolation fluxes but significantly changed the predicated distribution of simulated chloride concentrations. An analytical method was also applied to model transient chloride transport. The method was verified by 3-D simulation results as able to capture major chemical transient behavior and trends. Effects of lateral flow in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit on percolation fluxes and chloride distribution were studied by 3-D simulations with increased horizontal permeability. The combined results from these model calibrations furnish important information for the UZ model studies, contributing to performance assessment of the potential repository.

  1. Evaluation of Phenylephrine Stability in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags

    PubMed Central

    Oldland, Alan R.; Kiser, Tyree H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Phenylephrine hydrochloride (HCl) is commonly used to maintain adequate blood pressure during shock and shocklike states. Phenylephrine is prepared in concentrated stock vials that require further dilution prior to administration. This study evaluated the physical and chemical stability of phenylephrine in extemporaneously prepared polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. Methods: Phenylephrine HCl 10 mg/mL solution was diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection to final concentrations of 200 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) exposed to fluorescent light. Stability of phenylephrine HCl was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45, and 60. Results: Phenylephrine HCl 200 and 400 µg/mL solutions in PVC bags were physically stable during the entire 60-day study period. Phenylephrine HCl retained > 95% of the original concentration. Conclusion: Phenylephrine HCl diluted to 200 or 400 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection is both physically and chemically stable for a period of 60 days with ≤5% degradation when stored at room temperature and exposed to fluorescent lighting. PMID:24958958

  2. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOEpatents

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  3. Dielectric studies of boron sub phthalocyanine chloride thin films by admittance spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalia, Sameer; Mahajan, Aman; Neerja, Sharma, Anshul Kumar; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bedi, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The dielectric properties of Boron Sub Phthalocyanine Chloride (Cl-SubPc) thermally deposited on ITO substrate have been studied using admittance spectroscopic techniques. The I-V and capacitance -frequency (C-F) studies at various bias voltages reveal that the mobility of charge carriers decrease with bias voltage, however the conduction phenomenon still remain hopping in nature. From the differential susceptance curve, the contribution of the Schottky barrier contact in the charge carrier concentration was found to be absent. The mobility of charge carriers have been determined using differential susceptance variation and from the phase of admittance curve. The values obtained in two cases have been found to be in agreement with each other.

  4. On-site monitoring of vinyl chloride at part per trillion levels in air

    SciTech Connect

    Linenberg, A.

    1995-12-31

    The need to measure vinyl chloride at part per trillion levels and below in the atmosphere presents a challenge for those involved with environmental monitoring. Sentex has previously reported measuring vinyl chloride in the air at 1.0 part per billion levels and above. A portable gas chromatograph equipped with a special preconcentrator was used for on-site monitoring of vinyl chloride at sub-parts per billion levels. The test was performed at a landfill adjacent to a residential area. A lap-top computer controlled the gas chromatograph`s functions including sampling, preconcentration, chromatographic parameters, and data storage. Concentrations down to .02 ppb (20 ppt) were successfully detected.

  5. Interfacial behavior of perchlorate versus chloride ions in saturated aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, S; Kuo, I W; Baer, M D; Bluhm, H

    2009-04-14

    In recent years combination of theoretical and experimental work have presented a novel view of the aqueous interface wherein hard and/or multiply charged ions are excluded from the interface, but large polarizable anions show interfacial enhancement relative to the bulk. The observed trend in the propensity of anions to adsorb at the air/water interface appears to be reverse of the Hofmeister series for anions. This study focuses on experimental and theoretical examination of the partitioning behavior of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) and chloride (Cl{sup -}) ions at the air/water interface. We have used ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique to directly probe the interfacial concentrations of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and Cl{sup -} ions in sodium perchlorate and sodium chloride solutions, respectively. Experimental observations are compared with first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and simulation results show enhancement of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} ion at the interface, compared with the absence of such enhancement in the case of Cl{sup -} ion. These observations are in agreement with the expected trend in the interfacial propensity of anions based on the Hofmeister series.

  6. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devilee, R. A.; van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 °C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studied include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to reduce the iron concentration in zinc-chloride melts to 20 ppm with a small excess of zinc. The preparation of the melt proved to be very important. Insufficient purification of the melt with respect to oxides, hydroxides, and water resulted in a low reaction rate and high residual iron concentration.

  7. Indium-111 chloride imaging with ununited fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Sayle, B.A.; Fawcett, H.D.; Yudt, W.M.; Wang, S.C.; Mader, J.T.; Cierny, G. 3d.

    1987-03-01

    Twenty patients with ununited fractures and a suspicion of infection had In-111 chloride imaging. Surgically obtained cultures were positive for infection in 12 and negative in eight patients. In-111 chloride images were positive in all 12 patients with infection but also were positive in six of the patients with negative cultures. It is not possible to differentiate infected from noninfected ununited fractures by In-111 chloride imaging.

  8. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  9. Improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: applications to forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Laurent; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Dulaurent, Sylvain; Morichon, Julien; Bevalot, Fabien; Izac, Paul; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct marker of ethanol consumption, and its assay in hair is an efficient tool for chronic alcoholism diagnosis. In 2012, the Society of Hair Testing proposed a new consensus for hair concentrations interpretation, strongly advising the use of analytical methods providing a limit of quantification of less than 3 pg/mg. The present work describes the optimization and validation of a previously developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method in order to comply with this recommendation. The concentration range of this improved method is from 3 to 1,000 pg/mg. Some cases are then described to illustrate the usefulness of hair EtG: a forensic post-mortem case and two cases of suspension of driving licences. Finally, hair samples of some teetotallers (n = 10) have been analyzed, which allowed neither to quantitate nor to detect any trace of EtG. PMID:23824336

  10. Effects of habitat on mercury concentrations in fish: a case study of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hanna, D E L; Buck, D G; Chapman, L J

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on variation in fish mercury (Hg) concentrations in 185 Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples collected across four different habitat types in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, a tropical lake located proximate to Lake Victoria. We quantified the stomach contents of Nile perch using the % index of relative importance, as well as, nitrogen and carbon isotopic concentrations to assess the role of diet and trophic level on Hg concentrations. In each habitat, we also evaluated a suite of chemical and physical characteristics that are commonly associated with variation in Hg bioavailability in temperate systems. Using linear mixed models and ANOVA, we demonstrate that habitat of capture is an important predictor of Hg concentrations in Nile perch from Lake Nabugabo and that the relationship between habitat and Hg is size and diet dependent. Nile perch diet as well as dissolved oxygen concentration and pH were also correlated with observed differences in fish Hg. Overall, Hg concentrations in Nile perch were all well below the WHO/FAO recommended guideline of 500 ng/g (mean 13.6 ± 0.4 ng/g wet weight; range 4.9 and 29.3 ng/g wet weight). This work contributes to a growing awareness of intra-lake divergence in Nile perch, as well as, divergence in Hg concentrations between varying aquatic habitat types, particularly wetlands. PMID:26520435

  11. Enrofloxacin hydro-chloride dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 (+)·Cl(-)·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb-oxy-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di-hydro-quin-o-lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl-piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol-ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo-propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O-H⋯Cl, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π-π inter-action between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

  12. Irreversible gettering of thionyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    LeRoy Whinnery; Steve Goods; George Buffleben; Tim Sheppodd

    1999-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated the irreversible gettering of SOCl{sub 2} by ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon over a modest temperature range. While thionyl chloride decomposition was slow below {minus}20 C, lower temperatures are expected to be less of a problem than at higher temperatures. The approximately 30 cc of thionyl chloride in a typical D-cell would require 50 g of ZnO and 107 g of ASZMTEDA carbon. Fortunately, since it is unlikely to happen at all, it is common practice to assume only one cell will fail (leak) in a given battery pack. So, one charge of getter can protect the whole battery pack. In summary, ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon fulfills all of the requirements of an ideal getter including: irreversible binding or reaction with SOCl{sub 2}, high volumetric uptake capacity, high efficiency, non-volatile, air stable, insensitive to poisoning, non-toxic, cheap, non-corrosive, and the gettering product is not a liquid or oil that could block further flow or accessibility. Future work in this area includes incorporation of the ZnO and carbon into a structural open-celled porous monolith, as well as, gettering for other types of batteries (e.g., Li/MnO{sub 2}).

  13. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  14. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

  15. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  16. Temporal and spatial trends of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire, 1960–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Data on concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire were assembled from various State and Federal agencies and organized into a database. This report provides documentation of many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives and investigates temporal and spatial trends of the data. Data summaries presented in this report and analyses performed for this study needed to take into account the 27 percent of chloride and 5 percent of sodium data that were censored (less than a reporting limit) at multiple reporting limits that systematically decreased over time. Throughout New Hampshire, median concentrations of chloride were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than in every decade since the 1970s, and median concentrations of sodium were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than during the 1990s. Results of summary statistics showed that the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the median concentrations of chloride and sodium by source (well) from Rockingham and Strafford counties were the highest in the State; and the 75th and 90th percentiles from Carroll, Coos, and Grafton counties were the lowest. Large increases in median concentrations of chloride and sodium for individual wells after 1995 compared with concentrations for years before were found in parts of Belknap and Rockingham counties and in small clusters within Carroll, Hillsborough, and Merrimack counties.

  17. Filter measurements of stratospheric sulfate and chloride in the eruption plume of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Gandrud, B.W.; Lazrus, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Five flights of the U-2 aircraft with a filter sampler aboard were flown in the Mount St. Helens debris from 19 May to 17 June 1980. Sulfate concentrations as large as 216 times the expected background were observed. The enhancements of acid chloride vapor were considerably smaller, suggesting an insignificant increase of background values of hydrogen chloride once the plume is well mixed throughout the lower stratosphere.

  18. Changes in daily pollen concentration based on meteorological data and days after seasonal initiation - a case study for Japanese hop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, H.; Kim, K. R.; Kim, M.; Han, M. J.; Cho, C.; Choi, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Pollinosis causes various allergy symptoms such as seasonal rhinitis, asthma, and conjunctivitis (Min, 1991). Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus) is a major allergen in southern Gyonggi-do during the fall seasons (Park, 1998). So that it is needed to forecast the concentration of its pollens.For the germination of Japanese hop, a period of low temperature (<5C) followed by warm (~20C) and humid conditions is needed (Growing and Protecting New Zealand(2010)). The daily concentration of the pollens increases rapidly then decreases a few days afterward. In this study, the changes in daily pollen concentration were analyzed to yield a prediction model.As a result, a regression model was produced to forecast daily pollen concentration. It can be integrated into the daily pollinosis warning system of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and provide more accurate daily risk information.

  19. Sensor-actuator system for dynamic chloride ion determination.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Derk Balthazar; Abbas, Yawar; Gerrit Bomer, Johan; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2015-08-12

    Chloride is a crucial anion for various analytical applications from biological to environmental applications. In order to measure the chloride ion concentration, a measurement system is needed which can detect this concentration for prolonged times reliably. Chronopotentiometry is a technique which does not need a long term stable reference electrode and is therefore very suitable for prolonged ion concentration measurements. As the used electrode might be fouled by reaction products, this work focuses on a chronopotentiometric approach with a separated sensing electrode (sensor) and actuating electrode (actuator). Both actuation and sensor electrode are made of Ag/AgCl. A constant current is applied to the actuator and will start the reaction between Ag and Cl-, while the resulting Cl- ion concentration change is observed through the sensor, which is placed close to the actuator. The time it takes to locally deplete the Cl- ions is called transition time. Experiments were performed to verify the feasibility of this approach. The performed experiments show that the sensor detects the local concentration changes resulting from the current applied to the actuator. A linear relation between the Cl- ion concentration and the square root of the transition time was observed, just as was predicted by theory. The calibration curves for different chips showed that both a larger sensor and a larger distance between sensor and actuator resulted in a larger time delay between the transition time detected at the actuator and the sensor. PMID:26320957

  20. XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

  1. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile < C. dubia < M. transversum < G. parvus < T. tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical. PMID:21191883

  2. Hydrograph and chloride pollutograph analysis of Hobbs Brook reservoir subbasin in eastern Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, David W.

    2013-10-01

    Hyetographs, hydrographs, pollutographs, and deicing agent applications are analyzed with linear reservoir theory to explain the fate and transport of water and chloride in a small (1 km2) urban watershed subbasin. The subbasin delivers highway runoff to a public supply reservoir in eastern Massachusetts. Aquifer, vadose zone, and highway drainage systems deliver hydrographs with physically plausible exponential decay constants and seasonally varying discharge fractions. Continuous data from November 2005 to August 2012 suggest that baseflow contributes 48% of the water volume past a USGS gaging station at the subbasin outlet, while interflow and runoff calibration of 162 hydrographs yield respective water volume estimates of 21% and 31%. Specific conductivity, also measured continuously at the gage, is a surrogate for dissolved chloride concentration. The average chloride concentration for the 82 month period of record is 0.334 kg Cl-/m3 at the gage, which exceeds the USEPA secondary drinking water standard of 0.250 kg Cl-/m3 for dissolved chloride. Model calibration of 162 pollutographs suggests that baseflow contributes 61% of the chloride mass past the gage over the period of record, while the interflow and runoff chloride mass fractions are 17% and 22%. Most (85%) of the chloride flux past the gage is attributable to state application of chloride based deicing agents on major highways, with the remaining 15% due to municipal applications on local streets in the subbasin. A perennial stream with a small, urban watershed in a cold climate is likely to discharge an appreciable flux of subsurface chloride all year long.

  3. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  4. Sensitivity of pollutant concentrations towards anthropogenic emissions: A case study over Indian region using WRF/Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Tabish; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2015-04-01

    Concentration of an air pollutant over a given region is generally associated with the emissions, regional meteorology, and topographic conditions in addition to the chemical transformation of the pollutant. In general, the role of meteorology is often relegated in policymaking and the entire narrative of air pollution mostly revolves around the emissions. However, there may be regions where the local meteorology, in some seasons or even perennially, may predominantly govern the overall concentration, and the emissions have a little role to play. For instance, the concentrations may be high in a region despite significantly reducing the emissions. Similarly, there may be other regions wherein the prevailing meteorology would cleanse the pollutant even with high emission rates. Thus, if we better understand the seasonal meteorology of smaller regions well and their role in dispersing various pollutants, it would lead to more robust policy formulations. Therefore, there is a need to study the contribution of meteorology as isolated from the emissions, over the pollutant concentrations. In the present study we have used the on-line coupled chemical transport model WRF/Chem to investigate the role of meteorology in determining pollutant concentrations over the Indian tropical region. By using the SEAC4RS emission for the months of April, July, and December, which represents three important meteorological seasons (summer, monsoon, and winter respectively) over India we have performed the simulations of ozone (O3), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulphur dioxide (SO2); representative scenario. Further, to assess the role of meteorology alone all the anthropogenic emissions were flattened over the entire continental India (given as one value); flat emission scenario. Our simulations show that during the month of April and December the concentration levels of the major pollutants are largely governed by the meteorology, whereas during the month of July

  5. Modeling of nitrate concentration in groundwater using artificial intelligence approach--a case study of Gaza coastal aquifer.

    PubMed

    Alagha, Jawad S; Said, Md Azlin Md; Mogheir, Yunes

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate concentration in groundwater is influenced by complex and interrelated variables, leading to great difficulty during the modeling process. The objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the performance of two artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, namely artificial neural networks and support vector machine, in modeling groundwater nitrate concentration using scant input data, as well as (2) to assess the effect of data clustering as a pre-modeling technique on the developed models' performance. The AI models were developed using data from 22 municipal wells of the Gaza coastal aquifer in Palestine from 2000 to 2010. Results indicated high simulation performance, with the correlation coefficient and the mean average percentage error of the best model reaching 0.996 and 7 %, respectively. The variables that strongly influenced groundwater nitrate concentration were previous nitrate concentration, groundwater recharge, and on-ground nitrogen load of each land use land cover category in the well's vicinity. The results also demonstrated the merit of performing clustering of input data prior to the application of AI models. With their high performance and simplicity, the developed AI models can be effectively utilized to assess the effects of future management scenarios on groundwater nitrate concentration, leading to more reasonable groundwater resources management and decision-making. PMID:23974533

  6. Preliminary projections of the effects of chloride-control structures on the Quaternary aquifer at Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    About 1,200 tons of chloride per day are added to the salt load of the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River at Great Salt Plains Lake from natural sources. The source of this chloride is brine discharge from the rocks of Permian age in the vicinity of the lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has planned a chloride-control project. The Corps requested that the U.S. Geological Survey use a digital model to project the effects of the chloride-control plan on ground water. Ground-water flow and ground-water transport models were calibrated to represent the Quaternary aquifer that is the near-surface part of the flow system. The models were used to project the effects of planned chloride-control structures. Based on model results, ground-water levels are projected to rise as much as 19 feet. However, these water-level rises will occur only in areas near three reservoirs. Changes in ground-water level caused by the project will be small throughout most of the area. Chloride concentration of ground water is projected to increase by more than 90,000 milligrams per liter at one location. However, significant increases in chloride concentration during the 50-year period simulated are projected to be limited to areas where the ground water already contains excessive chloride concentrations.

  7. Multi-scale modelling of uranyl chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Thanh-Nghi; Duvail, Magali Villard, Arnaud; Dufrêche, Jean-François; Molina, John Jairo; Guilbaud, Philippe

    2015-01-14

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations with explicit polarization have been successfully used to determine the structural and thermodynamic properties of binary aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride (UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). Concentrated aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride have been studied to determine the hydration properties and the ion-ion interactions. The bond distances and the coordination number of the hydrated uranyl are in good agreement with available experimental data. Two stable positions of chloride in the second hydration shell of uranyl have been identified. The UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-Cl{sup −} association constants have also been calculated using a multi-scale approach. First, the ion-ion potential averaged over the solvent configurations at infinite dilution (McMillan-Mayer potential) was calculated to establish the dissociation/association processes of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-Cl{sup −} ion pairs in aqueous solution. Then, the association constant was calculated from this potential. The value we obtained for the association constant is in good agreement with the experimental result (K{sub UO{sub 2Cl{sup +}}} = 1.48 l mol{sup −1}), but the resulting activity coefficient appears to be too low at molar concentration.

  8. Altered chloride metabolism in cultured cystic fibrosis skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mattes, P.M.; Maloney, P.C.; Littlefield, J.W.

    1987-05-01

    An abnormal regulation of chloride permeability has been described for epithelial cells from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). To learn more about the biochemical basis of this inherited disease, the authors have studied chloride metabolism in cultured CF fibroblasts by comparing the efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ from matched pairs of CF and normal fibroblasts. The rate constants describing /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ efflux did not differ between the two cell types, but in each of the four pairs tested the amount of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ contained within CF cells was consistently reduced, by 25-30%, relative to normal cells. Comparisons of cell water content and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ efflux showed no differences between the two cell types, suggesting that overall intracellular chloride concentration is lower than normal in CF fibroblasts. Such data suggest that the CF gene defect is expressed in skin fibroblasts and that this defect may alter the regulation of intracellular Cl/sup -/ concentration, perhaps through changes in Cl/sup -/ permeability.

  9. Glutamate-gated Chloride Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Wolstenholme, Adrian J.

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) are found only in protostome invertebrate phyla but are closely related to mammalian glycine receptors. They have a number of roles in these animals, controlling locomotion and feeding and mediating sensory inputs into behavior. In nematodes and arthropods, they are targeted by the macrocyclic lactone family of anthelmintics and pesticides, making the GluCls of considerable medical and economic importance. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of a GluCl was solved, the first for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, revealing a macrocyclic lactone-binding site between the channel domains of adjacent subunits. This minireview will highlight some unique features of the GluCls and illustrate their contribution to our knowledge of the entire Cys loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. PMID:23038250

  10. Chloride ion pairs in water

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, L.X.; Pettitt, B.M.

    1987-09-02

    The study of ions in water by statistical mechanical methods has made a significant contribution to the authors understanding of solution chemistry and biological processes in saline solutions. Integral equation methods have been used recently by Pettitt and Rossky to study solvent-averaged forces and the effective interactions or the potentials of mean force (PMF) for the alkali halides in water at infinite dilution. In this communication, they report a quantitative study of the Cl/sup -/-Cl/sup -/ PMF in water with use of an umbrella sampling method and the same Hamiltonian as that used in the integral equation study. The system studied here consists of two chloride ions and 295 water molecules in a rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions and lengths of 25.4, 18.6, and 18.6 A in the x,y,z directions, respectively.

  11. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hugh; Williams, Jason; Tate, Bruce

    2006-12-01

    Dexpanthenol is the alcohol corresponding to pantothenic acid (the water-soluble vitamin B(5)). Although it is a common ingredient in many pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, contact allergy is relatively uncommon. Cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate is a phospholipid complex derived from pure coconut oil, and contact allergy is rare. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion. PMID:17101018

  13. Serum thyroxine concentrations following fixed-dose radioactive iodine treatment in hyperthyroid cats: 62 cases (1986-1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Rubin, S.I. )

    1990-09-01

    The medical records of 62 hyperthyroid cats treated with a fixed dose of 4 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) were reviewed. In 60 cats, serum thyroxine concentrations were determined after treatment, allowing evaluation of treatment success. Eighty-four percent of the cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations after treatment. Five of the 60 cats (8%) remained hyperthyroxinemic after treatment. Five cats (8%) were hypothyroxinemic when evaluated within 60 days of treatment. Three of these cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations 6 months after treatment, and none had clinical signs of hypothyroidism. The administration of a fixed dose of 4 mCi of 131I was determined to be an effective treatment for feline hyperthyroidism.

  14. Investigation of Accelerated Casing Corrosion in Two Wells at Waste Management Area A-AX

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2005-08-29

    The sidewall core samples from well 299-E24-19, which were comprised of a mixture of bentonite and silt lens material, had an average porewater chloride concentration of 376 mg/L. The sidewall core samples collected from well 299-E25-46 had calculated porewater chloride concentrations ranging from 1,200 to more than 10,000 mg/L. Clearly, the sidewall core samples tested were capable of generating porewaters with sufficient chloride concentrations to cause corrosion of the stainless steel well casing. Furthermore, analysis of the sidewall core samples yielded a clear relationship between chloride concentration and well casing corrosion. The sidewall core samples containing the greatest amount of chloride, 3000 {micro}g/g of sediment, came from the well that experienced the longest length of casing failure (4.2 feet in well 299-E25-46). All of the sidewall core samples tested from both decommissioned wells contained more chloride than the Wyoming bentonite test material. However, since chloride was present as a trace constituent in all of the sidewall core samples (less than 0.4 weight percent), it is possible that it could have been introduced to the system as a ''contaminant'' contained in the bentonite backfill material. Therefore, it is likely that chloride leached from the bentonite material and/or chloride carried by/as a constituent of the liquid waste stream caused the advanced well casing corrosion found at wells 299-E24-19 and 299-E25-46 via crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The sample of Enviroplug{trademark} No.8 high swelling Wyoming bentonite was characterized for its potential to generate porewaters of sufficient chlorinity to lead to accelerated corrosion of type 304L stainless steel. Overall, the bentonite sample had considerably high water extractable concentrations of sodium, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and alkalinity (measured as calcium carbonate). Interpretation of the laboratory data indicated that the Wyoming bentonite test

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1910.1017 Section 1910.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1017 Vinyl chloride. (a) Scope and...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride....

  9. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride....

  10. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles; Bullard, John E.; Morgan, Evan

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  11. Experimental evaluation of water mist with metal chloride additives for suppressing CH4/air cup-burner flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianghong; Cong, Beihua

    2013-06-01

    In order to investigate the fire suppression effectiveness of water mist with metal chloride additives, ultrafine water mists of these salts with diameters about 10μm were introduced into CH4/air non-premixed flame in the cup burner. Results showed that these droplets hard to make itself to the flame front under the cup burner flow conditions functioned as a carrier of the vaporized solid particles or its decomposed materials. The metal chloride improved fire suppression efficacy of water mist which were affected by the type and concentration of metal chloride. On a mass basis, there is a fire suppression effectiveness relationship of MgCl2chlorides improves as the concentration of metal chlorides increase. However, upper additive limits exist due to the associated limiting vapour pressure of the additive.

  12. Reprocessing of LiH in Molten Chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masset, Patrick J.; Gabriel, Armand; Poignet, Jean-Claude

    2008-06-01

    LiH was used as inactive material to stimulate the reprocessing of lithium tritiate in molten chlorides. The electrochemical properties (diffusion coefficients, apparent standard potentials) were measured by means of transient electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry). At 425 ºC the diffusion coefficient and the apparent standard potential were 2.5 · 10-5 cm2 s-1 and -1.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. For the process design the LiH solubility was measured by means of DTA to optimize the LiH concentration in the molten phase. In addition electrolysis tests were carried out at 460 ºC with current densities up to 1 A cm-2 over 24 h. These results show that LiH may be reprocessed in molten chlorides consisting in the production of hydrogen gas at the anode and molten metallic lithium at the cathode.

  13. Acute toxicity of cyanogen chloride to Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Kononen, D.W.

    1988-09-01

    The destruction of cyanide in waste waters by chlorination has been shown to result in the formation of the extremely toxic compound, cyanogen chloride. Industrial cyanide-containing waste waters may be treated by a batch chlorination process under highly alkaline conditions prior to being discharged into a receiving water systems. Alternatively, if the concentration of cyanide is relatively low, and such waste waters may be diverted to municipal waste treatment facilities where they may be subjected to a process of chlorination which may not be sufficient for the complete oxidative destruction of the available cyanide. Although a large body of literature exists concerning the toxicity of HCN and metallic cyanide compounds to aquatic organisms, there is a comparative scarcity of information concerning cyanogen chloride toxicity. This study was designed to determine the acute toxicity of CNCl to Daphnia magna neonates under static bioassay conditions.

  14. Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Weidner, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.

  15. Phytoextraction of chloride from a cement kiln dust (CKD) contaminated landfill with Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Kaitlin; Rutter, Allison; Cumming, Robert; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a globally produced by-product from cement manufacturing that is stockpiled or landfilled. Elevated concentrations of chloride pose toxic threats to plants and aquatic communities, as the anion is highly mobile in water and can leach into surrounding water sources. Re-vegetation and in situ phytoextraction of chloride from a CKD landfill in Bath, ON, Canada, was investigated with the resident invasive species Phragmites australis (haplotype M). Existing stands of P. australis were transplanted from the perimeter of the site into the highest areas of contamination (5.9×10(3)μg/g). Accumulation in the shoots of P. australis was quantified over one growing season by collecting samples from the site on a bi-weekly basis and analyzing for chloride. Concentrations decreased significantly from early May (24±2.2×10(3)μg/g) until mid-June (15±2.5×10(3)μg/g), and then remained stable from June to August. Shoot chloride accumulation was not significantly affected by water level fluctuations at the site, however elevated potassium concentrations in the soil may have contributed to uptake. Based on shoot chloride accumulation and total biomass, it was determined that phytoextraction from the CKD landfill can remove 65±4kg/km(2) of chloride per season. Based on this extraction rate, removal of chloride present in the highly contaminated top 10cm of soil can be achieved in 3-9years. This is the first study to apply phytotechnologies at a CKD landfill, and to successfully demonstrate in situ phytoextraction of chloride. PMID:26597371

  16. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Bagshaw, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  17. Determination of residual vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride copolymers, and articles from polyvinyl chloride by the method of equilibrium vapor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykova, T.A.; Konstantinova, E.I.; Lazaris, A. Ya.

    1985-11-01

    In connection with the fact that vinyl chloride (VC) has carcinogenic properties, norms for its content both in the work place and also in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and articles made from it have been sharply reduced. The method of equilibrium vapor analysis (EVA) has been used to determine vinyl chloride; this is carried out with the aid of devices for automatic metering. In the present work, the authors have investigated the possibility of applying the EVA method to PVC resins, VC copolymers, and articles made of PVC with the objective of developing universal methods of analyzing such objects. A two-stage separation is used in which the sample is preliminarily separated in a fore-column. The separation was worked out on the model mixture of methyl chloride-VC-ethyl chloride. The limit of VC detection is shown to be 5 x 10/sup -6/ to 5 x 10/sup -7/% by wt.

  18. Aspergilli Response to Benzalkonium Chloride and Novel-Synthesized Fullerenol/Benzalkonium Chloride Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Unković, Nikola; Ljaljević Grbić, Milica; Stupar, Miloš; Vukojević, Jelena; Janković, Vesna; Jović, Danica; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles' dimensions within 30–143 nm and maximum number of particles at 44 nm. The effect of pure and fullerenol nanocarrier-bound biocide was evaluated in eight Aspergillus species. In mycelial growth assay, nanocomposite was more potent, as fungicidal effect of 1.04/0.6 μg mL−1 was obtained in all but one of the isolates (A. niger), while proportional concentration of pure biocide (0.6 μg mL−1) completely inhibited mycelial growth of only three Aspergillus species. However, conidia appear to be less susceptible to nanocomposite treatment, as lower fungistatic (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were obtained with biocide alone (MIC in range from 0.03 to 0.15 μg mL−1 and MFC from 0.075 to 0.45 μg mL−1). To a different degree, both substances stimulated aflatoxin B1 production and inhibited ochratoxin A synthesis. Very low mycelium biomass yield, in range from 1.0 to 3.0 mg dry weight, was documented in both biocide and nanocomposite enriched medium. PMID:26295057

  19. Case study: Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Ambient Ammonia Concentrations Measured at a Large Open-Lot Dairy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from dairy production facilities is not only a loss of valuable N, but also an air quality concern because NH3 plays a role in the formation of airborne particulate matter, which can be a health hazard. The ambient NH3 concentrations over several seasons at three ...

  20. The Enduring Challenge of Concentrated Poverty in America: Case Studies from Communities Across the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, David, Ed.; Reid, Carolina, Ed.; Nelson, Lisa, Ed.; O'Shaughnessy, Anne, Ed.; Berube, Alan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This report--a joint effort of the Federal Reserve's Community Affairs function and the Brookings Institution's Metropolitan Policy Program--examines the issue of concentrated poverty and profiles 16 high-poverty communities from across the country, including immigrant gateway, Native American, urban, and rural communities. Through these case…

  1. Theoretical study on the structures and properties of mixtures of urea and choline chloride.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Li, Yan; Wu, Xue; Li, Guohui

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we investigated in detail the structural characteristics of mixtures of choline chloride and urea with different urea contents by performing molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, and offer possible explanations for the low melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea with a ratio of 1:2. The insertion of urea molecules was found to change the density distribution of cations and anions around the given cations significantly, disrupting the long-range ordered structure of choline chloride. Moreover, with increasing urea concentration, the hydrogen bond interactions between choline cations and Cl(-) anions decreased, while those among urea molecules obviously increased. From the hydrogen bond lifetimes, it was found that a ratio of 1:2 between choline chloride and urea is necessary for a reasonable strength of hydrogen bond interaction to maintain the low melting point of the mixture of choline chloride with urea. In addition, it was also deduced from the interaction energies that a urea content of 67.7 % may make the interactions of cation-anion, cation-urea and anion-urea modest, and thus results in the lower melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea. The present results may offer assistance to some extent for understanding the physicochemical properties of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea, and give valuable information for the further development and application of deep eutectic solvents. PMID:23435478

  2. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerdt, K.; Orsáková, D.; Geiker, M.R.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.

  3. Determination of water in hydrogen chloride gas by a condensation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, E.; Herold, C.; Murray, D.; Thompson, S.R.

    1986-07-01

    The determination of trace amounts of water in gaseous hydrogen chloride has been of considerable interest to manufacturers of semiconductor materials. Many different methods have been postulated in the detection of water in hydrogen chloride, including Karl Fischer titrations, infrared spectrometric techniques, and gravimetric procedures using desiccants. Despite varying degrees of success at high-moisture concentration ranges, 1000 ppm (v/v) and up, these methods become tedious and unreliable for measuring water in hydrogen chloride in the 1-1000 ppm range. We have found a method for moisture in hydrogen chloride, analogous to dew point determinations used for inert gases, that is rapid and reproducible. A calibration curve of parts per million (v/v) water in hydrogen chloride vs. condensation temperature was constructed by dynamically blending a low part per million moisture balance nitrogen standard with dried hydrogen chloride gas. In addition, variation of the condensation temperature was monitored as the dried hydrogen chloride was diluted with dried gaseous nitrogen.

  4. Inhibition of Chloride Induced Crevice Corrosion in Alloy 22 by Fluoride Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, R M; Rodr?guez, M A; Rebak, R B

    2005-10-09

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is highly resistant to localized corrosion. Alloy 22 may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in pure chloride (Cl{sup -}) solutions under aggressive environmental conditions. The effect of the fluoride (F{sup -}) over the crevice corrosion induced by chloride ions is still not well established. The objective of the present work was to explore the crevice corrosion resistance of this alloy to different mixtures of fluorides and chlorides. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) tests were conducted in deaerated aqueous solutions of pure halide ions and also in different mixtures of chloride and fluoride at 90 C and pH 6. The range of chloride concentration [Cl{sup -}] was 0.001 M {le} [Cl{sup -}] {le} 1 M and the range of molar fluoride to chloride ratio [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] was 0.1 {le} [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] {le} 10. Results showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion in all the pure chloride solutions but not in the pure fluoride solutions. Fluoride ions showed an inhibitor behavior only in mixtures with a molar ratio [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] > 2. For mixtures with a molar ratio [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] of 7 and 10 the inhibition of crevice corrosion was complete.

  5. Impact of the associated cation on chloride binding of Portland cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerdt, K.; Colombo, A.; Coppola, L.; Justnes, H.; Geiker, M.R.

    2015-02-15

    Well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2} and NaCl solutions at 20 °C. The chloride binding isotherms for free chloride concentrations ranging up to 1.5 mol/l were determined experimentally. More chlorides were found to be bound when the associated cation was Mg{sup 2} {sup +} or Ca{sup 2} {sup +} compared to Na{sup +}. The chloride binding capacity of the paste appeared to be related to the pH of the exposure solution. In order to explain the cation dependency of the chloride binding a selection of samples was investigated in detail using experimental techniques such as TG, XRD and SEM–EDS to identify the phases binding the chlorides. The experimentally obtained data were compared with the calculations of a thermodynamic model, GEMS. It was concluded that the measured change in chloride binding depending on the cation was mainly governed by the pH of the exposure solution and thereby the binding capacity of the C-S-H.

  6. Interaction of chloride and bicarbonate transport across the basolateral membrane of rabbit proximal straight tubule. Evidence for sodium coupled chloride/bicarbonate exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, S; Yoshiyama, N

    1988-01-01

    The existence of chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the basolateral membrane and its physiologic significance were examined in rabbit proximal tubules. S2 segments of the proximal straight tubule were perfused in vitro and changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and chloride activity (aCli) were monitored by double-barreled microelectrodes. Total peritubular chloride replacement with gluconate increased pHi by 0.8, and this change was inhibited by a pretreatment with an anion transport inhibitor, SITS. Peritubular bicarbonate reduction increased aCli, and most of this increase was lost when ambient sodium was totally removed. The reduction rates of pHi induced by a peritubular bicarbonate reduction or sodium removal were attenuated by 20% by withdrawal of ambient chloride. SITS application to the bath in the control condition quickly increased pHi, but did not change aCli. However, the aCli slightly decreased in response to SITS when the basolateral bicarbonate efflux was increased by reducing peritubular bicarbonate concentration. It is concluded that sodium coupled chloride/bicarbonate exchange is present in parallel with sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in the basolateral membrane of the rabbit proximal tubule, and it contributes to the basolateral bicarbonate and chloride transport. PMID:2450891

  7. The 2014 Holuhraun volcanic eruption gas emission: a case study of an extreme SO2 concentration event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björk Jónasdóttir, Elín; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Barsotti, Sara; Jóhannsson, Þorsteinn; Dürig, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    The ongoing fissure eruption in Holuhraun associated with the volcanic unrest in Bárðarbunga, is unique among recent eruptions in Iceland for its high emission rates of volcanic gases. The plume is relatively ash free, but predominantly a bent over vapour plume and its height depends mainly on the atmospheric conditions at the eruption site. CO2 and SO2 are abundant in the primarily water vapor plume with lower concentrations of H2S, HCl and HF. During the first month and a half the preliminary SO2 flux was ~400 kg/s with some days greater than 1000 kg/s. The gas is dispersed from the eruption and transported by wind, and can lead to high pollution levels in exposed populated areas in Iceland. During high wind events and when nearby weather systems lead to rapid change in wind directions the local population has not been much affected by the emission, as the gas is transported off land and/or the pollution plume is narrow and moves around. However, during certain conditions, usually light winds and low-level temperature inversions, the concentration of gas builds up at the eruption site and then either flows down from the highlands with katabatic wind or is advected from the eruption site when the synoptic situation changes. Depending on the atmospheric conditions, high concentrations of SO2 can be transported in the boundary layer and have been detected at ground level in populated areas. Here we describe one such event, the event of 26 and 27 October 2014, when the village Höfn, in southeast-Iceland, experienced gas concentrations exceeding 14000 µg/m3, a concentration considered hazardous to health. We describe the weather conditions prior and during the event as well as the gas dispersion.

  8. Predicted and measured concentrations of pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Examination of the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches through the analysis of a case study.

    PubMed

    Verlicchi, Paola; Zambello, Elena

    2016-09-15

    This study deals with the chemical characterization of hospital effluents in terms of the predicted and measured concentrations of 38 pharmaceuticals belonging to 11 different therapeutic classes. The paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches through an analysis of a case study referring to a large hospital. It highlights the observed (and expected) ranges of variability for the parameters of the adopted model, presents the results of an uncertainty analysis of direct measurements (due to sampling mode and frequency and chemical analysis) and a sensitivity analysis of predicted concentrations (based on the annual consumption of pharmaceuticals, their excretion rate and annual wastewater volume generated by the hospital). Measured concentrations refer to two sampling campaigns carried out in summer and winter in order to investigate seasonal variability of the selected compounds. Predicted concentrations are compared to measured ones in the three scenarios: summer, winter and the whole year. It was found that predicted and measured concentrations are in agreement for a limited number of compounds (namely atenolol, atorvastatin and hydrochlorothiazide), and for most compounds the adoption of the model leads to a large overestimation in all three periods. Uncertainties in predictions are mainly due to the wastewater volume and excretion factor, whereas for measured concentrations, uncertainties are mainly due to sampling mode. PMID:27161130

  9. Congenital chloride diarrhea misdiagnosed as pseudo-Bartter syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saneian, Hossein; Bahraminia, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by intractable diarrhea of infancy, failure to thrive, high fecal chloride, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic alkalosis. In this case report, we present the first female and the second official case of CCD in Iran. A 15-month-old girl referred to our hospital due to failure to thrive and poor feeding. She had normal kidneys, liver and spleen. Treating her with Shohl's solution, thiazide and zinc sulfate did not result in weight gain. Consequently, pseudo-Bartter syndrome was suspected, she was treated with intravenous (IV) therapy to which she responded dramatically. In addition, hypokalemia resolved quickly. Since this does not usually happen in patients with the pseudo-Bartter syndrome, stool tests were performed. Abnormal level of chloride in stool suggested CCD and she was thus treated with IV fluid replacement, Total parentral nutrition and high dose of oral omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day). She gained 1 kg of weight and is doing fine until present. CCD is a rare hereditary cause of intractable diarrhea of infancy. It should be considered in infants with unknown severe electrolyte disturbances. PMID:24381629

  10. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  11. Effect of Lead Chloride on the Growth and Surface Properties of Potassium Chloride Crystals from Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podder, Jiban; Evitts, Richard William; Besant, Robert William

    2014-05-01

    Pure potassium chloride (KCl) and lead chloride (PbCl2)-doped KCl crystals were grown from saturated aqueous solutions by a solvent evaporation process. The effects of Pb2+ on the surface morphology, structural and mechanical properties of KCl crystal were investigated. The surface morphology of the cubic structured crystals was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and the elemental mappings at the microstructural level were determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The mass growth rate was found to decrease when the Pb2+ ions were present and the volume growth flux was also found to decrease with time and initial concentration of impurity. A Vickers micro-hardness study shows that Pb-doped KCl crystals are harder than pure KCl crystals.

  12. Comparison of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide concentrations in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid: a clinical case of bovine metritis

    PubMed Central

    MAGATA, Fumie; ISHIDA, Yoshikazu; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; INOKUMA, Hisashi; SHIMIZU, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the concentration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid of a clinical case of bovine metritis. A 2-year-old lactating Holstein cow exhibited continuous fever >39.5°C for more than 2 weeks after normal calving. The cow produced a fetid, watery, red-brown uterine discharge from the vagina and was diagnosed with metritis. The LPS concentrations in plasma and uterine fluid were 0.94 and 6.34 endotoxin units (EU)/ml, respectively. One of seven follicles showed an extremely high level of LPS (12.40 EU/ml) compared to the other follicles (0.62–0.97 EU/ml). These results might suggest the presence of high concentration of LPS in follicles in cows with postpartum metritis. PMID:25223344

  13. Comparison of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide concentrations in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid: a clinical case of bovine metritis.

    PubMed

    Magata, Fumie; Ishida, Yoshikazu; Miyamoto, Akio; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the concentration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid of a clinical case of bovine metritis. A 2-year-old lactating Holstein cow exhibited continuous fever >39.5°C for more than 2 weeks after normal calving. The cow produced a fetid, watery, red-brown uterine discharge from the vagina and was diagnosed with metritis. The LPS concentrations in plasma and uterine fluid were 0.94 and 6.34 endotoxin units (EU)/ml, respectively. One of seven follicles showed an extremely high level of LPS (12.40 EU/ml) compared to the other follicles (0.62-0.97 EU/ml). These results might suggest the presence of high concentration of LPS in follicles in cows with postpartum metritis. PMID:25223344

  14. Advanced Life Support Water Recycling Technologies Case Studies: Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal and Direct Osmotic Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Design for microgravity has traditionally not been well integrated early on into the development of advanced life support (ALS) technologies. NASA currently has a many ALS technologies that are currently being developed to high technology readiness levels but have not been formally evaluated for microgravity compatibility. Two examples of such technologies are the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Technology and the Direct Osmotic Concentration Technology. This presentation will cover the design of theses two systems and will identify potential microgravity issues.

  15. Hydrothermal carbonization of poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Woszidlo, S; Koehler, R; Kopinke, F-D

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was subjected to hydrothermal carbonization in subcritical water at 180-260 °C. Dehydrochlorination increased with increasing reaction temperature. The release of chlorine was almost quantitative above ∼235 °C. The fraction of organic carbon (OC) recovered in the hydrochar decreased with increasing operating temperature from 93% at 180 °C to 75% at 250 °C. A wide array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be detected in the aqueous phase, but their combined concentration amounted to only ∼140 μg g(-1) PVC-substrate at 240 °C. A pathway for the formation of cyclic hydrocarbons and O-functionalized organics was proposed. Chlorinated hydrocarbons including chlorophenols could only be identified at trace levels (low ppb). Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) could not be detected. The sorption potential of the hydrochar turned out to be very low, in particular for polar organic pollutants. Our results provide strong evidence that hydrothermal carbonization of household organic wastes which can be tied to co-discarded PVC-plastic residues is environmentally sound regarding the formation of toxic organic products. Following these findings, hydrothermal treatment of PVC-waste beyond operating temperatures of ∼235 °C to allow complete release of organic chlorine should be further pursued. PMID:25150971

  16. Piezoresistive Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprakci, Hatice Aylin Karahan

    Textile based sensors provide an interface between the user and the electronic system by converting any type of physiological or environmental signal into electrical signals. Common applications include health monitoring, rehabilitation, multimedia, and surveillance. In this research we demonstrate fabrication of piezoresistive sensors on textile fabrics through application of a screen-printed conductive nanocomposite layer of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and carbon nanofiber (CNF). In order to understand the behavior of conductive plastisol, morphological, mechanical and electrical properties of composite films were investigated for different molecular weights of PVC. Homogeneous filler dispersion and good filler/polymer interphase were observed without any dominant filler orientation. Mechanical and electrical properties were found to be affected by CNF, plasticizer content and matrix molecular weight. CNFs were found to provide substantial bridging in the matrix and enhance strength. These nanostructured composite sensors were found to be sensitive under different levels of strain which can be monitored by change in electrical resistance. Finally, we demonstrate the fabrication of piezoresistive sensors on textile fabrics through application of a screen-printed conductive nanocomposite layer of conductive plastisol. Conductive plastisol was found to show good adhesion to fabric with homogeneous CNF distribution. As in composite films, samples were found to show negative piezoresistance at different levels of strain. Strain level and filler concentration were found to affect the piezoresistive behavior and sensitivity of the printed sensors.

  17. Phosphate concentration and association as revealed by sequential extraction and microprobe analysis: The case of sediments from two Argentinean reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgnino, L.; Orona, C.; Avena, M.; Maine, M. A.; RodríGuez, A.; de Pauli, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the general characteristics of the sediments of two Argentinean reservoirs, which are used for water supply. The chemical composition, granulometry, and specific surface area are presented together with a study of total phosphate concentration and phosphate association by combining sequential extraction and microprobe analysis. In general, the sediments of both reservoirs have similar characteristics. Sequential extraction reveals that the main P fractions in the studied sediments are Ca-bound phosphate in river mouths and Fe-bound phosphate in the rest of the reservoir stations. Microprobe analysis appears to be an important complementary technique to sequential extraction. Combined with chemical fractionation and specific surface area measurements, these analyses indicate that Ca-bound phosphate is mainly distributed within grains or particles highly concentrated in Ca and P, whereas Fe-bound phosphate is rather homogeneously distributed in the sediments at the surface of fine particles. Microprobe analyses also revealed an important coating of phyllosilicate surfaces with Fe (hydr)oxides, which explains the good correlation found between Fe-bound phosphate, clay fraction, and specific surface area. The role of sediments as a potential source of phosphate is discussed in terms of P association in the solid phase and dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in the water column.

  18. Geostatistical study of spatial correlations of lead and zinc concentration in urban reservoir. Study case Czerniakowskie Lake, Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The article presents detailed geostatistical analysis of spatial distribution of lead and zinc concentration in water, suspension and bottom sediments of large, urban lake exposed to intensive anthropogenic pressure within a large city. Systematic chemical measurements were performed at eleven cross-sections located along Czerniakowskie Lake, the largest lake in Warsaw, the capital of Poland. During the summer, the lake is used as a public bathing area, therefore, to better evaluate human impacts, field measurements were carried out in high-use seasons. It was found that the spatial distributions of aqueous lead and zinc differ during the summer and autumn. In summer several Pb and Zn hot-spots were observed, while during autumn spatial distributions of Pb and Zn were rather homogenous throughout the entire lake. Large seasonal differences in spatial distributions of Pb and Zn were found in bottom sediments. Autumn concentrations of both heavy metals were ten times higher in comparison with summer values. Clear cross-correlations of Pb and Zn concentrations in water, suspension and bottom sediments suggest that both Pb and Zn came to Czerniakowskie Lake from the same source.

  19. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees. PMID:26807935

  20. Bioleaching in brackish waters--effect of chloride ions on the acidophile population and proteomes of model species.

    PubMed

    Zammit, Carla M; Mangold, Stefanie; Jonna, Venkateswara rao; Mutch, Lesley A; Watling, Helen R; Dopson, Mark; Watkin, Elizabeth L J

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of chloride ions inhibit the growth of acidophilic microorganisms used in biomining, a problem particularly relevant to Western Australian and Chilean biomining operations. Despite this, little is known about the mechanisms acidophiles adopt in order to tolerate high chloride ion concentrations. This study aimed to investigate the impact of increasing concentrations of chloride ions on the population dynamics of a mixed culture during pyrite bioleaching and apply proteomics to elucidate how two species from this mixed culture alter their proteomes under chloride stress. A mixture consisting of well-known biomining microorganisms and an enrichment culture obtained from an acidic saline drain were tested for their ability to bioleach pyrite in the presence of 0, 3.5, 7, and 20 g L(-1) NaCl. Microorganisms from the enrichment culture were found to out-compete the known biomining microorganisms, independent of the chloride ion concentration. The proteomes of the Gram-positive acidophile Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans and the Gram-negative acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus grown in the presence or absence of chloride ions were investigated. Analysis of differential expression showed that acidophilic microorganisms adopted several changes in their proteomes in the presence of chloride ions, suggesting the following strategies to combat the NaCl stress: adaptation of the cell membrane, the accumulation of amino acids possibly as a form of osmoprotectant, and the expression of a YceI family protein involved in acid and osmotic-related stress. PMID:22124722